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Sample records for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

  1. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described. PMID:22524506

  2. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  3. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  4. La2O3 hollow nanospheres for high performance lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2012-03-28

    An efficient and simple protocol for synthesis of novel La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres of size about 30 ± 2 nm using polymeric micelles is reported. The La(2)O(3) hollow nanospheres exhibit high charge capacity and cycling performance in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIBs), which was scrutinized for the first time among the rare-earth oxides.

  5. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 41142). No comments were received, and the special... rechargeable lithium-ion main batteries and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) start batteries on the Model 680, and...

  6. A rechargeable lithium-ion battery module for underwater use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David R.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Fletcher, Michael; Stimson, Eric; Mollendorf, Joseph C.

    Portable underwater electrical power is needed for many commercial, recreational and military applications. A battery system is currently not available to meet these needs, which was the aim of this project. Lithium-ion battery cells (Panasonic (CGR18650E)) were chosen, based on their high energy density and availability. To increase their voltage, 8 battery cells were connected in series ("sticks") and protected by encapsulating them into a polycarbonate tube; and 6 sticks were housed inside a triangular aluminum case (module). Testing was performed to determine the consistency of individual cells, sticks and module and during discharge/charging cycles. The effect of ambient temperature (T A) was determined by instrumenting them with thermocouples. In addition, voltage and current were measured and used to determine the heat generated within the battery cell and were compared to theory. From these data, a radial temperature profile was determined for two battery sticks in the battery module. Collapse pressure was determined and compared to theory. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells delivered 2291 mAh each over a wide range of T A and discharge/charge rates. The theoretical and experimental data showed that the temperature within the battery sticks and modules did not rise above or below their operating temperature range (-20 and 60 °C), in agreement with the models. The tubes encapsulating the sticks withstood pressures down to 305 m of sea water (msw) which was predicted by modeling. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells, sticks and module demonstrated that they provided sufficient electrical power, reliably and safely to be used in the underwater environment (1800-2000 kPa, 305 msw) over a wide range T A, including high power requirement systems like an active thermal protection system that keeps a diver comfortable in extreme temperature conditions. The concept developed here can be modified to meet specific power requirements by varying the number of cell in series to

  7. Layered cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2007-04-17

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling.

  8. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  9. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  10. Retrograded starches as potential anodes in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Wen, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Lin; Zhang, Kunsheng; Wang, Wanyu

    2012-11-01

    Retrograded starch is a crystal formed by starch molecules with hydrogen bonds. Many literatures have reported its physicochemical character, but its crystal structure is so far unclear. As we isolate amylose and amylopectin from retrograded maize, sweet potato and potato starches in 4.0 M KOH solutions and make them retrograde alone in neutral solution (adjusted by HCl) to form crystal, a new phenomenon appears, crystals of KCl do not appear in retrograded potato amylose, potato amylopectin, and maize amylose, indicating that those crystals may absorb K⁺ and (or) Cl⁻, and those ions probably act with aldehyde of starch or hydroxy of fatty acid attached in starch, such characteristic may make retrograded starches replace graphite as anode with high-capacity in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  11. Large reversible Li storage of graphene nanosheet families for use in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, EunJoo; Kim, Jedeok; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Hao-shen; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Honma, Itaru

    2008-08-01

    The lithium storage properties of graphene nanosheet (GNS) materials as high capacity anode materials for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries (LIB) were investigated. Graphite is a practical anode material used for LIB, because of its capability for reversible lithium ion intercalation in the layered crystals, and the structural similarities of GNS to graphite may provide another type of intercalation anode compound. While the accommodation of lithium in these layered compounds is influenced by the layer spacing between the graphene nanosheets, control of the intergraphene sheet distance through interacting molecules such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) or fullerenes (C60) might be crucial for enhancement of the storage capacity. The specific capacity of GNS was found to be 540 mAh/g, which is much larger than that of graphite, and this was increased up to 730 mAh/g and 784 mAh/g, respectively, by the incorporation of macromolecules of CNT and C60 to the GNS.

  12. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  13. Periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres as anode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Nakashima, Kenichi; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Masamichi; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Yoshio, Masaki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Polymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture have been found to be the efficient colloidal templates for synthesis of periodic organosilica hollow nanospheres over a broad pH range from acidic to alkaline media. In alkaline medium, poly (styrene-b-[3-(methacryloylamino)propyl] trimethylammonium chloride-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PMAPTAC-PEO) micelles yield benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity of benzene groups in the shell domain of hollow particles. Whereas, an acidic medium (pH 4) produces diverse hollow particles with benzene, ethylene, and a mixture of ethylene and dipropyldisulfide bridging functionalities using poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) micelles. These hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si MAS NMR and (13)CP-MAS NMR), Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. The benzene-silica hollow nanospheres with molecular scale periodicity in the shell domain exhibit higher cycling performance of up to 300 cycles in lithium ion rechargeable batteries compared with micron-sized dense benzene-silica particles.

  14. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cathode materials for lithium ion-rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto Ramos, Santander

    Lithium intercalation materials are of special interest for cathodes in rechargeable lihium-ion batteries, because they are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions without altering the main unit. We developed a novel solution-based route for the synthesis of these lithium intercalates oxides. The first part of this work was devoted to the optimization of chemical solution process parameters in order to correlate their electrochemical properties. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystallite size increase, whereas the lattice strain decreases with the increase in calcinations temperature. Powders annealed at 700°C for 15 h yielded best electrochemical performance. The electrochemical performance of substituted Li1.2Mn2O 4, Li1.2Mn1.8O4, Li1.2Cr 0.05Mn1.95O4, and Li1.2Cr0.05 Mn1.75O4 spinel electrodes in lithium cell has been studied. The electrochemical data showed that the Li and Cr dopant effect improves the cycleablility of spinel LiMn2O4 electrodes. The second part of this dissertation was devoted to improve the rate capabilities of these cathode materials by growing nano-size cathode particles and also by cation co-doping. Though the discharge capacity of these nano-crystalline cathodes was equivalent to their microcrystalline counterpart, these exhibited capacity fading in the 4V range. Through a combined X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, we correlated the observed capacity fading with the onset of Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortion toward the end of the discharge in the cut-off limit between 4.2 and 3.2V. It was postulated that J-T distortion is the dominant fading mechanism of these nano-crystalline cathodes then by increasing the average oxidation state of the Mn ion in a virgin lithium manganate cathode, the onset of such distortion towards the end of the discharge could be delayed, and therefore, the cycleability of these cathodes could be improved. By synthesizing lithium

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsi

    The rapidly increasing markets of portable electronic devices and electric/hybrid vehicles have raised worldwide R&D efforts in developing high-energy rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. High performance intercalation cathodes are key to the success of these batteries. The nanotechnology has endowed the electrode materials with a variety of improved features as well as unique characteristics. Synthesis approaches were designed in this thesis work to utilize these advantages and investigate the exceptional phenomena raised by the nanostructured materials. A novel sol-gel method was designed for the synthesis of carbon-coated phase-pure lithium iron phosphate with submicron particle sizes and uniform size distribution. The surface carbon coating was formed in-situ through pyrolysis of the precursor gel, which improved the apparent electronic conductivity of the as prepared material to 10-2 S/cm compared with 10-9-10-10 S/cm of the pristine LiFePO 4. The favorable physical characteristics of the synthesized LiFePO 4 particles and the improved electronic conductivity through the carbon coating led to electrochemical properties comparable to the best performances reported so far. Amorphous manganese oxide cryogels with nanoarchitecture were obtained by freeze-drying Mn (IV) oxide hydrogels. The combination of the advantages of the amorphous structure and the nano-architecture of the materials gave high capacities and excellent rate capabilities. This work led to the finding of a nanocrystalline Li2MnO3-like compound with a surprising electrochemical activity, which is in sharp contrast to the microcrystalline rock-salt Li2MnO3 that has been known to be electrochemically inactive. The study highlights the possibility of qualitative difference in intercalation behavior of nanostructured intercalation compounds compared with their microcrystalline counterparts. Bismuth and copper modified amorphous manganese oxides were synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation

  17. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of polythiocyanogen (SCN) x as a rechargeable lithium-ion battery electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Palanichamy; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    Polythiocyanogen, (SCN) x, is a promising lithium-ion battery electrode material due to its high theoretical capacity (462 mAh g -1), safe operation, inexpensive raw materials, and a simple and less energy-intensive manufacturing process. The (SCN) x was prepared from the solution of trithiocyanate (SCN) 3 - in methylene dichloride (MDC), which was prepared by electrochemical oxidation of ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4SCN) in a two-phase electrolysis medium of 1.0 M NH 4SCN in 0.50 M H 2SO 4 + MDC. The (SCN) 3 - underwent auto catalytic polymerization to (SCN) x during MDC removal. Battery electrodes with (SCN) x as the active material were prepared, and tested in Swagelok cells using lithium foil as the counter and reference electrode. The cells delivered capacities in the range of 200-275 mAh g -1 at the discharge-charge rate of 0.2 C. The cells were tested up to 20 cycles and showed repeatable performance with a coulombic efficiency of 97% at the 20th cycle. The results presented here indicate that (SCN) x is a promising lithium-ion battery electrode-material candidate for further studies.

  19. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  20. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  1. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  2. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  3. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.; Even, Jr., William R.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Wang, James C. F.; Zifer, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  4. Investigating the stability of cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqing

    Lithium ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, safety is one of the most important issues for the Li-ion batteries' use. Some cathode materials, such as LiCoO 2, are thermally unstable in the charged state. Upon decomposition these cathode materials release O2, which could react with organic electrolyte, leading to a thermal runaway. Thus understanding the stability of the cathode materials is critical to the safety of lithium ion batteries. Olivine-type LiMnPO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high energy density. We have revealed the critical role of carbon in the stability and thermal behaviour of olivine MnPO 4 obtained by chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4. (Li)MnPO 4 samples with various particle sizes and carbon contents were studied. Carbon-free LiMnPO4 obtained by solid state synthesis in O 2 becomes amorphous upon delithiation. Small amounts of carbon (0.3 wt.%) help to stabilize the olivine structure, so that completely delithiated crystalline olivine MnPO4 can be obtained. Larger amount of carbon (2 wt.%) prevents full delithiation. Heating in air, O2, or N 2 results in structural disorder (< 300 °C), formation of an intermediate sarcopside Mn3(PO4)2 phase (350 -- 450 °C), and complete decomposition to Mn2P2O 7 on extended heating at 400 °C. Carbon protects MnPO4 from reacting with environmental water, which is detrimental to its structural stability. We not only studied the crystalline olivine MnPO4, but also investigated the amorphous products obtained from carbon-free LiMnPO 4. We have revealed the Mn dissolution phenomenon during chemical delithiation of LiMnPO4, which causes the amorphization of olivine MnPO 4. Properties of crystalline-MnPO4 obtained from carbon-coated LiMnPO4 and of amorphous product resulting from the delithiation of pure LiMnPO4 were studied and compared. The P-rich amorphous phases in the latter are considered to be MnHP2O7 and MnH2P

  5. Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Shao, Nan; Bell, Jason R; Guo, Bingkun; Luo, Huimin; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    A bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-2,3-trimethyleneimidazolium bis(tri fluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([ETMIm][TFSI]), and reference imidazolium compounds, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) and 1, 2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide ([DMBIm][TFSI]), were synthesized and investigated as solvents for lithium ion batteries. Although the alkylation at the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring does not affect the thermal stability of the ionic liquids, with or without the presence of 0.5 molar lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), the stereochemical structure of the molecules has shown profound influences on the electrochemical properties of the corresponding ionic liquids. [ETMIm][TFSI] shows better reduction stability than do [EMIm][TFSI] and [DMBIm][TFSI], as confirmed by both linear sweep voltammery (LSV) and theoretical calculation. The Li||Li cell impedance of 0.5M LiTFSI/[ETMIm][TFSI] is stabilized, whereas that of 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] is still fluctuating after 20 hours, indicating a relatively stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed in the former. Furthermore, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[BTMIm][TFSI] exhibits reversible capacity of 250mAh g-1 and 70mAh g-1 at 25 C, which increases to 330 mAh g-1 and 250 mAh g-1 at 50 C, under the current rate of C/20 and C/10, respectively. For comparison, the Li||graphite half-cell based on 0.5M LiTFSI/[DMBIm][TFSI] exhibits poor capacity retention under the same current rate at both temperatures.

  6. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells. PMID:27420388

  7. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  8. 78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain...

  9. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  10. Development of an ultra-safe rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. K.

    1994-11-01

    The project activities had an official start on August 15. Based on previous work, a statement of the basic design framework to be used was an important first step. The basic cell is to be a bonded flat-pack containing all active cell components in a sealed envelope. Cell integrity is to be provided by internal bonding, and not through external support. This design approach is fundamentally different from that commonly used in wound and hard-case cells, and has the advantage of ease of scaling for a variety of different form factors. An innovative variant on the fan-fold geometry has been chosen for its manufacturability advantages. Equipment capable of handling the semi-continuous requirements of the fan-fold structure had already been outlined. There are specific advantages in at least three areas: (1) Control of dimensional tolerances; (2) Production rate; (3) Connection of power lead-outs and final assembly. Cell chemistry is viewed to be of less fundamental importance than structural considerations within the bounds of the lithium-ion concept.

  11. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  12. First principle computational and experimental studies of cathode materials for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra Arias, Jose Javier

    We have studied the properties of spinel and layered cathode materials for Li ion rechargeable batteries. The analysis was done by first principle calculations, and experimental techniques to elucidate materials that can substitute the presently commercialized material, namely LiCoO 2. We have studied the influence of Ni substitution for Mn in spinel Li 2MnO4. To understand the effects of this substitution on the crystal structure and electronic properties, first principle DFT calculations were performed using VASP. The substitution was done systematically for up to 25% of Mn replacement by Ni in a super cell configuration. Furthermore, the influence of Ni substitution on lithium hoping pathways between the two stable Li positions was also studied by first principle calculations in LiMn 2-xNixO4. These calculations revealed that Ni substitution for Mn in LiMn2O4 indeed improved Li ion mobility. Thereafter, systematic experimental studies were performed on LiMn 2-xNixO4 (0

  13. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  14. Structural and electrochemical study of positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meng

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on a combined study of the electrochemistry and the structure of positive electrode materials for Li ion batteries. Li ion batteries are one of the most advanced energy storage systems and have been the subject of numerous scientific studies in recent decades. They have been widely used for various mobile devices such as cell phones, laptop computers and power tools. They are also promising candidates as power sources for automotive applications. Although intensive research has been done to improve the performance of Li ion batteries, there are still many remaining challenges to overcome so that they can be used in a wider range of applications. In particular, cheaper and safer electrodes are required with much higher reversible capacity. The series of layered nickel manganese oxides [NixLi 1/3-2x/3Mn2/3- x/3]O2 (0 < x < 1/2) are promising alternatives for Li2CoO2, the commercial positive electrode materials in Li ion batteries, because of their lower cost and higher safety and abuse tolerance, when lithium is removed from their structure. Compounds with x<1/2, in which the total Li content is higher than transition metal content, are referred as "Li-excess" materials. The "Li2MnO3-like" region is always present in this type of materials, and the overcapacity is obtained in the first charge process, which is not reversible in the following cycles. A combined X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy study is performed to investigate the effect of synthetic methods on the structure, to probe the structural change of the materials during cycling and to understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism. The conversion compounds are also investigated because of their high capacities. Since the various compounds have different voltage windows, they can have potential applications as both cathodes and anodes. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the

  15. Phenomenological force and swelling models for rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.

    2016-04-01

    Three phenomenological force and swelling models are developed to predict mechanical phenomena caused by Li-ion intercalation: a 1-D force model, a 1st order relaxation model, and a 3-D swelling model. The 1-D force model can estimate the Li-ion intercalation induced force for actual pack conditions with preloads. The model incorporates a nonlinear elastic stiffness to capture the mechanical consequences of Li-ion intercalation swelling. The model also separates the entire state of charge range into three regions considering phase transitions. The 1st order relaxation model predicts dynamic swelling during relaxation periods. A coefficient of relaxation is estimated from dynamic and quasi-static swelling at operational conditions. The 3-D swelling model predicts the swelling shape on the battery surface for all states of charge. This model introduces an equivalent modulus of elasticity, which is dependent on the state of charge, to capture material transformations of the electrodes, and the orthotropic expansion of the jellyroll in a direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces. Considering the simplicity of the measurements and direct physical correlations between stress and strain, the proposed models can enhance battery management systems and power management strategies.

  16. Development of rechargeable lithium-bromine batteries with lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Koshin; Yamada, Hirotoshi

    2015-05-01

    Electrochemical performances of a prototype lithium-bromine battery (LBB) employing a solid electrolyte is investigated. The discharge capacity decreases with repeating charge/discharge cycles. Electrochemical impedance analysis reveals that the capacity fading is mainly due to increase in the interfacial resistance between an aqueous active material solution and a solid electrolyte. Based on the results of symmetric cells and structural analysis of the surface of the solid electrolyte immersed in Br2 solutions, it is suggested that a Li+-depletion layer is formed on the surface of the solid electrolyte as a result of contact with bromine. Addition of tetraethylammonium bromide (TEABr) depresses the interfacial resistance, which results in improved cycleability. LBB with 1.0 M LiBr and 0.25 M TEABr shows discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g-LiBr and Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% at 5th cycle.

  17. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  18. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  19. Nitrogen-doped graphene-decorated LiVPO4F nanocomposite as high-voltage cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kai; Hu, Shuchun; Li, Yongkui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene decorated LiVPO4F cathode material is firstly synthesized via a facile method. Well-dispersed LiVPO4F nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets, forming an effective conducting network. The added nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets greatly enhance the electronic conductivity and Li-ion diffusion of LiVPO4F sample. When tested as cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior high-rate performance and long-term cycling stability between 3.0 and 4.5 V. It delivers a large discharge capacity of 152.7 mAhg-1 at 0.1 C and shows a capacity retention of 97.8% after 60 cycles. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 90.1 mAhg-1 is maintained even after 500 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. The charge-transfer resistance of LiVPO4F electrode is also reduced in the nitrogen-doped graphene, revealing that its electrode-electrolyte complex reactions take place easily and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The above results provide a facile and effective strategy for the synthesis of LiVPO4F cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Graphene-molybdenum oxynitride porous material with improved cyclic stability and rate capability for rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding; Wu, Haiping; Wei, Zhixiang; Han, Bao-Hang

    2013-10-21

    A graphene-molybdenum oxynitride (GMON) hybrid porous material was prepared by a thermal decomposition method and investigated as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. In the thermal decomposition reaction, a chemically homogeneous complex formed by ammonium molybdate and hexamethylenetetramine was used as the precursor for the synthesis of molybdenum oxynitride (MON), and graphene oxide was thermally reduced into graphene. Meanwhile, the graphene sheets were nitrogen doped by the ammonia generated during the thermal reaction. The GMON hybrid porous materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Nitrogen sorption analysis showed that GMON possesses an enhanced porosity compared with the MON prepared in the same method. Owing to the improvement in the porosity and the conductivity, the GMON anode exhibited a reversible capacity of about 960 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), furthermore, the rate performance and the cycling stability of the GMON anode were dramatically enhanced in comparison with thermal reduced graphene oxide and MON.

  1. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  2. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  3. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  4. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  5. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  6. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  7. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  8. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  9. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:27118069

  10. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  11. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  12. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  13. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability.

  14. Solar photovoltaic charging of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Thomas L.; Kelly, Nelson A.

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) charging of batteries was tested by using high efficiency crystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules to recharge lithium-ion battery modules. This testing was performed as a proof of concept for solar PV charging of batteries for electrically powered vehicles. The iron phosphate type lithium-ion batteries were safely charged to their maximum capacity and the thermal hazards associated with overcharging were avoided by the self-regulating design of the solar charging system. The solar energy to battery charge conversion efficiency reached 14.5%, including a PV system efficiency of nearly 15%, and a battery charging efficiency of approximately 100%. This high system efficiency was achieved by directly charging the battery from the PV system with no intervening electronics, and matching the PV maximum power point voltage to the battery charging voltage at the desired maximum state of charge for the battery. It is envisioned that individual homeowners could charge electric and extended-range electric vehicles from residential, roof-mounted solar arrays, and thus power their daily commuting with clean, renewable solar energy.

  15. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  16. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  17. Memory effect in a lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Ukyo, Yoshio; Novák, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Memory effects are well known to users of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride batteries. If these batteries are recharged repeatedly after being only partially discharged, they gradually lose usable capacity owing to a reduced working voltage. Lithium-ion batteries, in contrast, are considered to have no memory effect. Here we report a memory effect in LiFePO4—one of the materials used for the positive electrode in Li-ion batteries—that appears already after only one cycle of partial charge and discharge. We characterize this memory effect of LiFePO4 and explain its connection to the particle-by-particle charge/discharge model. This effect is important for most battery uses, as the slight voltage change it causes can lead to substantial miscalculations in estimating the state of charge of batteries.

  18. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  19. Safety focused modeling of lithium-ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, S.; Marlair, G.; Lecocq, A.; Petit, M.; Sauvant-Moynot, V.; Huet, F.

    2016-02-01

    Safety issues pertaining to Li-ion batteries justify intensive testing all along their value chain. However, progress in scientific knowledge regarding lithium based battery failure modes, as well as remarkable technologic breakthroughs in computing science, now allow for development and use of prediction tools to assist designers in developing safer batteries. Subsequently, this paper offers a review of significant modeling works performed in the area with a focus on the characterization of the thermal runaway hazard and their relating triggering events. Progress made in models aiming at integrating battery ageing effect and related physics is also discussed, as well as the strong interaction with modeling-focused use of testing, and the main achievements obtained towards marketing safer systems. Current limitations and new challenges or opportunities that are expected to shape future modeling activity are also put in perspective. According to market trends, it is anticipated that safety may still act as a restraint in the search for acceptable compromise with overall performance and cost of lithium-ion based and post lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of the future. In that context, high-throughput prediction tools capable of screening adequate new components properties allowing access to both functional and safety related aspects are highly desirable.

  20. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  1. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  2. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  3. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  4. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.

  5. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  6. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  7. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  8. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  10. Raising the cycling stability of aqueous lithium-ion batteries by eliminating oxygen in the electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia-Yan; Cui, Wang-Jun; He, Ping; Xia, Yong-Yao

    2010-09-01

    Aqueous lithium-ion batteries may solve the safety problem associated with lithium-ion batteries that use highly toxic and flammable organic solvents, and the poor cycling life associated with commercialized aqueous rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride systems. But all reported aqueous lithium-ion battery systems have shown poor stability: the capacity retention is typically less than 50% after 100 cycles. Here, the stability of electrode materials in an aqueous electrolyte was extensively analysed. The negative electrodes of aqueous lithium-ion batteries in a discharged state can react with water and oxygen, resulting in capacity fading upon cycling. By eliminating oxygen, adjusting the pH values of the electrolyte and using carbon-coated electrode materials, LiTi(2)(PO(4))(3)/Li(2)SO(4)/LiFePO(4) aqueous lithium-ion batteries exhibited excellent stability with capacity retention over 90% after 1,000 cycles when being fully charged/discharged in 10 minutes and 85% after 50 cycles even at a very low current rate of 8 hours for a full charge/discharge offering an energy storage system with high safety, low cost, long cycling life and appropriate energy density.

  11. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  12. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  13. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W H

    1998-04-01

    The motivation for lithium battery development and a discussion of ion conducting polymers as separators begin this review, which includes a short history of polymer electrolyte research, a summary of the major parameters that determine lithium ion transport in polymer matrices, and consequences for solid polymer electrolyte development. Two major strategies for the application of ion conducting polymers as separators in lithium batteries are identified: One is the development of highly conductive materials via the crosslinking of mobile chains to form networks, which are then swollen by lithium salt solutions ("gel electrolytes"). The other is the construction of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with supramolecular architectures, which intrinsically give rise to much enhanced mechanical strength. These materials as yet exhibit relatively common conductivity levels but may be applied as very thin films. Molecular composites based on poly(p-phenylene)- (PPP)-reinforced SPEs are a striking example of this direction. Neither strategy has as yet led to a "breakthrough" with respect to technical application, at least not for electrically powered vehicles. Before being used as separators, the gel electrolytes must be strengthened, while the molecularly reinforced solid polymer electrolytes must demonstrate improved conductivity.

  14. Stability of aluminum substrates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Plichta, Edward J.

    The stability of aluminum positive electrode substrates in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was investigated in solutions of lithium imide salt in ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (20:20:60 vol.%) using the technique of controlled potential coulometry. It was found that the protective surface film formed on aluminum in these solutions breaks down at potentials above 3.5 V during the charging of lithium-ion cells resulting in the corrosion of aluminum substrates and the premature failure of these cells. It was also found that the use of lithium tetrafluoroborate as an electrolyte additive prevents the breakdown of the protective film on aluminum substrates and prevents their corrosion at potentials above 3.5 V. In contrast to the lithium imide solutions, the aluminum substrates were found to be quite stable in lithium methide electrolyte solutions and did not undergo any significant corrosion at potentials up to about 4.25 V vs. the lithium reference electrode.

  15. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge.

  16. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications: I. Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Owens, B. B.; Coustier, F.

    Rechargeable batteries have been designed for powering hearing aid devices (HAD). The cells, based on the lithium-ion chemistry, were designed in a size that is compatible with the existing HAD. The 10 mA h batteries were tested to characterize the design and the electrochemical performance from the point of view of a typical HAD application. Results are presented for constant-current tests, first-cycle conditions, charge voltage cut-off, rate performance, and cycle life. The pulse capabilities and the preliminary safety tests of the batteries will be presented in a following report. The results of the lithium-ion HAD cells developed in this project are compared with other battery chemistries: lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries and Zn-air primary batteries.

  17. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  18. Novel peapoded Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles for high-rate and ultralong-life rechargeable lithium ion batteries at room and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity retained). The low-temperature measurements also demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite are remarkably improved at various rate currents (at the low-temperature of -25 °C, a high Coulombic efficiency of about 99% can be achieved after 500 cycles at 10 C).In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity

  19. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  20. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  1. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  2. Reversible chemical delithiation/lithiation of LiFePO4: towards a redox flow lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qizhao; Li, Hong; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2013-02-14

    Reversible chemical delithiation/lithiation of LiFePO(4) was successfully demonstrated using ferrocene derivatives, based on which a novel energy storage system--the redox flow lithium-ion battery (RFLB), was devised by integrating the operation flexibility of a redox flow battery and high energy density of a lithium-ion battery. Distinct from the recent semi-solid lithium rechargeable flow battery, the energy storage materials of RFLB stored in separate energy tanks remain stationary upon operation, giving us a fresh perspective on building large-scale energy storage systems with higher energy density and improved safety.

  3. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  4. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-01

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries. PMID:26278438

  5. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  6. Tin nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high current lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen; Hu, Yi; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wang, Kehao; Chen, Renzhong

    2015-03-01

    Metallic Sn is a promising high-capacity anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its huge volume variation during lithium ion insertion/extraction typically results in poor cycling stability. To address this, we demonstrate the fabrication of Sn nanoparticle-loaded porous carbon nanofiber (Sn-PCNF) composites via the electrospinning of Sn(II) acetate/mineral oil/polyacrylonitrile precursors in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent and their subsequent carbonization at 700 °C under an argon atmosphere. This is shown to result in an even distribution of pores on the surface of the nanofibers, allowing the Sn-PCNF composite to be used directly as an anode in lithium-ion batteries without the need to add non-active materials such as polymer binders or electrical conductors. With a discharge capacity of around 774 mA h g-1 achieved at a high current of 0.8 A g-1 over 200 cycles, this material clearly has a high rate capability and excellent cyclic stability, and thanks to its unique structure and properties, is an excellent candidate for use as an anode material in high-current rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  8. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  9. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  10. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  11. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  12. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  13. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  14. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  15. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode. PMID:26389522

  16. Dynamically compacted all-ceramic lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jak, Michiel J. G.; Ooms, Frans G. B.; Kelder, Erik M.; Legerstee, Waiter J.; Schoonman, Joop; Weisenburger, Alfons

    This paper deals with a cell design and a unique manufacturing process for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Detailed analyses of the manufacturing of the components for such a battery and the compaction of the green battery are presented. The electrodes were made of coatings of LiMn 2O 4 on metal foils. The electrolyte was a free-standing foil of the ceramic electrolyte Li-doped BPO 4 in a polymer matrix. The different layers were wound and compacted by using magnetic pulse compaction. Several characteristics of the compacted batteries are presented.

  17. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  18. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  19. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  20. Flame-retardant additives for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Yoo E.; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    To enhance the resistance of lithium-ion battery components to ignition and to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte with minimal effect on performance, we added flame-retardant additives to the electrolyte. The flame retardants were selected from a group of organic phosphate compounds, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and tributylphosphate (TBP), to provide superior thermal safety in lithium-ion cells at the fully charged state. The cycling characteristics of the lithium-ion cells containing flame-retardant additives were found to be similar or superior to the cells that contained no additives. Horizontal burning tests of electrolytes were carried out in a flame test chamber referenced by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) test standard 94 (UL 94) and ASTM D4986-98 to evaluate the electrolyes' flammability characteristics. The thermal stability characteristics of the electrodes and electrolytes with and without flame-retardant additives were investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Negative electrode samples with electrolytes containing flame-retardant additives revealed less heat generation and higher-onset decomposition temperatures. The results disclose that the thermal safety of lithium-ion cells can be improved by incorporating small amounts of suitable additives such as triphenylphosphate and tributylphosphate to the electrolyte.

  1. Managing voids of Si anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-10-01

    The implementation of silicon (Si) in practical lithium ion battery electrodes has been hindered due to its large volume change and consequent structural and interfacial instabilities. Coating nanostructured Si with a second phase (e.g., carbon (C)) represents a very promising strategy for dealing with these critical issues facing Si-based electrodes. In this review article, we will outline recent advances in coating Si with engineered C matrices. By exemplifying hollow core-shell, core-hollow shell, and core-shell structured Si-C hybrid nanomaterials, we aim to highlight the importance of managing voids in designing such Si-C hybrid electrodes, and provide some scientific insights into the development of advanced Si-based anodes for next-generation lithium ion batteries.

  2. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  3. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes.

  4. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  5. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes. PMID:26799574

  6. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  7. Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1998-05-08

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  8. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totir, Dana Alexa

    2000-10-01

    Structural changes that occur during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion battery cathode materials have been investigated using in situ spectroscopic techniques. A new method was developed for the preparation of carbon and binder free cathodes utilizing powder materials of interest for commercial batteries. The extraordinary quality of the cyclic voltammetric curves recorded for this type of electrodes during the in situ measurements allows direct correlations to be made between the state of charge of the material and its structural and electronic characteristics. LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.15Ni 0.85O2 electrodes were evaluated using cycling voltammetry and the mean diffusion coefficient for Li-ions in the lattice (DLi) was calculated for LiMn2O4. LiMn2O4 electrodes prepared by this technique have been studied in situ using Mn K-edge XAS. Data analysis for the species formed at different potentials indicated a contraction of the lattice associated with the increase in the oxidation state of manganese. In situ Raman spectra of particles of LiMn2O 4, and LiCoO2 embedded in Au and also of KS-44 graphite and carbon microfibers MCF28 embedded in thermally annealed Ni have been recorded as a function of the applied potential. Fe K-edge XAFS of pyrite electrodes in a Li/PEO(LiClO4)/FeS 2 cell and S K-edge XANES measurements of a FeS2 electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte have been acquired as a function of the state of charge. The studies have clearly evidenced the formation of metallic Fe and Li2S as intermediates after 4 e- discharge and the formation of Li2FeS2 after 2 e- recharge. While Fe K-edge studies have indicated that there is no change in the Fe environment and oxidation state upon 4 e- recharge, the results obtained from S K-edge studies are inconclusive for this stage. Finally, in situ Co K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the first time during the electrochemical cycling of electrodeposited Co(OH) 2 films in alkaline solutions. The results support

  10. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  11. Modeling Diffusion Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu Huang, Cheng-Kai

    Advancing lithium-ion battery technology is of paramount importance for satisfying the energy storage needs in the U.S., especially for the application in the electric vehicle industry. To provide a better acceleration for electric vehicles, a fast and repeatable discharging rate is required. However, particle fractures and capacity loss have been reported under high current rate (C-rate) during charging/discharging and after a period of cycling. During charging and discharging, lithium ions extract from and intercalate into electrode materials accompanied with the volume change and phase transition between Li-rich phase and Li-poor phase. It is suggested that the diffusion-induced-stress is one of the main reasons causing capacity loss due to the mechanical degradation of electrode particles. Therefore, there is a fundamental need to provide a mechanistic understanding by considering the structure-mechanics-property interactions in lithium-ion battery materials. Among many cathode materials, the olivine-based lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) with an orthorhombic crystal structure is one of the promising cathode materials for the application in electric vehicles. In this research we first use a multiphysic approach to investigate the stress evolution, especially on the phase boundary during lithiation in single LiFePO4 particles. A diffusion-controlled finite element model accompanied with the experimentally observed phase boundary propagation is developed via a finite element package, ANSYS, in which lithium ion concentration-dependent anisotropic material properties and volume misfits are incorporated. The stress components on the phase boundary are used to explain the Mode I, Mode II, and Mode III fracture propensities in LiFePO4 particles. The elastic strain energy evolution is also discussed to explain why a layer-by-layer lithium insertion mechanism (i.e. first-order phase transformation) is energetically preferred. Another importation issue is how current

  12. Cycle life testing of lithium-ion batteries for small satellite LEO space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.T.; Feikert, J.H.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1993-08-16

    In 1990, Sony corporation announced their intention to manufacture a rechargeable lithium ion battery, based on the intercalation of lithium ions into a carbonaceous anode. The cells were first introduced for portable telephone use in June, 1991. (1) A 3.6V average cell voltage (4.1-2.75V range); (2) Excellent cycle life (1200 @ 100% DOD); (3) Good capacity retention (70% after 6 months); (4) Wide temperature range performance ({minus}20 to +60{degrees}C); (5) Excellent Discharge rate (82% capacity at 30 min. discharge rate); (6) Excellent Charge rate (100% Charge in <3 hrs); and (7) High energy density (264 W*hr/1 and 120 Whr/kg for ``D`` size cell. These specifications show significant promise for application of these batteries in low earth orbit (LEO) small satellites, particularly when compared to existing NiH{sub 2} and NiCd technology. The very high energy density and specific energy will reduce power system volume and weight. The wide temperature range enables simpler thermal design, particularly for new, small, high power satellites. The materials used in the lithium ion batteries are relatively inexpensive and benign, so that we expect costs to come down substantially in the future. The specified cycle life at 100% DOD is also 50% longer than most NiCds, so low DOD (depth of discharge) performance could be substantial. This study was undertaken to: (a) assess the feasibility for using lithium ion cells on small satellite LEO missions and (b) verify the claims of the manufacturer. This was accomplished by performing a detailed autopsy and various depth of discharge and rate tests on the cells. Of special interest was the cycle life performance of these cell at various depths of discharge DOD`s, to get an initial measure of the reduction in capacity fade with cycle conditions. Low DOD`s are used to extend the life of all batteries used in a space application.

  13. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  14. Oral Exposure of a Child to a Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Curran, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Battery exposure has the potential for severe morbidity and possible mortality. Accidental exposure is rising with the increased use of button batteries, and young children and older adults are at highest risk for accidental exposure. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of mouth exposure to a lithium ion battery in a boy. A review of the current literature on incidence, diagnosis, and outcomes of battery exposure is presented. When symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal distress of non-specific origin are present, battery ingestion should be included in the differential diagnosis. Dentists may be the first health professionals to encounter battery exposure, especially in the case of mouth exposures. Knowledge of signs and symptoms are necessary to properly diagnose and refer for medical management.

  15. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  16. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  17. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  18. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-06-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

  19. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  20. Lithium Ion Batteries Used for Nuclear Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Chen, X. Jie; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Christian, James F.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear forensics includes the study of materials used for the attribution a nuclear event. Analysis of the nuclear reaction products resulting both from the weapon and the material in the vicinity of the event provides data needed to identify the source of the nuclear material and the weapon design. The spectral information of the neutrons produced by the event provides information on the weapon configuration. The lithium battery provides a unique platform for nuclear forensics, as the Li-6 content is highly sensitive to neutrons, while the battery construction consists of various layers of materials. Each of these materials represents an element for a threshold detector scheme, where isotopes are produced in the battery components through various nuclear reactions that require a neutron energy above a fundamental threshold energy. This study looks into means for extracting neutron spectral information by understanding the isotopic concentration prior to and after exposure. The radioisotopes decay through gamma and beta emission, and radiation spectrometers have been used to measure the radiation spectra from the neutron exposed batteries. The batteries were exposed to various known neutron fields, and analysis was conducted to reconstruct the incident neutron spectra. This project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, grant number HDTRA1-11-1-0028.

  1. Enhanced electrochemical performance of nanoparticle coated polyethylene separator surface for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprakash, Prabhavathy; Sen, P. K.; Sivaprakash, S.

    2014-12-01

    The separator (membrane) in a lithium ion rechargeable battery plays an indispensable role by preventing material and electrical contact of positive and negative electrodes, allowing swift ionic flow within the cell. Herein, we report an interesting approach to improve performance of readily available polyolefin separator by coating it with synthesized silica nanoparticles/polyvinylidene fluoride optimal blend. This coated composite separator was investigated for surface morphology, wettability, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability and performance studies. Coin cells fabricated using surface coated separator show good C-rate capability and stable cycle performance with capacity retention of 99% even after 50 cycles.

  2. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  3. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  4. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  5. Preparation of three-dimensional nanoporous Si using dealloying by metallic melt and application as a lithium-ion rechargeable battery negative electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Takeshi; Yamada, Junpei; Kato, Hidemi

    2016-02-01

    Silicon is a promising material for negative electrode in Li-ion batteries because of high gravimetric capacity. A Si nanomaterial that can accommodate volume expansion accompanied by lithiation is needed for practical application in Li-ion batteries. We prepare three-dimensional nanoporous interconnected silicon material with controlled pore and ligament sizes by dealloying using an Mg-Si precursor and Bi melt. The Mg atoms in the precursor selectively dissolve into Bi, and the remaining Si atoms self-organize into a nanoporous structure with characteristic length ranging from several ten to hundred nanometer. The Li-ion battery electrodes made from nanoporous silicon exhibit higher capacities, increased cycle lives, and improved rate performances compared with those made from commercial Si nanoparticles. Measurements on the electrical resistivity and electrode thickness change by lithiation/delithiation suggest that the superior performance of nanoporous Si electrode originates from the following: (1) The nanoporous Si has much lower electrical resistivity compared with that of the nanoparticle Si owing to the n-type dopant incorporated during dealloying. (2) The nanoporous Si-based electrode has higher porosity owing to the presence of intra-particle pores, which can accommodate Si expansion up to higher levels of lithiation.

  6. lithium-ion battery during oven tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Sun, Yiqiong; Jiang, Fangming

    2014-10-01

    A three dimensional thermal abuse model for graphite/LiPF6/LiCoO2 batteries is established particularly for oven tests. To investigate the influence of heat release condition and oven temperature on battery thermal behaviors, we perform a series of simulations with respect to a unit cell during oven thermal abuses of various oven temperatures and under various heat release conditions. Simulation results enable detailed analyses to thermal behaviors of batteries. It is found that during oven thermal abuse processes that do not get into thermal runaway, the negative electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone; during oven thermal abuse processes that do get into thermal runaway, the positive electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone. The positive-solvent reaction is found to be the major heat generation source causing thermal runaway. It is also found that the heat release condition and the oven temperature are combined to dictate thermal behaviors of the battery. The critical oven temperature that causes thermal runaway rises if the heat release condition is better and the critical heat release coefficient that can effectively restrain the occurrence of thermal runaway increases with the increase of oven temperature.

  7. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  8. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  9. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  10. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-01

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles. PMID:26061529

  11. Synthesis, characterization and application of Li3Fe2(PO4)3 nanoparticles as cathode of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Taala, Foroozandeh

    2011-08-01

    This work introduces a new method to synthesize Li3Fe2(PO4)3 nanoparticles in the nanopowder form and study its electrochemical performance by cyclic voltammetry and battery tests. Li3Fe2(PO4)3 is synthesized by the gel combustion method based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as gel making agent. The optimum conditions of the synthesis include 8 wt% PVA, 0.34 wt% lithium slat, 1 wt% iron salt, 0.57 wt% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ethanol-water 50:50 as solvent, 675 °C combustion temperature and 4 h combustion time. Characterization of the samples is performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), EDX analysis, XRD patterns, BET specific surface area and DSL size distribution. In the optimum conditions, a nanopowder is obtained that consisting of uniform nanoparticles with an average diameter of 70 nm. The optimized sample shows 12.5 m2 g-1 specific surface areas. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that the synthesized compound has good reversibility and high cyclic stability. The CV results are confirmed by the battery tests. The obtained results show that the synthesized cathodic material has high practical discharge capacity (average 125.5 mAh g-1 approximately same with its theoretical capacity 128.2 mA h-1) and long cycle life.

  12. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire ã-MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing ã-MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the ã-MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the ã-MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into ã-MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the ã-MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating

  13. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  14. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  15. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  16. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead–acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  17. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  18. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  19. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material. PMID:26726470

  20. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  1. Computational Electrochemistry. Voltages of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Luo, Sijie; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical studies on the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries provide information on the structural changes during the charging and discharging processes. In the present study, we tested the M06-L and N12 exchange-correlation functionals on some well-studied lithium-containing materials. These functionals, which have already shown good performance for a variety of databases, outperform the widely used PBE functional for reproducing the experimental structures and averaged intercalation potentials. It is especially noteworthy that the M06-L functional gives voltages as accurate as those provided by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional, but with less computational cost. PMID:26046813

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO 4 and Nanocomposite C- LiFePO 4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure limore » thium iron phosphate ( LiFePO 4 ) and carbon-coated LiFePO 4 (C- LiFePO 4 ) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO 4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C- LiFePO 4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms of LiFePO 4 and C- LiFePO 4 showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively for LiFePO 4 where as in case of C- LiFePO 4 that were 163, 144, 118, and 70 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pure LiFePO 4 was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C- LiFePO 4 was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.« less

  3. Electrode architectures for enhanced lithium ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Sharon Loeffler

    Increasing prevalence of portable electronic devices and growing concern over the consumption of fossil fuels have led to a growing demand for more efficient energy storage options. Lithium ion chemistry has grown to dominate the battery market, but still requires improvement to meet the increasing need for smaller, cheaper, better performing batteries. The use of nanomaterials has garnered much attention in recent years as a potential way of improving battery performance while decreasing the size. However, new problems are introduced with these materials such as low packing density and high reactivity with the electrolyte. This research focuses on the development of an electrode architecture using nanomaterials which will decrease lithium ion transport distance while enhancing electrical conductivity within the cell. The proposed architecture consists of a stacked, 2D structure composed of layers of carbon nanotubes and active material particles, and can be applied to both the anode and the cathode. The process also has the advantage of low cost because it can be performed under normal laboratory conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) and easily adapted to a commercial scale.

  4. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  5. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  6. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  7. KOH etched graphite for fast chargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Yuge, Ryota; Nakahara, Kentaro; Tamura, Noriyuki; Miyamoto, Shigeyuki

    2015-06-01

    Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, although it has limited power performance at high charging rates (Li-ion input). Alternative materials such as silicon and tin alloys, however, have an even more inferior rate capability. We describe here a multi-channel structure with a graphite surface etched with pores that can greatly increase the number of sites for Li-ion intercalation/de-intercalation and reduce the Li-ion diffusion distance for fast chargeable Li-ion batteries by etching the graphite surface with pores. As a result, the multi-channel structure graphite anode shows better charging and discharging rate capability, cyclability, and higher coulombic efficiency than pristine graphite materials. The multi-channel anode material is proposed for use in fast chargeable Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Anodes Being Evaluated for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Gennett, Tom; VanderWal, Randy L.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is evaluating the use of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for thin-film lithium-ion (Li) batteries. The motivation for this work lies in the fact that, in contrast to carbon black, directed structured nanotubes and nanofibers offer a superior intercalation media for Li-ion batteries. Carbon lamellas in carbon blacks are circumferentially oriented and block much of the particle interior, rendering much of the matrix useless as intercalation material. Nanofibers, on the other hand, can be grown so as to provide 100-percent accessibility of the entire carbon structure to intercalation. These tubes can be visualized as "rolled-up" sheets of carbon hexagons (see the following figure). One tube is approximately 1/10,000th the diameter of a human hair. In addition, the high accessibility of the structure confers a high mobility to ion-exchange processes, a fundamental for the batteries to respond dynamically because of intercalation.

  9. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation... design feature associated with Lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...) T00012WI for installation of Lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. The Model 680 is a twin-engine,...

  10. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  11. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL

  13. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  16. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  17. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  18. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  19. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1)), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g(-1) at 10 A g(-1)). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes. PMID:27479691

  20. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g‑1 at 100 mA g‑1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g‑1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g‑1 at 10 A g‑1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  1. Bismuth Oxide: A New Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuling; Trujillo, Matthias A.; Fu, Engang; Patterson, Brian; Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth oxide directly grown on nickel foam (p-Bi2O3/Ni) was prepared by a facile polymer-assisted solution approach and was used directly as a lithium-ion battery anode for the first time. The Bi2O3 particles were covered with thin carbon layers, forming network-like sheets on the surface of the Ni foam. The binder-free p-Bi2O3/Ni shows superior electrochemical properties with a capacity of 668 mAh/g at a current density of 800 mA/g, which is much higher than that of commercial Bi2O3 powder (c-Bi2O3) and Bi2O3 powder prepared by the polymer-assisted solution method (p-Bi2O3). The good performance of p-Bi2O3/Ni can be attributed to higher volumetric utilization efficiency, better connection of active materials to the current collector, and shorter lithium ion diffusion path. PMID:24416506

  2. Nanoscale mapping of ion diffusion in a lithium-ion battery cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, N.; Jesse, S.; Morozovska, A.; Eliseev, E.; Chung, D.; Kim, Y.; Adamczyk, L.; Garcia, R.

    2010-08-29

    The movement of lithium ions into and out of electrodes is central to the operation of lithium-ion batteries. Although this process has been extensively studied at the device level, it remains insufficiently characterized at the nanoscale level of grain clusters, single grains and defects. Here, we probe the spatial variation of lithium-ion diffusion times in the battery-cathode material LiCoO{sub 2} at a resolution of ~100 nm by using an atomic force microscope to both redistribute lithium ions and measure the resulting cathode deformation. The relationship between diffusion and single grains and grain boundaries is observed, revealing that the diffusion coefficient increases for certain grain orientations and single-grain boundaries. This knowledge provides feedback to improve understanding of the nanoscale mechanisms underpinning lithium-ion battery operation.

  3. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  4. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-01

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  5. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V.

  6. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  7. A novel fluorocyclophosphazene as bifunctional additive for safer lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lan; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-03-01

    A high-efficiency flame-retarding additive, (Ethoxy)pentafluorocyclotriphosphazene (N3P3F5OCH2CH3, PFPN), has been synthesized and explored as a safer protection additive for rechargeable lithium batteries. The flammability tests indicate that only the addition of 5 wt% PFPN can make the electrolyte be totally non-flammable. As far as we know, the PFPN additive is the most efficient one of any flame-retarding additive ever synthesized and reported in the literature. The charge-discharge results demonstrate that the PFPN additive shows a good electrochemical compatibility on the graphitic anode and LiCoO2 cathode. Meanwhile, the incorporated PFPN additive can greatly improve the cyclic performance of LiCoO2 electrode at a high cut-off voltage of 4.5 V, showing a prospective flame-retarding additive for the applications in high-voltage lithium ion batteries.

  8. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in

  9. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles. PMID:26353564

  10. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  11. Lithium-Ion Battery Cycling for Magnetism Control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyun; Luo, Xi; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Lifang; Khalid, Bilal; Gong, Jianghong; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-13

    Magnetization and electric-field coupling is fundamentally interesting and important. Specifically, current- or voltage-driven magnetization switching at room temperature is highly desirable from scientific and technological viewpoints. Herein, we demonstrate that magnetization can be controlled via the discharge-charge cycling of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) with rationally designed electrode nanomaterials. Reversible manipulation of magnetism over 3 orders of magnitude was achieved by controlling the lithiation/delithiation of a nanoscale α-Fe2O3-based electrode. The process was completed rapidly under room-temperature conditions. Our results indicate that in addition to energy storage LIBs, which have been under continuous development for several decades, provide exciting opportunities for the multireversible magnetization of magnetic fields.

  12. Silicon Nanowire Fabric as a Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Chockla, Aaron M.; Harris, Justin T.; Akhavan, Vahid A.; Bogart, Timothy D.; Holmberg, Vincent C.; Steinhagen, Chet; Mullins, C. Buddie; Stevenson, Keith J.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2011-11-09

    A nonwoven fabric with paperlike qualities composed of silicon nanowires is reported. The nanowires, made by the supercritical-fluid–liquid–solid process, are crystalline, range in diameter from 10 to 50 nm with an average length of >100 μm, and are coated with a thin chemisorbed polyphenylsilane shell. About 90% of the nanowire fabric volume is void space. Thermal annealing of the nanowire fabric in a reducing environment converts the polyphenylsilane coating to a carbonaceous layer that significantly increases the electrical conductivity of the material. This makes the nanowire fabric useful as a self-supporting, mechanically flexible, high-energy-storage anode material in a lithium ion battery. Anode capacities of more than 800 mA h g{sup –1} were achieved without the addition of conductive carbon or binder.

  13. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg‑1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  14. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  15. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-22

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today's society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg(-1). It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  16. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg−1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects. PMID:27328707

  17. Materials insights into low-temperature performances of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gaolong; Wen, Kechun; Lv, Weiqiang; Zhou, Xingzhi; Liang, Yachun; Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhilin; Zou, Minda; Li, Jinchao; Zhang, Yuqian; He, Weidong

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been employed in many fields including cell phones, laptop computers, electric vehicles (EVs) and stationary energy storage wells due to their high energy density and pronounced recharge ability. However, energy and power capabilities of LIBs decrease sharply at low operation temperatures. In particular, the charge process becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures below -20 °C, which severely limits the applications of LIBs in some cold areas during winter. Extensive research has shown that the electrolyte/electrode composition and microstructure are of fundamental importance to low-temperature performances of LIBs. In this report, we review the recent findings in the role of electrolytes, anodes, and cathodes in the low temperature performances of LIBs. Our overview aims to understand comprehensively the fundamental origin of low-temperature performances of LIBs from a materials perspective and facilitates the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery materials that are operational at a large range of working temperatures.

  18. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  19. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  20. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  1. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  2. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  3. Hierarchical porous anatase TiO2 derived from a titanium metal-organic framework as a superior anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Zhiliang; Alfaruqi, Muhammad Hilmy; Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Vu Thi, Trang; Duong, Pham Tung; Baboo, Joseph Paul; Mathew, Vinod; Kim, Jaekook

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical meso-/macroporous anatase TiO2 was synthesized by the hydrolysis of a titanium metal-organic framework precursor followed by calcination in air. This unique porous feature enables the superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability of anatase TiO2 as an anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  5. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  6. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  7. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  8. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately.

  9. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  10. Direct synthesis of self-assembled ferrite/carbon hybrid nanosheets for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byungchul; Park, Mihyun; Chae, Oh B; Park, Sangjin; Kim, Youngjin; Oh, Seung M; Piao, Yuanzhe; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2012-09-12

    Extensive applications of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) to various portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles result in the increasing demand for the development of electrode materials with improved electrochemical performance including high energy, power density, and excellent cyclability, while maintaining low production cost. Here, we present a direct synthesis of ferrite/carbon hybrid nanosheets for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Uniform-sized ferrite nanocrystals and carbon materials were synthesized simultaneously through a single heating procedure using metal-oleate complex as the precursors for both ferrite and carbon. 2-D nanostructures were obtained by using sodium sulfate salt powder as a sacrificial template. The 2-D ferrite/carbon nanocomposites exhibited excellent cycling stability and rate performance derived from 2-D nanostructural characteristics. The synthetic procedure is simple, inexpensive, and scalable for mass production, and the highly ordered 2-D structure of these nanocomposites has great potential for many future applications.

  11. Carbon nanotube film anodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sora; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Kyung-Won; Cho, Daehwan; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) film anodes are prepared for use in flexible lithium ion batteries, and the electrochemical performance of the CNT film anodes is evaluated. The CNT films are synthesized via chemical vapor deposition and direct spinning. The films are heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to study the effects of heat treatment on the battery performance. The electrodes made with the CNT films are characterized via charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance measurement. The results indicate that batteries with films heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere show a higher capacity, which can be a result of their high crystalline perfection. The impedance analysis shows that a lower resistance at the interface can be obtained by using heat-treated films. The charge-discharge tests are carried out by adjusting the rate from C/2 to 10C, and when the rate slows from 10C to 1C, the capacity of the samples largely recovers. The nitrogen/heat-treated CNT film electrodes present a capacity that is twice as high, such as 2C, 5C, and 10C, than untreated CNT film electrodes. These results indicate that the carbon nanotube film anodes have high potential for use in portable and wearable computers due to their flexibility.

  12. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. The electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 s for all configurations (parallel or series) tested.

  13. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  15. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. PMID:22163735

  16. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. PMID:22163735

  17. An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Lu, Song; Li, Kaiyuan; Liu, Changchen; Cheng, Xudong; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of lithium ion battery fires and explosions enhance the need of precise risk assessments on batteries. In the current study, 18650 lithium ion batteries at different states of charge are tested using a cone calorimeter to study the burning behaviors under an incident heat flux of 50 kW m-2. Several parameters are measured, including mass loss rate, time to ignition, time to explosion, heat release rate (HRR), the surface temperature and concentration of toxic gases. Although small quantities of oxygen are released from the lithium ion battery during burning, it is estimated that the energy, consuming oxygen released from the lithium ion battery, accounts for less than 13% of total energy released by a fully charged lithium ion battery. The experimental results show that the peak HRR and concentration of toxic gases rise with the increasing the states of charge, whereas the time to ignition and time to explosion decrease. The test results of the fully charged lithium ion batteries at three different incident heat fluxes show that the peak HRR increases from 6.2 to 9.1 kW and the maximum surface temperature increases from 662 to 934 °C as the incident heat flux increases from 30 to 60 kW m-2.

  18. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  19. Role of surface coating on cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Qin, Y.; Amine, K.; Sun, Y.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface coating of cathode materials has been widely investigated to enhance the life and rate capability of lithium-ion batteries. The surface coating discussed here was divided into three different configurations which are rough coating, core shell structure coating and ultra thin film coating. The mechanism of surface coating in achieving improved cathode performance and strategies to carry out this surface modification is discussed. An outlook on atomic layer deposition for lithium ion battery is also presented.

  20. Mesoporous TiO2-B Microspheres with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hansan; Bi, Zhonghe; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Unocic, Raymond R; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO2-B microsperes with a favorable material architecture are designed and synthesized for high power lithium ion batteries. This material, combining the advantages of fast lithium transport with a pseudocapacitive mechanism, adequate electrode-electrolyte contact and compact particle packing in electrode layer, shows superior high-rate charge-discharge capability and long-time cyclability for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  2. Space Technology-5 Lithium-Ion Battery Design, Qualification and Integration and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakishna M.; Stewart, Karen; Ameen, Syed; Banfield, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation that reviews the Lithium Ion Battery for the Space Technology-5 (ST-5) mission. Included in the document is a review of the ST-5 Mission, a review of the battery requirements, a description of the battery and the battery materials. The testing and the integration and qualification data is reviewed.

  3. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  4. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces.

  5. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces. PMID:26842322

  6. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  7. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory. PMID:25977870

  8. Sinusoidal current and stress evolutions in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Bauer, Christoph; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical breakdown of graphite materials due to diffusion-induced stress (DIS) is a key aging mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, electrochemical-thermal coupled model along with a DIS model is developed to study the DIS distribution across the anode thickness. Special attention is paid to the evolution behavior of surface tangential stress (STS) in the discharge process for graphite at different locations of the anode. For the first time, we report that the evolution of STS, as well as local current, at all locations of the anode, evolve like sinusoidal waves in the discharge process with several crests and troughs. The staging behavior of graphite active material, in particular the sharp change of open-circuit potential (OCP) of graphite in the region between two plateaus, is found to be the root cause for the sinusoidal patterns of current and stress evolution. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as starting state of charge, discharge C-rate and electrode thickness on the current and stress evolutions are investigated.

  9. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  10. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  11. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs. PMID:25640923

  12. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  13. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  14. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  15. Doping-Enhanced Lithium Diffusion in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Shunnian; Wu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    We disclose a distortion-assisted diffusion mechanism in Li3N and Li2.5Co0.5N by first-principles simulations. A B2g soft mode at the Γ point is found in α-Li3N, and a more stable α'-Li3N (P3¯m1) structure, which is 0.71 meV lower in energy, is further derived. The same soft mode is inherited into Li2.5Co0.5N and is enhanced due to Co doping. Consequently, unlike the usual Peierls spin instability along Co-N chains, large lithium-ion displacements on the Li-N plane are induced by a set of soft modes. Such a distortion is expected to offer Li atoms a route to bypass the high diffusion barrier and promote Li-ion conductivity. In addition, we further illustrate abnormal Born effective charges along Co-N chains which result from the competition between the motions of electrons and ion cores. Our results provide future opportunities in both fundamental understanding and structural modifications of Li-ion battery materials.

  16. Characterization of Mechanical Stress Effects on Lithium-ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Christina A.

    Lithium-ion batteries are the preferred energy storage devices for a variety of applications from electric vehicles to small scale portable electronics such as laptop computers and cellular telephones. In many of these applications the cycle lifetimes of current lithium-ion technologies are insufficient for the projected lifetime of the device. This is because the energy storage capabilities of batteries degrade over time regardless of usage conditions. The origin of this capacity fade and its corresponding impedance rise is poorly understood, though previous research has attributed it to chemical degradation mechanisms. In this thesis a mechanical mechanism that contributes to the lifetime limiting capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries is characterized. First, the mechanical response of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries is characterized under static and cyclic compressive loading. Using simplified battery systems composed of the polymer separator and foil current collectors in conjunction with viscoelastic creep models, the mechanical response of a battery to a static compressive stress is shown to be dominated by the nonelectroactive battery components. Then the analysis is taken one step further to show that the viscoelastic response of the battery can be attributed to the creep response of the polymer separator. The remainder of this dissertation focuses on characterizing the effects of viscoelastic creep of the polymer separator on the performance of a lithium-ion battery. Mechanical stresses on the polymer separator arise during normal battery operation due to external stresses applied to the cell and also constrained expansion of the electrodes during electrochemical intercalation. The viscoelastic creep of the separator is shown to result in pore closure which limits ion transport in the electrolyte phase of the battery, ultimately causing a rate limited capacity loss. Finally, the effect of separator porosity and composition on this viscoelastic creep

  17. LiCoO2 and SnO2 Thin Film Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need for small dimension, ultra-lightweight, portable power supplies due to the miniaturization of consumer electronic devices. Rechargeable thin film lithium-ion batteries have the potential to fulfill the growing demands for micro-energy storage devices. However, rechargeable battery technology and fabrication processes have not kept paced with the advances made in device technology. Economical fabrication methods lending excellent microstructural and compositional control in the thin film battery electrodes have yet to be fully developed. In this study, spin coating has been used to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to produce both anode (SnO2) and cathode (LiCoO2) thin films. Results on the microstructure crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the thin film electrodes are described and discussed.

  18. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qizhao, Huang; Qing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e- and h+) and ionic species (Li+) at the electrode-electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li+ storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Project supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Competitive Research Program (CRP Award No. NRF-CRP8-2011-04).

  19. Extending battery life: A low-cost practical diagnostic technique for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merla, Yu; Wu, Billy; Yufit, Vladimir; Brandon, Nigel P.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo F.; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-11-01

    Modern applications of lithium-ion batteries such as smartphones, hybrid & electric vehicles and grid scale electricity storage demand long lifetime and high performance which typically makes them the limiting factor in a system. Understanding the state-of-health during operation is important in order to optimise for long term durability and performance. However, this requires accurate in-operando diagnostic techniques that are cost effective and practical. We present a novel diagnosis method based upon differential thermal voltammetry demonstrated on a battery pack made from commercial lithium-ion cells where one cell was deliberately aged prior to experiment. The cells were in parallel whilst being thermally managed with forced air convection. We show for the first time, a diagnosis method capable of quantitatively determining the state-of-health of four cells simultaneously by only using temperature and voltage readings for both charge and discharge. Measurements are achieved using low-cost thermocouples and a single voltage measurement at a frequency of 1 Hz, demonstrating the feasibility of implementing this approach on real world battery management systems. The technique could be particularly useful under charge when constant current or constant power is common, this therefore should be of significant interest to all lithium-ion battery users.

  20. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  1. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  2. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-01

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  3. An electrochemistry-based impedance model for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengbo Eben; Wang, Baojin; Peng, Huei; Hu, Xiaosong

    2014-07-01

    Accurate models of lithium-ion batteries are important for analyzing and predicting battery dynamics and aging. This paper presents an electrochemistry-based impedance model for lithium-ion batteries to better understand the relationship between battery internal dynamics and external measurement. The proposed impedance model is a modified single particle model which balances between simplicity and accuracy. The model includes electrochemical impedance due to charge-transfer reaction, diffusion dynamics in the electrodes, effects of ion concentration, capacitance dispersion in the double layer, and anode insulating film growth, etc. The impedance tests for model validation were performed on two lithium-ion cells at ambient temperature and at different SOC levels. A particle swarm optimization method is employed to identify model parameters. The model accuracy under different conditions is compared with that of conventional Randles model and the parameter variations at different stage of the aging process are studied.

  4. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L; Isaacson, Mark J; Wong, Michael S; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg(-1) for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  5. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-11-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg-1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries.

  6. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg−1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  7. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  8. Safe lithium-ion battery with ionic liquid-based electrolyte for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, Libero; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery featuring graphite anode, LiFePO4-C cathode and an innovative, safe, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, was assembled and characterized in terms of specific energy and power after the USABC-DOE protocol for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) application. The test results show that the battery surpasses the energy and power goals stated by USABC-DOE and, hence, this safe lithium-ion battery should be suitable for application in the evolving HEV market.

  9. Long cycle life lithium ion battery with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Xiong, L.; He, C.

    2014-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) cathode were characterized by extensive cycling (>2000 cycles), discharge rate test, hybrid pulse power characterization test (HPPC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The crystal structure, morphology and particle size of cathode materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that the rate performance and cycle life of battery are closely related to the cathode material composition and electrode design. With proper selection of cathode composition and electrode design, the lithium ion battery cell achieved close to 3500 cycles with 85% capacity retention at 1C current.

  10. Olivine-type nanosheets for lithium ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Lu, Ziyang; Tan, Huiteng; Sim, Daohao; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yazami, Rachid; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-06-25

    Olivine-type LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) has become of great interest as cathodes for next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, this family of compounds suffers from poor electronic conductivities and sluggish lithium diffusion in the [010] direction. Here, we develop a liquid-phase exfoliation approach combined with a solvothermal lithiation process in high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) supercritical fluids for the fabrication of ultrathin LiMPO4 nanosheets (thickness: 3.7-4.6 nm) with exposed (010) surface facets. Importantly, the HPHT solvothermal lithiation could produce monodisperse nanosheets while the traditional high-temperature calcination, which is necessary for cathode materials based on high-quality crystals, leads the formation of large grains and aggregation of the nanosheets. The as-synthesized nanosheets have features of high contact area with the electrolyte and fast lithium transport (time diffusion constant in at the microsecond level). The estimated diffusion time for Li(+) to diffuse over a [010]-thickness of <5 nm (L) was calculated to be less than 25, 2.5, and 250 μs for LiFePO4, LiMnPO4, and LiCoPO4 nanosheets, respectively, via the equation of t = L(2)/D. These values are about 5 orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding bulk materials. This results in high energy densities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g., 18 kW kg(-1) and 90 Wh kg(-1) at a 80 C rate for LiFePO4 nanosheets).

  11. Infrared thermography non-destructive evaluation of lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Qiang

    2011-08-01

    The power lithium-ion battery with its high specific energy, high theoretical capacity and good cycle-life is a prime candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Safety is especially important for large-scale lithium-ion batteries, especially the thermal analysis is essential for their development and design. Thermal modeling is an effective way to understand the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. With the charging and discharging, the internal heat generation of the lithium-ion battery becomes large, and the temperature rises leading to an uneven temperature distribution induces partial degradation. Infrared (IR) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) has been well developed for decades years in materials, structures, and aircraft. Most thermographic methods need thermal excitation to the measurement structures. In NDE of battery, the thermal excitation is the heat generated from carbon and cobalt electrodes in electrolyte. A technique named "power function" has been developed to determine the heat by chemical reactions. In this paper, the simulations of the transient response of the temperature distribution in the lithium-ion battery are developed. The key to resolving the security problem lies in the thermal controlling, including the heat generation and the internal and external heat transfer. Therefore, three-dimensional modelling for capturing geometrical thermal effects on battery thermal abuse behaviour is required. The simulation model contains the heat generation during electrolyte decomposition and electrical resistance component. Oven tests are simulated by three-dimensional model and the discharge test preformed by test system. Infrared thermography of discharge is recorded in order to analyze the security of the lithium-ion power battery. Nondestructive detection is performed for thermal abuse analysis and discharge analysis.

  12. High power and high energy lithium-ion batteries for under-water applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitzendanner, R.; Puglia, F.; Martin, C.; Carmen, D.; Jones, E.; Eaves, S.

    Lithium-ion batteries have demonstrated excellent energy density, reliability, and life in commercial applications. Several new Navy and undersea applications are emerging that need the high energy density and high power capabilities that the lithium-ion technology offers. Such applications have historically utilized silver-zinc technology for their power source. However, life cycle costs, maintenance and logistics issues, and wet-life limitations are true detriments in these applications. Lithium-ion technology has demonstrated the energy and power density of silver-zinc, but with much improved cycle life, shelf life, and low maintenance properties. For these reasons, and others, many under water applications are looking to lithium-ion to provide the performance of the silver-zinc system, but at a greatly reduced life-cycle cost.

  13. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life. PMID:26373359

  14. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life.

  15. Performance and Comparison of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low-Earth-Orbit Mission Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The performance of two 28 V, 25 Ah lithium-ion batteries is being evaluated under low-Earth-orbit mission profiles for satellite and orbiter applications. The batteries are undergoing life testing and have achieved over 12,000 cycles to 40 percent depth-of-discharge.

  16. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  17. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  18. Surface and interface engineering of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Xue; Li, Xin-Hao; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2015-01-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are regarded as promising energy storage devices for next-generation electric and hybrid electric vehicles. In order to meet the demands of electric vehicles, considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of advanced electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy and power densities. Although significant progress has been recently made in the development of novel electrode materials, some critical issues comprising low electronic conductivity, low ionic diffusion efficiency, and large structural variation have to be addressed before the practical application of these materials. Surface and interface engineering is essential to improve the electrochemical performance of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. This article reviews the recent progress in surface and interface engineering of electrode materials including the increase in contact interface by decreasing the particle size or introducing porous or hierarchical structures and surface modification or functionalization by metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon materials, polymers, and other ionic and electronic conductive species.

  19. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  20. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  1. A failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis (FMMEA) of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Christopher; Williard, Nick; Mathew, Sony; Pecht, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are popular energy storage devices for a wide variety of applications. As batteries have transitioned from being used in portable electronics to being used in longer lifetime and more safety-critical applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and aircraft, the cost of failure has become more significant both in terms of liability as well as the cost of replacement. Failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis (FMMEA) provides a rigorous framework to define the ways in which lithium-ion batteries can fail, how failures can be detected, what processes cause the failures, and how to model failures for failure prediction. This enables a physics-of-failure (PoF) approach to battery life prediction that takes into account life cycle conditions, multiple failure mechanisms, and their effects on battery health and safety. This paper presents an FMMEA of battery failure and describes how this process enables improved battery failure mitigation control strategies.

  2. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  3. Conductivity degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride composite binder during cycling: Measurements and simulations for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Grillet, Anne M.; Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Roberts, Scott A.; Barringer, David A.; Snyder, Chelsea M.; Janvrin, Madison R.; Apblett, Christopher A.

    2016-07-02

    The polymer-composite binder used in lithium-ion battery electrodes must both hold the electrodes together and augment their electrical conductivity while subjected to mechanical stresses caused by active material volume changes due to lithiation and delithiation. We have discovered that cyclic mechanical stresses cause significant degradation in the binder electrical conductivity. After just 160 mechanical cycles, the conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):carbon black binder dropped between 45–75%. This degradation in binder conductivity has been shown to be quite general, occurring over a range of carbon black concentrations, with and without absorbed electrolyte solvent and for different polymer manufacturers. Mechanical cycling ofmore » lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathodes caused a similar degradation, reducing the effective electrical conductivity by 30–40%. Mesoscale simulations on a reconstructed experimental cathode geometry predicted the binder conductivity degradation will have a proportional impact on cathode electrical conductivity, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. Lastly, ohmic resistance measurements were made on complete batteries. Direct comparisons between electrochemical cycling and mechanical cycling show consistent trends in the conductivity decline. This evidence supports a new mechanism for performance decline of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries during operation – electrochemically-induced mechanical stresses that degrade binder conductivity, increasing the internal resistance of the battery with cycling.« less

  4. Gas Evolution in Operating Lithium-Ion Batteries Studied In Situ by Neutron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Barbara; Sommer, Heino; Mannes, David; Kaestner, Anders; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Gas generation as a result of electrolyte decomposition is one of the major issues of high-performance rechargeable batteries. Here, we report the direct observation of gassing in operating lithium-ion batteries using neutron imaging. This technique can be used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative information by applying a new analysis approach. Special emphasis is placed on high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite pouch cells. Continuous gassing due to oxidation and reduction of electrolyte solvents is observed. To separate gas evolution reactions occurring on the anode from those associated with the cathode interface and to gain more insight into the gassing behavior of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells, neutron experiments were also conducted systematically on other cathode/anode combinations, including LiFePO4/graphite, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12. In addition, the data were supported by gas pressure measurements. The results suggest that metal dissolution in the electrolyte and decomposition products resulting from the high potentials adversely affect the gas generation, particularly in the first charge cycle (i.e., during graphite solid-electrolyte interface layer formation).

  5. Gas Evolution in Operating Lithium-Ion Batteries Studied In Situ by Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Barbara; Sommer, Heino; Mannes, David; Kaestner, Anders; Brezesinski, Torsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Gas generation as a result of electrolyte decomposition is one of the major issues of high-performance rechargeable batteries. Here, we report the direct observation of gassing in operating lithium-ion batteries using neutron imaging. This technique can be used to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative information by applying a new analysis approach. Special emphasis is placed on high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite pouch cells. Continuous gassing due to oxidation and reduction of electrolyte solvents is observed. To separate gas evolution reactions occurring on the anode from those associated with the cathode interface and to gain more insight into the gassing behavior of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite cells, neutron experiments were also conducted systematically on other cathode/anode combinations, including LiFePO4/graphite, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12. In addition, the data were supported by gas pressure measurements. The results suggest that metal dissolution in the electrolyte and decomposition products resulting from the high potentials adversely affect the gas generation, particularly in the first charge cycle (i.e., during graphite solid-electrolyte interface layer formation). PMID:26496823

  6. Electrolyte and Cathode Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbe, Jonathon

    Lithium ion battery technologies suffer from limitations in performance, such as capacity fading, due in part to degradation of the cathode and electrolyte materials. Quantum chemical simulations were employed to investigate the reactions leading to degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes and the electrolyte molecules. Formation of HF in the electrolyte resulting from reaction between PF5 and H2O impurities was first investigated. This research predicts HF is produced as a result of PF5 complexing with H2O, then reacting through ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH with an activation barrier of 1.18 eV and reaction enthalpy of 0.15 eV. HF undergoes dissociative adsorption at that the (101¯4) surface of LiCoO2 without a barrier, leading to formation of LiF-Li+ precipitates and H 2O on the surface with a reaction energy of -2.41 eV. The formation of H2O is of particular concern because H2O drives further formation of HF in the electrolyte, resulting in an autocatalytic cycle of degradation. These findings indicate that HF initially occurs in low concentrations rapidly increases due to H2O generation upon HF attack. Reduction in capacity fading is observed in alumina ALD coated LiCoO2 cathodes and we have investigated a monolayer alumina coating on the LiCoO2 (101¯4) surface to identify the mechanism by which the alumina coating protects the cathode surface. We have found that HF will preferentially dissociate at the alumina coating with a reaction energy of -2.84 eV and without any resolvable barrier to dissociation. Additionally, our calculations predict that H2O does not form as a result of HF dissociation at the alumina monolayer; instead HF dissociation produces neighboring hydroxyl sites on the alumina surface. Consequently, the alumina coating prevents the autocatalytic degradation of the cathode by sequestering HF impurities in the alumina film. Finally, we found that Lewis acid-base complexation between ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte molecules and PF5 or the Li

  7. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  8. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg(-1)(total electrode) while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg(-1)(total electrode), which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  9. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg−1total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg−1total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices. PMID:24923290

  10. Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chumyim, Porramate; Gowda, Sanketh R.; Pradhan, Padmanava; Jadhav, Swapnil R.; Dubey, Madan; John, George; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered. PMID:23233879

  11. Smart multifunctional fluids for lithium ion batteries: enhanced rate performance and intrinsic mechanical protection.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Tian, Tongfei; Meng, Qing; Guo, Zaiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Peng; Ciacchi, Fabio T; Huang, Jewel; Yang, Wenrong

    2013-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are attractive power sources for the consumer electronics market and are being aggressively developed for road transportation. Nevertheless, issues with safety and reliability need to be solved prior to the large-scale uptake of these batteries. There have recently been significant development and assessment of materials with resistance to mechanical abuse, with the aims of reinforcing the battery and preventing puncturing during a crash. Most of the work on battery mechanical safety has concentrated on the external packaging of batteries, with little attention being paid to the enclosed electrolyte. We report on smart multifunctional fluids that act as both highly conductive electrolytes and intrinsic mechanical protectors for lithium ion batteries. These fluids exhibit a shear thickening effect under pressure or impact and thus demonstrate excellent resistance to crushing. Also, the fluids show higher ionic conductivities and comparable redox stability windows to the commercial liquid electrolytes.

  12. Smart Multifunctional Fluids for Lithium Ion Batteries: Enhanced Rate Performance and Intrinsic Mechanical Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Tian, Tongfei; Meng, Qing; Guo, Zaiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Peng; Ciacchi, Fabio T.; Huang, Jewel; Yang, Wenrong

    2013-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries are attractive power sources for the consumer electronics market and are being aggressively developed for road transportation. Nevertheless, issues with safety and reliability need to be solved prior to the large-scale uptake of these batteries. There have recently been significant development and assessment of materials with resistance to mechanical abuse, with the aims of reinforcing the battery and preventing puncturing during a crash. Most of the work on battery mechanical safety has concentrated on the external packaging of batteries, with little attention being paid to the enclosed electrolyte. We report on smart multifunctional fluids that act as both highly conductive electrolytes and intrinsic mechanical protectors for lithium ion batteries. These fluids exhibit a shear thickening effect under pressure or impact and thus demonstrate excellent resistance to crushing. Also, the fluids show higher ionic conductivities and comparable redox stability windows to the commercial liquid electrolytes.

  13. Smart multifunctional fluids for lithium ion batteries: enhanced rate performance and intrinsic mechanical protection.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Tian, Tongfei; Meng, Qing; Guo, Zaiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Peng; Ciacchi, Fabio T; Huang, Jewel; Yang, Wenrong

    2013-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are attractive power sources for the consumer electronics market and are being aggressively developed for road transportation. Nevertheless, issues with safety and reliability need to be solved prior to the large-scale uptake of these batteries. There have recently been significant development and assessment of materials with resistance to mechanical abuse, with the aims of reinforcing the battery and preventing puncturing during a crash. Most of the work on battery mechanical safety has concentrated on the external packaging of batteries, with little attention being paid to the enclosed electrolyte. We report on smart multifunctional fluids that act as both highly conductive electrolytes and intrinsic mechanical protectors for lithium ion batteries. These fluids exhibit a shear thickening effect under pressure or impact and thus demonstrate excellent resistance to crushing. Also, the fluids show higher ionic conductivities and comparable redox stability windows to the commercial liquid electrolytes. PMID:23962885

  14. Development of Lithium-ion Battery as Energy Storage for Mobile Power Sources Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Ali; Hasan, Hasimah

    2009-09-01

    In view of the need to protect the global environment and save energy, there has been strong demand for the development of lithium-ion battery technology as a energy storage system, especially for Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) and electric vehicles (EV) applications. The R&D trend in the lithium-ion battery development is toward the high power and energy density, cheaper in price and high safety standard. In our laboratory, the research and development of lithium-ion battery technology was mainly focus to develop high power density performance of cathode material, which is focusing to the Li-metal-oxide system, LiMO2, where M=Co, Ni, Mn and its combination. The nano particle size material, which has irregular particle shape and high specific surface area was successfully synthesized by self propagating combustion technique. As a result the energy density and power density of the synthesized materials are significantly improved. In addition, we also developed variety of sizes of lithium-ion battery prototype, including (i) small size for electronic gadgets such as mobile phone and PDA applications, (ii) medium size for remote control toys and power tools applications and (iii) battery module for high power application such as electric bicycle and electric scooter applications. The detail performance of R&D in advanced materials and prototype development in AMREC, SIRIM Berhad will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  16. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  17. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  18. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  19. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  20. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The modelmore » development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.« less

  1. Bacterial nanometric amorphous Fe-based oxide: a potential lithium-ion battery anode material.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Genki; Sakuma, Ryo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kanno, Ryoji; Takano, Mikio; Takada, Jun

    2014-04-23

    Amorphous Fe(3+)-based oxide nanoparticles produced by Leptothrix ochracea, aquatic bacteria living worldwide, show a potential as an Fe(3+)/Fe(0) conversion anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The presence of minor components, Si and P, in the original nanoparticles leads to a specific electrode architecture with Fe-based electrochemical centers embedded in a Si, P-based amorphous matrix.

  2. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed.

  3. Nanodiamonds: a critical component of anodes for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanpeng; Li, Hongdong; Wang, Liying; Qiu, Dongchao; Ma, Yibo; Pei, Kai; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Kaifeng

    2016-08-18

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) have been introduced into a carbonaceous anode for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The lithium storage capacity, cycling performance and stability of the LIBs are increased and this is related to the DNDs' unique characteristics of chemical inertness, a larger surface area, low expansion, and high lithium adsorption capacity. PMID:27488679

  4. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  5. Lithium-Ion-Battery Anode Materials with Improved Capacity from a Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Ming; Niu, Ji-Liang; Lin, Jia; Wei, Lei-Ming; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Gang; Cai, Yue-Peng

    2016-09-01

    We present a porous metal-organic framework (MOF) with remarkable thermal stability that exhibits a discharge capacity of 300 mAh g(-1) as an anode material for a lithium-ion battery. Pyrolysis of the obtained MOF gives an anode material with improved capacity (741 mAh g(-1)) and superior cyclic stability. PMID:27548622

  6. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-02-21

    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  7. Evaluation of sulfur-doped aluminum-substituted manganese oxidespinels for lithium ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M.; Hollingsworth, Joel; Shim, Joongpyo; Lee, YoungJoo; Striebel, Kathryn; Reimer, Jeffrey; Cairns, Elton

    2002-09-10

    Spinels with nominal composition Li{sub 1.02}Al{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1.75}O{sub 3.97}S{sub 0.03}, Li{sub 1.02}Al{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1.75}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 1.02}Al{sub 0.15}Mn{sub 1.85}O{sub 3.96}S{sub 0.04} have been evaluated for their suitability as positive electrode materials in rechargeable lithium ion batteries for electric (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. {sup 7}Li magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, XRD, and EDS experiments indicate that sulfur is most likely present as a trace impurity on the surface of the spinel particles rather than substituting for oxygen ions in the bulk, so it is unlikely to account for the previously reported enhanced cyclability of this material. Rather, the unusual particle morphology produced during calcination of some samples in the presence of sulfur compounds appears to impede (but does not completely prevent) conversion to the tetragonal phase that occurs at 3V vs. Li, and ameliorates the capacity fading associated with it. These materials exhibit reduced rate capability and capacity at 4 V, making them unsuitable for high energy density (EV) or high power density applications (HEV).

  8. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  9. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries.

  10. In situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile as binder for high-performance silicon as lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lanyao; Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-07-01

    Electrode integrity and electric contact between particles and between particle and current collector are critical for electrochemical performance, especially for that of electrode materials with large volume change during cycling and with poor electric conductivity. We report on the in situ thermally cross-linked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binder for silicon-based anodes of lithium-ion batteries. The electrode delivers excellent cycle life and rate capability with a reversible capacity of about 1450 mA h g(-1) even after 100 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance of such silicon electrodes is attributed to heat-treatment-induced cross-linking and the formation of conjugated PAN. These findings open new avenues to explore other polymers for both anode and cathode electrodes of rechargeable batteries. PMID:24782265

  11. Microporous carbon derived from polyaniline base as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Huang, Zhengzheng; Shen, Haijie; Tian, Yingying; Xiao, Chengyi; Yang, Jingjing; Mao, Zhaohui

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nitrogen-containing microporous carbon was prepared from polyaniline base by K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} activation, and used as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery. {yields} K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} activation promotes the formation of amorphous and microporous structure. {yields} High nitrogen content, and large surface area with micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion, and thus improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon with large surface area was prepared from polyaniline base using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as an activating agent. The physicochemical properties of the carbon were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode material in lithium ion secondary battery were evaluated. The first discharge capacity of the microporous carbon was 1108 mAh g{sup -1}, whose first charge capacity was 624 mAh g{sup -1}, with a coulombic efficiency of 56.3%. After 20 cycling tests, the microporous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 603 mAh g{sup -1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup -1}. These results clearly demonstrated the potential role of microporous carbon as anode for high capacity lithium ion secondary battery.

  12. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  13. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

  15. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Wang, Yibo; Yan, Chaoyi; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Wang, Yanbin; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Tian; Wang, Zhengyang; Xu, Yue; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-04-01

    All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene-oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm(-2) , which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy-storage devices. PMID:26833897

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Film Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Kumta, Prashant N.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of thin film electrodes with polymer electrolytes to form a complete thin film lithium-ion battery. Thin film batteries of the type, LiCoO2 [PAN, EC, PC, LiN(CF3SO2)2] SnO2 have been fabricated. The results of the synthesis and characterization studies will be presented and discussed.

  17. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Wang, Yibo; Yan, Chaoyi; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Wang, Yanbin; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Tian; Wang, Zhengyang; Xu, Yue; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-04-01

    All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene-oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm(-2) , which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy-storage devices.

  18. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Islam, Md Tariqul; Karim, Hasanul; Ramabadran, Navaneet; Noveron, Juan C.; Lin, Yirong

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO2 nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  19. Building robust architectures of carbon and metal oxide nanocrystals toward high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xilai; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Xia; Peng, Yiting; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Ge; Wei, Fei; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-11-27

    Design and fabrication of effective electrode structure is essential but is still a challenge for current lithium-ion battery technology. Herein we report the design and fabrication of a class of high-performance robust nanocomposites based on iron oxide spheres and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). An efficient aerosol spray process combined with vacuum filtration was used to synthesize such composite architecture, where oxide nanocrystals were assembled into a continuous carbon skeleton and entangled in porous CNT networks. This material architecture offers many critical features that are required for high-performance anodes, including efficient ion transport, high conductivity, and structure durability, therefore enabling an electrode with outstanding lithium storage performance. For example, such an electrode with a thickness of ∼35 μm could deliver a specific capacity of 994 mA h g(-1) (based on total electrode weight) and high recharging rates. This effective strategy can be extended to construct many other composite electrodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  20. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  1. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K. Y. Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-08-01

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm-3 has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm-3 in addition to the conventional unit mA h g-1 in the battery community.Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the

  2. Novel materials for negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Nathalie

    Carbonaceous materials are currently utilized as negative electrodes in commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, their low capacity prompted the search for alternative materials of higher capacity and good cycling stability in order to maximize the battery energy density and cycle life. Lithium alloys have long been considered as alternative negative electrode materials to substitute for the carbonaceous materials currently used in commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, they suffer from cracking caused by the large volume changes occurring during lithiation and delithiation. To better understand the alloys failure mechanism, various elements were tested and those that can alloy with lithium electrochemically were identified. Silicon showed extremely high capacity but poor cycle life. To investigate to which extent multiphase materials may improve cycle life, several binary metal-silicides were explored in search for improved cycling stability. Mg 2Si was the only compound of high capacity but it exhibited poor cycle life. Both addition of a matrix and decrease in particle size have been demonstrated to improve cycle life. Each effect has been investigated separately. Using tin-based powders of different size oxidized to various extent, we showed an increase in oxygen content, a particle size decrease and the formation of converted Sn-Sb compounds improved cycling stability. The effect of the matrix nature on the electrochemical properties was explored using Zn-based conversion materials. Upon reaction with lithium, ZnO and ZnS electrodes generated LiZn and a Li2O and Li2S matrix, respectively. The reversible process was identified as the Li-Zn alloying reaction, as obtained in pure metallic Zn electrodes. ZnO and ZnS failure mechanisms were also similar to metallic Zn. However, ZnS showed improved cycle life. LiZnN has been isolated by way of an electrochemical conversion reaction of Zn3N2 with lithium. We showed Zn3N 2 reversibly reacts with

  3. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg-1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0-0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li+) window at current density of 100 mAg-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg-1) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg-1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

  5. Si/Ge double-layered nanotube array as a lithium ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Song, Taeseup; Cheng, Huanyu; Choi, Heechae; Lee, Jin-Hyon; Han, Hyungkyu; Lee, Dong Hyun; Yoo, Dong Su; Kwon, Moon-Seok; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok Gwang; Chang, Hyuk; Xiao, Jianliang; Huang, Yonggang; Park, Won Il; Chung, Yong-Chae; Kim, Hansu; Rogers, John A; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-01-24

    Problems related to tremendous volume changes associated with cycling and the low electron conductivity and ion diffusivity of Si represent major obstacles to its use in high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries. We have developed a group IVA based nanotube heterostructure array, consisting of a high-capacity Si inner layer and a highly conductive Ge outer layer, to yield both favorable mechanics and kinetics in battery applications. This type of Si/Ge double-layered nanotube array electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances over the analogous homogeneous Si system, including stable capacity retention (85% after 50 cycles) and doubled capacity at a 3C rate. These results stem from reduced maximum hoop strain in the nanotubes, supported by theoretical mechanics modeling, and lowered activation energy barrier for Li diffusion. This electrode technology creates opportunities in the development of group IVA nanotube heterostructures for next generation lithium ion batteries.

  6. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25907411

  7. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoi, Norihiro Bahena-Garrido, Sharon; Tanaka, Yasumitsu; Qiwu, Zhang

    2015-05-15

    Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si) particles and copper monoxide (CuO) particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g{sup −1} after 200 cycles.

  9. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25907411

  10. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Qiwu, Zhang; Bahena-Garrido, Sharon; Tanaka, Yasumitsu

    2015-05-01

    Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si) particles and copper monoxide (CuO) particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles.

  11. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  12. Extreme learning machine based spatiotemporal modeling of lithium-ion battery thermal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-03-01

    Due to the overwhelming complexity of the electrochemical related behaviors and internal structure of lithium ion batteries, it is difficult to obtain an accurate mathematical expression of their thermal dynamics based on the physical principal. In this paper, a data based thermal model which is suitable for online temperature distribution estimation is proposed for lithium-ion batteries. Based on the physics based model, a simple but effective low order model is obtained using the Karhunen-Loeve decomposition method. The corresponding uncertain chemical related heat generation term in the low order model is approximated using extreme learning machine. All uncertain parameters in the low order model can be determined analytically in a linear way. Finally, the temperature distribution of the whole battery can be estimated in real time based on the identified low order model. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The simple training process of the model makes it superior for onboard application.

  13. Tannic-Acid-Coated Polypropylene Membrane as a Separator for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Haibin; Wu, Chaolumen; Liao, Chenbo; Li, Lei

    2015-07-29

    To solve the wetting capability issue of commercial polypropylene (PP) separators in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we developed a simple dipping surface-coating process based on tannic acid (TA), a natural plant polyphenol. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron measurements indicate that the TA is coated successfully on the PP separators. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the TA coating does not destroy the microporous structure of the separators. After being coated with TA, the PP separators become more hydrophilic, which not only enhances the liquid electrolyte retention ability but also increases the ionic conductivity. The battery performance, especially for power capability, is improved after being coated with TA. It indicates that this TA-coating method provides a promising process by which to develop an advanced polymer membrane separator for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  16. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  17. Fail-safe design for large capacity lithium-ion battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  18. Material behavior characterization of a thin film polymer used in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, Michael J.

    The use of lithium-ion batteries in the automotive industry has become increasingly popular. As more hybrid and electric vehicles take to the road an understanding of how these batteries will behave structurally will be of greater concern. Impact testing can give a valuable overview of the strengths and weaknesses of a battery's design, however, these tests can be time consuming, expensive, and dangerous. Finite element analysis can deliver a reliable low cost approximation of physical testing results. The accuracy of FE results depends greatly on the mathematical representation of the material properties of Li-ion battery components. In this study, the material properties of thin film polymer used as a separator between an anode and a cathode of a lithium ion battery are tested experimentally under various temperatures, strain rates, and solvent saturations. Due to the anisotropy of the material, two similar sets of experiments were conducted on the material in perpendicular directions. It was found that temperature and strain rate have a nearly linear effect on the stress experienced by the material. Additionally, saturating the separator material in a common lithium ion solvent resulted in its softening with a positive effect on its toughness. Two viscoplastic constitutive equations developed for modeling polymeric materials were employed to model the experimental data.

  19. A comparative study of commercial lithium ion battery cycle life in electrical vehicle: Aging mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Zheng, Yuejiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-04-01

    When lithium-ion batteries age with cycling, the battery capacity decreases and the resistance increases. The aging mechanism of different types of lithium-ion batteries differs. The loss of lithium inventory, loss of active material, and the increase in resistance may result in battery aging. Generally, analysis of the battery aging mechanism requires dismantling of batteries and using methods such as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These methods may permanently damage the battery. Therefore, the methods are inappropriate for the battery management system (BMS) in an electric vehicle. The constant current charging curves while charging the battery could be used to get the incremental capacity and differential voltage curves for identifying the aging mechanism; the battery state-of-health can then be estimated. This method can be potentially used in the BMS for online diagnostic and prognostic services. The genetic algorithm could be used to quantitatively analyze the battery aging offline. And the membership function could be used for onboard aging mechanism identification.

  20. Virus-enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for lithium ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Tae; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yoo, Pil J; Chiang, Chung-Yi; Meethong, Nonglak; Hammond, Paula T; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Belcher, Angela M

    2006-05-12

    The selection and assembly of materials are central issues in the development of smaller, more flexible batteries. Cobalt oxide has shown excellent electrochemical cycling properties and is thus under consideration as an electrode for advanced lithium batteries. We used viruses to synthesize and assemble nanowires of cobalt oxide at room temperature. By incorporating gold-binding peptides into the filament coat, we formed hybrid gold-cobalt oxide wires that improved battery capacity. Combining virus-templated synthesis at the peptide level and methods for controlling two-dimensional assembly of viruses on polyelectrolyte multilayers provides a systematic platform for integrating these nanomaterials to form thin, flexible lithium ion batteries.

  1. Characterization of the Cathode Electrolyte Interface in Lithium Ion Batteries by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Min; G Nicolau, Bruno; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-07-19

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed via electrolyte decomposition on the anode of lithium ion batteries is largely responsible for the stable cycling of conventional lithium ion batteries. Similarly, there is a lesser-known analogous layer on the cathode side of a lithium ion battery, termed the cathode electrolyte interface (CEI), whose composition and role are debated. To confirm the existence and composition of the CEI, desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is applied to study common lithium ion battery cathodes. We observe CEI formation on the LiMn2O4 cathode material after cycling between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs Li/Li(+) in electrolyte solution containing 1 M LiPF6 or LiClO4 in 1:1 (v/v) ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Intact poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether is identified as the electrolyte degradation product on the cathode surface by the high mass-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. When EC is paired with ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether, poly(ethylene glycol) ethyl methyl ether, and poly(ethylene glycol) are found on the surface simultaneously. The presence of ethoxy and methoxy end groups indicates both methoxide and ethoxide are produced and involved in the process of oligomerization. Au surfaces cycled under different electrochemical windows as model systems for Li-ion battery anodes are also examined. Interestingly, the identical oligomeric species to those found in the CEI are found on Au surfaces after running five cycles between 2.0 and 0.1 V vs Li/Li(+) in half-cells. These results show that DESI-MS provides intact molecular information on battery electrodes, enabling deeper understanding of the SEI or CEI composition.

  2. Characterization of the Cathode Electrolyte Interface in Lithium Ion Batteries by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Min; G Nicolau, Bruno; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-07-19

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed via electrolyte decomposition on the anode of lithium ion batteries is largely responsible for the stable cycling of conventional lithium ion batteries. Similarly, there is a lesser-known analogous layer on the cathode side of a lithium ion battery, termed the cathode electrolyte interface (CEI), whose composition and role are debated. To confirm the existence and composition of the CEI, desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is applied to study common lithium ion battery cathodes. We observe CEI formation on the LiMn2O4 cathode material after cycling between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs Li/Li(+) in electrolyte solution containing 1 M LiPF6 or LiClO4 in 1:1 (v/v) ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Intact poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether is identified as the electrolyte degradation product on the cathode surface by the high mass-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. When EC is paired with ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether, poly(ethylene glycol) ethyl methyl ether, and poly(ethylene glycol) are found on the surface simultaneously. The presence of ethoxy and methoxy end groups indicates both methoxide and ethoxide are produced and involved in the process of oligomerization. Au surfaces cycled under different electrochemical windows as model systems for Li-ion battery anodes are also examined. Interestingly, the identical oligomeric species to those found in the CEI are found on Au surfaces after running five cycles between 2.0 and 0.1 V vs Li/Li(+) in half-cells. These results show that DESI-MS provides intact molecular information on battery electrodes, enabling deeper understanding of the SEI or CEI composition. PMID:27346184

  3. An approach to beneficiation of spent lithium-ion batteries for recovery of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, Danai

    Lithium ion batteries are one of the most commonly used batteries. A large amount of these have been used over the past 25 years and the use is expected to rise more due to their use in automotive batteries. Lithium ion batteries cannot be disposed into landfill due to safety reasons and cost. Thus, over the last years, there has been a lot of effort to find ways to recycle lithium ion batteries. A lot of valuable materials are present in a lithium ion battery making their recycling favorable. Many attempts, including pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods, have been researched and some of them are already used by the industry. However, further improvements are needed to the already existing processes, to win more valuable materials, use less energy and be more environmentally benign. The goal of this thesis is to find a low-temperature, low-energy method of recovering lithium from the electrolyte and to develop pathways for complete recycling of the battery. The research consists of the following parts: Pure LiPF6 powder, which is the electrolyte material, was characterized using x- ray diffraction analysis and DSC/TGA analysis. The LiPF6 powder was titrated using acid (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4), bases (NH4 OH) and distilled water. It was concluded that distilled water was the best solvent to selectively leach lithium from lithium-ion batteries. Leaching conditions were optimized including time, temperature, solid/liquid ratio and stirring velocity. All the samples were tested using ICP for chemical composition. Because leaching could be performed at room temperature, leaching was conducted in a flotation machine that was able to separate plastics by creating bubbles with no excess reagents use. The solution that contained lithium had to be concentrated more in order for lithium to be able to precipitate and it was shown that the solution could be concentrated by using the same solution over and over again. The next set of experiments was composed of battery

  4. Accelerated discovery of cathode materials with prolonged cycle life for lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Motoaki; Ootani, Takuya; Kamimura, Yuichi; Sueki, Toshitsugu; Esaki, Shogo; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Ohira, Koji; Koyama, Yukinori; Tanaka, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale battery systems are essential for efficiently utilizing renewable energy power sources from solar and wind, which can generate electricity only intermittently. The use of lithium-ion batteries to store the generated energy is one solution. A long cycle life is critical for lithium-ion battery when used in these applications; this is different from portable devices which require 1,000 cycles at most. Here we demonstrate a novel co-substituted lithium iron phosphate cathode with estimated 70%-capacity retention of 25,000 cycles. This is found by exploring a wide chemical compositional space using density functional theory calculations. Relative volume change of a compound between fully lithiated and delithiated conditions is used as the descriptor for the cycle life. On the basis of the results of the screening, synthesis of selected materials is targeted. Single-phase samples with the required chemical composition are successfully made by an epoxide-mediated sol-gel method. The optimized materials show excellent cycle-life performance as lithium-ion battery cathodes.

  5. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  6. Practical silicon-based composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries: Fundamental and technological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, Nikolay; Xia, Yonggao; Yoshio, Masaki

    Despite recent worldwide research efforts, composite silicon-based anodes remain at the centre of debate in the field of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrated that successful development of composite silicon-based anodes requires the simultaneous consideration of two equally important features: fundamental and technological. The fundamental feature dictates that the in situ formed amorphous phase should remain in its amorphous state in order to achieve a long-lasting reversible electrode, while the technological feature implies that the complex active material-binder interactions have to be numerically evaluated in order to tailor the electrode properties in an appropriate way. Only the harmonic consideration of both aspects allows creation of a long-lasting reversible silicon electrode. Examples demonstrating these features are considered and lithium-ion batteries employing hybrid silicon-based electrodes are proposed.

  7. Hollow Nanostructured Metal Silicates with Tunable Properties for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Quan, Bo; Jin, Aihua; Lee, Kug-Seung; Kang, Soon Hyung; Kang, Kisuk; Piao, Yuanzhe; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-11-25

    Hollow nanostructured materials have attracted considerable interest as lithium ion battery electrodes because of their good electrochemical properties. In this study, we developed a general procedure for the synthesis of hollow nanostructured metal silicates via a hydrothermal process using silica nanoparticles as templates. The morphology and composition of hollow nanostructured metal silicates could be controlled by changing the metal precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical hollow nanostructures with diameters of ∼100-200 nm were composed of variously shaped primary particles such as hollow nanospheres, solid nanoparticles, and thin nanosheets. Furthermore, different primary nanoparticles could be combined to form hybrid hierarchical hollow nanostructures. When hollow nanostructured metal silicates were applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, all samples exhibited good cyclic stability during 300 cycles, as well as tunable electrochemical properties.

  8. Effects of size and concentration on diffusion-induced stress in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zengsheng; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yan; Lu, Chunsheng

    2016-07-01

    Capacity fade of lithium-ion batteries induced by chemo-mechanical degradation during charge-discharge cycles is the bottleneck in design of high-performance batteries, especially high-capacity electrode materials. Stress generated due to diffusion-mechanical coupling in lithium-ion intercalation and deintercalation is accompanied by swelling, shrinking, and even micro-cracking. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model for a cylindrical nanowire electrode by combining the bond-order-length-strength and diffusion theories. It is shown that size and concentration have a significant influence on the stress fields in radial, hoop, and axial directions. This can explain why a smaller electrode with a huge volume change survives in the lithiation/delithiation process.

  9. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-27

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications.

  10. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-27

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications. PMID:26627913

  11. Silicon decorated cone shaped carbon nanotube clusters for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ruiz, Isaac; Ahmed, Kazi; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; George, Aaron S; Wang, Johnny; Butler, John; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2014-08-27

    In this work, we report the synthesis of an three-dimensional (3D) cone-shape CNT clusters (CCC) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with subsequent inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. An innovative silicon decorated cone-shape CNT clusters (SCCC) is prepared by simply depositing amorphous silicon onto CCC via magnetron sputtering. The seamless connection between silicon decorated CNT cones and graphene facilitates the charge transfer in the system and suggests a binder-free technique of preparing lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. Lithium ion batteries based on this novel 3D SCCC architecture demonstrates high reversible capacity of 1954 mAh g(-1) and excellent cycling stability (>1200 mAh g(-1) capacity with ≈ 100% coulombic efficiency after 230 cycles).

  12. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  13. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  14. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2015-06-23

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO{sub 4} cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles.

  15. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  16. Pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose: a versatile support for lithium ion battery anode materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Yang, Jingxuan; Wang, Xiangjun; Song, Qi; Chen, Shiyan; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-07-22

    A scalable, low-cost and environmentally benign strategy is developed for the facile construction of a unique kind of three-dimensional porous electrode architecture for high-performance lithium ion batteries. The methodology is based on the employment of pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose as a new three-dimensional porous scaffold to support various nanostructured active electrode materials, such as SnO2 and Ge.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Nanowires as Advanced Conductive Agents for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Xinyi; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai

    2015-09-01

    Copper nanowires (CuNW) are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method and test as advanced conductive agents for lithium ion batteries. Anode prepared with CuNW and graphite show improved rate ability and excellent cycling stability even at high rate. AC-impedance of CuNW added electrode is much lower than that of electrodes containing carbon black only. This implies the CuNW could lower the electronical resistance. PMID:26716306

  18. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  19. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  20. Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Chris; Curzon, David; Blackmore, Paul; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) provides adequate sustained hard short protection for AEA batteries with up to 8 cells in series. PTC cannot protect against sustained hard short in AEA batteries with 10 cells or more in series. Protective fused connector is a proven way to protect larger batteries from hard short damage: a) Hard short not credible in unmanned missions; b) However, recommended during ground handling; c) Inexpensive item. Preliminary diode protection scheme has passed manned space safety requirements for high voltage batteries. SCM confirmed fused connector did not affect battery health, however, this affect of hard short on the its long calendar and cycle life performance needs to be verified.

  1. Stable anodes for lithium ion batteries made of self-organized mesoporous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Sascha J.; Köntges, Marc; Bahnemann, Detlef; Brendel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Alloy-forming compounds, such as electrodes for lithium ion batteries, stand out in terms of their theoretical specific charge capacity while still lacking in mechanical stability due to significant volume changes during operation. Herein, we examine the approach of combining low structural dimensions of the active material with built-in expansion volumes and assess their benefit for silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries. Consequently, self-organized mesoporous silicon is prepared as a suitable anode material for lithium ion batteries without any pre-structuring methods. The anodes are made by employing electrochemical etching methods in a scalable process and are characterized by ellipsometry. Thermally evaporated copper is utilized as the current collector. A sheet of freestanding silicon in contact with copper is used as an anode material with a thickness of 3 μm. After an initialization phase, electrochemical characterization reveals an anode stability of more than 160 cycles with a specific charge capacity of 730 mAh/g. The mechanical stability of the anode is examined by taking SEM measurements of the used electrode material.

  2. Honeycomb-like porous gel polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium ion batteries with enhanced safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Huang, Xiaodan; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have shown great potential in applications as power sources for electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage. However, the direct uses of flammable organic liquid electrolyte with commercial separator induce serious safety problems including the risk of fire and explosion. Herein, we report the development of poly(vinylidene difluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) polymer membranes with multi-sized honeycomb-like porous architectures. The as-prepared polymer electrolyte membranes contain porosity as high as 78%, which leads to the high electrolyte uptake of 86.2 wt%. The PVDF-HFP gel polymer electrolyte membranes exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 1.03 mS cm−1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of commercial polymer membranes. Moreover, the as-obtained gel polymer membranes are also thermally stable up to 350°C and non-combustible in fire (fire-proof). When applied in lithium ion batteries with LiFePO4 as cathode materials, the gel polymer electrolyte demonstrated excellent electrochemical performances. This investigation indicates that PVDF-HFP gel polymer membranes could be potentially applicable for high power lithium ion batteries with the features of high safety, low cost and good performance. PMID:25168687

  3. Electrode-supported thin α-alumina separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Wanliang; Sharma, Gaurav; Dong, Xueliang; Jin, Yi; Lin, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Lithium ion batteries with an inorganic separator offer improved safety and enhanced reliability. The free-standing inorganic separators recently studied for lithium ion batteries are brittle and expensive. To address these issues, this paper reports the synthesis of a new and stable electrode-supported separator using a low-cost ceramic powder. Thin and porous α-Al2O3 separator films of thicknesses down to 40 μm were coated on Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrode by blade-coating a slurry of α-Al2O3, water and a small amount of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The performance of the LTO/Li cells with coated α-Al2O3 separator improves with decreasing PVA content. Cells with coated α-Al2O3 separator containing 0.4wt% PVA exhibit similar discharge capacity but better rate capability than those with commercial polypropylene (PP) or thick sintered α-Al2O3 separator. The coated α-Al2O3 separator does not react with LTO even after many charge/discharge cycles. Fabrication of the electrode-supported α-Al2O3 separator is scalable and cost-effective, offering high potential for practical application in industrial lithium ion battery manufacturing.

  4. Computational multiobjective topology optimization of silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Sarah L.; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study utilizes computational topology optimization methods for the systematic design of optimal multifunctional silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries. In order to develop next generation high performance lithium-ion batteries, key design challenges relating to the silicon anode structure must be addressed, namely the lithiation-induced mechanical degradation and the low intrinsic electrical conductivity of silicon. As such this work considers two design objectives, the first being minimum compliance under design dependent volume expansion, and the second maximum electrical conduction through the structure, both of which are subject to a constraint on material volume. Density-based topology optimization methods are employed in conjunction with regularization techniques, a continuation scheme, and mathematical programming methods. The objectives are first considered individually, during which the influence of the minimum structural feature size and prescribed volume fraction are investigated. The methodology is subsequently extended to a bi-objective formulation to simultaneously address both the structural and conduction design criteria. The weighted sum method is used to derive the Pareto fronts, which demonstrate a clear trade-off between the competing design objectives. A rigid frame structure was found to be an excellent compromise between the structural and conduction design criteria, providing both the required structural rigidity and direct conduction pathways. The developments and results presented in this work provide a foundation for the informed design and development of silicon anode structures for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Characterization of plasticity and fracture of shell casing of lithium-ion cylindrical battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Most of the literature on lithium-ion battery cells is concerned with modeling of jellyroll with little attention to properties of shell casing. However, shell casing provides substantial strength and fracture resistance under mechanical loading and therefore must be an important part of modeling of lithium-ion batteries. The paper reports on a comprehensive test program on commercially available empty shell casing of 18650 lithium-ion cylindrical cells. Part of the tests was used to determine plastic and fracture properties from sub-size specimens cut from lateral part of the cans. The other part served to validate plasticity and fracture models under various loading conditions. The associated flow rule was used to simulate plasticity behavior and Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture model was adopted to predict crack initiation and propagation of shell casing. Simulation results confirmed that present plasticity and fracture models could predict global plastic behavior of the cells under different loading conditions. The jellyroll model with volumetric hardening was introduced to compare the performance of empty shell casing, bare jellyroll and complete battery cell. It was shown that in many loading situations, for example, three point bending of the cylindrical cells, the metallic shell casing provides most of mechanical resistance.

  6. Capturing lithium-ion battery dynamics with support vector machine-based battery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klass, Verena; Behm, Mårten; Lindbergh, Göran

    2015-12-01

    During long and high current pulses, diffusion resistance becomes important in lithium-ion batteries. In such diffusion-intense situations, a static support vector machine-based battery model relying on instantaneous current, state-of-charge (SOC), and temperature is not sufficient to capture the time-dependent voltage characteristics. In order to account for the diffusion-related voltage dynamics, we suggest therefore the inclusion of current history in the data-driven battery model by moving averages of the recent current. The voltage estimation performance of six different dynamic battery models with additional current history input is studied during relevant test scenarios. All current history models improve the time-dependent voltage drop estimation compared to the static model, manifesting the beneficial effect of the additional current history input during diffusion-intense situations. The best diffusion resistance estimation results are obtained for the two-step voltage estimation models that incorporate a reciprocal square root of time weighing function for the current of the previous 100 s or an exponential time function with a 20 s time constant (1-8% relative error). Those current history models even improve the overall voltage estimation performance during the studied test scenarios (under 0.25% root-mean-square percentage error).

  7. Physical characterization of tin composite oxides and related anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Gillian Ruth

    2000-10-01

    This thesis addresses the issues concerning the excellent electrochemical performance exhibited by the tin-composite-oxide glass, Sn1.0Al 0.42B0.56P0.40O3.6 as an anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The debate surrounding this material focuses on the nature of the lithium-tin interaction; whether it is ionic or intermetallic. The TCO anode material has been studied electrochemically, as well as by multinuclear Solid-State-NMR, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and X-ray Scattering including Pair Distribution Function analysis. By examining electrode materials at various stages of discharge, corresponding to various levels of lithium insertion, the interactions between lithium, tin, oxygen, and the other components of the glass have been ascertained. The inserted lithium remains highly ionic throughout the first cycle of the cell, with no evidence for the formation of alloy phases. Extended cycling of the cell results in the formation of alloy-like domains in the parent material, SnO, but not in the case of TCO. This demonstrates that the required structural rearrangements for the formation of Li-Sn phases are kinetically prohibited; and this to a greater extend in TCO than in SnO. Two key factors account for the electrochemical properties of TCO: (1) the participation of the glass framework in sequestering the electrochemically active tin centers and providing a flexible framework for the reversible insertion of lithium; (2) the proximity of oxygen to tin is maintained throughout lithium insertion process, thus oxygen may act as a charge carrier. These factors are developed in the context of several models for the interactions in the electrode, drawing on the data obtained from the physical characterizations implemented here. A comparative study of the anode material NaMoO3 is also described.

  8. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  9. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  10. Capacity fade modelling of lithium-ion battery under cyclic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Chung, Yongmann M.; Wang, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) electro-chemical lithium-ion battery model is presented in this paper to study the capacity fade under cyclic charge-discharge conditions. The Newman model [1,2] has been modified to include a continuous solvent reduction reaction responsible for the capacity fade and power fade. The temperature variation inside the cell is accurately predicted using a distributed thermal model coupled with the internal chemical heat generation. The model is further improved by linking the porosity variation with the electrolyte partial molar concentration, thereby proving a stronger coupling between the battery performance and the chemical properties of electrolyte. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth is estimated for different cut-off voltages and charging current rates. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the porosity variation influences the SEI layer growth and the battery life significantly. The choice of an electrolyte decides the conductivity and partial molar concentration, which is found to have a strong influence on the capacity fade of the battery. The present battery model integrates all essential electro-chemical processes inside a lithium-ion battery under a strong implicit algorithm, proving a useful tool for computationally fast battery monitoring system.

  11. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped FeS nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ling; Lin, Qianglu; Yuan, Bin; Chen, Gen; Xie, Pu; Li, Yuling; Xu, Yun; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-06-12

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the FeS-based anode for lithium-ion batteries is proposed, where FeS nanoparticles wrapped in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are produced via a facile direct-precipitation approach. The resulting nanocomposite FeS@RGO structure has better lithium ion storage properties, exceeding those of FeS prepared without RGO sheets. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the robust sheet-wrapped structure with smaller FeS nanoparticles and synergetic effects between FeS and RGO sheets, such as increased conductivity, shortened lithium ion diffusion path, and the effective prevention of polysulfide dissolution.

  12. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the 'all-climate battery' cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.

  13. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the 'all-climate battery' cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications. PMID:26789253

  14. Microbatteries for Combinatorial Studies of Conventional Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2003-01-01

    Integrated arrays of microscopic solid-state batteries have been demonstrated in a continuing effort to develop microscopic sources of power and of voltage reference circuits to be incorporated into low-power integrated circuits. Perhaps even more importantly, arrays of microscopic batteries can be fabricated and tested in combinatorial experiments directed toward optimization and discovery of battery materials. The value of the combinatorial approach to optimization and discovery has been proven in the optoelectronic, pharmaceutical, and bioengineering industries. Depending on the specific application, the combinatorial approach can involve the investigation of hundreds or even thousands of different combinations; hence, it is time-consuming and expensive to attempt to implement the combinatorial approach by building and testing full-size, discrete cells and batteries. The conception of microbattery arrays makes it practical to bring the advantages of the combinatorial approach to the development of batteries.

  15. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  16. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model has to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.

  17. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model hasmore » to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.« less

  18. An activated microporous carbon prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin for lithium ion battery anode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yinhai; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Yuhu; Xie, Hui; Wu, Zhilian; Tian, Yingying

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Microporous carbon was prepared by chemical activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. ► Activation leads to high surface area, well-developed micropores. ► Micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion. ► Large surface area promotes to improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon anode materials were prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin by ZnCl{sub 2} and KOH activation. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and elemental analysis. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, the carbon without activation shows a first discharge capacity of 515 mAh g{sup −1}. After activation, the capacity improved obviously. The first discharge capacity of the carbon prepared by ZnCl{sub 2} and KOH activation was 1010 and 2085 mAh g{sup −1}, respectively. The reversible capacity of the carbon prepared by KOH activation was still as high as 717 mAh g{sup −1} after 20 cycles, which was much better than that activated by ZnCl{sub 2}. These results demonstrated that it may be a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  19. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  20. Reducing of internal resistance lithium ion battery using glucose addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Andri Pratama; Hafidlullah, Noor; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    There are two indicators of battery performance, i.e : capacity and the internal resistance of battery. In this research, the affect of glucose addition to decrease the internal resistance of lithium battery was investigated. The ratio of glucose addition were varied at weight ratio 1%, 3%, and 5% and one mixtures without glucose addition. Lithium ferri phosphate (LiFePO4), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), acetylene black (AB) and glucose were materials that used in this study. Both of mixtures were mixed in the vacuum mixer until became homogeneous. The slurry was coated on an aluminium foil sheet and the coated thickness was 200 µm. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer and the Internal resistance was examined by Internal Resistance of Battery Meter. The result from all analyzer were showed that the internal resistance reduced as well as the battery capacity. The best internal resistance value is owned by mixtures with 3wt% ratio glucose addition. It has an internal resistance value about 64 miliohm.

  1. Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Fan, Xing; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 mAh g-1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 mA g-1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 1326 mAh g-1 was retained after 40 cycles. These improvements were attributed to the uniform and continuous carbon coatings, which increased electronic contact and conduction and buffered large volume changes during lithium ion insertion/extraction.

  2. High power layered titanate nano-sheets as pseudocapacitive lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübke, Mechthild; Marchand, Peter; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul; Gruar, Robert; Liu, Zhaolin; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-02-01

    Ultra-thin layered sodium titanate nano-sheets were synthesised using a continuous hydrothermal flow process and the as-prepared materials were investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. In comparison to previous studies on similar materials, the layered titanates herein showed high electrochemical activity at lower potentials. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in the potential range of 0.05-2.1 V vs. Li/Li+, revealed that charge storage occurred from both lithium-ion intercalation as well as pseudocapacitive surface chemical processes. During electrochemical cycling tests, a high specific current of 0.5 A g-1 was applied and the cells achieved a stable specific capacity of ca. 120 mAh g-1 for over 1200 cycles. Even at an applied current of 10 A g-1, the electrode material delivered a stable specific capacity of 38 mAh g-1, which suggests that this material may be suitable for high power applications.

  3. A nanoporous metal recuperated MnO2 anode for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xianwei; Han, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Pan; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Luyang; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been intensively studied to meet the increased demands for the high energy density of portable electronics and electric vehicles. The low specific capacity of the conventional graphite based anodes is one of the key factors that limit the capacity of LIBs. Transition metal oxides, such as NiO, MnO2 and Fe3O4, are known to be promising anode materials that are expected to improve the specific capacities of LIBs for several times. However, the poor electrical conductivity of these oxides significantly restricts the lithium ion storage and charge/discharge rate. Here we report that dealloyed nanoporous metals can realize the intrinsic lithium storage performance of the oxides by forming oxide/metal composites. Without any organic binder, conductive additive and additional current collector, the hybrid electrodes can be directly used as anodes and show highly reversible specific capacity with high-rate capability and long cyclic stability.

  4. Exothermic behaviors of mechanically abused lithium-ion batteries with dibenzylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Qiao, Yu

    2016-09-01

    A thermal-runaway retardant (TRR) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), dibenzylamine (DBA), is investigated. In a TRR-modified LIB, DBA can be encapsulated in packages made of inert materials. When the LIB is subjected to mechanical abuse, the packages would be broken apart and the TRR is released. In nail penetration and impact tests, addition of 4 wt% DBA reduces the temperature increase of fully charged LIR-2450 cells by nearly 50%. The influence of TRR packages on the cycling performance of LIBs is negligible. The working mechanism of DBA is associated with the decrease in electrolyte conductivity, the increase in charge transfer resistance, and the reduction in lithium ion (Li+) transference numbers.

  5. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pannala, S. Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-08-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  6. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannala, S.; Turner, J. A.; Allu, S.; Elwasif, W. R.; Kalnaus, S.; Simunovic, S.; Kumar, A.; Billings, J. J.; Wang, H.; Nanda, J.

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. Gaining an understanding of the role of these processes as well as development of predictive capabilities for design of better performing batteries requires synergy between theory, modeling, and simulation, and fundamental experimental work to support the models. This paper presents the overview of the work performed by the authors aligned with both experimental and computational efforts. In this paper, we describe a new, open source computational environment for battery simulations with an initial focus on lithium-ion systems but designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This system has been used to create a three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. This paper also provides an overview of the experimental techniques to obtain crucial validation data to benchmark the simulations at various scales for performance as well as abuse. We detail some initial validation using characterization experiments such as infrared and neutron imaging and micro-Raman mapping. In addition, we identify opportunities for future integration of theory, modeling, and experiments.

  7. Temperature-dependent electrochemical heat generation in a commercial lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Garimella, Srinivas; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-02-01

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer from inherent thermal limitations (i.e., capacity fade and thermal runaway); thus, it is critical to understand heat generation experienced in the batteries under normal operation. In the current study, reversible and irreversible electrochemical heat generation rates were measured experimentally on a small commercially available C/LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery designed for high-rate applications. The battery was tested over a wide range of temperatures (10-60 °C) and discharge and charge rates (∼C/4-5C) to elucidate their effects. Two samples were tested in a specially designed wind tunnel to maintain constant battery surface temperature within a maximum variation of ±0.88 °C. A data normalization technique was employed to account for the observed capacity fade, which was largest at the highest rates. The heat rate was shown to increase with both increasing rate and decreasing temperature, and the reversible heat rate was shown to be significant even at the highest rate and temperature (7.4% at 5C and 55 °C). Results from cycling the battery using a dynamic power profile also showed that constant-current data predict the dynamic performance data well. In addition, the reversible heat rate in the dynamic simulation was shown to be significant, especially for charge-depleting HEV applications.

  8. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  9. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like those... maximum of only four lithium-ion cells or two lithium-ion batteries. c. The lithium content must not... 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION:......

  10. Understanding and improving lithium ion batteries through mathematical modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Rutooj D.

    There is an intense, worldwide effort to develop durable lithium ion batteries with high energy and power densities for a wide range of applications, including electric and hybrid electric vehicles. For improvement of battery technology understanding the capacity fading mechanism in batteries is of utmost importance. Novel electrode material and improved electrode designs are needed for high energy- high power batteries with less capacity fading. Furthermore, for applications such as automotive applications, precise cycle-life prediction of batteries is necessary. One of the critical challenges in advancing lithium ion battery technologies is fracture and decrepitation of the electrodes as a result of lithium diffusion during charging and discharging operations. When lithium is inserted in either the positive or negative electrode, there is a volume change associated with insertion or de-insertion. Diffusion-induced stresses (DISs) can therefore cause the nucleation and growth of cracks, leading to mechanical degradation of the batteries. With different mathematical models we studied the behavior of diffusion induces stresses and effects of electrode shape, size, concentration dependent material properties, pre-existing cracks, phase transformations, operating conditions etc. on the diffusion induced stresses. Thus we develop tools to guide the design of the electrode material with better mechanical stability for durable batteries. Along with mechanical degradation, chemical degradation of batteries also plays an important role in deciding battery cycle life. The instability of commonly employed electrolytes results in solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Although SEI formation contributes to irreversible capacity loss, the SEI layer is necessary, as it passivates the electrode-electrolyte interface from further solvent decomposition. SEI layer and diffusion induced stresses are inter-dependent and affect each-other. We study coupled chemical

  11. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the ‘all-climate battery’ cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.

  12. Imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolytes for versatile-shaped lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eun-Hye; Choi, Keun-Ho; Ha, Hyo-Jeong; Xu, Sheng; Rogers, John A; Kim, Mi Ri; Lee, Young-Gi; Kim, Kwang Man; Cho, Kuk Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2013-03-13

    A class of imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolyte with excellent electrochemical performance in a lithium battery system is reported. The material consists of a UV-cured polymer matrix, high-boiling point liquid electrolyte, and Al2 O3 nanoparticles, formulated for use in lithium-ion batteries with 3D-structured electrodes or flexible characteristics. The unique structural design and well-tuned rheological characteristics of the UV-curable electrolyte mixture, in combination with direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography, allow the successful fabrication of polymer electrolytes in geometries not accessible with conventional materials.

  13. Direct electrodeposition of Cu2Sb for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Mosby, James M; Prieto, Amy L

    2008-08-13

    We describe the direct single potential electrodeposition of crystalline Cu2Sb, a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, from aqueous solutions at room temperature. The use of citric acid as a complexing agent increases the solubility of antimony salts and shifts the reduction potentials of copper and antimony toward each other, enabling the direct deposition of the intermetallic compound at pH 6. Electrodeposition of Cu2Sb directly onto conducting substrates represents a facile synthetic method for the synthesis of high quality samples with excellent electrical contact to a substrate, which is critical for further battery testing. PMID:18627144

  14. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the ‘all-climate battery’ cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4–12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop–start technology capable of saving 5–10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.

  15. Electrode architectures for efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways in high power lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Ankita Shah

    As the demand for clean energy sources increases, large investments have supported R&D programs aimed at developing high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, military, grid storage and space applications. State of the art lithium ion technology cannot meet power demands for these applications due to high internal resistances in the cell. These resistances are mainly comprised of ionic and electronic resistance in the electrode and electrolyte. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of nanoscale lithium ion active materials on the premise that these materials shorten the diffusion length of lithium ions and increase the surface area for electrochemical charge transfer. While, nanomaterials have allowed significant improvements in the power density of the cell, they are not a complete solution for commercial batteries. Due to their large surface area, they introduce new challenges such as a poor electrode packing densities, high electrolyte reactivity, and expensive synthesis procedures. Since greater than 70% of the cost of the electric vehicle is due to the cost of the battery, a cost-efficient battery design is most critical. To address the limitations of nanomaterials, efficient transport pathways must be engineered in the bulk electrode. As a part of nanomanufacturing research being conducted the Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing at Northeastern University, the first aim of the proposed work is to develop electrode architectures that enhance electronic and ionic transport pathways in large and small area lithium ion electrodes. These architectures will utilize the unique electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes to create robust electrode scaffolding that improves electrochemical charge transfer. Using extensive physical and electrochemical characterization, the second aim is to investigate the effect of electrode parameters on electrochemical performance and evaluate the performance against standard commercial

  16. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  17. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O.; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2014-07-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  18. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  19. Single potential electrodeposition of nanostructured battery materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, James Matthew

    The increasing reliance on portable electronics is continuing to fuel research in the area of low power lithium-ion batteries, while a new surge in research for high power lithium-ion batteries has been sparked by the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). To compete with current lead-acid battery chemistry, a few of the shortcomings of lithium-ion battery chemistry need to be addressed. The three main drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries for this application are: (1) low power density, (2) safety, and (3) the high cost of manufacturing. This dissertation covers the development of a low cost fabrication technique for an alternative anode material with high surface area geometries. The anode material is safer than the conventional anode material in lithium-ion batteries and the high surface area geometries permit higher power densities to be achieved. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive alternative method for synthesizing materials for electronics, energy conversion and energy storage applications relative to traditional solid state techniques. These techniques led to expensive device fabrication. Unlike most solid state synthesis routes, electrodeposition can usually be performed from common solutions and at moderate conditions. Three other benefits of using electrodeposition are: (1) it allows precise control of composition and crystallinity, (2) it provides the ability to deposit on complex shapes, and (3) it can deposit materials with nanoscale dimensions. The use of electrodeposition for alternative anode materials results in the deposition of the material directly onto the current collector that is used for the battery testing and applications without the need of additional binders and with excellent electrical contact. While this improves the characterization of the material and lowers the weight of the non-active materials within a battery, it also allows the anode to be deposited onto current collectors with

  20. Energy impact of cathode drying and solvent recovery during lithium-ion battery manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-08-01

    Successful deployment of electric vehicles requires maturity of the manufacturing process to reduce the cost of the lithium ion battery (LIB) pack. Drying the coated cathode layer and subsequent recovery of the solvent for recycle is a vital step in the lithium ion battery manufacturing plant and offers significant potential for cost reduction. A spreadsheet model of the drying and recovery of the solvent, is used to study the energy demand of this step and its contribution towards the cost of the battery pack. The base case scenario indicates that the drying and recovery process imposes an energy demand of ∼10 kWh per kg of the solvent n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), and is almost 45 times the heat needed to vaporize the NMP. For a plant producing 100 K battery packs per year for 10 kWh plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), the energy demand is ∼5900 kW and the process contributes 107 or 3.4% to the cost of the battery pack. The cost of drying and recovery is equivalent to 1.12 per kg of NMP recovered, saving 2.08 per kg in replacement purchase.

  1. Lithium-ion cell-to-cell variation during battery electric vehicle operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Simon F.; Brand, Martin J.; Berg, Philipp; Gleissenberger, Markus; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    484 new and 1908 aged lithium-ion cells out of two identical battery electric vehicles (i.e. 954 cells each) were characterized by capacity and impedance measurements to yield a broad set of data for distribution fit analysis. Results prove alteration from normal to Weibull distribution for the parameters of lithium-ion cells with the progress of aging. Cells with abnormal characteristics in the aged state mostly exhibit lower capacities as compared to the distribution mode which is typical for the left-skewed Weibull shape. In addition, the strength of variation and the amount of outliers both are generally increased with the aging progress. Obtained results are compared to vehicles' operational data to provide recommendations with the aim to minimize the increasing parameter spread. However, neither temperature gradients in the battery pack nor an insufficient balancing procedure were determined. As the appearance of cells with suspicious parameters could not be assigned to local weak spots of the battery pack, a random and inevitable type of origin is assumed. Hence, the battery management system must ensure to detect outliers in a reliable manner and to balance resulting drifts of cells' states of charge to guarantee a safe battery storage operation.

  2. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  3. A review of nanofibrous structures in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampal, Esra Serife; Stojanovska, Elena; Simon, Bálint; Kilic, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Materials for harvesting and storing energy have been extensively studied in the last decade. Many inorganic materials have already been developed and utilized in products for electrochemical energy-storage systems. The nature of these complex materials requires further investigation from several approaches in order to improve specific characteristics of batteries, such as storage capacity and environmental impact. Fiber scientists have also introduced original solutions using mostly inorganic novel materials. Nanofibers and nanofibrous materials have found applications in the three battery components of anodes, cathodes, and separators. Many methods produce nanofibers; out of these, electrospinning is seen as the most adaptable technique because of the versatility and scalability of the process. The present review collates recent studies on nanofibers for applications in Li-ion batteries, with a focus on the electrospinning technique. The advantages of the investigated fibrous materials are explored in detail.

  4. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  5. Chemical and process mineralogical characterizations of spent lithium-ion batteries: an approach by multi-analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; He, Yaqun; Wang, Fangfang; Ge, Linhan; Zhu, Xiangnan; Li, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Mineral processing operation is a critical step in any recycling process to realize liberation, separation and concentration of the target parts. Developing effective recycling methods to recover all the valuable parts from spent lithium-ion batteries is in great necessity. The aim of this study is to carefully undertake chemical and process mineralogical characterizations of spent lithium-ion batteries by coupling several analytical techniques to provide basic information for the researches on effective mechanical crushing and separation methods in recycling process. The results show that the grade of Co, Cu and Al is fairly high in spent lithium ion batteries and up to 17.62 wt.%, 7.17 wt.% and 21.60 wt.%. Spent lithium-ion batteries have good selective crushing property, the crushed products could be divided into three parts, they are Al-enriched fraction (+2 mm), Cu and Al-enriched fraction (-2+0.25 mm) and Co and graphite-enriched fraction (-0.25 mm). The mineral phase and chemical state analysis reveal the electrode materials recovered from -0.25 mm size fraction keep the original crystal forms and chemical states in lithium-ion batteries, but the surface of the powders has been coated by a certain kind of hydrocarbon. Based on these results a flowsheet to recycle spent LiBs is proposed.

  6. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri; Doughty, D. H.; Roth, E. P.

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall.

  7. Oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized disiloxanes as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; West, Robert; Amine, Khalil

    Functionalized disiloxane compounds were synthesized by attaching oligo(ethylene glycol) chains, -(CH 2CH 2O)- n, n = 2-7, via hydrosilation, dehydrocoupling, and nucleophilic substitution reactions and were examined as non-aqueous electrolyte solvents in lithium-ion cells. The compounds were fully characterized by 1H, 13C, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Upon doping with lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) or LiPF 6, the disiloxane electrolytes showed conductivities up to 6.2 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at room temperature. The thermal behavior of the electrolytes was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, which revealed very low glass transition temperatures before and after LiBOB doping and much higher thermal stability compared to organic carbonate electrolytes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that disiloxane-based electrolytes with 0.8 M LiBOB salt concentration are stable to 4.7 V. The LiBOB/disiloxane combinations were found to be good electrolytes for lithium-ion cells; unlike LiPF 6, LiBOB can provide a good passivation film on the graphite anode. The LiPF 6/disiloxane electrolyte was enabled in lithium-ion cells by adding 1 wt% vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC). Full cell performance tests with LiNi 0.80Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 as the cathode and mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) graphite as the anode show stable cyclability. The results demonstrate that disiloxane-based electrolytes have considerable potential as electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Structural analysis and experimental characterization of cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells subject to lateral impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, Ilya; Gilaki, Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    We report on modeling mechanical response of cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells that are commonly used in automotive applications when subjected to impact testing. The developed homogenized model that accurately captures mechanical response of a cell to lateral crash is reported. The proposed model was validated using static and dynamic experimental testing. Highly nonlinear mechanical deformations of the cells were captured experimentally using a high-speed camera and later characterized through computer tomography. Numerically, we have investigated the feasibility of using explicit finite element code for accurate modeling of impact on one cell, so it can be used for an entire battery pack that consists of hundreds or thousands of cells. In this study, we have developed and compared two homogenization methods for the jellyroll in a cylindrical lithium-ion battery cell. Homogenization was conducted in a lateral/radial direction. Based on the results of the homogenization, the material model utilizing crushable foam constitutive behavior was then developed for simulations. Experimental results showed a very good agreement with simulations, thus validating the proposed approach and giving us confidence to move forward with the crush simulations of an entire battery pack. Zones of potential electric shortages were determined based on the experiments and simulations.

  9. An all-solid-state lithium ion battery electrolyte membrane fabricated by hot-pressing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhu, Yuewu; Liu, Jin

    2015-06-01

    A cross-linked polymer electrolyte membrane (SPE) was fabricated by a solvent-free hot-pressing method for all-solid-state lithium ion battery. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte is 1.34 × 10-3 S cm-1 and the decomposition potential is 4.87 V at the ethylene oxide (EO):LiN(SO2CF3)2 (LiTFSI) molar ratio of 20:1 and 120 °C. TG-DSC results show that the SPE is thermally stable up to 230 °C in argon atmosphere. The assembled LiFePO4/SPE/Li all-solid-state battery can stably work in the temperature range of 80-140 °C. At 120 °C, the initial discharge capacity of the battery is 156.7 mAh g-1 at 1C which is close to the theoretical capacity of the cathode material, showing that the solvent-free filming method is low-cost and environment-friendly for solid polymer electrolyte and all-solid-state lithium ion battery.

  10. In situ NMR of lithium ion batteries: bulk susceptibility effects and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Trease, Nicole M; Zhou, Lina; Chang, Hee Jung; Zhu, Ben Yunxu; Grey, Clare P

    2012-04-01

    The application of in situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to investigate batteries in real time (i.e., as they are cycling) provides fruitful insight into the electrochemical structural changes that occur in the battery. A major challenge for in situ static NMR spectroscopy of a battery is, however, to separate the resonances from the different components. Many resonances overlap and are broadened since spectra are acquired, to date, in static mode. Spectral analysis is also complicated by bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) effects. Here we describe some of the BMS effects that arise in lithium ion battery (LIB) materials and provide an outline of some of the practical considerations associated with the application of in situ NMR spectroscopy to study structural changes in energy materials.

  11. Engineering and Abuse Testing of Panasonic Lithium-Ion Battery and Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the performance testing of Lithium Ion batteries and cells under different conditions of charge and discharge. The tests show that the 0.5 C rate of charge and discharge might be the ideal condition for long term cycling. It reviews the issues of overcharge and overdischarge of the cells. The cells and the battery have adequate protection under both conditions to prevent any catastrophic occurrences. Temperatures above 150 C are required to vent the cells or cause a thermal runaway, Since this situation is non-credible in the cabin of the Space Shuffle or ISS this should not pose a problem. The presentation includes graphs and charts showing the charge and discharge capacities of the battery and also the current and voltage profiles. A view of a circuit board which contains the controlling mechanism for the battery is also shown.

  12. Lithium/water battery with lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Takashi; Inda, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kousuke; Ye, Rongbin; Baba, Mamoru

    Lithium/water batteries have attracted considerable attention as high power supply devices because they use high energy density lithium metal as an anode and water as a cathode. In this study, we investigate the use of lithium/water batteries that use a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte. A lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics plate has no through-holes and does not exhibit moisture permeation. Such a plate has stable ionic conductivity in water. Lithium/water batteries that used a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte had a long and stable discharge for 50 days at room temperature when the lithium metal was prevented from coming into contact with water. Lithium/seawater batteries using a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte also operated well in the 10-70 °C temperature range.

  13. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOEpatents

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  14. Sandwich electrode designed for high performance lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsong; Luo, Xi; Chen, Chengmeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1.We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09049k

  15. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction.

  16. Power System Electronics Accommodation for a Lithium Ion Battery on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ST5 mission requirements include validation of Lithium-ion battery in orbit. Accommodation in the power system for Li-ion battery can be reduced with smaller amp-hour size, highly matched cells when compared to the larger amp-hour size approach. Result can be lower system mass and increased reliability.

  17. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    DOE PAGES

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-04-27

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  18. Facile synthesis of vanadium oxide microspheres for lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Hailong; Feng, Wenjing; Lin, Yunsheng

    2016-05-01

    A simple and versatile method for preparation of non-solid and solid V2O5 microspheres is developed. Non-solid and solid V2O5 microspheres can be controllably prepared via adjusting the mixed solvent volume ratio and reaction time at low temperature. Solid V2O5 microspheres display higher discharge capacity and better cycling performance than non-solid V2O5 microspheres as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, which is ascribed to smaller charge transfer and diffusion resistance.

  19. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  20. Reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Hirobayashi, Yuki; Takayanagi, Yuki; Ohzawa, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) study has been made on the reactions of metallic Li or LiC6 with organic solvents for lithium ion battery. Ethylene carbonate (EC) more easily reacts with metallic Li and LiC6 than propylene carbonate (PC). This may be because formation of lithium alkyl carbonate is more difficult for PC than EC. On the other hand, diethyl carbonate (DEC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) react with Li in the same manner. Reactions of Li and LiC6 with organic solvents have been discussed based on the results of quantum calculation.

  1. Cylindrical nanostructured MoS2 directly grown on CNT composites for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Heejoun; Tiwari, Anand P.; Lee, Jeongtaik; Kim, Doyoung; Park, Jong Hyeok; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-02-01

    Direct attachment of MoS2 to materials with carbonaceous architecture remains a major challenge because of non-intimate contact between the carbonaceous materials and active MoS2 material. In this study, we report a new unique synthetic method to produce a new type of hybrid nanostructure of MoS2-CNTs composites. We developed a novel strategy for the synthesis of cylindrical MoS2 directly grown on CNT composites without the use of any other additives, exhibiting superior electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries via a microwave irradiation technique. We adopted a simple step-by-step method: coating sulfur on CNTs and then reaction with a Mo source to synthesize hybrid cylindrical nanostructures of the MoS2-CNT composite. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the as-synthesized MoS2-CNTs possessed a hybrid nanostructure, in which MoS2 sheets were well attached to the CNTs. The directly attached MoS2 sheets on the CNTs showed superior electrochemical performance as anode materials in a lithium-ion battery.Direct attachment of MoS2 to materials with carbonaceous architecture remains a major challenge because of non-intimate contact between the carbonaceous materials and active MoS2 material. In this study, we report a new unique synthetic method to produce a new type of hybrid nanostructure of MoS2-CNTs composites. We developed a novel strategy for the synthesis of cylindrical MoS2 directly grown on CNT composites without the use of any other additives, exhibiting superior electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries via a microwave irradiation technique. We adopted a simple step-by-step method: coating sulfur on CNTs and then reaction with a Mo source to synthesize hybrid cylindrical nanostructures of the MoS2-CNT composite. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high

  2. Semianalytical method of solution for solid phase diffusion in lithium ion battery electrodes: Variable diffusion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renganathan, Sindhuja; White, Ralph E.

    A semianalytical methodology based on the integral transform technique is proposed to solve the diffusion equation with concentration dependent diffusion coefficient in a spherical intercalation electrode particle. The method makes use of an integral transform pair to transform the nonlinear partial differential equation into a set of ordinary differential equations, which is solved with less computational efforts. A general solution procedure is presented and two illustrative examples are used to demonstrate the usefulness of this method for modeling of diffusion process in lithium ion battery electrode. The solutions obtained using the method presented in this study are compared to the numerical solutions.

  3. A stable fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt for lithium ion battery application.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-06-18

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1 : 2 by wt). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  4. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  5. In-depth correlation of separator pore structure and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunju; Park, Joonam; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Yeon, Daeyong; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Cho, Kuk Young; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-09-01

    To establish an accurate correlation between a separator's pore structure and the electrochemical performance of a lithium-ion battery (LIB), we fabricate well defined polyethylene (PE) separators on the same production line while maintaining most processing variables, except for composition. Four PE separators having different thicknesses and porosities (16 μm/37%, 16 μm/40%, 16 μm/47%, 22 μm/47%, respectively) are physically and electrochemically evaluated in detail. Although thickness and porosity remain good parameters by which to represent the separators' characteristics, both the normalized Gurley number and ionic conductance are found to have much stronger relationships with the rate capability.

  6. Evaluation residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes and its effect on electrode performance

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; An, Seong Jin

    2016-01-11

    Removing residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes is essential for desired electrochemical performance. In this manuscript, the residual moisture in LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes produced by conventional solvent-based and aqueous processing is characterized and compared. The electrochemical performance has also been investigated for various residual moisture contents. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the residual moisture lowers the first cycle coulombic efficiency, but its effect on short term cycle life is insignificant.

  7. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances. PMID:27193448

  8. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs. PMID:20672094

  9. Evaluation of mechanical abuse techniques in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical tests are a commonly used method for evaluating the safety performance of batteries. The mechanical blunt rod testing method, as well as sharp nail penetration, was performed on commercially available cells. Evaluation was carried out on different cell constructions as well as varying test conditions. Results obtained at ambient conditions were found to differ little from traditional sharp nail penetration testing. When tested at elevated temperatures it was observed that the results became heavily dependent upon the internal construction of the cell. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging confirmed this, showing differences in behavior depending on whether or not a solid core was used in the cylindrical cell construction. Pouch cells were tested as well, showing that a full penetration of the cell was necessary to initiate a failure event within the cell.

  10. Electrochemical model parameter identification of a lithium-ion battery using particle swarm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Ashiqur; Anwar, Sohel; Izadian, Afshin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a gradient-free optimization technique, namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, is utilized to identify specific parameters of the electrochemical model of a Lithium-Ion battery with LiCoO2 cathode chemistry. Battery electrochemical model parameters are subject to change under severe or abusive operating conditions resulting in, for example, over-discharged battery, over-charged battery, etc. It is important for a battery management system to have these parameter changes fully captured in a bank of battery models that can be used to monitor battery conditions in real time. Here the PSO methodology has been successfully applied to identify four electrochemical model parameters that exhibit significant variations under severe operating conditions: solid phase diffusion coefficient at the positive electrode (cathode), solid phase diffusion coefficient at the negative electrode (anode), intercalation/de-intercalation reaction rate at the cathode, and intercalation/de-intercalation reaction rate at the anode. The identified model parameters were used to generate the respective battery models for both healthy and degraded batteries. These models were then validated by comparing the model output voltage with the experimental output voltage for the stated operating conditions. The identified Li-Ion battery electrochemical model parameters are within reasonable accuracy as evidenced by the experimental validation results.

  11. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  12. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2012-08-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO(2) and CoO directly as CoC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80°C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L(-1) for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO(2) can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  14. Multi-stress factor model for cycle lifetime prediction of lithium ion batteries with shallow-depth discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yingzhi; Du, Chunyu; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi; Zhang, Lingling; Guan, Ting; Yang, Lijie; Wang, Fuping

    2015-04-01

    Accurate prediction of service life is a major challenge for the reliable application of lithium ion batteries in satellite and electric vehicle fields. This paper carries out systematic orthogonal experiments to extract key stress factor of capacity loss for commercial LiCoO2/MCMB (mesocarbon microbeads) lithium ion batteries cycled in shallow-depth discharge. Further, single stress factor and multi-stress factor models consisting of temperature, discharge rate, taper voltage and depth of discharge for cycle life prediction of lithium ion batteries are developed. The physicochemical significance of the life prediction model is interpreted by electrochemical analysis. The practical applicability of the models is validated by experimental data. Our multi-stress factor model is helpful to predicting the lifetime of LIBs with shallow-depth discharge, and to optimizing the operation regime of LIBs for electric vehicle or satellite use.

  15. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inda, Yasushi; Katoh, Takashi; Baba, Mamoru

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xSi yP 3- yO 12 with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10 -3 S cm -1 or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO 2 positive electrode, a Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic.

  16. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  17. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-06-01

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.

  18. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives. PMID:27297565

  19. Bioleaching of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries using Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horeh, N. Bahaloo; Mousavi, S. M.; Shojaosadati, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a bio-hydrometallurgical route based on fungal activity of Aspergillus niger was evaluated for the detoxification and recovery of Cu, Li, Mn, Al, Co and Ni metals from spent lithium-ion phone mobile batteries under various conditions (one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching). The maximum recovery efficiency of 100% for Cu, 95% for Li, 70% for Mn, 65% for Al, 45% for Co, and 38% for Ni was obtained at a pulp density of 1% in spent medium bioleaching. The HPLC results indicated that citric acid in comparison with other detected organic acids (gluconic, oxalic and malic acid) had an important role in the effectiveness of bioleaching using A. niger. The results of FTIR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis of battery powder before and after bioleaching process confirmed that the fungal activities were quite effective. In addition, bioleaching achieved higher removal efficiency for heavy metals than the chemical leaching. This research demonstrated the great potential of bio-hydrometallurgical route to recover heavy metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries.

  20. Role of Manganese Deposition on Graphite in the Capacity Fading of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Daniel R; Chen, Zonghai; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark; Das, Ujjal; Redfern, Paul; Curtiss, Larry A; Pan, Baofei; Liu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Lithium ion batteries utilizing manganese-based cathodes have received considerable interest in recent years for their lower cost and more favorable environmental friendliness relative to their cobalt counterparts. However, Li ion batteries using these cathodes combined with graphite anodes suffer from severe capacity fading at high operating temperatures. In this paper, we report on how the dissolution of manganese impacts the capacity fading within the Li ion batteries. Our investigation reveals that the manganese dissolves from the cathode, transports to the graphite electrode, and deposits onto the outer surface of the innermost solid-electrolyte interphase layer, which is known to be a mixture of inorganic salts (e.g., Li2CO3, LiF, and Li2O). In this location, the manganese facilitates the reduction of the electrolyte and the subsequent formation of lithium-containing products on the graphite, which removes lithium ions from the normal operation of the cell and thereby induces the severe capacity fade. PMID:27152912

  1. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N; Somorjai, Gabor A; Ritchie, Robert O; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-06-14

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.

  2. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. PMID:25619126

  3. Swelling and softening of lithium-ion battery separators in electrolyte solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Cannarella, John; Leng, Collen Z.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Arnold, Craig B.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical stability of inactive polymeric components (e.g. separator and binder) can play an important role in the long term performance of lithium-ion batteries. Here we investigate the effects of electrolyte solvents on the mechanical properties of a polypropylene battery separator through experimental measurements of thickness and elastic modulus of separator samples immersed in different solvent environments. We find that certain electrolyte solvents such as dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and ethyl acetate cause noticeable softening of the separator. However, in other solvent environments such as propylene carbonate and acetonitrile, the separator retains the mechanical properties of a dry material. We show that the mechanical property reduction can be attributed to polymer swelling and explain these observations in the context of the Hildebrand solubility and Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. The solubility/interaction parameter analysis provides a straightforward method for predicting the in situ mechanical behavior of polymer separators in solvent environments. The relationships discussed herein can be used to screen and identify mechanically-stable polymer and electrolyte solvent pairs for use in lithium-ion batteries designed for long life.

  4. Overcharge Protection And Cell Voltage Monitoring For Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, George; Salim, Abbas

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a new Battery Interface and Electronics (BIE) assembly used to monitor battery and cell voltages, as well as provide overvoltage (overcharge) protection for Lithium Ion batteries with up to 8-cells in series. The BIE performs accurate measurement of the individual cell voltages, the total battery voltage, and the individual cell temperatures. In addition, the BIE provides an independent over-charge protection (OCP) circuit that terminates the charging process by isolating the battery from the charging source in the event that the voltage of any cell exceeds a preset limit of +4.500V. The OCP circuit utilizes dual redundancy, and is immune to single-point failures in the sense that no single-point failure can cause the battery to become isolated inadvertently. A typical application of the BIE in a spacecraft electrical power subsystem is shown in Figure 1. The BIE circuits have been designed with Chip On Board (COB) technology. Using this technology, integrated circuit die, Field Effect Transistors (FETs) and diodes are mounted and wired directly on a multi-layer printed wiring board (PWB). For those applications where long term reliability can be achieved without hermeticity, COB technology provides many benefits such as size and weight reduction while lowering production costs. The BIE was designed, fabricated and tested to meet the specifications provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for use with Lithium-Ion batteries in the Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS). COTS will be used to deliver cargo to the International Space Station at low earth orbit (LEO). Aeroflex has completed the electrical and mechanical design of the BIE and fabricated and tested the Engineering Model (EM), as well as the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM). Flight units have also been fabricated, tested and delivered to OSC.

  5. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    The introduction of the first commercially produced Li-ion battery by Sony in 1990 sparked a period of unprecedented growth in the consumer electronics industry. Now, with increasing efforts to move away from fossil-fuel-derived energy sources, a substantial amount of current research is focused on the development of an electrified transportation fleet. Unfortunately, existent battery technologies are unable to provide the necessary performance for electric vehicles (EV's) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) vehicles at a competitive cost. The cost and performance metrics of current Li-ion batteries are mainly determined by the positive electrode materials. The work here is concerned with understanding the structural and electrochemical consequences of cost-lowering mechanisms in two separate classes of Li-ion cathode materials; the LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) layered oxides and the LiMPO4 olivine materials; with the goal of improving performance. Al-substitution for Co in LiNizMnzCo1-2zO 2 ("NMC") materials not only decreases the costly Co-content, but also improves the safety aspects and, notably, enhances the cycling stability of the layered oxide electrodes. The structural and electrochemical effects of Al-substitution are investigated here in a model NMC compound, LiNi0.45 Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2. In addition to electrochemical measurements, various synchrotron-based characterization methods are utilized, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Al-substitution causes a slight distortion of the as-synthesized hexagonal layered oxide lattice, lowering the inherent octahedral strain within the transition metal layer. The presence of Al also is observed to limit the structural variation of the NMC materials upon Li-deintercalation, as well as extended cycling of the electrodes. Various olivine materials, Li

  6. Lithium-Ion Batteries Being Evaluated for Low-Earth-Orbit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara I.

    2005-01-01

    The performance characteristics and long-term cycle life of aerospace lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in low-Earth-orbit applications are being investigated. A statistically designed test using Li-ion cells from various manufacturers began in September 2004 to study the effects of temperature, end-of-charge voltage, and depth-of-discharge operating conditions on the cycle life and performance of these cells. Performance degradation with cycling is being evaluated, and performance characteristics and failure modes are being modeled statistically. As technology improvements are incorporated into aerospace Li-ion cells, these new designs can be added to the test to evaluate the effect of the design changes on performance and life. Cells from Lithion and Saft have achieved over 2000 cycles under 10 different test condition combinations and are being evaluated. Cells from Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) and modules made up of commercial-off-the-shelf 18650 Li-ion cells connected in series/parallel combinations are scheduled to be added in the summer of 2005. The test conditions include temperatures of 10, 20, and 30 C, end-of-charge voltages of 3.85, 3.95, and 4.05 V, and depth-of-discharges from 20 to 40 percent. The low-Earth-orbit regime consists of a 55 min charge, at a constant-current rate that is 110 percent of the current required to fully recharge the cells in 55 min until the charge voltage limit is reached, and then at a constant voltage for the remaining charge time. Cells are discharged for 35 min at the current required for their particular depth-of-discharge condition. Cells are being evaluated in four-cell series strings with charge voltage limits being applied to individual cells by the use of charge-control units designed and produced at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These charge-control units clamp the individual cell voltages as each cell reaches its end-of-charge voltage limit, and they bypass the excess current from that cell, while allowing the full

  7. Cathode refunctionalization as a lithium ion battery recycling alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganter, Matthew J.; Landi, Brian J.; Babbitt, Callie W.; Anctil, Annick; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2014-06-01

    An approach to battery end-of-life (EOL) management is developed involving cathode refunctionalization, which enables remanufacturing of the cathode from EOL materials to regain the electrochemical performance. To date, the optimal end-of-life management of cathode materials is based on economic value and environmental impact which can influence the methods and stage of recycling. Traditional recycling methods can recover high value metal elements (e.g. Li, Co, Ni), but still require synthesis of new cathode from a mix of virgin and recovered materials. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) has been selected for study as a representative cathode material due to recent mass adoption and limited economic recycling drivers due to the low inherent cost of iron. Refunctionalization of EOL LiFePO4 cathode was demonstrated through electrochemical and chemical lithiation methods where the re-lithiated LiFePO4 regained the original capacity of 150-155 mAh g-1. The environmental impact of the new recycling technique was determined by comparing the embodied energy of cathode material originating from virgin, recycled, and refunctionalized materials. The results demonstrate that the LiFePO4 refunctionalization process, through chemical lithiation, decreases the embodied energy by 50% compared to cathode production from virgin materials.

  8. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Safety Administration, telephone (202) 366-1074. Background On January 11, 2010 (75 FR 1302), PHMSA, in... Assessment of Bulk-Packed, Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Cells in Transport Category Aircraft; April 2006 (DOT/FAA... configurations of lithium batteries: 1. Lithium ion batteries (PI 965). 2. Lithium ion batteries packed...

  9. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  10. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinguang, Jiang; Sen, Li

    2014-11-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW.

  11. Deformation and failure characteristics of four types of lithium-ion battery separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of battery separators play a crucial role in integrity of Lithium-ion batteries during an electric vehicle crash event. In this study, four types of commonly used battery separators are characterized and their mechanical performance, strength, and failure are compared. This includes two dry-processed polyethylene (PE) and trilayer separators, a wet-processed ceramic-coated separator, and a nonwoven separator. In detail, uniaxial tensile tests were performed along machine direction (MD), transverse direction (TD) and diagonal direction (DD). Also, through-thickness compression tests and biaxial punch tests were conducted. Comprehensive mechanical tests revealed interesting deformation and failure patterns under extreme mechanical loads. Last, a finite element model of PE separator was developed in LSDYNA based on the uniaxial tensile and through-thickness compression test data. The model succeeded in predicting the response of PE separator under punch tests with different sizes of punch head.

  12. Review of porous silicon preparation and its application for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Ge, M; Fang, X; Rong, J; Zhou, C

    2013-10-25

    Silicon is of great interest for use as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high capacity. However, certain properties of silicon, such as a large volume expansion during the lithiation process and the low diffusion rate of lithium in silicon, result in fast capacity degradation in limited charge/discharge cycles, especially at high current rate. Therefore, the use of silicon in real battery applications is limited. The idea of using porous silicon, to a large extent, addresses the above-mentioned issues simultaneously. In this review, we discuss the merits of using porous silicon for anodes through both theoretical and experimental study. Recent progress in the preparation of porous silicon through the template-assisted approach and the non-template approach have been highlighted. The battery performance in terms of capacity and cyclability of each structure is evaluated.

  13. Solution-grown germanium nanowire anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chockla, Aaron M; Klavetter, Kyle C; Mullins, C Buddie; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-09-26

    Solution-grown germanium (Ge) nanowires were tested as high capacity anodes in lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. Nanowire films were formulated and cast as slurries with conductive carbon (7:1 Ge:C w/w), PVdF binder and 1.0 M LiPF(6) dissolved in various solvents as electrolyte. The addition of fluorethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte was critical to achieving stable battery cycling and reversible capacities as high as 1248 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, which is close to the theoretical capacity of 1,384 mA h g(-1). Ge nanowire anodes also exhibited high rate capability, with reversible cycling above 600 mA h g(-1) for 1200 cycles at a rate of 1C. The batteries could also be discharged at 10C with a capacity of 900 mA h g(-1) when charged at 1C.

  14. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Min-Jen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Li, Ching-Fei; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO4 solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  15. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  16. Power capability of LiTDI-based electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, Sabrina; Schmidt, Gregory; Ladouceur, Sébastien; Fréchette, Joël; Barray, Francis; Clément, Daniel; Hovington, Pierre; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Vijh, Ashok; Cayrefourcq, Ian; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-10-01

    We report results obtained with lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl) imidazolide (LiTDI), which we believe is a promising lithium salt for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. This "Hückel"- type salt has high charge delocalizations which contribute to good lithium-ion dissociation. In addition, it has high thermal stability and safer degradation products compared to LiPF6, which were identified by TGA-MS. It also does not corrode but passivate the aluminum current collector. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a stability up to 4.5 V, which is sufficient for use with standard cathode materials. The power capability of half cells containing LiTDI in EC/DEC was evaluated with standard cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries: LFP, NMC, LCO and LMO. Two LiTDI concentrations were investigated: 1 M and 0.6 M and compared with a reference electrolyte: 1 M LiPF6. In spite of a slightly lower conductivity than the LiPF6, LiTDI (1 M and 0.6 M) shows similar power capability up to 2C with LFP (84% of specific capacity recovered), 10C with NMC (61% of specific capacity recovered), and up to 20C for LMO (88% of specific capacity recovered). Furthermore, better power capability was obtained with 0.6 M LiTDI with LCO, which yielded 82% of specific capacity recovered at 1C (67% for 1 M LiTDI and 1 M LiPF6).

  17. Improving the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Trung H. Nguyen; Peter Marren; Kevin Gering

    2007-04-20

    The ability for Li-ion batteries to operate at low temperatures is extremely critical for the development of energy storage for electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Currently, Li-ion cells have limited success in operating at temperature below –10 deg C. Electrolyte conductivity at low temperature is not the main cause of the poor performance of Li-ion cells. Rather the formation of a tight interfacial film between the electrolyte and the electrodes has often been an issue that resulted in a progressive capacity fading and limited discharge rate capability. The objective of our Phase I work is to develop novel electrolytes that can form low interfacial resistance solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films on carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes. From the results of our Phase I work, we found that the interfacial impedance of Fluoro Ethylene Carbonate (FEC) electrolyte at the low temperature of –20degC is astonishingly low, compared to the baseline 1.2M LiPFEMC:EC:PC:DMC (10:20:10:60) electrolyte. We found that electrolyte formulations with fluorinated carbonate co-solvent have excellent film forming properties and better de-solvation characteristics to decrease the interfacial SEI film resistance and facilitate the Li-ion diffusion across the SEI film. The very overwhelming low interfacial impedance for FEC electrolytes will translate into Li-ion cells with much higher power for cold cranking and high Regen/charge at the low temperature. Further, since the SEI film resistance is low, Li interaction kinetics into the electrode will remain very fast and thus Li plating during Regen/charge period be will less likely to happen.

  18. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  19. SnO2 hollow structures and TiO2 nanosheets for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jun Song; Archer, Lynden A.; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2011-01-01

    As an important energy storage platform for portable electronics, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been challenged by steadily growing demands for better performance, improved safety, and enhanced reliability. A variety of nanomaterials has emerged with good electrochemical properties and can be regarded as promising electrode materials for LIBs. In this feature article, we will specifically discuss two nanomaterials systems with unique structures, which show particular promise as anode materials for LIBs: tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow spheres and anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanosheets (NSs) with exposed (001) high-energy facets. For both systems, we survey approaches for synthesizing the unique nanostructured materials required for improved LIB performance and subsequently review their lithium storage properties. By focusing on SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, we seek to provide rational understanding of the relationship between proper nanostructuring and enhanced physicochemical properties of the active anode material in LIBs; hopefully uncovering new possibilities to generate advanced materials for next generation rechargeable batteries.

  20. Comprehensive calorimetry of the thermally-induced failure of a lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Stoliarov, Stanislav I.; Denlinger, Matthew; Masias, Alvaro; Snyder, Kent

    2015-04-01

    A lithium ion battery (LIB) subjected to external heat may fail irreversibly. Manifestations of this failure include venting of potentially combustible gases and aerosols followed by a rapid self-heating accompanied by ejection of the battery materials. It is important to be able to quantify the dynamics and energetics of this process to ensure safety of the energy storage systems utilizing LIBs. Here we report on development of a new experimental technique for the measurement of energetics of a thermally-induced battery failure. This technique, Copper Slug Battery Calorimetry (CSBC), was employed to investigate a widely utilized LIB of 2200 mAh capacity at various states of charge (SOC). It was shown that this techniques yields time and temperature resolved data on the rate of heat production inside the failing battery. The total energy generated inside the battery was found to increase with increasing SOC to the maximum value of 34.0 ± 1.8 kJ. To capture the energetics of flaming combustion of the materials ejected from the battery, CSBC was coupled with a cone calorimeter, which measures heat released in a non-premixed flame. The maximum amount of energy released by the battery through flaming combustion of ejected materials was found to be 97.5 ± 12.4 kJ.

  1. Flexible graphene-based lithium ion batteries with ultrafast charge and discharge rates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Chen, Zongping; Ren, Wencai; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in thin, lightweight, and flexible energy storage devices to meet the special needs for next-generation, high-performance, flexible electronics. Here we report a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery made from graphene foam, a three-dimensional, flexible, and conductive interconnected network, as a current collector, loaded with Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4, for use as anode and cathode, respectively. No metal current collectors, conducting additives, or binders are used. The excellent electrical conductivity and pore structure of the hybrid electrodes enable rapid electron and ion transport. For example, the Li4Ti5O12/graphene foam electrode shows a high rate up to 200 C, equivalent to a full discharge in 18 s. Using them, we demonstrate a thin, lightweight, and flexible full lithium ion battery with a high-rate performance and energy density that can be repeatedly bent to a radius of 5 mm without structural failure and performance loss. PMID:23045691

  2. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chikai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher S.; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-01

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from <90% to >95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  3. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. • Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. • Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous Si–C micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup −1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup −1})

  4. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-03-30

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm(-2)) delivers a charge capacity of ∼588 mAh g(-1)electrode (∼393 mAh cm(-3)electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries.

  5. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk.

  6. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  7. Scalable Production of Si Nanoparticles Directly from Low Grade Sources for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Zong, Linqi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiao; Zhu, Jia

    2015-09-01

    Silicon, one of the most promising candidates as lithium-ion battery anode, has attracted much attention due to its high theoretical capacity, abundant existence, and mature infrastructure. Recently, Si nanostructures-based lithium-ion battery anode, with sophisticated structure designs and process development, has made significant progress. However, low cost and scalable processes to produce these Si nanostructures remained as a challenge, which limits the widespread applications. Herein, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles with controlled size can be massively produced directly from low grade Si sources through a scalable high energy mechanical milling process. In addition, we systematically studied Si nanoparticles produced from two major low grade Si sources, metallurgical silicon (∼99 wt % Si, $1/kg) and ferrosilicon (∼83 wt % Si, $0.6/kg). It is found that nanoparticles produced from ferrosilicon sources contain FeSi2, which can serve as a buffer layer to alleviate the mechanical fractures of volume expansion, whereas nanoparticles from metallurgical Si sources have higher capacity and better kinetic properties because of higher purity and better electronic transport properties. Ferrosilicon nanoparticles and metallurgical Si nanoparticles demonstrate over 100 stable deep cycling after carbon coating with the reversible capacities of 1360 mAh g(-1) and 1205 mAh g(-1), respectively. Therefore, our approach provides a new strategy for cost-effective, energy-efficient, large scale synthesis of functional Si electrode materials.

  8. Remaining Useful Life Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Gaussian Processes Mixture.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Wang, Pengchong; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Zhou, Yatong; Xie, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of Lithium-ion batteries is closely related to the capacity degeneration trajectories. Due to the self-charging and the capacity regeneration, the trajectories have the property of multimodality. Traditional prediction models such as the support vector machines (SVM) or the Gaussian Process regression (GPR) cannot accurately characterize this multimodality. This paper proposes a novel RUL prediction method based on the Gaussian Process Mixture (GPM). It can process multimodality by fitting different segments of trajectories with different GPR models separately, such that the tiny differences among these segments can be revealed. The method is demonstrated to be effective for prediction by the excellent predictive result of the experiments on the two commercial and chargeable Type 1850 Lithium-ion batteries, provided by NASA. The performance comparison among the models illustrates that the GPM is more accurate than the SVM and the GPR. In addition, GPM can yield the predictive confidence interval, which makes the prediction more reliable than that of traditional models. PMID:27632176

  9. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials. PMID:27377263

  10. Well-constructed silicon-based materials as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lehao; Lyu, Jing; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai

    2015-12-01

    Silicon has been considered as one of the most promising anode material alternates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, because of its high theoretical capacity, environmental friendliness, high safety, low cost, etc. Nevertheless, silicon-based anode materials (especially bulk silicon) suffer from severe capacity fading resulting from their low intrinsic electrical conductivity and great volume variation during lithiation/delithiation processes. To address this challenge, a few special constructions from nanostructures to anchored, flexible, sandwich, core-shell, porous and even integrated structures, have been well designed and fabricated to effectively improve the cycling performance of silicon-based anodes. In view of the fast development of silicon-based anode materials, we summarize their recent progress in structural design principles, preparation methods, morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance by highlighting the material structure. We also point out the associated problems and challenges faced by these anodes and introduce some feasible strategies to further boost their electrochemical performance. Furthermore, we give a few suggestions relating to the developing trends to better mature their practical applications in next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  11. One-step electrolytic preparation of Si-Fe alloys as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailong; Sun, Diankun; Song, Qiqi; Xie, Wenqi; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    One-step electrolytic formation of uniform crystalline Si-Fe alloy particles was successfully demonstrated in direct electro-reduction of solid mixed oxides of SiO2 and Fe2O3 in molten CaCl2 at 900∘C. Upon constant voltage electrolysis of solid mixed oxides at 2.8V between solid oxide cathode and graphite anode for 5h, electrolytic Si-Fe with the same Si/Fe stoichimetry of the precursory oxides was generated. The firstly generated Fe could function as depolarizers to enhance reduction rate of SiO2, resulting in the enhanced reduction kinetics to the electrolysis of individual SiO2. When evaluated as anode for lithium ion batteries, the prepared SiFe electrode showed a reversible lithium storage capacity as high as 470mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles at 200mA g‑1, promising application in high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  12. Recent achievements on inorganic electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Croguennec, Laurence; Palacin, M Rosa

    2015-03-11

    The lithium-ion battery technology is rooted in the studies of intercalation of guest ions into inorganic host materials developed ca. 40 years ago. It further turned into a commercial product, which will soon blow its 25th candle. Intense research efforts during this time have resulted in the development of a large spectrum of electrode materials together with deep understanding of the underlying structure-property relationships that govern their performance. This has enabled an ever increasing electrochemical yield together with the diversification of the technology into several subfamilies, tailoring materials to application requirements. The present paper aims at providing a global and critical perspective on inorganic electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries categorized by their reaction mechanism and structural dimensionality. Specific emphasis is put on recent research in the field, which beyond the chemistry and microstructure of the materials themselves also involves considering interfacial chemistry concepts alongside progress in characterization techniques. Finally a short personal perspective is provided on some plausible development of the field. PMID:25679823

  13. Characteristics of lithium-ion battery with non-flammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujikawa, Tomonobu; Yabuta, Kaho; Matsushita, Takashi; Matsushima, Toshio; Hayashi, Koji; Arakawa, Masayasu

    To improve the safety of lithium-ion batteries, we studied non-flammable electrolytes made by adding several types of phosphazene-based flame retardants to conventional electrolytes and evaluated their conductivities, electrochemical characteristics, and the effects of flame retardants in terms of safety. Cell performance tests and abuse tests were also conducted using cylindrical test cells. The conductivity of electrolytes decreased when phosphazene-based flame retardants were added to the conventional electrolytes. The reason for this decrease in conductivity may be the increase in electrolyte viscosity caused by adding flame retardants. The conductivity decrease led to a decrease in cell capacity at high current density and at low temperature. However, the cell capacities at 0.2 CA (CA = 750 mA) and at 25 °C were almost the same as those of cells using conventional electrolytes. Flame tests showed that the electrolytes with flame retardants exhibited flame resistance consistent with UL-94V0. We also carried out several abuse tests to check the safety improvements. Both overcharge tests up to 10 V and heating tests up to 200 °C were completed without any extraordinary heat generation. Heating tests using a burner revealed the self-extinguishing properties of these electrolytes which were gushed out by venting. These results indicate that electrolytes with phosphazene-based flame retardants are effective for making lithium-ion batteries safe.

  14. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk. PMID:27159254

  15. Spray-pyrolyzed silicon/disordered carbon nanocomposites for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, S. H.; Wang, J.; Konstantinov, K.; Wexler, D.; Chew, S. Y.; Guo, Z. P.; Liu, H. K.

    A new and effective approach to prepare carbon-coated Si nanocomposites as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with markedly improved electrochemical performance is described. Initially, nanosized Si particles (<100 nm) were mixed with different concentrations of the carbon source precursor, citric acid in ethanol solution via ultrasonication. Spray pyrolysis of these mixtures at 400 °C in air resulted in an amorphous carbon coating on the spherical Si nanoparticles. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis confirms a homogeneous layer of amorphous carbon coating of ∼10 nm. These resultant nanocomposites show excellent cycling performance, especially when the disordered carbon (DC) content is above 50 wt.%. The 44Si/56DC nanocomposite shows the highest specific capacity retention of 1120 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles. The carbon-coating on the nanocrystalline Si particles appears to be the main reason for the good cyclability, suggesting the excellent potential of these Si/DC-based nanocomposites for use as alternative anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. MoS2 coated hollow carbon spheres for anodes of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufei; Wang, Ye; Yang, Jun; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Huiying; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-06-01

    With the assistance of resorcinol-formaldehyde, MoS2 coated hollow carbon spheres (C@MoS2) were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route followed by heat and alkali treatments. The measurements indicate that the hollow carbon spheres with an average diameter of 300 nm and shell thickness of 20 nm. And the hollow core are uniformly covered by ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets with a length increased to 400 nm. The unique hollow structure and the synergistic effect between carbon layer and MoS2 nanosheets significantly enhance the rate capability and electrochemical stability of C@MoS2 spheres as anode material of lithium-ion battery. The synthesized C@MoS2 delivered a capacity of 750 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the C@MoS2 maintained a reversible capacity of 533 mAh g-1 even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1. The study indicated that MoS2 coated hollow carbon spheres can be promising anode material for next generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-10-14

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemi-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemi-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to "self-delithiation" or "self-discharging" at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ∼150 nm for bare SiNPs to ∼380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries. PMID:26414120

  18. One-step electrolytic preparation of Si-Fe alloys as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hailong; Sun, Diankun; Song, Qiqi; Xie, Wenqi; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    One-step electrolytic formation of uniform crystalline Si-Fe alloy particles was successfully demonstrated in direct electro-reduction of solid mixed oxides of SiO2 and Fe2O3 in molten CaCl2 at 900∘C. Upon constant voltage electrolysis of solid mixed oxides at 2.8V between solid oxide cathode and graphite anode for 5h, electrolytic Si-Fe with the same Si/Fe stoichimetry of the precursory oxides was generated. The firstly generated Fe could function as depolarizers to enhance reduction rate of SiO2, resulting in the enhanced reduction kinetics to the electrolysis of individual SiO2. When evaluated as anode for lithium ion batteries, the prepared SiFe electrode showed a reversible lithium storage capacity as high as 470mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 200mA g-1, promising application in high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  19. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg−1 at the current density 500 mAg−1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability. PMID:27725701

  20. Remaining Useful Life Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Gaussian Processes Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingling; Wang, Pengchong; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Zhou, Yatong; Xie, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of Lithium-ion batteries is closely related to the capacity degeneration trajectories. Due to the self-charging and the capacity regeneration, the trajectories have the property of multimodality. Traditional prediction models such as the support vector machines (SVM) or the Gaussian Process regression (GPR) cannot accurately characterize this multimodality. This paper proposes a novel RUL prediction method based on the Gaussian Process Mixture (GPM). It can process multimodality by fitting different segments of trajectories with different GPR models separately, such that the tiny differences among these segments can be revealed. The method is demonstrated to be effective for prediction by the excellent predictive result of the experiments on the two commercial and chargeable Type 1850 Lithium-ion batteries, provided by NASA. The performance comparison among the models illustrates that the GPM is more accurate than the SVM and the GPR. In addition, GPM can yield the predictive confidence interval, which makes the prediction more reliable than that of traditional models. PMID:27632176

  1. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-10-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg‑1 at the current density 500 mAg‑1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability.

  2. Aerosol-Assisted Extraction of Silicon Nanoparticles from Wafer Slicing Waste for Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing. PMID:25819285

  3. Biologically activated noble metal alloys at the nanoscale: for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, Youjin; Oh, Dahyun; Chen, Tiffany; Ceder, Gerbrand; Belcher, Angela M

    2010-07-14

    We report the synthesis and electrochemical activity of gold and silver noble metals and their alloy nanowires using multiple virus clones as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Using two clones, one for specificity (p8#9 virus) and one versatility (E4 virus), noble metal nanowires of high-aspect ratio with diameters below 50 nm were successfully synthesized with control over particle sizes, morphologies, and compositions. The biologically derived noble metal alloy nanowires showed electrochemical activities toward lithium even when the electrodes were prepared from bulk powder forms. The improvement in capacity retention was accomplished by alloy formation and surface stabilization. Although the cost of noble metals renders them a less ideal choice for lithium ion batteries, these noble metal/alloy nanowires serve as great model systems to study electrochemically induced transformation at the nanoscale. Given the demonstration of the electrochemical activity of noble metal alloy nanowires with various compositions, the M13 biological toolkit extended its utility for the study on the basic electrochemical property of materials.

  4. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  5. Aerosol-assisted extraction of silicon nanoparticles from wafer slicing waste for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing.

  6. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm−2) delivers a charge capacity of ∼588 mAh g−1electrode (∼393 mAh cm−3electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries. PMID:27025781

  7. Aerosol-assisted extraction of silicon nanoparticles from wafer slicing waste for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing. PMID:25819285

  8. A new strategy to mitigate the initial capacity loss of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xin; Lin, Chikai; Wang, Xiaoping; Maroni, Victor A.; Ren, Yang; Johnson, Christopher S.; Lu, Wenquan

    2016-08-01

    Hard carbon (non-graphitizable) and related materials, like tin, tin oxide, silicon, and silicon oxide, have a high theoretical lithium delivery capacity (>550 mAh/g depending on their structural and chemical properties) but unfortunately they also exhibit a large initial capacity loss (ICL) that overrides the true reversible capacity in a full cell. Overcoming the large ICL of hard carbon in a full-cell lithium-ion battery (LIB) necessitates a new strategy wherein a sacrificial lithium source additive, such as, Li5FeO4 (LFO), is inserted on the cathode side. Full batteries using hard carbon coupled with LFO-LiCoO2 (LCO) are currently under development at our laboratory. We find that the reversible capacity of a cathode containing LFO can be increased by 14%. Furthermore, the cycle performance of full cells with LFO additive is improved from <90% to >95%. We show that the LFO additive not only can address the irreversible capacity loss of the anode, but can also provide the additional lithium ion source required to mitigate the lithium loss caused by side reactions. In addition, we have explored the possibility to achieve higher capacity with hard carbon, whereby the energy density of full cells can be increased from ca. 300 Wh/kg to >400 Wh/kg.

  9. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  10. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm(-2)) delivers a charge capacity of ∼588 mAh g(-1)electrode (∼393 mAh cm(-3)electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries. PMID:27025781

  11. Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Lamuel; Bhandavat, Romil; Barrera, Uriel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-03-01

    Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm-2) delivers a charge capacity of ~588 mAh g-1electrode (~393 mAh cm-3electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries.

  12. Aerosol-Assisted Extraction of Silicon Nanoparticles from Wafer Slicing Waste for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-03-01

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing.

  13. A nanoporous metal recuperated MnO2 anode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xianwei; Han, Jiuhui; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Pan; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Luyang; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been intensively studied to meet the increased demands for the high energy density of portable electronics and electric vehicles. The low specific capacity of the conventional graphite based anodes is one of the key factors that limit the capacity of LIBs. Transition metal oxides, such as NiO, MnO2 and Fe3O4, are known to be promising anode materials that are expected to improve the specific capacities of LIBs for several times. However, the poor electrical conductivity of these oxides significantly restricts the lithium ion storage and charge/discharge rate. Here we report that dealloyed nanoporous metals can realize the intrinsic lithium storage performance of the oxides by forming oxide/metal composites. Without any organic binder, conductive additive and additional current collector, the hybrid electrodes can be directly used as anodes and show highly reversible specific capacity with high-rate capability and long cyclic stability.Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been intensively studied to meet the increased demands for the high energy density of portable electronics and electric vehicles. The low specific capacity of the conventional graphite based anodes is one of the key factors that limit the capacity of LIBs. Transition metal oxides, such as NiO, MnO2 and Fe3O4, are known to be promising anode materials that are expected to improve the specific capacities of LIBs for several times. However, the poor electrical conductivity of these oxides significantly restricts the lithium ion storage and charge/discharge rate. Here we report that dealloyed nanoporous metals can realize the intrinsic lithium storage performance of the oxides by forming oxide/metal composites. Without any organic binder, conductive additive and additional current collector, the hybrid electrodes can be directly used as anodes and show highly reversible specific capacity with high-rate capability and long cyclic stability. Electronic supplementary

  14. Instant gelation synthesis of 3D porous MoS2@C nanocomposites for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Wu, Xiaofei; Chen, Gen; Li, Yuling; Li, Binsong; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Fan, Hongyou; Luo, Hongmei

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures, possessing high surface area, massive pores, and excellent structural stability, are highly desirable for many applications including catalysts and electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. However, the preparation of such materials remains a major challenge. Here, we introduce a novel method, instant gelation, for the synthesis of such materials. The as-prepared porous 3D MoS2@C nanocomposites, with layered MoS2 clusters or strips ingrained in porous and conductive 3D carbon matrix, indeed showed excellent electrochemical performance when applied as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Its interconnected carbon network ensures good conductivity and fast electron transport; the micro-, and mesoporous nature effectively shortens the lithium ion diffusion path and provides room necessary for volume expansion. The large specific surface area is beneficial for a better contact between electrode materials and electrolyte.

  15. Characteristics and thermal behavior analysis of lithium-ion batteries for application in hybrid locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Krishnashis

    The locomotive industry accounts for 2.5 % of the total fuel consumption in the US. Thus the necessity for reducing fuel consumption and emissions led to the development of the concept of hybrid locomotive which is dual powered by the diesel engine and electric motors. But the energy dissipated in braking such a locomotive in a year is enough to power over 9100 average US households over the same period of time. Recovering this energy using regenerative braking system and storing it in a electric battery is of great interest among researchers for improving overall efficiency and reducing consumption of fuels. In the present study, LiFePO4 batteries, a type of the state-of-art lithium-ion batteries, have been tested under different environmental and load conditions. Environmental temperatures were varied to analyze their effects on the charging and discharging patterns of the battery by using the CADEX battery analyzer in order to find the temperature range for optimum battery performance. The fluctuations of temperature of the battery surface were monitored along the length of the tests, using Infra-Red imaging and thermocouple probes at different points on the battery surface. Both battery performance characteristics and the variation of the battery surface temperature were also recorded for different load cycles in order to get a comprehensive picture of the heat generation and its effect on the behavior of the battery under different load conditions. Lastly a practical Load Cycle analysis of the battery has been performed which gave a picture of the heat generated by the battery and also the performance characteristics as it is subjected to a practical Load Cycle.

  16. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  17. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications.

  18. Expanded graphite embedded with aluminum nanoparticles as superior thermal conductivity anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingkai; She, Shengfei; Ji, Xianglin; Guo, Xinai; Jin, Wenbo; Zhu, Ruoxing; Dang, Alei; Li, Hao; Li, Tiehu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-09-01

    The development of high capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries is a long-term pursuing and under a close scrutiny. Most of the researches have been focused on exploring electrode materials and structures with high store capability of lithium ions and at the same time with a good electrical conductivity. Thermal conductivity of an electrode material will also have significant impacts on boosting battery capacity and prolonging battery lifetime, which is, however, underestimated. Here, we present the development of an expanded graphite embedded with Al metal nanoparticles (EG-MNPs-Al) synthesized by an oxidation-expansion process. The synthesized EG-MNPs-Al material exhibited a typical hierarchical structure with embedded Al metal nanoparticles into the interspaces of expanded graphite. The parallel thermal conductivity was up to 11.6 W·m‑1·K‑1 with a bulk density of 453 kg·m‑3 at room temperature, a 150% improvement compared to expanded graphite (4.6 W·m‑1·K‑1) owing to the existence of Al metal nanoparticles. The first reversible capacity of EG-MNPs-Al as anode material for lithium ion battery was 480 mAh·g‑1 at a current density of 100 mA·g‑1, and retained 84% capacity after 300 cycles. The improved cycling stability and system security of lithium ion batteries is attributed to the excellent thermal conductivity of the EG-MNPs-Al anodes.

  19. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. Electromobility concept for racing cars based on lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, B.; Kurzweil, P.; Rönnebeck, H.

    For the construction of an all-electric race car, all aspects from engineering design over cost estimation up to the road capability are illuminated. From the most promising batteries for electric vehicle propulsion, the state-of-the art and commercial availability of lithium-ion secondary batteries is critically discussed with respect to cycle-life and unfavorable charge-discharge conditions. A market-overview is given with respect to a small electric car. Different combinations of electric motors and a recuperation system have been investigated. Weight aspects of central drive systems were considered and compared with decentralized wheel-hub drives. As a result, a centralized high-speed drive train based on a permanent-magnet synchronous engine with high-energy magnets seems to be superior due to limited space for assembly.

  1. Operando X-ray scattering and spectroscopic analysis of germanium nanowire anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Katharine E; Lowe, Michael A; Richards, Benjamin; Gao, Jie; Hanrath, Tobias; Abruña, Héctor D

    2015-02-17

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been employed to determine structural and bonding changes, as a function of the lithium content/state of charge, of germanium nanowires used as the active anode material within lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Our data, collected throughout the course of battery cycling (operando), indicate that lithium incorporation within the nanostructured germanium occurs heterogeneously, preferentially into amorphous regions over crystalline domains. Maintenance of the molecular structural integrity within the germanium nanowire is dependent on the depth of discharge. Discharging to a shallower cutoff voltage preserves partial crystallinity for several cycles.

  2. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  3. Three-dimensional thermal finite element modeling of lithium-ion battery in thermal abuse application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guifang; Long, Bo; Cheng, Bo; Zhou, Shiqiong; Xu, Peng; Cao, Binggang

    In order to better understand the thermal abuse behavior of high capacities and large power lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle application, a three-dimensional thermal model has been developed for analyzing the temperature distribution under abuse conditions. The model takes into account the effects of heat generation, internal conduction and convection, and external heat dissipation to predict the temperature distribution in a battery. Three-dimensional model also considers the geometrical features to simulate oven test, which are significant in larger cells for electric vehicle application. The model predictions are compared to oven test results for VLP 50/62/100S-Fe (3.2 V/55 Ah) LiFePO 4/graphite cells and shown to be in great agreement.

  4. A lithium-ion sulfur battery using a polymer, polysulfide-added membrane.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-05

    In this paper we report the performances of a lithium-ion sulfur battery characterized by a polymer configuration. The cell, based on a sulfur-carbon cathode, a Li-Sn-C nanostructured anode and a PEO-based, polysulfide-added electrolyte, shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of stability and delivered capacity. The remarkable cell performances are ascribed to the mitigation of the cathode dissolution process due to the buffer action ensured by the polysulfide added to the polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte configuration allows the achievement of a stable capacity ranging from 500 to 1500 mAh gS(-1), depending on the cycling rate. The use of a polymer electrolyte and the replacement of the lithium metal with a Li-Sn-C nanostructured alloy are expected to guarantee high safety content, thus suggesting the battery here studied as advanced energy storage system.

  5. Evaluation of Design Method for Engine Output and Battery Capacity for Lithium Ion-Battery Hybrid Diesel Railway Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Naoki; Kondo, Keiichiro

    Diesel engine lithium-ion battery hybrid vehicles are gaining attention because the energy consumption during their operation and exhaust emission can be reduced considerably. However, designing a reasonably accurate method for the engine power and battery energy has not yet been proposed, though the above mentioned type of traction system can help in realizing an environment-friendly railway vehicle. In this paper, a design method for the battery capacity (energy) and engine output is proposed in the case of a control strategy in which the sum of the kinetic energy of the vehicle and the battery energy is maintained constant. The proposed method is verified by the velocity/state of charge of the battery charts obtained in the experimental tests. The proposed design method can be used to develop the environment-friendly railway traction systems for non electrified lines.

  6. Elastic and wearable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery with high electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Chen, Xuli; Zhang, Zhitao; Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-21

    A stretchable wire-shaped lithium-ion battery is produced from two aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube/lithium oxide composite yarns as the anode and cathode without extra current collectors and binders. The two composite yarns can be well paired to obtain a safe battery with superior electrochemical properties, such as energy densities of 27 Wh kg(-1) or 17.7 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 880 W kg(-1) or 0.56 W cm(-3), which are an order of magnitude higher than the densities reported for lithium thin-film batteries. These wire-shaped batteries are flexible and light, and 97 % of their capacity was maintained after 1000 bending cycles. They are also very elastic as they are based on a modified spring structure, and 84 % of the capacity was maintained after stretching for 200 cycles at a strain of 100 %. Furthermore, these novel wire-shaped batteries have been woven into lightweight, flexible, and stretchable battery textiles, which reveals possible large-scale applications.

  7. Mussel-inspired adhesive binders for high-performance silicon nanoparticle anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Jangbae; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Sunjin; Jeong, You Kyeong; Hong, Seonki; Ryu, Ji Hyun; Kim, Taek-Soo; Park, Jung-Ki; Lee, Haeshin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-03-20

    Conjugation of mussel-inspired catechol groups to various polymer backbones results in materials suitable as silicon anode binders. The unique wetness-resistant adhesion provided by the catechol groups allows the silicon nanoparticle electrodes to maintain their structure throughout the repeated volume expansion and shrinkage during lithiation cycling, thus facilitating substantially improved specific capacities and cycle lives of lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2012-01-01

    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  9. Facile synthesis of yolk-shell structured Si-C nanocomposites as anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Haibin; Gao, Dacheng; Chen, Shengyang; Tan, Lei; Li, Lei

    2014-06-01

    Yolk-shell structured Si-C nanocomposites are easily synthesized by using a new method based on alkaline etching technology, and exhibit high specific capacity, good cycling stability and rate performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24756611

  10. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-01

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport.

  11. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-07-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  12. Porous doped silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingyuan; Rong, Jiepeng; Fang, Xin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-05-01

    Porous silicon nanowires have been well studied for various applications; however, there are only very limited reports on porous silicon nanowires used for energy storage. Here, we report both experimental and theoretical studies of porous doped silicon nanowires synthesized by direct etching of boron-doped silicon wafers. When using alginate as a binder, porous silicon nanowires exhibited superior electrochemical performance and long cycle life as anode material in a lithium ion battery. Even after 250 cycles, the capacity remains stable above 2000, 1600, and 1100 mAh/g at current rates of 2, 4, and 18 A/g, respectively, demonstrating high structure stability due to the high porosity and electron conductivity of the porous silicon nanowires. A mathematic model coupling the lithium ion diffusion and the strain induced by lithium intercalation was employed to study the effect of porosity and pore size on the structure stability. Simulation shows silicon with high porosity and large pore size help to stabilize the structure during charge/discharge cycles.

  13. Mechanism of Silicon Electrode Aging upon Cycling in Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Delpuech, Nathalie; Dupre, Nicolas; Moreau, Philippe; Bridel, Jean-Sebastian; Gaubicher, Joel; Lestriez, Bernard; Guyomard, Dominique

    2016-04-21

    Understanding the aging mechanism of silicon-based negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries upon cycling is essential to solve the problem of low coulombic efficiency and capacity fading and further to implement this new high-capacity material in commercial cells. Nevertheless, such studies have so far focused on half cells in which silicon is cycled versus an infinite reservoir of lithium. In the present work, the aging mechanism of silicon-based electrodes is studied upon cycling in a full Li-ion cell configuration with LiCoO2 as the positive electrode. Postmortem analyses of both electrodes clearly indicate that neither one of them contains lithium and that no discernible degradation results from the cycling. The aging mechanism can be explained by the reduction of solvent molecules. Electrons extracted from the positive electrode are responsible for an internal imbalance in the cell, which results in progressive slippage of the electrodes and reduces the compositional range of cyclable lithium ions for both electrodes. PMID:26915951

  14. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  15. Electrodeposited porous metal oxide films with interconnected nanoparticles applied as anode of lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Highly porous NiO film is prepared by a co-electrodeposition method. • Porous NiO film is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • Porous structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • Porous NiO film shows good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Controllable synthesis of porous metal oxide films is highly desirable for high-performance electrochemical devices. In this work, a highly porous NiO film composed of interconnected nanoparticles is prepared by a simple co-electrodeposition method. The nanoparticles in the NiO film have a size ranging from 30 to 100 nm and construct large-quantity pores of 20–120 nm. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the highly porous NiO film electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 700 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.2 C, as well as good high-rate performance. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, a specific capacitance of 517 mA h g{sup −1} is attained. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the interconnected porous structure, which facilitates the diffusion of ion and electron, and provides large reaction surface area leading to improved performance.

  16. Electrochemical properties of iron oxides/carbon nanotubes as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhipeng; Zhao, Hailei; Lv, Pengpeng; Zhang, Zijia; Wang, Jie; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A composited anode material with combined Fe3O4/FeO nanotube and carbon shell is synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with subsequent CVD heat treatment. The as-prepared Fe3O4/FeO/C composite shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability as lithium ion battery anode. We study the effect of FeO on the electrochemical performances of the Fe3O4/FeO/C electrode. A capacity climbing phenomenon can be observed for the Fe3O4/FeO/C electrodes, which tends to be more evident with increasing FeO content. The "extra capacity" is correlated with the reversible formation of polymeric gel-like film on the particle surface of active materials, which is electrochemical active towards Li ions. The FeO component presents a certain extent of catalytic role in assisting the formation of the gel-like film. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analytical technique are combined to further confirm the reversible growth of the SEI gel-like film. High temperature promotes the formation of gel-like film, while the resistance from the film decreases remarkably with temperature due to the enhanced lithium ion conductivity. The film contributes little to the whole EIS resistance of Fe3O4/FeO nanotube/carbon electrode. Tentative explanations based on the current experiments and existing literature are made to explain such unusual finding.

  17. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  18. New nanostructured Li2S/silicon rechargeable battery with high specific energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; McDowell, Matthew T; Jackson, Ariel; Cha, Judy J; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi

    2010-04-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode materials. The recent development of sulfur/mesoporous carbon nanocomposite cathodes represents a particularly exciting advance, but in full battery cells, sulfur-based cathodes have to be paired with metallic lithium anodes as the lithium source, which can result in serious safety issues. Here we report a novel lithium metal-free battery consisting of a Li(2)S/mesoporous carbon composite cathode and a silicon nanowire anode. This new battery yields a theoretical specific energy of 1550 Wh kg(-1), which is four times that of the theoretical specific energy of existing lithium-ion batteries based on LiCoO(2) cathodes and graphite anodes (approximately 410 Wh kg(-1)). The nanostructured design of both electrodes assists in overcoming the issues associated with using sulfur compounds and silicon in lithium-ion batteries, including poor electrical conductivity, significant structural changes, and volume expansion. We have experimentally realized an initial discharge specific energy of 630 Wh kg(-1) based on the mass of the active electrode materials.

  19. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  20. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes.

  1. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes. PMID:20677207

  2. Confined Porous Graphene/SnOx Frameworks within Polyaniline-Derived Carbon as Highly Stable Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Tin oxides are promising anode materials for their high theoretical capacities in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, poor stability usually limits the practical application owing to the large volume variation during the cycling process. Herein, a novel carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx framework was designed using a silica template assisted nanocasting method followed by a polyaniline-derived carbon coating process. In this process, silica served as a template to anchor SnOx nanoparticles on porous framework and polyaniline was used as the carbon source for coating on the porous graphene/SnOx framework. The synthesized carbon confined porous graphene/SnOx frameworks demonstrate substantially improved rate capacities and enhanced cycling stability as the anode materials in LIBs, showing a high reversible capacity of 907 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) and 555 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1). The remarkably improved electrochemical performance could be assigned to the unique porous architecture, which effectively solves the drawbacks of SnOx including poor electrical conductivity and undesirable volume expansion during cycling process. Consequently, such design concept for promoting SnOx performance could provide a novel stage for improving anode stability in LIBs.

  3. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  4. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  5. An adaptive remaining energy prediction approach for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-02-01

    With the growing number of electric vehicle (EV) applications, the function of the battery management system (BMS) becomes more sophisticated. The accuracy of remaining energy estimation is critical for energy optimization and management in EVs. Therefore the state-of-energy (SoE) is defined to indicate the remaining available energy of the batteries. Considering that there are inevitable accumulated errors caused by current and voltage integral method, an adaptive SoE estimator is first established in this paper. In order to establish a reasonable battery equivalent model, based on the experimental data of the LiFePO4 battery, a data-driven model is established to describe the relationship between the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the SoE. What is more, the forgetting factor recursive least-square (RLS) method is used for parameter identification to get accurate model parameters. Finally, in order to analyze the robustness and the accuracy of the proposed approach, different types of dynamic current profiles are conducted on the lithium-ion batteries and the performances are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the proposed approach has robust and accurate SoE estimation results under dynamic working conditions.

  6. Chemical and structural stability of lithium-ion battery electrode materials under electron beam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Doeff, Marca M; Xin, Huolin L

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.18)Ti(0.02)O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results.

  7. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results. PMID:25027190

  8. Review of simplified Pseudo-two-Dimensional models of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, Ali; Rajabloo, Barzin; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, many efforts have been deployed to develop models for the prediction, the control, the optimization and the parameter estimation of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. It appears that the most successful electrochemical-based model for Li-ion battery is the Pseudo-two-Dimensional model (P2D). Due to the fact that the governing equations are complex, this model cannot be used in real-time applications like Battery Management Systems (BMSs). To remedy the situation, several investigations have been carried out to simplify the P2D model. Mathematical and physical techniques are employed to reduce the order of magnitude of the P2D governing equations. The present paper is a review of the studies on the modeling of Li-ion batteries with simplified P2D models. The assumptions on which these models rest are stated, the calculation methods are examined, the advantages and the drawbacks of the models are discussed and their applications are presented. Suggestions for overcoming the shortcomings of the models are made. Challenges and future directions in the modeling of Li-ion batteries are also discussed.

  9. Freestanding three-dimensional core-shell nanoarrays for lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Wu, Feng; Yuan, Yifei; Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Teng; Yao, Ying; Qian, Ji; Liu, Jianrui; Ye, Yusheng; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Structural degradation and low conductivity of transition-metal oxides lead to severe capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries. Recent efforts to solve this issue have mainly focused on using nanocomposites or hybrids by integrating nanosized metal oxides with conducting additives. Here we design specific hierarchical structures and demonstrate their use in flexible, large-area anode assemblies. Fabrication of these anodes is achieved via oxidative growth of copper oxide nanowires onto copper substrates followed by radio-frequency sputtering of carbon-nitride films, forming freestanding three-dimensional arrays with core-shell nano-architecture. Cable-like copper oxide/carbon-nitride core-shell nanostructures accommodate the volume change during lithiation-delithiation processes, the three-dimensional arrays provide abundant electroactive zones and electron/ion transport paths, and the monolithic sandwich-type configuration without additional binders or conductive agents improves energy/power densities of the whole electrode.

  10. A High Voltage Olivine Cathode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Di Lecce, Daniele; Brescia, Rosaria; Scarpellini, Alice; Prato, Mirko; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-01-01

    A new olivine composition (i.e., LiFe0.25 Mn0.5 Co0.25 PO4) is proposed as electrode material with increased energy density for application in lithium-ion batteries. The new formulation increases the working voltage and induces different electrochemical behavior with respect to bare olivine materials based on Fe. The study provides deep insight into the features of the Fe(3+) /Fe(2+), Mn(3+)/Mn(2+), and Co(3+)/Co(2+) redox couples within the olivine lattice in terms of electrochemical activity, Li(+) transport properties, and Li-cell behavior. The electrochemical characterization clearly reveals the voltage signatures corresponding to the various metals; however, the Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) process has higher intrinsic polarization with respect to Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and Co(3+)/Co(2+). This issue is efficiently mitigated by carbon coating the material, resulting in enhanced electrochemical performances.

  11. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion.

  12. Engineering empty space between Si nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Nian; Carney, Thomas J; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Silicon is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries yet attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to pulverization of the silicon and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation during the electrochemical cycles. Despite significant advances in nanostructured Si electrodes, challenges including short cycle life and scalability hinder its widespread implementation. To address these challenges, we engineered an empty space between Si nanoparticles by encapsulating them in hollow carbon tubes. The synthesis process used low-cost Si nanoparticles and electrospinning methods, both of which can be easily scaled. The empty space around the Si nanoparticles allowed the electrode to successfully overcome these problems Our anode demonstrated a high gravimetric capacity (~1000 mAh/g based on the total mass) and long cycle life (200 cycles with 90% capacity retention).

  13. Exfoliation and reassembly of cobalt oxide nanosheets into a reversible lithium-ion battery cathode.

    PubMed

    Compton, Owen C; Abouimrane, Ali; An, Zhi; Palmeri, Marc J; Brinson, L Catherine; Amine, Khalil; Nguyen, SonBinh T

    2012-04-10

    An exfoliation-reassembly-activation (ERA) approach to lithium-ion battery cathode fabrication is introduced, demonstrating that inactive HCoO(2) powder can be converted into a reversible Li(1-x) H(x) CoO(2) thin-film cathode. This strategy circumvents the inherent difficulties often associated with the powder processing of the layered solids typically employed as cathode materials. The delamination of HCoO(2) via a combination of chemical and mechanical exfoliation generates a highly processable aqueous dispersion of [CoO(2) ](-) nanosheets that is critical to the ERA approach. Following vacuum-assisted self-assembly to yield a thin-film cathode and ion exchange to activate this material, the generated cathodes exhibit excellent cyclability and discharge capacities approaching that of low-temperature-prepared LiCoO(2) (~83 mAh g(-1) ), with this good electrochemical performance attributable to the high degree of order in the reassembled cathode.

  14. Interconnected silicon hollow nanospheres for lithium-ion battery anodes with long cycle life.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yan; McDowell, Matthew T; Ryu, Ill; Wu, Hui; Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; Nix, William D; Cui, Yi

    2011-07-13

    Silicon is a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, volume changes during cycling cause pulverization and capacity fade, and improving cycle life is a major research challenge. Here, we report a novel interconnected Si hollow nanosphere electrode that is capable of accommodating large volume changes without pulverization during cycling. We achieved the high initial discharge capacity of 2725 mAh g(-1) with less than 8% capacity degradation every hundred cycles for 700 total cycles. Si hollow sphere electrodes also show a Coulombic efficiency of 99.5% in later cycles. Superior rate capability is demonstrated and attributed to fast lithium diffusion in the interconnected Si hollow structure.

  15. Encapsulation of metal oxide nanocrystals into porous carbon with ultrahigh performances in lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Park, Jin-Bum; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-03-01

    A simple and industrial scalable approach was developed to encapsulate metal oxide nanocrystals into porous carbon (PC) with a high distribution. With this method, the composite of PC-metal oxide were prepared in a large amount with a low cost; particularly they exhibit ultrahigh performances in lithium-ion battery applications. For example, the PC-CoOx and PC-FeOx show a high capacity around 1021 mA h g(-1) and 1200 mA h g(-1) at the current density of 100 mA g(-1) respectively, together with an excellent cycling ability (>400 cycles) and rate capacity even at the high current densities of 3 A g(-1) and 5 A g(-1).

  16. Bunched akaganeite nanorod arrays: Preparation and high-performance for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shaomin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Gao; Lin, Ting; Mo, Yudi; Li, Zishan

    2015-11-01

    Significant effort has been made to explore high-performance anode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries. We report a facile hydrothermal route to synthesis self-organized bunched akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorod arrays directly grown on carbon cloth (CC/β-FeOOH NRAs). Interestingly, the single nanorod is assembled by numerous small nanowires. A possible growth mechanism for this unique structure is proposed. Owning to the essential crystal structure of β-FeOOH (body-centered cubic), porous morphology, high surface area and direct growth on current collector, the prepared CC/β-FeOOH NRAs manifest a very high reversible capacity of ≈2840 mAh g-1 (2.21 mAh cm-2), remarkable rate capability 568 mAh g-1 (0.43 mAh cm-2) at 10C, stable cycling performance and greater mechanical strength.

  17. Dodecahedron-Shaped Porous Vanadium Oxide and Carbon Composite for High-Rate Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Wang, Yaping; Wei, Weifeng; Su, Yanhui; Hu, Jimei; Cao, Guozhong; Liang, Shuquan

    2016-07-13

    Carbon-based nanocomposites have been extensively studied in energy storage and conversion systems because of their superior electrochemical performance. However, the majority of metal oxides are grown on the surface of carbonaceous material. Herein, we report a different strategy of constructing V2O5 within the metal organic framework derived carbonaceous dodecahedrons. Vanadium precursor is absorbed into the porous dodecahedron-shaped carbon framework first and then in situ converted into V2O5 within the carbonaceous framework in the annealing process in air. As cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, the porous V2O5@C composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performance, due to the synergistic effect of V2O5 and carbon composite. PMID:27285481

  18. Alternative Single-Solvent Electrolytes Based on Cyanoesters for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Brox, Sebastian; Röser, Stephan; Husch, Tamara; Hildebrand, Stephan; Fromm, Olga; Korth, Martin; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2016-07-01

    To identify alternative single-solvent-based electrolytes for application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), adequate computational methods were applied to screen specified physicochemical and electrochemical properties of new cyanoester-based compounds. Out of 2747 possible target compounds, two promising candidates and two structurally equivalent components were chosen. A constructive selection process including evaluation of basic physicochemical properties as well assessing the compatibility towards graphitic anodes was initiated to identify the most promising candidates. With addition of a film-forming additive in a low concentration, the most promising candidate showed an adequate long-term cycling stability with LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 [NMC(111)] in a full-cell setup using graphite as anode material. The main advantages of the new electrolyte formulation are related to its good thermal behavior, especially with regard to safety in combination with satisfying electrochemical performance.

  19. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion. PMID:24615890

  20. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).