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Sample records for rechargeable metal air cell

  1. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  2. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  3. An improved bifunctional oxygen (air) electrode for reversible alkaline fuel cell systems and for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, K.; Steininger, K.-H.; Tomantschger, K.

    1988-10-01

    Electrodes with a nickel layer of dual pore structure on the electrolyte side and a PTFE-bonded carbon layer on the oxygen (air) side are discussed, with application to space energy storage. During the electrolyis stage, the oxygen fills the large pores of the porous Ni structure with gas. During the discharge cycle, the iron/air or zinc/air cell of the carbon layer operates as a regular oxygen electrode.

  4. Ionic liquid electrolytes as a platform for rechargeable metal-air batteries: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Simons, Tristan J; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-09-21

    Metal-air batteries are a well-established technology that can offer high energy densities, low cost and environmental responsibility. Despite these favourable characteristics and utilisation of oxygen as the cathode reactant, these devices have been limited to primary applications, due to a number of problems that occur when the cell is recharged, including electrolyte loss and poor efficiency. Overcoming these obstacles is essential to creating a rechargeable metal-air battery that can be utilised for efficiently capturing renewable energy. Despite the first metal-air battery being created over 100 years ago, the emergence of reactive metals such as lithium has reinvigorated interest in this field. However the reactivity of some of these metals has generated a number of different philosophies regarding the electrolyte of the metal-air battery. Whilst much is already known about the anode and cathode processes in aqueous and organic electrolytes, the shortcomings of these electrolytes (i.e. volatility, instability, flammability etc.) have led some of the metal-air battery community to study room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as non-volatile, highly stable electrolytes that have the potential to support rechargeable metal-air battery processes. In this perspective, we discuss how some of these initial studies have demonstrated the capabilities of RTILs as metal-air battery electrolytes. We will also show that much of the long-held mechanistic knowledge of the oxygen electrode processes might not be applicable in RTIL based electrolytes, allowing for creative new solutions to the traditional irreversibility of the oxygen reduction reaction. Our understanding of key factors such as the effect of catalyst chemistry and surface structure, proton activity and interfacial reactions is still in its infancy in these novel electrolytes. In this perspective we highlight the key areas that need the attention of electrochemists and battery engineers, in order to progress

  5. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  6. Pomegranate-Inspired Design of Highly Active and Durable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Wang, Xiaolei; Fu, Jing; Li, Jingde; Park, Moon Gyu; Zhang, Yining; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-04-11

    Rational design of highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reactions is critical for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the design and development of composite electrocatalysts based on transition metal oxide nanocrystals embedded in a nitrogen-doped, partially graphitized carbon framework. Benefiting from the unique pomegranate-like architecture, the composite catalysts possess abundant active sites, strong synergetic coupling, enhanced electron transfer, and high efficiencies in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Co3O4-based composite electrocatalyst exhibited a high half-wave potential of 0.842 V for ORR, and a low overpotential of only 450 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) for OER. A single-cell zinc-air battery was also fabricated with superior durability, holding great promise in the practical implementation of rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  7. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  8. Layered perovskite oxide: a reversible air electrode for oxygen evolution/reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Takano, Hiroshi; Ohguri, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Motofumi; Murota, Tadatoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueda, Wataru

    2013-07-31

    For the development of a rechargeable metal-air battery, which is expected to become one of the most widely used batteries in the future, slow kinetics of discharging and charging reactions at the air electrode, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, are the most critical problems. Here we report that Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 (n = 3), functions as a reversible air electrode catalyst for both ORR and OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. The function of RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an ORR catalyst was confirmed by using an alkaline fuel cell composed of Pd/LaSr3Fe3O10-2x(OH)2x·H2O/RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.23 V was obtained. RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 also catalyzed OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. Reversible ORR and OER are achieved because of the easily removable oxygen present in RP-LaSr3Fe3O10. Thus, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 minimizes efficiency losses caused by reactions during charging and discharging at the air electrode and can be considered to be the ORR/OER electrocatalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  9. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, Stanley C.; Evans, James W.; Salas-Morales, Juan

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  10. Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Jung, Jong-Hyuk; Im, Won Bin; Yoon, Sukeun; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Won

    2013-10-23

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries have attracted a great interest in recent years because of their high energy density. The critical challenges facing these technologies include the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen reduction-evolution reactions on a cathode (air electrode). Here, we report doped lanthanum nickelates (La2NiO4) with a layered perovskite structure that serve as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. Rechargeable lithium-air and zinc-air batteries assembled with these catalysts exhibit remarkably reduced discharge-charge voltage gaps (improved round-trip efficiency) as well as high stability during cycling.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of Fe-air rechargeable oxide battery in planar solid oxide cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qingping; Berger, Cornelius M.; Menzler, Norbert H.; Bram, Martin; Blum, Ludger

    2016-12-01

    Iron-air rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprising solid oxide cells (SOC) as energy converters and Fe/metal-oxide redox couples were characterized using planar SOC stacks. The charge and discharge of the battery correspond to the operations in the electrolysis and fuel cell modes, respectively, but with a stagnant atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and steam. A novel method was employed to establish the stagnant atmosphere for battery testing during normal SOC operation without complicated modification to the test bench and stack/battery concept. Manipulation of the gas compositions during battery operation was not necessary, but the influence of the leakage current from the testing system had to be considered. Batteries incorporating Fe2O3/8YSZ, Fe2O3/CaO and Fe2O3/ZrO2 storage materials were characterized at 800 °C. A maximum charge capacity of 30.4 Ah per layer (with an 80 cm2 active cell area) with ∼0.5 mol Fe was reached with a current of 12 A. The charge capacity lost 11% after ∼130 ROB cycles due to the increased agglomeration of active materials and formation of a dense oxide layer on the surface. The round trip efficiencies of the tested batteries were ≤84% due to the large internal resistance. With state-of-the-art cells, the round trip efficiency can be further improved.

  12. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  13. A Metal-Amino Acid Complex-Derived Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanjun; Niu, Yuchen; Yang, Jia; Ma, Liang; Liu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yujie; Xu, Hangxun

    2016-10-01

    Bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst: A metal-amino acid complex is developed to prepare high-performance mesoporous carbon electrocatalyst for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions. Such prepared catalyst can be used to assemble rechargeable zinc-air batteries with excellent durability. This work represents a new route toward low-cost, highly active, and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts for cutting-edge energy conversion devices.

  14. Nanostructured Perovskite LaCo1-xMnxO3 as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaoming; Li, Bing; Wuu, Delvin; Sumboja, Afriyanti; An, Tao; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-09-01

    Bifunctional catalyst that is active for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most important components of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Nanostructured perovskite bifunctional catalysts comprising La, Co and Mn(LaCo1-xMnxO3, LCMO) are synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The morphology, structure and electrochemical activity of the perovskite bifunctional catalysts are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Nanorod, nanodisc and nanoparticle are typical morphologies of LCMO. The electrocatalytic activity of LCMO is significantly improved by the addition of conductive materials such as carbon nanotube. To demonstrate the practical utilization, LCMO in the composition of LaCo0.8Mn0.2O3(LCMO82) is used as air cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The battery prototype can sustain 470 h or 40 discharge-charge cycles equivalent.

  15. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanofibres exhibit high catalytic activity towards both oxygen reduction and evolution in an alkaline electrolyte. When incorporated as cathode catalysts in Zn-air batteries, the fibrous spinel oxides considerably reduce the discharge-charge voltage gaps (improve the round-trip efficiency) in comparison to the catalyst-free cathode. Moreover, the nanofibre catalysts remain stable over the course of repeated discharge-charge cycling; however, carbon corrosion in the catalyst/carbon composite cathode degrades the cycling performance of the batteries.

  16. One-dimensional manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres as bi-functional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Hwang, Soo Min; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jae-Geun; Dou, Shi Xue; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable metal-air batteries are considered a promising energy storage solution owing to their high theoretical energy density. The major obstacles to realising this technology include the slow kinetics of oxygen reduction and evolution on the cathode (air electrode) upon battery discharging and charging, respectively. Here, we report non-precious metal oxide catalysts based on spinel-type manganese-cobalt oxide nanofibres fabricated by an electrospinning technique. The spinel oxide nanofibres exhibit high catalytic activity towards both oxygen reduction and evolution in an alkaline electrolyte. When incorporated as cathode catalysts in Zn-air batteries, the fibrous spinel oxides considerably reduce the discharge-charge voltage gaps (improve the round-trip efficiency) in comparison to the catalyst-free cathode. Moreover, the nanofibre catalysts remain stable over the course of repeated discharge-charge cycling; however, carbon corrosion in the catalyst/carbon composite cathode degrades the cycling performance of the batteries. PMID:25563733

  17. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  18. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  19. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  20. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  1. Rechargeable Metal-Air Proton-Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide; Hibino, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Rechargeable proton-exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen-storage media have the potential to serve as next-generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen-storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal-ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn0.9In0.1P2O7-based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V(4+)/V(3+), V(3+)/V(2+), and Sn(4+)/Sn(2+) redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g(-1) for VOSO4 and SnSO4, respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles.

  2. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2). Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g(-1)carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2) and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  3. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  4. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g-1carbon at 20 μA cm-2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g-1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g-1carbon at 20 μA cm-2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  5. Scalable 3-D Carbon Nitride Sponge as an Efficient Metal-Free Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Sambhaji S; Lee, Chi-Ho; Sami, Abdul; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Lee, Sang-Uck; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-01-24

    Rational design of efficient and durable bifunctional oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts is critical for rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we developed a facile strategy for fabricating three-dimensional phosphorus and sulfur codoped carbon nitride sponges sandwiched with carbon nanocrystals (P,S-CNS). These materials exhibited high surface area and superior ORR and OER bifunctional catalytic activities than those of Pt/C and RuO2, respectively, concerning its limiting current density and onset potential. Further, we tested the suitability and durability of P,S-CNS as the oxygen cathode for primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The resulting primary Zn-air battery exhibited a high open-circuit voltage of 1.51 V, a high discharge peak power density of 198 mW cm(-2), a specific capacity of 830 mA h g(-1), and better durability for 210 h after mechanical recharging. An extraordinary small charge-discharge voltage polarization (∼0.80 V at 25 mA cm(-2)), superior reversibility, and stability exceeding prolonged charge-discharge cycles have been attained in rechargeable Zn-air batteries with a three-electrode system. The origin of the electrocatalytic activity of P,S-CNS was elucidated by density functional theory analysis for both oxygen reactions. This work stimulates an innovative prospect for the enrichment of rechargeable Zn-air battery viable for commercial applications such as armamentaria, smart electronics, and electric vehicles.

  6. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  7. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  8. Hierarchical nanostructured NiCo2O4 as an efficient bifunctional non-precious metal catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Moni; Ketpang, Kriangsak; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-03-21

    A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline medium. The extraordinary bi-functional catalytic activity towards both ORR and OER was observed by the low over potential (0.84 V), which is better than that of noble metal catalysts [Pt/C (1.16 V), Ru/C (1.01 V) and Ir/C (0.92 V)], making them promising cathode materials for metal-air batteries. Furthermore, the rechargeable zinc-air battery with NCO-A1 as a bifunctional electrocatalyst displays high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes.

  9. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  10. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  11. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  12. Hierarchical nanostructured NiCo2O4 as an efficient bifunctional non-precious metal catalyst for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Moni; Ketpang, Kriangsak; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-02-01

    A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction and evolution in an aqueous alkaline medium. The extraordinary bi-functional catalytic activity towards both ORR and OER was observed by the low over potential (0.84 V), which is better than that of noble metal catalysts [Pt/C (1.16 V), Ru/C (1.01 V) and Ir/C (0.92 V)], making them promising cathode materials for metal-air batteries. Furthermore, the rechargeable zinc-air battery with NCO-A1 as a bifunctional electrocatalyst displays high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes.A nickel-doped cobalt oxide spinel structure is a promising non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries and water electrolyzers operating with alkaline electrolytes. One dimensional NiCo2O4 (NCO) nanostructures were prepared by using a simple electrospinning technique with two different metal precursors (metal nitrate/PAN and metal acetylacetonate/PAN). The effect of precursor concentration on the morphologies was investigated. Single-phase, NCO with an average diameter of 100 nm, porous interconnected fibrous morphology was revealed by FESEM and FETEM analysis. The hierarchical nanostructured 1D-spinel NiCo2O4 materials showed a

  13. Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Adams, Brian D.; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Wang, Jun; Bowden, Mark E.; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Jianzhi; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-18

    Anode-free rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries (AFLBs) are phenomenal energy storage systems due to their significantly increased energy density and reduced cost relative to Li-ion batteries, as well as ease of assembly owing to the absence of an active (reactive) anode material. However, significant challenges, including Li dendrite growth and low cycling Coulombic efficiency (CE), have prevented their practical implementation. Here, we report for the first time an anode-free rechargeable lithium battery based on a Cu||LiFePO4 cell structure with an extremely high CE (> 99.8%). This results from the utilization of both an exceptionally stable electrolyte and optimized charge/discharge protocols which minimize the corrosion of the in-situ formed Li metal anode.

  14. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  15. Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell

    DOEpatents

    Bowden, William L.; Dey, Arabinda N.

    1985-05-07

    A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

  16. Metal-air cell with ion exchange material

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-08-25

    Embodiments of the invention are related to anion exchange membranes used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the membranes function as the electrolyte material, or are used in conjunction with electrolytes such as ionic liquid electrolytes.

  17. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  18. LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOEpatents

    Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

    1999-03-30

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

  19. Electrically rechargeable REDOX flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A bulk energy storage system is designed with an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cell divided into two compartments by a membrane, each compartment containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the same time that a cathode fluid is directed through the second compartment. Means are provided for circulating the anode and cathode fluids, and the electrodes are connected to an intermittent or non-continuous electrical source, which when operating, supplies current to a load as well as to the cell to recharge it. Ancillary circuitry is provided for disconnecting the intermittent source from the cell at prescribed times and for circulating the anode and cathode fluids according to desired parameters and conditions.

  20. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  1. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-09-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  2. Perovskite-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube composite as bifunctional catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Hey Woong; Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Ahmed, Raihan; Seo, Min Ho; Nazar, Linda F; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-03-01

    Developing an effective bifunctional catalyst is a significant issue, as rechargeable metal-air batteries are very attractive for future energy systems. In this study, a facile one-pot process is introduced to prepare an advanced bifunctional catalyst (op-LN) incorporating nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) into perovskite La0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3 nanoparticles (LSCF-NPs). Confirmed by half-cell testing, op-LN exhibits synergistic effects of LSCF-NP and NCNT with excellent bifunctionality for both the oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction. Furthermore, op-LN exhibits comparable performances in these reactions to Pt/C and Ir/C, respectively, which highlights its potential for use as a commercially viable bifunctional catalyst. Moreover, the results obtained by testing op-LN in a practical Li-air battery demonstrate improved and complementary charge/discharge performance compared to those of LSCF-NP and NCNT, and this confirms that simply prepared op-LN is a promising candidate as a highly effective bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  3. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

  4. Rechargeable LiNiO2/carbon cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahn, J. R.; von Sacken, U.; Juzkow, M. W.; Al-Janaby, H.

    1991-08-01

    Rechargeable cells can be made using two different intercalation compounds, in which the chemical potential of the intercalant differs by several eV, for the electrodes. The factors that play a role in the selection of appropriate lithium intercalation compounds for such cells are discussed. For the ease of cell assembly, the cathode should be stable in air when it is fully intercalated, like LiNiO2. For the anode, the chemical potential of the intercalated Li should be close to that of Li metal, like it is in Li(x)C6. The intercalation of Li in LiNiO2 is discussed, and then in petroleum coke. Then, it is shown that LiNiO2/coke cells have high energy density, long cycle life, excellent high-temperature performance, low self-discharge rates, can be repeatedly discharged to zero volts without damage, and are easily fabricated. It is considered that this type of cell shows far more promise for widespread applications than traditional secondary Li cells using metallic Li anodes.

  5. The Rechargeability of Silicon-Air Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    possible chemical etching process of silicon oxide. 4.4. Solid-state battery Free standing polymer gel electrolyte films ...manganese dioxide pressed onto a nickel 200 mesh. Teflon microporous layer was attached to the air side of the Fuel  Fuel cell reaction  ΔHRo(kJ/mol) ΔGRo...carried out in an electrochemical cell containing a polypropylene holder of the silicon specimen, supported with a screwed back contact stainless steel

  6. Noble gas excess air applied to distinguish groundwater recharge conditions.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard G S; Hiscock, Kevin M; Dennis, Paul F

    2007-03-15

    The application of geochemical tracers in groundwater studies can provide valuable insights into the rates and sources of groundwater recharge, residence times, and flow dynamics that are of significant value in the management of this important natural resource. This paper demonstrates the application of noble gas excess air to distinguish groundwater bodies with different recharge histories in a layered sandstone aquifer system in the east of England. The sampled groundwaters are all supersaturated with respect to neon, indicating the presence of excess air. The lowest excess air concentrations occur where the aquifer is unconfined (deltaNe, the proportion of neon in excess of saturation, = 12-26%) and recharge occurs directly to the outcrop. Groundwater in the confined part of the aquifer can be divided into two hydrochemical types based upon the dissolved ion chemistry: Type 1 groundwaters contain more excess air (deltaNe = 115-120%) than Type 2(deltaNe = 22-62%). The difference in excess air concentrations confirms that groundwater enters the confined aquifer along two discrete pathways. Furthermore, excess neon concentrations predicted from the magnitude of annual water table fluctuation observed in the different recharge areas are in good agreement with those measured in the corresponding groundwaters. We therefore recommend that excess air may be usefully employed as a direct indicator of the volume of long-term net annual groundwater recharge.

  7. Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

  8. Highly Active and Durable Nanocrystal-Decorated Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Moon Gyu; Park, Hey Woong; Seo, Min Ho; Wang, Xiaolei; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-09-21

    A highly active and durable bifunctional electrocatalyst that consists of cobalt oxide nanocrystals (Co3 O4 NC) decorated on the surface of N-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNT) is introduced as effective electrode material for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries. This active hybrid catalyst is synthesized by a facile surfactant-assisted method to produce Co3 O4 NC that are then decorated on the surface of N-CNT through hydrophobic attraction. Confirmed by half-cell testing, Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT demonstrates superior oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution catalytic activities and has a superior electrochemical stability compared to Pt/C and Ir/C. Furthermore, rechargeable zinc-air battery testing of Co3 O4 NC/N-CNT reveals superior galvanodynamic charge and discharge voltages with a significantly extended cycle life of over 100 h, which suggests its potential as a replacement for precious-metal-based catalysts for electric vehicles and grid energy storage applications.

  9. Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.

    PubMed

    Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

    1994-09-01

    We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity.

  10. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  11. LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOEpatents

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Fultz, Brent; Bowman, Robert; Surampudi, Subra Rao; Witham, Charles K.; Hightower, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB.sub.(Z-Y) X.sub.(Y) is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB.sub.5 alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  12. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-12-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  14. Silicon anode for rechargeable aqueous lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, R.; Si, Q.; Mizukoshi, F.; Kawakubo, M.; Matsui, M.; Takeda, Y.; Yamamoto, O.; Imanishi, N.

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous lithium-air rechargeable cell with the configuration of Si/1 M LiClO4 in ethylene carbonate-diethylene carbonate/Li1+x+yAlx(Ti,Ge)2-xP3-ySiyO12/5 M LiCl-1 M LiOH aqueous solution/carbon black, air is proposed. A silicon anode composed of mechanically milled silicon power with an average particle size of ca. 0.5 μm, vapor grown carbon fiber and a polyimide binder was examined. The open-circuit voltage at the charged state was 2.9 V at 25 °C. The discharge capacity of 700 mAh g-silicon-1 was retained for 40 cycles at 0.3 mA cm-2 with cut-off voltages of 3.5 and 1.5 V. Significant capacity fade was observed at deep charge and discharge cycling at 2000 mAh g-silicon-1.

  15. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel

    2015-11-10

    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  16. Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries: Progress, Challenges, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Cano, Zachary Paul; Park, Moon Gyu; Yu, Aiping; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have attracted much attention and received revived research efforts recently due to their high energy density, which makes them a promising candidate for emerging mobile and electronic applications. Besides their high energy density, they also demonstrate other desirable characteristics, such as abundant raw materials, environmental friendliness, safety, and low cost. Here, the reaction mechanism of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is discussed, different battery configurations are compared, and an in depth discussion is offered of the major issues that affect individual cellular components, along with respective strategies to alleviate these issues to enhance battery performance. Additionally, a section dedicated to battery-testing techniques and corresponding recommendations for best practices are included. Finally, a general perspective on the current limitations, recent application-targeted developments, and recommended future research directions to prolong the lifespan of electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries is provided.

  17. Nickel hydrogen cell tests. [recharging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    Some parametric tests followed by cycling tests are described for the characterization of the service life of nickel hydrogen cells. Three cells were automatically cycled in simulated low Earth orbit in 35 minute discharge, 55 minute charge, with charging voltage limited, temperature compensated. The cells were mounted in a fixture that conducts heat to an aluminum baseplate. The baseplate in turn, is bounded in a temperature controlled bath to remove the heat from the mounted fixture. One cell was tested with a zircar separator, which failed after 2473 cyles. Two other cells were tested one with a zircar separator; the other with asbestos. More than 400 cycles were achieved.

  18. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  19. Synergistic bifunctional catalyst design based on perovskite oxide nanoparticles and intertwined carbon nanotubes for rechargeable zinc-air battery applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Un; Park, Hey Woong; Park, Moon Gyu; Ismayilov, Vugar; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-01-14

    Advanced morphology of intertwined core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (IT-CCBC) is introduced where perovskite lanthanum nickel oxide nanoparticles (LaNiO3 NP) are encapsulated by high surface area network of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) to produce highly active and durable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications. The unique composite morphology of IT-CCBC not only enhances the charge transport property by providing rapid electron-conduction pathway but also facilitates in diffusion of hydroxyl and oxygen reactants through the highly porous framework. Confirmed by electrochemical half-cell testing, IT-CCBC in fact exhibits very strong synergy between LaNiO3 NP and NCNT demonstrating bifunctionality with significantly improved catalytic activities of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Furthermore, when compared to the state-of-art catalysts, IT-CCBC outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C in terms of ORR and OER, respectively, and shows improved electrochemical stability compared to them after cycle degradation testing. The practicality of the catalyst is corroborated by testing in a realistic rechargeable zinc-air battery utilizing atmospheric air in ambient conditions, where IT-CCBC demonstrates superior charge and discharge voltages and long-term cycle stability with virtually no battery voltage fading. These improved electrochemical properties of the catalyst are attributed to the nanosized dimensions of LaNiO3 NP controlled by simple hydrothermal technique, which enables prolific growth of and encapsulation by highly porous NCNT network. The excellent electrochemical results presented in this study highlight IT-CCBC as highly efficient and commercially viable bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery applications.

  20. LaNi{sub 5{minus}x}M{sub x} metal hydride alloys for alkaline rechargeable cells

    SciTech Connect

    Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Fultz, B.; Ratnakumar, B.V.

    1997-12-01

    This work centers on making alloy modifications to LaNi{sub 5} by replacing Ni with various metal elements. The primary goal of the alloy modifications is to stabilize the alloy during electrochemical cycling in an alkaline medium. The reasons that some elements promote cyclic stability are explored, and the relative magnitude of their effect is Ge > Sn > Si > Ga > Al > In > Ni. Other properties are determined for each alloy, such as maximum capacity, charge transfer kinetics, hydrogen diffusion, charge overpotentials, and charge efficiency. Alloy microstructural information is measured by X-ray diffraction, and gas-phase.

  1. Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-11-01

    Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation of chlorine and thereby diminishing the capacity for corrosion. For a primary cell, greater discharge capacity was obtained with thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride electrolytes. Since PMT becomes electrically insulating in the reduced state, this could be used as a built-in safety feature to avert the hazards associated with abuse over-discharge.

  2. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    3SO 2 electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 240"C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). Cathodes were placed in a Parr... LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL R.C. McDonald R. Vierra P. Harris M. Guentert F. Goebel C. Todino S. Hossain Yardney Technical Products, Inc. 82 Mechanic...61" INK rYPOT I AM 9al covmw 4 November 1991 Final Rpt: Sep 88 to Feb 91 ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL C: DAAL01-88-C-0849 R C

  3. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  4. Rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The cycling performance of a secondary lithium cell with a 2-methyl THF lithium hectofluorarsenate electrolyte is discussed. Stripping efficiency, dendritization, passivation on standing, and discharge efficiency are considered.

  5. Two-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Liao, Ting; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Ziqi

    2017-04-10

    The exponential increase in research focused on two-dimensional (2D) metal oxides has offered an unprecedented opportunity for their use in energy conversion and storage devices, especially for promising next-generation rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), as well as some post-lithium batteries, including lithium-sulfur batteries, lithium-air batteries, etc. The introduction of well-designed 2D metal oxide nanomaterials into next-generation rechargeable batteries has significantly enhanced the performance of these energy-storage devices by providing higher chemically active interfaces, shortened ion-diffusion lengths, and improved in-plane carrier-/charge-transport kinetics, which have greatly promoted the development of nanotechnology and the practical application of rechargeable batteries. Here, the recent progress in the application of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in a series of rechargeable LIBs, NIBs, and other post lithium-ion batteries is reviewed relatively comprehensively. Current opportunities and future challenges for the application of 2D nanomaterials in energy-storage devices to achieve high energy density, high power density, stable cyclability, etc. are summarized and outlined. It is believed that the integration of 2D metal oxide nanomaterials in these clean energy devices offers great opportunities to address challenges driven by increasing global energy demands. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 2406C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). 3 Cathodes were placed in a Parr Bomb...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald, P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...Test Group 3 13 Test Group 4 22 Test Group 5 22 Test Group 6 24 Test Group 7 46 Test Group 8 52 Test Group 9 65 I CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 65 LITHIUM CYCLING

  7. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  8. Growth of oxygen bubbles during recharge process in zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Chen, Huicui; Xu, Huachi; Chen, Dongfang; Xing, Haoqiang

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable zinc-air battery used for energy storage has a serious problem of charging capacity limited by oxygen bubble coalescence. Fast removal of oxygen bubbles adhered to the charging electrode surface is of great importance for improving the charging performance of the battery. Here we show that the law of oxygen bubble growth can be achieved by means of phase-field simulation, revealing two phenomena of bubble detachment and bubble coalescence located in the charging electrode on both sides. Hydrodynamic electrolyte and partial insulation structure of the charging electrode are investigated to solve the problem of oxygen bubble coalescence during charging. Two types of rechargeable zinc-air battery are developed on the basis of different tri-electrode configurations, demonstrating that the charging performance of the battery with electrolyte flow (Ⅰ) is better than that of the battery with the partially insulated electrode (Ⅱ), while the battery Ⅱ is superior to the battery Ⅰ in the discharging performance, cost and portability. The proposed solutions and results would be available for promoting commercial application of rechargeable zinc-air batteries or other metal-air batteries.

  9. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-09-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  10. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  11. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10to20mA/cm2. The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150mA/cm2, respectively.

  12. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  13. Li-air, rechargeable, solid-state batteries using graphene and boron nitride aerogel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergen, Onur; Thoan Pham, Thang; Demaio-Turner, Sally; Zettl, Alex

    The recent explosion of research on Li-Air batteries has provided new insights into developing more efficient air cathodes. Graphene and boron nitride aerogel matrix is anticipated to be an ideal candidate to produce a high throughput air-breathing system. We developed a Li-Air battery model that accounts for efficient O2 throughput. These unique aerogel matrices exhibit the ability to orient the O2 passing through and keep out H2O, CO2, and N2. Thus, the solid-state cells demonstrate a long cycle life, thermal stability, and high rechargeable characteristics. These cells also show an explicit discharge capacity with a constant discharge current density of 0.1mA/cm2. 1 Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Ca 94720, USA 2 Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Ca, 94720, USA 3 Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, Ca, 94720, US.

  14. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  15. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  16. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Stanley C.; Evans, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  17. Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    An electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human hair array is demonstrated in a zinc-air battery. The hair-like array of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanopetals in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh. This electrode produces both flexibility and improved battery performance, and thus fully manifests the advantages of flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries in practical applications.

  18. 3D Ordered Mesoporous Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for Electrically Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Gyu; Lee, Dong Un; Seo, Min Ho; Cano, Zachary Paul; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-05-01

    To enhance energy efficiency and durability, a highly active and durable 3D ordered mesoporous cobalt oxide framework has been developed for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The bifunctional air electrode consisting of 3DOM Co3 O4 having high active surface area and robust structure, results in superior charge and discharge battery voltages, and durable performance for electrically rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  19. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Hor, T. S. Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm-2) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization

  20. Recycling application of Li-MnO₂ batteries as rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tianran; Cheng, Fangyi; Zhao, Qing; Han, Xiaopeng; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-27

    The ever-increasing consumption of a huge quantity of lithium batteries, for example, Li-MnO2 cells, raises critical concern about their recycling. We demonstrate herein that decayed Li-MnO2 cells can be further utilized as rechargeable lithium-air cells with admitted oxygen. We further investigated the effects of lithiated manganese dioxide on the electrocatalytic properties of oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR/OER). The catalytic activity was found to be correlated with the composition of Li(x)MnO2 electrodes (0cells owing to tuning of the Mn valence and electronic structure. In particular, modestly lithiated Li(0.50)MnO2 exhibited superior performance with enhanced round-trip efficiency (ca. 76%), high cycling ability (190 cycles), and high discharge capacity (10,823 mA h g(carbon)(-1)). The results indicate that the use of depleted Li-MnO2 batteries can be prolonged by their application as rechargeable lithium-air batteries.

  1. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  2. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  3. High rechargeable sodium metal-conducting polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, A.; Trottier, J.; Gagnon, C.; Barray, F.; Zaghib, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries accelerated the wireless revolution over the last two decades, and they are now a mature technology for transportation applications in electric vehicles (EV). However, numerous studies have concluded that the proven lithium reserves can hardly absorb the growth in demand. Therefore, sustainable sodium batteries are being considered to overcome the lithium resource shortages that may arise from large-scale application in EVs and stationary energy storage. It is difficult to find a suitable host material for reversible Na-ion storage due to the size of the Na+ ion (0.102 nm) compared to the Li+ ion (0.076 nm). Here we report a low cost and simple sodium technology that is based on a metal-free cathode material. Sodium metal was used as the anode with a conducting polymer cathode and electrochemically tested in a liquid electrolyte. With this technology, a host material for Na intercalation is not required, and because a polymer conductor is used, the size of the Na ion is not an issue.

  4. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, ;drying out;, and carbonate precipitation.

  5. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  6. Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells

    DOEpatents

    Joy, Richard W.; Smith, David F.

    1983-01-01

    A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  7. Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammone, R. J.; Binder, M.

    1986-04-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a rechargeable electrochemical cell that permits the oxidation of dithionite to occur without using chlorine as an intermediate oxidizing agent. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by providing an electrolyte including bromine dissolved in the liquid complex Li(s02)3A1C14.

  8. Defect Engineering toward Atomic Co-Nx -C in Hierarchical Graphene for Rechargeable Flexible Solid Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-07

    Rechargeable flexible solid Zn-air battery, with a high theoretical energy density of 1086 Wh kg(-1) , is among the most attractive energy technologies for future flexible and wearable electronics; nevertheless, the practical application is greatly hindered by the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) kinetics on the air electrode. Precious metal-free functionalized carbon materials are widely demonstrated as the most promising candidates, while it still lacks effective synthetic methodology to controllably synthesize carbocatalysts with targeted active sites. This work demonstrates the direct utilization of the intrinsic structural defects in nanocarbon to generate atomically dispersed Co-Nx -C active sites via defect engineering. As-fabricated Co/N/O tri-doped graphene catalysts with highly active sites and hierarchical porous scaffolds exhibit superior ORR/OER bifunctional activities and impressive applications in rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Specifically, when integrated into a rechargeable and flexible solid Zn-air battery, a high open-circuit voltage of 1.44 V, a stable discharge voltage of 1.19 V, and a high energy efficiency of 63% at 1.0 mA cm(-2) are achieved even under bending. The defect engineering strategy provides a new concept and effective methodology for the full utilization of nanocarbon materials with various structural features and further development of advanced energy materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Disordered anodes for Ni-metal rechargeable battery

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Kwo-hsiung; Wang, Lixin; Mays, William C.

    2016-11-22

    An electrochemical cell is provided that includes a structurally and compositionally disordered electrochemically active alloy material as an anode active material with unexpected capacity against a nickel hydroxide based cathode active material. The disordered metal hydroxide alloy includes three or more transition metal elements and is formed in such a way so as to produce the necessary disorder in the overall system. When an anode active material includes nickel as a predominant, the resulting cells represent the first demonstration of a functional Ni/Ni cell.

  10. Investigation on the heavy-metal content of zinc-air button cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke; Recknagel, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a German government project (initiated by the Federal Environment Agency) to check the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance concerning their heavy metal contents, 18 different types of commercially available zinc-air button cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. After microwave assisted dissolution with aqua regia, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Hg was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd contents were found to be much lower than the permitted limits; Pb contents were also found to be below the limits. Hg contents were found to be near the limits, and in one case the limit was exceeded.

  11. Challenges and Prospect of Non-aqueous Non-alkali (NANA) Metal-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Danny; Shvartsev, Boris; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Non-aqueous non-alkali (NANA) metal-air battery technologies promise to provide electrochemical energy storage with the highest specific energy density. Metal-air battery technology is particularly advantageous being implemented in long-range electric vehicles. Up to now, almost all the efforts in the field are focused on Li-air cells, but other NANA metal-air battery technologies emerge. The major concern, which the research community should be dealing with, is the limited and rather poor rechargeability of these systems. The challenges we are covering in this review are related to the initial limited discharge capacities and cell performances. By comprehensively reviewing the studies conducted so far, we show that the implementation of advanced materials is a promising approach to increase metal-air performance and, particularly, metal surface activation as a prime achievement leading to respectful discharge currents. In this review, we address the most critical areas that need careful research attention in order to achieve progress in the understanding of the physical and electrochemical processes in non-aqueous electrolytes applied in beyond lithium and zinc air generation of metal-air battery systems.

  12. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; McCatty, S. A.

    1991-09-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  14. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  15. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  16. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  17. NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

  18. 12-Crown-4 Ether Improves Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan I.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show addition of 12-crown-4 ether (12Cr4) to thin film of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and LiBF4 reduces charge-transfer resistance of film and enhances performance of electrochemical cell in which film is electrolyte, anode is lithium, and cathode is LixCoO2. By increasing conductivity of the electrolyte, 12Cr4 reduces polarization loss; enabling cell to sustain higher current. Result is new type of rechargeable lithium cell.

  19. Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

  20. Development of Carbon Anode for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. -K.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Conventionally, rechargeable lithium cells employ a pure lithium anode. To overcome problems associated with the pure lithium electrode, it has been proposed to replace the conventional electrode with an alternative material having a greater stability with respect to the cell electrolytes. For this reason, several graphitic and coke based carbonaceous materials were evaluated as candidate anode materials...In this paper, we summarize the results of the studies on Li-ion cell development.

  1. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-07-01

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ*-orbital (eg) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O22-/OH- displacement and OH- regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  2. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-06-12

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ-orbital (e(g)) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O(2)(2-)/OH(-) displacement and OH(-) regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  3. Durable rechargeable zinc-air batteries with neutral electrolyte and manganese oxide catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumboja, Afriyanti; Ge, Xiaoming; Zheng, Guangyuan; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2016-11-01

    Neutral chloride-based electrolyte and directly grown manganese oxide on carbon paper are used as the electrolyte and air cathode respectively for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions on manganese oxide show dependence of activities on the pH of the electrolyte. Zn-air batteries with chloride-based electrolyte and manganese oxide catalyst exhibit satisfactory voltage profile (discharge and charge voltage of 1 and 2 V at 1 mA cm-2) and excellent cycling stability (≈90 days of continuous cycle test), which is attributed to the reduced carbon corrosion on the air cathode and decreased carbonation in neutral electrolyte. This work describes a robust electrolyte system that improves the cycle life of rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

  4. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  5. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  6. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  7. Impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Svärd, Bo

    2003-01-20

    The use of portable rechargeable battery cells and their effects on global metal flows were assessed or the following three cases: (1) the base case, which reflects the situation in 1999 of the global production of batteries; (2) the global production of portable nickel-cadmium batteries in 1999, assumed to be replaced by other battery types; and (3) assessment of the projected battery market in 2009. The study included the following battery technologies: nickel-cadmium (NiCd); nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) (AB(5), AB(2)); and lithium-based batteries (Li-ion: Co, Ni, Mn; Li-polymer: V). Based on the lithospheric extraction indicator (LEI), which is the ratio of anthropogenic to natural metal flows, and the significance of battery production related to global metal mining, the potential environmental impact of metals used in different battery types was evaluated. The LEIs and average metal demand for the battery market in 1999, expressed as a percentage of global mining output in 1999, were estimated to be as follows: Ni 5.6 (2.0%); Cd 4.4 (37%); Li 0.65 (3.8%); V 0.33 (6.5%); Co 0.18 (15%); Nd 0.18 (8.4%); La 0.10 (9.5%); Ce 0.083 (4.4%); and Pr 0.073 (9.4%). The use of Ni and Cd is of the greatest environmental interest, due to their high LEIs. In the case of complete replacement of portable NiCd batteries by NiMH or Li-based batteries, the LEI for Ni (5.6) would change by -0.1-0.5% and the LEI for Cd would decrease from 4.4 to 3.0 (-31%). Meanwhile, the mobilization of metals considered less hazardous than Cd (LEI 0 < 5) would increase less than 7%. Based on this assessment, the replacement of NiCd batteries would result in decreased environmental impact. To decrease the impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable batteries the following points should be considered: (1) development of battery technologies should aim at high energy density and long service life; (2) metals with high natural occurrence should be used; and (3) metals from disused

  8. NiMn layered double hydroxides as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction and their application in rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Sumboja, Afriyanti; Chen, Jingwei; Zong, Yun; Lee, Pooi See; Liu, Zhaolin

    2017-01-05

    High performance catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are in demand to improve the re-chargeability of Zn-air batteries. In this work, atomically dispersed NiMn layered double hydroxides are prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis and tested as the OER catalyst in rechargeable Zn-air batteries. NiMn layered double hydroxides with the optimized Ni : Mn molar feeding ratio have good crystallinity, big interlayer spacing, and large surface area, which are beneficial to enhance their catalytic activity. They are highly active and stable during the OER, showing an overpotential of 0.35 V, a Tafel slope of 40 mV dec(-1), and remarkable stability during 16 h of a chronopotentiometry test. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries with NiMn layered double hydroxides as the OER catalyst exhibit a low charge voltage of ≈2 V which is stable for up to 200 cycles. This study illustrates a platform to enhance the catalytic activity of the OER catalyst via fine-tuning the composition and physical properties of the materials and their application for rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  9. Co3O4 nanoparticles decorated carbon nanofiber mat as binder-free air-cathode for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F W Thomas; Hor, T S Andy; Geng, Dongsheng; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun

    2015-02-07

    An efficient, durable and low cost air-cathode is essential for a high performance metal-air battery for practical applications. Herein, we report a composite bifunctional catalyst, Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs), working as an efficient air-cathode in high performance rechargeable Zn-air batteries (ZnABs). The particles-on-fibers nanohybrid materials were derived from electrospun metal-ion containing polymer fibers followed by thermal carbonization and a post annealing process in air at a moderate temperature. Electrochemical studies suggest that the nanohybrid material effectively catalyzes oxygen reduction reaction via an ideal 4-electron transfer process and outperforms Pt/C in catalyzing oxygen evolution reactions. Accordingly, the prototype ZnABs exhibit a low discharge-charge voltage gap (e.g. 0.7 V, discharge-charge at 2 mA cm(-2)) with higher stability and longer cycle life compared to their counterparts constructed using Pt/C in air-cathode. Importantly, the hybrid nanofiber mat readily serves as an integrated air-cathode without the need of any further modification. Benefitting from its efficient catalytic activities and structural advantages, particularly the 3D architecture of highly conductive CNFs and the high loading density of strongly attached Co3O4 NPs on their surfaces, the resultant ZnABs show significantly improved performance with respect to the rate capability, cycling stability and current density, promising good potential in practical applications.

  10. Metal-air cells comprising collapsible foam members and means for minimizing internal pressure buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Glenn (Inventor); Putt, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a prismatic zinc-air cell including, in general, a prismatic container having therein an air cathode, a separator and a zinc anode. The container has one or more oxygen access openings, and the air cathode is disposed in the container in gaseous communication with the oxygen access openings so as to allow access of oxygen to the cathode. The separator has a first side in electrolytic communication with the air cathode and a second side in electrolytic communication with the zinc anode. The separator isolates the cathode and the zinc anode from direct electrical contact and allows passage of electrolyte therebetween. An expansion chamber adjacent to the zinc anode is provided which accommodates expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. A suitable collapsible foam member generally occupies the expansion space, providing sufficient resistance tending to oppose movement of the zinc anode away from the separator while collapsing upon expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. One or more vent openings disposed in the container are in gaseous communication with the expansion space, functioning to satisfactorily minimize the pressure buildup within the container by venting gasses expelled as the foam collapses during cell discharge.

  11. Surface-Tuned Co3O4 Nanoparticles Dispersed on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as an Efficient Cathode Electrocatalyst for Mechanical Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery Application.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh K; Dhavale, Vishal M; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-09-30

    The most vital component of the fuel cells and metal-air batteries is the electrocatalyst, which can facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a significantly reduced overpotential. The present work deals with the development of surface-tuned cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles dispersed on nitrogen-doped graphene as a potential ORR electrocatalyst possessing some unique advantages. The thermally reduced nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) was decorated with three different morphologies of Co3O4 nanoparticles, viz., cubic, blunt edged cubic, and spherical, by using a simple hydrothermal method. We found that the spherical Co3O4 nanoparticle supported NGr catalyst (Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h) has acquired a significant activity makeover to display the ORR activity closely matching with the state-of-the-art Pt supported carbon (PtC) catalyst in alkaline medium. Subsequently, the Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h catalyst has been utilized as the air electrode in a Zn-air battery, which was found to show comparable performance to the system derived from PtC. Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h catalyst has shown several hours of flat discharge profile at the discharge rates of 10, 20, and 50 mA/cm(2) with a specific capacity and energy density of ~590 mAh/g-Zn and ~840 Wh/kg-Zn, respectively, in the primary Zn-air battery system. In conjunction, Co3O4-SP/NGr-24h has outperformed as an air electrode in mechanical rechargeable Zn-air battery as well, which has shown consistent flat discharge profile with minimal voltage loss at a discharge rate of 50 mA/cm(2). The present results, thus demonstrate that the proper combination of the tuned morphology of Co3O4 with NGr will be a promising and inexpensive material for efficient and ecofriendly cathodes for Zn-air batteries.

  12. Flexible High-Energy Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Lee, Dong Un; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Yang, Lin; Bai, Zhengyu; Park, Moon Gyu; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-07

    A thin-film, flexible, and rechargeable zinc-air battery having high energy density is reported particularly for emerging portable and wearable electronic applications. This freeform battery design is the first demonstrated by sandwiching a porous-gelled polymer electrolyte with a freestanding zinc film and a bifunctional catalytic electrode film. The flexibility of both the electrode films and polymer electrolyte membrane gives great freedom in tailoring the battery geometry and performance.

  13. Do-It-Yourself Additives Recharge Auto Air Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In planning for a return mission to the Moon, NASA aimed to improve the thermal control systems that keep astronauts comfortable and cool while inside a spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Mainstream Engineering Corporation, of Rockledge, Florida, to develop a chemical/mechanical heat pump. IDQ Inc., of Garland, Texas, exclusively licensed the technology and incorporates it into its line of Arctic Freeze products for automotive air conditioning applications. While working on the design, Mainstream Engineering came up with a unique liquid additive called QwikBoost to enhance the performance of the advanced heat pump design.

  14. Air pollution-related metals induce differential cytokine responses in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Øvrevik, J; Totlandsdal, A I; Lilleaas, E M; Thormodsæter, A; Holme, J A; Schwarze, P E; Refsnes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different transition metals have been shown to induce inflammatory responses in lung. We have compared eight different metal ions with regard to cytokine responses, cytotoxicity and signalling mechanisms in a human lung epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B). Among the metal ions tested, there were large differences with respect to pro-inflammatory potential. Exposure to Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and As(3+) induced CXCL8 and IL-6 release at concentrations below 100μM, and Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) at concentrations above 200μM. In contrast, VO4(3-), Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) did not induce any significant increase of these cytokines. An expression array of 20 inflammatory relevant genes also showed a marked up-regulation of CXCL10, IL-10, IL-13 and CSF2 by one or more of the metal ions. The most potent metals, Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and As(3+) induced highest levels of oxidative activity, and ROS appeared to be central in their CXCL8 and IL-6 responses. Activation of the MAPK p38 seemed to be a critical mediator. However, the NF-κB pathway appeared predominately to be involved only in Zn(2+)- and As(3+)-induced CXCL8 and IL-6 responses. Thus, the most potent metals Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and As(3+) seemed to induce a similar pattern for the cytokine responses, and with some exceptions, via similar signalling mechanisms.

  15. Status of the development of rechargeable lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.; Shen, D.; Huang, C-K.; Narayanan, S.; Vamos, E.; Perrone, D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress in the development of the ambient temperature lithium - titanium disulfide rechargeable cell under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described in this paper. Originally aimed at achieving a specific energy of 100 Wh/kg, 'AA' cells have demonstrated 125 Wh/kg at the C/3 discharge rate. The results of evaluating cell design parameters are discussed and cycling test data are also included in the paper. Safety tests results at various over-charge and over discharge conditions and rates proved to be uneventful. The test results of cell with built-in overcharge mechanism proved the concept was feasible. Replacing the lithium foil electrode with a Li(x)C resulted in a capacity at 1mA/cm(exp 2) of 200 mAh/gm and 235 mAh/gm at 0.167 mA.

  16. Metal-air battery assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Tolerance of non-platinum group metals cathodes proton exchange membrane fuel cells to air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Matanovic, Ivana; Sarah Stariha; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-08-01

    The effects of major airborne contaminants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the spatial performance of Fe/N/C cathode membrane electrode assemblies were studied using a segmented cell system. The injection of 2-10 ppm SO2 in air stream did not cause any performance decrease and redistribution of local currents due to the lack of stably adsorbed SO2 molecules on Fe-Nx sites, as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The introduction of 5-20 ppm of CO into the air stream also did not affect fuel cell performance. The exposure of Fe/N/C cathodes to 2 and 10 ppm NO2 resulted in performance losses of 30 and 70-75 mV, respectively. DFT results showed that the adsorption energies of NO2 and NO were greater than that of O2, which accounted for the observed voltage decrease and slight current redistribution. The cell performance partially recovered when the NO2 injection was stopped. The long-term operation of the fuel cells resulted in cell performance degradation. XPS analyses of Fe/N/C electrodes revealed that the performance decrease was due to catalyst degradation and ionomer oxidation. The latter was accelerated in the presence of air contaminants. The details of the spatial performance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results are presented and discussed.

  18. Rechargeable silver-modified mercuric oxide-zinc cell for cardiac pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Tyers, G F; Hughes, H C; Brownlee, R R; Manley, N J; Gorman, I N

    1976-11-04

    Tests were conducted on rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker batteries under simulated and actual biologic conditions, using a variety of discharge rates and charging schedules. In tests on 96 cells at a 6.4 milliampere (ma) discharge, recharging once every 15 months of simulated pacing at a 25 microampere (mua) drain, the earliest cell failure occurred after an equivalent of 50 years of pacing. The mean pacing equivalent for all 96 cells was more than 140 years. In 6.4 ma discharge tests on 24 cells, recharging once every 8 days of simulated pacing, only 1 cell in 24 failed after an equivalent of more than 500 years of pacing (actual time 2 years). In tests on 13 cells pacing at a 200 mua drain without recharging, the simulated mean duration of pacing before total discharge was 4.8 years. Seven other cells at a 200 mua drain with periodic recharging continue to function normally after more than 7 years of actual time, simulating 56 years of pacing at a 25 mua drain. Cardiac pacemakers using the rechargeable mercury-zinc cell have been implanted in animals for more than 2 1/2 years and in patients for more than 1 year with all units continuing to function satisfactorily. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that a rechargeable mercury-zinc pacemaker will function continuously for more than 4 years without recharging and that periodic recharging will extend pacing life far beyond that predicted for lithium and nuclear primary power sources.

  19. Semi-rechargeable Aluminum-Air Battery with a TiO2 Internal Layer with Plain Salt Water as an Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    To develop a semi-rechargeable aluminum-air battery, we attempted to insert various kinds of ceramic oxides between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and an aluminum anode. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, we found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation-reduction reaction, which indicates the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. Using a TiO2 film as an internal layer, we successfully prepared an aluminum-air battery with secondary battery behavior. However, cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded probably because of accumulation of byproducts in the cell components and the air cathode. Results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer.

  20. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  1. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells for solar rechargeable aircraft and zero emission vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Colella, Nicholas J.; Myers, Blake

    1994-09-01

    A unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) produces power and electrolytically regenerates its reactants using a single stack of reversible cells. URFC'S have been designed for high altitude long endurance (HALE) solar rechargeable aircraft (SRA), zero emission vehicles (ZEV's), hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for long duration satellites, energy storage for remote (off-grid) power sources, and peak shaving for on-grid applications. URFC's have been considered using hydrogen/oxygen, hydrogen/air, or hydrogen/halogen chemistries. This discussion is limited to the lightweight URFC energy storage system designs for span-loaded HALE SRA using hydrogen/oxygen, and for ZEV's using hydrogen/air with oxygen supercharging. Overlapping and synergistic development and testing opportunities for these two technologies will be highlighted.

  2. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  3. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1995-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing one or more hydroxides having the formula M(OH), one or more fluorides having the formula MF, and one or more carbonates having the formula M.sub.2 CO.sub.3, where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of alkali metals. The electrolyte inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  4. A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Gregory Michael

    The dissertation reports on the use of block copolymer electrolytes in rechargeable lithium metal batteries. The block copolymer studied is a polystyrene- block-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) block copolymer with roughly equal volume fractions of each block. A variety of molecular weights these symmetric SEO copolymers are reported on. A series of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) homopolymer electrolytes are also studied to serve as controls. The focus of this dissertation is on the failure of batteries with these block copolymer electrolytes and the structure of the block copolymer electrolytes during operation. The failure mechanism of interest is dendrite formation on the lithium metal electrode during recharge. These dendrites grow through the electrolyte, reach the other electrode, and short-circuit the battery. A comparative study was performed with both the SEO and PEO electrolytes. The study focuses on the total operation time of these electrolytes before the short-circuit occurs. The SEO electrolytes microphase separated into a lamellar microstructure. The microstructure of the SEO electrolytes increase that amount of charge that can be passed before short-circuit by a factor of 11-48 over PEO electrolytes indicating an enhanced resistance to dendrite formation. A disordered SEO electrolyte (no microstructure) showed no improvement over PEO electrolytes. The applied current density and charging time were also varied to determine the effect these experimental conditions have on short-circuit due to dendrite formation in SEO electrolytes. To further understand this failure mechanism, the coverage and size of nonuniform, dendritic structures is studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For the homopolymer electrolyte after short-circuit, the fractional surface coverage of these nonuniform structures on the lithium metal electrode is low (0.11 ± 0.04). For the microstructured block copolymer electrolyte, the fractional surface coverage of

  5. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  6. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Shen, D. H.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    The two-terminal alternating current impedance of Li/TiS2 rechargeable cells was studied as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li/TiS2 cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters evaluated for cells cycled 5 times were compared with the parameters of cells cycled over 600 times. The findings are that the combined ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and electrodes suffers a tenfold increase after extended cycling, while the charge-transfer resistance and diffusional impedance at the TiS2/electrolyte interface are not significantIy affected. The results reflect the morphological change and increase in area of the anode due to cycling. The study also shows that overdischarge of a cathode-limited cell causes a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion in the cathode.

  8. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-20

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm(-2). At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm(-2) is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm(-2), and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  9. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-01-01

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm−2. At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm−2 is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm−2, and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte. PMID:27646032

  10. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-01

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm‑2. At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm‑2 is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm‑2, and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  11. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-02-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system.

  12. A new ether-based electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium-metal based rechargeable batteries

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Rongrong; Yang, Jun; Xu, Zhixin; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna; Sun, Limin

    2016-01-01

    A new ether-based electrolyte to match lithium metal electrode is prepared by introducing 1, 4-dioxane as co-solvent into lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane solution. Under the synergetic effect of solvents and salt, this simple liquid electrolyte presents stable Li cycling with dendrite-free Li deposition even at relatively high current rate, high coulombic efficiency of ca. 98%, and good anodic stability up to ~4.87 V vs Li RE. Its excellent performance will open up a new possibility for high energy-density rechargeable Li metal battery system. PMID:26878890

  13. Defect Engineering of Chalcogen-Tailored Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Quasi-Solid-State Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy M; Zhong, Cheng; Lu, Jun; Liu, Han; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-09-01

    A critical bottleneck limiting the performance of rechargeable zinc-air batteries lies in the inefficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions at the air electrodes. Hybridizing transition-metal oxides with functional graphene materials has shown great advantages due to their catalytic synergism. However, both the mediocre catalytic activity of metal oxides and the restricted 2D mass/charge transfer of graphene render these hybrid catalysts inefficient. Here, an effective strategy combining anion substitution, defect engineering, and the dopant effect to address the above two critical issues is shown. This strategy is demonstrated on a hybrid catalyst consisting of sulfur-deficient cobalt oxysulfide single crystals and nitrogen-doped graphene nanomeshes (CoO0.87 S0.13 /GN). The defect chemistries of both oxygen-vacancy-rich, nonstoichiometric cobalt oxysulfides and edge-nitrogen-rich graphene nanomeshes lead to a remarkable improvement in electrocatalytic performance, where CoO0.87 S0.13 /GN exhibits strongly comparable catalytic activity to and much better stability than the best-known benchmark noble-metal catalysts. In application to quasi-solid-state zinc-air batteries, CoO0.87 S0.13 /GN as a freestanding catalyst assembly benefits from both structural integrity and enhanced charge transfer to achieve efficient and very stable cycling operation over 300 cycles with a low discharge-charge voltage gap of 0.77 V at 20 mA cm(-2) under ambient conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Increasing light capture in silicon solar cells with encapsulants incorporating air prisms to reduce metallic contact losses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Hao; Pathreeker, Shreyas; Kaur, Jaspreet; Hosein, Ian D

    2016-10-31

    Silicon solar cells are the most widely deployed modules owing to their low-cost manufacture, large market, and suitable efficiencies for residential and commercial use. Methods to increase their solar energy collection must be easily integrated into module fabrication. We perform a theoretical and experimental study on the light collection properties of an encapsulant that incorporates a periodic array of air prisms, which overlay the metallic front contacts of silicon solar cells. We show that the light collection efficiency induced by the encapsulant depends on both the shape of the prisms and angle of incidence of incoming light. We elucidate the changes in collection efficiency in terms of the ray paths and reflection mechanisms in the encapsulant. We fabricated the encapsulant from a commercial silicone and studied the change in the external quantum efficiency (EQE) on an encapsulated, standard silicon solar cell. We observe efficiency enhancements, as compared to a uniform encapsulant, over the visible to near infrared region for a range of incident angles. This work demonstrates exactly how a periodic air prism architecture increases light collection, and how it may be designed to maximize light collection over the widest range of incident angles.

  15. Novel Hydrogel-Derived Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Air Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Gengtao; Chen, Yifan; Cui, Zhiming; Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Xin, Sen; Tang, Yawen; Goodenough, John B

    2016-10-12

    The commercialization of Zn-air batteries has been impeded by the lack of low-cost, highly active, and durable catalysts that act independently for oxygen electrochemical reduction and evolution. Here, we demonstrate excellent performance of NiCo nanoparticles anchored on porous fibrous carbon aerogels (NiCo/PFC aerogels) as bifunctional catalysts toward the Zn-air battery. This material is designed and synthesized by a novel K2Ni(CN)4/K3Co(CN)6-chitosan hydrogel-derived method. The outstanding performance of NiCo/PFC aerogels is confirmed as a superior air-cathode catalyst for a rechargeable Zn-air battery. At a discharge-charge current density of 10 mA cm(-2), the NiCo/PFC aerogels enable a Zn-air battery to cycle steadily up to 300 cycles for 600 h with only a small increase in the round-trip overpotential, notably outperforming the more costly Pt/C+IrO2 mixture catalysts (60 cycles for 120 h). With the simplicity of the synthetic method and the outstanding electrocatalytic performance, the NiCo/PFC aerogels are promising electrocatalysts for Zn-air batteries.

  16. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  17. Oxide Fiber Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Catherine E.; Welker, Mark F.

    2008-01-01

    LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 fibers have been investigated as alternatives to LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 powders used as lithium-intercalation compounds in cathodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells. In making such a cathode, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 powder is mixed with a binder [e.g., poly(vinylidene fluoride)] and an electrically conductive additive (usually carbon) and the mixture is pressed to form a disk. The binder and conductive additive contribute weight and volume, reducing the specific energy and energy density, respectively. In contrast, LiCoO2 or LiNiO2 fibers can be pressed and sintered to form a cathode, without need for a binder or a conductive additive. The inter-grain contacts of the fibers are stronger and have fewer defects than do those of powder particles. These characteristics translate to increased flexibility and greater resilience on cycling and, consequently, to reduced loss of capacity from cycle to cycle. Moreover, in comparison with a powder-based cathode, a fiber-based cathode is expected to exhibit significantly greater ionic and electronic conduction along the axes of the fibers. Results of preliminary charge/discharge-cycling tests suggest that energy densities of LiCoO2- and LiNiO2-fiber cathodes are approximately double those of the corresponding powder-based cathodes.

  18. Rechargeable 3 V Li cells using hydrated lamellar manganese oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, S.; Pereira-Ramos, J.P.; Baffier, N.

    1996-11-01

    The synthesis and the electrochemical features of hydrated lamellar manganese oxides are reported. The authors use the reduction of aqueous permanganate solution by fumaric acid and the oxidation of manganese hydroxide by an aqueous permanganate solution to obtain sol-gel birnessite and classical X-exchanged birnessites (X = Li, Al, Na), respectively. The high oxidation state of Mn associated with the 2D character of the hot lattice allows high specific capacities (150 to 200 Ah/kg) available in the potential range of 4 to 2 V. Interlayer water provides the structural stability of the host lattice required for long cycling. Rechargeable two-electrode Li cells using starved or flooded electrolytes were built with the cathodic materials. The batteries exhibit a satisfactory behavior with a specific capacity of 160 Ah/kg recovered after 30 cycles at the C/20 discharge-charge rate for the sol-gel birnessite. This paper demonstrates an interest in cathodic materials based on oxides containing structural water for use in secondary Li batteries.

  19. Ni-Fe Nitride Nanoplates on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Synergistic Catalyst for Reversible Oxygen Evolution Reaction and Rechargeable Zn-Air Battery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuchi; Ida, Shintaro; Staykov, Aleksandar; Akbay, Taner; Hagiwara, Hidehisa; Matsuda, Junko; Kaneko, Kenji; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining bifunctional electrocatalysts with high activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a main hurdle in the application of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Earth-abundant 3d transition metal-based catalysts have been developed for the OER and ORR; however, most of these are based on oxides, whose insulating nature strongly restricts their catalytic performance. This study describes a metallic Ni-Fe nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrid in which 2D Ni-Fe nitride nanoplates are strongly coupled with the graphene support. Electronic structure of the Ni-Fe nitride is changed by hybridizing with the nitrogen-doped graphene. The unique heterostructure of this hybrid catalyst results in very high OER activity with the lowest onset overpotential (150 mV) reported, and good ORR activity comparable to that for commercial Pt/C. The high activity and durability of this bifunctional catalyst are also confirmed in rechargeable zinc-air batteries that are stable for 180 cycles with an overall overpotential of only 0.77 V at 10 mA(-2) . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Co3O4 nanoparticle-modified MnO2 nanotube bifunctional oxygen cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guojun; Liu, Xiaogang; Zong, Yun; Hor, T. S. Andy; Yu, Aishui; Liu, Zhaolin

    2013-05-01

    We report the preparation of MnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Co3O4 nanoparticles and their use as bifunctional air cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable zinc-air batteries. These hybrid MnO2/Co3O4 nanomaterials exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions compared with that in the presence of MnO2 nanotubes or Co3O4 nanoparticles alone.We report the preparation of MnO2 nanotubes functionalized with Co3O4 nanoparticles and their use as bifunctional air cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable zinc-air batteries. These hybrid MnO2/Co3O4 nanomaterials exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions compared with that in the presence of MnO2 nanotubes or Co3O4 nanoparticles alone. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Zinc-air cell device, XPS survey scan and power density of the cell. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00300k

  1. Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of Zn-Co-Mixed Sulfide Nanostructures on Carbon Fiber Paper Toward Efficient Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries and Water Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Han, Xiaopeng; Ma, Xiaoya; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Wenbin

    2017-04-12

    It remains an ongoing challenge to develop cheap, highly active, and stable electrocatalysts to promote the sluggish electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, oxygen reduction, and hydrogen evolution reactions for rechargeable metal-air batteries and water-splitting systems. In this work, we report the morphology-controllable synthesis of zinc cobalt mixed sulfide (Zn-Co-S) nanoarchitectures, including nanosheets, nanoplates, and nanoneedles, grown on conductive carbon fiber paper (CFP) and the micronanostructure dependent electrochemical efficacy for catalyzing hydrogen and oxygen in zinc-air batteries and water electrolysis. The formation of different Zn-Co-S morphologies was attributed to the synergistic effect of decomposed urea products and the corrosion of NH4F. Among synthesized Zn-Co-S nanostructures, the nanoneedle arrays supported on CFP exhibit superior trifunctional activity for oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and hydrogen evolution reactions than its nanosheet and nanoplate counterparts through half reaction testing. It also exhibited better catalytic durability than Pt/C and RuO2. Furthermore, the Zn-Co-S nanoneedle/CFP electrode enables rechargeable Zn-air batteries with low overpotential (0.85 V), high efficiency (58.1%), and long cycling lifetimes (200 cycles) at 10 mA cm(-2) as well as considerable performance for water splitting. The superior performance is contributed to the integrated nanoneedle/CFP nanostructure, which not only provides enhanced electrochemical active area, but also facilitates ion and gas transfer between the catalyst surface and electrolyte, thus maintaining an effective solid-liquid-gas interface necessary for electrocatalysis. These results indicate that the Zn-Co-S nanoneedle/CFP system is a low cost, highly active, and durable electrode for highly efficient rechargeable zinc-air batteries and water electrolysis in alkaline solution.

  2. A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Xu, Yang-Hai; Luo, Zhong-Kuan; Pang, Yan; Wu, Qi-Xing; Liang, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Xiang-hua

    2014-12-01

    Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e- and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm-2 to 0.05 mA cm-2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

  3. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Adam, Getachew; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Drack, Michael; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Leonat, Lucia; Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Groiss, Heiko; Scharber, Markus Clark; White, Matthew Schuette; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Photovoltaic technology requires light-absorbing materials that are highly efficient, lightweight, low cost and stable during operation. Organolead halide perovskites constitute a highly promising class of materials, but suffer limited stability under ambient conditions without heavy and costly encapsulation. Here, we report ultrathin (3 μm), highly flexible perovskite solar cells with stabilized 12% efficiency and a power-per-weight as high as 23 W g(-1). To facilitate air-stable operation, we introduce a chromium oxide-chromium interlayer that effectively protects the metal top contacts from reactions with the perovskite. The use of a transparent polymer electrode treated with dimethylsulphoxide as the bottom layer allows the deposition-from solution at low temperature-of pinhole-free perovskite films at high yield on arbitrary substrates, including thin plastic foils. These ultra-lightweight solar cells are successfully used to power aviation models. Potential future applications include unmanned aerial vehicles-from airplanes to quadcopters and weather balloons-for environmental and industrial monitoring, rescue and emergency response, and tactical security applications.

  4. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Adam, Getachew; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Drack, Michael; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Leonat, Lucia; Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Groiss, Heiko; Scharber, Markus Clark; White, Matthew Schuette; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Bauer, Siegfried

    2015-10-01

    Photovoltaic technology requires light-absorbing materials that are highly efficient, lightweight, low cost and stable during operation. Organolead halide perovskites constitute a highly promising class of materials, but suffer limited stability under ambient conditions without heavy and costly encapsulation. Here, we report ultrathin (3 μm), highly flexible perovskite solar cells with stabilized 12% efficiency and a power-per-weight as high as 23 W g-1. To facilitate air-stable operation, we introduce a chromium oxide-chromium interlayer that effectively protects the metal top contacts from reactions with the perovskite. The use of a transparent polymer electrode treated with dimethylsulphoxide as the bottom layer allows the deposition--from solution at low temperature--of pinhole-free perovskite films at high yield on arbitrary substrates, including thin plastic foils. These ultra-lightweight solar cells are successfully used to power aviation models. Potential future applications include unmanned aerial vehicles--from airplanes to quadcopters and weather balloons--for environmental and industrial monitoring, rescue and emergency response, and tactical security applications.

  5. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  6. Air pollution particles mediated oxidative DNA base damage in a cell free system and in human airway epithelial cells in relation to particulate metal content and bioreactivity.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, A K; Inmon, J; Dailey, L A; Madden, M C; Ghio, A J; Gallagher, J E

    2001-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between increased human morbidity and mortality with exposure to air pollution particulate matter. We hypothesized that such effects may be associated with the ability of the particles to mediate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), either directly, via interaction with ambient oxygen or indirectly through initiation of an oxidative burst in phagocytes. To test this hypothesis, we determined 8-oxo-dG formation as a measure of direct generation of ROS, in response to particulate exposures to 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), free and in calf thymus DNA in aerated solutions as the target molecule and cell culture, to assess the relationship between induction of oxidative damage, particulate metal content and metal bioreactivity. The HPLC-ECD technique was employed for separation and quantification of 8-oxo-dG, the most widely recognized marker of DNA oxidation. Particles used in this study include: Arizona desert dust (AZDD), coal fly ash (CFA and ECFA), oil fly ash (OFA and ROFA), and ambient air [SRM 1649 and Dusseldorf (DUSS), Germany]. The major difference between these particles is the concentration of water-soluble metals. The fly ash particulates OFA and ROFA showed a significant dose-dependent increase in dG hydroxylation to 8-oxo-dG formation over the control dG (p < 0.05), with yields 0.03 and 1.25% at the highest particulate concentration (1 mg/mL). Metal ion chelators and DMSO, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, inhibited this hydroxylation. In contrast, desert dust, coal fly ash and urban air particles induced 8-oxo-dG with yields ranging from 0.003 to 0.006%, respectively, with levels unaffected by pretreatment of the particles with metal ion chelators or addition of DMSO to the incubation mixture. When calf thymus DNA was used as a substrate, all the particles induced 8-oxo-dG in a pattern similar to that observed for dG hydroxylation, but with relatively less yield. Treatment of the particles with metal ion

  7. Air Guide for Sheet-Metal Grinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heermann, T.

    1984-01-01

    Tool attachment reduces heat distortion of sheet. Air-guide attachment directs air from grinder motor to grinding wheel and metal sheet being ground. Cooling air reduces thermal distortion of workpiece due to localized frictional heating. Particularly useful when grinding sheet metal.

  8. Discharge performance of solid-state oxygen shuttle metal-air battery using Ca-stabilized ZrO2 electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Inoishi, Atsushi; Kim, Hack-Ho; Sakai, Takaaki; Ju, Young-Wan; Ida, Shintaro; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-04-13

    The effects of metal choice on the electrochemical performance of oxygen-shuttle metal-air batteries with Ca-stabilized ZrO2 (CSZ) as the electrolyte and various metals as the anodes were studied at 1073 K. The equilibrium oxygen partial pressure (P O 2) in the anode chamber was governed by the metal used in the anode chamber. A lower-P O 2 environment in the anode decreased the polarization resistance of the anode. The oxidation of oxide ions to oxygen in the anode is drastically enhanced by the n-type conduction generated in the CSZ electrolyte when it is exposed to a reducing atmosphere. A high discharge potential and high capacity can be achieved in an oxygen-shuttle battery with a Li or Mg anode because of the fast anode reaction compared to that of cells with a Zn, Fe, or Sn anode. However, only the mildly reducing metals (Zn, Si, Fe, and Sn) can potentially be used in rechargeable metal-air batteries because the transport number of the CSZ electrolyte must be unity during charge and discharge. Oxygen shuttle rechargeable batteries with Fe, and Sn electrodes are demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rechargeable Metal–Air Proton‐Exchange Membrane Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Togo; Oogushi, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rechargeable proton‐exchange membrane batteries that employ organic chemical hydrides as hydrogen‐storage media have the potential to serve as next‐generation power sources; however, significant challenges remain regarding the improvement of the reversible hydrogen‐storage capacity. Here, we address this challenge through the use of metal‐ion redox couples as energy carriers for battery operation. Carbon, with a suitable degree of crystallinity and surface oxygenation, was used as an effective anode material for the metal redox reactions. A Sn0.9In0.1P2O7‐based electrolyte membrane allowed no crossover of vanadium ions through the membrane. The V4+/V3+, V3+/V2+, and Sn4+/Sn2+ redox reactions took place at a more positive potential than that for hydrogen reduction, so that undesired hydrogen production could be avoided. The resulting electrical capacity reached 306 and 258 mAh g−1 for VOSO4 and SnSO4, respectively, and remained at 76 and 91 % of their respective initial values after 50 cycles. PMID:27525212

  10. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  11. Aluminum-air power cell research and development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-02-22

    An aluminum-air battery is under development with the objective of providing an electric vehicle with the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of common automobiles. From tested refuelable cell designs, a wedge-shaped cell was chosen for mechanical simplicity and for its capability of full anode utilization and rapid partial- or full-recharge. The cell uses tin-plated copper tracks to maintain a constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current. Rectangular slabs of aluminum enter the cell under gravity feed and gradually assume the wedge shape during dissolution. The feed is constant and continuous and tin/aluminum junction losses are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second generation wedge cell has been developed which incorporates air- and electrolyte-manifolding into individually-replaceable air-cathode cassettes. A prototype wedge cell using replaceable cassettes was operated simultaneously with a crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between cell and fluidized-bed crystallizer, and particles of sizes greater than 0.015 mm were retained within the crystallizer using a hydrocyclone. Air electrodes have been tested over simulated vehicle drive cycles. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a non-noble metal catalyst (CoTMPP) have been operated for over 1400 drive-cycles. Fuel costs of $1.72/kg-Al (installed) were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8-10 cents/mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. Unalloyed aluminum yields a peak of 4.5 kWh/kg, while an advanced industrial Hall Process and the pilot-plant Alcoa Smelting Process have electrical energy consumptions of 11.3- and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively.

  12. Aluminum-air power cell research and development progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    The wedge-shaped cell design, of the aluminum-air battery being developed, is mechanically simple and capable of full anode utilization and rapid full or partial recharge. To maintain constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current, the cell uses tin-coated copper tracks mounted on removable cassettes. Under gravity feed, slabs of aluminum enter the cell at a continuous and constant rate and gradually assume the wedge shape as they dissolve. Voltage losses at this tin-aluminum junction are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second-generation wedge cell incorporates air and electrolyte manifolding into individually replaceable air-cathode cassettes. Prototype wedge cells of one design were operated simultaneously with a fluidized-bed crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between the cell and crystallizer, and a hydrocyclone was used to retain particles larger than 0.015 mm within the crystallizer. Air electrodes were tested over simulated vehicle drive systems that include a standby phase in cold, supersaturated electrolyte. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a nonnoble metal catalyst have been operated over 1500 cycles (a two-year drive life). The fuel costs of aluminum were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8 to 10 cents per mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. While unalloyed aluminum has a peak electrical energy consumption of 4.5 kWh/kg, the Hall and Alcoa processes consume 11.3 and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively. The significance of these and other energy-use estimates for the 1990s and beyond is discussed.

  13. An Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Battery Using Coated Li Metal as Anode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xujiong; Hou, Yuyang; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage in smart grids requires energy storage systems of good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Here a coated Li metal is used as anode for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) combining LiMn2O4 as cathode and 0.5 mol l−1 Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. Due to the “cross-over” effect of Li+ ions in the coating, this ARLB delivers an output voltage of about 4.0 V, a big breakthrough of the theoretic stable window of water, 1.229 V. Its cycling is very excellent with Coulomb efficiency of 100% except in the first cycle. Its energy density can be 446 Wh kg−1, about 80% higher than that for traditional lithium ion battery. Its power efficiency can be above 95%. Furthermore, its cost is low and safety is much reliable. It provides another chemistry for post lithium ion batteries. PMID:23466633

  14. An aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using coated Li metal as anode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujiong; Hou, Yuyang; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    New energy industry including electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage in smart grids requires energy storage systems of good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost. Here a coated Li metal is used as anode for an aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) combining LiMn2O4 as cathode and 0.5 mol l(-1) Li2SO4 aqueous solution as electrolyte. Due to the "cross-over" effect of Li(+) ions in the coating, this ARLB delivers an output voltage of about 4.0 V, a big breakthrough of the theoretic stable window of water, 1.229 V. Its cycling is very excellent with Coulomb efficiency of 100% except in the first cycle. Its energy density can be 446 Wh kg(-1), about 80% higher than that for traditional lithium ion battery. Its power efficiency can be above 95%. Furthermore, its cost is low and safety is much reliable. It provides another chemistry for post lithium ion batteries.

  15. Impact of recharge variations on water quality as indicated by excess air in groundwater of the Kalahari, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osenbrück, Karsten; Stadler, Susanne; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Suckow, Axel O.; Weise, Stephan M.

    2009-02-01

    Groundwater is an important and often exclusive water resource in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of the present paper was to gain insight into the processes and conditions that control the deterioration of groundwater quality in the semi-arid Kalahari of Botswana. Measurements of 3He, 4He, 20Ne, 22Ne, and of 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were combined with existing isotopic and hydrochemical data to investigate groundwater from the Ntane Sandstone Aquifer, which is affected by high nitrate concentrations of non-anthropogenic origin. All groundwater samples revealed neon concentrations in excess to air-saturated water, which we attributed to the addition of excess air during recharge. Neon concentrations ranged from values close to air saturation for 14C DIC rich samples (up to 80.5%MC) up to values of 90% in excess to air-saturated water for lower 14C DIC contents (2.6-61.3%MC). A strong linear correlation of excess Ne with nitrate concentrations suggests an intimate connection between groundwater quality and the processes and conditions during groundwater recharge. Low groundwater recharge rates under present-day semi-arid conditions are associated with low amounts of excess Ne and elevated nitrate concentrations. In contrast to this, higher excess Ne values in groundwater of lower 14C DIC and nitrate contents indicate that the high quality groundwater end-member presumably is related to higher groundwater table fluctuations during wetter climatic conditions in the past. We attribute the decline in groundwater quality with respect to nitrate to a decreasing rate and temporal variability of groundwater recharge, and to concurrent changes in biogeochemical activities following a transition to a drier climate during the Holocene. Under such conditions, a much stronger decrease in groundwater recharge compared to the release of nitrate from soil organic matter may result in elevated nitrate concentrations in the vadose zone and groundwater. This implies

  16. Bifunctional Transition Metal Hydroxysulfides: Room-Temperature Sulfurization and Their Applications in Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Fan; Tang, Cheng; Wang, Bin; Li, Bo-Quan; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-17

    Bifunctional electrocatalysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) constitutes the bottleneck of various sustainable energy devices and systems like rechargeable metal-air batteries. Emerging catalyst materials are strongly requested toward superior electrocatalytic activities and practical applications. In this study, transition metal hydroxysulfides are presented as bifunctional OER/ORR electrocatalysts for Zn-air batteries. By simply immersing Co-based hydroxide precursor into solution with high-concentration S(2-) , transition metal hydroxides convert to hydroxysulfides with excellent morphology preservation at room temperature. The as-obtained Co-based metal hydroxysulfides are with high intrinsic reactivity and electrical conductivity. The electron structure of the active sites is adjusted by anion modulation. The potential for 10 mA cm(-2) OER current density is 1.588 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and the ORR half-wave potential is 0.721 V versus RHE, with a potential gap of 0.867 V for bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysis. The Co3 FeS1.5 (OH)6 hydroxysulfides are employed in the air electrode for a rechargeable Zn-air battery with a small overpotential of 0.86 V at 20.0 mA cm(-2) , a high specific capacity of 898 mAh g(-1) , and a long cycling life, which is much better than Pt and Ir-based electrocatalyst in Zn-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  18. An air-breathing single cell small proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with AB5-type metal hydride and an ultra-low voltage input boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Akihiro; Shodai, Takahisa

    A new strategy for increasing the power density of an air-breathing small proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for the main energy source of portable consumer electronics is presented. The small PEMFC system is composed of a single cell. Utilizing the output voltage of the single cell, we introduce a newly designed ultra-low voltage input boost converter. The boost converter can generate 4.1 V output from input sources with low voltage ranges, such as under 1.0 V. The cathode plate is made from a thin SUS 316L stainless steel plate and has ribs that prevent the cathode from bending. The hydrogen is supplied by a metal hydride (MH) tank cartridge. The MH tank contains highly packed AB5-type MH. The MH tank cartridge has a volume of 13.2 cm 3 and can absorb 6.7 L of hydrogen. The maximum power of the small PEMFC is 4.42 W at room temperature. Using 6.7 L of hydrogen, the small PEMFC can generate 11 Wh of electricity. The power density of the small PEMFC reaches 0.51 Wh cm -3. And the power density of the whole small PEMFC system, which contains the boost converter, a small Li-ion battery for a load absorber, and a case for the system, reaches 0.14 Wh cm -3. This value matches that of external Li-ion battery chargers for cell phones. We installed the small PEMFC system in a cell phone and confirmed the operations of calling, receiving, videophone, connecting to the Internet, and watching digital TV. And also confirmed that the small PEMFC system provides approximately 8.25 h of talk time, which is about three times as long as that for the original Li-ion battery.

  19. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  20. High efficiency iron electrode and additives for use in rechargeable iron-based batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narayan, Sri R.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Aniszfeld, Robert; Manohar, Aswin; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-21

    An iron electrode and a method of manufacturing an iron electrode for use in an iron-based rechargeable battery are disclosed. In one embodiment, the iron electrode includes carbonyl iron powder and one of a metal sulfide additive or metal oxide additive selected from the group of metals consisting of bismuth, lead, mercury, indium, gallium, and tin for suppressing hydrogen evolution at the iron electrode during charging of the iron-based rechargeable battery. An iron-air rechargeable battery including an iron electrode comprising carbonyl iron is also disclosed, as is an iron-air battery wherein at least one of the iron electrode and the electrolyte includes an organosulfur additive.

  1. Flexible, Stretchable, and Rechargeable Fiber-Shaped Zinc-Air Battery Based on Cross-Stacked Carbon Nanotube Sheets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifan; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Ziyang; Ren, Jing; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-14

    The fabrication of flexible, stretchable and rechargeable devices with a high energy density is critical for next-generation electronics. Herein, fiber-shaped Zn-air batteries, are realized for the first time by designing aligned, cross-stacked and porous carbon nanotube sheets simultaneously that behave as a gas diffusion layer, a catalyst layer, and a current collector. The combined remarkable electronic and mechanical properties of the aligned carbon nanotube sheets endow good electrochemical properties. They display excellent discharge and charge performances at a high current density of 2 A g(-1) . They are also flexible and stretchable, which is particularly promising to power portable and wearable electronic devices.

  2. Making Li-metal electrodes rechargeable by controlling the dendrite growth direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yadong; Liu, Qi; Xin, Le; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Fan; Stach, Eric A.; Xie, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The long-standing issue of Li-dendrite formation and growth during repeated plating or stripping processes prevents the practical application of Li-metal anodes for high-specific-energy batteries. Here we develop an approach to control dendrite growth by coating the separator with functionalized nanocarbon (FNC) with immobilized Li ions. During cycling, the Li dendrites grow toward each other simultaneously from both the FNC layer on the separator and the Li-metal anode; when the dendrites meet, the growth changes direction: rather than penetrating the separator, a dense Li layer is formed between the separator and the Li anode. This controlled growth alleviates the solid electrolyte interphase formation, reduces the decomposition of the electrolyte, and improves the cyclability of the Li-metal cell. In a Li/LiFePO4 coin cell with three different electrolytes, we show that this approach enables a long stable cycle life (>800 cycles with 80% retention of the initial capacity) and improved efficiency (>97%). Our method offers promise for application in practical Li-metal batteries, and it may also be useful for tackling dendrite issues for other metals.

  3. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  4. Lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cell performance after 35 years of storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Nathalie; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Hamlen, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Much groundbreaking research in the field of lithium batteries occurred in the 1970s. Some of "the first" rechargeable lithium cells for commercial applications were fabricated by the Exxon Enterprises Battery Division in New Jersey. A small collection of 1978-era 25 mAh and 100 mAh button cells were preserved in the personal collections of the original researchers. This presented a unique opportunity to evaluate lithium cells after 35 years of storage. Cells were characterized for capacity, cycling, rate and impedance. Results were compared with original data as recovered from historical documents.

  5. Behavior Of NbSe3 Cathode In Rechargeable Li Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses series of ac impedance measurements of niobium triselenide cathodes in lithium secondary (rechargeable) cells. Reported work done to improve understanding of intercalation of NbSe3 with Li and to find out whether state of charge of NbSe3 determined nondestructively from impedance parameters. Authors conclude impedance parameters of NbSe3 do not vary in sufficiently regular fashion to be useful as indicators of state of charge.

  6. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-04-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  7. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1987-09-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  8. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  9. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  10. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metal-air battery with easily removable anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Niksa, A.J.; Nikasa, M.J.; Noscal, J.M.; Sovich, T.J.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a metal-air battery. It comprises: one or more cells. Each cell comprising;a frame having opposed faces; an air cathode sealed to each face of the frame; an access opening in the frame; an anode blank comprising a consumable end inserted through the access opening into the space between the air cathodes and an exposed end protruding from the opening for replacement of the anode blank through the opening; and a labyrinth seal molded directly onto the anode blank between the consumable end and the exposed end sealing the access opening.

  12. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  13. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  14. Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

  15. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan

    Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage. This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) and hydrogen chemical-looping component. The RSOFC serves as the "electrical functioning unit", alternating between the fuel cell and electrolysis mode to realize discharge and charge cycles, respectively, while the hydrogen chemical-looping component functions as an energy storage unit (ESU), performing electrical-chemical energy conversion in situ via a H2/H2O-mediated metal/metal oxide redox reaction. One of the distinctive features of the new battery from conventional storage batteries is the ESU that is physically separated from the electrodes of RSOFC, allowing it to freely expand and contract without impacting the mechanical integrity of the entire battery structure. This feature also allows an easy switch in the chemistry of this battery. The materials selection for ESU is critical to energy capacity, round-trip efficiency and cost effectiveness of the new battery. Me-MeOx redox couples with favorable thermodynamics and kinetics are highly preferable. The preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that Fe-based redox couples can be a promising candidate for operating at both high and low temperatures. Therefore, the Fe-based redox-couple systems have been selected as the baseline for this

  16. Zinc-air battery: understanding the structure and morphology changes of graphene-supported CoMn(2)O(4) bifunctional catalysts under practical rechargeable conditions.

    PubMed

    Prabu, Moni; Ramakrishnan, Prakash; Nara, Hiroki; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2014-10-08

    Nitrogen-doped/undoped thermally reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) decorated with CoMn2O4 (CMO) nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The activity and stability of this hybrid catalyst were evaluated by preparing air electrodes with both primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries that consume ambient air. Further, we investigated the relationship between the physical properties and the electrochemical results for hybrid electrodes at various cycles using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, galvanodynamic charge-discharging and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The structural, morphological and electrocatalytic performances confirm that CMO/N-rGO is a promising material for safe, reliable, and long-lasting air cathodes for both primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries that consume air under ambient condition.

  17. Amorphous Bimetallic Oxide-Graphene Hybrids as Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Rechargeable Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Karahan, H Enis; Zhai, Shengli; Liu, Hongwei; Chen, Xuncai; Zhou, Zheng; Lei, Yaojie; Liu, Zongwen; Chen, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Metal oxides of earth-abundant elements are promising electrocatalysts to overcome the sluggish oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reaction (OER/ORR) in many electrochemical energy-conversion devices. However, it is difficult to control their catalytic activity precisely. Here, a general three-stage synthesis strategy is described to produce a family of hybrid materials comprising amorphous bimetallic oxide nanoparticles anchored on N-doped reduced graphene oxide with simultaneous control of nanoparticle elemental composition, size, and crystallinity. Amorphous Fe0.5 Co0.5 Ox is obtained from Prussian blue analog nanocrystals, showing excellent OER activity with a Tafel slope of 30.1 mV dec(-1) and an overpotential of 257 mV for 10 mA cm(-2) and superior ORR activity with a large limiting current density of -5.25 mA cm(-2) at 0.6 V. A fabricated Zn-air battery delivers a specific capacity of 756 mA h gZn(-1) (corresponding to an energy density of 904 W h kgZn(-1) ), a peak power density of 86 mW cm(-2) and can be cycled over 120 h at 10 mA cm(-2) . Other two amorphous bimetallic, Ni0.4 Fe0.6 Ox and Ni0.33 Co0.67 Ox , are also produced to demonstrate the general applicability of this method for synthesizing binary metal oxides with controllable structures as electrocatalysts for energy conversion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comparison of rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium battery cells for implantable circulatory support devices.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G K; Aiken, P A; Adams, W A; Mussivand, T

    1994-04-01

    Size and weight constraints are critical areas in the design of implantable medical devices. For this reason, a study of different rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cell types was undertaken to determine which cell type, when assembled into a multicell battery pack, would provide the smallest and lightest power source for implantation. The discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of 2 different rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells and 5 different rechargeable lithium cells were determined at 37 degrees C by charge/discharge cycling, the cells using a constant discharge load of 0.87 A. Using the observed discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of the cells, along with the desired performance criteria of 30 min operating time at the end of a 1-year implant period, the projected weight and volume of the various 12-V battery packs were determined. These results showed that one of the rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells would yield the smallest (53 ml) and lightest (189 g) 12-V battery pack that met the performance criteria specified. The results also indicate that, for applications requiring long implant times, cycle life can be more important in the selection of cells for a small, lightweight battery pack than specific energy or energy density.

  19. Effects of air pollution on cell membrane integrity, spectral reflectance and metal and sulfur concentrations in lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kloog, N.; Karnieli, A.

    1997-07-01

    The fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei is generally considered to be sensitive to air pollution. In the present study the authors sought to determine whether thalli of this lichen collected in a remote unpolluted site (the HaZorea Forest, northeast Israel) and transplanted to the Ashdod region (southwest Israel) could provide information on the quality of the air in this area. For this purpose, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe, S, Ca, Mg, Na, and K were determined in in situ thalli collected in the HaZorea Forest in March 1993 and in in situ and transplanted thalli retrieved in June 1993. The concentration of these elements in R. duriaei thalli was analyzed in comparison with physiological parameters such as the integrity of cell membranes, chlorophyll content, and alterations in reflectance responses from lichen thalli. Thalli transplanted to several industrial sites in the town of Ashdod for a period of 100 d accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, S, Mg, Na, Ca, and K. The concentration of S in thalli transplanted to the Ashdod region was found to correlate with damage caused to cell membranes and showed and inverse correlation with the chlorophyll content and with the reflectance response of the lichen. The electrical conductivity values corresponding to membrane integrity in the lichen thallus showed an inverse correlation with the ratio of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a, indicating the integrity of the photobiontic chlorophyll and with normalized-difference vegetation index values corresponding to the reflectance response of the thallus. The chlorophyll integrity correlated with the reflectance response. Magnesium accumulated in the lichen thalli in dusty sites and was found to correlate with damage caused to membranes.

  20. Evaluation of Carbon Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C-K.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both liquid phase intercalation technique and electrochemical intercalation technique were examined for the Li-carbon material preparation. The electrochemical techniques include a intermittent discharge method and a two step method. These two electrochemical techniques can ensure to achieve the maximum reversible Li capacity for common commercially available carbon materials. The carbon materials evaluated by the intercalacation method includes: pitch coke, petroleum cole, PAN fiber and graphite materials. Their reversible Li capacity were determined and compared. In this paper, we also demonstrate the importance of EPDM binder composition in the carbon electrode. Our results indicated that it can impact the Li intercalation and de-intercalation capacity in carbon materials. Finally, two possibilities that may help explain the capacity degradation during practical cell cycling were proposed.

  1. Evaluation of Carbon Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C-K.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both liquid phase intercalation technique and electrochemical intercalation technique were examined for the Li-carbon material preparation. The electrochemical techniques include a intermittent discharge method and a two step method. These two electrochemical techniques can ensure to achieve the maximum reversible Li capacity for common commercially available carbon materials. The carbon materials evaluated by the intercalacation method includes: pitch coke, petroleum cole, PAN fiber and graphite materials. Their reversible Li capacity were determined and compared. In this paper, we also demonstrate the importance of EPDM binder composition in the carbon electrode. Our results indicated that it can impact the Li intercalation and de-intercalation capacity in carbon materials. Finally, two possibilities that may help explain the capacity degradation during practical cell cycling were proposed.

  2. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  3. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1994-04-12

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

  4. The design analysis of a rechargeable lithium cell for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subba Rao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Yen, S. P. S.; Somoano, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Ambient temperature rechargeable lithium batteries are needed by NASA for advanced space power applications for future missions. Specific energies of not less than 100 Wh/kg and long cycle life are critical performance goals. A design analysis of a 35 Ah Li-TiS2 cell was carried out using literature and experimental data to identify key design parameters governing specific energy. It is found that high specific energies are achievable in prismatic cells, especially with the use of advanced hardware materials. There is a serious need for a greatly expanded engineering database in order to enable more quantitative design analysis.

  5. Moderate temperature sodium cells. I - Transition metal disulfide cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Pitts, L.; Schiff, R.

    1980-01-01

    TiS2, VS2, and Nb(1.1)S2 transition metal disulfides were evaluated as cathode materials for a moderate temperature rechargeable Na cell operating at 130 C. The 1st discharge of TiS2 results in a capacity of 0.85 eq/mole; approximately half of the Na in the 1st phase spanning the Na range from zero to 0.30 and almost all the Na in the 2nd phase spanning the 0.37 to 0.80 range are rechargeable. VS2 intercalates up to one mole of Na/mole of VS2 in the 1st discharge; the resulting Na(x)VS2 ternary consists of 3 phases in the 3 ranges of Na from zero to 1. Niobium disulfide undergoes a phase change in the 1st discharge; the average rechargeable capacity in extended cycling of this cathode is 0.50 eq/mole.

  6. Zinc and silver migration during rechargeable silver-zinc cell cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, H.L.; Wharton, S.P.

    1997-12-01

    A study has been established at NAVSURFWARCENDIV Crane to obtain zinc and silver migration rate data on cellulosic separators derived from a variety of cellulose and cellophane sources, in silver-zinc alkaline rechargeable cells. These data are to be related to cycle and wet life data from the model electrochemical cells as a function of separator composition for the rechargeable cell set. The first examples used in this program are cells of 28 Ahr capacity, identical in every respect except for the separator composition, which are being tested in statistically significant numbers under identical temperature and relative humidity conditions, with 45% KOH as the electrolyte. The cycle life test regime is C/5 discharge to 1.30 V and C/30 and C/60 charge to 2.03 V continuous cycling, while the wet life test regime includes a 30-day wet stand at full charge between cycles. At the outset of the cell testing, a baseline cell was selected from each set in the matrix after the formation cycling was complete, and the silver and zinc migration through successive separator layers were determined. Also, at intervals during life cycle and wet life, and as cells fail the life tests, the measurements will be repeated. In this way a correlation may be established between silver and zinc migration rates under charge discharge conditions in actual cells and the cycle and wet life of the respective cell types. Eight separator compositions, all cellulose-based, are being evaluated. The purpose of the study is to utilize the cycle and wet life data to designate a best separator for incorporation into actual production cells. The recommendations will take the form of minimum separator physical properties which are beneficial to cell performance and long life, resulting in an improvement in the assets available for Navy Fleet use. This paper will discuss the data available on silver and zinc migration and their relationship to cell cycling at several stages during the cell life.

  7. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  8. Transition-Metal Additives For Long-Life Na/NiCI(2) Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Halpert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Transition-metal additives in cathodes of Na/NiCI(2) high-temperature, rechargeable electrochemical cells found to slow premature fading of charge/discharge capacity. Decline in capacity of cell attributed to agglomeration of Ni particles at cathode: this agglomeration reduces electrochemical area of cathode. Depending on choice of transition-metal additive for particular cell, additive might even participate in desired electrochemical reactions in cell, contributing to specific energy of cell.

  9. Advances and Challenges in Metal Sulfides/Selenides for Next-Generation Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhe; Liu, Qiannan; Chou, Shu-Lei; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2017-06-23

    Rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), as the most promising alternative to commercial lithium-ion batteries, have received tremendous attention during the last decade. Among all the anode materials for SIBs, metal sulfides/selenides (MXs) have shown inspiring results because of their versatile material species and high theoretical capacity. They suffer from large volume expansion, however, which leads to bad cycling performance. Thus, methods such as carbon modification, nanosize design, electrolyte optimization, and cut-off voltage control are used to obtain enhanced performance. Here, recent progress on MXs is summarized in terms of arranging the crystal structure, synthesis methods, electrochemical performance, mechanisms, and kinetics. Challenges are presented and effective ways to solve the problems are proposed, and a perspective for future material design is also given. It is hoped that light is shed on the development of MXs to help finally find applications for next-generation rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A rechargeable room-temperature sodium superoxide (NaO2) battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L.; Vračar, Miloš; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Garsuch, Arnd; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2013-03-01

    In the search for room-temperature batteries with high energy densities, rechargeable metal-air (more precisely metal-oxygen) batteries are considered as particularly attractive owing to the simplicity of the underlying cell reaction at first glance. Atmospheric oxygen is used to form oxides during discharging, which—ideally—decompose reversibly during charging. Much work has been focused on aprotic Li-O2 cells (mostly with carbonate-based electrolytes and Li2O2 as a potential discharge product), where large overpotentials are observed and a complex cell chemistry is found. In fact, recent studies evidence that Li-O2 cells suffer from irreversible electrolyte decomposition during cycling. Here we report on a Na-O2 cell reversibly discharging/charging at very low overpotentials (< 200 mV) and current densities as high as 0.2 mA cm-2 using a pure carbon cathode without an added catalyst. Crystalline sodium superoxide (NaO2) forms in a one-electron transfer step as a solid discharge product. This work demonstrates that substitution of lithium by sodium may offer an unexpected route towards rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  11. Thin-film silicon for flexible metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Garamoun, Ahmed; Schubert, Markus B; Werner, Jürgen H

    2014-12-01

    Due to its high energy density, theoretical studies propose silicon as a promising candidate material for metal-air batteries. Herein, for the first time, experimental results detail the use of n-type doped amorphous silicon and silicon carbide as fuel in Si-air batteries. Thin-film silicon is particularly interesting for flexible and rolled batteries with high specific energies. Our Si-air batteries exhibit a specific capacity of 269 Ah kg(-1) and an average cell voltage of 0.85 V at a discharge current density of 7.9 μA cm(-2) , corresponding to a specific energy of 229 Wh kg(-1) . Favorably in terms of safety, low concentrated alkaline solution serves as electrolyte. Discharging of the Si-air cells continues as long as there is silicon available for oxidation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Confined selenium within metal-organic frameworks derived porous carbon microcubes as cathode for rechargeable lithium-selenium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Jia, Min; Zhang, Yan; Han, Jin; Li, Yi; Bao, ShuJuan; Liu, Dingyu; Jiang, Jian; Xu, Maowen

    2017-02-01

    Unique hierarchically porous carbon microcubes (CMCs) consists of irregular bubbles derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis method and carbonization treatment. Selenium nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in the hierarchical porous structure of CMCs by a typical melt-diffusion process, and the yielding Se/CMCs composite is enabled as a cathode material for lithium-selenium rechargeable batteries. In the carbonate-based electrolyte, with Se loading of nearly ∼50 wt%, the Se/CMCs composite exhibits an ultrahigh initial discharge specific capacity of 780.4 mAh g-1 and still retains a reversible capacity of 425.2 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Specially, these hollow structure CMCs with high conductivity contribute to the outstanding electrochemical properties by effectively decreasing the charge transfer resistance and suppressing polyselenides dissolution in carbonate electrolyte.

  13. An aluminum/chlorine rechargeable cell employing a room temperature molten salt electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, P. R.; Palmisano, J. B.

    1988-03-01

    A novel Al/Cl2 rechargeable electrochemical cell is decribed which employs an Al negative and graphtie positive electrode in a room temperature molten salt electrolyte of 1.5:1 AlCl3:1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride. The graphite positive electrode functions as a reversible intercalation electrode for chlorine, eliminating the need for separate anolyte and catholyte compartments. The cell possesses an average discharge voltage of 1.7V for currents of 1-10 mA/g graphite, and over 150 cycles at 100 percent depth-of-discharge for positive electrode limited cells have been demonstrated. Improvements in the chlorine storage capacity of the positive electrode are needed to obtain satisfactory energy densities.

  14. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  15. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems.

  16. Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

  17. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  18. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  19. Gelatin-templated mesoporous titania for photocatalytic air treatment and application in metal chalcogenide nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stroyuk, Oleksandr L; Rayevska, Oleksandra Ye; Shvalagin, Vitaly V; Kuchmiy, Stepan Ya; Bavykin, Dmitry V; Streltsov, Eugene A; Poznyak, Sergey K

    2013-04-01

    Mesoporous titania as powders and thin films on ITO were prepared using gelatin as an available and non-expensive pore-forming agent. The mesoporous TiO2 manifested a much higher photocatalytic activity in the gas-phase air oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde than the commercial nanocrystalline TiO2 P25 (Degussa Corp.). The mesoporous ITO/TiO2 films exhibited 12-14% efficiency of photocurrent generation in aqueous Na2S electrolyte when illuminated by UV light. Deposition of CdS and PbS nanoparticles onto the surface of ITO/TiO2 further increases the photocurrent yields and expands the light sensitivity range of the films to 500-520 nm (CdS) and to 650-700 nm (PbS).

  20. Oxygen electrocatalysts in metal-air batteries: from aqueous to nonaqueous electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2014-11-21

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more important in the future than it has ever been in the past. Although lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are traditionally considered to be the most likeliest candidate thanks to their relatively long cycle life and high energy efficiency, their limited energy density as well as cost are still causing a bottleneck for their long-term application. Alternatively, metal-air batteries have been proposed as a very promising large-scale electricity storage technology with the replacement of the intercalation reaction mechanism by the catalytic redox reaction of a light weight metal-oxygen couple. Generally, based on the electrolyte, these metal-air batteries can be divided into aqueous and nonaqueous systems, corresponding to two typical batteries of Zn-air and Li-air, respectively. The prominent feature of both batteries are their extremely high theoretical energy density, especially for nonaqueous Li-air batteries, which far exceeds the best that can be achieved with LIBs. In this review, we focus on the major obstacle of sluggish kinetics of the cathode in both batteries, and summarize the fundamentals and recent advances related to the oxygen catalyst materials. According to the electrolyte, the aqueous and nonaqueous electrocatalytic mechanisms of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are discussed. Subsequently, seven groups of oxygen catalysts, which have played catalytic roles in both systems, are selectively reviewed, including transition metal oxides (single-metal oxides and mixed-metal oxides), functional carbon materials (nanostructured carbons and doped carbons), metal oxide-nanocarbon hybrid materials, metal-nitrogen complexes (non-pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed), transition metal nitrides, conductive polymers, and precious metals (alloys). Nonaqueous systems have the advantages of energy density and rechargeability over aqueous systems and have

  1. A novel thermal swelling model for a rechargeable lithium-ion battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal swelling of rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. The thermal swelling shows significant dependency on the state of charge and the charge rate. The thermal swelling follows a quadratic form at low temperatures, and shows linear characteristics with respect to temperature at high temperatures in free-swelling conditions. Moreover, the equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion is much larger than that of each electrode and host materials, suggesting that the separator and the complex shape of the cell play a critical role in thermal expansion. Based on the experimental characterization, a novel thermal swelling model is proposed. The model introduces an equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion for the cell and also considers the temperature distribution throughout the battery by using heat transfer theory. The comparison between the proposed model and experiments demonstrates that the model accurately predicts thermal swelling at a variety of charge/discharge rates during operation and relaxation periods. The model is relatively simple yet very accurate. Hence, it can be useful for battery management applied to prolong the cycle life of cells and packs.

  2. Rechargeable lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Norio; Satoh, Asako; Hara, Michikazu; Ohsaki, Takahisa

    1995-08-01

    The electrochemistry of lithium intercalation into a graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber with a radial-like texture used as the anode material in rechargeable lithium-ion cells was characterized. The radial-like texture in the cross section of the carbon fiber contributed to the rapid diffusion of lithium ions, resulting in the high rate capability. The anode performance of the graphitized carbon fiber was superior to that of the graphite. Experimental flat-plate C/LiCoO{sub 2} lithium-ion cells using the graphitized carbon fiber anode exhibited a high mid-discharge voltage of 3.7 V, a high rate capability, and a long cycle life of more than 400 cycles at 2 mA/cm{sup 2} mA/cm{sup 2} during charge-discharge cycling between 4.2 and 2.7 V. The long cycle life obtained for the cell was due to no significant change in resistance associated with the passivating films on the graphitized carbon fiber with extended cycles. It was also demonstrated that A size C/LiCoO{sub 2} cells using the graphitized carbon fiber anode have excellent rate performance at discharge currents between 0.25 and 3 A, a large discharge capacity of 0.95 Ah, and a high energy density of 310 Wh/dm{sup 3} and 120 Wh/kg.

  3. Air breathing cathodes for microbial fuel cell using Mn-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-containing platinum group metal-free catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Kodali, Mounika; Santoro, Carlo; Serov, Alexey; ...

    2017-02-07

    Here we discuss the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the major factors that is limiting the overall performance output of microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this study, Platinum Group Metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts based on Fe, Co, Ni, Mn and the same precursor (Aminoantipyrine, AAPyr) were synthesized using identical sacrificial support method (SSM). The catalysts were investigated for their electrochemical performance, and then integrated into an air-breathing cathode to be tested in “clean” environment and in a working microbial fuel cell (MFC). Their performances were also compared to activated carbon (AC) based cathode under similar conditions. Results showedmore » that the addition of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni to AAPyr increased the performances compared to AC. Fe-AAPyr showed the highest open circuit potential (OCP) that was 0.307 ± 0.001 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the highest electrocatalytic activity at pH 7.5. On the contrary, AC had an OCP of 0.203 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and had the lowest electrochemical activity. In MFC, Fe-AAPyr also had the highest output of 251 ± 2.3 μWcm–2, followed by Co-AAPyr with 196 ± 1.5 μWcm–2, Ni-AAPyr with 171 ± 3.6 μWcm–2, Mn-AAPyr with 160 ± 2.8 μWcm–2 and AC 129 ± 4.2 μWcm–2. The best performing catalyst (Fe-AAPyr) was then tested in MFC with increasing solution conductivity from 12.4 mScm–1 to 63.1 mScm–1. A maximum power density of 482 ± 5 μWcm–2 was obtained with increasing solution conductivity, which is one of the highest values reported in the field.« less

  4. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  5. Challenges and issues facing lithium metal for solid-state rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, A.; Armand, M.; Julien, C. M.; Zaghib, K.

    2017-06-01

    The commercial use of lithium metal batteries was delayed because of dendrite formation on the surface of the lithium electrode, and the difficulty finding a suitable electrolyte that has both the mechanical strength and ionic conductivity required for solid electrolytes. Recently, strategies have developed to overcome these difficulties, so that these batteries are currently an option for different applications, including electric cars. In this work, we review these strategies, and discuss the different routes that are promising for progress in the near future.

  6. Metal | polypyrrole battery with the air regenerated positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgur, Branimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Recharge characteristics of the battery based on the electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole cathode and aluminum, zinc, or magnesium anode in 2 M NH4Cl are investigated. It is shown that polypyrrole electrode can be regenerated by the reoxidation with the dissolved oxygen from the air. Using the polypyrrole synthesized on high surface graphite-felt electrode under modest discharge conditions, stable discharge voltage of 1.1 V is obtained. Such behavior is explained by the complex interaction of polypyrrole and hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxygen reduction reaction. The electrochemical characteristics are compared with the zinc-manganese dioxide and zinc-air systems.

  7. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  8. Electrochemical studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Ni, C.L.; DiStefano, S.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bankston, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Niobium triselenide offers promise as a high energy density cathode material for ambient temperature lithium rechargeable cells. The electrochemical behavior of NbSe/sub 3/ in the battery electrolyte, i.e., 1.5m LiAsF/sub 6//2 Me-THF is reported here. A detailed study has been carried out using various ac and dc electrochemical techniques to establish the mechanism of intercalation of three equivalents of Li with NbSe/sub 3/ as well as the rate governing processes in the reduction of NbSe/sub 3/. Based on the experimental data, an equivalent circuit has been formulated to represent the NbSe/sub 3/-solution interface. The kinetic parameters for the reduction of NbSe/sub 3/ were evaluated from the ac and dc measurements. Finally, the structural change in NbSe/sub 3/ on lithiation during initial discharge which results in higher cell voltages and different electrochemical response as compared to virgin NbSe/sub 3/ was identified to be a loss of crystallographic order, i.e., amorphous by x-ray diffraction.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells for an implantable battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, Gregory K.; Aiken, Peter A.; Adams, William A.; Mussivand, Tofy

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance characteristics of 1.08 Ah lithium-ion cells was undertaken utilizing operating conditions similar to that required for an implanted medical device, such as a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart, in order to determine their potential usefulness for this application. The major parameters studied at 22 or 37 °C were discharge-rate capability, specific energy and energy density, surface temperature, self-discharge and cycle life. The discharge loads used in the cycle-life study were either constant or pulsatile, with the constant discharge load being equivalent to the average of the pulsatile load. The lithium-ion cells showed high discharge-rate capability up to 1.5 A at 37 °C, with over 74% of their rated capacity being obtained and a midpoint voltage of over 3.3 V (> 72% of rated capacity and > 3.3 V for up to 1.0 A discharges at 22 °C), before the first indication of cell polarization was noticed. The specific energy and energy density of cells discharged at 0.88 A to 2.5 V at 37 °C was 73 Wh/kg and 190 Wh/l, respectively (64 Wh/kg and 167 Wh/l at 22 °C). The internal resistance of the cells was calculated to be 198 mΩ at 37 °C (316 mΩ at 22 °C), which resulted in a relatively high, 8.0 °C, increase in surface temperature under a 0.88 A discharge load. The self-discharge of the cells at 37 °C was relatively low, with only a 1.3% loss in capacity being observed after 24 h. The lithium-ion cells yielded longer cycle lives at 37 °C (2 239 cycles) compared with 22 °C operation (1539 cycles) under similar 0.88 A discharge loads. The cells performed slightly better under constant discharge loads than under pulsatile loads of equivalent average current (0.83 A average) with cycles lives of 2279 cycles versus 1941 cycles and operating times were 1.6 ± 1.1 min (mean) longer. Preliminary indications are that these lithium-ion cells would be suitable for use in a rechargeable battery pack capable of

  10. Aluminum-air power cell, a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1985-03-01

    We are developing the Aluminum-Air Power Cell as a power source for general purpose electric vehicles. Program developments since the 1983 IECEC meeting and more recent reviews are summarized. Estimates of its energy efficiency, using coal as the primary energy source, indicate it is substantially better than the internal combustion engine using synthetic fuels derived from coal. With improved materials it is likely to approach the overall energy efficiency of rechargeable battery systems. Three experiments involving a 600-cm/sup 2/ wedge cell coupled to a crystallizer and a hydrocyclone are described. Substantial progress has been made in the development of the air cathode and aluminum anode materials. The status of various system components is summarized. Crystallization experiments indicate secondary nucleation of small particles can be controlled by operation of the crystallizer at 80/sup 0/C and agglomeration of fine particles occurs readily under low shear conditions.

  11. Heat Transfer from Finned Metal Cylinders in an Air Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, Arnold, E; Pinkel, Benjamin

    1935-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests made to supply design information for the construction of metal fins for the cooling of heated cylindrical surfaces by an air stream. A method is given for determining fin dimensions for a maximum heat transfer with the expenditure of a given amount of material for a variety of conditions of air flow and metals.

  12. Aire and T cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark S.; Su, Maureen A.

    2011-01-01

    In the thymus, developing T cells that react against self-antigens with high affinity are deleted in the process of negative selection. An essential component of this process is the display of self-antigens, including those whose expression are usually restricted to specific tissues, to developing T cells within the thymus. The Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) gene plays a critical role in the expression of tissue specific self-antigens within the thymus, and disruption of Aire function results in spontaneous autoimmunity in both humans and mice. Recent advances have been made in our understanding of how Aire influences the expression of thousands of tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. Additional roles of Aire, including roles in chemokine and cytokine expression, have also been revealed. Factors important in the differentiation of Aire-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells have been defined. Finally, the identity of antigen presenting cells in negative selection, including the role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in displaying tissue specific antigens to T cells, has also been clarified. PMID:21163636

  13. The double perovskite oxide Sr2CrMoO(6-δ) as an efficient electrocatalyst for rechargeable lithium air batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong; Yuan, Xianxia; Li, Lin; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2014-12-07

    A double perovskite oxide Sr2CrMoO6-δ (SCM), synthesized using the sol-gel and annealing method with the assistance of citric acid and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, was investigated for the first time as an efficient catalyst for rechargeable lithium air batteries. The SCM cathode enables higher specific capacity, lower overpotential and a much better cyclability compared to the pure Super P electrode owing to its excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the formation/decomposition of Li2O2.

  14. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  15. Effects of Monotypic and Binary Mixtures of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on Microbial Growth in Sandy Soil Collected from Artificial Recharge Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ha, Kyoochul; Kong, In Chul

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of monotypic and binary metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs, ZnO, NiO, Co3O4 and TiO2) on microbial growth were evaluated in sandy soil collected from artificial recharge sites. Microbial growth was assessed based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and viable cell counts (VCC). Microbial growth based on ATP content and VCC showed considerable differences depending on NP type and concentration, whereas DHA did not significantly change. In general, ZnO NPs showed the strongest effect on microbial growth in all measurements, showing an EC50 value of 10.9 mg/L for ATP content. The ranking (EC50) of NPs based on their effect on microbial growth assessed by ATP content and VCC was ZnO > Co3O4 > NiO > TiO2. Upon exposure to binary NP mixtures, synergistic and additive modes of action were observed for ATP content and VCC, respectively. The ranges of observed (P(O)) and expected (P(E)) activity were 83%–92% and 78%–82% of the control (p-value 0.0010) based on ATP content and 78%–95% and 72%–94% of the control (p-value 0.8813) based on VCC under the tested conditions, respectively. The results indicate that the effects of NP mixtures on microbial growth in the sandy soil matrix were as great, or greater, than those of single NPs. Therefore, understanding the effects of single NPs and NP mixtures is essential for proper ecological risk assessment. Additionally, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of NP effects may be profoundly influenced by the method of microbial growth measurement. PMID:26610489

  16. Clean Air Act requirements for trace-metals information

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, D.; Hunt, W.; Evans, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have expanded the requirements for trace metal and air toxics information in urban areas and added new requirements for this information in rural areas and ecosystems. Specific provisions germane to trace metals and other air toxics compounds are found in Title III, Section 112 and in Title IX, Section 901. In response to these provisions, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to conduct research in atmospheric monitoring networks in urban areas, in the Great Lakes watershed, and in regional components of a national Clean Air Act status and trends network.

  17. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  18. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  19. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  20. Progress in development of flexible metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumboja, Afriyanti; Ge, Xiaoming; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electronics has gained great interest in emerging wearable or rolling-up gadgets, such as foldable displays, electronic papers, and other personal multimedia devices. Subsequently, there is a need to develop energy storage devices that are pliable, inexpensive, and lightweight. Metal-air batteries have been identified as one of alternative energy storages for cost effective and high energy density applications. They offer cheaper production cost and higher energy density than most of the currently available battery technologies. Thus, they are promising candidates for flexible energy storage devices. Flexible metal-air batteries have to maintain their performances during various mechanical deformations. To date, efforts have been focused on fabricating flexible components for metal-air batteries. This review presents a brief introduction to the field, followed by progress on development of flexible electrolytes, electrodes, and prototype devices. Challenges and outlook towards the practical use of metal-air batteries are given in the last part.

  1. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  2. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  3. Bi-functional air electrodes for metal-air batteries. Final report, September 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Swette, L.L.; Manoukian, M.; LaConti, A.B.

    1995-12-01

    The program was directed to the need for development of bifunctional air electrodes for Zn-Air batteries for the consumer market. The Zn-Air system, widely used as a primary cell for hearing-aid batteries and as a remote-site power source in industrial applications, has the advantage of high energy density, since it consumes oxygen from the ambient air utilizing a thin, efficient fuel-cell-type gas-diffusion electrode, and is comparatively low in cost. The disadvantages of the current technology are a relatively low rate capability, and the lack of simple reversibility. {open_quotes}Secondary{close_quotes} Zn-Air cells require a third electrode for oxygen evolution or mechanical replacement of the Zinc anodes; thus the development of a bifunctional air electrode (i.e., an electrode that can alternately consume and evolve oxygen) would be a significant advance in Zn-Air cell technology. Evaluations of two carbon-free non-noble metal perovskite-type catalyst systems, La{sub 1-x}CA{sub x}CoO{sub 3} as bifunctional catalysts for potential application in Zn-air batteries were carried out. The technical objectives were to develop higher-surface-area materials and to fabricate reversible electrodes by modifying the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of the catalyst-binder structures.

  4. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert E.; Downie, Craig M.; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George H.; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Eaglesham, David

    2016-01-19

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  5. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2015-10-27

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqeuous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  6. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  7. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  8. Metal-Air Batteries: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of metal-air batteries. Topics include systems that possess different practical energy densities at specific powers. Coverage includes the operation of air electrodes at different densities and performance results. The systems are used in electric vehicles as a cost-effective method to achieve reliability and efficiency. Zinc-air batteries are covered more thoroughly in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Metal-Air Batteries: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of metal-air batteries. Topics include systems that possess different practical energy densities at specific powers. Coverage includes the operation of air electrodes at different densities and performance results. The systems are used in electric vehicles as a cost-effective method to achieve reliability and efficiency. Zinc-air batteries are covered more thoroughly in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. A Metal-Organic Framework Derived Porous Cobalt Manganese Oxide Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Hybrid Na-Air/Seawater Batteries.

    PubMed

    Abirami, Mari; Hwang, Soo Min; Yang, Juchan; Senthilkumar, Sirugaloor Thangavel; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Woo-Seok; Senthilkumar, Baskar; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-12-07

    Spinel-structured transition metal oxides are promising non-precious-metal electrocatalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis in rechargeable metal-air batteries. We applied porous cobalt manganese oxide (CMO) nanocubes as the cathode electrocatalyst in rechargeable seawater batteries, which are a hybrid-type Na-air battery with an open-structured cathode and a seawater catholyte. The porous CMO nanocubes were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a Prussian blue analogue, Mn3[Co(CN)6]2·nH2O, during air-annealing, which generated numerous pores between the final spinel-type CMO nanoparticles. The porous CMO electrocatalyst improved the redox reactions, such as the oxygen evolution/reduction reactions, at the cathode in the seawater batteries. The battery that used CMO displayed a voltage gap of ∼0.53 V, relatively small compared to that of the batteries employing commercial Pt/C (∼0.64 V) and Ir/C (∼0.73 V) nanoparticles and without any catalyst (∼1.05 V) at the initial cycle. This improved performance was due to the large surface area (catalytically active sites) and the high oxidation states of the randomly distributed Co and Mn cations in the CMO. Using a hard carbon anode, the Na-metal-free seawater battery exhibited a good cycle performance with an average discharge voltage of ∼2.7 V and a discharge capacity of ∼190 mAh g(-1)hard carbon during 100 cycles (energy efficiencies of 74-79%).

  11. Cell Concepts of Metal-Sulfur Batteries (Metal = Li, Na, K, Mg): Strategies for Using Sulfur in Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Medenbach, Lukas; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2017-09-29

    There is great interest in using sulfur as active component in rechargeable batteries thanks to its low cost and high specific charge (1672 mAh/g). The electrochemistry of sulfur, however, is complex and cell concepts are required, which differ from conventional designs. This review summarizes different strategies for utilizing sulfur in rechargeable batteries among membrane concepts, polysulfide concepts, all-solid-state concepts as well as high-temperature systems. Among the more popular lithium-sulfur and sodium-sulfur batteries, we also comment on recent results on potassium-sulfur and magnesium-sulfur batteries. Moreover, specific properties related to the type of light metal are discussed.

  12. Metalized, three-dimensional structured oxygen cathode materials for lithium/air batteries and method for making and using the same

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Weibing; Buettner-Garrett, Josh

    2017-04-18

    This disclosure relates generally to cathode materials for electrochemical energy cells, more particularly to metal/air electrochemical energy cell cathode materials containing silver vanadium oxide and methods of making and using the same. The metal/air electrochemical energy cell can be a lithium/air electrochemical energy cell. Moreover the silver vanadium oxide can be a catalyst for one or more of oxidation and reduction processes of the electrochemical energy cell.

  13. Mechanism of Zn Insertion into Nanostructured δ-MnO 2 : A Nonaqueous Rechargeable Zn Metal Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Sang-Don; Kim, Soojeong; Li, Dongguo; ...

    2017-05-08

    Unlike the more established lithium-ion based energy storage chemistries, the complex intercalation chemistry of multivalent cations in a host lattice is not well understood, especially the relationship between the intercalating species solution chemistry and the prevalence and type of side reactions. Among multivalent metals, a promising model system can be based on nonaqueous Zn2+ ion chemistry. There are several examples of these systems support the use of a Zn metal anode, and reversible intercalation cathodes have been reported. Our study utilizes a combination of analytical tools to probe the chemistry of a nanostructured δ-MnO2 cathode in association with a nonaqueousmore » acetonitrile–Zn(TFSI)2 electrolyte and a Zn metal anode. As many of the issues related to understanding a multivalent battery relate to the electrolyte–electrode interface, the high surface area of a nanostructured cathode provides a significant interface between the electrolyte and cathode host that maximizes the spectroscopic signal of any side reactions or minor mechanistic pathways. There are numerous factors affecting capacity fade and issues associated with the second phase formation including Mn dissolution in heavily cycled Zn/δ-MnO2 cells are presented including dramatic mechanistic differences in the storage mechanism of this couple when compared to similar aqueous electrolytes are noted.« less

  14. Transformation and speciation of typical heavy metals in soil aquifer treatment system during long time recharging with secondary effluent: Depth distribution and combination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Wang, Kun; Noguera, Daniel R; Jiang, Junqiu; Oyserman, Ben; Zhao, Ningbo; Zhao, Qingliang; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-12-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) systems rely on extensive physical and biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone and aquifer for water quality improvement. In this study, the distribution, quantitative changes, as well as the speciation characteristics of heavy metals in different depth of soils of a two-year operated lab-scale SAT was explored. A majority of the heavy metals in the recharged secondary effluent were efficiently trapped by the steady-state operated SAT (removal efficiency ranged from 74.7% to 98.2%). Thus, significant accumulations of 31.7% for Cd, 15.9% for Cu, 15.3% for Zn and 8.6% for Cr were observed for the top soil after 730 d operation, leading to the concentration (in μg g(-1)) of those four heavy metals of the packed soil increased from 0.51, 46.7, 61.0 and 35.7 to 0.66, 54.2, 70.4 and 38.8, respectively. By contrast, the accumulation of Mn and Pb were quite low. The residual species were the predominant fraction of the six heavy metals (ranged for 59.8-82.4%), followed by oxidisable species. Although the Zn, Cr, Cd, Cu and Mn were efficiently bounded onto the oxide components within the soil, the percentage of the labile metal fractions (water-, acid-exchangeable and reducible metal fractions) exhibited a slight increasing after 2 Y operation. Significantly heavy metals accumulation and slightly decreasing of the proportion of the stable fractions indicated a potentially higher environmental hazard for those six heavy metals after long-term SAT operation (especially for Cu, Zn and Cd). Finally, a linear relationship between the accumulation rate of metal species and the variation of soil organic carbon concentration and water extractable organic carbon was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrode materials for rechargeable battery

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2015-09-08

    A positive electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrolyte lithium rechargeable cell or battery. The electrode comprises a lithium containing material of the formula Na.sub.yLi.sub.xNi.sub.zMn.sub.1-z-z'M.sub.z'O.sub.d, wherein M is a metal cation, x+y>1, 0metallic elements, Li, Na, Mn, Ni, and M, if present, such that the combined positive charge of the metallic elements is balanced by the number of oxygen anions, d. The inventive material preferably has a spinel or spinel-like component in its structure. The value of y preferably is less than about 0.2, and M comprises one or more metal cations selected preferably from one or more monovalent, divalent, trivalent or tetravalent cations, such as Mg.sup.2+, Co.sup.2+, Co.sup.3+, B.sup.3+, Ga.sup.3+, Fe.sup.2+, Fe.sup.3+, Al.sup.3+, and Ti.sup.4+. The electrode material can be synthesized using an ion-exchange reaction with a lithium salt in an organic-based solvent to partially replace sodium ions of a precursor material with lithium ions.

  16. Bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörissen, Ludwig

    A selective review on the materials and construction principles used for bifunctional oxygen/air electrodes is given. The discussion emphasizes the catalytically active materials used for the construction of these electrodes, which are a key component in electrically rechargeable air breathing electrochemical systems. Whereas, in acid electrolytes normally noble metal catalysts must be used, there is a possibility to use less expensive transition metal oxides in alkaline electrolytes. Typical transition metal oxides have the perovskite, pyrochlore and spinel structure.

  17. Assessment of a metal-organic framework catalyst in air cathode microbial fuel cells over time with different buffers and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ruggero; Yang, Wulin; Setti, Leonardo; Logan, Bruce E

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) on activated carbon (AC) enhanced the performance of cathodes but longevity needs to be considered in the presence of metal chelators or ligands, such as phosphate, present in wastewaters. MOF catalysts on AC initially produced 2.78±0.08Wm(-2), but power decreased by 26% after eight weeks in microbial fuel cells using a 50mM phosphate buffer (PBS) and acetate due to decreased cathode performance. However, power was still 41% larger than that of the control AC (no MOF). Power generation using domestic wastewater was initially 0.73±0.01Wm(-2), and decreased by 21% over time, with power 53% larger than previous reports, although changes in wastewater composition were a factor in performance. Adding phosphate salts to the wastewater did not affect the catalyst performance over time. While MOF catalysts are therefore initially adversely affected by chelators, performance remains enhanced compared to plain AC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of VB2/air cells for electrochemical testing.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jessica; Lopez, Ruben; Lau, Jason; Li, Xuguang; Waje, Mahesh; Mullings, Matthew; Rhodes, Christopher; Licht, Stuart

    2013-08-05

    A technique to investigate the properties and performance of new multi-electron metal/air battery systems is proposed and presented. A method for synthesizing nanoscopic VB2 is presented as well as step-by-step procedure for applying a zirconium oxide coating to the VB2 particles for stabilization upon discharge. The process for disassembling existing zinc/air cells is shown, in addition construction of the new working electrode to replace the conventional zinc/air cell anode with a the nanoscopic VB2 anode. Finally, discharge of the completed VB2/air battery is reported. We show that using the zinc/air cell as a test bed is useful to provide a consistent configuration to study the performance of the high-energy high capacity nanoscopic VB2 anode.

  19. Fabrication of VB2/Air Cells for Electrochemical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Jessica; Lopez, Ruben; Lau, Jason; Li, Xuguang; Waje, Mahesh; Mullings, Matthew; Rhodes, Christopher; Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A technique to investigate the properties and performance of new multi-electron metal/air battery systems is proposed and presented. A method for synthesizing nanoscopic VB2 is presented as well as step-by-step procedure for applying a zirconium oxide coating to the VB2 particles for stabilization upon discharge. The process for disassembling existing zinc/air cells is shown, in addition construction of the new working electrode to replace the conventional zinc/air cell anode with a the nanoscopic VB2 anode. Finally, discharge of the completed VB2/air battery is reported. We show that using the zinc/air cell as a test bed is useful to provide a consistent configuration to study the performance of the high-energy high capacity nanoscopic VB2 anode. PMID:23962835

  20. Porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet on graphene as metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qing; Wang, Shaoyun; Yan, Jun; Cong, Lijie; Chen, Ye; Xi, Hongyuan

    2014-02-01

    Porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet on graphene (PNCN) was used as an alternative cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Here we report a novel, low-cost, scalable, synthetic method for preparation of PNCN via the carbonization of graphite oxide-polyaniline hybrid (GO-PANI), subsequently followed by KOH activation treatment. Due to its high concentration of nitrogen and high specific surface area, PNCN exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for ORR. As a result, the maximum power density of 1159.34mWm(-2) obtained with PNCN catalyst was higher than that of Pt/C catalyst (858.49mWm(-2)) in a MFC. Therefore, porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheet could be a good alternative to Pt catalyst in MFCs.

  1. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  2. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  3. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  4. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein

    1994-01-01

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  5. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1994-08-16

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat. 3 figs.

  6. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  7. Robust Fe3 Mo3 C Supported IrMn Clusters as Highly Efficient Bifunctional Air Electrode for Metal-Air Battery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiming; Li, Yutao; Fu, Gengtao; Li, Xiang; Goodenough, John B

    2017-08-30

    Catalysts at the air cathode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions are central to the stability of rechargeable metal-air batteries, an issue that is gaining increasing interest in recent years. Herein, a highly durable and efficient carbide-based bifunctional catalyst consisting of iron-molybdenum carbide (Fe3 Mo3 C) and IrMn nanoalloys is demonstratred. This carbide is chemically stable in alkaline media and over the potential range of an air cathode. More importantly, Fe3 Mo3 C is very active for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. Fe3 Mo3 C supported IrMn as a bifunictional catalysts exhibits superior catalytic performance than the state of the art ORR catalyst (Pt/C) and the oxygen evolution reaction catalyst (Ir/C). IrMn/Fe3 Mo3 C enables Zn-air batteries to achieve long-term cycling performance over 200 h with high efficiency. The extraordinarily high performance of IrMn/Fe3 Mo3 C bifunictional catalyst provides a very promising alternative to the conventional Pt/C and Ir/C catalyst for an air cathode in alkaline electrolyte. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

    2007-11-13

    Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

  9. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  10. A high-capacity and long-life aqueous rechargeable zinc battery using a metal oxide intercalation cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Dipan; Adams, Brian D.; Duffort, Victor; Vajargah, Shahrzad Hosseini; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-10-01

    Although non-aqueous Li-ion batteries possess significantly higher energy density than their aqueous counterparts, the latter can be more feasible for grid-scale applications when cost, safety and cycle life are taken into consideration. Moreover, aqueous Zn-ion batteries have an energy storage advantage over alkali-based batteries as they can employ Zn metal as the negative electrode, dramatically increasing energy density. However, their development is plagued by a limited choice of positive electrodes, which often show poor rate capability and inadequate cycle life. Here we report a vanadium oxide bronze pillared by interlayer Zn2+ ions and water (Zn0.25V2O5.nH2O), as the positive electrode for a Zn cell. A reversible Zn2+ ion (de)intercalation storage process at fast rates, with more than one Zn2+ per formula unit (a capacity up to 300 mAh g-1), is characterized. The Zn cell offers an energy density of ˜450 Wh l-1 and exhibits a capacity retention of more than 80% over 1,000 cycles, with no dendrite formation at the Zn electrode.

  11. An ecological study of the association of metal air pollutants with lung cancer incidence in Texas.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Yvonne M; Minahjuddin, Abu T; Hynan, Linda S; Minna, John D

    2006-09-01

    Air pollution particulate matter and tobacco smoke, which contain metals that are human lung carcinogens, are associated with lung cancer risk. We conducted an ecological study to examine the association of metal air pollutants with lung cancer incidence in Texas. During the period 1995 to 2000, 81,132 lung cancer cases were reported in Texas. We identified eight metals that (1) are in airborne particulate matter or tobacco smoke or are human lung carcinogens and (2) had consistent Environmental Protection Agency air release reporting for multiple counties from 1988 through 2000. We examined the association of metal air releases with the average annual age-adjusted primary and non-small cell lung cancer rates in the 254 Texas counties. Univariate analysis indicated the following positive associations: (1) zinc with the primary (p = 0.02) and non-small cell (p < 0.01) lung cancer rates and (2) chromium and copper with the non-small cell lung cancer rate, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, risk adjusted for sex, race and ethnicity, and urbanization, zinc was positively associated with the primary (beta = 0.13, p = 0.01) and non-small cell (beta = 0.14, p = 0.02) lung cancer rates, and when interaction terms among the eight metals were included, zinc was significantly and positively associated with these rates. Smoking prevalence was similar for counties with and without releases for the eight metals. The study suggests that inhalation exposure to metals, including those that are essential human nutrients, play a role in lung carcinogenesis.

  12. Novel fuel cell stack with coupled metal hydride containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Yan; Bu, Qingyuan; Guzy, Christopher J.; Li, Qi; Chen, Weirong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Air-cooled, self-humidifying hydrogen fuel cells are often used for backup and portable power sources, with a metal hydride used as the hydrogen storage material. To provide a stable hydrogen flow to the fuel cell stack, heat must be provided to the metal hydride. Conventionally, the heat released from the exothermic reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in the fuel cell stack to the exhaust air is used to heat a separate metal hydride container. In this case, the heat is only partially used instead of being more closely coupled because of the heat transfer resistances in the system. To achieve better heat integration, a novel scheme is proposed whereby hydrogen storage and single fuel cells are more closely coupled. Based on this idea, metal hydride containers in the form of cooling plates were assembled between each pair of cells in the stack so that the heat could be directly transferred to a metal hydride container of much larger surface-to-volume ratio than conventional separate containers. A heat coupled fuel cell portable power source with 10 cells and 11 metal hydride containers was constructed and the experimental results show that this scheme is beneficial for the heat management of fuel cell stack.

  13. Al-air cells - Potential small electric generators for field use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valand, T.; Mollestad, O.; Nilsson, G.

    The Al-air system is a very attractive system for use as an electric generator in the field. Besides the high energy density of the 'fuel' (theoretically 21 kW h per l Al), it is easy and safe to handle. Since it reacts in an electrochemical cell, it also easily adjusts to variations in load. In order to test the ability of the system, a 40 W mechanically rechargeable Al-air cell has been constructed. The reaction products, which in a short time will clog up the cell, are continuously removed from the electrolyte. The cell has a total efficiency of approximately 40% and has a current efficiency of 100% with respect to Al. Unfortunately, some serious problems have to be solved before the cell can be put into use. The properties of the cell, the problems, and possible solutions are discussed.

  14. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, Nilesh D.; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Nyce, Michael; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2015-02-01

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of 100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here.

  15. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, ND; Gallaway, JW; Nyce, M; Couzis, A; Banerjee, S

    2015-02-15

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  17. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

  18. Accelerated cycle life performance for ovonic nickel-metal hydride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, Burton M.

    1991-01-01

    Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries have emerged as the leading candidate for commercial replacement of nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. An important incentive is that the Ni-MH cell provides approximately twice the capacity of a Ni-Cd cell for a given size. A six-cell battery was committed to an accelerated cycle life test to determine the effect of separation type on performance. Results of the test may also show the Ni-MH battery to be a replacement candidate for the aerospace Ni-Cd battery.

  19. Accelerated cycle life performance for ovonic nickel-metal hydride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, Burton M.

    1991-01-01

    Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries have emerged as the leading candidate for commercial replacement of nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. An important incentive is that the Ni-MH cell provides approximately twice the capacity of a Ni-Cd cell for a given size. A six-cell battery was committed to an accelerated cycle life test to determine the effect of separation type on performance. Results of the test may also show the Ni-MH battery to be a replacement candidate for the aerospace Ni-Cd battery.

  20. High specific power dual-metal-ion rechargeable micro-batteries based on LiMn2O4 and Zinc for Miniaturized applications.

    PubMed

    Trocoli, Rafael; Morata, Alex; Fhese, Marcus; Stchakovsky, Michel; Sepulveda, Alfonso; Tarancón, Albert

    2017-09-08

    Miniaturized rechargeable batteries with high specific power are required for the substitution of big size primary batteries currently prevalent in integrated systems since important implications in dimensions and power are expected in future miniaturized applications. Commercially available secondary micro-batteries are based on lithium metal that suffers from several well-known safety and manufacturing issues together with low specific power when compared to (super)capacitors. A high specific power and novel dual-metal-ion micro-battery based on LiMn2O4, zinc and an aqueous electrolyte is presented in this work. Specific power densities similar to the ones exhibited by typical electrochemical supercapacitors (3400 W kg-1) while specific energies in the range of typical Li-ion batteries are measured (≈100 Wh kg-1). Excellent stability with a very limited degradation (99.94 % capacity retention per cycle) after 300 cycles is also presented. All these features, together with the intrinsic safe nature of the technology, allow anticipating the high impact of this alternative micro power source, particularly in high demanding new miniaturized applications.

  1. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  2. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  3. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH4)-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH4-air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH4-air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure. PMID:27695201

  4. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods.

    PubMed

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2016-09-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH4)-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH4-air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH4-air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure.

  5. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  6. Metal-gas fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1984-10-16

    A metal-gas fuel cell comprising an anode chamber filled with a base anolyte solution, a metallic anode plate immersed in the anolyte; an ion exchange chamber filled with a base ionolyte solution adjacent the anode chamber; a cationic membrane between the anode and ion exchange chambers separating the anolyte and ionolyte; a cathode plate adjacent the ion exchange chamber remote from the cationic membrane with one surface in contact with the ionolyte and another surface in contact with a cathode fuel gas. The cathode plate is a laminated structure including a layer of hydrophyllic material in contact with the ionolyte, a layer of gas permeable hydrophobic material in contact with the gas and a gas and liquid permeable current collector of inert material with catalytic surfaces within the layer of hydrophyllic material. The anode and cathode plates are connected with an external electric circuit which effects the flow of electrons from the anode plate to the cathode plate.

  7. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    SciTech Connect

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  8. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  9. Systems, methods and computer readable media for estimating capacity loss in rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L.

    2013-06-18

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system periodically determines cell information from the charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also periodically adds a first degradation characteristic from the cell information to a first sigmoid expression, periodically adds a second degradation characteristic from the cell information to a second sigmoid expression and combines the first sigmoid expression and the second sigmoid expression to develop or augment a multiple sigmoid model (MSM) of the electrochemical cell. The MSM may be used to estimate a capacity loss of the electrochemical cell at a desired point in time and analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The first and second degradation characteristics may be loss of active host sites and loss of free lithium for Li-ion cells.

  10. Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L

    2013-08-27

    A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

  11. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    Laser assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are investigated. The tasks comprising these investigations are summarized. Metal deposition experiments are carried out utilizing laser assisted pyrolysis of a variety of metal bearing polymer films and metalloorganic inks spun onto silicon substrates. Laser decomposition of spun on silver neodecanoate ink yields very promising results. Solar cell comb metallization patterns are written using this technique.

  12. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-01-26

    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  13. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1994-11-01

    Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

  14. Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan; Boyer, Chris; Greenwald, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A fuel cell stack has been developed to supply power for a high-altitude aircraft with a minimum of air handling. The fuel cell is capable of utilizing oxygen from ambient air at low pressure with no need for compression. For such an application, it is advantageous to take oxygen from the air (in contradistinction to carrying a supply of oxygen onboard), but it is a challenging problem to design a fuel-cell stack of reasonable weight that can generate sufficient power while operating at reduced pressures. The present fuel-cell design is a response to this challenge. The design features a novel bipolar plate structure in combination with a gas-diffusion structure based on a conductive metal core and a carbon gas-diffusion matrix. This combination makes it possible for the flow fields in the stack to have a large open fraction (ratio between open volume and total volume) to permit large volumes of air to flow through with exceptionally low backpressure. Operations at reduced pressure require a corresponding increase in the volume of air that must be handled to deliver the same number of moles of oxygen to the anodes. Moreover, the increase in the open fraction, relative to that of a comparable prior fuel-cell design, reduces the mass of the stack. The fuel cell has been demonstrated to operate at a power density as high as 105 W/cm2 at an air pressure as low as 2 psia (absolute pressure 14 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 50,000 ft ( 15.2 km). The improvements in the design of this fuel cell could be incorporated into designs of other fuel cells to make them lighter in weight and effective at altitudes higher than those of prior designs. Potential commercial applications for these improvements include most applications now under consideration for fuel cells.

  15. Metal vapor synthesis of air-sensitive transition metal fullerides: Evidence of IR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Yuxin; Chen, Liquan; Liu, Zhijun; Huang, Yuzheng; Zhao, Zhongxian

    1994-10-01

    By metal vapor synthesis, we found the first evidence that Sn, In and Au could react with C 60 forming a kind of bulk metal fullerides. IR transmission spectra revealed that the M xC 60 films (M = In, Sn and Au) showed new air-sensitive bands at about 1451, 1389 and 486 cm -1 besides the lines of pristine C 60. As the black M xC 60 films exposed to the air, they turned into the color of C 6o film and these air- sensitive bands vanished meanwhile two new bands appeared at ˜3590 cm -1 and ˜552 cm -1. The absorbance near 550 cm -1 increased slightly. The conversion of 1451 cm -1 line into 1428 cm -1 line, the Raman spectra and the UV-visible absorption spectra indicated that the cage of C 60 does not disrupt in M xC 60 films. With reference to the reported results of the EPR and photoelectron spectroscopy, these fullerides were tentatively assigned to the complexes of M xC 60. We found that the metal vapor synthesis is a powerful method to prepare various metal fullerides in which the metal may be of large cohesive energy and high boiling point.

  16. Moderate temperature sodium cells. V - Discharge reactions and rechargeability of NiS and NiS2 positive electrodes in molten NaAlCl4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Elliot, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    NiS2 and NiS have been characterized as high energy density rechargeable positive electrodes for moderate-temperature Na batteries of the configuration, Na(1)/beta double prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4(1), NiSx. The batteries operate in the temperature range 170 - 190 C. Positive electrode reactions during discharge/charge cycles have been characterized. Excellent rechargeability of the batteries has been demonstrated by extended cell cycling. A Na/NiS2 cell, operating at 190 C, exceeded 600 deep discharge/charge cycles with practically no capacity deterioration. The feasibility of secondary Na/NiSx batteries with specific energies equal to or greater than 50 Wh/lb and cycle lifes exceeding 1000 deep discharge/charge cycles has been demonstrated.

  17. Energy Systems Based on Polyacetylene: Rechargeable Batteries and Schottky Barrier Solar Cells. Final Report, March 1, 1981-February 29, 1984

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    MacDiarmid, A. G.

    1984-02-01

    The chief thrust of the research has been directed towards the evaluation of polyacetylene (CH){sub x}, the prototype conducting polymer as an electrode- active material in novel, rechargeable batteries employing nonaqueous electrolytes. The p-doped material, [(CH{sup +y})A{sub y}{sup -}]{sub x}, (where A{sup -} is an anion) in conjunction with a Li anode, shows excellent discharge characteristics, e.g., very little change in discharge voltage with change in discharge current and a high power density. Its energy density is also good but it shows poor shelf life. When (CH){sub x} is used as a cathode (Li anode), which results in the formation of the n-doped polymer, [Li{sub y} {sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x}, during discharge, good discharge plateaus and power densities are obtained together with excellent shelf life and good recyclability. The energy density is, however only moderate. Cells employing an [M{sub y}{sup +}(CH/sup -y/)]{sub x} (where M = Li, Na) anode and a TiS{sub 2} cathode show very good discharge and recycling characteristics but their energy density is poor.

  18. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Gupta, S.; Mcmullin, P. G.; Palaschak, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques for producing high-quality solar cell metallization patterns are being investigated, developed, and characterized. The tasks comprising these investigations are outlined.

  19. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  20. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  1. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  2. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

  3. Thermal Stress in HFEF Hot Cell Windows Due to an In-Cell Metal Fire

    DOE PAGES

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Warmann, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates an accident during the pyrochemical extraction of Uranium and Plutonium from PWR spent fuel in an argon atmosphere hot cell. In the accident, the heavy metals (U and Pu) being extracted are accidentally exposed to air from a leaky instrument penetration which goes through the cell walls. The extracted pin size pieces of U and Pu metal readily burn when exposed to air. Technicians perform the electrochemical extraction using manipulators through a 4 foot thick hot cell concrete wall which protects them from the radioactivity of the spent fuel. Four foot thick windows placed in the wallmore » allow the technicians to visually control the manipulators. These windows would be exposed to the heat of the metal fire. As a result, this analysis determines if the thermal stress caused by the fire would crack the windows and if the heat would degrade the window seals allowing radioactivity to escape from the cell.« less

  4. Thermal Stress in HFEF Hot Cell Windows Due to an In-Cell Metal Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Warmann, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates an accident during the pyrochemical extraction of Uranium and Plutonium from PWR spent fuel in an argon atmosphere hot cell. In the accident, the heavy metals (U and Pu) being extracted are accidentally exposed to air from a leaky instrument penetration which goes through the cell walls. The extracted pin size pieces of U and Pu metal readily burn when exposed to air. Technicians perform the electrochemical extraction using manipulators through a 4 foot thick hot cell concrete wall which protects them from the radioactivity of the spent fuel. Four foot thick windows placed in the wall allow the technicians to visually control the manipulators. These windows would be exposed to the heat of the metal fire. As a result, this analysis determines if the thermal stress caused by the fire would crack the windows and if the heat would degrade the window seals allowing radioactivity to escape from the cell.

  5. Modification of various metals by volume discharge in air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The results of the modification of stainless steel, niobium and titanium by volume discharge induced by a beam of runaway electrons in air under normal pressure are presented. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of metal by the action of the discharge, structural changes and changes of hardness were studied. It has been found that the concentration of oxygen and carbon in the surface layers of the samples depend on the number of discharge pulses. The aim of this work is to find possible application of this type of discharge in science and industrial production.

  6. Metal-air flow batteries using oxygen enriched electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Jian-ping; Andrei, Petru; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chen, Xujie

    2017-08-01

    A metal air flow battery includes an electrochemical reaction unit and an oxygen exchange unit. The electrochemical reaction unit includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and an ionic conductive membrane between the anode and the cathode, an anode electrolyte, and a cathode electrolyte. The oxygen exchange unit contacts the cathode electrolyte with oxygen separate from the electrochemical reaction unit. At least one pump is provided for pumping cathode electrolyte between the electrochemical reaction unit and the oxygen exchange unit. A method for producing an electrical current is also disclosed.

  7. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.; Ackerman, John P.

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  8. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.; Ackerman, John P.

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  9. Electrochemical properties and lithium ion solvation behavior of sulfone-ester mixed electrolytes for high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuu; Kinoshita, Shin-ichi; Wada, Satoshi; Hoshino, Keiji; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Tobishima, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Sulfone-ester mixed solvent electrolytes were examined for 5 V-class high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells. As the base-electrolyte, sulfolane (SL)-ethyl acetate (EA) (1:1 mixing volume ratio) containing 1 M LiBF4 solute was investigated. Electrolyte conductivity, electrochemical stability, Li+ ion solvation behavior and cycleability of lithium electrode were evaluated. 13C NMR measurement results suggest that Li+ ions are solvated with both SL and EA. Charge-discharge cycling efficiency of lithium anode in SL-EA electrolytes was poor, being due to its poor tolerance for reduction. To improve lithium charge-discharge cycling efficiency in SL-EA electrolytes, following three trials were carried out: (i) improvement of the cathodic stability of electrolyte solutions by change in polarization through modification of solvent structure; isopropyl methyl sulfone and methyl isobutyrate were investigated as alternative SL and EA, respectively, (ii) suppression of the reaction between lithium and electrolyte solutions by addition of low reactivity surfactants of cycloalkanes (decalin and adamantane) or triethylene glycol derivatives (triglyme, 1,8-bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane and triethylene glycol di(methanesulfonate)) into SL-EA electrolytes, and (iii) change in surface film by addition of surface film formation agent of vinylene carbonate (VC) into SL-EA electrolytes. These trials made lithium cycling behavior better. Lithium cycling efficiency tended to increase with a decrease in overpotential. VC addition was most effective for improvement of lithium cycling efficiency among these additives. Stable surface film is formed on lithium anode by adding VC and the resistance between anode/electrolyte interfaces showed a constant value with an increase in cycle number. When the electrolyte solutions without VC, the interfacial resistance increased with an increase in cycle number. VC addition to SL-EA was effective not only for Li/LiCoO2 cell with charge

  10. Ionic liquid electrolytes for Li-air batteries: lithium metal cycling.

    PubMed

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-05-08

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li-air cells.

  11. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li–Air Batteries: Lithium Metal Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li–air cells. PMID:24815072

  12. Electrochemical studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ni, C. L.; Di Stefano, S.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of NbSe3 in the battery electrolyte 1.5M LiAsF6/2Me-THF is reported. A detailed study has been carried out using various ac and dc electrochemical techniques to establish the mechanism of intercalation of three equivalents of Li with NbSe3 as well as the rate governing processes in the reduction of NbSe3. An equivalent circuit has been formulated to represent the NbSe3-solution interface. The kinetic parameters for the reduction of NbSe3 were evaluated from the ac and dc measurements. The structural change in NbSe3 on lithiation during initial discharge which results in higher cell voltages and different electrochemical response as compared to virgin NbSe3 was identified to be a loss of crystallographic order.

  13. sb203580 preconditioning recharges matrix-expanded human adult stem cells for chondrogenesis in an inflammatory environment - A feasible approach for autologous stem cell based osteoarthritic cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Pizzute, Tyler; Li, Jingting; He, Fan; Pei, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Autologous stem cells are a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration; however, cell replicative senescence and joint posttraumatic inflammation provide challenges in bringing this treatment modality to fruition. In this study, we hypothesized that preconditioning with p38 MAPK inhibitor (sb203580) would recharge decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) expanded human synovium-derived stem cell (hSDSC) chondrogenesis in an inflammatory environment. We found that preconditioning with sb203580 greatly enhanced dECM expanded hSDSC proliferation and chondrogenic potential while supplementation with sb203580 in an induction medium dramatically retarded hSDSC chondrogenic differentiation, even for dECM expanded cells. We also found that sb203580 preconditioning enhanced matrix-expanded hSDSC chondrogenic capacity even in an interleukin-1 (IL-1) induced inflammatory environment. Non-detectable expression of HLA-DR in the hSDSCs grown on allogeneic dECM indicates the feasibility of commercial preparation of these dECMs from healthy, young donors for patients who need autologous transplantation. Our study indicated that p38 MAPK inhibitor has a distinctive priming effect on dECM mediated stem cell cartilage regeneration. Combined rejuvenation with sb203580 and dECM expansion can precondition hSDSCs' resurfacing capacity for osteoarthritic patients with cartilage defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  15. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  16. Cathodes for lithium-air battery cells with acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yangchuan; Huang, Kan; Li, Yunfeng

    2016-07-19

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides a layered metal-air cathode for a metal-air battery. Generally, the layered metal-air cathode comprises an active catalyst layer, a transition layer bonded to the active catalyst layer, and a backing layer bonded to the transition layer such that the transition layer is disposed between the active catalyst layer and the backing layer.

  17. Interactions Between Diffuse Groundwater Recharge and Hyporheic Zone Chemistry in Spring-Fed River: Implications for Metal, Nutrient & Carbonate Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Cohen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Diffuse groundwater flow through stream-bed sediments can represent water with a chemically distinct composition, influencing elemental cycling and ecosystem dynamics. Diffuse flow may be particularly important in systems where hyporheic exchange is small. The entirely spring-sourced Ichetucknee River (north-central Florida) is a model system for distinguishing the processes controlling solute sources and cycling due to its stable discharge (6-9 m3/s), constant but distinct spring chemistry through time, and minimal hyporheic exchange. Most stream solute concentrations exhibit large diel cycles, but these changes do not explain all observed longitudinal changes in river chemistry. Ca, Fe, and PO4 concentrations are all elevated in river water over the flow-weighted average of the source springs (Ca = 1.37 vs 1.31 mM; Fe = 8 vs. 0.4 μg/L; PO4 = 54 vs. 49 μg/L) despite evidence of in-stream removal of these solutes by biotic and abiotic processes. Cl concentrations are also elevated in the river over the spring sources and previous calculations estimated an additional 0.75 m3/s of water was needed to close the Cl budget of the river. Diffuse groundwater flow could be the source of these additional solutes and flow. To estimate the impact of diffuse flow interacting with hyporheic zone chemistry on the metal, nutrient, and carbonate chemistry of the Ichetucknee River we compared the chemistry of the springs and river with measurements of pore-water chemistry and hydraulic gradients within the unconsolidated channel sediments. A cross-river transect of four pore-water chemical profiles indicate that pore-water chemistry is dominated by the mineralization of organic carbon, resulting in pore-waters undersaturated with respect to calcite and elevated in Ca, Fe, and PO4 concentrations (ca. 1.44 mM, 2000 μg/L, and 150-300 μg/L, respectively) relative to the river. A diffuse flow rate through the river sediments of 0.2-0.7 m3/s, would account for the addition of both PO

  18. Aluminum-Air Power Cell: the M4-cell assembly and initial tests

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.; Muelder, S.A.; Hui, W.C.

    1985-10-03

    We fabricated, assembled, and tested the modular, wedge-shaped M4 Aluminum-Air Power Cell in a system with a fluidized-bed crystallizer and hydrocyclone separator. Two M4-cell experiments validated the design premises and indicated predictable performance. The combined duration of the M4-1 and M4-2 experiments was almost 9 h. Conductive epoxy bonds are inadequate for bonding the air-cathode metal screen to current collectors; soldered joints using low melting (93/sup 0/C) Indium solder performed satisfactorily. Both experiments were terminated because of problems directly traceable to metallic tin deposited by the stannate corrosion inhibitor. Apart from problems caused by metallic tin, the M4-2 test system performed very satisfactorily. Individual cell pods are readily assembled into single or multicell stacks; it is easy to disassemble the cells after a run to determine cell condition. Air-cathode assembly is the most cumbersome aspect of the M4 cell. We obtained valuable information regarding the evolution of particle-size distribution. We did not observe substantial agglomeration of the smaller crystals. A simple model of secondary nucleation gave a reasonably good fit to the secondary nucleation observed in the M3-3 experiment.

  19. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  20. A novel non-vacuum process for the preparation of CuIn(Se,S)2 thin-film solar cells from air-stable, eco-friendly, metal salts based solution ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Paifeng; Liu, Zhaofan; Ding, Yuankui; Cheng, Jigui

    2015-01-01

    A facile solution-based non-vacuum process for deposition of CuIn(Se,S)2 (CISeS) absorber layers is presented in this work, which indicates a promising way for the low-cost applications in thin-film solar cells. Firstly, low-boiling-point solvents Monobutylamine C4H11N and Carbon disulfide CS2 are selected as the complexing and thickening agents and added into the Cu/In metal salts based solution. Thus the air-stable, eco-friendly solution ink is successfully synthesized through a simple solution synthesis route. The detailed chemical reaction mechanism and the influence of the composition of precursor solution have been discussed intensively as well. After sequential spin-coating, hot-treatment and selenization process, the high-quality CISeS films are obtained and then characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS, Metallographic microscope, Hall Effect measurement and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that the compact CISeS films with chalcopyrite α-phase possess a double-layer structure, and also incorporate with a little ordered vacancy compounds (OVCs) and Cu2-xSe impurities. The typical near stoichiometric CISeS films without Carbon residuals have superior photoelectric properties with carrier concentration of 3.46 × 1016 N cm-3 and band gap of 1.15 eV. Finally, the original first-made PV devices provide a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.25%, which can be further improved by increasing the thickness of CISeS films and/or optimizing the selenization and sulfuration technologies.

  1. Air breathing lithium power cells

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  2. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  3. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  4. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  5. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  6. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. SCANNING VOLTA POTENTIALS MEASUREMENTS OF METALS IN IRRADIATED AIR.

    SciTech Connect

    ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.; AND ENERGY SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT; JEFFCOATE, C.S.

    2000-10-22

    A method for direct dc measurement of the Volta potential is presented. High intensity synchrotron x-ray beams were used to locally irradiate the atmosphere adjacent to the metal surface and produce a conducting path between a sample and a reference probe. The direct measurements of potential in the ionized air could be made at probe heights of around 1 mm compared to less than 0.1 mm for the Kelvin probe. The measurements were similar to traditional Kelvin probe measurements, but had a poorer spatial resolution. In contrast to the Kelvin probe methods, the approach described allows observation of the current as a function of impressed voltage. Methods to improve the special resolution of the technique and applications to corrosion under coating will be presented.

  8. Characterization of gas diffusion electrodes for metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Timo; Eswara, Santhana; Schulz, Volker P.; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes are commonly used in high energy density metal-air batteries for the supply of oxygen. Hydrophobic binder materials ensure the coexistence of gas and liquid phase in the pore network. The phase distribution has a strong influence on transport processes and electrochemical reactions. In this article we present 2D and 3D Rothman-Keller type multiphase Lattice-Boltzmann models which take into account the heterogeneous wetting behavior of gas diffusion electrodes. The simulations are performed on FIB-SEM 3D reconstructions of an Ag model electrode for predefined saturation of the pore space with the liquid phase. The resulting pressure-saturation characteristics and transport correlations are important input parameters for modeling approaches on the continuum scale and allow for an efficient development of improved gas diffusion electrodes.

  9. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are examined. Two basic techniques for metal deposition are investigated; (1) photochemical decomposition of liquid or gas phase organometallic compounds utilizing either a focused, CW ultraviolet laser (System 1) or a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, such as that provided by a repetitively pulsed, defocused excimer laser (System 2), for pattern definition, and (2) thermal deposition of metals from organometallic solutions or vapors utilizing a focused, CW laser beam as a local heat source to draw the metallization pattern.

  10. Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A

    1993-01-01

    The most environmentally abundant toxic metals/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) are each known to produce cell injury in the kidney but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are now being elucidated. It is clear that the nephrotoxicity of these agents is due, in part, to the fact that urinary elimination is a major route of excretion from the body. The role(s) of molecular factors such as metal-binding proteins, inclusion bodies, and cell-specific receptorlike proteins that appear to influence renal tubule cell expression, have attracted increased interest as determinants that modulate cell populations as special risk for toxicity and renal cancer. The future of mechanistic toxicology studies with regard to how and why only certain renal cell populations become targets for toxicity from these metals/metalloids and other less common inorganic nephrotoxicants must focus on the molecular handling of these agents by target cell populations. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. PMID:8354182

  11. Mechanisms of kidney cell injury from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The most environmentally abundant toxic metals/metalloids (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) are each known to produce cell injury in the kidney but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are now being elucidated. It is clear that the nephrotoxicity of these agents is due, in part, to the fact that urinary elimination is a major route of excretion from the body. The role(s) of molecular factors such as metal-binding proteins, inclusion bodies, and cell-specific receptorlike proteins that appear to influence renal tubule cell expression, have attracted increased interest as determinants that modulate cell populations as special risk for toxicity and renal cancer. The future of mechanistic toxicology studies with regard to how and why only certain renal cell populations become targets for toxicity from these metals/metalloids and other less common inorganic nephrotoxicants must focus on the molecular handling of these agents by target cell populations. 90 refs.

  12. Thermal analysis of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Oneto, Robert; Levine, Howard; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed a crash-resistant container, the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP), capable of surviving a worst-case plane crash, including both impact and subsequent fire, for the air transport of plutonium. This report presents thermal analyses of the full-scale PMATP in its undamaged (pre-test) condition and in bounding post-accident states. The goal of these thermal simulations was to evaluate the performance of the package in a worst-case post-crash fire. The full-scale package is approximately 1.6 m long by 0.8 m diameter. The thermal analyses were performed with the FLEX finite element code. This analysis clearly predicts that the PMATP provides acceptable thermal response characteristics, both for the post-accident fire of a one-hour duration and the after-fire heat-soak condition. All predicted temperatures for the primary containment vessel are well within design limits for safety.

  13. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  14. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  15. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  16. High performance zinc air fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Song, Mancun; Xu, Huachi

    2014-03-01

    A zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) stack with inexpensive manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the catalyst is designed, in which the circulation flowing potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte carries the reaction product away and acts as a coolant. Experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of polarization, constant current discharge and dynamic response, as well as the factors affecting the performance and uniformity of individual cells in the stack. The results reveal that the peak power density can be as high as 435 mW cm-2 according to the area of the air cathode sheet, and the influence factors on cell performance and uniformity are cell locations, filled state of zinc pellets, contact resistance, flow rates of electrolyte and air. It is also shown that the time needed for voltages to reach steady state and that for current step-up or current step-down are both in milliseconds, indicating the ZAFC can be excellently applied to vehicles with rapid dynamic response demands.

  17. Metal-air batteries: from oxygen reduction electrochemistry to cathode catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2012-03-21

    Because of the remarkably high theoretical energy output, metal-air batteries represent one class of promising power sources for applications in next-generation electronics, electrified transportation and energy storage of smart grids. The most prominent feature of a metal-air battery is the combination of a metal anode with high energy density and an air electrode with open structure to draw cathode active materials (i.e., oxygen) from air. In this critical review, we present the fundamentals and recent advances related to the fields of metal-air batteries, with a focus on the electrochemistry and materials chemistry of air electrodes. The battery electrochemistry and catalytic mechanism of oxygen reduction reactions are discussed on the basis of aqueous and organic electrolytes. Four groups of extensively studied catalysts for the cathode oxygen reduction/evolution are selectively surveyed from materials chemistry to electrode properties and battery application: Pt and Pt-based alloys (e.g., PtAu nanoparticles), carbonaceous materials (e.g., graphene nanosheets), transition-metal oxides (e.g., Mn-based spinels and perovskites), and inorganic-organic composites (e.g., metal macrocycle derivatives). The design and optimization of air-electrode structure are also outlined. Furthermore, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of research directions are proposed for further development of metal-air batteries (219 references).

  18. Metallic foil-assisted laser cell printing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yafu; Huang, Yong; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2011-02-01

    Laser direct-write technology such as modified laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is emerging as a revolutionary technology for biological construct fabrication. While many modified LIFT-based cell direct writing successes have been achieved, possible process-induced cell injury and death is still a big hurdle for modified LIFT-based cell direct writing to be a viable technology. The objective of this study is to propose metallic foil-assisted LIFT using a four-layer structure to achieve better droplet size control and increase cell viability in direct writing of human colon cancer cells (HT-29). The proposed four layers include a quartz disk, a sacrificial and adhesive layer, a metallic foil, and a cell suspension layer. The bubble formation-induced stress wave is responsible for droplet formation. It is found that the proposed metallic foil-assisted LIFT approach is an effective cell direct-write technology and provides better printing resolution and high post-transfer cell viability when compared with other conventional modified LIFT technologies such as matrix-assisted pulsed-laser evaporation direct-write; at the same time, the possible contamination from the laser energy absorbing material is minimized using a metallic foil.

  19. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  20. Compressed Air System Overhaul Improves Production at a Powdered Metal Manufacturing Plant (GKN Sinter Metals in Salem, IN)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In 1998, GKN Sinter Metals completed a successful compressed air system improvement project at its Salem, Indiana manufacturing facility. The project was performed after GKN undertook a survey of its system in order to solve air quality problems and to evaluate whether the capacity of their compressed air system would meet their anticipated plant expansion. Once the project was implemented, the plant was able to increase production by 31% without having to add any additional compressor capacity.

  1. A precious-metal free micro fuel cell accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretthauer, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, integrated fuel cell (FC) type primary and secondary batteries attracted a great deal of attention as integrated on-chip power sources due to their high theoretical power densities. Unfortunately, the costs of these devices have been rather high. This is partially due to the involved clean-room processes, but also due to the fact that these devices generally rely on expensive precious-metals such as Pd and Pt. Therefore we developed a novel integrated FC type accumulator that is based on non-precious-metals only. The key component of the presented accumulator is its alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane that allows not only the usage of a low-cost AB5 type hydrogen storage electrode, but also the usage of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 as a precious-metal free bifunctional catalyst for the air-breathing electrode. Additionally the presented design requires only comparatively few cleanroom processes which further reduces the overall production costs. Although abdicating precious-metals, the presented accumulator shows an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V and a maximum power density of 0.66 mW cm-2 which is comparable or even superior to former precious-metal based cells.

  2. Fuel cells and the theory of metals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocciarelli, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    Metal theory is used to study the role of metal catalysts in electrocatalysis, with particular reference to alkaline hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. Use is made of a simple model, analogous to that used to interpret field emission in vacuum. Theoretical values for all the quantities in the Tafel equation are obtained in terms of bulk properties of the metal catalysts (such as free electron densities and Fermi level). The reasons why some processes are reversible (H-electrodes) and some irreversible (O-electrodes) are identified. Selection rules for desirable properties of catalytic materials are established.

  3. Fuel cells and the theory of metals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocciarelli, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    Metal theory is used to study the role of metal catalysts in electrocatalysis, with particular reference to alkaline hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. Use is made of a simple model, analogous to that used to interpret field emission in vacuum. Theoretical values for all the quantities in the Tafel equation are obtained in terms of bulk properties of the metal catalysts (such as free electron densities and Fermi level). The reasons why some processes are reversible (H-electrodes) and some irreversible (O-electrodes) are identified. Selection rules for desirable properties of catalytic materials are established.

  4. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-03

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions.

  5. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

  6. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

  7. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding groundwater recharge is essential for successful management of water resources and modeling fluid and contaminant transport within the subsurface. This book provides a critical evaluation of the theory and assumptions that underlie methods for estimating rates of groundwater recharge. Detailed explanations of the methods are provided - allowing readers to apply many of the techniques themselves without needing to consult additional references. Numerous practical examples highlight benefits and limitations of each method. Approximately 900 references allow advanced practitioners to pursue additional information on any method. For the first time, theoretical and practical considerations for selecting and applying methods for estimating groundwater recharge are covered in a single volume with uniform presentation. Hydrogeologists, water-resource specialists, civil and agricultural engineers, earth and environmental scientists and agronomists will benefit from this informative and practical book. It can serve as the primary text for a graduate-level course on groundwater recharge or as an adjunct text for courses on groundwater hydrology or hydrogeology.

  8. Comparison of metal lability in air-dried and fresh dewatered drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the labilities of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in air-dried (for 60 days) and fresh dewatered WTRs were compared using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), fractionation, in vitro digestion and a plant enrichment test. The results showed that the air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs had different properties, e.g., organic matter composition and available nutrients. The air-dried and fresh dewatered WTRs were non-haf zardous according to the TCLP assessment method used in the United States; however, the metals in the two types of WTRs had different lability. Compared with the metals in the fresh dewatered WTRs, those in the air-dried WTRs tended to be in more stable fractions and also exhibited lower bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, air-drying can decrease the metal lability and thereby reduce the potential metal pollution risk of WTRs.

  9. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  10. Development of nickel-metal hydride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwajima, Saburo; Kamimori, Nolimits; Nakatani, Kensuke; Yano, Yoshiaki

    1993-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has conducted the research and development (R&D) of battery cells for space use. A new R&D program about a Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) cell for space use from this year, based on good results in evaluations of commercial Ni-MH cells in Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC), was started. The results of those commercial Ni-MH cell's evaluations and recent status about the development of Ni-MH cells for space use are described.

  11. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  12. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  13. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  14. Reversible air electrodes integrated with an anion-exchange membrane for secondary air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoko; Yao, Masaru; Siroma, Zyun; Senoh, Hiroshi; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    Reversible air electrodes integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been proposed for use in rechargeable metal-air batteries or unitized regenerative fuel cells to reduce the impact of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reversible air electrodes were prepared with an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) as a polymer electrolyte membrane and platinum-based catalysts. The AEM at the interface between the alkaline electrolyte and the air electrode layer plays major roles in AEM-type air electrodes as follows: it blocks (a) the permeation of cations in the alkaline electrolyte into the air electrode layer to prevent carbonate precipitation, (b) penetration of the alkaline solution itself, and (c) neutralization of the alkaline electrolyte by carbon dioxide, all of which prevent performance degradation of oxygen reactions. Catalysts for decreasing the overvoltage of oxygen reactions were also investigated with the AEM-type air electrode, and the overall efficiency was improved due to a remarkable decrease in the potential for the oxygen evolution reaction with Pt-Ir catalysts.

  15. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  16. Anticancer metal drugs and immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Alessio; Pirker, Christine; Keppler, Bernhard K; Berger, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Conventional chemotherapeutics, but also innovative precision anticancer compounds, are commonly perceived to target primarily the cancer cell compartment. However, recently it was discovered that some of these compounds can also exert immunomodulatory activities which might be exploited to synergistically enhance their anticancer effects. One specific phenomenon of the interplay between chemotherapy and the anticancer immune response is the so-called "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). ICD was discovered based on a vaccination effect exerted by cancer cells dying from pretreatment with certain chemotherapeutics, termed ICD inducers, in syngeneic transplantation mouse models. Interestingly, only a minority of drugs is able to trigger ICD without a clear-cut relation to chemical structures or their primary modes-of-action. Nevertheless, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are clearly linked to ICD. With regard to metal drugs, oxaliplatin but not cisplatin is considered a bona fide ICD inducer. Taken into account that several experimental metal compounds are efficient ROS and ER stress mediators, presence of potent ICD inducers within the plethora of novel metal complexes seems feasible and has occasionally been reported. In the light of recent successes in cancer immunotherapy, here we review existing literature regarding anticancer metal drugs and ICD induction. We recommend a more profound investigation of the immunogenic features of experimental anticancer metal drugs.

  17. Thermal management improvement of an air-cooled high-power lithium-ion battery by embedding metal foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadian, Shahabeddin K.; Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Zhang, Yuwen

    2015-11-01

    Effect of embedding aluminum porous metal foam inside the flow channels of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module was studied to improve its thermal management. Four different cases of metal foam insert were examined using three-dimensional transient numerical simulations. The effects of permeability and porosity of the porous medium as well as state of charge were investigated on the standard deviation of the temperature field and maximum temperature inside the battery in all four cases. Compared to the case of no porous insert, embedding aluminum metal foam in the air flow channel significantly improved the thermal management of Li-ion battery cell. The results also indicated that, decreasing the porosity of the porous structure decreases both standard deviation of the temperature field and maximum temperature inside the battery. Moreover, increasing the permeability of the metal foam drops the maximum temperature inside the battery while decreasing this property leads to improving the temperature uniformity. Our results suggested that, among the all studied cases, desirable temperature uniformity and maximum temperature were achieved when two-third and the entire air flow channel is filled with aluminum metal foam, respectively.

  18. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  19. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  20. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  1. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  2. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  3. Fact Sheets: Final Rules to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Metal Cans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the August 2003 final rule fact sheet and the December 2005 final rule fact sheet that contain information on the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Surface Coating of Metal Cans.

  4. Understanding the degradation mechanism of rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells: a comprehensive study of the sulfur-graphene oxide cathode after discharge-charge cycling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xuefei; Song, Min-Kyu; Stolte, Wayne C; Gardenghi, David; Zhang, Duo; Sun, Xuhui; Zhu, Junfa; Cairns, Elton J; Guo, Jinghua

    2014-08-28

    Lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells have attracted much attention due to their higher theoretical specific capacity and energy compared to those of current lithium-ion cells. However, the application of Li/S cells is still hampered by short cycle life. Sulfur-graphene oxide (S-GO) nanocomposites have shown promise as cathode materials for long-life Li/S cells because oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of graphene oxide were successfully used as sulfur immobilizers by forming weak bonds with sulfur and polysulfides. While S-GO showed much improved cycling performance, the capacity decay still needs to be improved for commercially viable cells. In this study, we attempt to understand the capacity fading mechanism based on an ex situ study of the structural and chemical evolution of S-GO nanocomposite cathodes with various numbers of cycles using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that both the surface morphologies and chemical structures of the cathode materials change considerably with increasing number of cycles. These changes are attributed to several unexpected chemical reactions of lithium with S-GO nanocomposites occurring during the discharge-charge processes with the formation of Li2CO3, Li2SO3, Li2SO4, and COSO2Li species. These reactions result in the loss of recyclable active sulfur on the surface of the electrode, and thus capacity fades while coulombic efficiency is near 100%. Moreover, the reaction products accumulate on the cathode surface, forming a compact blocking insulating layer which may make the diffusion of Li ions into/out of the cathode difficult during the discharge-charge process and thus lead to lower utilization of sulfur at higher rates. We think that these two observations are significant contributors to the capacity and rate capability degradation of the Li/S-GO cells. Therefore, for the rechargeable Li/S-GO cells, we

  5. An Efficient Halogen-Free Electrolyte for Use in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tutusaus, Oscar; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Nelson, Emily G; Sevryugina, Yulia V

    2015-06-26

    Unlocking the full potential of rechargeable magnesium batteries has been partially hindered by the reliance on chloride-based complex systems. Despite the high anodic stability of these electrolytes, they are corrosive toward metallic battery components, which reduce their practical electrochemical window. Following on our new design concept involving boron cluster anions, monocarborane CB11H12(-) produced the first halogen-free, simple-type Mg salt that is compatible with Mg metal and displays an oxidative stability surpassing that of ether solvents. Owing to its inertness and non-corrosive nature, the Mg(CB11H12)2/tetraglyme (MMC/G4) electrolyte system permits standardized methods of high-voltage cathode testing that uses a typical coin cell. This achievement is a turning point in the research and development of Mg electrolytes that has deep implications on realizing practical rechargeable Mg batteries.

  6. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    performance of nanoscopic anodic materials in addition to the previously developed macroscopic system, as well as the exploration of a high-energy capacity TiB 2/VB2 composite anode. However, the greatest challenge to this room temperature VB2 primary battery is to develop a means to electrochemically recharge the anodic material (how to reinsert the eleven electrons per molecule that are removed during the battery's discharge). Rechargeable batteries, such as the new molten air battery presented in this thesis, offer a high intrinsic capacity mode for energy storage and overcome problems such as the need for higher energy capacity, cost-effective batteries for a range of electronic, transportation, and large-scale power storage devices. Molten air batteries presented and discussed in this work are viable systems that provide a means to electrochemically recharge the VB2-air battery and deliver large-scale energy storage due to their scalability, location flexibility, construction from readily available resources, and offer increased energy storage capacity for the electric grid. One example is the VB2 molten air battery, which discharges according to: VB 2 + 11/4 O2 → 1/ 2 V2O5 + B2O3 (1). Previously, our group has shown that carbon dioxide can be captured from atmospheric air concentrations at solar efficiencies as high as 50%, and that carbon dioxide emissions associated with the production of several commodities can be electrochemically avoided in by the Solar Thermal Electrochemical Process (STEP). Utilizing this process, the carbon molten air battery relies on carbon dioxide directly from the air: Charging: CO2 (g) → C (solid) + O2 (g) (2) Discharging: C (solid) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) (3). More specifically, in a molten carbonate electrolyte containing added oxide, such as lithium carbonate with lithium oxide, the four-electron charging reaction, Equation 2, approaches 100% faradic efficiency and can be described as the following two equations: O2- (dissolved) + CO2

  7. EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF METAL COMPONENTS IN CONCENTRATED AMBIENT AIR PARTICLES ON PULMONARY INJURY. Yuh-Chin Huang, Jackie Stonehuerner, Jackie Carter, Andrew J. Ghio, Robert B. Devlin. NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.
    The mechanisms for cardiopulmonary morbidity associated with exposure to air po...

  8. Lateral Programmable Metallization Cell Devices And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Minghan

    2011-12-01

    Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform which utilizes mass transport in solid or liquid electrolyte coupled with electrochemical (redox) reactions to form or remove nanoscale metallic electrodeposits on or in the electrolyte. The ability to redistribute metal mass and form metallic nanostructure in or on a structure in situ, via the application of a bias on laterally placed electrodes, creates a large number of promising applications. A novel PMC-based lateral microwave switch was fabricated and characterized for use in microwave systems. It has demonstrated low insertion loss, high isolation, low voltage operation, low power and low energy consumption, and excellent linearity. Due to its non-volatile nature the switch operates with fewer biases and its simple planar geometry makes possible innovative device structures which can be potentially integrated into microwave power distribution circuits. PMC technology is also used to develop lateral dendritic metal electrodes. A lateral metallic dendritic network can be grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) or electrodeposited on SiO2 or Si using a water-mediated method. These dendritic electrodes grown in a solid electrolyte (GeSe) can be used to lower resistances for applications like self-healing interconnects despite its relatively low light transparency; while the dendritic electrodes grown using water-mediated method can be potentially integrated into solar cell applications, like replacing conventional Ag screen-printed top electrodes as they not only reduce resistances but also are highly transparent. This research effort also laid a solid foundation for developing dendritic plasmonic structures. A PMC-based lateral dendritic plasmonic structure is a device that has metallic dendritic networks grown electrochemically on SiO2 with a thin layer of surface metal nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte. These structures increase the distribution of particle sizes by connecting pre-deposited Ag

  9. A reversible long-life lithium-air battery in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte degradation, Li dendrite formation and parasitic reactions with H₂O and CO₂ are all directly correlated to reversibility and cycleability of Li-air batteries when operated in ambient air. Here we replace easily decomposable liquid electrolytes with a solid Li-ion conductor, which acts as both a catholyte and a Li protector. Meanwhile, the conventional solid air cathodes are replaced with a gel cathode, which contacts directly with the solid catholyte to form a closed and sustainable gel/solid interface. The proposed Li-air cell has sustained repeated cycling in ambient air for 100 cycles (~78 days), with discharge capacity of 2,000 mAh g(-1). The recharging is based largely on the reversible reactions of Li₂CO₃ product, originating from the initial discharge product of Li₂O₂ instead of electrolyte degradation. Our results demonstrate that a reversible long-life Li-air battery is attainable by coordinated approaches towards the focal issues of electrolytes and Li metal.

  10. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Determination of trace metals in air particulate matters by capillary electrophoresis with spectrophotometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Y.S.; Tung, H.S.

    1998-12-31

    Chemical analysis of trace metals in air particulate matters are required for studies in the apportionment of major air pollution sources, occupational health protection, environmental monitoring of ambient and indoor air, and for atmospheric aerosol research purpose. The demand for the required analysis is towards more sensitive, cheaper and automated method, as well as capability of differentiating different chemical species present in the air particulate matters. The recent advance of capillary electrophoresis provides an alternative method for multi-element determination with capability of speciation of different chemical elements for both total and leachable metal determination. It also uses equipment available in many chemical laboratories with reasonable capital and low running cost. In the present paper, the application of CE for trace metal analysis in air particulate matters will be investigated in three areas. The first area is the development of sample pretreatment method. For total metal analysis, the microwave digestion method is chosen based on short digestion time and reduced contamination. The second area is the optimization of the CE buffers. The use of strong and weak complex system is compared using histidine and 4-methylbenzylamine for indirect UV detection and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQS) for direct UV detection for CE separation of alkali and alkaline earth metals (ammonium, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium) with transition metals (cobalt, cadmium, nickel, zinc, lead and copper). The role of lactic acid, 18-crown-6 and other additives to effect satisfactory separation of closely co-migrated pairs and to achieve suitable separation of large amounts of alkali metals (ppm) from trace levels of transition metals (ppb) will be discussed for both leachable and total metals present in air particulate matters.

  12. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  13. Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

  14. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  15. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  16. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. )

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this soluble'' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  18. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putt, R. A.; Merry, G. W.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this 'soluble' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (greater than 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high resistance failure of the cell. The Phase 1 program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/sq cm. By the end of the Phase 1 program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase 2 program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  19. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2013-05-01

    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  20. Modeling nucleation and growth of zinc oxide during discharge of primary zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Johannes; Varzi, Alberto; Latz, Arnulf; Horstmann, Birger

    2017-08-01

    Metal-air batteries are among the most promising next-generation energy storage devices. Relying on abundant materials and offering high energy densities, potential applications lie in the fields of electro-mobility, portable electronics, and stationary grid applications. Now, research on secondary zinc-air batteries is revived, which are commercialized as primary hearing aid batteries. One of the main obstacles for making zinc-air batteries rechargeable is their poor lifetime due to the degradation of alkaline electrolyte in contact with atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this article, we present a continuum theory of a commercial Varta PowerOne button cell. Our model contains dissolution of zinc and nucleation and growth of zinc oxide in the anode, thermodynamically consistent electrolyte transport in porous media, and multi-phase coexistance in the gas diffusion electrode. We perform electrochemical measurements and validate our model. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found and novel insights into the role of zinc oxide nucleation and growth and carbon dioxide dissolution for discharge and lifetime is presented. We demonstrate the implications of our work for the development of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  1. Functionalizing the Surface of Lithium-Metal Anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Buonaiuto, Megan; Neuhold, Susanna; Schroeder, David J.; ...

    2014-09-03

    Metal-air batteries are an important aspect of many beyond lithium ion research efforts. However, as our understanding of how molecular oxygen can act as a rechargeable cathode has progressed; the problems associated with how these materials at various states of charge interact with the lithium metal anode are only beginning to come to the surface. In this study we have devised a method to coat the surface a lithium with a functional group to act as either an anchor for further derivation studies or be polymerized to create a nanometer thick polymer coating attached to the surface by silane groups.more » These stable films, formed by polymerization of vinyl substituents, lower cell impedance at the electrode and over the first 50 cycles, increase cycling efficiency and demonstrate lower capacity fade.« less

  2. Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S.; van Zomeren, A.

    1994-11-01

    Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.

  3. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  4. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, N; Das, S K; Archer, L A

    2011-12-21

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl(3) in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V(2)O(5) nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle and 273 mAh g(-1) after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour.

  5. Macrophages overexpressing Aire induce CD4+Foxp3+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jitong; Fu, Haiying; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Wufei; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aire plays an important role in central immune tolerance by regulating the transcription of thousands of genes. However, the role of Aire in the peripheral immune system is poorly understood. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are considered essential for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but the effect of Aire on Treg cells in the peripheral immune system is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of macrophages overexpressing Aire on CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells by co-culturing Aire-overexpressing RAW264.7 cells or their supernatant with splenocytes. The results show that macrophages overexpressing Aire enhanced the expression of Foxp3 mRNA and induced different subsets of Treg cells in splenocytes through cell-cell contact or a co-culture supernatants. TGF-β is a key molecule in the increases of CD4+CD45RA+Foxp3hi T cell and activating Treg (aTreg) levels observed following cell‑supernatant co-culturing. Subsets of Treg cells were induced by Aire-overexpressing macrophages, and the manipulation of Treg cells by the targeting of Aire may provide a method for the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases.

  6. Heterogeneous photochemical reactions of a propylene-nitrogen dioxide-metal oxide-dry air system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Ibusuki, Takashi

    Photochemical reactions of a C 3H 6-NO 2-air system in the presence of metal oxide were investigated. The metal oxides showing strong photooxidation activity were found to be n-type semiconductor oxides with the energy band gap around 3 eV. Formation of cyano-compounds (HCN and CH 3CN) was also observed and the activity can be explained in terms of the adsorptivity of NO onto metal oxides. Coalfired fly ash as a model of mixed metal oxides was also examined and their photocatalytic action was discussed.

  7. Influence of metallic vapours on thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe

    2016-09-01

    The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.

  8. Optimization of reference electrode position in a three-electrode cell for impedance measurements in lithium-ion rechargeable battery by finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Narita, Yuki; Honda, Keiichiro; Ohtaki, Tomomi; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2015-08-01

    We determine the proper placement of the reference electrode for impedance measurements in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries with a three-electrode cell. Calculations of the impedance spectra of the positive and negative electrodes and simulations of the current and potential distributions between them are performed using the finite element method. In the simulation, the positive and negative electrodes are symmetrical face to face. Distortions of the loops and artifact inductive loops are observed in the impedance spectra of the positive and negative electrodes when the reference electrode is between or at the edges of the electrodes. These distortions and the diameter of the artifact inductive loops become small when the reference electrode is positioned outside the area between the positive and negative electrodes. Simulations also demonstrate that current from the positive electrode can flow to the reference electrode and then the negative electrode, i.e., part of the reference electrode facing the positive electrode becomes cathode and part of the reference electrode facing the negative electrode becomes anode. Therefore, the dissolution of reference electrode occurs during impedance measurements in a three-electrode cell and the reference electrode should be placed outside of the area between electrodes, where there is no potential modulation and gradient.

  9. Laser-assisted solar-cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    A photolytic metal deposition system using a focused continuous wave ultraviolet laser, a photolytic metal deposition system using a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, and a pyrolytic metal deposition system using a focused continuous wave laser were studied. Fabrication of solar cells, as well as characterization to determine the effects of transient heat on solar cell junctions were investigated.

  10. Metal–Air Batteries: Will They Be the Future Electrochemical Energy Storage Device of Choice? [Metal-Air Batteries: Future Electrochemical Energy Storage of Choice?

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yanguang; Lu, Jun

    2017-05-05

    Metal-air batteries have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries, and are frequently advocated as the solution toward next-generation electrochemical energy storage for applications including electric vehicles or grid energy storage. Yet they have not fulfilled their full potentials as limited by challenges associated with the metal anode, air cathode and electrolyte. These challenges would have to be properly resolved before metal-air batteries can become a practical reality and be deployed on a large scale. Here we survey the current status and latest advances in metal-air battery research for both aqueous (e.g. Zn-air) and non-aqueous (e.g. Li-air) systems. Themore » general technical issues confronting their developments are overviewed, and our perspective on possible solutions is offered.« less

  11. Cooling System Design for PEM Fuel Cell Powered Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-18

    Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) powered unmanned air vehicle (UAV) called the Ion Tiger. The Ion Tiger...to design a cooling system for the Ion Tiger and investigate cooling approaches that may be suitable for future PEMFC powered air vehicles. The...modifications) to other PEMFC systems utilizing a CHE for cooling. 18-06-2010 Memorandum Report Unmanned Air Vehicle UAV Fuel cell PEM Cooling Radiator January

  12. Identification of catalytic sites for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in N-doped graphene materials: Development of highly efficient metal-free bifunctional electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong Bin; Miao, Jianwei; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Jiazang; Tao, Hua Bing; Wang, Xizu; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Rong; Gao, Jiajian; Chen, Hao Ming; Dai, Liming; Liu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are critical to renewable energy conversion and storage technologies. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have been reported to be efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in fuel cells for energy conversion, as well as ORR and OER in metal-air batteries for energy storage. We reported that metal-free three-dimensional (3D) graphene nanoribbon networks (N-GRW) doped with nitrogen exhibited superb bifunctional electrocatalytic activities for both ORR and OER, with an excellent stability in alkaline electrolytes (for example, KOH). For the first time, it was experimentally demonstrated that the electron-donating quaternary N sites were responsible for ORR, whereas the electron-withdrawing pyridinic N moieties in N-GRW served as active sites for OER. The unique 3D nanoarchitecture provided a high density of the ORR and OER active sites and facilitated the electrolyte and electron transports. As a result, the as-prepared N-GRW holds great potential as a low-cost, highly efficient air cathode in rechargeable metal-air batteries. Rechargeable zinc-air batteries with the N-GRW air electrode in a two-electrode configuration exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 1.46 V, a specific capacity of 873 mAh g(-1), and a peak power density of 65 mW cm(-2), which could be continuously charged and discharged with an excellent cycling stability. Our work should open up new avenues for the development of various carbon-based metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts of practical significance.

  13. Identification of catalytic sites for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in N-doped graphene materials: Development of highly efficient metal-free bifunctional electrocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong Bin; Miao, Jianwei; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Jiazang; Tao, Hua Bing; Wang, Xizu; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Rong; Gao, Jiajian; Chen, Hao Ming; Dai, Liming; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are critical to renewable energy conversion and storage technologies. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have been reported to be efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in fuel cells for energy conversion, as well as ORR and OER in metal-air batteries for energy storage. We reported that metal-free three-dimensional (3D) graphene nanoribbon networks (N-GRW) doped with nitrogen exhibited superb bifunctional electrocatalytic activities for both ORR and OER, with an excellent stability in alkaline electrolytes (for example, KOH). For the first time, it was experimentally demonstrated that the electron-donating quaternary N sites were responsible for ORR, whereas the electron-withdrawing pyridinic N moieties in N-GRW served as active sites for OER. The unique 3D nanoarchitecture provided a high density of the ORR and OER active sites and facilitated the electrolyte and electron transports. As a result, the as-prepared N-GRW holds great potential as a low-cost, highly efficient air cathode in rechargeable metal-air batteries. Rechargeable zinc-air batteries with the N-GRW air electrode in a two-electrode configuration exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 1.46 V, a specific capacity of 873 mAh g−1, and a peak power density of 65 mW cm−2, which could be continuously charged and discharged with an excellent cycling stability. Our work should open up new avenues for the development of various carbon-based metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts of practical significance. PMID:27152333

  14. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Tripković, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-03-07

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO(2), SnO(2), NbO(2), ZrO(2), SiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and Nb(2)O(5)) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in detail; however, due to different operating conditions it is not straightforward to link the chemical and the electrochemical environment. The largest differences reflect in (1) the oxidation state of the surface (the oxygen species coverage), (2) temperature and (3) the possibility of platinum dissolution at high potentials and the interference of redispersion with normal working potential of the PEMFC cathode. We have calculated the PtO(x) (x = 0, 1, 2) adsorption energies on different metal oxides' surface terminations as well as inside the metal oxides' bulk, and we have concluded that NbO(2) might be a good support for platinum redispersion at PEMFC cathodes.

  15. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  16. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  17. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing is described. Metallo-organic silver films were spun-on by argon ion laser beam pyrolysis. The metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) film was spun-on an evaporated Ti/Pd film to produce tood adhesion. In a maskless process, the argon ion laser writes the contact pattern. The film is then built up to obtain the required conductivity using conventional silverplating process. The Ti/Pd film in the field is chemically etched using the plated silver film as the mask. The width of the contact pattern is determined by the power of the laser. Widths as thin as 20 microns were obtained using 0.66 W of laser power. Cells fabricated with the 50 micron line widths of 4 ohm-cm floating zone (Fz) silicon-produced efficiencies of 16.6% (no passivation) which were equivalent to the best cells using conventional metallization/lithography and no passivation.

  18. Electrodeposition of metals and semiconductors in air- and water-stable ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zein el-Abedin, Sherif; Endres, Frank

    2006-01-16

    In addition to their stability, the advantages of air- and water-stable ionic liquids over chloroaluminate ionic liquids, which were intensively investigated in the past, are that they are easy to dry, purify, and handle. Moreover, some of these ionic liquids have an extremely large electrochemical window of more than 5 V, and hence they give access to the electrodeposition of many metals and semiconductors, such as Ta, Ti, Si, and Ge. The results to date for the electrodeposition of metals and semiconductors in the most popular air- and water-stable ionic liquids are presented.

  19. Metals in air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Soukup, Joleen M; Ghio, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    The mechanism underlying procoagulative effects of air pollution particle exposure is not known. The authors tested the postulate that (1) the water-soluble components of an air pollution particle could affect whole-blood coagulation time and (2) metals included in this fraction were responsible for this effect. Exposure to the water-soluble fraction of particulate matter (PM), at doses as low as 50 ng/ml original particle, significantly diminished the whole-blood coagulation time. Inclusion of deferoxamine prolonged coagulation time following the exposures to the water-soluble fraction, whereas equivalent doses of ferroxamine had no effect. Except for nickel, all metal sulfates shortened the whole-blood coagulation time. Iron and zinc were two metals with the greatest capacity to reduce the coagulation time, with an effect observed at 10 ng/ml. Finally, in contrast to the anticoagulants citrate and EDTA, their iron complexes were found to be procoagulative. The authors conclude that metals in the water-soluble fraction of air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time. These metals can potentially contribute to procoagulative effects observed following human exposures to air pollution particles.

  20. Metal foams application to enhance cooling of open cathode polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid Hossain, Mohammad; Shabani, Bahman

    2015-11-01

    Conventional channel flow fields of open cathode Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) introduce some challenges linked to humidity, temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration gradients along the conventional flow fields that reduce the cell performance. According to previous experimental reports, with conventional air flow fields, hotspot formation due to water accumulation in Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) is common. Unlike continuous long flow passages in conventional channels, metal foams provide randomly interrupted flow passages. Re-circulation of fluid, due to randomly distributed tortuous ligaments, enhances temperature and humidity uniformity in the fluid. Moreover, the higher electrical conductivity of metal foams compared to non-metal current collectors and their very low mass density compared to solid metal materials are expected to increase the electrical performance of the cell while significantly reducing its weight. This article reviews the existing cooling systems and identifies the important parameters on the basis of reported literature in the air cooling systems of PEMFCs. This is followed by investigating metal foams as a possible option to be used within the structure of such PEMFCs as an option that can potentially address cooling and flow distribution challenges associated with using conventional flow channels, especially in air-cooled PEMFCs.

  1. Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

  2. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  3. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  4. Screenable silver and base metal solar cell contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1980-01-01

    The metallurgical soundness of the all-metal screenable thick film electrode system is established for silver and copper electrodes. Silver fluoride was identified as a successful etchant material and is found most effective in the liquid phase (435-460 C). Best results were achieved with the eutectic alloys of dopants and semiconductors. The air-fired silver inks were strongly adherent, rugged, and solderable, whereas the hydrogen-fired silver inks had very poor adhesion. A two-step firing process was devised in which copper inks containing silver fluoride were activated in a nitrogen atmosphere, with sintering done at the same or higher temperatures in hydrogen. Good solar cells were made using the copper paste back contacts demonstrating that the electrodes are not the limiting factors in efficiency.

  5. Precious Metal Recovery from Fuel Cell MEA's

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, Lawrence

    2004-04-27

    In 2003, Engelhard Corporation received a DOE award to develop a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach to recover Pt from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEA’s). The most important precious metal used in fuel cells is platinum, but ruthenium is also added to the anode electrocatalyst if CO is present in the hydrogen stream. As part of the project, a large number of measurements of Pt and Ru need to be made. A low-cost approach to measuring Pt is using the industry standard spectrophotometric measurement of Pt complexed with stannous chloride. The interference of Ru can be eliminated by reading the Pt absorbance at 450 nm. Spectrophotometric methods for measuring Ru, while reported in the literature, are not as robust. These slides will discuss the options for measuring Pt and Ru using the method of UV-VIS spectrophotometry

  6. Design of the solar cell system for recharging the external battery of the totally-implantable artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Tchin-Iou, A V; Min, B G

    1999-12-01

    The solar cell as the advanced alternative energy resource was found to be acceptable for increasing battery running time of the totally-implantable artificial heart. A sample of the wireless charging system with solar cell base gives a maximum battery running time around 9 hours and some physical and psychological freedom to the patient. This improvement will assist the application of the implantable artificial heart for a longer period of time and with added convenience to the recipient.

  7. Aire knockdown in medullary thymic epithelial cells affects Aire protein, deregulates cell adhesion genes and decreases thymocyte interaction.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Nicole; Assis, Amanda Freire; Cotrim-Sousa, Larissa Cotrim; Lopes, Gabriel Sarti; Mosella, Maritza Salas; Lima, Djalma Sousa; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that even a partial reduction of Aire mRNA levels by siRNA-induced Aire knockdown (Aire KD) has important consequences to medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire knockdown is sufficient to reduce Aire protein levels, impair its nuclear location, and cause an imbalance in large-scale gene expression, including genes that encode cell adhesion molecules. These genes drew our attention because adhesion molecules are implicated in the process of mTEC-thymocyte adhesion, which is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central self-tolerance. Accordingly, we consider the following: 1) mTECs contribute to the elimination of self-reactive thymocytes through adhesion; 2) Adhesion molecules play a crucial role during physical contact between these cells; and 3) Aire is an important transcriptional regulator in mTECs. However, its role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion remains unclear. Because Aire controls adhesion molecule genes, we hypothesized that the disruption of its expression could influence mTEC-thymocyte interaction. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine Aire(+) mTEC cell line as a model system to reproduce mTEC-thymocyte adhesion in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of the mTEC cell line revealed that Aire KD led to the down-modulation of more than 800 genes, including those encoding for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e., the extracellular matrix constituent Lama1, the CAM family adhesion molecules Vcam1 and Icam4, and those that encode peripheral tissue antigens. Thymocytes co-cultured with Aire KD mTECs had a significantly reduced capacity to adhere to these cells. This finding is the first direct evidence that Aire also plays a role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion.

  8. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  9. Enhanced filament ablation of metals based on plasma grating in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Di; Liu, Fengjiang; Ding, Liangen; Yuan, Shuai; Zeng, Heping

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate efficient ablation of metals with filamentary plasma grating generated by two intense blue femtosecond filaments and a third focused infrared pulse. This scheme leads to significant promotion of ablation efficiency on metal targets in air in comparison with single infrared or blue filament with equal pulse energy. The reason is that the blue plasma grating firstly provides stronger intensity and a higher density of background electrons, then the delayed infrared pulse accelerates local electrons inside the plasma grating. These two processes finally results in robustly increased electron density and highly ionized metallic atoms.

  10. Metal-Organic-Framework-Derived Dual Metal- and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon as Efficient and Robust Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts for Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haolin; Cai, Shichang; Xie, Shilei; Wang, Zhengbang; Tong, Yexiang; Pan, Mu; Lu, Xihong

    2016-02-01

    A new class of dual metal and N doped carbon catalysts with well-defined porous structure derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed as a high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) device based on the as-prepared Ni/Co and N codoped carbon as air cathode catalyst achieves a maximum power density of 4335.6 mW m(-2) and excellent durability.

  11. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  12. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  13. Influence of glyme-based nonaqueous electrolyte solutions on electrochemical properties of Si-based anodes for rechargeable lithium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inose, Takashi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Tobishima, Shin-Ichi

    Influence of electrolyte solutions on charge-discharge properties of Si-based anodes were examined. As Si-based anodes, electrodes prepared from (i) a mixture of Si and carbon (Si + C) and (ii) a mixture of a Si-SiO 2-C composite and carbon (Si-C + C) were used. As electrolyte solutions, ethylene carbonate (EC)/methylethyl carbonate (MEC)/ n-glyme ternary mixed solvent with 1 M (M: mol L -1) LiPF 6 was used. Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers [(CH 3O(CH 2CH 2O) nCH 3, n = 1, 2, 3 and 4)] are generally known as "glymes". In case of Li/Si + C cells, by mixing glymes to 1 M LiPF 6-EC/MEC (30:70 in mixing volume percentage; EM), discharge capacity tended to become larger than that with EM alone. Cycle life of Li/Si + C cells was approximately the same when different electrolyte solutions were used. Primary reason for the degradation of charge-discharge cycling life of Li/Si + C cells is a physical breakdown and loosing electronic conductive path of Si electrode. This phenomenon was resulted from a large volume change of electrode by expansion and shrinking of Si during charge-discharge of lithium in Si. Also, reactivity of electrolyte solutions toward lithium affected the degradation of charge-discharge capacity. Discharge capacity depended on a reduction potential (E red) of glymes, not on an electrolyte conductivity (κ). In case of Li/Si-C + C cells, by mixing n-glymes to EM, the discharge capacity tended to become larger than that with EM alone. Cycling life of Li/Si-C + C cells improved, compared with that of Li/Si + C cells. This was due to a suppression of physical breakdown by Si-C structure with a thin carbon surface layer on it. Influence of reactivity of electrolyte solutions toward lithium on the degradation of charge-discharge capacity of Li/Si-C + C cells was much smaller than that of Li/Si + C cells. Discharge capacity of Li/Si-C + C cells depended on κ, not on Ered.

  14. Improvement in the Capacity and Safety of Lithium/Inorganic Electrolyte Sulfur Dioxide Rechargeable Cells. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    minutes, cooled, and chopped to a fine powder in a blender . A steel die 14" x 1.75" was used to prepare a sheet from which several 3 positives could...lithium so that it did not directly face cathode material. For all other cells, the negative electrode contact was nickel ribbon pressed diagonally into...each cell in which I an asterisk appears after the composition of the positive screen material, the negative electrode contact was nickel ribbon pressed

  15. A metallic interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Diane Mildred

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrochemically converts the chemical energy of reaction into electrical energy. The commercial success of planar, SOFC stack technology has a number of challenges, one of which is the interconnect that electrically and physically connects the cathode of one cell to the anode of an adjacent cell in the SOFC stack and in addition, separates the anodic and cathodic gases. An SOFC stack operating at intermediate temperatures, between 600°C and 800°C, can utilize a metallic alloy as an interconnect material. Since the interconnect of an SOFC stack must operate in both air and fuel environments, the oxidation kinetics, adherence and electronic resistance of the oxide scales formed on commercial alloys were investigated in air and wet hydrogen under thermal cycling conditions to 800°C. The alloy, Haynes 230, exhibited the slowest oxidation kinetics and the lowest area-specific resistance as a function of oxidation time of all the alloys in air at 800°C. However, the area-specific resistance of the oxide scale formed on Haynes 230 in wet hydrogen was unacceptably high after only 500 hours of oxidation, which was attributed to the high resistivity of Cr2O3 in a reducing atmosphere. A study of the electrical conductivity of the minor phase manganese chromite, MnXCr3-XO4, in the oxide scale of Haynes 230, revealed that a composition closer to Mn2CrO4 had significantly higher electrical conductivity than that closer to MnCr 2O4. Haynes 230 was coated with Mn to form a phase closer to the Mn2CrO4 composition for application on the fuel side of the interconnect. U.S. Patent No. 6,054,231 is pending. Although coating a metallic alloy is inexpensive, the stringent economic requirements of SOFC stack technology required an alloy without coating for production applications. As no commercially available alloy, among the 41 alloys investigated, performed to the specifications required, a new alloy was created and designated DME-A2. The oxide scale

  16. Aire-Overexpressing Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study’s aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4+ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4+ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca2+ and p-ERK) in CD4+ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4+ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4+IFN-γ+ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire. PMID:26729097

  17. Groundwater recharge rate and zone structure estimation using PSOLVER algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, M Tamer; Elçi, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtalı Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtalı Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist.

  18. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  19. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  20. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  1. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  2. Air-and Water-Resistant Noble Metal Coated Ferromagnetic Cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Tan, Reasmey P.; Garcia-Marcelot, Cecile; Fazzini, Pier-Francesco; Hungria, Teresa; Cormary, Benoit; Gallagher, James R.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Martinez, Herve; Schrittwieser, Stefan; Schotter, Joerg; Respaud, Marc; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gatel, Christophe; Soulantica, Katerina

    2015-03-01

    Cobalt nanorods possess ideal magnetic properties for applications requiring magnetically hard nanoparticles. However, their exploitation is undermined by their sensitivity toward oxygen and water, which deteriorates their magnetic properties. The development of a continuous metal shell inert to oxidation could render them stable, opening perspectives not only for already identified applications but also for uses in which contact with air and/or aqueous media is inevitable. However, the direct growth of a conformal noble metal shell on magnetic metals is a challenge. Here, we show that prior treatment of Co nanorods with a tin coordination compound is the crucial step that enables the subsequent growth of a continuous noble metal shell on their surface, rendering,them air- and water-resistant, while conserving the monocrystallity, metallicity and the Magnetic properties of the Co core. Thus, the as-synthesized tore shell ferromagnetic nanorods combine high;Magnetization and strong uniaxial Magnetic anisotropy, even after exposure to air and water, and hold promise for successful implementation in in vitro biodiagnostics requiring probes Of high magnetization and anisotropic shape.

  3. Experimental myasthenia gravis in Aire-deficient mice: a link between Aire and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Aricha, Revital; Feferman, Tali; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Fuchs, Sara; Souroujon, Miriam C

    2012-12-01

    Aire (autoimmune regulator) has a key role in the establishment of tolerance to autoantigens. Aire(-/-) mice present decreased thymic expression of AChR, significantly lower frequencies of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, and higher expression of Th17 markers, compared to controls. We therefore predicted that Aire(-/-) mice would be more susceptible to induction of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). However, when EAMG was induced in young mice, Aire(-/-) mice presented a milder disease that wild-type (WT) controls. In contrast, when EAMG was induced in older mice, Aire(-/-) mice were more severely affected than WT mice. The relative resistance to EAMG in young Aire(-/-) mice correlated with increased numbers of T(reg) cells in their spleens compared to young controls. A similar age-related susceptibility was also observed when EAE was induced in Aire(-/-) mice, suggesting an age-related link among Aire, disease susceptibility, and peripheral T(reg) cells that may be a general feature of autoimmunity. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong Y; Thomsen, Ed C; Weil, K Scott

    2007-01-19

    This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750°C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3- (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

  5. Air-borne heavy metal contamination to dietary vegetables: a case study from India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Richa; Shubhashish, K

    2009-12-01

    Contamination of edible parts of three dietary vegetables, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) by air-borne cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) was determined using pot culture experiments at three sites in the city of Varanasi, India. The data revealed that although Cr and Cu in vegetables remained below their safe limits, about 68% of the total samples contained Cd, Ni, and Pb above their respective safe limits of 1.5, 1.5, and 2.5 μg g(-1). Site wise synchrony and air accumulation factor (AAF) indicated that atmospheric deposition was the main contributor of metal contamination to vegetables. The study suggests that if the present trends of atmospheric deposition are continued, air-borne heavy metals will contaminate the agricultural produce with long-term health implications.

  6. GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND CHEMICAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cyc

  7. Air Brazing: A New Method of Ceramic-Ceramic and Ceramic-Metal Joining

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Darsell, Jens T.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2011-10-01

    A new method of ceramic-ceramic and ceramic-metal joining has emerged over the past several years. Referred to as air brazing, the technique was originally designed and developed for use in fabricating high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices such as planar SOFCs and oxygen and hydrogen concentrators. The primary advantage of air brazing is that a predominantly metallic joint can be formed directly in air without need of an inert cover gas or the use of surface reactive fluxes. The resulting bond is hermetic, offers excellent room temperature strength, and is inherently resistant to oxidation at high temperature. The key to developing a successful filler metal composition for air brazing is to identify a metal oxide wetting agent that is mutually soluble in a molten noble metal solvent. One particular oxide-metal combination that appears readily suited for this purpose is CuOx-Ag, a system originally of interest in the development of silver clad cuprate-based superconductors. Studies of the equilibrium phases studies in this system indicate that there are two invariant points in the pseudobinary CuOx-Ag phase diagram around which new braze compositions can be developed: 1) a monotectic reaction at 969±1°C, where CuO and a Ag-rich liquid L1 coexist with a second CuOx-rich liquid phase L2 at a composition of xAg/(xAg + xCu) = 0.10±0.03 Ag and 2) a eutectic reaction at 942±1°C, where CuO and Ag coexist with L1 at a composition of xAg/(xAg + xCu) = 0.99±0.005. Specifically, near-eutectic Ag-CuO filler metal compositions have shown good promise in joining electrochemically active ceramics such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, lanthanum strontium manganite, and barium strontium cobalt ferrite, as well as alumina and magnesia. More recently it has been found that various ternary additions can further improve the wetting characteristics of these filler metals, increase their potential operating temperatures, and/or increase the resulting strength of the

  8. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

  9. Programmable Metallization Cell Devices for Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliga, Sunil

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between them. Devices based on this phenomenon exhibit a unique, self-healing property, as a broken metallic structure can be healed by applying an appropriate voltage between the two broken ends. This work explores methods of fabricating interconnects and switches based on PMC technology on flexible substrates. The objective was the evaluation of the feasibility of using this technology in flexible electronics applications in which reliability is a primary concern. The re-healable property of the interconnect is characterized for the silver doped germanium selenide (Ag-Ge-Se) solid electrolyte system. This property was evaluated by measuring the resistances of the healed interconnect structures and comparing these to the resistances of the unbroken structures. The reliability of the interconnects in both unbroken and healed states is studied by investigating the resistances of the structures to DC voltages, AC voltages and different temperatures as a function of time. This work also explores replacing silver with copper for these interconnects to enhance their reliability. A model for PMC-based switches on flexible substrates is proposed and compared to the observed device behavior with the objective of developing a formal design methodology for these devices. The switches were subjected to voltage sweeps and their resistance was investigated as a function of sweep voltage. The resistance of the switches as a function of voltage pulse magnitude when placed in series with a resistance was also investigated. A model was then developed to explain the behavior of these devices. All observations were based on statistical measurements to account for random errors. The results of this work demonstrate that solid electrolyte based interconnects display self

  10. Development of High-Temperature Air Braze Filler Metals for Use in Two-Step Joining and Sealing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

    2006-11-02

    Reactive air brazing (RAB) creates metallic braze joints between oxide surfaces. RAB can be performed in air and can undergo subsequent operation at temperatures up to 900ºC in oxidizing environments. This makes RAB an attractive joining method for creating seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) which operate at temperatures between 700 and 850ºC and comprise cathode materials which are intolerant of reducing environments. Many planar SOFC designs require a two-step sealing process. Thus the seal formed during the first step must not melt or soften at the firing temperature of the second step, otherwise its integrity could be compromised. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of adding Pd to a Ag-CuO RAB to produce a braze composition with a melting temperature high enough that it might be used in the first step of a two-step sealing process with unmodified Ag-CuO RAB used in the second step, thereby making possible a two step reactive air brazing process. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the substrate of choice in this study in order to simulate the initial sealing step in planar SOFCs which often involves sealing a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte to a metallic support frame. RAB compositions containing a 15 mol% Pd : 85 mol% Ag alloy with 8 mol% Cu added were found to provide the best combination of wettability, mechanical strength, and melting characteristics for brazing YSZ.

  11. The influence of temperature on the cycle life performance of rechargeable Li-TiS2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Subbarao, S.; Huang, C.-K.; Deligiannis, F.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report studies on the influence of low temperature on the properties and cycling performance of six selected electrolytes. The electrolytes investigated were 2-MeTHF, EC/2-MeTHF, THF, THF/2-MeTHF, EC/THF, and EC/THF/2-MeTHF. All the electrolytes contained 1.5M LiAsF6. Open circuit stand tests indicated that organic electrolytes exhibited improved stability towards lithium at 10 C. However, cycling of the cells at 10 C did not result in improved cycle life performance.

  12. Challenges for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Kim, Youngsik

    Strategies for Li-ion batteries that are based on lithium-insertion compounds as cathodes are limited by the capacities of the cathode materials and by the safe charging rates for Li transport across a passivating SEI layer on a carbon-based anode. With these strategies, it is difficult to meet the commercial constraints on Li-ion batteries for plug-in-hybrid and all-electric vehicles as well as those for stationary electrical energy storage (EES) in a grid. Existing alternative strategies include a gaseous O 2 electrode in a Li/air battery and a solid sulfur (S 8) cathode in a Li/S battery. We compare the projected energy densities and EES efficiencies of these cells with those of a third alternative, a Li/Fe(III)/Fe(II) cell containing a redox couple in an aqueous solution as the cathode. Preliminary measurements indicate proof of concept, but implementation of this strategy requires identification of a suitable Li +-ion electrolyte.

  13. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  14. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this ``soluble`` zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  15. [Leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals in seven trees species].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Yang, Dan-Dan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tree leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals. Seven tree species, including Ginkgo biloba, at heavy traffic density site in Huainan were selected to analyze the frequency of air particulate matter retained by leaves, the particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related micro-morphology structure, and the relationship between particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related accumulation of heavy metals. We found that the species characterized by small leaf area, special epidemis with abundant fax, and highly uneven cell wall, as well as big and dense stomata and without trichomes mainly absorbed fine particulate matter; while those species with many trichomes mainly retained coarse particulate matter. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of the seven species was significantly different except for Ph. Tree species with high capacities in heavy metal accumulation were Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrum lucidum, and Cinnamomum camphora. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and total heavy metal concentration for seven tree species was positively related to the amount of particulate matter absorbed. Correlation coefficients of d10 vs d2.5, d10 vs d1.0, d2.5 vs d1.0 were 0.987, 0.971, 0.996, respective, and the correlate level was significant. The ratios of d2.5/d10, d1.0/d10, d1.0/d2.5 were 0.844, 0.763, 0.822, indicating that the particulate matter from traffic was mainly fine particulates.

  16. Metal cap flexural transducers for air-coupled ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, T. J. R.; Dixon, S.; Ramadas, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic generation and detection in fluids is inefficient due to the large difference in acoustic impedance between the piezoelectric element and the propagation medium, leading to large internal reflections and energy loss. One way of addressing the problem is to use a flexural transducer, which uses the bending modes in a thin plate or membrane. As the plate bends, it displaces the medium in front of it, hence producing sound waves. A piezoelectric flexural transducer can generate large amplitude displacements in fluid media for relatively low excitation voltages. Commercially available flexural transducers for air applications operate at 40 kHz, but there exists ultrasound applications that require significantly higher frequencies, e.g. flow measurements. Relatively little work has been done to date to understand the underlying physics of the flexural transducer, and hence how to design it to have specific properties suitable for particular applications. This paper investigates the potential of the flexural transducer and its operating principles. Two types of actuation methods are considerd: piezoelectric and electrodynamic. The piezoelectrically actuated transducer is more energy efficient and intrinsically safe, but the electrodynamic transducer has the advantage of being less sensitive to high temperature environments. The theory of vibrating plates is used to predict transducer frequency in addition to front face amplitude, which shows good correlation with experimental results.

  17. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  18. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

  19. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-03-10

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

  20. A new method of metallization for silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macha, M.

    1979-01-01

    The new metallization process based on Mo-Sn system was studied. The reaction mechanism of MoO3 and its mixture with Sn was examined. The basic ink composition was modified in order to obtain a low ohmic contact to the cell. The electrical characteristics of the cells were comparable with the existing metallization processes. However, in comparison with the standard processes using silver as the contacting metal, the saving obtained by the use of the new process was substantial.

  1. Self-discharge in bimetallic cells containing alkali metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of thermally regenerative bimetallic cells with alkali metal anodes shows a relation between the current drawn and the rate of discharge under open-circuit conditions. The self-discharge rate of the cell is due to the dissolution and ionization of alkali metal atoms in the fused-salt electrolyte

  2. Aire Enforces Immune Tolerance by Directing Autoreactive T Cells into the Regulatory T Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Sven; Leventhal, Daniel S; Lee, Victoria; Nishi, Saki; Socci, Nicholas D; Savage, Peter A

    2016-05-17

    The promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymus, driven in part by autoimmune regulator (Aire), is critical for the protection of peripheral tissues from autoimmune attack. Aire-dependent processes are thought to promote both clonal deletion and the development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, suggesting that autoimmunity associated with Aire deficiency results from two failed tolerance mechanisms. Here, examination of autoimmune lesions in Aire(-/-) mice revealed an unexpected third possibility. We found that the predominant conventional T cell clonotypes infiltrating target lesions express antigen receptors that were preferentially expressed by Foxp3(+) Treg cells in Aire(+/+) mice. Thus, Aire enforces immune tolerance by ensuring that distinct autoreactive T cell specificities differentiate into the Treg cell lineage; dysregulation of this process results in the diversion of Treg cell-biased clonotypes into pathogenic conventional T cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis-Microstructure-Performance Relationship of Layered Transition Metal Oxides as Cathode for Rechargeable Sodium Batteries Prepared by High-Temperature Calcination

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Man; Luo, Rui; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M.; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S.; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Amine, Khalil

    2014-09-05

    Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1–y)1–xO2 (x = 0.1–0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1–y)1–xO2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibited a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g–1 (cycled at 1.5–4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.

  4. Synthesis-microstructure-performance relationship of layered transition metal oxides as cathode for rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by high-temperature calcination.

    PubMed

    Xie, Man; Luo, Rui; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Amine, Khalil

    2014-10-08

    Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.1-0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibited a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g(-1) (cycled at 1.5-4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.

  5. Membrane/mediator-free rechargeable enzymatic biofuel cell utilizing graphene/single-wall carbon nanotube cogel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alan S; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Geier, Steven M; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J; Islam, Mohammad F

    2015-02-25

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) utilize enzymes to convert chemical energy present in renewable biofuels into electrical energy and have shown much promise in the continuous powering of implantable devices. Currently, however, EBFCs are greatly limited in terms of power and operational stability with a majority of reported improvements requiring the inclusion of potentially toxic and unstable electron transfer mediators or multicompartment systems separated by a semipermeable membrane resulting in complicated setups. We report on the development of a simple, membrane/mediator-free EBFC utilizing novel electrodes of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotube cogel. These cogel electrodes had large surface area (∼ 800 m(2) g(-1)) that enabled high enzyme loading, large porosity for unhindered glucose transport and moderate electrical conductivity (∼ 0.2 S cm(-1)) for efficient charge collection. Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase were physically adsorbed onto these electrodes to form anodes and cathodes, respectively, and the EBFC produced power densities up to 0.19 mW cm(-2) that correlated to 0.65 mW mL(-1) or 140 mW g(-1) of GOX with an open circuit voltage of 0.61 V. Further, the electrodes were rejuvenated by a simple wash and reloading procedure. We postulate these porous and ultrahigh surface area electrodes will be useful for biosensing applications, and will allow reuse of EBFCs.

  6. The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-30

    Li(+) transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface and lowers the cycle life of a battery cell. Moreover, formation of a passivation layer on the anode robs Li from the cathode irreversibly on an initial charge, further lowering the reversible Δt. These problems plus the cost of quality control of manufacturing plague development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries that can compete with the internal combustion engine for powering electric cars and that can provide the needed low-cost storage of electrical energy generated by renewable wind and/or solar energy. Chemists are contributing to incremental improvements of the conventional strategy by investigating and controlling electrode passivation layers, improving the rate of Li(+) transfer across electrode/electrolyte interfaces, identifying electrolytes with larger windows while retaining a Li(+) conductivity σ(Li) > 10(-3) S cm(-1), synthesizing electrode morphologies that reduce the size of the active particles while pinning them on current collectors of large surface area accessible by the electrolyte, lowering the cost of cell fabrication, designing displacement-reaction anodes of higher capacity that allow a safe, fast charge, and designing alternative cathode hosts. However, new strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions (e.g. sulfur) by liquid cathodes that may contain flow-through redox molecules, or by catalysts for air cathodes; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively. Opportunities exist for the chemist to bring together oxide and polymer or graphene chemistry in imaginative morphologies.

  7. Role of solvents on the oxygen reduction and evolution of rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Maria; Arul, Anupriya; Zahoor, Awan; Moon, Kwang Uk; Oh, Mi Young; Stephan, A. Manuel; Nahm, Kee Suk

    2017-02-01

    The choice of electrolyte solvent is expected to play a key role in influencing the lithium-oxygen battery performance. The electrochemical performances of three electrolytes composed of lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt and different solvents namely, ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (EC/PC), tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are investigated by assembling lithium oxygen cells. The electrolyte composition significantly varied the specific capacity of the battery. The choice of electrolyte also influences the overpotential, cycle life, and rechargeability of the battery. Electrochemical impedance spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry were utilized to determine the reversible reactions associated with the air cathode.

  8. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  9. Assessment of selected metals in the ambient air PM10 in urban sites of Bangkok (Thailand).

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Iijima, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the atmospheric concentrations of PM10-bounded selected metals in urban air is crucial for evaluating adverse health impacts. In the current study, a combination of measurements and multivariate statistical tools was used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on variations in the contents of 18 metals (i.e., Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, Ce and Pb) in ambient air. The concentrations of PM10-bounded metals were measured simultaneously at eight air quality observatory sites during a half-year period at heavily trafficked roads and in urban residential zones in Bangkok, Thailand. Although the daily average concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn and Fe were almost equivalent to those of other urban cities around the world, the contents of the majority of the selected metals were much lower than the existing ambient air quality guidelines and standard limit values. The sequence of average values of selected metals followed the order of Al > Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ba > V > Sb > Ni > As > Cr > Cd > Se > Ce > La > Co > Sc. The probability distribution function (PDF) plots showed sharp symmetrical bell-shaped curves in V and Cr, indicating that crustal emissions are the predominant sources of these two elements in PM10. The comparatively low coefficients of divergence (COD) that were found in the majority of samples highlight that site-specific effects are of minor importance. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 37.74, 13.51 and 11.32 % of the total variances represent crustal emissions, vehicular exhausts and the wear and tear of brakes and tires, respectively.

  10. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  11. A review on air cathodes for zinc-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neburchilov, Vladimir; Wang, Haijiang; Martin, Jonathan J.; Qu, Wei

    This paper reviews the compositions, design and methods of fabrication of air cathodes for alkali zinc-air fuel cells (ZAFCs), one of the few successfully commercialized fuel cells. The more promising compositions for air cathodes are based on individual oxides, or mixtures of such, with a spinel, perovskite, or pyrochlore structure: MnO 2, Ag, Co 3O 4, La 2O 3, LaNiO 3, NiCo 2O 4, LaMnO 3, LaNiO 3, etc. These compositions provide the optimal balance of ORR activity and chemical stability in an alkali electrolyte. The sol-gel and reverse micelle methods supply the most uniform distribution of the catalyst on carbon and the highest catalyst BET surface area. It is shown that the design of the air cathode, including types of carbon black, binding agents, current collectors, Teflon membranes, thermal treatment of the GDL, and catalyst layers, has a strong effect on performance.

  12. Investigation of artificial recharge of aquifers in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

    1980-01-01

    Progressive declines of ground-water levels in some areas of Nebraska prompted this investigation into the technical feasibility of recharging aquifers through wells, impoundments, pits, and canals. Information gained from a literature search and from preliminary tests was used to design several artificial-recharge experiments in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. In well experiments, 0.46 billion gallons of water from an aquifer recharged by the Platte River was transported by pipeline and injected through a well into a sand and gravel aquifer near Aurora. Recharge was at about 730 gallons per minute during tests of 6- and 8-months duration. No evidence of clogging of the aquifer due to chemical reactions, air entrainment, or bacteria was detected in either test. In the 6-month test, evidence of clogging due to fine sediment in the recharge water was detected; however, analysis of this test indicated that recharge could have continued for several years before rehabilitation would have become necessary. Results of the 8-month test confirmed results of the earlier test until casing failure in the supply well and subsequent sediment deposition in the recharge well caused rapid water-level rise in the recharge well. In surface-spreading experiments, maximum infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter ring infiltrometers near Aurora and Tryon were 0.4 and 11 feet per day, respectively. Results indicate that large-scale surface spreading is feasible only where low-permeability layers are absent in the subsurface. Infiltration rates from reuse pits ranged from 0.01 to 1.6 feet per day, indicating highly variable subsurface permeability. Flow measurements in an irrigation canal near Farwell indicate an infiltration rate of 0.37 feet per day. (USGS)

  13. Methods to protect and recover work function of air exposed transition metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Irfan; Wang, Chenggong; Turinske, Alexander J.; Gao, Yongli

    2012-09-01

    Insertion of high work function (WF) transition metal oxide (TMO) layers between the anode and the hole transport layer is established to substantially enhance the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLED). The high WF of transition metal oxide layer has been demonstrated to be the most crucial for the enhancement. The WF of a TMO layer decreases substantially with air exposure, and noticeably by the ambient even inside a low vacuum system. In the present work we discuss various methods to protect and recover the high WF after a TMO thin film has been exposed to air. We report covering a thin organic layer on top of MoOx to protect the high work function. We found that a thin layer of 1-2 nm organic layer was sufficient to protect the work function of MoOx thin film underneath. We further report methods to recover already decreased TMO WF due to air exposure. We performed oxygen plasma cleaning of air exposed MoOx film and found out that oxygen plasma could substantially recover the WF of as deposited MoOx film. We also performed annealing of air exposed MoOx film inside an ultra high vacuum system and observed a thin layer of oxygenrich adsorbate layer, which desorbed upon annealing that in turn substantially recovered the MoOx WF. We discuss the vacuum annealing and the effect of resulting surface on the interface energy level alignment.

  14. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Konde, Lassana; Wolf, Ruth E.; Otto, Richard D.; Tsuneoka, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan–Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 – 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara–Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  15. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Konde, L; Wolf, R E; Otto, R D; Tsuneoka, Y

    2014-12-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan-Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 - 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara-Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  16. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  17. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  18. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  19. Development of an all-metal thick film cost affective metallization system for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1981-01-01

    An economical thick film solar cell contact for high volume production of low cost silicon solar array modules was investigated. All metal screenable pastes using base metals were studied. Solar cells with junction depths varying by a factor of 3.3, with and without a deposited oxide coating were used. Cells were screened and fired by a two step firing process. Adhesion and metallurgical results are unsatisfactory. No electrical information is obtained due to inadequate contact adhesion.

  20. Solar Air Heating Metal Roofing for Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    liquid asphalt and ‘felt paper ” that from a weathertight roof CERL – Civil Energy Research Laboratory CRADA – Cooperative Research and Development... Research Lab Low Slope Solar Air Heating Roof 43 24 Metal On Metal Solar Reroof 43 Appendix A-1 A-1,1 Concept Schematic Section 52 A-1,2 Solar...Toward Eaves 169 A-6, 6 Weather During Testing Period 170 A-6, 7 Solar and Attic Temperatures 170 A-6, 8 Solar Heat Recovery Piping for Geothermal

  1. Dispersion relation of a surface wave at a rough metal-air interface

    DOE PAGES

    Kotelnikov, Igor; Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-11-28

    Here, we derived a dispersion relation of a surface wave at a rough metal-air interface. In contrast to previous publications, we assumed that an intrinsic surface impedance due to a finite electric conductivity of the metal can be of the same order as the roughness-induced impedance. We then applied our results to the analysis of a long-standing problem of the discrepancy between the experimental data on the propagation of surface waves in the terahertz range of frequencies and the classical Drude theory.

  2. A novel microstructured metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, R.; Hernández, E.; Savvin, S.; Núñez, P.; Makradi, A.; Sabaté, N.; Esquivel, J. P.; Ruiz-Morales, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    An innovative design, alternative to the conventional metal supported fuel cells (MSC) is proposed. This new design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), comprises a 200 μm layer of a honeycomb-metallic framework with hexagonal cells which supports a 250 μm layer of electrolyte. Each hexagonal cell is further functionalized with a thin 5-10 μm of Ni-YSZ anode. This new design allows a reduction of ∼65% of the metallic supporting material, rendering performances over 300 mW cm-2 under pure hydrogen at 850 °C, with an OCV of ∼1.1 V.

  3. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Experimental runs were conducted on direct ammonia fuel cells . Effects of temperature, composition, as well as run effect and block effect were...cells and to electrode flooding are discussed. Data on performance of complete laboratory direct ammonia-oxygen fuel cells are presented and discussed. (Author)

  4. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  5. Enhanced fluorescence cell imaging with metal-coated slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moal, Eric; Fort, Emmanuel; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine; Janin, Anne; Murata, Hideyuki; Cordelières, Fabrice P.

    2007-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed momentous advances in fluorescence microscopy. The introduction of novel fluorescent markers, together with the development of original microscopy techniques, made it possible to study biomolecular interactions in living cells and to examine the structure and function of living tissues. The emergence of these innovative techniques had a remarkable impact on all the life sciences. However, many biological and medical applications involve the detection of minute quantities of biomolecules, and are limited by the signal weakness in common observation conditions. Here, we show that silver and gold-coated microscope slides can be used as mirror substrates to efficiently improve detection sensitivity when fluorescence microscopy is applied to micrometer-thick biological samples. We report a fourfold enhancement of the fluorescence signal and a noticeable strengthening of the image contrast, when mirror substrates are used with standard air microscope objectives. We demonstrate that metal-coated substrates provide the means to get sensitivity-enhanced fluorescence detection with dry optics, while keeping a wide field observation and a large depth of field. This is a crucial advantage for automated and high-throughput applications to cell and tissue diagnostic analysis.

  6. A base-metal conductor system for silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, M. G.; Pryor, R. A.; Sparks, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Solder, copper, and silver are evaluated as conductor layer metals for silicon solar cell metallization on the basis of metal price stability and reliability under operating conditions. Due to its properties and cost, copper becomes an attractive candidate for the conductor layer. It is shown that nickel operates as an excellent diffusion barrier between copper and silicon while simultaneously serving as an electrical contact and mechanical contact to silicon. The nickel-copper system may be applied to the silicon by plating techniques utilizing a variety of plating bath compositions. Solar cells having excellent current-voltage characteristics are fabricated to demonstrate the nickel-copper metallization system.

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. AIRE expressing marginal zone dendritic cells balances adaptive immunity and T-follicular helper cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, Evelina; Chen, Yunying; Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Dudziak, Diana; Lindh, Emma; Adams, William C; Loré, Karin; Winqvist, Ola; Chambers, Benedict J; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2013-05-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type I (APS I) results in multiple endocrine organ destruction and is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). In the thymic stroma, cells expressing the AIRE gene dictate T cell education and central tolerance. Although this function is the most studied, AIRE is also expressed in the periphery in DCs and stromal cells. Still, how AIRE regulated transcription modifies cell behaviour in the periphery is largely unknown. Here we show that AIRE is specifically expressed by 33D1(+) DCs and dictates the fate of antibody secreting cell movement within the spleen. We also found that AIRE expressing 33D1(+) DCs expresses self-antigens as exemplified by the hallmark gene insulin. Also, as evidence for a regulatory function, absence of Aire in 33D1(+) DCs led to reduced levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and increased co-stimulatory properties. This resulted in altered activation and recruitment of T-follicular helper cells and germinal centre B cells. The altered balance leads to a change of the early response to a T cell-dependent antigen in Aire(-/-) mice. These findings add to the understanding of how specific DC subtypes regulate the early responses during T cell-dependent antibody responses within the spleen and further define the role of AIRE in the periphery as regulator of self-antigen expression and lymphocyte migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards a rechargeable alcohol biobattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addo, Paul K.; Arechederra, Robert L.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    This research focused on the transition of biofuel cell technology to rechargeable biobatteries. The bioanode compartment of the biobattery consisted of NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized into a carbon composite paste with butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) ionic liquid serving as the electrolyte. Ferrocene was added to shuttle electrons to/from the electrode surface/current collector. The bioanode catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in discharge mode. This bioanode was coupled to a cathode that consisted of Prussian Blue in a carbon composite paste with Nafion 212 acting as the separator between the two compartments. The biobattery can be fabricated in a charged mode with ethanol and have an open circuit potential of 0.8 V in the original state prior to charging or in the discharged mode with acetaldehyde and have an open circuit potential of 0.05 V. After charging it has an open circuit potential of 1.2 V and a maximum power density of 13.0 μW cm -3 and a maximum current density of 35.0 μA cm -3, respectively. The stability and efficiency of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging current of 0.4 mA and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles. This is a new type of secondary battery inspired by the metabolic processes of the living cell, which is an effective energy conversion system.

  10. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Zhehao; Gu, Meng; Deng, Xuchu; Xu, Suochang; Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Jiulin; Nie, Zimin; Li, Guosheng; Zavadil, K.; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Mueller, Karl T.; Persson, Kristin A.; Liu, Jun

    2014-12-28

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes present new opportunities for rechargeable magnesium batteries. However, few polymer electrolytes have demonstrated reversible Mg deposition/dissolution and those that have still contain volatile liquids such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this work, we report a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), Mg(BH4)2 and MgO nanoparticles for rechargeable Mg batteries. Cells with this electrolyte have a high coulombic efficiency of 98% for Mg plating/stripping and a high cycling stability. Through combined experiment-modeling investigations, a correlation between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity is established. Following the same trend, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is inferred to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg(BH4)2 and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The insights and design metrics thus obtained may be used in nanocomposite electrolytes for other multivalent systems.

  11. Development of an all-metal thick film cost effective metallization system for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, B.; Parker, J.

    1983-12-01

    Improved thick film solar cell contacts for the high volume production of low cost silicon solar arrays are needed. All metal screenable pastes made from economical base metals and suitable for application to low to high conductivity silicon were examined. Silver fluoride containing copper pastes and fluorocarbon containing copper pastes were discussed. The effect of hydrogen on the adhesion of metals to silicon was investigated. A cost analysis of various paste materials is provided.

  12. Development of an all-metal thick film cost effective metallization system for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Parker, J.

    1983-01-01

    Improved thick film solar cell contacts for the high volume production of low cost silicon solar arrays are needed. All metal screenable pastes made from economical base metals and suitable for application to low to high conductivity silicon were examined. Silver fluoride containing copper pastes and fluorocarbon containing copper pastes were discussed. The effect of hydrogen on the adhesion of metals to silicon was investigated. A cost analysis of various paste materials is provided.

  13. Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi

    The studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are included in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a linear sweep voltammetry method to study polysulfide transport through separators is presented. Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable Li-S batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We have developed a linear sweep voltammetry method to measure the anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfides crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport through separators. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤ 0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for Li-S batteries. The second part includes a study on improving cycling performance of Li/polysulfide batteries by applying a functional polymer on carbon current collector. Significant capacity decay over cycling in Li-S batteries is a major impediment for their practical applications. Polysulfides Li2S x (3 < x ≤ 8) formed in the cycling are soluble in liquid electrolyte, which is the main reason for capacity loss and cycling instability. Functional polymers can tune the structure and property of sulfur electrodes, hold polysulfides, and improve cycle life. We have examined a

  14. Highly Rechargeable Lithium-CO2 Batteries with a Boron- and Nitrogen-Codoped Holey-Graphene Cathode.

    PubMed

    Qie, Long; Lin, Yi; Connell, John W; Xu, Jiantie; Dai, Liming

    2017-06-06

    Metal-air batteries, especially Li-air batteries, have attracted significant research attention in the past decade. However, the electrochemical reactions between CO2 (0.04 % in ambient air) with Li anode may lead to the irreversible formation of insulating Li2 CO3 , making the battery less rechargeable. To make the Li-CO2 batteries usable under ambient conditions, it is critical to develop highly efficient catalysts for the CO2 reduction and evolution reactions and investigate the electrochemical behavior of Li-CO2 batteries. Here, we demonstrate a rechargeable Li-CO2 battery with a high reversibility by using B,N-codoped holey graphene as a highly efficient catalyst for CO2 reduction and evolution reactions. Benefiting from the unique porous holey nanostructure and high catalytic activity of the cathode, the as-prepared Li-CO2 batteries exhibit high reversibility, low polarization, excellent rate performance, and superior long-term cycling stability over 200 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 A g(-1) . Our results open up new possibilities for the development of long-term Li-air batteries reusable under ambient conditions, and the utilization and storage of CO2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Aire enforces immune tolerance by directing autoreactive T cells into the regulatory T cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Malchow, Sven; Leventhal, Daniel S.; Lee, Victoria; Nishi, Saki; Socci, Nicholas D.; Savage, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymus, driven in part by Autoimmune Regulator (Aire), is critical for the protection of peripheral tissues from autoimmune attack. Aire-dependent processes are thought to promote both clonal deletion and the development of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, suggesting that autoimmunity associated with Aire deficiency results from two failed tolerance mechanisms. Here, examination of autoimmune lesions in Aire−/− mice revealed an unexpected third possibility. We found that the predominant conventional T cell clonotypes infiltrating target lesions express antigen receptors that were preferentially expressed by Foxp3+ Treg cells in Aire+/+ mice. Thus, Aire enforces immune tolerance by ensuring that distinct autoreactive T cell specificities differentiate into the Treg cell lineage; dysregulation of this process results in the diversion of Treg cell-biased clonotypes into pathogenic conventional T cells. PMID:27130899

  16. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  17. Investigation of Pd-Modified Ag-CuO Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong; Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of palladium on the liquidus/solidus temperatures and wetting behavior of a series of Ag-CuOx air braze filler metals. Currently, the maximum operating temperature of the Ag-CuOx system is limited by its eutectic temperature of ~935°C. One strategy to increase the maximum operational temperature of this family of filler metals is to add a higher melting noble alloying element. In the current study, we examined the effects of palladium additions on the melting characteristics of the Ag-CuO materials and the wetting properties of the resulting air braze filler metals with respect to alumina. It was found that while the addition of Pd causes the anticipated increase in the melting temperature, it does so at a sacrifice in wetting properties. The extent of both effects and therefore the opportunity to trade-off the two properties in order to develop an optimized higher temperature air braze depends on concentrations of both the palladium and copper oxide.

  18. Nanotextured metal copper substrates as powerful and long-lasting fuel cell anodes.

    PubMed

    Filanovsky, Boris; Granot, Eran; Dirawi, Rawi; Presman, Igor; Kuras, Iliya; Patolsky, Fernando

    2011-04-13

    Fuel cells (FCs) are promising electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy of fuels directly into electrical energy. We present a new anode material based on nanotextured metal copper for fuel cell applications. We have demonstrated that low-cost copper catalyst anodes act as highly efficient and ultra-long-lasting materials for the direct electro-oxidation of ammonia-borane and additional amine derivatives. High power densities of ca. 1W·cm(-2) (ca. -1 V vs Ag/AgCl at 1 A) are readily achieved at room temperature. We fabricate fuel cell devices based on our nanotextured Cu anodes in combination with commercial air cathodes.

  19. Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Predmore, Steven

    2007-01-01

    extend to the distal ends of all washes. Where urbanization had concentrated spatially distributed runoff into a small number of fixed channels, enhanced infiltration induced recharging conditions, mobilizing accumulated chloride. Estimated amounts of ground-water recharge from the studied reaches were small. Extrapolating on the basis of drainage areas, the estimated aggregate recharge from small intermittent streams is minor compared to recharge from the Mojave River. Recharge is largely controlled by streamflow availability, which primarily reflects precipitation patterns. Precipitation in the Mojave Desert is strongly controlled by topography. Cool moist air masses from the Pacific Ocean are mostly blocked from entering the desert by the high mountains bordering its southern edge. Storms do, however, readily enter the region through Cajon Pass. These storms generate flow in the Mojave River that often reaches Afton Canyon, more than 150 kilometers downstream. The isotopic composition of ground water reflects the localization of recharge beneath the Mojave River. Similar processes occur near San Gorgonio Pass, 75 kilometers southeast from Cajon Pass along the bounding San Andreas Fault.

  20. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    1998-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  1. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  2. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

    1998-08-25

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

  3. Thin Rechargeable Batteries for CMOS SRAM Memory Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, Dennis N.

    1993-01-01

    New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

  4. Improved alkaline hydrogen/air fuel cells for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J; Kissel, G; Kordesch, K V; Kulesa, F; Taylor, E J; Gannon, E; Srinivasan, S

    1980-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the last few years on improvement of alkaline air electrodes for air depolarized chlor-alkali cells. Some of these electrodes from Union Carbide Corporation have been evaluated at Brookhaven National Laboratory in alkaline hydrogen/air fuel cells. In initial tests with 289 cm/sup 2/ electrodes, power densities of 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ were obtained at 0.65 V. This compares with power densities of 27 mW/cm/sup 2/ obtained by Kordesch in his vehicle fuel cell in the late sixties. Further improvements in the air electrode flow field yielded power densities of 126 mW/cm/sup 2/ at 0.65 V at an operating temperature of 70/sup 0/C. At 30/sup 0/C, nearly 60% of this power could be obtained at 0.65 V. The 289 cm/sup 2/ cells were units in a 16-cell 0.5 kW module. This module yielded similar power densities, and its power/weight and power/volume are sufficiently attractive for it to be considered as a building block for a fuel cell power plant in a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle.

  5. A methanol/air fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    High power-density, self-regulating fuel cell develops electrical power from catalyzed reaction between methanol and atmospheric oxygen. Cells such as these are of particular interest, because they may one day offer an emission-free, extremely efficient alternative to internal-combustion engines as power source.

  6. Metallic dental material biocompatibility in osteoblastlike cells: correlation with metal ion release.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, María C; De Mele, Mónica Fernández L; Cortizo, Ana M

    2004-08-01

    Ions released from metallic dental materials used in orthodontic appliances could induce undesirable effects on cells and tissues. This study evaluates the biocompatibility of two of the most labile components of metallic dental alloys on osteoblastlike cells. The influence of protein and ions on metal dissolution properties is also investigated using different electrolyte solutions. Morphological alterations, cell growth, and differentiation of osteoblasts were assessed after exposure to pure metals (Ag, Cu, Pd, Au) and Ni-Ti alloy and correlated with the kinetics of elements released into the culture media. Results showed that Cu and Ag were the most cytotoxic elements and the other metals were biocompatible with the osteoblasts. The parameters of biocompatibility were correlated with the levels of ions detected into the culture media. Metal ions induced cell death through early mitosis arrest, apoptotic phenomena, and necrotic processes. Voltammograms showed that anions and proteins interfered in the corrosion process. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) strongly affected the electrochemical process, decreasing the oxidation rate of the metals. In conclusion, copper and silver ions showed a time-dependent low biocompatibility, which correlated with the concentration of released ions. The dissolution of the metallic materials was dependent on the composition of the simulated biological media.

  7. Comparative studies of metal air pollution by atomic spectrometry techniques and biomonitoring with moss and lichens.

    PubMed

    State, Gabriel; Popescu, Ion V; Radulescu, Cristiana; Macris, Cristina; Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Dulama, Ioana; Niţescu, Ovidiu

    2012-09-01

    Our study was dedicated to the analysis of air pollution level with metals in Dambovita County, Romania; maps of the concentration distributions for air pollutants were drawn; statistical analysis includes calculation of the background concentrations and the contamination factors. The highest values of the contamination factor CF is 63.1 ± 6.63 for mosses samples and 33.12 ± 3.96 for lichens and it indicates extreme contaminations in the surroundings of steel works and an electric plant. The comparison of the distribution maps for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations enables the identification of the pollution sources, the limits of areas with very high levels of pollution, the comparison of the concentration gradients in some areas and the influence of woodlands on the spread of pollutants through the air.

  8. [Determination of relative elements of hard metal in workplace air and urine by inductive coupled plama].

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Jiao, Y N; Luo, Y N; Chen, Y X; Tian, D; Lou, F; Li, H D; Li, W; Chen, J D; Yan, Y J

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To establish a rapid detection method regarding the air conditions of workplace and the workers' urine included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) . Methods: The experiment adopts ICP-MS to deter-mine those metals in workshop air and workers urine, evaluate the detection's limitation, the precision and accuracy of the method. Using the membrane filter and urine freeze - dried metal standard material to verify this method. Results: Each element of correlation coefficient was greater than 0.999. The recovery rate of air samples was 91.6%~104.6%, within-batch RSD precision was 1.41%~3.50%, between-run precision was 1.28%~4.31%, urine samples recovery rate was 93.0%~102.6%, within - batch RSD precision was 1.25%~3.56%, between - run precision was 1.58%~4.67%, According to the method every element was within the scope of the standard reference, it was also showed that the established method is accurate and reliable. Conclusion: ICP-MS is an effective and feasible method to detect the workshop air and the workers' urine which included Tungsten, Cobalt, Nickel, Titanium, Cadmium, Manganese, Lead and its compounds.

  9. Development of a high temperature ceramic-to-metal seal for Air Force Weapons Laboratory Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnell, R. E.; Stoddard, S. D.

    1987-03-01

    Procedures were developed for fabricating vacuum tight metal-to-ceramic ring seals between Inconel 625 and MgO-3 wt % Y2O3 tubes metallized with a calcia-alumina-silica glass (CaO-29 wt % Al2O3-35 wt % SiO2) containing 50 vol % molybdenum filler. Palniro No. 1 (Au-25 wt % Pd-25 wt % Ni) was found to be the most reliable braze for joining Inconel to metallized MgO-3 wt % Y2O3 bodies. The reliabilities of the processing procedures and the material systems were demonstrated. A prototype electrical feedthrough was fabricated for 1173 K operation in air or vacuum.

  10. Iron-copper metallization for flexible solar/cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavendel, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a copper-base metallization for shallow-junction cells applied in flexible solar arrays in space is discussed. This type of metallization will reduce usage of precious metals (such as silver), increase case of bonding (by welding or by soldering) and eliminate heavy high Z interconnects (such as molybdenum). The main points of concern are stability against thermally induced diffusion of copper into silicon which causes degradation of shallow cell junctions, and low series resistance of the contact with semiconductor which promotes cell efficiency.

  11. Back contact to film silicon on metal for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard M.; Teplin, Charles; Stradins, Pauls

    2013-06-18

    A crystal oriented metal back contact for solar cells is disclosed herein. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device and methods for making the photovoltaic device are disclosed. The photovoltaic device includes a metal substrate with a crystalline orientation and a heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer having the same crystal orientation of the metal substrate. A heteroepitaxial buffer layer having the crystal orientation of the metal substrate is positioned between the substrate and the crystal silicon layer to reduce diffusion of metal from the metal foil into the crystal silicon layer and provide chemical compatibility with the heteroepitaxial crystal silicon layer. Additionally, the buffer layer includes one or more electrically conductive pathways to electrically couple the crystal silicon layer and the metal substrate.

  12. Stabilizing metal components in electrodes of electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Spengler, Charles J.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reducing the removal or transfer into a gas phase of a current carrying metal in an apparatus, such as an electrochemical cell 2 having a porous fuel electrode 6 containing metal particles 11, where the metal is subject to removal or transfer into a gaseous phase, the method characterized in that (1) a metal organic compound that decomposes to form an electronically conducting oxide coating when heated is applied to the metal and porous electrode, and (2) the compound on the metal is then heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose the compound into an oxide coating 13 by increasing the temperature at a rate that is longer than 1 hour between room temperature and 600.degree. C., resulting in at least one continuous layer 13, 14 of the oxide coating on the metal.

  13. Aire-Overexpressing Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral CD4⁺ T Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongbei; Li, Haijun; Fu, Haiying; Niu, Kunwei; Guo, Yantong; Guo, Chuan; Sun, Jitong; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2015-12-29

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) can promote the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), which leads to the deletion of autoreactive T cells and consequently prevents autoimmune diseases. However, the functions of Aire in the periphery, such as in dendritic cells (DCs), remain unclear. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of Aire-overexpressing DCs (Aire cells) on the functions of CD4⁺ T cells and the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We demonstrated that Aire cells upregulated the mRNA levels of the tolerance-related molecules CD73, Lag3, and FR4 and the apoptosis of CD4⁺ T cells in STZ-T1D mouse-derived splenocytes. Furthermore, following insulin stimulation, Aire cells decreased the number of CD4⁺ IFN-γ⁺ T cells in both STZ-T1D and WT mouse-derived splenocytes and reduced the expression levels of TCR signaling molecules (Ca(2+) and p-ERK) in CD4⁺ T cells. We observed that Aire cells-induced CD4⁺ T cells could delay the development of T1D. In summary, Aire-expressing DCs inhibited TCR signaling pathways and decreased the quantity of CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ autoreactive T cells. These data suggest a mechanism for Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and provide a potential method to control autoimmunity by targeting Aire.

  14. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix, and operates in the intermediate temperature range of 180-300 C. Studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the ratecontrolling step in the kinetics of the anodic oxidation of ammonia. A new type of Ni/NiOOH reference electrode was developed for the measurement of single electrode potentials in experimental galvanic fuel cells employing this type of matrix electrolyte. In addition to various exploratory studies, two statistical analysis

  15. Air and thermally stable perovskite solar cells with CVD-graphene as the blocking layer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xihong; Jiang, Hong; Li, Juan; Ma, Jiaxin; Yang, Dong; Liu, Zhike; Gao, Fei; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-06-22

    The poor air and thermal stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have hindered their real applications. Here we report the insertion of a chemical vapor deposited graphene between the Au electrode and spiro-OMeTAD in planar perovskite solar cells to block the diffusion of air and Au into the perovskite layer, where the single layer graphene is transferred into the devices by a simple laminated process. After ageing in 45% humidity air for 96 h or thermal annealing at 80 °C for 12 h, more than 94% PCE of the devices with graphene can be maintained, which is much better than that of devices without graphene (∼57%). The improved stability of devices with the graphene layer is attributed to the reduction of carrier recombination from decomposition of the perovskite layer in air or Au doping into the perovskite layer under annealing treatment. Therefore, graphene is a promising ultra-thin barrier against air and metal diffusion, and has potential applications in photovoltaic devices, integrated circuit chips and light emitting diodes.

  16. Semitransparent Fully Air Processed Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingling; Liu, Zonghao; Zhang, Meng; Li, Wenhui; Zhu, Aili; Cai, Fensha; Zhao, Zhixin; Zhou, Yinhua

    2015-08-19

    Semitransparent solar cells are highly attractive for application as power-generating windows. In this work, we present semitransparent perovskite solar cells that employ conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) film as the transparent counter electrode. The PSS electrode is prepared by transfer lamination technique using plastic wrap as the transfer medium. The use of the transfer lamination technique avoids the damage of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film by direct contact of PSS aqueous solution. The semitransparent perovskite solar cells yield a power conversion efficiency of 10.1% at an area of about 0.06 cm(2) and 2.9% at an area of 1 cm(2). The device structure and the fabrication technique provide a facile way to produce semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  17. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  18. FIB/SEM cell sectioning for intracellular metal granules characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Marziale; Brundu, Claudia; Santisi, Grazia; Savoia, Claudio; Tatti, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    Focused Ion Beams (FIBs) provide a cross-sectioning tool for submicron dissection of cells and subcellular structures. In combination with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), FIB provides complementary morphological information, that can be further completed by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). This study focus onto intracellular microstructures, particularly onto metal granules (typically Zn, Cu and Fe) and on the possibility of sectioning digestive gland cells of the terrestrial isopod P. scaber making the granules available for a compositional analysis with EDX. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of metal granules size, amount and distribution are performed. Information is made available of the cellular storing pattern and, indirectly, metal metabolism. The extension to human level is of utmost interest since some pathologies of relevance are metal related. Apart from the common metal-overload-diseases (hereditary hemochromatosis, Wilson's and Menkes disease) it has been demonstrated that metal in excess can influence carcinogenesis in liver, kidney and breast. Therefore protocols will be established for the observation of mammal cells to improve our knowledge about the intracellular metal amount and distribution both in healthy cells and in those affected by primary or secondary metal overload or depletion.

  19. Impact of artificial recharge on dissolved noble gases in groundwater in California.

    PubMed

    Cey, Bradley D; Hudson, G Bryant; Moran, Jean E; Scanlon, Bridget R

    2008-02-15

    Dissolved noble gas concentrations in groundwater can provide valuable information on recharge temperatures and enable 3H-3He age-dating with the use of physically based interpretive models. This study presents a large (905 samples) data set of dissolved noble gas concentrations from drinking water supply wells throughout California, representing a range of physiographic, climatic, and water management conditions. Three common interpretive models (unfractionated air, UA; partial re-equilibration, PR; and closed system equilibrium, CE) produce systematically different recharge temperatures or ages; however, the ability of the different models to fit measured data within measurement uncertainty indicates that goodness-of-fit is not a robust indicator for model appropriateness. Therefore caution is necessary when interpreting model results. Samples from multiple locations contained significantly higher Ne and excess air concentrations than reported in the literature, with maximum excess air tending toward 0.05 cm3 STP g(-1) (deltaNe approximately 400%). Artificial recharge is the most plausible cause of the high excess air concentrations. The ability of artificial recharge to dissolve greater amounts of atmospheric gases has important implications for oxidation-reduction dependent chemical reactions. Measured gas concentration ratios suggest that diffusive degassing may have occurred. Understanding the physical processes controlling gas dissolution during groundwater recharge is critical for optimal management of artificial recharge and for predicting changes in water quality that can occur following artificial recharge.

  20. Observation of the development of individual clear air convective cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, A.

    1977-01-01

    A series of radar observations has been used to monitor the development of clear air convective cells. It is suggested that an airfield may be a source of such cells. The cells first appear at a distance of about 11 km, and are observed to be produced every four minutes. The emergence of separate cells supports the bubble theory of convection. After reaching maximum height, a typical decrease of 100-200 m occurs. Various methods used to estimate convective cell energy yield values of 10 to the 12th, 4 x 10 to the 11th, and 10 to the 11th J.

  1. Environmental tests of metallization systems for terrestrial photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Seven different solar cell metallization systems were subjected to temperature cycling tests and humidity tests. Temperature cycling excursions were -50 deg C to 150 deg C per cycle. Humidity conditions were 70 deg C at 98% relative humidity. The seven metallization systems were: Ti/Ag, Ti/Pd/Ag, Ti/Pd/Cu, Ni/Cu, Pd/Ni/Solder, Cr/Pd/Ag, and thick film Ag. All metallization systems showed a slight to moderate decrease in cell efficiencies after subjection to 1000 temperature cycles. Six of the seven metallization systems also evidenced slight increases in cell efficiencies after moderate numbers of cycles, generally less than 100 cycles. The copper based systems showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after temperature cycling. All metallization systems showed moderate to large decreases in cell efficiencies after 123 days of humidity exposure. The copper based systems again showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after humidity exposure. Graphs of the environmental exposures versus cell efficiencies are presented for each metallization system, as well as environmental exposures versus fill factors or series resistance.

  2. MOF-Based Metal-Doping-Induced Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous CuN/C Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts for Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qingxue; Zhu, Junjie; Zhao, Yingxuan; Liang, Yanyu; He, Jianping; Chen, Junhong

    2017-08-01

    A transition-metal-nitrogen/carbon (TM-N/C, TM = Fe, Co, Ni, etc.) system is a popular, nonprecious-metal oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst for fuel cell and metal-air battery applications. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive understanding about the ORR electrocatalytic mechanism on these catalysts, especially the roles of different forms of metal species on electrocatalytic performance. Here, a novel CuN/C ORR electrocatalyst with a hybrid Cu coordination site is successfully fabricated with a simple but efficient metal-organic-framework-based, metal-doping-induced synthesis strategy. By directly pyrolyzing Cu-doped zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-8 polyhedrons, the obtained CuN/C catalyst can achieve a high specific surface area of 1182 m(2) g(-1) with a refined hierarchical porous structure and a high surface N content of 11.05 at%. Moreover, regulating the Cu loading can efficiently tune the states of Cu(II) and Cu(0) , resulting in the successful construction of a highly active hybrid coordination site of NCu(II)Cu(0) in derived CuN/C catalysts. As a result, the optimized 25% CuN/C catalyst possesses a high ORR activity and stability in 0.1 m KOH solution, as well as excellent performance and stability in a Zn-air battery. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Elastomers bonded to metal surfaces seal electrochemical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherfey, J. M.

    1964-01-01

    A leakproof seal secondary cell containing alkaline electrolytes was developed by bonding an alkali-resistant elastomer, such as neoprene, to metal contact surfaces. Test results of several different elastomers strongly indicate the feasibility of this sealing method.

  4. Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst for Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will bring industrial catalyst experience to fuel cell research. Specifically, industrial catalysts, such as those used in platforming, utilize precious metal platinum as an active component in a finely dispersed form.

  5. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  6. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  7. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  8. A study of air pollution with heavy metals in Athens city and Attica basin using evergreen trees as biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Krystallidis, Panagiotis; Veros, Dimitrios; Chettri, Mukesh

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of five metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and lead) were determined in tree leaves collected from 13 areas of the Attica basin and Athens city, Greece. Geographical distribution patterns were investigated, and factors affecting toxic element accumulation in trees were discussed. The mean heavy metal content in the tree leaves is described in the descending order of copper>lead>nickel>chromium>cadmium. Generally, the most damaged areas have been proved to be those near the city center and in the vicinity of the Attica highway. The geomorphological relief of the area plays an important role in the dispersion of airborne particles from pollution sources to the surrounding area. Areas on the NE region are also polluted mainly due to wind directions. In Citrus aurantium leaves, with relatively impermeable cuticle, high chromium, copper and nickel concentration would be possibly caused only by significant stomatal uptake. The conifer tree Pinus brutia providing a rough leaf surface also showed elevated concentrations, especially of cadmium and lead. The thick waxy cuticle of the sclerophyllous broad-leaved Olea europaea forms a smooth sheet increasing the barrier properties of the leaf epidermis and causing a reduction in leaf permeability. The dense trichomes of the abaxial epidermis of Olea europaea also act as a pollution screen keeping away the air particles from the epidermis stomata. The presence of a certain metal within the leaf cells could reduce the uptake or toxicity of some others.

  9. Heavy metals in the cell nucleus - role in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    People are exposed to heavy metals both in an occupational and natural environment. The most pronounced effects of heavy metals result from their interaction with cellular genetic material packed in form of chromatin. Heavy metals influence chromatin, mimicking and substituting natural microelements in various processes taking place in the cell, or interacting chemically with nuclear components: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This paper is a review of current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals on chromatin, exerted at the level of various nuclear components.

  10. Key scientific challenges in current rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Mahesh Datt; Geaney, Hugh; Nolan, Michael; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2014-06-28

    Rechargeable Li-air (henceforth referred to as Li-O2) batteries provide theoretical capacities that are ten times higher than that of current Li-ion batteries, which could enable the driving range of an electric vehicle to be comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. These high energy densities in Li-O2 batteries result from the atypical battery architecture which consists of an air (O2) cathode and a pure lithium metal anode. However, hurdles to their widespread use abound with issues at the cathode (relating to electrocatalysis and cathode decomposition), lithium metal anode (high reactivity towards moisture) and due to electrolyte decomposition. This review focuses on the key scientific challenges in the development of rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries from both experimental and theoretical findings. This dual approach allows insight into future research directions to be provided and highlights the importance of combining theoretical and experimental approaches in the optimization of Li-O2 battery systems.

  11. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  12. Low-friction coatings for air bearings in fuel cell air compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; Erdemir, A.; Woodford, J.; Sitts, J.; Elshot, K.; Griffey, K.

    2000-01-06

    In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the US Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. The authors present here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings. With two parallel 440C stainless steel discs in unidirectional sliding contact, the NFC reduced the frictional force four times and the wear rate by more than two orders of magnitude. Wear mechanism on the uncoated surface involved oxidation and production of iron oxide debris. Wear occurred on the coated surfaces primarily by a polishing mechanism.

  13. Using MODFLOW 2000 to model ET and recharge for shallow ground water problems.

    PubMed

    Doble, Rebecca C; Simmons, Craig T; Walker, Glen R

    2009-01-01

    In environments with shallow ground water elevation, small changes in the water table can cause significant variations in recharge and evapotranspiration fluxes. Particularly, where ground water is close to the soil surface, both recharge and evapotranspiration are regulated by a thin unsaturated zone and, for accuracy, must be represented using nonconstant and often nonlinear relationships. The most commonly used ground water flow model today, MODFLOW, was originally designed with a modular structure with independent packages representing recharge and evaporation processes. Systems with shallow ground water, however, may be better represented using either a recharge function that varies with ground water depth or a continuous recharge and evapotranspiration function that is dependent on depth to water table. In situations where the boundaries between recharging and nonrecharging cells change with time, such as near a seepage zone, a continuous ground water flux relationship allows recharge rates to change with depth rather than having to calculate them at each stress period. This research article describes the modification of the MODFLOW 2000 recharge and segmented evapotranspiration packages into a continuous recharge-discharge function that allows ground water flux to be represented as a continuous process, dependent on head. The modifications were then used to model long-term recharge and evapotranspiration processes on a saline, semiarid floodplain in order to understand spatial patterns of salinization, and an overview of this process is given.

  14. EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

  15. EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

  16. The California fuel cell partnership: an avenue to clean air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Alan C.

    The California Fuel Cell Partnership presently consists of eight private companies, two state agencies and a federal government representative that will attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell cars and buses. California has attempted to advance the commercialization of zero-emission vehicles for much of the past decade to help the state reduce its high levels of air pollution. A special advisory panel convened by the California Air Resources Board concluded last year that fuel cell technology could meet the key requirements for automobiles. The successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles would help to reduce the levels of ozone, fine particles and toxic air contaminants that pose health risks to California's population. This technology can also help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. California regulations now encourage the development of zero and near-zero emission vehicle technologies, including fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Partnership will operate approximately 50 fuel cell cars and buses until the year 2003 in order to produce important information on the vehicles and fueling infrastructure needed to support them.

  17. Metal catalyst technique for texturing silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2001-01-01

    Textured silicon solar cells and techniques for their manufacture utilizing metal sources to catalyze formation of randomly distributed surface features such as nanoscale pyramidal and columnar structures. These structures include dimensions smaller than the wavelength of incident light, thereby resulting in a highly effective anti-reflective surface. According to the invention, metal sources present in a reactive ion etching chamber permit impurities (e.g. metal particles) to be introduced into a reactive ion etch plasma resulting in deposition of micro-masks on the surface of a substrate to be etched. Separate embodiments are disclosed including one in which the metal source includes one or more metal-coated substrates strategically positioned relative to the surface to be textured, and another in which the walls of the reaction chamber are pre-conditioned with a thin coating of metal catalyst material.

  18. Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    PubMed

    Fakhreddine, Sarah; Dittmar, Jessica; Phipps, Don; Dadakis, Jason; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-07-07

    Mobilization of arsenic and other trace metal contaminants during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) poses a challenge to maintaining local groundwater quality and to ensuring the viability of aquifer storage and recovery techniques. Arsenic release from sediments into solution has occurred during purified recycled water recharge of shallow aquifers within Orange County, CA. Accordingly, we examine the geochemical processes controlling As desorption and mobilization from shallow, aerated sediments underlying MAR infiltration basins. Further, we conducted a series of batch and column experiments to evaluate recharge water chemistries that minimize the propensity of As desorption from the aquifer sediments. Within the shallow Orange County Groundwater Basin sediments, the divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) are critical for limiting arsenic desorption; they promote As (as arsenate) adsorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals of the aquifer. While native groundwater contains adequate concentrations of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), these cations are not present at sufficient concentrations during recharge of highly purified recycled water. Subsequently, the absence of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) displaces As from the sediments into solution. Increasing the dosages of common water treatment amendments including quicklime (Ca(OH)2) and dolomitic lime (CaO·MgO) provides recharge water with higher concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions and subsequently decreases the release of As during infiltration.

  19. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice.

  20. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kevin; Ruka, Roswell J

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.