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Sample records for recolectada pero mal

  1. The MAL: A Malware Analysis Lexicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    we feel that further exploration of the open source literature is a promising avenue for enlarging the corpus. 2.3 Publishing the MAL Early in the...MAL. We feel that the advantages of this format are well worth the small incremental cost. The distribution of the MAL in this format is under...dictionary. We feel that moving to a richer format such as WordNet or WordVis would greatly improve the usability of the lexicon. 3.5 Improved Hosting The

  2. Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razinkov, Vladimer

    2009-03-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  3. The mean age of petit mal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Afsarunnesa; Karim, Md Rezaul

    2016-01-01

    Petit mal epilepsy or absence seizures involve brief, sudden lapses of consciousness and most often occurs in people under age of 20 years. This study was done to find out the most likely significant age affected by petit mal epilepsy and whether they had higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems. We run tests on total 32 patients (male 16 and female 16) from newborns to 20 years of age. The most affected ages were from 4 to 9 years and both genders were equally affected. They have higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems, and most likely recovering ages from the disease were from 15 to 20 years. These findings could contribute in diagnosis and treatment of Petit Mal Epilepsy, as it often misinterpreted as daydreaming or inattention.

  4. Mal de Meleda with Congenital Cataract: A Novel Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Anisha; Janda, Jaspreet Kaur; Sharma, Nidhi; Malhotra, S K

    2015-01-01

    Mal de meleda (MdM), a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles with a sharp demarcation and that progress with age (progrediens) and extend to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet (transgrediens). It has been associated with various conditions albeit rarely with congenial cataract. Ocular lens and the skin have the same embryological origins. We hereby present this novel case report of Mal de meleda in association with congenital posterior subcapsular cataract which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported from India before.

  5. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Rørth, Pernille

    2004-07-01

    Cells migrating through a tissue exert force via their cytoskeleton and are themselves subject to tension, but the effects of physical forces on cell behavior in vivo are poorly understood. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis is a useful model for invasive cell movement. We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell stretching. Border cells that cannot migrate lack nuclear MAL-D but can accumulate it if they are pulled by other migrating cells. Like mammalian MAL, MAL-D also responds to activated Diaphanous, which affects actin dynamics. MAL-D/SRF activity is required to build a robust actin cytoskeleton in the migrating cells; mutant cells break apart when initiating migration. Thus, tension-induced MAL-D activity may provide a feedback mechanism for enhancing cytoskeletal strength during invasive migration.

  6. Hyponatraemia and Moduretic-grand mal seizures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C; Webb, L; Daley, J; Spathis, G S

    1989-01-01

    Three cases are presented which emphasize the importance of hyponatraemia as a cause of grand mal seizures. The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride appears to increase the risk of hyponatraemia. We discuss the aetiology and treatment of hyponatraemia and review the necessity for such combination therapy. We recommend caution in prescribing diuretics and preparations such as Moduretic should be used only in those few patients shown to need potassium supplementation. PMID:2506346

  7. EJERCICIO Y LA DETECCION DEL MAL AGUDO DE MONTAÑA GRAVE

    PubMed Central

    Garófoli, Adrián; Montoya, Paola; Elías, Carlos; Benzo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    El Mal Agudo de Montaña (MAM) es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral) pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2 700m y 4 300m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962m). Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución >=5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. 6 sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5%) y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2 700m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2 700m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4 300m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave. PMID:20228017

  8. Portable device for detection of petit mal epilepsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. G.; Houge, J. C.; Webster, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    A portable device that analyzes the electroencephalogram to determine if petit mal epilepsy waveforms are present is developed and tested. Clinicians should find it useful in diagnosing seizure activity of their patients. The micropower, battery-operated, portable device indicates a seizure has occurred if three criteria are satisfied: (1) frequencies of 2.5-7 Hz, (2) large-amplitude waves, and (3) minimum number of waves per second. Levels and counts are adjustable, thus insuring high reliability against noise artifacts and permitting each subject to be individually fitted. The device has shown promise in giving the patient a possible mechanism of seizure control or suppression.

  9. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures

    PubMed Central

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  10. Identification of endogenous inducers of the mal regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrmann, M; Boos, W

    1987-01-01

    The expression of the maltose regulon in Escherichia coli is induced when maltose or maltodextrins are present in the growth medium. Mutations in malK, which codes for a component of the transport system, result in the elevated expression of the remaining mal genes. Uninduced expression in the wild type, as well as elevated expression in malK mutants, is strongly repressed at high osmolarity. In the absence of malQ-encoded amylomaltase, expression remains high at high osmolarity. We found that uninduced expression in the wild type and elevated expression in malK mutants were paralleled by the appearance of two types of endogenous carbohydrates. One, produced primarily at high osmolarity, was identified as comprising maltodextrins that are derived from glycogen or glycogen-synthesizing enzymes. The other, produced primarily at low osmolarity, consisted of an oligosaccharide that was not derived from glycogen. We isolated a mutant that no longer synthesized this oligosaccharide. The gene carrying this mutation, termed malI, was mapped at min 36 on the E. coli linkage map. A Tn10 insertion in malI also resulted in the loss of constitutivity at low osmolarity and delayed the induction of the maltose regulon by exogenous inducers. Images PMID:3038842

  11. Identification and Characterization of MalA in the Maltose/Maltodextrin Operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. PMID:23396915

  12. Assessment of allelic diversity in intron-containing Mal d 1 genes and their association to apple allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongshan; Weg, Eric W van de; Matos, Catarina I; Arens, Paul; Bolhaar, Suzanne THP; Knulst, Andre C; Li, Yinghui; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Gilissen, Luud JWJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Mal d 1 is a major apple allergen causing food allergic symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) in birch-pollen sensitised patients. The Mal d 1 gene family is known to have at least 7 intron-containing and 11 intronless members that have been mapped in clusters on three linkage groups. In this study, the allelic diversity of the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes was assessed among a set of apple cultivars by sequencing or indirectly through pedigree genotyping. Protein variant constitutions were subsequently compared with Skin Prick Test (SPT) responses to study the association of deduced protein variants with allergenicity in a set of 14 cultivars. Results From the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes investigated, Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02 were highly conserved, as nine out of ten cultivars coded for the same protein variant, while only one cultivar coded for a second variant. Mal d 1.04, Mal d 1.05 and Mal d 1.06 A, B and C were more variable, coding for three to six different protein variants. Comparison of Mal d 1 allelic composition between the high-allergenic cultivar Golden Delicious and the low-allergenic cultivars Santana and Priscilla, which are linked in pedigree, showed an association between the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A genes (both located on linkage group 16) with allergenicity. This association was confirmed in 10 other cultivars. In addition, Mal d 1.06A allele dosage effects associated with the degree of allergenicity based on prick to prick testing. Conversely, no associations were observed for the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.01 (on linkage group 13), -1.02, -1.06B, -1.06C genes (all on linkage group 16), nor by the Mal d 1.05 gene (on linkage group 6). Conclusion Protein variant compositions of Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A and, in case of Mal d 1.06A, allele doses are associated with the differences in allergenicity among fourteen apple cultivars. This information indicates the involvement of

  13. Management of mal de debarquement syndrome as vestibular migraines.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Yaser; Haidar, Yarah M; Ziai, Kasra N; Moshtaghi, Omid; Bhatt, Jay; Lin, Harrison W; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2017-07-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a balance disorder that typically starts after an extended exposure to passive motion, such as a boat or plane ride. Management is typically supportive (e.g. physical therapy), and symptoms that persist beyond 6 months have been described as unlikely to remit. This study was conducted to evaluate the response of patients with MdDS to management with migraine prophylaxis, including lifestyle changes and medical therapy. Prospective review. Ambulatory setting at a tertiary care medical center. Clinical history, detailed questionnaires, and audiograms were used to diagnose patients with MdDS. Those patients with the diagnosis of the MdDS were placed on our institutional vestibular migraine management protocol. Treatment response was assessed with a quality-of-life (QOL) survey and visual analog scale. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with MdDS, with a predominance of females (73%) and a mean age of 50 ± 13 years. Eleven patients (73%) responded well to management with a vestibular migraine protocol, which included lifestyle changes, as well as pharmacotherapy with verapamil, nortriptyline, topiramate, or a combination thereof. In comparison, a retrospective control group of 17 patients demonstrated a lower rate of improvement when treated with vestibular rehabilitation and physical therapy. Management of MdDS as vestibular migraine can improve patients' symptoms and increase the QOL. Nearly all the patients suffering from MdDS had a personal or family history of migraine headaches or had signs or symptoms suggestive of atypical migraine. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1670-1675, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A qRT-PCR assay for the expression of all Mal d 1 isoallergen genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A considerable number of individuals suffer from oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple, resulting in the avoidance of apple consumption. Apple cultivars differ greatly in their allergenic properties, but knowledge of the causes for such differences is incomplete. Mal d 1 is considered the major apple allergen. For Mal d 1, a wide range of isoallergens and variants exist, and they are encoded by a large gene family. To identify the specific proteins/genes that are potentially involved in the allergy, we developed a PCR assay to monitor the expression of each individual Mal d 1 gene. Gene-specific primer pairs were designed for the exploitation of sequence differences among Mal d 1 genes. The specificity of these primers was validated using both in silico and in vitro techniques. Subsequently, this assay was applied to the peel and flesh of fruits from the two cultivars ‘Florina’ and ‘Gala’. Results We successfully developed gene-specific primer pairs for each of the 31 Mal d 1 genes and incorporated them into a qRT-PCR assay. The results from the application of the assay showed that 11 genes were not expressed in fruit. In addition, differential expression was observed among the Mal d 1 genes that were expressed in the fruit. Moreover, the expression levels were tissue and cultivar dependent. Conclusion The assay developed in this study facilitated the first characterisation of the expression levels of all known Mal d 1 genes in a gene-specific manner. Using this assay on different fruit tissues and cultivars, we obtained knowledge concerning gene relevance in allergenicity. This study provides new perspectives for research on both plant breeding and immunotherapy. PMID:23522122

  16. MalE of Group A Streptococcus Participates in the Rapid Transport of Maltotriose and Longer Maltodextrins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Fang, Han; Okorafor, Nnaja; Sumby, Paul; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Keith, David; Patel, Payal; Austin, Celest; Graviss, Edward A.; Musser, James M.; Chow, Dar-Chone

    2007-01-01

    Study of the maltose/maltodextrin binding protein MalE in Escherichia coli has resulted in fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms of microbial transport. Whether gram-positive bacteria employ a similar pathway for maltodextrin transport is unclear. The maltodextrin binding protein MalE has previously been shown to be key to the ability of group A Streptococcus (GAS) to colonize the oropharynx, the major site of GAS infection in humans. Here we used a multifaceted approach to elucidate the function and binding characteristics of GAS MalE. We found that GAS MalE is a central part of a highly efficient maltodextrin transport system capable of transporting linear maltodextrins that are up to at least seven glucose molecules long. Of the carbohydrates tested, GAS MalE had the highest affinity for maltotriose, a major breakdown product of starch in the human oropharynx. The thermodynamics and fluorescence changes induced by GAS MalE-maltodextrin binding were essentially opposite those reported for E. coli MalE. Moreover, unlike E. coli MalE, GAS MalE exhibited no specific binding of maltose or cyclic maltodextrins. Our data show that GAS developed a transport system optimized for linear maltodextrins longer than two glucose molecules that has several key differences from its well-studied E. coli counterpart. PMID:17259319

  17. Structure of the Major Apple Allergen Mal d 1

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    More than 70% of birch pollen-allergic patients develop allergic cross-reactions to the major allergen found in apple fruits (Malus domestica), the 17.5 kDa protein Mal d 1. Allergic reactions against this protein result from initial sensitization to the major allergen from birch pollen, Bet v 1. Immunologic cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific IgE antibodies with Mal d 1 after apple consumption can subsequently provoke severe oral allergic syndromes. This study presents the three-dimensional NMR solution structure of Mal d 1 (isoform Mal d 1.0101, initially cloned from ‘Granny Smith’ apples). This protein is composed of a seven-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and three α-helices that form a large internal cavity, similar to Bet v 1 and other cross-reactive food allergens. The Mal d 1 structure provides the basis for elucidating the details of allergic cross-reactivity between birch pollen and apple allergens on a molecular level. PMID:28161953

  18. Social, societal, and economic burden of mal de debarquement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macke, Allison; LePorte, Andrew; Clark, Brian C

    2012-07-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a disorder of phantom perception of self-motion of unknown cause. The purpose of this work was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of patients with MdDS and to estimate the economic costs associated with this disorder. A modified version of a QOL survey used for another neurological disease (multiple sclerosis; MSQOL-54) was used to assess the impact of MdDS on QOL in 101 patients. The estimated economic costs were based on self-reported direct and indirect costs of individuals living in the United States using Medicare reimbursement payment rates for 2011 in 79 patients. Patients with MdDS reported a poor overall QOL as indicated by a mean composite QOL score of 59.26 ± 1.89 (out of 100). The subcategories having the lowest QOL rating were role limitations due to physical problems (18.32 ± 3.20), energy (34.24 ± 1.47), and emotional problems (36.30 ± 4.00). The overall physical health composite score including balance was 49.40 ± 1.69, and the overall mental health composite score was 52.40 ± 1.83. The cost to obtain a diagnosis was $2,997 ± 337, which included requiring an average of 19 physician visits per patient. The direct cost of MdDS medical care was $826 ± 140 per patient per year, which mainly included diagnostic imaging and physician visits. The indirect costs (i.e., lost wages) were $9,781 ± 2,347 per patient per year. Among 65 patients who were gainfully employed when they acquired MdDS, the indirect costs were $11,888 ± 2,786 per patient per year. Thus, the total annual cost of the disorder ranged from $11,493 ± 2,341 to $13,561 ± 2,778 per patient per year depending on employment status prior to developing MdDS. MdDS negatively and dramatically impacts QOL, and also imposes a substantial economic burden on MdDS patients. These findings underscore the need for further basic and clinical research on MdDS.

  19. MAL73, a novel regulator of maltose fermentation, is functionally impaired by single nucleotide polymorphism in sake brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohdate, Takumi; Omura, Fumihiko; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Zhou, Yan; Takagi, Masami; Goshima, Tetsuya; Akao, Takeshi; Ono, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    For maltose fermentation, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae operates a mechanism that involves transporters (MALT), maltases (MALS) and regulators (MALR) collectively known as MAL genes. However, functional relevance of MAL genes during sake brewing process remains largely elusive, since sake yeast is cultured under glucose-rich condition achieved by the co-culture partner Aspergillus spp.. Here we isolated an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized sake yeast strain exhibiting enhanced maltose fermentation compared to the parental strain. The mutant carried a single nucleotide insertion that leads to the extension of the C-terminal region of a previously uncharacterized MALR gene YPR196W-2, which was renamed as MAL73. Introduction of the mutant allele MAL73L with extended C-terminal region into the parental or other sake yeast strains enhanced the growth rate when fed with maltose as the sole carbon source. In contrast, disruption of endogenous MAL73 in the sake yeasts decreased the maltose fermentation ability of sake yeast, confirming that the original MAL73 functions as a MALR. Importantly, the MAL73L-expressing strain fermented more maltose in practical condition compared to the parental strain during sake brewing process. Our data show that MAL73(L) is a novel MALR gene that regulates maltose fermentation, and has been functionally attenuated in sake yeast by single nucleotide deletion during breeding history. Since the MAL73L-expressing strain showed enhanced ability of maltose fermentation, MAL73L might also be a valuable tool for enhancing maltose fermentation in yeast in general.

  20. Structural Basis for the Interconversion of Maltodextrins by MalQ, the Amylomaltase of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Simon C.; Skerra, Arne; Schiefner, André

    2015-01-01

    Amylomaltase MalQ is essential for the metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli. It catalyzes transglycosylation/disproportionation reactions in which glycosyl or dextrinyl units are transferred among linear maltodextrins of various lengths. To elucidate the molecular basis of transglycosylation by MalQ, we have determined three crystal structures of this enzyme, i.e. the apo-form, its complex with maltose, and an inhibitor complex with the transition state analog acarviosine-glucose-acarbose, at resolutions down to 2.1 Å. MalQ represents the first example of a mesophilic bacterial amylomaltase with known structure and exhibits an N-terminal extension of about 140 residues, in contrast with previously described thermophilic enzymes. This moiety seems unique to amylomaltases from Enterobacteriaceae and folds into two distinct subdomains that associate with different parts of the catalytic core. Intriguingly, the three MalQ crystal structures appear to correspond to distinct states of this enzyme, revealing considerable conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. In particular, the inhibitor complex highlights the requirement of both a 3-OH group and a 4-OH group (or α1–4-glycosidic bond) at the acceptor subsite +1 for the catalytically competent orientation of the acid/base catalyst Glu-496. Using an HPLC-based MalQ enzyme assay, we could demonstrate that the equilibrium concentration of maltodextrin products depends on the length of the initial substrate; with increasing numbers of glycosidic bonds, less glucose is formed. Thus, both structural and enzymatic data are consistent with the extremely low hydrolysis rates observed for amylomaltases and underline the importance of MalQ for the metabolism of maltodextrins in E. coli. PMID:26139606

  1. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  2. Change in Myself-as-a-Learner Scale (MALS) Scores as Pupils Transfer to and Progress through Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norgate, Roger; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in pupils' academic self-perception (as measured by Myself-As-a-Learner Scale [MALS]) were investigated between Year 6 and Year 10. The possibility of there being gender and attainment differences was also explored. There was a significant drop in mean MALS scores between Years 6 and 7. There was a further drop between Years 7…

  3. Linfoma Nasal de Células T/Natural Killer Extranodal Refractario Mal Diagnosticado, Tratado de Manera Exitosa: Informe de Caso

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra Ramírez, José Domingo

    2017-01-01

    El linfoma de células T/natural killer extranodal (“extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma”, ENKL) nasal es un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH) agresivo y poco común para el cual no se ha establecido un tratamiento de referencia claro, especialmente en el escenario de la enfermedad recidivante/refractaria. Debido a su rareza, no se han llevado a cabo ensayos aleatorizados específicamente en ENKL nasal; sin embargo, los informes de caso y las series de caso pequeñas ofrecen un conocimiento importante sobre nuevos tratamientos potenciales. Presentamos el informe de caso de un paciente con ENKL nasal (previamente mal diagnosticado como una sinusitis crónica recidivante) en quien la enfermedad progresó durante la quimioterapia con múltiples agentes pero respondió al tratamiento de segunda línea con pralatrexato como agente único. Analizamos opciones de tratamiento para el ENKL nasal recidivante/refractario y sugerimos que el pralatrexato se evalúe más a fondo en este escenario clínico. PMID:29430232

  4. Linfoma Nasal de Células T/Natural Killer Extranodal Refractario Mal Diagnosticado, Tratado de Manera Exitosa: Informe de Caso.

    PubMed

    Saavedra Ramírez, José Domingo

    2017-01-01

    El linfoma de células T/natural killer extranodal ("extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma", ENKL) nasal es un linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH) agresivo y poco común para el cual no se ha establecido un tratamiento de referencia claro, especialmente en el escenario de la enfermedad recidivante/refractaria. Debido a su rareza, no se han llevado a cabo ensayos aleatorizados específicamente en ENKL nasal; sin embargo, los informes de caso y las series de caso pequeñas ofrecen un conocimiento importante sobre nuevos tratamientos potenciales. Presentamos el informe de caso de un paciente con ENKL nasal (previamente mal diagnosticado como una sinusitis crónica recidivante) en quien la enfermedad progresó durante la quimioterapia con múltiples agentes pero respondió al tratamiento de segunda línea con pralatrexato como agente único. Analizamos opciones de tratamiento para el ENKL nasal recidivante/refractario y sugerimos que el pralatrexato se evalúe más a fondo en este escenario clínico.

  5. Characterization of recombinant Mal d 4 and its application for component-resolved diagnosis of apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Zuidmeer, L; Bohle, B; Bolhaar, S T H; Gadermaier, G; Gonzalez-Mancebo, E; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Knulst, A C; Himly, M; Asero, R; Ebner, C; van Ree, R; Ferreira, F; Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2006-08-01

    Profilins are ubiquitous panallergens that have been extensively characterized; yet, their clinical relevance is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to produce recombinant apple profilin (rMal d 4) and to evaluate its allergenic activity and its potency for component-resolved allergy diagnosis. Complementary DNA-derived Mal d 4 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified via poly (l-proline) sepharose. A total of 28 sera from apple-allergic patients were used for IgE-ELISA, immunoblot, RAST and basophil histamine release (BHR) test. In addition, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed in five patients. Four different complementary DNA coding for apple profilin, Mal d 4, each with an open reading frame of 393 nucleotides, were identified. One isoform Mal d 4.0101 was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Mass spectroscopy revealed the expected mass of 13.826 for rMal d 4.0101, and circular dichroism analysis data were typical for a folded protein and small-angle X-ray scattering measurement identified the protein as a monomer. All the serum samples displayed IgE binding to rMal d 4.0101 in IgE ELISA, immunoblot and RAST. In immunoblotting, IgE binding to natural Mal d 4 was partially/completely inhibited by preincubation with rMal d 4.0101, and RAST values to apple extract were significantly reduced upon serum pretreatment with rMal d 4.0101. SPTs and BHR assays using purified rMal d 4.0101 were positive. Purified rMal d 4.0101 was destroyed within seconds when subjected to pepsin digestion. Apple profilin complementary DNAs were identified. The physicochemical and allergenic properties of purified recombinant Mal d 4.0101 were evaluated showing that the recombinant protein was equal to the natural protein as shown by inhibition assays. Thus, Mal d 4 represents another example suitable for component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy.

  6. High temperature increases the masculinization rate of the all-female (XX) rainbow trout "Mal" population.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Karina; Jouanno, Elodie; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Guyomard, René; Helary, Louise; Mourot, Brigitte; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species.

  7. Structural and mutational analyses of Aes, an inhibitor of MalT in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schiefner, André; Gerber, Kinga; Brosig, Alexander; Boos, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    The acyl esterase Aes effectively inhibits the transcriptional activity of MalT-the central activator of maltose and maltodextrin utilizing genes in Escherichia coli. To provide better insight into the nature of the interaction between Aes and MalT, we determined two different crystal structures of Aes-in its native form and covalently modified by a phenylmethylsulfonyl moiety at its active site serine. Both structures show distinct space groups and were refined to a resolution of 1.8 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively. The overall structure of Aes resembles a canonical α/β-hydrolase fold, which is extended by a funnel-like cap structure that forms the substrate-binding site. The catalytic triad of Aes, comprising residues Ser165, His292, and Asp262, is located at the bottom of this funnel. Analysis of the crystal-packing contacts of the two different space groups as well as analytical size-exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric arrangement of Aes. The Aes dimer adopts an antiparallel contact involving both the hydrolase core and the cap, with its twofold axis perpendicular to the largest dimension of Aes. To identify the surface area of Aes that is responsible for the interaction with MalT, we performed a structure-based alanine-scanning mutagenesis to pinpoint Aes residues that are significantly impaired in MalT inhibition, but still exhibit wild-type expression and enzymatic activity. These residues map to a shallow slightly concave surface patch of Aes at the opposite site of the dimerization interface and indicate the surface area that interacts with MalT. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of sulfur and vitamin C on the allergenicity of Mal d 2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Marzban, Gorji; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Brunner, Richard; Gruber, Clemens; Hahn, Rainer; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Laimer, Margit

    2014-07-30

    Mal d 2 is a minor allergen from apple which shows a high conformational stability due to its eight conserved disulfide bridges. Chemical reduction of disulfide bridges and linearization of Mal d 2 lead to enhanced IgE reactivity in vitro and indicate a higher potential for allergenicity. Since food preservatives such as sulfur and vitamin C are reducing and denaturing agents, their influence on Mal d 2 allergenicity was verified by simulated food processing conditions. The immunoreactivity of purified Mal d 2 was investigated after different treatments in vitro and in vivo using IgG/IgE Western blotting, mediator-releasing cell assay, and skin prick and oral smear tests. The conformational changes of Mal d 2 upon addition of 1% and 5% vitamin C were also monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show no positive skin and oral smear test reactivity to native, heated, or vitamin C-treated purified Mal d 2. Furthermore, the results confirm that sulfur in combination with heat treatment can influence the structural integrity and thus the allergenicity of Mal d 2, while vitamin C is too weak as a reducing agent to change allergenicity.

  9. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myat Lin; Anrather, Josef; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Alonso, Miguel A.; Fischetti, Vincent A.; McClain, Mark S.; Vartanian, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming cells of the CNS. The receptor for ETX is unknown. Here we show that both binding of ETX to mammalian cells and cytotoxicity requires the tetraspan proteolipid Myelin and Lymphocyte protein (MAL). While native Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to ETX, exogenous expression of MAL in CHO cells confers both ETX binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death. Cells expressing rat MAL are ~100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing similar levels of human MAL. Insertion of the FLAG sequence into the second extracellular loop of MAL abolishes ETX binding and cytotoxicity. ETX is known to bind specifically and with high affinity to intestinal epithelium, renal tubules, brain endothelial cells and myelin. We identify specific binding of ETX to these structures and additionally show binding to retinal microvasculature and the squamous epithelial cells of the sclera in wild-type mice. In contrast, there is a complete absence of ETX binding to tissues from MAL knockout (MAL-/-) mice. Furthermore, MAL-/- mice exhibit complete resistance to ETX at doses in excess of 1000 times the symptomatic dose for wild-type mice. We conclude that MAL is required for both ETX binding and cytotoxicity. PMID:25993478

  10. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin.

    PubMed

    Rumah, Kareem Rashid; Ma, Yinghua; Linden, Jennifer R; Oo, Myat Lin; Anrather, Josef; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Alonso, Miguel A; Fischetti, Vincent A; McClain, Mark S; Vartanian, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming cells of the CNS. The receptor for ETX is unknown. Here we show that both binding of ETX to mammalian cells and cytotoxicity requires the tetraspan proteolipid Myelin and Lymphocyte protein (MAL). While native Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are resistant to ETX, exogenous expression of MAL in CHO cells confers both ETX binding and susceptibility to ETX-mediated cell death. Cells expressing rat MAL are ~100 times more sensitive to ETX than cells expressing similar levels of human MAL. Insertion of the FLAG sequence into the second extracellular loop of MAL abolishes ETX binding and cytotoxicity. ETX is known to bind specifically and with high affinity to intestinal epithelium, renal tubules, brain endothelial cells and myelin. We identify specific binding of ETX to these structures and additionally show binding to retinal microvasculature and the squamous epithelial cells of the sclera in wild-type mice. In contrast, there is a complete absence of ETX binding to tissues from MAL knockout (MAL-/-) mice. Furthermore, MAL-/- mice exhibit complete resistance to ETX at doses in excess of 1000 times the symptomatic dose for wild-type mice. We conclude that MAL is required for both ETX binding and cytotoxicity.

  11. MAL facilitates the incorporation of exocytic uroplakin-delivering vesicles into the apical membrane of urothelial umbrella cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ge; Liang, Feng-Xia; Romih, Rok; Wang, Zefang; Liao, Yi; Ghiso, Jorge; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Kreibich, Gert; Alonso, Miguel A.; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Sun, Tung-Tien

    2012-01-01

    The apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium is covered by large (500–1000 nm) two-dimensional (2D) crystals of hexagonally packed 16-nm uroplakin particles (urothelial plaques), which play a role in permeability barrier function and uropathogenic bacterial binding. How the uroplakin proteins are delivered to the luminal surface is unknown. We show here that myelin-and-lymphocyte protein (MAL), a 17-kDa tetraspan protein suggested to be important for the apical sorting of membrane proteins, is coexpressed with uroplakins in differentiated urothelial cell layers. MAL depletion in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells did not affect, however, the apical sorting of uroplakins, but it decreased the rate by which uroplakins were inserted into the apical surface. Moreover, MAL knockout in vivo led to the accumulation of fusiform vesicles in mouse urothelial superficial umbrella cells, whereas MAL transgenic overexpression in vivo led to enhanced exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis, resulting in the accumulation of the uroplakin-degrading multivesicular bodies. Finally, although MAL and uroplakins cofloat in detergent-resistant raft fractions, they are associated with distinct plaque and hinge membrane subdomains, respectively. These data suggest a model in which 1) MAL does not play a role in the apical sorting of uroplakins; 2) the propensity of uroplakins to polymerize forming 16-nm particles and later large 2D crystals that behave as detergent-resistant (giant) rafts may drive their apical targeting; 3) the exclusion of MAL from the expanding 2D crystals of uroplakins explains the selective association of MAL with the hinge areas in the uroplakin-delivering fusiform vesicles, as well as at the apical surface; and 4) the hinge-associated MAL may play a role in facilitating the incorporation of the exocytic uroplakin vesicles into the corresponding hinge areas of the urothelial apical surface. PMID:22323295

  12. From badge of pride to cause of stigma: combatting mal del pinto in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Ana María

    2013-03-01

    Mal del pinto is a dermatological disease characterized by discoloured patches of skin on the face and body. It has been present in what is now the territory of Mexico from before the Spanish conquest up to recent times. Though early concerns for mal del pinto as a public health problem can be traced back to the late 19th century, no campaign to combat the disease was undertaken until the second half of the 20th. Thanks to the effectiveness of treatment with penicillin, the fight against this illness--which was once assumed as a symbol of pride--enjoyed a broader acceptance among the population that other health campaigns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed surgical treatment for neglected or mal-reduced talar fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng-Ju; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2005-10-01

    From 1993 to 2002, we treated nine patients for neglected or mal-reduced talar fractures. Average patient age was 39 (20-64) years and average follow-up 53 months. The time interval between injury and index operation ranged from 4 weeks to 4 years. Surgical procedures included open reduction with or without bone grafting in six cases, open reduction combined with ankle fusion in one case, talar neck osteotomy in one case, and talar neck osteotomy combined with subtalar fusion in one case. All cases had solid bone union. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the talus needing subsequent ankle arthrodesis. In six patients, adjacent hindfoot arthrosis occurred. The overall AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was in average 77.4. We conclude that in neglected and mal-reduced talar fractures, surgical treatment can lead to a favourable outcome if the hindfoot joints are not arthritic.

  14. SmartMal: a service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal--a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices.

  15. Une localisation exceptionnelle de la tuberculose vertébrale Mal de Pott sous-occipital

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Sana; Majdoub, Senda; Zaghouani, Houneida; Fradj, Hosni Ben; Bakir, Dejla; Bouajina, Elyes; Kraiem, Chakib

    2013-01-01

    Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus commune de la tuberculose osseuse touchant essentiellement le rachis dorso-lombaire. La localisation sous-occipitale reste exceptionnelle. Le diagnostic de cette entité est le plus souvent tardif ce qui expose à des complications graves. Les radiographies standard ne sont parlantes qu’à un stade tardif de la maladie, d'où l'intérêt de l'imagerie moderne notamment la tomodensitométrie (TDM) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) qui permettent un diagnostic précoce. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de tuberculose sous-occipitale. Le diagnostic était posé sur l'imagerie en coupe et confirmé histologiquement à la biopsie transorale. Sont rappelés les aspects en imagerie de cette localisation particulière du mal de Pott. PMID:23819005

  16. Ferromagnetic coupling in the three-dimensional malonato-bridged gadoliniumIII complex [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6] (H2mal = malonic acid).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, María; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; López, Trinidad; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2003-09-08

    The novel gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(2)(mal)(3)(H(2)O)(6)] (1) (H(2)mal = 1,3-propanedioic acid) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group I2/a, a = 11.1064(10) A, b = 12.2524(10) A, c =13.6098(2) A, beta = 92.925(10) degrees, U = 1849.5(3) A(3), Z = 4. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional network made up of malonate-bridged gadolinium(III) ions where the malonate exhibits two bridging modes, eta(5)-bidentate + unidentate and eta(3):eta(3) + bis(unidentate). The gadolinium atom is nine-coordinate with three water molecules and six malonate oxygen atoms from three malonate ligands forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. The shortest metal-metal separations are 4.2763(3) A [through the oxo-carboxylate bridge] and 6.541(3) A [through the carboxylate in the anti-syn coordination mode]. The value of the angle at the oxo-carboxylate atom is 116.8(2) degrees. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the occurrence of a significant ferromagnetic interaction through the oxo-carboxylate pathway (J = +0.048(1) cm(-1), H = -JS(Gd(1)) x S(Gd(1a))).

  17. The importance of correct patient positioning in theatres and implications of mal-positioning.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Rimi; Oragui, Emeka; Khan, Wasim; Maruthainar, Nimalan

    2010-04-01

    Patient positioning in theatre pertains to how a patient is transferred and positioned for a specific procedure. Patient safety is a central focus of care within the NHS and every healthcare practitioner must ensure that patients are protected from harm where possible. Mal-positioning of the patient has important implications in terms of associated problems of pressure sores, nerve compressions, deep vein thrombosis and compartment syndrome, and should be avoided.

  18. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)).

    PubMed

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT - the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  19. Repair of a mal-repaired biliary injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aldumour, Awad; Aseni, Paolo; Alkofahi, Mohmmad; Lamperti, Luca; Aldumour, Elias; Girotti, Paolo; De Carlis, Luciano-Gregorio

    2009-05-14

    Iatrogenic bile-duct injury post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major serious complication with unpredictable long-term results. We present a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones, in which the biliary injury was recognized intraoperatively. The surgical procedure was converted to an open one. The first surgeon repaired the injury over a T-tube without recognizing the anatomy and type of the biliary lesion, which led to an unusual biliary mal-repair. Immediately postoperatively, the abdominal drain brought a large amount of bile. A T-tube cholangiogram was performed. Despite the contrast medium leaking through the abdominal drain, the mal-repair was unrecognized. The patient was referred to our hospital for biliary leak. Ultrasound and cholangiography was repeated, which showed an unanatomical repair (right to left hepatic duct anastomosis over the T-tube), with evidence of contrast medium coming out through the abdominal drain. Eventually the patient was subjected to a definitive surgical treatment. The biliary continuity was re-established by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy, over transanastomotic external biliary stents. The patient is now doing well 4 years after the second surgical procedure. In reviewing the literature, we found a similar type of injury but we did not find a similar surgical mal-repair. We propose an algorithm for the treatment of early and late biliary injuries.

  20. Repair of a mal-repaired biliary injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aldumour, Awad; Aseni, Paolo; Alkofahi, Mohmmad; Lamperti, Luca; Aldumour, Elias; Girotti, Paolo; Carlis, Luciano Gregorio De

    2009-01-01

    Iatrogenic bile-duct injury post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a major serious complication with unpredictable long-term results. We present a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones, in which the biliary injury was recognized intraoperatively. The surgical procedure was converted to an open one. The first surgeon repaired the injury over a T-tube without recognizing the anatomy and type of the biliary lesion, which led to an unusual biliary mal-repair. Immediately postoperatively, the abdominal drain brought a large amount of bile. A T-tube cholangiogram was performed. Despite the contrast medium leaking through the abdominal drain, the mal-repair was unrecognized. The patient was referred to our hospital for biliary leak. Ultrasound and cholangiography was repeated, which showed an unanatomical repair (right to left hepatic duct anastomosis over the T-tube), with evidence of contrast medium coming out through the abdominal drain. Eventually the patient was subjected to a definitive surgical treatment. The biliary continuity was re-established by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy, over transanastomotic external biliary stents. The patient is now doing well 4 years after the second surgical procedure. In reviewing the literature, we found a similar type of injury but we did not find a similar surgical mal-repair. We propose an algorithm for the treatment of early and late biliary injuries. PMID:19437572

  1. Maltase protein of Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is a counterpart to the resurrected ancestor protein ancMALS of yeast maltases and isomaltases.

    PubMed

    Viigand, Katrin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Aasamets, Anneli; Alamäe, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltases use maltose, maltulose, turanose and maltotriose as substrates, isomaltases use isomaltose, α-methylglucoside and palatinose and both use sucrose. These enzymes are hypothesized to have evolved from a promiscuous α-glucosidase ancMALS through duplication and mutation of the genes. We studied substrate specificity of the maltase protein MAL1 from an earlier diverged yeast, Ogataea polymorpha (Op), in the light of this hypothesis. MAL1 has extended substrate specificity and its properties are strikingly similar to those of resurrected ancMALS. Moreover, amino acids considered to determine selective substrate binding are highly conserved between Op MAL1 and ancMALS. Op MAL1 represents an α-glucosidase in which both maltase and isomaltase activities are well optimized in a single enzyme. Substitution of Thr200 (corresponds to Val216 in S. cerevisiae isomaltase IMA1) with Val in MAL1 drastically reduced the hydrolysis of maltose-like substrates (α-1,4-glucosides), confirming the requirement of Thr at the respective position for this function. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) of the catalytically inactive mutant Asp199Ala of MAL1 in the presence of its substrates and selected monosaccharides suggested that the substrate-binding pocket of MAL1 has three subsites (-1, +1 and +2) and that binding is strongest at the -1 subsite. The DSF assay results were in good accordance with affinity (Km ) and inhibition (Ki ) data of the enzyme for tested substrates, indicating the power of the method to predict substrate binding. Deletion of either the maltase (MAL1) or α-glucoside permease (MAL2) gene in Op abolished the growth of yeast on MAL1 substrates, confirming the requirement of both proteins for usage of these sugars. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Maltase protein of Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is a counterpart to the resurrected ancestor protein ancMALS of yeast maltases and isomaltases

    PubMed Central

    Viigand, Katrin; Visnapuu, Triinu; Mardo, Karin; Aasamets, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltases use maltose, maltulose, turanose and maltotriose as substrates, isomaltases use isomaltose, α‐methylglucoside and palatinose and both use sucrose. These enzymes are hypothesized to have evolved from a promiscuous α‐glucosidase ancMALS through duplication and mutation of the genes. We studied substrate specificity of the maltase protein MAL1 from an earlier diverged yeast, Ogataea polymorpha (Op), in the light of this hypothesis. MAL1 has extended substrate specificity and its properties are strikingly similar to those of resurrected ancMALS. Moreover, amino acids considered to determine selective substrate binding are highly conserved between Op MAL1 and ancMALS. Op MAL1 represents an α‐glucosidase in which both maltase and isomaltase activities are well optimized in a single enzyme. Substitution of Thr200 (corresponds to Val216 in S. cerevisiae isomaltase IMA1) with Val in MAL1 drastically reduced the hydrolysis of maltose‐like substrates (α‐1,4‐glucosides), confirming the requirement of Thr at the respective position for this function. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) of the catalytically inactive mutant Asp199Ala of MAL1 in the presence of its substrates and selected monosaccharides suggested that the substrate‐binding pocket of MAL1 has three subsites (–1, +1 and +2) and that binding is strongest at the –1 subsite. The DSF assay results were in good accordance with affinity (K m) and inhibition (K i) data of the enzyme for tested substrates, indicating the power of the method to predict substrate binding. Deletion of either the maltase (MAL1) or α‐glucoside permease (MAL2) gene in Op abolished the growth of yeast on MAL1 substrates, confirming the requirement of both proteins for usage of these sugars. © 2016 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26919272

  3. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS))

    PubMed Central

    Michalik, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT – the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. Aim To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Material and methods Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Results In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. Conclusions The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis. PMID:28194242

  4. Distinct mechanism of activation of two transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, involved in amylolytic enzyme production in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kuta; Tanaka, Mizuki; Konno, Yui; Ichikawa, Takanori; Ichinose, Sakurako; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-02-01

    The production of amylolytic enzymes in Aspergillus oryzae is induced in the presence of starch or maltose, and two Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors, AmyR and MalR, are involved in this regulation. AmyR directly regulates the expression of amylase genes, and MalR controls the expression of maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster genes. Deletion of malR gene resulted in poor growth on starch medium and reduction in α-amylase production level. To elucidate the activation mechanisms of these two transcription factors in amylase production, the expression profiles of amylases and MAL cluster genes under carbon catabolite derepression condition and subcellular localization of these transcription factors fused with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined. Glucose, maltose, and isomaltose induced the expression of amylase genes, and GFP-AmyR was translocated from the cytoplasm to nucleus after the addition of these sugars. Rapid induction of amylase gene expression and nuclear localization of GFP-AmyR by isomaltose suggested that this sugar was the strongest inducer for AmyR activation. In contrast, GFP-MalR was constitutively localized in the nucleus and the expression of MAL cluster genes was induced by maltose, but not by glucose or isomaltose. In the presence of maltose, the expression of amylase genes was preceded by MAL cluster gene expression. Furthermore, deletion of the malR gene resulted in a significant decrease in the α-amylase activity induced by maltose, but had apparently no effect on the expression of α-amylase genes in the presence of isomaltose. These results suggested that activation of AmyR and MalR is regulated in a different manner, and the preceding activation of MalR is essential for the utilization of maltose as an inducer for AmyR activation.

  5. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sylvia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT con double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism. PMID:21912549

  6. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sylvia A; Wolfe, Alan J

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT(con) double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalT(con), the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  7. Characterization and functional analysis of the MAL and MPH Loci for maltose utilization in some ale and lager yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2005-12-01

    Maltose and maltotriose are the major sugars in brewer's wort. Brewer's yeasts contain multiple genes for maltose transporters. It is not known which of these express functional transporters. We correlated maltose transport kinetics with the genotypes of some ale and lager yeasts. Maltose transport by two ale strains was strongly inhibited by other alpha-glucosides, suggesting the use of broad substrate specificity transporters, such as Agt1p. Maltose transport by three lager strains was weakly inhibited by other alpha-glucosides, suggesting the use of narrow substrate specificity transporters. Hybridization studies showed that all five strains contained complete MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, and MAL4 loci, except for one ale strain, which lacked a MAL2 locus. All five strains also contained both AGT1 (coding a broad specificity alpha-glucoside transporter) and MAL11 alleles. MPH genes (maltose permease homologues) were present in the lager but not in the ale strains. During growth on maltose, the lager strains expressed AGT1 at low levels and MALx1 genes at high levels, whereas the ale strains expressed AGT1 at high levels and MALx1 genes at low levels. MPHx expression was negligible in all strains. The AGT1 sequences from the ale strains encoded full-length (616 amino acid) polypeptides, but those from both sequenced lager strains encoded truncated (394 amino acid) polypeptides that are unlikely to be functional transporters. Thus, despite the apparently similar genotypes of these ale and lager strains revealed by hybridization, maltose is predominantly carried by AGT1-encoded transporters in the ale strains and by MALx1-encoded transporters in the lager strains.

  8. Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.

    PubMed

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-11-01

    Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A.; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C.; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

  12. A Green Protocol for Synthesis of MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] Spinels Under Microwave Irradiation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvasravana, R.; George, P. P.

    Nanosized metal aluminates MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] are synthesized from their nitrates solution by using pomegranate peel extract as fuel in microwave combustion. MAl2O4 [M=Cu and Co] nanoparticles are grown in microwave assisted synthesis followed by annealing at 700∘C. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PXRD analysis has confirmed their spinel composition. The green protocol and microwave combustion route for spinel synthesis are rapid, simple, without any hazardous chemicals as reducing or stabilizing agents and economical.

  13. The use of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) in the treatment of a severe mal perforant ulcer in the foot of a person with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orcajo, Beatriz; Muruzabal, Francisco; Isasmendi, María Concepción; Gutierrez, Nerea; Sánchez, Mikel; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A 71 year old person with diabetes with a severe mal perforant ulcer in the right foot was treated twice with autologous plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) obtained from her own blood. After PRGF treatment the severe mal perforant ulcer completely healed in 10 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MAL2 and tumor protein D52 (TPD52) are frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but differentially associated with histological subtype and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jennifer A; Maleki, Sanaz; Hardy, Jayne R; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Scurry, James P; Fanayan, Susan; Emmanuel, Catherine; Hacker, Neville F; Sutherland, Robert L; Defazio, Anna; O'Brien, Philippa M

    2010-09-17

    The four-transmembrane MAL2 protein is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma, and MAL2 overexpression is associated with gain of the corresponding locus at chromosome 8q24.12. Independent expression microarray studies predict MAL2 overexpression in ovarian carcinoma, but these had remained unconfirmed. MAL2 binds tumor protein D52 (TPD52), which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, but the clinical significance of MAL2 and TPD52 overexpression was unknown. Immunohistochemical analyses of MAL2 and TPD52 expression were performed using tissue microarray sections including benign, borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours. Inmmunohistochemical staining intensity and distribution was assessed both visually and digitally. MAL2 and TPD52 were significantly overexpressed in high-grade serous carcinomas compared with serous borderline tumours. MAL2 expression was highest in serous carcinomas relative to other histological subtypes, whereas TPD52 expression was highest in clear cell carcinomas. MAL2 expression was not related to patient survival, however high-level TPD52 staining was significantly associated with improved overall survival in patients with stage III serous ovarian carcinoma (log-rank test, p < 0.001; n = 124) and was an independent predictor of survival in the overall carcinoma cohort (hazard ratio (HR), 0.498; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.728; p < 0.001; n = 221), and in serous carcinomas (HR, 0.440; 95% CI, 0.294-0.658; p < 0.001; n = 182). MAL2 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, and TPD52 overexpression is a favourable independent prognostic marker of potential value in the management of ovarian carcinoma patients.

  15. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae on Austrocedrus chilensis and its relation with mal del ciprés in Patagonia

    Treesearch

    A. G. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Field observations, isolations and pathogenicity tests were performed on Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees to determine the pathogenicity of Phytophthora austrocedrae and its role in the aetiology of the cypress disease mal del ciprés (MDC) in Argentina. It was found that P. austrocedrae...

  16. The Decline of Austrocedrus Forests in Patagonia (Mal del Ciprés): Another Phytophthora-Caused Forest Disease

    Treesearch

    Alina Greslebin; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Austrocedrus chilensis, an indigenous Cupressaceae of the Patagonian Andes forests, is suffering a disease that has been called "Mal del Ciprés" (MDC). This disease was first reported more than 50 years ago but, in spite of many studies, its causes remained unclear until recently. The disease begins in the root system, the distribution...

  17. The α-Glucan Phosphorylase MalP of Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Subject to Transcriptional Regulation and Competitive Inhibition by ADP-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Clermont, Lina; Macha, Arthur; Müller, Laura M.; Derya, Sami M.; von Zaluskowski, Philipp; Eck, Alexander; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Glucan phosphorylases contribute to degradation of glycogen and maltodextrins formed in the course of maltose metabolism in bacteria. Accordingly, bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases are classified as either glycogen or maltodextrin phosphorylase, GlgP or MalP, respectively. GlgP and MalP enzymes follow the same catalytic mechanism, and thus their substrate spectra overlap; however, they differ in their regulation: GlgP genes are constitutively expressed and the enzymes are controlled on the activity level, whereas expression of MalP genes are transcriptionally controlled in response to the carbon source used for cultivation. We characterize here the modes of control of the α-glucan phosphorylase MalP of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum. In accordance to the proposed function of the malP gene product as MalP, we found transcription of malP to be regulated in response to the carbon source. Moreover, malP transcription is shown to depend on the growth phase and to occur independently of the cell glycogen content. Surprisingly, we also found MalP activity to be tightly regulated competitively by the presence of ADP-glucose, an intermediate of glycogen synthesis. Since the latter is considered a typical feature of GlgPs, we propose that C. glutamicum MalP acts as both maltodextrin and glycogen phosphorylase and, based on these findings, we question the current system for classification of bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases. IMPORTANCE Bacterial α-glucan phosphorylases have been classified conferring to their purpose as either glycogen or maltodextrin phosphorylases. We found transcription of malP in C. glutamicum to be regulated in response to the carbon source, which is recognized as typical for maltodextrin phosphorylases. Surprisingly, we also found MalP activity to be tightly regulated competitively by the presence of ADP-glucose, an intermediate of glycogen synthesis. The latter is considered a typical feature of GlgPs. These findings

  18. Data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL) guide.

    PubMed

    Pedder, Hugo; Sarri, Grammati; Keeney, Edna; Nunes, Vanessa; Dias, Sofia

    2016-12-13

    As more complex meta-analytical techniques such as network and multivariate meta-analyses become increasingly common, further pressures are placed on reviewers to extract data in a systematic and consistent manner. Failing to do this appropriately wastes time, resources and jeopardises accuracy. This guide (data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL)) suggests a number of points to consider when collecting data, primarily aimed at systematic reviewers preparing data for meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis (NMA), multiple outcomes analysis and analysis combining different types of data are considered in a manner that can be useful across a range of data collection programmes. The guide has been shown to be both easy to learn and useful in a small pilot study.

  19. Une tachycardie à QRS large mal tolérée chez un nourrisson

    PubMed Central

    Affangla, Désiré Alain; Leye, Mohamed; Simo, Angèle Wabo; D’Almeida, Franck; Sarr, Thérèse Yandé; Phiri, Adamson; Kane, Adama

    2017-01-01

    Les tachycardies à QRS large mal tolérées du nourrisson posent le problème de leur diagnostic et de la prise en charge en urgence. Nous rapportons un cas de tachycardie à QRS large chez un nourrisson de 35 jours reçu pour détresse cardio-circulatoire. Le cœur était morphologiquement normal à l’échographie cardiaque Doppler. Un traitement par une dose charge d’Amiodarone n’a pas permis de réduire cette tachycardie. Un retour en rythme sinusal a été obtenu après cardioversion par un défibrillateur externe semi-automatique type Lifeline. Un traitement d’entretien par Amiodarone per os est institué et le patient est en rythme sinusal à 03 mois. PMID:28904685

  20. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Regina N.; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Hall, B. Fenton; Hay, Simon I.; Hemingway, Janet; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Whittaker, Maxine A.; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the “Global Technical Strategy” and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community’s ability to eradicate it globally. PMID:29190300

  1. SmartMal: A Service-Oriented Behavioral Malware Detection Framework for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhizhong; Li, Xi; Zhou, Xuehai; Wang, Aili; Hung, Patrick C. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents SmartMal—a novel service-oriented behavioral malware detection framework for vehicular and mobile devices. The highlight of SmartMal is to introduce service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and behavior analysis into the malware detection paradigms. The proposed framework relies on client-server architecture, the client continuously extracts various features and transfers them to the server, and the server's main task is to detect anomalies using state-of-art detection algorithms. Multiple distributed servers simultaneously analyze the feature vector using various detectors and information fusion is used to concatenate the results of detectors. We also propose a cycle-based statistical approach for mobile device anomaly detection. We accomplish this by analyzing the users' regular usage patterns. Empirical results suggest that the proposed framework and novel anomaly detection algorithm are highly effective in detecting malware on Android devices. PMID:25165729

  2. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Regina N; Drakeley, Chris; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Hall, B Fenton; Hay, Simon I; Hemingway, Janet; Kaslow, David C; Noor, Abdisalan; Okumu, Fredros; Steketee, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Wells, Timothy N C; Whittaker, Maxine A; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Wirth, Dyann F; Whitfield, Kate; Alonso, Pedro L

    2017-11-01

    Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the "Global Technical Strategy" and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community's ability to eradicate it globally.

  3. Epidemiology of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infections and associated outcomes in the MAL-ED birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Ila F. N.; Medeiros, Pedro H. Q. S.; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Babji, Sudhir; Hariraju, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Shrestha, Jasmin; Anania, Japhat; Maro, Athanasia; Samie, Amidou; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Qureshi, Shahida; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Bessong, Pascal O.; Kosek, Margaret N.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) have been associated with mildly inflammatory diarrhea in outbreaks and in travelers and have been increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens in young children with and without overt diarrhea. We examined the risk factors for EAEC infections and their associations with environmental enteropathy biomarkers and growth outcomes over the first two years of life in eight low-resource settings of the MAL-ED study. Methods EAEC infections were detected by PCR gene probes for aatA and aaiC virulence traits in 27,094 non-diarrheal surveillance stools and 7,692 diarrheal stools from 2,092 children in the MAL-ED birth cohort. We identified risk factors for EAEC and estimated the associations of EAEC with diarrhea, enteropathy biomarker concentrations, and both short-term (one to three months) and long-term (to two years of age) growth. Results Overall, 9,581 samples (27.5%) were positive for EAEC, and almost all children had at least one detection (94.8%) by two years of age. Exclusive breastfeeding, higher enrollment weight, and macrolide use within the preceding 15 days were protective. Although not associated with diarrhea, EAEC infections were weakly associated with biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and more strongly with reduced length at two years of age (LAZ difference associated with high frequency of EAEC detections: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.16). Conclusions Asymptomatic EAEC infections were common early in life and were associated with linear growth shortfalls. Associations with intestinal inflammation were small in magnitude, but suggest a pathway for the growth impact. Increasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding may help prevent these potentially inflammatory infections and reduce the long-term impact of early exposure to EAEC. PMID:28742106

  4. Folding pathway of the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate C-S lyase MalY from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    MalY from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional dimeric PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) enzyme acting as a β-cystathionase and as a repressor of the maltose system. The spectroscopic and molecular properties of the holoenzyme, in the untreated and NaBH4-treated forms, and of the apoenzyme have been elucidated. A systematic study of the urea-induced unfolding of MalY has been monitored by gel filtration, cross-linking, ANS (8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid) binding and by visible, near- and far-UV CD, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopies under equilibrium conditions. Unfolding proceeds in at least three stages. The first transition, occurring between 0 and 1 M urea, gives rise to a partially active dimeric species that binds PLP. The second equilibrium transition involving dimer dissociation, release of PLP and loss of lyase activity leads to the formation of a monomeric equilibrium intermediate. It is a partially unfolded molecule that retains most of the native-state secondary structure, binds significant amounts of ANS (a probe for exposed hydrophobic surfaces) and tends to self-associate. The self-associated aggregates predominate at urea concentrations of 2–4 M for holoMalY. The third step represents the complete unfolding of the enzyme. These results when compared with the urea-induced unfolding profiles of apoMalY and NaBH4-reduced holoenzyme suggest that the coenzyme group attached to the active-site lysine residue increases the stability of the dimeric enzyme. Both holo- and apo-MalY could be successfully refolded into the active enzyme with an 85% yield. Further refolding studies suggest that large misfolded soluble aggregates that cannot be refolded could be responsible for the incomplete re-activation. PMID:15823094

  5. Minichaperone (GroEL191-345) mediated folding of MalZ proceeds by binding and release of native and functional intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Knowles, Timothy J; Lund, Peter A; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2018-06-02

    The isolated apical domain of GroEL consisting of residues 191-345 (known as "minichaperone") binds and assists the folding of a wide variety of client proteins without GroES and ATP, but the mechanism of its action is still unknown. In order to probe into the matter, we have examined minichaperone-mediated folding of a large aggregation prone protein Maltodextrin-glucosidase (MalZ). The key objective was to identify whether MalZ exists free in solution, or remains bound to, or cycling on and off the minichaperone during the refolding process. When GroES was introduced during refolding process, production of the native MalZ was inhibited. We also observed the same findings with a trap mutant of GroEL, which stably captures a predominantly non-native MalZ released from minichaperone during refolding process, but does not release it. Tryptophan and ANS fluorescence measurements indicated that refolded MalZ has the same structure as the native MalZ, but that its structure when bound to minichaperone is different. Surface plasmon resonance measurements provide an estimate for the equilibrium dissociation constant KD for the MalZ-minichaperone complex of 0.21 ± 0.04 μM, which are significantly higher than for most GroEL clients. This showed that minichaperone interacts loosely with MalZ to allow the protein to change its conformation and fold while bound during the refolding process. These observations suggest that the minichaperone works by carrying out repeated cycles of binding aggregation-prone protein MalZ in a relatively compact conformation and in a partially folded but active state, and releasing them to attempt to fold in solution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional expression and molecular characterization of Culex quinquefasciatus salivary α-glucosidase (MalI).

    PubMed

    Suthangkornkul, Rungarun; Sirichaiyakul, Phanthila; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Svasti, Jisnuson; Arthan, Dumrongkiet

    2015-06-01

    Salivary α-glucosidases (MalI) have been much less characterized when compared with midgut α-glucosidases, which have been studied in depth. Few studies have been reported on the partial characterization of MalI, but no clear function has been ascribed. The aim of this study is to purify and characterize the recombinant Culex quinquefasciatus (CQ) α-glucosidase expressed in Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding mature Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase gene with polyhistidine tag (rCQMalIHis) was successfully cloned into the expression vector, pPICZαB, designated as pPICZαB/CQMalIHis. The activity of recombinant rCQMalIHis expressed in P. pastoris could be detected at 3.75U/ml, under optimal culture conditions. The purified rCQMalIHis showed a single band of molecular weight of approximately 92kDa on SDS-PAGE. After Endoglycosidase H digestion, a single band at 69kDa was found on SDS-PAGE analysis, suggesting that rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. Additionally, tryptic digestion and LC-MALDI MS/MS analysis suggested that the 69kDa band corresponds to the Cx. quinquefasciatus α-glucosidase. Thus, rCQMalIHis is a glycoprotein. The rCQMalIHis exhibited optimum pH and temperature at 5.5 and 35°C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the purified rCQMalIHis for maltotriose is higher than those for sucrose, maltotetraose, maltose and p-nitrophenyl-α-glucoside, indicating that the enzyme prefers maltotriose. Additionally, the rCQMalIHis is significantly inhibited by d-gluconic acid δ-lactone, but not by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and EDTA. The rCQMalIHis is strongly inhibited by acarbose with IC50 67.8±5.6nM, but weakly inhibited by glucose with IC50 115.9±7.3mM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges and Developments in the Assessment of (Mal)adaptive Personality and Pathological States in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gina; Videler, Arjan; van Alphen, S P J

    2018-04-01

    Since older adults often show an atypical presentation of (mal)adaptive personality traits and pathological states, the articles in this special issue will concisely discuss some perennial issues in clinical assessment in older adults and thus outline the main challenges this domain faces. By bringing empirical work and meta-analytic studies from leading scholars in the field of geropsychology, the articles will also address these challenges by reporting the latest developments in the field. This way, we hope to reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess (mal)adaptive personality and pathological states in older adults into a more reliable and valid assessment method that integrates the specific biopsychosocial context of older age.

  8. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation: Impact of laser channel density, incubation time and drug concentration.

    PubMed

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, A M; Taudorf, E H; Thaysen-Petersen, D; Wulf, H C; Haedersdal, M

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15% (AFL 1-15%). Control areas received pretreatment with curettage or no pretreatment. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) was applied under occlusion in concentrations of 0, 80 and 160mg/g. MAL-induced protoporphyrin fluorescence was quantified with a handheld photometer after 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180min incubation. The individual fluorescence intensity reached from the highest density (15%) and longest MAL 160mg/g incubation time (180min) was selected as reference (100%) for other interventional measurements. A low laser density of 1% markedly enhanced fluorescence intensities from 34% to 75% (no pretreatment vs. AFL 1%, MAL 160mg/g, 180min; p<0.001). Furthermore, fluorescence intensities increased substantially by enhancing densities up to 5% (p≤0.0195). Accumulation of protoporphyrins was accelerated by laser exposure. Thus, laser exposure of 5% density and a median incubation time of 80min MAL (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented by enhancing AFL densities up to 5%. Further, this model indicates that incubation time as well as drug concentration of MAL may be reduced with laser pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Analytical Characterization of the Hydrolysis of Barley Malt Macromolecules During Enzymatic Degradation Over Time Using AF4/MALS/RI.

    PubMed

    Rübsam, Heinrich; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2017-06-01

    The changes on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and particle size distribution (PSD) during hydrolysis of barley malt in isothermal mashing procedures were determined using asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index (AF4/MALS/RI). Mash/trials were focused on amylolytic starch degradation. Therefore, temperatures (65, 70, and 75 °C) were selected according to α- and β-amylases range of activity. Samples were produced by triplicate, tracking amylolytic processes over time periods from 10 to 90 min in each mash/trial. AF4/MALS/RI analysis demonstrated significant differences on the values of the MWD and PSD according to the temperature/time profile used. At mashing times over 30 min at a temperature of 65 °C, when α- and β-amylase are both active, the decrease over time of the MWD and PSD was significantly higher (P < 0.005) than at 70 °C when mainly α-amylase is active. At 75 °C, also the activity of α-amylase decreased and the MWD and PSD were significantly lower (P < 0.005) than at 70 or 65 °C at any time of the procedure. The MWD and PSD of beer components influence beer palate fullness, thus AF4/ MALS/RI would be a powerful tool for breweries to adapt their technological processes to obtain beers with particular sensorial attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Modern analytics for synthetically derived complex drug substances: NMR, AFFF-MALS, and MS tests for glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Sarah; Pang, Eric; Sommers, Cynthia; Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Keire, David A; Boyne, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a mixture of synthetic copolymers consisting of four amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine) with a labeled molecular weight range of 5000 to 9000 Da. GA is marketed as Copaxone™ by Teva for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the agency has evaluated the structure and composition of GA and a commercially available comparator, Copolymer-1. Modern analytical technologies which can characterize these complex mixtures are desirable for analysis of their comparability and structural "sameness." In the studies herein, a molecular fingerprinting approach is taken using mass-accurate mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D-(1)H-NMR, 1D-(13)C-NMR, and 2D NMR), and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for an in-depth characterization of three lots of the marketplace drug and a formulated sample of the comparator. Statistical analyses were applied to the MS and AFFF-MALS data to assess these methods' ability to detect analytical differences in the mixtures. The combination of multiple orthogonal measurements by liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS), AFFF-MALS, and NMR on the same sample set was found to be fit for the intended purpose of distinguishing analytical differences between these complex mixtures of peptide chains.

  12. Crystal structure of Toll-like receptor adaptor MAL/TIRAP reveals the molecular basis for signal transduction and disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Valkov, Eugene; Stamp, Anna; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David; Verstak, Brett; Roversi, Pietro; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J.; Mansell, Ashley; Gay, Nicholas J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2011-01-01

    Initiation of the innate immune response requires agonist recognition by pathogen-recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptors are critical in orchestrating the signal transduction pathways after TLR and interleukin-1 receptor activation. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) adaptor-like (MAL)/TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) is involved in bridging MyD88 to TLR2 and TLR4 in response to bacterial infection. Genetic studies have associated a number of unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MAL with protection against invasive microbial infection, but a molecular understanding has been hampered by a lack of structural information. The present study describes the crystal structure of MAL TIR domain. Significant structural differences exist in the overall fold of MAL compared with other TIR domain structures: A sequence motif comprising a β-strand in other TIR domains instead corresponds to a long loop, placing the functionally important “BB loop” proline motif in a unique surface position in MAL. The structure suggests possible dimerization and MyD88-interacting interfaces, and we confirm the key interface residues by coimmunoprecipitation using site-directed mutants. Jointly, our results provide a molecular and structural basis for the role of MAL in TLR signaling and disease protection. PMID:21873236

  13. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with pure grand mal: clinical data and genetics.

    PubMed

    Unterberger, I; Trinka, E; Luef, G; Bauer, G

    2001-04-01

    To analyze the clinical features and family history of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), with pure grand mal (GM), divided into epilepsies with GM occurring exclusively on awakening (GMA) and random GM (RGM). We studied retrospectively 98 patients from a large epilepsy outpatient clinic. All patients had a full clinical examination and computed cerebral tomography scans (CCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when feasible. We analyzed seizure type, seizure frequency, provocative factors, prognosis, electroencephalography (EEG) findings and family history. Sixty-eight patients had GMA and 30 had RGM. The mean age at seizure onset was 16.6 years (+/-6.3 S.D., range: 5-41) and 16.7 years in those with RGM (+/-7.5 S.D., range: 4-42, NSD). Patients with GMA had a longer course of active epilepsy (median 8.5 years) compared to RGM (median 2 years). Seizure-provoking factors, especially sleep deprivation, were significantly (P=0.001) more common in patients with GMA (52/68, 77%) than in the group with RGM (13/30, 43%). Of all patients, 23% (23/98) reported first degree relatives with seizures or epilepsy. Pure GM was found in 41% (12/29) of affected first degree relatives, other idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes were less frequently observed (4/29, 14%). The concordance rate was high within the syndrome - none of the patients with RGM had an affected relative with GMA and vice versa only two of affected relatives of GMA patients had RGM. GMA seems to be associated with a longer duration of active epilepsy, a higher relapse rate and a stronger tendency to be precipitated by seizure provoking factors. The different concordance rates between the syndromes suggest a genetically different background.

  15. A mutant of the major apple allergen, Mal d 1, demonstrating hypo-allergenicity in the target organ by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge.

    PubMed

    Bolhaar, S T H P; Zuidmeer, L; Ma, Y; Ferreira, F; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; van Ree, R; Knulst, A C

    2005-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergy has been hindered by severe side-effects in the past. Well-characterized hypo-allergenic recombinant food allergens potentially offer a safe solution. To demonstrate hypo-allergenicity of a mutated major food allergen from apple, Mal d 1, in vitro and in vivo. A mutant of the major apple allergen, Mal d 1, was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis exchanging five amino acid residues. Fourteen patients with combined birch pollen-related apple allergy were included in the study. Hypo-allergenicity of the mutant rMal d 1 (rMal d 1mut) compared with rMal d 1 was assessed by in vitro methods, i.e. RAST (inhibition), immunoblotting and basophil histamine release (BHR) and in vivo by skin prick test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). RAST analysis (n = 14) revealed that IgE reactivity to rMal d 1mut was twofold lower than that of the wild-type molecule (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.4). RAST inhibition (n = 6) showed a 7.8-fold decrease in IgE-binding potency (95% CI: 3.0-12.6). In contrast to this moderate decrease in IgE-binding potency, the biological activity of rMal d 1mut assessed by SPT and BHR decreased 10-200-fold. Hypo-allergenicity was confirmed by DBPCFC (n = 2) with both recombinant molecules. A moderate decrease in IgE-binding potency translates into a potent inhibition of biological activity. This is the first study that confirms by DBPCFC that a mutated recombinant major food allergen is clinically hypo-allergenic. This paves the way towards safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.

  16. Isolation of Mal d 1 and Api g 1 - specific recombinant antibodies from mouse IgG Fab fragment libraries - Mal d 1-specific antibody exhibits cross-reactivity against Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Haka, Jaana; Niemi, Merja H; Iljin, Kristiina; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena

    2015-05-27

    Around 3-5% of the population suffer from IgE-mediated food allergies in Western countries and the number of food-allergenic people is increasing. Individuals with certain pollen allergies may also suffer from a sensitisation to proteins in the food products. As an example a person sensitised to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is often sensitised to its homologues, such as the major allergens of apple, Mal d 1, and celery, Api g 1, as well. Development of tools for the reliable, sensitive and quick detection of allergens present in various food products is essential for allergic persons to prevent the consumption of substances causing mild and even life-threatening immune responses. The use of monoclonal antibodies would ensure the specific detection of the harmful food content for a sensitised person. Mouse IgG antibody libraries were constructed from immunised mice and specific recombinant antibodies for Mal d 1 and Api g 1 were isolated from the libraries by phage display. More detailed characterisation of the resulting antibodies was carried out using ELISA, SPR experiments and immunoprecipitation assays. The allergen-specific Fab fragments exhibited high affinity towards the target recombinant allergens. Furthermore, the Fab fragments also recognised native allergens from natural sources. Interestingly, isolated Mal d 1-specific antibody bound also to Bet v 1, the main allergen eliciting the cross-reactivity syndrome between the birch pollen and apple. Despite the similarities in Api g 1 and Bet v 1 tertiary structures, the isolated Api g 1-specific antibodies showed no cross-reactivity to Bet v 1. Here, high-affinity allergen-specific recombinant antibodies were isolated with interesting binding properties. With further development, these antibodies can be utilised as tools for the specific and reliable detection of allergens from different consumable products. This study gives new preliminary insights to elucidate the mechanism behind the pollen

  17. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An unconventional interaction between Dis1/TOG and Mal3/EB1 in fission yeast promotes the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuzy; Maurer, Sebastian P; Yukawa, Masashi; Zakian, Silva; Singleton, Martin R; Surrey, Thomas; Toda, Takashi

    2016-12-15

    Dynamic microtubule plus-ends interact with various intracellular target regions such as the cell cortex and the kinetochore. Two conserved families of microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins, the XMAP215, ch-TOG or CKAP5 family and the end-binding 1 (EB1, also known as MAPRE1) family, play pivotal roles in regulating microtubule dynamics. Here, we study the functional interplay between fission yeast Dis1, a member of the XMAP215/TOG family, and Mal3, an EB1 protein. Using an in vitro microscopy assay, we find that purified Dis1 autonomously tracks growing microtubule ends and is a bona fide microtubule polymerase. Mal3 recruits additional Dis1 to microtubule ends, explaining the synergistic enhancement of microtubule dynamicity by these proteins. A non-canonical binding motif in Dis1 mediates the interaction with Mal3. X-ray crystallography shows that this new motif interacts in an unconventional configuration with the conserved hydrophobic cavity formed within the Mal3 C-terminal region that typically interacts with the canonical SXIP motif. Selectively perturbing the Mal3-Dis1 interaction in living cells demonstrates that it is important for accurate chromosome segregation. Whereas, in some metazoans, the interaction between EB1 and the XMAP215/TOG family members requires an additional binding partner, fission yeast relies on a direct interaction, indicating evolutionary plasticity of this critical interaction module. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  20. Effects of persistent Mal de debarquement syndrome on balance, psychological traits, and motor cortex exctiability.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brian C; LePorte, Andrew; Clark, Shawn; Hoffman, Richard L; Quick, Adam; Wilson, Thad E; Thomas, James S

    2013-03-01

    Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a poorly characterized and understood disorder of perceived motion. We sought to characterize postural control and the psychological impact of MdDS. Additionally, we explored whether patients with MdDS exhibit altered corticospinal and intracortical excitability. In a case-control study we compared patients with MdDS to age- and sex-matched controls (n=8/group). Postural stability (σr) was quantified from plane phase plots based on center or pressure, and psychological indices of depression, fatigue and kinesiophobia were obtained. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticospinal excitability by quantifying the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of the flexor carpi radialis, and intracortical excitability was assessed by quantifying indices of intracortical facilitation (ICF), and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition using a paired-pulse TMS paradigm. The patients with MdDS exhibited greater mean (±standard error of the mean) σr during semi-tandem stance (10.9 ± 1.5 compared to 7.1 ± 0.7, p=0.04), higher levels of kinesiophobia (41.6 ± 2.8 compared to 27.3 ± 2.2), and higher levels of fatigue (27.0 ± 4.1 compared to 48.4 ± 1.0). Patients with MdDS exhibited a higher mean motor threshold (MT) (58.1 ± 2.5 compared to 47.4 ± 2.7% of stimulator output), and larger MEP (13.1 ± 3.1 compared to 5.1 ± 1.2% of maximal compound muscle action potential) but there was no difference in measures of intracortical excitability. These findings suggest that patients with MdDS exhibit impaired postural stability, and high levels of kinesiophobia and fatigue. Additionally, we observed that patients with MdDS exhibit higher MT and large MEP amplitudes, but do not exhibit differences in measures of intracortical excitability, compared to controls. These findings help characterize MdDS, and provide insight into the physiology of MdDS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. malERA: An updated research agenda for basic science and enabling technologies in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research. The recommendations come from a literature of published and unpublished materials and the deliberations of the malERA Refresh Consultative Panel. These areas span multiple aspects of the Plasmodium life cycle in both the human host and the Anopheles vector and include critical, unanswered questions about parasite transmission, human infection in the liver, asexual-stage biology, and malaria persistence. We believe an integrated approach encompassing human immunology, parasitology, and entomology, and harnessing new and emerging biomedical technologies offers the best path toward addressing these questions and, ultimately, lowering the worldwide burden of malaria. PMID:29190277

  2. Structural complementarity of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains in Toll-like receptors and the adaptors Mal and MyD88.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Aisling; Ejdeback, Mikael; Ludidi, Phumzile L; O'Neill, Luke A J; Gay, Nicholas J

    2003-10-17

    The Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain is a region found in the cytoplasmic tails of members of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor superfamily. The domain is essential for signaling and is also found in the adaptor proteins Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like) and MyD88, which function to couple activation of the receptor to downstream signaling components. Experimental structures of two Toll/interleukin 1 receptor domains reveal a alpha-beta-fold similar to that of the bacterial chemotaxis protein CheY, and other evidence suggests that the adaptors can make heterotypic interactions with both the receptors and themselves. Here we show that the purified TIR domains of Mal and MyD88 can form stable heterodimers and also that Mal homodimers and oligomers are dissociated in the presence of ATP. To identify structural features that may contribute to the formation of signaling complexes, we produced models of the TIR domains from human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Mal, and MyD88. We found that although the overall fold is conserved the electrostatic surface potentials are quite distinct. Docking studies of the models suggest that Mal and MyD88 bind to different regions in TLRs 2 and 4, a finding consistent with a cooperative role of the two adaptors in signaling. Mal and MyD88 are predicted to interact at a third non-overlapping site, suggesting that the receptor and adaptors may form heterotetrameric complexes. The theoretical model of the interactions is supported by experimental data from glutathione S-transferase pull-downs and co-immunoprecipitations. Neither theoretical nor experimental data suggest a direct role for the conserved proline in the BB-loop in the association of TLR4, Mal, and MyD88. Finally we show a sequence relationship between the Drosophila protein Tube and Mal that may indicate a functional equivalence of these two adaptors in the Drosophila and vertebrate Toll pathways.

  3. ExbBD-Dependent Transport of Maltodextrins through the Novel MalA Protein across the Outer Membrane of Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Heidi; Herrmann, Christina; Kammer, Winfried; Schwarz, Gerold; Nordheim, Alfred; Braun, Volkmar

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus predicts 67 TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins. To demonstrate that among them are proteins that transport nutrients other than chelated Fe3+ and vitamin B12—the substrates hitherto known to be transported by TonB-dependent transporters—the outer membrane protein profile of cells grown on different substrates was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Maltose induced the synthesis of a hitherto unknown 99.5-kDa protein, designated here as MalA, encoded by the cc2287 genomic locus. MalA mediated growth on maltodextrins and transported [14C]maltodextrins from [14C]maltose to [14C]maltopentaose. [14C]maltose transport showed biphasic kinetics, with a fast initial rate and a slower second rate. The initial transport had a Kd of 0.2 μM, while the second transport had a Kd of 5 μM. It is proposed that the fast rate reflects binding to MalA and the second rate reflects transport into the cells. Energy depletion of cells by 100 μM carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished maltose binding and transport. Deletion of the malA gene diminished maltose transport to 1% of the wild-type malA strain and impaired transport of the larger maltodextrins. The malA mutant was unable to grow on maltodextrins larger than maltotetraose. Deletion of two C. crescentus genes homologous to the exbB exbD genes of Escherichia coli abolished [14C]maltodextrin binding and transport and growth on maltodextrins larger than maltotetraose. These mutants also showed impaired growth on Fe3+-rhodotorulate as the sole iron source, which provided evidence of energy-coupled transport. Unexpectedly, a deletion mutant of a tonB homolog transported maltose at the wild-type rate and grew on all maltodextrins tested. Since Fe3+-rhodotorulate served as an iron source for the tonB mutant, an additional gene encoding a protein with a TonB function is postulated. Permeation of maltose and maltotriose through the outer membrane of

  4. Step-by-step thermal transformations of a new porous coordination polymer [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} (Me{sub 2}mal{sup 2-}=dimethylmalonate): Thermal degradation to barium cuprate

    SciTech Connect

    Zauzolkova, Natalya, E-mail: zauzolkova@igic.ras.ru; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Lermontov, Anatoly

    The reactions of CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O, dimethylmalonic acid and Ba(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (Cu: H{sub 2}Me{sub 2}mal: Ba=1: 2: 2) in aqueous and aqueous-ethanol solutions (H{sub 2}O: EtOH=1: 1) resulted in formation of 3D-porous coordination polymers [(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}({mu}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}CuBa({mu}{sub 3}-Me{sub 2}mal)(Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (1) and [({mu}-H{sub 2}O)CuBa({mu}{sub 3}-Me{sub 2}mal)({mu}{sub 4}-Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (2), respectively. It has been shown that compound 2 was an intermediate in the thermal degradation of compound 1. Thorough studies of solid-state thermolysis of 1 and 2 allowed to detect formation of coordination polymer [CuBa({mu}{sub 4}-Me{sub 2}mal)({mu}{sub 5}-Me{sub 2}mal)]{sub n} (3), structure of which was determinedmore » by X-ray powder diffraction. It has been found that the channels in polymer 3 were accessible for guest molecules (MeOH). Theoretical estimation of methanol diffusion barrier was carried out. Complete solid-phase thermolysis of 1 and 2 leads to a mixture of BaCuO{sub 2}, BaCO{sub 3}, and CuO. Special conditions for obtaining of a crystalline phase of pure cubic BaCuO{sub 2} were determined. - Graphical abstract: Step-by-step transformation of new coordination polymer [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} to [(H{sub 2}O)CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} and [CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} were performed. Dehydration of initial compound leads to structural changes of 12-membered ring fragment. All compounds have porous structure. The final product of thermal decomposition is crystalline phase of individual cubic BaCuO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New 3D-polymers [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} and [(H{sub 2}O)CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n} were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis showed step-by-step transformations of [(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}CuBa(Me{sub 2}mal){sub 2}]{sub n}. Black

  5. Lower expression of CADM1 and higher expression of MAL in Merkel cell carcinomas are associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and better prognosis.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Matsushita, Michiko; Nonaka, Daisuke; Nagata, Keiko; Kato, Masako; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Murakami, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer; 80% of the cases are associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). We previously reported that MCPyV-negative MCCs have more irregular nuclei with abundant cytoplasm and significantly unfavorable outcomes than do MCPyV-positive MCCs. These results suggest that some cell adhesion or structural stabilization molecules are differently expressed depending on MCPyV infection status. Thus, we investigated the association of prognosis or MCPyV infection status in MCCs with cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1)/differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung protein 1 (DAL-1)/membrane protein, palmitoylated 3 (MPP3) tripartite complex and mal T-cell differentiation protein (MAL) expression, which play important roles in cell adhesion and oncogenesis and are related to cancer outcomes in various malignancies, to elucidate the role of these molecules. We analyzed the pathological and molecular characteristics of 26 MCPyV-positive and 15 MCPyV-negative MCCs. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 8.249; P = .007) and high CADM1 expression (HR, 5.214; P = .012) were significantly unfavorable overall survival parameters, whereas MCPyV infection (HR, 0.043, P < .001) and lower MAL expression (HR, 0.273; P = .018) were significantly favorable. On multivariate analysis, only MCPyV infection was significantly favorable for overall survival (HR, 0.04; P = .005). Hypermethylation of CADM1, DAL-1, and MAL promoters was detected in 1 of 18, 15 of 27, and 1 of 13 cases, respectively. Double immunostaining for cytokeratin 20 and CADM1, DAL-1, or MAL showed that nonneoplastic Merkel cells expressed DAL-1 and MAL but not CADM1. This study revealed that MCPyV-negative MCCs significantly expressed higher CADM1 and lower MAL than MCPyV-positive MCCs; these expression levels were markedly related to unfavorable outcomes. These data will give us important

  6. Molecular characterization of multivalent bioconjugates by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALS)

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Jacob F.; Ashton, Randolph S.; Rode, Nikhil A.; Schaffer, David V.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree of substitution and valency of bioconjugate reaction products are often poorly judged or require multiple time- and product- consuming chemical characterization methods. These aspects become critical when analyzing and optimizing the potency of costly polyvalent bioactive conjugates. In this study, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering was paired with refractive index detection and ultraviolet spectroscopy (SEC-MALS-RI-UV) to characterize the reaction efficiency, degree of substitution, and valency of the products of conjugation of either peptides or proteins to a biopolymer scaffold, i.e., hyaluronic acid (HyA). Molecular characterization was more complete compared to estimates from a protein quantification assay, and exploitation of this method led to more accurate deduction of the molecular structures of polymer bioconjugates. Information obtained using this technique can improve macromolecular engineering design principles and better understand multivalent macromolecular interactions in biological systems. PMID:22794081

  7. A Comparison of Diarrheal Severity Scores in the MAL-ED Multisite Community-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; Richard, Stephanie A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih R.; Lima, Aldo A.; Bessong, Pascal; Jennifer, Mats Steffi; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nyathi, Emanuel; Lima, Ila F.; Pascal, John; Soofi, Sajid; Ladaporn, Bodhidatta; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Black, Robert E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is a lack of consensus on how to measure diarrheal severity. Within the context of a multisite, prospective cohort study, we evaluated the performance of a modified Vesikari score (MAL-ED), 2 previously published scores (Clark and CODA [a diarrheal severity score (Community DiarrheA) published by Lee et al]), and a modified definition of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) based on dysentery and health care worker diagnosed dehydration. Methods: Scores were built using maternally reported symptoms or fieldworker-reported clinical signs obtained during the first 7 days of a diarrheal episode. The association between these and the risk of hospitalization were tested using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Severity scores were also related to illness etiology, and the likelihood of the episode subsequently becoming prolonged or persistent. Results: Of 10,159 episodes from 1681 children, 143 (4.0%) resulted in hospitalization. The area under the curve of each score as a predictor of hospitalization was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 0.87) (Clark), 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) (MAL-ED), and 0.87 (0.84, 0.89) (CODA). Severity was also associated with etiology and episode duration. Although families were more likely to seek care for severe diarrhea, approximately half of severe cases never reached the health system. Conclusions: Community-based diarrheal severity scores are predictive of relevant child health outcomes. Because they require no assumptions about health care access or utilization, they are useful in refining estimates of the burden of diarrheal disease, in estimating the effect of disease control interventions, and in triaging children for referral in low- and middle-income countries in which the rates of morbidity and mortality after diarrhea remain high. PMID:27347723

  8. Non-Essential Role for TLR2 and Its Signaling Adaptor Mal/TIRAP in Preserving Normal Lung Architecture in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruwanpura, Saleela M.; McLeod, Louise; Lilja, Andrew R.; Brooks, Gavin; Dousha, Lovisa F.; Seow, Huei J.; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Hertzog, Paul J.; Anderson, Gary P.; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and MyD88-adaptor like (Mal)/Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) play a critical role in transducing signals downstream of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. While genetic ablation of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling axis in mice leads to pulmonary cell death and oxidative stress culminating in emphysema, the involvement of Mal, as well as TLR2 which like TLR4 also signals via MyD88 and Mal, in the pathogenesis of emphysema has not been studied. By employing an in vivo genetic approach, we reveal here that unlike the spontaneous pulmonary emphysema which developed in Tlr4−/− mice by 6 months of age, the lungs of Tlr2−/− mice showed no physiological or morphological signs of emphysema. A more detailed comparative analysis of the lungs from these mice confirmed that elevated oxidative protein carbonylation levels and increased numbers of alveolar cell apoptosis were only detected in Tlr4−/− mice, along with up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 3 (Nox3) mRNA expression. With respect to Mal, the architecture of the lungs of Mal−/− mice was normal. However, despite normal oxidative protein carbonylation levels in the lungs of emphysema-free Mal−/− mice, these mice displayed increased levels of apoptosis comparable to those observed in emphysematous Tlr4−/− mice. In conclusion, our data provide in vivo evidence for the non-essential role for TLR2, unlike the related TLR4, in maintaining the normal architecture of the lung. In addition, we reveal that Mal differentially facilitates the anti-apoptotic, but not oxidant suppressive, activities of TLR4 in the lung, both of which appear to be essential for TLR4 to prevent the onset of emphysema. PMID:24205107

  9. Malonate-containing manganese(III) complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando S; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2006-02-06

    The novel manganese(III) complexes PPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (1) and AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (2) (PPh4+ = tetraphenylphosphonium cation, AsPh4+ = tetraphenylarsonium cation, and H2mal = malonic acid) have been prepared, and the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 is a mononuclear complex whose structure is made up of trans-diaquabis(malonato)manganate(III) units and tetraphenylarsonium cations. Two crystallographically independent manganese(III) ions (Mn(1) and Mn(2)) occur in 2 that exhibit elongated octahedral surroundings with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate malonate groups in equatorial positions (Mn(1)-O = 1.923(6) and 1.9328(6) A and Mn(2)-O = 1.894(6) and 1.925(6) A) and two trans-coordinated water molecules in the axial sites (Mn(1)-Ow = 2.245(6) A and Mn(2)-Ow = 2.268(6) A). The [Mn(mal)2(H2O)2]- units are linked through hydrogen bonds involving the free malonate-oxygen atoms and the coordinated water molecules to yield a quasi-square-type anionic layer growing in the ab plane. The shortest intralayer metal-metal separations are 7.1557(7) and 7.1526(7) A (through the edges of the square). The anionic sheets are separated from each other by layers of AsPh4+ where sextuple- and double-phenyl embraces occur. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-290 K reveals the occurrence of weak intralayer ferromagnetic interactions (J = +0.081(1) (1) and +0.072(2) cm(-1) (2)). These values are compared to those of the weak antiferromagnetic coupling [J = -0.19(1) cm(-1)], which is observed in the chain compound K2[Mn(mal)2(MeOH)2][Mn(mal)2] (3), where the exchange pathway involves the carboxyate-malonate bridge in the anti-syn conformation. The structure of 3 was reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations on fragment models of 2 and 3 were performed to analyze and substantiate both the nature and magnitude of the magnetic couplings observed.

  10. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A E J; Pagliarani, G; Brouwer, R M; Kollen, B J; Dragsted, L O; Eriksen, F D; Callesen, O; Gilissen, L J W J; Krens, F A; Visser, R G F; Smulders, M J M; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Flokstra-de Blok, B J; van de Weg, W E

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1-16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2-9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges with these downregulated apple lines produced significantly less intense maximal symptoms to the first dose (Vmax1) than with Elstar (Vmax1 Elstar 3.0 mm vs 0.0 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043), as well as significantly less intense mean symptoms per dose (meanV/d) than with Elstar (meanV/d Elstar 2.2 mm vs 0.2 mm for e-DR1, P = 0.017 and 0.0 mm for e-DR2, P = 0.043). Only one subject (5%) remained symptom-free when challenged with the Elstar apple, whereas 43% did so with e-DR1 and 63% with e-DR2. These data show that mRNA silencing of Mal d 1 results in a marked reduction of Mal d 1 gene expression in the fruit and reduction of symptoms when these apples are ingested by allergic subjects. Approximately half of the subjects developed no symptoms whatsoever, and virtually all subjects wished to consume the apple again in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. MAL62 overexpression and NTH1 deletion enhance the freezing tolerance and fermentation capacity of the baker's yeast in lean dough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Wu, Ming-Yue; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Shan-Na; Zhu, Wen-Bi; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-04-04

    Trehalose is related to several types of stress responses, especially freezing response in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). It is desirable to manipulate trehalose-related genes to create yeast strains that better tolerate freezing-thaw stress with improved fermentation capacity, which are in high demand in the baking industry. The strain overexpressing MAL62 gene showed increased trehalose content and cell viability after prefermention-freezing and long-term frozen. Deletion of NTH1 in combination of MAL62 overexpression further strengthens freezing tolerance and improves the leavening ability after freezing-thaw stress. The mutants of the industrial baker's yeast with enhanced freezing tolerance and leavening ability in lean dough were developed by genetic engineering. These strains had excellent potential industrial applications.

  12. Evaluation of the ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and the OptiMal Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria in Febrile Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Playford, E. Geoffrey; Walker, John

    2002-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are less reliant on expert microscopy and have the potential to reduce errors in malaria diagnosis but have not been extensively evaluated in nonimmune persons or in countries where infection is not endemic. We evaluated the ICT P.f/P.v (ICT-Amrad, Sydney, Australia) and OptiMal (Flow Inc., Portland, Oreg.) assays prospectively for the diagnosis of malaria in 158 specimens from 144 febrile returned travellers in Australia by using expert microscopy and PCR as reference standards. Malaria was diagnosed in 93 specimens from 87 patients by expert microscopy, with 3 additional specimens from recently treated patients testing positive for Plasmodium falciparum by PCR. For the diagnosis of asexual-stage P. falciparum malaria, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT P.f/P.v assay were 97 and 90%, respectively, and those of the OptiMal assay were 85 and 96%, respectively. The ICT P.f/P.v assay missed one infection with a density of 45 parasites/μl, whereas the OptiMal assay missed infections up to 2,500/μl; below 1,000/μl, its sensitivity was only 43%. For the diagnosis of P. vivax malaria, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT P.f/P.v assay were 44 and 100%, respectively, and those of the OptiMal assay were 80 and 97%, respectively. Both assays missed infections with parasite densities over 5,000/μl: up to 10,000/μl with the former and 5,300/μl with the latter. Despite the high sensitivity of the ICT P.f/P.v assay for P. falciparum malaria, caution is warranted before RDTs are widely adopted for the diagnosis of malaria in nonimmune patients or in countries where malaria is not endemic. PMID:12409392

  13. The OTT-MAL fusion oncogene activates RBPJ-mediated transcription and induces acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in a knockin mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Mercher, Thomas; Raffel, Glen D.; Moore, Sandra A.; Cornejo, Melanie G.; Baudry-Bluteau, Dominique; Cagnard, Nicolas; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Pikman, Yana; Cullen, Dana; Williams, Ifor R.; Akashi, Koichi; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Giovannini, Marco; Vainchenker, William; Levine, Ross L.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Bernard, Olivier A.; Gilliland, D. Gary

    2009-01-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) associated with a poor prognosis. The genetics and pathophysiology of AMKL are not well understood. We generated a knockin mouse model of the one twenty-two–megakaryocytic acute leukemia (OTT-MAL) fusion oncogene that results from the t(1;22)(p13;q13) translocation specifically associated with a subtype of pediatric AMKL. We report here that OTT-MAL expression deregulated transcriptional activity of the canonical Notch signaling pathway transcription factor recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (RBPJ) and caused abnormal fetal megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, cooperation between OTT-MAL and an activating mutation of the thrombopoietin receptor myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) efficiently induced a short-latency AMKL that recapitulated all the features of human AMKL, including megakaryoblast hyperproliferation and maturation block, thrombocytopenia, organomegaly, and extensive fibrosis. Our results establish that concomitant activation of RBPJ (Notch signaling) and MPL (cytokine signaling) transforms cells of the megakaryocytic lineage and suggest that specific targeting of these pathways could be of therapeutic value for human AMKL. PMID:19287095

  14. Transglycosylation properties of maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) from Escherichia coli and its application for synthesis of a nigerose-containing oligosaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kyung-Mo; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Tae

    2010-06-18

    The transglycosylation reaction of maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) cloned and purified from Escherichia coli K12 was characterized and applied to the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides. Purified MalZ preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of maltodextrin, {gamma}-cyclodextrin (CD), and cycloamylose (CA). In addition, when the enzyme was incubated with 5% maltotriose (G3), a series of transfer products were produced. The resulting major transfer products, annotated as T1, T2, and T3, were purified and their structures were determined by TLC, MALDI-TOF/MS, {sup 13}C NMR, and enzymatic analysis. T1 was identified as a novel compound, maltosyl {alpha}-1,3-maltose, whereas T2 and T3 were determined to be isopanosemore » and maltosyl-{alpha}-1,6-maltose, respectively. These results indicated that MalZ transferred sugar moiety mainly to C-3 or C-6-OH of glucose of the acceptor molecule. To obtain highly concentrated transfer products, the enzyme was reacted with 10% liquefied cornstarch, and then glucose and maltose were removed by immobilized yeast. The T1 content of the resulting reaction mixture reached 9.0%. The mixture of T1 containing a nigerose moiety can have an immunopotentiating effect on the human body and may be a potential functional sugar stuff.« less

  15. Geography, population, demography, socioeconomic, anthropometry, and environmental status in the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study Sites in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: An animal model of petit mal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Vadasz, C.; Fleischer, A.; Carpi, D.

    1995-02-27

    Neocortical high-voltage spike-and-wave discharges (HVS) in the rat are an animal model of petit mal epilepsy. Genetic analysis of total duration of HVS (s/12 hr) in reciprocal F1 and F2 hybrids of F344 and BN rats indicated that the phenotypic variability of HVS cannot be explained by simple, monogenic Mendelian model. Biometrical analysis suggested the presence of additive, dominance, and sex-linked-epistatic effects, buffering maternal influence, and heterosis. High correlation was observed between average duration (s/episode) and frequency of occurrence of spike-and-wave episodes (n/12 hr) in parental and segregating generations, indicating that common genes affect both duration and frequency of themore » spike-and-wave pattern. We propose that both genetic and developmental - environmental factors control an underlying quantitative variable, which, above a certain threshold level, precipitates HVS discharges. These findings, together with the recent availability of rat DNA markers for total genome mapping, pave the way to the identification of genes that control the susceptibility of the brain to spike-and-wave discharges. 67 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  17. malERA: An updated research agenda for combination interventions and modelling in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarises key advances and priorities since the 2011 presentation of the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA), with a focus on the combinations of intervention tools and strategies for elimination and their evaluation using modelling approaches. With an increasing number of countries embarking on malaria elimination programmes, national and local decisions to select combinations of tools and deployment strategies directed at malaria elimination must address rapidly changing transmission patterns across diverse geographic areas. However, not all of these approaches can be systematically evaluated in the field. Thus, there is potential for modelling to investigate appropriate ‘packages’ of combined interventions that include various forms of vector control, case management, surveillance, and population-based approaches for different settings, particularly at lower transmission levels. Modelling can help prioritise which intervention packages should be tested in field studies, suggest which intervention package should be used at a particular level or stratum of transmission intensity, estimate the risk of resurgence when scaling down specific interventions after local transmission is interrupted, and evaluate the risk and impact of parasite drug resistance and vector insecticide resistance. However, modelling intervention package deployment against a heterogeneous transmission background is a challenge. Further validation of malaria models should be pursued through an iterative process, whereby field data collected with the deployment of intervention packages is used to refine models and make them progressively more relevant for assessing and predicting elimination outcomes. PMID:29190295

  18. The utilization of a non-invasive fluorescence imaging system to follow clinical dermatological MAL-PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Campbell, Sandra; Curnow, Alison

    2009-06-01

    This study employed a commercially available, non-invasive, fluorescence imaging system (Dyaderm, Biocam, Germany), to measure protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) concentration at several different stages during clinical dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT). We validated the system prior to use to ensure that the PpIX changes witnessed were accurate and not due to environmental or user induced artifacts. The system was then employed to acquire color (morphological) and fluorescent (physiological) images simultaneously during dermatological PDT. Clinical data was collected from a range of licensed dermatological conditions (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma) during initial and subsequent PDT treatment cycles. The initial clinical data indicated that each type of licensed lesion considered responded in a similar manner following the application of Metvix (Galderma, U.K.) and the subsequent light irradiation (Aktilite, Galderma, U.K.). Images acquired three hours after Metvix application showed a significant increase in PpIX concentration within the lesion (P < 0.05), whilst PpIX levels in the surrounding normal tissue remained unaltered. After irradiation, the PpIX concentration was significantly decreased and returned to a level similar to the initial concentration originally observed. Lesions that received subsequent treatment cycles accumulated significantly less PpIX (P < 0.05) prior to irradiation.

  19. malERA: An updated research agenda for insecticide and drug resistance in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to first-line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the insecticides used for Anopheles vector control are threatening malaria elimination efforts. Suboptimal responses to drugs and insecticides are both spreading geographically and emerging independently and are being seen at increasing intensities. Whilst resistance is unavoidable, its effects can be mitigated through resistance management practices, such as exposing the parasite or vector to more than one selective agent. Resistance contributed to the failure of the 20th century Global Malaria Eradication Programme, and yet the global response to this issue continues to be slow and poorly coordinated—too often, too little, too late. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process convened a panel on resistance of both insecticides and antimalarial drugs. This paper outlines developments in the field over the past 5 years, highlights gaps in knowledge, and proposes a research agenda focused on managing resistance. A deeper understanding of the complex biological processes involved and how resistance is selected is needed, together with evidence of its public health impact. Resistance management will require improved use of entomological and parasitological data in decision making, and optimisation of the useful life of new and existing products through careful implementation, combination, and evaluation. A proactive, collaborative approach is needed from basic science and the development of new tools to programme and policy interventions that will ensure that the armamentarium of drugs and insecticides is sufficient to deal with the challenges of malaria control and its elimination. PMID:29190671

  20. Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

    2013-03-01

    Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia).

  1. Vaccine coverage and adherence to EPI schedules in eight resource poor settings in the MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoest, Christel; Seidman, Jessica C; Lee, Gwenyth; Platts-Mills, James A; Ali, Asad; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Bessong, Pascal; Chandyo, Ram; Babji, Sudhir; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Mondal, Dinesh; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Mduma, Estomih R; Nyathi, Emanuel; Abreu, Claudia; Miller, Mark A; Pan, William; Mason, Carl J; Knobler, Stacey L

    2017-01-11

    Launched in 1974, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is estimated to prevent two-three million deaths annually from polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis, measles, and tetanus. Additional lives could be saved through better understanding what influences adherence to the EPI schedule in specific settings. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study followed cohorts in eight sites in South Asia, Africa, and South America and monitored vaccine receipt over the first two years of life for the children enrolled in the study. Vaccination histories were obtained monthly from vaccination cards, local clinic records and/or caregiver reports. Vaccination histories were compared against the prescribed EPI schedules for each country, and coverage rates were examined in relation to the timing of vaccination. The influence of socioeconomic factors on vaccine timing and coverage was also considered. Coverage rates for EPI vaccines varied between sites and by type of vaccine; overall, coverage was highest in the Nepal and Bangladesh sites and lowest in the Tanzania and Brazil sites. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin coverage was high across all sites, 87-100%, whereas measles vaccination rates ranged widely, 73-100%. Significant delays between the scheduled administration age and actual vaccination date were present in all sites, especially for measles vaccine where less than 40% were administered on schedule. A range of socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with vaccination status in study children but these results were largely site-specific. Our findings highlight the need to improve measles vaccination rates and reduce delayed vaccination to achieve EPI targets related to the establishment of herd immunity and reduction in disease transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. malERA: An updated research agenda for characterising the reservoir and measuring transmission in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions. Since 2011, progress has been made in a number of areas. The extent of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections is better understood, as are the biological parameters governing transmission of sexual stage parasites. Limitations of existing transmission measures have been documented, and proof-of-concept has been established for new innovative serological and molecular methods to better characterise transmission. Finally, there now exists a concerted effort towards the use of ensemble datasets across the spectrum of metrics, from passive and active sources, to develop more accurate risk maps of transmission. These can be used to better target interventions and effectively monitor progress toward elimination. The success of interventions depends not only on the level of endemicity but also on how rapidly or recently an area has undergone changes in transmission. Improved understanding of the biology of mosquito–human and human–mosquito transmission is needed particularly in low-endemic settings, where heterogeneity of infection is pronounced and local vector ecology is variable. New and improved measures of transmission need to be operationally feasible for the malaria programmes. Outputs from these research priorities should allow the development of a set of approaches (applicable to both research and control programmes) that address the unique challenges of measuring and monitoring transmission in near-elimination settings and defining

  3. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi.

    PubMed

    Cuebas-Irizarry, Mara F; Irizarry-Caro, Ricardo A; López-Morales, Carol; Badillo-Rivera, Keyla M; Rodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2017-11-21

    We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi . A 2349 bp region ( Hqrw_2071 ) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum . Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  4. Cost effectiveness of OptiMal® rapid diagnostic test for malaria in remote areas of the Amazon Region, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In areas with limited structure in place for microscopy diagnosis, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) have been demonstrated to be effective. Method The cost-effectiveness of the Optimal® and thick smear microscopy was estimated and compared. Data were collected on remote areas of 12 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon. Data sources included the National Malaria Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, the National Healthcare System reimbursement table, hospitalization records, primary data collected from the municipalities, and scientific literature. The perspective was that of the Brazilian public health system, the analytical horizon was from the start of fever until the diagnostic results provided to patient and the temporal reference was that of year 2006. The results were expressed in costs per adequately diagnosed cases in 2006 U.S. dollars. Sensitivity analysis was performed considering key model parameters. Results In the case base scenario, considering 92% and 95% sensitivity for thick smear microscopy to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively, and 100% specificity for both species, thick smear microscopy is more costly and more effective, with an incremental cost estimated at US$549.9 per adequately diagnosed case. In sensitivity analysis, when sensitivity and specificity of microscopy for P. vivax were 0.90 and 0.98, respectively, and when its sensitivity for P. falciparum was 0.83, the RDT was more cost-effective than microscopy. Conclusion Microscopy is more cost-effective than OptiMal® in these remote areas if high accuracy of microscopy is maintained in the field. Decision regarding use of rapid tests for diagnosis of malaria in these areas depends on current microscopy accuracy in the field. PMID:20937094

  5. Efficacy and safety of 4 months of sublingual immunotherapy with recombinant Mal d 1 and Bet v 1 in patients with birch pollen-related apple allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinaciyan, Tamar; Nagl, Birgit; Faustmann, Sandra; Frommlet, Florian; Kopp, Stephan; Wolkersdorfer, Martin; Wöhrl, Stefan; Bastl, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Berger, Uwe; Bohle, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Birch pollen-related apple allergy is among the most prevalent food allergies in adolescent/adult subjects and mainly results from sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and subsequent cross-reaction with the apple protein Mal d 1. However, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen has inconsistent effects on apple allergy. We sought to compare the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with 2 formulations containing either rMal d 1 or rBet v 1 on birch pollen-related apple allergy. Sixty participants with birch pollen-related apple allergy were randomized to daily sublingual application of placebo (n = 20) or 25 μg of rMal d 1 (n = 20) or rBet v 1 (n = 20) for 16 weeks. Adverse events were regularly recorded. Sublingual challenges with standardized doses of rMal d 1, skin prick tests with recombinant allergens, and measurements of allergen-specific IgE and IgG 4 antibodies were performed before and after treatment. Both formulations caused comparable, mainly local adverse events. No systemic reactions occurred. Compared with the placebo and rBet v 1-treated groups, SLIT with rMal d 1 reduced rMal d 1-induced oral symptoms (P = .001 and P = .038) accompanied by longitudinally reduced rMal d 1-specific cutaneous reactions (P = .022) and enhanced IgG 4 /IgE ratios (P = .012). SLIT with rBet v 1 neither improved the clinical reactivity to rMal d 1 nor enhanced rMal d 1-specific IgG 4 /IgE ratios. Participants receiving placebo showed no allergen-specific changes. Sublingual treatment with a recombinant food allergen was safe and clinically effective, as determined by using standardized challenges. We present a promising approach for the effective treatment of birch pollen-related apple allergy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases. PMID:20167090

  7. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Wilkerson, Richard C; Birney, Ian; Harrison, Stanley; Christensen, Jamie; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2010-02-18

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  8. Effects of long-term storage on Mal d 1 content of four apple cultivars with initial low Mal d 1 content.

    PubMed

    Kiewning, Daniela; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela

    2014-03-15

    Up to 6.6% of adults and 11.5% of children aged between 0 and 6 years are reporting a perceived fruit allergy. In the last group 8.5% perceived reactions against apple. To keep allergic reactions as low as possible and to make apple consumption more tolerable for patients allergic to apple, the Mal d 1 content of four apple cultivars ('Boskoop', 'Elise', 'Pinova', 'Santana' and 'Topaz') were analyzed, to identify apple cultivars with only a low Mal d 1 content. Further, the development of Mal d 1 content of low-allergenic cultivars should be investigated during long-term storage. The lowest Mal d 1 content was measured for fruits of the cultivar 'Santana' at harvest, followed by 'Pinova' and 'Elise' after storage without 1-MCP. Nearly all fruits treated with 1-MCP had a significantly lower Mal d 1 content than fruits without 1-MCP, except for 'Boskoop' fruits after 44 weeks of storage. Apple cultivars with a low Mal d 1 content are not a cross of 'Golden Delicious' with another cultivar, with the exception of 'Pinova' which is a cultivar from the so-called 'Pi-series', which have a moderate resistance to scab and mildew. First experiments on tomatoes and peanuts have shown a reduction of allergic proteins in older and child generations after transfer of RNA. This reduction is probably based on an alteration of gene expression regulating the synthesis of allergic proteins, leading to changes in protein composition in the fruit. Individuals allergic to apple should choose the described cultivars with relative low Mal d 1 content. If breeders want to breed cultivars with low allergy, they should avoid crossings with 'Golden Delicious'. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Determinants and Impact of Giardia Infection in the First 2 Years of Life in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bartelt, Luther A.; Platts-Mills, James A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Samie, Amidou; Havt, Alexandre; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Qureshi, Shahida; Shakoor, Sadia; Haque, Rashidul; Mduma, Estomih; Bajracharya, Samita; Gaffar, S. M. Abdul; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret N.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Svensen, Erling; Mason, Carl; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L.; Houpt, Eric R.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Giardia are among the most common enteropathogens detected in children in low-resource settings. We describe here the epidemiology of infection with Giardia in the first 2 years of life in the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project (MAL-ED), a multisite birth-cohort study. Methods. From 2089 children, 34916 stool samples collected during monthly surveillance and episodes of diarrhea were tested for Giardia using an enzyme immunoassay. We quantified the risk of Giardia detection, identified risk factors, and assessed the associations with micronutrients, markers of gut inflammation and permeability, diarrhea, and growth using multivariable linear regression. Results. The incidence of at least 1 Giardia detection varied according to site (range, 37.7%–96.4%) and was higher in the second year of life. Exclusive breastfeeding (HR for first Giardia detection in a monthly surveillance stool sample, 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28–0.75]), higher socioeconomic status (HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.56–0.97]), and recent metronidazole treatment (risk ratio for any surveillance stool detection, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.56–0.84]) were protective. Persistence of Giardia (consecutive detections) in the first 6 months of life was associated with reduced subsequent diarrheal rates in Naushahro Feroze, Pakistan but not at any other site. Giardia detection was also associated with an increased lactulose/mannitol ratio. Persistence of Giardia before 6 months of age was associated with a −0.29 (95% CI, −0.53 to −0.05) deficit in weight-for-age z score and −0.29 (95% CI, −0.64 to 0.07) deficit in length-for-age z score at 2 years. Conclusions. Infection with Giardia occurred across epidemiological contexts, and repeated detections in 40% of the children suggest that persistent infections were common. Early persistent infection with Giardia, independent of

  10. Grand Mal Seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... trauma, a stroke, previous infection and other causes Sleep deprivation Medical problems that affect electrolyte balance Illicit drug ... drowning. Car accidents. A seizure that causes either loss of awareness or control can be dangerous if ...

  11. Microstructure, thermal shock resistance and thermal emissivity of plasma sprayed LaMAl11O19 (M = Mg, Fe) coatings for metallic thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Zhi; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Wang, Ya-Ming

    2013-04-01

    LaMAl11O19 (M = Mg, Fe) ceramic coatings were plasma-sprayed on nickel-based superalloy with NiCoCrAlYTa as the bond coat. The microstructure, thermal shock resistance and thermal emissivity of these two ceramic coatings were investigated. LaMAl11O19 coatings exhibit a characteristic of stacked lamellae, and consist mainly of a magnetoplumbite-type hexaaluminate phase and an amorphous phase. During thermal cycling, the amorphous phase disappears and a LaAlO3 phase is formed at temperatures of both 1000 and 1200 °C. The thermal cycling numbers of LaMgAl11O19 coating are 102 at 1000 °C and 42 at 1200 °C; LaFeAl11O19 has a thermal cycling lifetime of 87 at 1000 °C and 30 at 1200 °C, respectively. Normal spectral emissivity of nickel-based superalloy is about 0.2 over the whole wavelength range of 3-14 μm. However, the emissivity of LaFeAl11O19 coating is about 0.7 at short wavelengths and above 0.9 in the wavelength range of 7-14 μm.

  12. Correction of vitamin D deficiency using sublingually administered vitamin D2 in a Crohn's disease patient with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Patrick; Heaney, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with many adverse health problems. Studies have shown that patients with Crohn's disease who have low vitamin D levels have a poorer quality of life than those with more adequate levels. It has also been shown that patients with mal-absorption problems have a difficult time achieving normal vitamin D levels in spite of aggressive supplementation, and that exposure to UVB radiation may be the most effective treatment option for these patients. We present a case in which 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were normalized within 2 weeks in a severely vitamin D deficient patient with Crohn's disease with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy, utilizing sublingually administered vitamin D2. A 58 year-old white female was admitted with a new ileostomy following partial bowel resection due to complications from Crohn's disease. She was found to be severely vitamin D deficient at the time of admission, with a level of 6.1ng/ml on hospital day 3. Her treatment with vitamin D was delayed for a few days. She was initially treated with 5000 units of vitamin D3 orally twice a day for 3days (days 7-10). After discussion with the patient and obtaining her consent, vitamin D3 was stopped, and she was then treated with a total of 8 doses of 50,000 units of vitamin D2 administered sublingually. She was given the first 3 doses on alternating days (days 11, 13, 15), and then 5 more doses on consecutive days (days 17-21). The rise in her 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in response to treatment with sublingual vitamin D2 was significant. On day 10, after receiving 3days of orally administered vitamin D3, her level was 9.8ng/ml. One week later, after receiving 3 sublingual doses of vitamin D2, it rose to 20.3ng/ml. It was then measured on alternating days twice over the next 4days, and it rose to 45.5ng/ml, and then to 47.4ng/ml on the day of discharge to home. The major finding of this study is that sublingual administration of vitamin D2 appears to

  13. The MalR type regulator AcrC is a transcriptional repressor of acarbose biosynthetic genes in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Timo; Droste, Julian; Gren, Tetiana; Ortseifen, Vera; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Zemke, Till; Pühler, Alfred; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2017-07-25

    Acarbose is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type II and is produced by Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. Although the biosynthesis of acarbose has been intensively studied, profound knowledge about transcription factors involved in acarbose biosynthesis and their binding sites has been missing until now. In contrast to acarbose biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces spp., the corresponding gene cluster of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 lacks genes for transcriptional regulators. The acarbose regulator C (AcrC) was identified through an in silico approach by aligning the LacI family regulators of acarbose biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces spp. with the Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 genome. The gene for acrC, located in a head-to-head arrangement with the maltose/maltodextrin ABC transporter malEFG operon, was deleted by introducing PCR targeting for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. Characterization was carried out through cultivation experiments, genome-wide microarray hybridizations, and RT-qPCR as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assays for the elucidation of binding motifs. The results show that AcrC binds to the intergenic region between acbE and acbD in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 and acts as a transcriptional repressor on these genes. The transcriptomic profile of the wild type was reconstituted through a complementation of the deleted acrC gene. Additionally, regulatory sequence motifs for the binding of AcrC were identified in the intergenic region of acbE and acbD. It was shown that AcrC expression influences acarbose formation in the early growth phase. Interestingly, AcrC does not regulate the malEFG operon. This study characterizes the first known transcription factor of the acarbose biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110. It therefore represents an important step for understanding the regulatory network of this organism. Based on this work, rational strain design for improving the biotechnological production of acarbose can now be

  14. Co-expression of the Thermotoga neapolitana aglB gene with an upstream 3'-coding fragment of the malG gene improves enzymatic characteristics of recombinant AglB cyclomaltodextrinase.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Natalia A; Agafonova, Elena V; Chekanovskaya, Lyudmila A; Dvortsov, Igor A; Berezina, Oksana V; Shedova, Ekaterina N; Kostrov, Sergey V; Velikodvorskaya, Galina A

    2007-07-01

    A cluster of Thermotoga neapolitana genes participating in starch degradation includes the malG gene of sugar transport protein and the aglB gene of cyclomaltodextrinase. The start and stop codons of these genes share a common overlapping sequence, aTGAtg. Here, we compared properties of expression products of three different constructs with aglB from T. neapolitana. The first expression vector contained the aglB gene linked to an upstream 90-bp 3'-terminal region of the malG gene with the stop codon overlapping with the start codon of aglB. The second construct included the isolated coding sequence of aglB with two tandem potential start codons. The expression product of this construct in Escherichia coli had two tandem Met residues at its N terminus and was characterized by low thermostability and high tendency to aggregate. In contrast, co-expression of aglB and the 3'-terminal region of malG (the first construct) resulted in AglB with only one N-terminal Met residue and a much higher specific activity of cyclomaltodextrinase. Moreover, the enzyme expressed by such a construct was more thermostable and less prone to aggregation. The third construct was the same as the second one except that it contained only one ATG start codon. The product of its expression had kinetic and other properties similar to those of the enzyme with only one N-terminal Met residue.

  15. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 36 months of life was not associated with impaired growth in Nepalese children: An extension of the MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hui-Husan; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Binob; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Tu, Yu-Kang; Gong, Yun-Yun; Egner, Patricia A.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Groopman, John D.; Wu, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct. The aflatoxin exposures in the study participants were compared to anthropometrics at each time period (length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age [WAZ], and weight-for-length [WLZ] z-scores), growth trajectories over time, age, and breastfeeding status. Results demonstrated chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort of children, with a geometric mean of 3.62 pg AFB1-lysine/mg albumin. However, the chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort was not significantly associated with anthropometric z-scores, growth trajectories, age, or feeding status, based on the available time points to assess aflatoxin exposure. Low mean levels of aflatoxin exposure and infrequent occurrence of stunting, wasting, or underweight z-score values in this cohort are possible contributing factors to a lack of evidence for an association. Further research is needed to examine whether a threshold dose of aflatoxin exists that could induce child growth impairment. PMID:28212415

  16. In vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) non-structural proteins in insect cells reveals their putative functions

    SciTech Connect

    Maroniche, Guillermo A.; Mongelli, Vanesa C.; Llauger, Gabriela

    2012-09-01

    The in vivo subcellular localization of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) non-structural proteins fused to GFP was analyzed by confocal microscopy. P5-1 showed a cytoplasmic vesicular-like distribution that was lost upon deleting its PDZ binding TKF motif, suggesting that P5-1 interacts with cellular PDZ proteins. P5-2 located at the nucleus and its nuclear import was affected by the deletion of its basic C-termini. P7-1 and P7-2 also entered the nucleus and therefore, along with P5-2, could function as regulators of host gene expression. P6 located in the cytoplasm and in perinuclear cloud-like inclusions, was driven to P9-1more » viroplasm-like structures and co-localized with P7-2, P10 and {alpha}-tubulin, suggesting its involvement in viroplasm formation and viral intracellular movement. Finally, P9-2 was N-glycosylated and located at the plasma membrane in association with filopodia-like protrusions containing actin, suggesting a possible role in virus cell-to-cell movement and spread.« less

  17. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part II. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), apple allergenicity governed by Mal d 1 gene].

    PubMed

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-03-01

    Of the plant allergens listed in the Official Allergen Database of the International Union of Immunological Societies, approximately 25% belong to the group of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). They have been classified into 17 PR families based on similarities in their amino acid sequence, enzymatic activities, or other functional properties. Plant-derived allergens have been identified with sequence similarities to PR families 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. The main birch allergen in northern Europe is a class 10 (PR-10) protein from the European white birch (Betula pendula) termed Bet v 1. Pollen of other Fagales species contains PR-10 homologues that share epitopes with Bet v 1, as do several fruits, nuts and vegetables. Among the plant food fruits of the Rosaceae family are the most frequently responsible for allergenic reactions. It is documented, that approximately 2% of European population is allergic to apples. The article presents molecular characterization of PR-10 proteins with regard to their structure and function as well as apple Mal d 1 gene-determined allergenicity.

  18. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    PubMed

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    PubMed

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged <5 years had a height-for-age z score and weight-for-age z score, respectively, of <-2 ) and an under-5 child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is <0.5%. TZH represents a remote rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Interpenetration of a 3D Icosahedral M@Ni12 (M=Al, Ga) Framework with Porphyrin-Reminiscent Boron Layers in MNi9 B8.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Wagner, Frank R; Ormeci, Alim; Prots, Yurii; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Schmidt, Marcus; Schnelle, Walter; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2015-11-09

    Two ternary borides MNi9 B8 (M=Al, Ga) were synthesized by thermal treatment of mixtures of the elements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data reveal AlNi9 B8 and GaNi9 B8 crystallizing in a new type of structure within the space group Cmcm and the lattice parameters a=7.0896(3) Å, b=8.1181(3) Å, c=10.6497(4) Å and a=7.0897(5) Å, b=8.1579(4) Å, c=10.6648(7) Å, respectively. The boron atoms build up two-dimensional layers, which consist of puckered [B16 ] rings with two tailing B atoms, whereas the M atoms reside in distorted vertices-condensed [Ni12 ] icosahedra, which form a three-dimensional framework interpenetrated by boron porphyrin-reminiscent layers. An unusual local arrangement resembling a giant metallo-porphyrin entity is formed by the [B16 ] rings, which, due to their large annular size of approximately 8 Å, chelate four of the twelve icosahedral Ni atoms. An analysis of the chemical bonding by means of the electron localizability approach reveals strong covalent B-B interactions and weak Ni-Ni interactions. Multi-center dative B-Ni interaction occurs between the Al-Ni framework and the boron layers. In agreement with the chemical bonding analysis and band structure calculations, AlNi9 B8 is a Pauli-paramagnetic metal. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Relationships among Common Illness Symptoms and the Protective Effect of Breastfeeding in Early Childhood in MAL-ED: An Eight-Country Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Stephanie A.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Rasmussen, Zeba; Kosek, Margaret N.; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; Petri, William; Bose, Anuradha; Mduma, Estomih; Maciel, Bruna L. L.; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Turab, Ali; Bessong, Pascal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. Children in low-income countries experience multiple illness symptoms in early childhood. Breastfeeding is protective against diarrhea and respiratory infections, and these illnesses are thought to be risk factors of one another, but these relationships have not been explored simultaneously. In the eight-site MAL-ED study, 1,731 infants were enrolled near birth and followed for 2 years. We collected symptoms and diet information through twice-weekly household visits. Poisson regression was used to determine if recent illness history was associated with incidence of diarrhea or acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), accounting for exclusive breastfeeding. Recent diarrhea was associated with higher risk of incident diarrhea after the first 6 months of life (relative risk [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04, 1.16) and with higher risk of incident ALRI in the 3- to 5-month period (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03, 1.47). Fever was a consistent risk factor for both diarrhea and ALRI. Exclusive breastfeeding 0–6 months was protective against diarrhea (0–2 months: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.32, 0.49; 3–5 months: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75, 0.93) and ALRI (3–5 months: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68, 0.98). Children with recent illness who were exclusively breastfed were half as likely as those not exclusively breastfed to experience diarrhea in the first 3 months of life. Recent illness was associated with greater risk of new illness, causing illnesses to cluster within children, indicating that specific illness-prevention programs may have benefits for preventing other childhood illnesses. The results also underscore the importance of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life for disease prevention. PMID:29380724

  2. Theoretical studies on all-metal binuclear sandwich-like complexes M2(η 4-E 4) 2 (M=Al, Ga, In; E=Sb, Bi).

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhi; Zhang, Xiuhui; Lu, Jian; Li, Qianshu

    2012-08-01

    A series of all-metal binuclear sandwich-like complexes with the formula M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) (M=Al, Ga, In; E=Sb, Bi) was studied by density functional theory (DFT). The most stable conformer for each of the M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) species is the staggered one with D (4d) symmetry. The centred metal-metal bond in each M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) species is a covalent single bond, with the main contributors to these covalent bonds being the a(1) and e orbitals. For all these species, the interactions between the centred metal atoms and the all-metal ligands are covalent; η(4)-Sb (4) (2-) has a stronger ability to stabilize metal-metal bonds than η(4)-Bi (4) (2-). Nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS) values and molecular orbital (MO) analysis reveal that the all-metal η(4)-Sb (4) (2-) and η(4)-Bi (4) (2-) ligands in M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) possess conflicting aromaticity (σ antiaromaticity and π aromaticity), which differs from the all-metal multiple aromatic unit Al (4) (2-). In addition, all of these M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) species are stable according to the dissociation energies of M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) → 2 M(η(4)-E(4)) and M(2)(η(4)-E(4))(2) → 2 M + 2E(4), and these stable species can be synthesized by two-step substitution reactions: CpZnZnCp + 2E (4) (2-)  → [E(4)ZnZnE(4)](2-) + 2Cp(-) and [E(4)ZnZnE(4)](2-) + 2 M (2) (+)  → E(4)MME(4) + 2Zn(+).

  3. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

    PubMed

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A M; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R; Platts-Mills, James A

    2016-11-01

     Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life.  Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation.  A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47-.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70-0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82-0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63-0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (-1.82; 95% confidence interval, -1.94 to -1.70) compared with a low burden (-1.49; -1.60 to -1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation.  Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Dynamics and Trends in Fecal Biomarkers of Gut Function in Children from 1-24 Months in the MAL-ED Study.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Benjamin J J; Lee, Gwenyth O; Seidman, Jessica C; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Quetz, Josiane; Lima, Aldo A M; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Mason, Carl J; Qureshi, Shahida; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Amour, Caroline; Mduma, Estomih; Patil, Crystal L; Guerrant, Richard L; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Caulfield, Laura E; Kosek, Margaret N

    2017-02-08

    Growth and development shortfalls that are disproportionately prevalent in children living in poor environmental conditions are postulated to result, at least in part, from abnormal gut function. Using data from The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal cohort study, we examine biomarkers of gut inflammation and permeability in relation to environmental exposures and feeding practices. Trends in the concentrations of three biomarkers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and α-1-antitrypsin (AAT), are described from fecal samples collected during the first 2 years of each child's life. A total of 22,846 stool samples were processed during the longitudinal sampling of 2,076 children 0-24 months of age. Linear mixed models were constructed to examine the relationship between biomarker concentrations and recent food intake, symptoms of illness, concurrent enteropathogen infection, and socioeconomic status. Average concentrations of MPO, NEO, and AAT were considerably higher than published references for healthy adults. The concentration of each biomarker tended to decrease over the first 2 years of life and was highly variable between samples from each individual child. Both MPO and AAT were significantly elevated by recent breast milk intake. All three biomarkers were associated with pathogen presence, although the strength and direction varied by pathogen. The interpretation of biomarker concentrations is subject to the context of their collection. Herein, we identify that common factors (age, breast milk, and enteric infection) influence the concentration of these biomarkers. Within the context of low- and middle-income communities, we observe concentrations that indicate gut abnormalities, but more appropriate reference standards are needed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Magnetotransport and Heat Capacity in Ternary Compounds U3M2M‧3‧, M=Al, Ga; M=Si, Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troć, R.; Rogl, P.; Tran, V. H.; Czopnik, A.

    2001-05-01

    We report detailed studies of magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity, and heat capacity performed on the novel family of intermetallic compounds U3M2M‧3, (M=Al, Ga, and M‧=Si, Ge). The present measurements support the earlier conclusions about the ferrimagnetic properties of silicides and ferromagnetic properties of germanides. The resistivity for both compounds U3{Al,Ga}2Si3 exhibits below TC a pronounced maximum observed for the first time in an actinoid-ferrimagnet, probably caused by (a) the reduction of the number of effective conduction carriers or (b) a SDW-type of spin-disorder scattering of electrons. Both low-temperature resistivity (except for U3Ga2Si3) and heat capacity may be described by a T-dependence involving a small gap Δ on the order of 30-50 K in the magnon dispersion. The Cp/T values at 2 K are enhanced and point to a medium-heavy fermion character of all these ternaries. Magnetoresistance for ferrimagnetic U3{Al,Ga}2Si3 is rather small but positive in correspondence of antiferromagnetic interactions. In correspondence to the ferromagnetic materials, negative magnetoresistance is encountered for U3{Al,Ga}2Ge3. Specific features in the temperature dependence of magnetoresistivity Δρ/ρ at various fields confirm the sinusoidal modulation of the magnetic structure for U3Al2Ge3 between 40 and 60 K. Also, such data for U3Ga2Ge3 present strong indications for a similar magnetic modulation between 63 and 93 K, yet to be discovered by neutron diffraction experiments. In addition, the transition at 63 K is furthermore well resolved in the specific heat data of U3Ga2Ge3.

  6. Dynamics and Trends in Fecal Biomarkers of Gut Function in Children from 1–24 Months in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Quetz, Josiane; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Mason, Carl J.; Qureshi, Shahida; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Amour, Caroline; Mduma, Estomih; Patil, Crystal L.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Caulfield, Laura E.; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development shortfalls that are disproportionately prevalent in children living in poor environmental conditions are postulated to result, at least in part, from abnormal gut function. Using data from The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal cohort study, we examine biomarkers of gut inflammation and permeability in relation to environmental exposures and feeding practices. Trends in the concentrations of three biomarkers, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and α-1-antitrypsin (AAT), are described from fecal samples collected during the first 2 years of each child's life. A total of 22,846 stool samples were processed during the longitudinal sampling of 2,076 children 0–24 months of age. Linear mixed models were constructed to examine the relationship between biomarker concentrations and recent food intake, symptoms of illness, concurrent enteropathogen infection, and socioeconomic status. Average concentrations of MPO, NEO, and AAT were considerably higher than published references for healthy adults. The concentration of each biomarker tended to decrease over the first 2 years of life and was highly variable between samples from each individual child. Both MPO and AAT were significantly elevated by recent breast milk intake. All three biomarkers were associated with pathogen presence, although the strength and direction varied by pathogen. The interpretation of biomarker concentrations is subject to the context of their collection. Herein, we identify that common factors (age, breast milk, and enteric infection) influence the concentration of these biomarkers. Within the context of low- and middle-income communities, we observe concentrations that indicate gut abnormalities, but more appropriate reference standards are needed. PMID:27994110

  7. Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Rogawski, Elizabeth T.; McGrath, Monica; Seidman, Jessica C.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Samie, Amidou; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Qureshi, Shahida; Hotwani, Aneeta; Babji, Sudhir; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shakoor, Sadia; Kang, Gagandeep; Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lang, Dennis; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R.; Platts-Mills, James A.; Acosta, Angel Mendez; de Burga, Rosa Rios; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Flores, Julian Torres; Olotegui, Maribel Paredes; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Salas, Mery Siguas; Trigoso, Dixner Rengifo; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Ahmed, Imran; Alam, Didar; Ali, Asad; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Qureshi, Shahida; Rasheed, Muneera; Soofi, Sajid; Turab, Ali; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl J.; Babji, Sudhir; Bose, Anuradha; George, Ajila T.; Hariraju, Dinesh; Jennifer, M. Steffi; John, Sushil; Kaki, Shiny; Kang, Gagandeep; Karunakaran, Priyadarshani; Koshy, Beena; Lazarus, Robin P.; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Raghava, Mohan Venkata; Raju, Sophy; Ramachandran, Anup; Ramadas, Rakhi; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Rose, Anuradha; Roshan, Reeba; Sharma, Srujan L.; Sundaram, Shanmuga; Thomas, Rahul J.; Pan, William K.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Carreon, J. Daniel; Charu, Vivek; Doan, Viyada; Graham, Jhanelle; Hoest, Christel; Knobler, Stacey; Lang, Dennis R.; McCormick, Benjamin J.J.; McGrath, Monica; Miller, Mark A.; Mohale, Archana; Nayyar, Gaurvika; Psaki, Stephanie; Rasmussen, Zeba; Richard, Stephanie A.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Wang, Vivian; Blank, Rebecca; Gottlieb, Michael; Tountas, Karen H.; Amour, Caroline; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Mduma, Estomih R.; Mvungi, Regisiana; Nshama, Rosemary; Pascal, John; Swema, Buliga Mujaga; Yarrot, Ladislaus; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A.M. Shamsir; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Iqbal; Islam, Munirul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Mondal, Dinesh; Tofail, Fahmida; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Rita; Ulak, Manjeswori; Bauck, Aubrey; Black, Robert; Caulfield, Laura; Checkley, William; Kosek, Margaret N.; Lee, Gwenyth; Schulze, Kerry; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Ross, A. Catharine; Schaefer, Barbara; Simons, Suzanne; Pendergast, Laura; Abreu, Cláudia B.; Costa, Hilda; Di Moura, Alessandra; Filho, José Quirino; Havt, Alexandre; Leite, Álvaro M.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Lima, Noélia L.; Lima, Ila F.; Maciel, Bruna L.L.; Medeiros, Pedro H.Q.S.; Moraes, Milena; Mota, Francisco S.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Quetz, Josiane; Soares, Alberto M.; Mota, Rosa M.S.; Patil, Crystal L.; Bessong, Pascal; Mahopo, Cloupas; Maphula, Angelina; Nyathi, Emanuel; Samie, Amidou; Barrett, Leah; Dillingham, Rebecca; Gratz, Jean; Guerrant, Richard L.; Houpt, Eric; Petri, William A.; Platts-Mills, James; Scharf, Rebecca; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Strand, Tor; Svensen, Erling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background. Enteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infection in the first 2 years of life. Methods. Children were actively followed up until 24 months of age. Diarrheal and nondiarrheal stool samples were collected and tested by enzyme immunoassay for Campylobacter. Stool and blood samples were assayed for markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation. Results. A total of 1892 children had 7601 diarrheal and 26 267 nondiarrheal stool samples tested for Campylobacter. We describe a high prevalence of infection, with most children (n = 1606; 84.9%) having a Campylobacter-positive stool sample by 1 year of age. Factors associated with a reduced risk of Campylobacter detection included exclusive breastfeeding (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, .47–.67), treatment of drinking water (0.76; 0.70–0.83), access to an improved latrine (0.89; 0.82–0.97), and recent macrolide antibiotic use (0.68; 0.63–0.74). A high Campylobacter burden was associated with a lower length-for-age Z score at 24 months (−1.82; 95% confidence interval, −1.94 to −1.70) compared with a low burden (−1.49; −1.60 to −1.38). This association was robust to confounders and consistent across sites. Campylobacter infection was also associated with increased intestinal permeability and intestinal and systemic inflammation. Conclusions. Campylobacter was prevalent across diverse settings and associated with growth shortfalls. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, drinking water treatment, improved latrines, and targeted antibiotic treatment may reduce the burden of Campylobacter infection and improve growth in children in these settings. PMID:27501842

  8. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  9. Co-infection with a wheat rhabdovirus causes a reduction in Mal de Río Cuarto virus titer in its planthopper vector.

    PubMed

    Dumón, A D; Argüello Caro, E B; Mattio, M F; Alemandri, V; Del Vas, M; Truol, G

    2018-04-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) causes one of the most important diseases in maize (Zea mays L.) in Argentina and has been detected in mixed infections with a rhabdovirus closely related to Maize yellow striate virus. In nature both viruses are able to infect maize and several grasses including wheat, and are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). This work describes the interactions between MRCV and rhabdovirus within their natural vector and the consequences of such co-infection regarding virus transmission and symptom expression. First- and third-instar D. kuscheli nymphs were fed on MRCV-infected wheat plants or MRCV-rhabdovirus-infected oat plants, and two latency periods were considered. Transmission efficiency and viral load of MRCV-transmitting and non-transmitting planthoppers were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (RTqPCR). Vector transmission efficiency was related to treatments (life stages at acquisition and latency periods). Nevertheless, no correlation between transmission efficiency and type of inoculum used to infect insects with MRCV was found. Treatment by third-instar nymphs 17 days after Acquisition Access Period was the most efficient for MRCV transmission, regardless of the type of inoculum. Plants co-infected with MRCV and rhabdovirus showed the typical MRCV symptoms earlier than plants singly infected with MRCV. The transmitting planthoppers showed significantly higher MRCV titers than non-transmitting insects fed on single or mixed inocula, confirming that successful MRCV transmission is positively associated with viral accumulation in the insect. Furthermore, MRCV viral titers were higher in transmitting planthoppers that acquired this virus from a single inoculum than in those that acquired the virus from a mixed inoculum, indicating that the presence of the rhabdovirus somehow impaired MRCV replication and

  10. Absence Seizure (Petit Mal Seizure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people have many episodes daily, which interfere with school or daily activities. A child may have absence seizures for some time before an adult notices the seizures, because they're so brief. A decline in a child's learning ability may be the first sign of this ...

  11. Luminescent properties of MAl(SO4)2 Br:Eu(3+) (M = Sr or Mg) red phosphors for near-UV light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Priti B; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-02-01

    Eu(3+) -activated MAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors (where M = Mg or Sr) are successfully prepared using a wet chemical reaction technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The XRD pattern revealed that both the samples are microcrystalline in nature. PL of Eu(3+) -doped SrAl(SO4 )2 Br and MgAl(SO4 )2 Br phosphors exhibited characteristic red emission coming from the (5) D0  → (7) F2 (616 nm) electron transition, when excited by 396 nm wavelength of light. The maximum intensity of luminescence was observed at a concentration of 1 mol% Eu(3+) . The intensity of the electric dipole transition at 616 nm is greater than that of the magnetic dipole transition at 594 nm. The results showed that MAl(SO4 )2 Br:Eu(3+) , (M = Mg, Sr) phosphors have potential application in near-UV light-emitting diodes as efficient red-emitting phosphor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Application of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) for the evaluation of changes in the product molar mass during PVP-b-PAMPS synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Catalina; Castillo, Joel; Vila, Jose; Nilsson, Lars

    2018-06-01

    The use of polymers for the delivery of drugs has increased dramatically in the last decade. To ensure the desired properties and functionality of such substances, adequate characterization in terms of the molar mass (M) and size is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the M and size of PVP-b-PAMPS when the amounts of the synthesis reactants in the two-step radical reaction were varied. The determination of the M and size distributions was performed by an asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) system connected to multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors. The results show that the M of the polymers varies depending on the relative amounts of the reactants and that AF4-MALS-dRI is a powerful characterization technique for analyzing polymers. Using AF4, it was possible to separate the product of the first radical reaction (PVP-CTA) into two populations. The first population had an elongated, rod-like or random coil conformation, and the second had a conformation corresponding to homogeneous spheres or a microgel structure. PVP-b-PAMPS had only one population, which had a rod-like conformation. The molar masses of PVP-CTA and PVP-b-PAMPS found in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies.

  13. Genesis of the Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu, Ag) vein deposit. An extension-related Mesozoic vein system in the High Atlas of Morocco. Structural, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouabdellah, M.; Beaudoin, G.; Leach, D.L.; Grandia, F.; Cardellach, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) vein system, located in the northern flank of the High Atlas of Marrakech (Morocco), is hosted in a Cambro-Ordovician volcaniclastic and metasedimentary sequence composed of graywacke, siltstone, pelite, and shale interlayered with minor tuff and mudstone. Intrusion of synorogenic to postorogenic Late Hercynian peraluminous granitoids has contact metamorphosed the host rocks giving rise to a metamorphic assemblage of quartz, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, chlorite, amphibole, chloritoid, and garnet. The Assif El Mal Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) mineralization forms subvertical veins with ribbon, fault breccia, cockade, comb, and crack and seal textures. Two-phase liquid-vapor fluid inclusions that were trapped during several stages occur in quartz and sphalerite. Primary inclusion fluids exhibit Th mean values ranging from 104??C to 198??C. Final ice-melting temperatures range from -8.1??C to -12.8??C, corresponding to salinities of ???15 wt.% NaCl equiv. Halogen data suggest that the salinity of the ore fluids was largely due to evaporation of seawater. Late secondary fluid inclusions have either Ca-rich, saline (26 wt.% NaCl equiv.), or very dilute (3.5 wt.% NaCl equiv.) compositions and homogenization temperatures ranging from 75??C to 150??C. The ??18O and ??D fluid values suggest an isotopically heterogeneous fluid source involving mixing between connate seawater and black-shale-derived organic waters. Low ??13CVPDB values ranging from -7.5??? to -7.7??? indicate a homogeneous carbon source, possibly organic matter disseminated in black shale hosting the Zn-Pb (Cu-Ag) veins. The calculated ??34SH2S values for reduced sulfur (22.5??? to 24.3???) are most likely from reduction of SO42- in trapped seawater sulfate or evaporite in the host rocks. Reduction of sulfate probably occurred through thermochemical sulfate reduction in which organic matter was oxidized to produce CO2 which ultimately led to precipitation of saddle dolomite with

  14. The MAL-ED Cohort Study: Methods and Lessons Learned When Assessing Early Child Development and Caregiving Mediators in Infants and Young Children in 8 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  15. BAnd offset and magnetic property engineering for epitaxial interfaces: a Monolayer of M2O3 (M=Al, Ga, Sc, Ti, Ni) at the alpha-Fe203/alpha-Cr203 (0001) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, John E; Bachorz, Rafal A; Gutowski, Maciej S

    2007-05-01

    We have used density functional theory with the gradient corrected exchange-correlation functional PW91 to study the effect of an interfactant layer, where Fe and Cr are replaced by a different metal, on electronic and magnetic properties of an epitaxial interface between -Fe2O3 and -Cr2O3 in the hexagonal (0001) basal plane. We studied a monolayer of M2O3 (M=Al, Ga, Sc, Ti, Ni) sandwiched with 5 layers of chromia and five layers of hematite through epitaxial interfaces of two types, termed “oxygen divided” or “split metal.” We found that both the magnetic and electronic properties of the superlattice are modified by themore » interfactant monolayer. For the split metal interface, which is favored through the growth pattern of chromia and hematite, the band offset can be changed from 0.62 eV (no interfactant) up to 0.90 eV with the Sc2O3 interfactant, and down to –0.51 eV (i.e. the a-Fe2O3/a-Cr2O3 heterojunction changes from Type II to Type I) with the Ti2O3 interfactant, due to a massive interfacial charge transfer. The band gap of the system as a whole remains open for the interfactant monolayers based on Al, Ga, and Sc, but it closes for Ti. For Ni, the split-metal interface has a negative band offset and a small band gap. Thus, nanoscale engineering through layer-by-layer growth will strongly affect the macroscopic properties of this system.« less

  16. Mal-Development of the Penis and Loss of Fertility in Male Rats Treated Neonatally with Female Contraceptive 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol: A Dose-Response Study and a Comparative Study with a Known Estrogenic Teratogen Diethylstilbestrol

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Ensa; Braden, Tim D.; Williams, Carol S.; Williams, John W.; Bolden-Tiller, Olga; Goyal, Hari O.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find a minimal dose of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is detrimental to the developing penis and fertility and to compare estrogenic effects between EE and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Neonatal rats received EE at 10 ng (1 μg/kg), 100 ng, 1 μg, or 10 μg per pup on alternate days from postnatal days 1 to 11 (dose-response study) or received EE or DES at 100 ng per pup daily from postnatal days 1 to 6 (comparative study). Effects of EE were dose dependent, with ≥ 100-ng dose inducing significant (p < 0.05) reductions in penile length, weight, and diameter. Additionally, the penis was malformed, characterized by underdeveloped os penis and accumulation of fat cells. Fertility was 0% in the ≥ 1-μg groups, in contrast to 60% in the 100-ng group and 100% in the 10-ng and control groups. Animals treated with ≥ 10 ng had significant reductions in the weight of bulbospongious muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymal fat pad, and in epididymal sperm numbers. A comparison of EE and DES effects showed similar reductions in penile weight and length and the weight of bulbospongiosus muscle, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and epididymal fat pad in both adolescent and adult rats. While 5/6 control males sired, only 1/6 in the EE group and 0/6 in the DES group sired. Hence, neonatal exposure to EE at 10 ng (environmentally relevant dose) adversely affects male reproductive organs. A dose ten times higher than this leads to permanently mal-developed penis and infertility. Furthermore, EE and DES exposures show similar level of toxicity to male reproductive organs. PMID:19729556

  17. Targeting Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein/MyD88 adapter-like (TIRAP/Mal)-derived decoy peptides.

    PubMed

    Couture, Leah A; Piao, Wenji; Ru, Lisa W; Vogel, Stefanie N; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y

    2012-07-13

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapter protein/MyD88 adapter-like (TIRAP/Mal) is an adapter protein that facilitates recruitment of MyD88 to TLR4 and TLR2 signaling complexes. We previously generated a library of cell-permeating TLR4 TIR-derived decoy peptides fused to the translocating segment of the Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain and examined each peptide for the ability to inhibit TLR4 signaling (Toshchakov, V. Y., Szmacinski, H., Couture, L. A., Lakowicz, J. R., and Vogel, S. N. (2011) J. Immunol. 186, 4819-4827). We have now expanded this study to test TIRAP decoy peptides. Five TIRAP peptides, TR3 (for TIRAP region 3), TR5, TR6, TR9, and TR11, inhibited LPS-induced cytokine mRNA expression and MAPK activation. Inhibition was confirmed at the protein level; select peptides abolished the LPS-induced cytokine production measured in cell culture 24 h after a single treatment. Two of the TLR4 inhibitory peptides, TR3 and TR6, also inhibited cytokine production induced by a TLR2/TLR1 agonist, S-(2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2R,2S)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-Ser-Lys(4)-OH; however, a higher peptide concentration was required to achieve comparable inhibition of TLR2 versus TLR4 signaling. Two TLR4 inhibitory peptides, TR5 and TR6, were examined for the ability to inhibit TLR4-driven cytokine induction in mice. Pretreatment with either peptide significantly reduced circulating TNF-α and IL-6 in mice following LPS injection. This study has identified novel TLR inhibitory peptides that block cellular signaling at low micromolar concentrations in vitro and in vivo. Comparison of TLR4 inhibition by TLR4 and TIRAP TIR-derived peptides supports the view that structurally diverse regions mediate functional interactions of TIR domains.

  18. Quantification of Internal Stress-Strain Fields in Human Tendon: Unraveling the Mechanisms that Underlie Regional Tendon Adaptations and Mal-Adaptations to Mechanical Loading and the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Eccentric Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Maganaris, Constantinos N.; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis; Reeves, Neil D.; Narici, Marco V.

    2017-01-01

    of the stress created by the exercise and is not only reliant upon the type of muscle contraction performed. To better understand the micromechanical behavior and regional adaptability/mal-adaptability of tendon tissue it is important to estimate its internal stress-strain fields. Recent relevant advancements in numerical techniques related to tendon loading are discussed. PMID:28293194

  19. The MAL-ED study: a multinational and multidisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between enteric pathogens, malnutrition, gut physiology, physical growth, cognitive development, and immune responses in infants and children up to 2 years of age in resource-poor environments.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Highly prevalent conditions with multiple and complex underlying etiologies are a challenge to public health. Undernutrition, for example, affects 20% of children in the developing world. The cause and consequence of poor nutrition are multifaceted. Undernutrition has been associated with half of all deaths worldwide in children aged <5 years; in addition, its pernicious long-term effects in early childhood have been associated with cognitive and physical growth deficits across multiple generations and have been thought to suppress immunity to further infections and to reduce the efficacy of childhood vaccines. The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health (MAL-ED) Study, led by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, has been established at sites in 8 countries with historically high incidence of diarrheal disease and undernutrition. Central to the study is the hypothesis that enteropathogen infection contributes to undernutrition by causing intestinal inflammation and/or by altering intestinal barrier and absorptive function. It is further postulated that this leads to growth faltering and deficits in cognitive development. The effects of repeated enteric infection and undernutrition on the immune response to childhood vaccines is also being examined in the study. MAL-ED uses a prospective longitudinal design that offers a unique opportunity to directly address a complex system of exposures and health outcomes in the community-rather than the relatively rarer circumstances that lead to hospitalization-during the critical period of development of the first 2 years of life. Among the factors being evaluated are enteric infections (with or without diarrhea) and other illness indicators, micronutrient levels, diet, socioeconomic status, gut function, and the environment. MAL-ED aims to describe these

  20. "Denuncio pero lo lamento...": Attitudinal Hedges and the Pragmatics of the Explicitly Performative Verb in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    on hedging in a variety of languages (e.g. Myers 1989; Markannen & Schroder 1997; Hyland 2005), primarily concentrating on its use in academic writing and identifying cultural differences in the propensity to hedge between different communities of practice. Furthermore,…

  1. Countering Anti-Immigrant Discourses in the New Latino South: "Nos Mascan Pero No Nos Tragan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitts, Shanan; McClure, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The increased visibility of immigrant communities in the southeastern United States coupled with the economic recession has led to a proliferation of anti-immigrant policies and contributed to a climate which positions Latin@ immigrants and the Spanish language as foreign or threatening. In this article, we examine language ideologies related to…

  2. Pero Vaz de Caminha: an-interchange program for quality control between Brazil and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Utagawa, Maria Lúcia; di Loreto, Celso; de Freitas, Cristina; Milanezi, Fernanda; Longatto Filho, Adhemar; Pereira, Sónia Maria Miranda; Maeda, Marina Yoshiê Sakamoto; Schmitt, Fernando C

    2006-01-01

    To start an interexchange program for quality control in cervical cytology and discuss conceptual criteria for diagnosis. Slides were selected in the archives of the 2 institutes and included cases with unsatisfactory, negative and positive results. Sets of slides were changed between the partners every 3 months. At the end of each year a senior cytopathologist was invited to discuss the major discrepancies found in the study. A total of 1,041 cases were analyzed. Full concordance was obtained in 74.4% (774) of cases and discrepancies in 25.6% (267 cases). Full agreement was achieved in 276 (39%) of 707 cases categorized as negative. In 421 negative cases from laboratory A, this concordance represents 65.5% and 96.5% for laboratory B, which submitted 286 negative cases. The main discordance was the high number of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cases: 3.1% for A and 128 (33.2%) for B. Samples with discrepancies related to the quality of the material was another controversial issue: of 16 cases from laboratory A, 6 (37.5%) unsatisfactory cases were the same and 10 (62.5%) different. Laboratory B presented 20 unsatisfactory cases, and 14 (70.0%) had other diagnoses. Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion concordance ranged from 75% to 80%, and invasive carcinoma has 4 discordances (28.5%), 3 previously screened as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and 1 as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The kappa value obtained was 0.65, indicating substantial agreement. Our results indicated that atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance diagnoses are the crucial point of controversies and concern the quality of routine diagnosis in cytopathology.

  3. "Juntos Pero No Revueltos": Microaggressions and Language in the Mathematics Education of Non-Dominant Latinas/os

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LópezLeiva, Carlos A.; Khisty, Lena Licón

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of microaggressions based on minority language(s) as a form of discriminatory practice against non-dominant students in the mathematics context. Microaggressions are subtle, brief, and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or visual negative slights or insults toward people of color. We extend the concept of…

  4. "Juntos pero no revueltos": microaggressions and language in the mathematics education of non-dominant Latinas/os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LópezLeiva, Carlos A.; Khisty, Lena Licón

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of microaggressions based on minority language(s) as a form of discriminatory practice against non-dominant students in the mathematics context. Microaggressions are subtle, brief, and commonplace verbal, behavioral, or visual negative slights or insults toward people of color. We extend the concept of microaggression to include discrimination based on a minority language. We draw on our work with Latinas/os in the USA to demonstrate the occurrence of microaggressions in the teaching act. Revealing microaggressions based on language has the potential of creating more equitable learning environments for non-dominant students and can point to possible directions for future research and improvements in the preparation of teachers who serve non-dominant students who speak a language other than the school's official language.

  5. Scratching beneath the Surface of Communities of (Mal)practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Jon; Mavin, Sharon; Stalker, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to surface less positive aspects of communities of practice (CoPs), regardless of emergent or organisationally managed, grounded in political-power interactions. Examples are provided from the authors' experiences of a research-based CoP within UK higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is primarily…

  6. Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.

    PubMed

    Oyatsi, D P

    2005-08-01

    Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.

  7. Mal-Xtract: Hidden Code Extraction using Memory Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Charles; Syailendra Kotualubun, Yohanes; Suryadi; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-01-01

    Software packer has been used effectively to hide the original code inside a binary executable, making it more difficult for existing signature based anti malware software to detect malicious code inside the executable. A new method of written and rewritten memory section is introduced to to detect the exact end time of unpacking routine and extract original code from packed binary executable using Memory Analysis running in an software emulated environment. Our experiment results show that at least 97% of the original code from the various binary executable packed with different software packers could be extracted. The proposed method has also been successfully extracted hidden code from recent malware family samples.

  8. "Un trago dulce pero adentro con sabor amargo" (A Bittersweet Swallow): Constructing Counterspaces to Explore Undocumented Status across Academic, Family, and Community Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Obed; Flores, Sofia; Gallo, Sarah; Lara, María; Link, Holly; Arreguín, Diana; Peregrina, Itzel

    2016-01-01

    In this article a group of seven Latina/o immigrants, parents, advocates, and ethnographers draw on critical race theory to explore what it means to co-present on, and engage in, difficult conversations about immigration and documentation status. We theorize how, through critical collaboration motivated by our joint presentation, we co-constructed…

  9. Lactose (mal)digestion evaluated by the 13C-lactose digestion test.

    PubMed

    Vonk, R J; Lin, Y; Koetse, H A; Huang, C; Zeng, G; Elzinga, H; Antoine, J; Stellaard, F

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of genetically determined lactase nonpersistence is based on the results of the lactose H2 breath test. This test, however, is an indirect test, which might lead to misinterpretation. We determined lactase activity in healthy Chinese and Dutch students using a novel 13C-lactose digestion test. The cut-off value of this test was established in a Chinese population with a homogenous genetic background of lactase nonpersistence and was compared with the results obtained in a Caucasian population. Twenty-five grams of a 13C-lactose solution was consumed by 12 known H2-positive and 5 H2-negative Chinese students and 48 Dutch students and, subsequently, 13C-glucose concentration in plasma and H2 excretion in breath were measured. A similar 13C-glucose response curve was found in all Chinese students. The mean response curve in the Dutch students was more pronounced (P < 0.01). The 1 h (peak) plasma 13C-glucose concentration was the best discriminator between lactose digesting and maldigesting subjects. The cut-off level of 2 mmol L-1 13C-glucose in plasma was defined in the H2-positive Chinese students group. Based on the 13C-glucose response the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the Dutch subjects was 25%; based on the lactose H2 breath test 17%. Using the 13C-lactose digestion test the results demonstrate a higher prevalence of lactose maldigestion in a Caucasian population than indicated by the results of the H2 breath test. A moderate increase in the plasma 13C-glucose concentration after consumption of 13C-lactose in the young adult Chinese subjects indicates a residual lactase activity in that age group, even when a positive H2 breath test result is obtained. These results indicate that the 13C-glucose concentration in plasma more accurately reflects the small intestinal lactose digestion capacity than the lactose H2 breath test.

  10. Chronic aflatoxin exposure in children living in Bhaktapur, Nepal: Extension of the MAL-ED study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are toxic chemicals produced by molds. The molds that produce these two toxic chemicals are commonly found in corn and their co-occurence in corn has been demonstrated in many surveys. This study was conducted because it is suspected that exposure to eith...

  11. Lost in Search: (Mal-)Adaptation to Probabilistic Decision Environments in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lehmann, Anne; Lindow, Stefanie; Lang, Anna; Schoemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive decision making in probabilistic environments requires individuals to use probabilities as weights in predecisional information searches and/or when making subsequent choices. Within a child-friendly computerized environment (Mousekids), we tracked 205 children's (105 children 5-6 years of age and 100 children 9-10 years of age) and 103…

  12. Context effects and the (mal)adaptive nature of guilt and shame in children.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T J; Stegge, H; Eyre, H L; Vollmer, R; Ashbaker, M

    2000-08-01

    Symptoms of internalization were examined in relation to children's self-reports of three emotions in situations that were either ambiguous or unambiguous as to the child's responsibility for various standard violations. Children ranging in age from 6 to 13 years were drawn from elementary schools (61 boys, 79 girls, mean age = 8.7) and from a community mental health center (23 boys, 18 girls, mean age = 8.5) to which they had been referred for problems related to internalization or externalization. Shame proneness was consistently linked to internalizing symptoms across contexts. Guilt proneness, in response to ambiguous scenarios, was also associated with internalization, whereas pride responses were unrelated to symptoms. Few age- or gender-related differences were found. The results cast doubt on notions that self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, are necessarily adaptive or maladaptive. Systematic research is needed to understand which features of any emotion contribute to children's psychological adjustment.

  13. Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

  14. The (mal) adaptive value of mid-adolescent dating relationship labels.

    PubMed

    Howard, Donna E; Debnam, Katrina J; Cham, H J; Czinn, Anna; Aiken, Nancy; Jordan, Jessica; Goldman, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore adolescent dating relationships through the prism of high school girls' narratives. We probed the contexts and meanings associated with different forms of dating to better understand the developmental significance of romantic relationships during adolescence. Cross-sectional, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 high school females. The analytic approach was phenomenological and grounded in the narratives rather than based on an a priori theoretical framework. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim by research staff and entered into ATLAS.ti 6, a qualitative data-management software package, prior to analysis. Teen relationships were found to vary along a Dis-Continuum from casual hookups to "official" boyfriend/girlfriend. There was a lack of consensus, and much ambiguity, as to the substantive meaning of different relationships. Labeling dating relationships seem to facilitate acquisition of important developmental needs such as identity, affiliation, and status, while attempting to manage cognitive dissonance and emotional disappointments. Findings underscore the confusion and complexity surrounding contemporary adolescent dating. Adolescent girls are using language and social media to assist them in meeting developmental goals. Sometimes their dating labels are adaptive, other times they are a cause of stress, or concealment of unmet needs and thwarted desires. Programs focused on positive youth development need to resonate with the realities of teens' lives and more fully acknowledge the complicated dynamics of teen dating relationships and how they are formalized, publicized and negotiated.

  15. Lost in search: (Mal-)adaptation to probabilistic decision environments in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lehmann, Anne; Lindow, Stefanie; Lang, Anna; Schoemann, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Adaptive decision making in probabilistic environments requires individuals to use probabilities as weights in predecisional information searches and/or when making subsequent choices. Within a child-friendly computerized environment (Mousekids), we tracked 205 children's (105 children 5-6 years of age and 100 children 9-10 years of age) and 103 adults' (age range: 21-22 years) search behaviors and decisions under different probability dispersions (.17; .33, .83 vs. .50, .67, .83) and constraint conditions (instructions to limit search: yes vs. no). All age groups limited their depth of search when instructed to do so and when probability dispersion was high (range: .17-.83). Unlike adults, children failed to use probabilities as weights for their searches, which were largely not systematic. When examining choices, however, elementary school children (unlike preschoolers) systematically used probabilities as weights in their decisions. This suggests that an intuitive understanding of probabilities and the capacity to use them as weights during integration is not a sufficient condition for applying simple selective search strategies that place one's focus on weight distributions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Psaki, Stephanie; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Shamsir; Bessong, Pascal; Islam, Munirul; John, Sushil; Kosek, Margaret; Lima, Aldo; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; Shrestha, Prakash; Svensen, Erling; McGrath, Monica; Richard, Stephanie; Seidman, Jessica; Caulfield, Laura; Miller, Mark; Checkley, William

    2012-12-13

    Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0-27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition.

  17. MalWebID-Autodetection and Identification of Malicious Web Hosts Through Live Traffic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    blogs, video services, and popular social media sites. In December 2000, there were near 361 million Internet users and by the end of December 2012...site (i.e., Porn , Rx/Pharmaceutical, illegal activity, etc.) – propagate or contain viruses, spyware, or other harmful programs, participate in spamming

  18. Hydrodynamic Versus Size-Exclusion Chromatography Characterization of Alternan and Comparison to Off-Line MALS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternan is an ultra-high molar mass polysaccharide composed of two different types of glycosidic linkages and which also possesses long-chain branching. It has great potential in a number of areas, including as a possible domestic replacement for gum Arabic. The high molar mass and large size of ...

  19. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  20. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-07-11

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild-moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex(©) camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1-3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL-PDT's increasing compliance.

  1. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Carmen; Paolino, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Didona, Dario; Scarno, Marco; Faina, Valentina; Gobello, Tommaso; Calvieri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK), considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild−moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex© camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female) were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1–3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits of DL-PDT’s increasing compliance. PMID:27409613

  2. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to malnutrition. PMID:23237098

  3. Norovirus Infection and Acquired Immunity in 8 Countries: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Saba; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Siguas Salas, Mery; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Mondal, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Platts-Mills, James; Samie, Amidou; Kabir, Furqan; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl J.; Kalam, Adil; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lima, Ila; Ramdass, Rakhi; Lang, Dennis; George, Ajila; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life. Methods. A birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 countries contributed 7077 diarrheal stools for norovirus testing. A subset of 199 children contributed additional asymptomatic samples (2307) and diarrheal stools (770), which were used to derive incidence rates and evaluate evidence for acquired immunity. Results. Across sites, 89% of children experienced at least 1 norovirus infection before 24 months, and 22.7% of all diarrheal stools were norovirus positive. Severity of norovirus-positive diarrhea was comparable to other enteropathogens, with the exception of rotavirus. Incidence of genogroup II (GII) infection was higher than genogroup I and peaked at 6–11 months across sites. Undernutrition was a risk factor for symptomatic norovirus infection, with an increase in 1 standard deviation of length-for-age z score associated with a 17% reduction (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, .72–.97]; P = .011) in the odds of experiencing diarrhea when norovirus was present, after accounting for genogroup, rotavirus vaccine, and age. Evidence of acquired immunity was observed among GII infections only: Children with prior GII infection were found to have a 27% reduction in the hazard of subsequent infection (hazard ratio, 0.727; P = .010). Conclusions. The high prevalence of norovirus across 8 sites in highly variable epidemiologic settings and demonstration of protective immunity for GII infections provide support for investment in vaccine development. PMID:27013692

  4. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... itemize receipts, and other data, as required, or a pre-processed electronic file containing data required...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.418 - Submitting MAL and LDP documentation to FSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disbursement date, peanut type, warehouse code, and State where peanuts were inspected; and (2) LDPs with the... this section shall be submitted to FSA with the following documents: (1) Individual paper warehouse... itemize receipts, and other data, as required, or a pre-processed electronic file containing data required...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMIC ACID SIZE FRACTIONS BY SEC AND MALS (R822832)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Latahco silt-loam humic acid was separated on a preparatory scale by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a gravity-fed Sepharose column. Four fractions from this separation were collected and further analyzed, along with whole humic acid, by high-performance SEC coupled with a...

  7. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non-breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child's life. Common reasons for introducing non-breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended.

  8. [Overweight, obesity and chronic mal nutrition in 6 to 9 year-old children in Peru, 2009-2010].

    PubMed

    Pajuelo-Ramírez, Jaime; Sánchez-Abanto, José; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Agüero-Zamora, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and chronic malnutrition in 6- to 9-year-old children in Peru. A cross-cutting study based on the 2009-2010 National Household Survey. The size/age ratio was analyzed with references of the National Center for Health Statistic (NCSH) and the World Health Organization (WHO), considering less than two standard deviations for chronic malnutrition (CM); and the Must and WHO reference tables to measure the body mass index with 85 to 95 percentile values for overweight and above 95 for obesity. With Must as reference, overweight was 12.1% and obesity 9.4%, and according to WHO overweight and obesity were 10.2 and 11.3% respectively. The prevalence of CM according to NCSH and WHO is 15.4 and 17.8% respectively. The highest prevalence of CM is in the north (25.2%), center (22.9%) and south of (19%) the Highland, while obesity is more present in the south coast (28%), Metropolitan Lima (22.8%) and the central Coast (22.5%). Of all the children with CM, 6.5% has overweight and 1.2% obesity. CM is decreasing because size averages have improved, however obesity has doubled. The presence of CM and obesity in children aged 6 to 9 years old in different regions of Peru poses a challenge in the planning of food and nutrition policies.

  9. Motion Sickness: Significance in Aerospace Operations and Prophylaxis (Le Mal des Transports: Son Importance pour les Operations Aerospatiales et Prophylaxies)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    description of motion sickness will be based on the assumption that only one peculiar thing happens: a poison response is provoked by motion. Common sense...available for study , because it can be produced for study without the complicating presence of a poison. It is produced by a motion stimulus that...34nausea occurred only during gastric relaxation and hypomotility" (26). The electrical activity of the gut has also been studied during motion

  10. Effects of cognitive control training on the dynamics of (mal)adaptive emotion regulation in daily life.

    PubMed

    Hoorelbeke, Kristof; Koster, Ernst H W; Demeyer, Ineke; Loeys, Tom; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive control plays a key role in both adaptive emotion regulation, such as positive reappraisal, and maladaptive emotion regulation, such as rumination, with both strategies playing a major role in resilience and well-being. As a result, cognitive control training (CCT) targeting working memory functioning may have the potential to reduce maladaptive emotion regulation and increase adaptive emotion regulation. The current study explored the effects of CCT on positive reappraisal ability in a lab context, and deployment and efficacy of positive appraisal and rumination in daily life. A sample of undergraduates (n = 83) was allocated to CCT or an active control condition, performing 10 online training sessions over a period of 14 days. Effects on regulation of affective states in daily life were assessed using experience sampling over a 7-day posttraining period. Results revealed a positive association between baseline cognitive control and self-reported use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, whereas maladaptive emotion regulation strategies showed a negative association. CCT showed transfer to working memory functioning on the dual n-back task. Overall, effects of CCT on emotion regulation were limited to reducing deployment of rumination in low positive affective states. However, we did not find beneficial effects on indicators of adaptive emotion regulation. These findings are in line with previous studies targeting maladaptive emotion regulation but suggest limited use in enhancing adaptive emotion regulation in a healthy sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Adult scurvy in New France: Samuel de Champlain's "Mal de la terre" at Saint Croix Island, 1604-1605.

    PubMed

    Crist, Thomas A; Sorg, Marcella H

    2014-06-01

    Diagnosing scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) in adult skeletal remains is difficult despite documentary evidence of its past prevalence. Analysis of 20 European colonists buried at Saint Croix Island in New France during the winter of 1604-1605, accompanied by their leader Samuel de Champlain's eyewitness account of their symptoms, provided the opportunity to document lesions of adult scurvy within a tightly dated historical context. Previous diagnoses of adult scurvy have relied predominantly on the presence of periosteal lesions of the lower limbs and excessive antemortem tooth loss. Our analysis suggests that, when observed together, reactive lesions of the oral cavity associated with palatal inflammation and bilateral lesions at the mastication muscle attachment sites support the differential diagnosis of adult scurvy. Antemortem loss of the anterior teeth, however, is not a reliable diagnostic indicator. Employing a biocultural interpretive approach, analysis of these early colonists' skeletal remains enhances current understanding of the methods that medical practitioners used to treat the disorder during the Age of Discovery, performing rudimentary oral surgery and autopsies. Although limited by a small sample and taphonomic effects, this analysis strongly supports the use of weighted paleopathological criteria to diagnose adult scurvy based on the co-occurrence of specific porotic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Childhood: Endocrine-Metabolic “Mal-Programming”

    PubMed Central

    Manti, Sara; Romano, Claudio; Chirico, Valeria; Filippelli, Martina; Cuppari, Caterina; Loddo, Italia; Salpietro, Carmelo; Arrigo, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities (inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis), ranging from accumulation of fat (also known as steatosis) towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of NAFLD in children is significantly increased. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for the major studies published from 1998 to today. The databases searched were: PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, Midline and Cochrane Library. We used the key words: "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, children, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver". Results: NAFLD/NASH is probably promoted by “multiple parallel hits”: environmental and genetic factors, systemic immunological disorders (oxidative stress, persistent-low grade of inflammation) as well as obesity and metabolic alterations (insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome). However its exact cause still underdiagnosed and unknown. Conclusions: Pediatric NAFLD/NASH is emerging problem. Longitudinal follow-up studies, unfortunately still insufficient, are needed to better understand the natural history and outcome of NAFLD in children. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, environmental, genetic and metabolic factors of disease. The review also highlights the importance of studying the underlying mechanisms of pediatric NAFLD and the need for complete and personalized approach in the management of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:24829591

  13. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. Objective To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Methods Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Results Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non–breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child’s life. Common reasons for introducing non–breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Conclusion Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended. PMID:28958169

  14. malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination. PMID:29190291

  15. malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication.

    PubMed

    2017-11-01

    Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination.

  16. When the Border Educates: Malín Alegria's "Sofi Mendoza's Guide to Getting Lost in Mexico" (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarraran-Bigalondo, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    The border between the United States and Mexico, since it was first conceived in 1848, has marked the lives of those who live on both of its sides, as well as of those who want to cross it. It has also become the source of a vast array of theoretical and artistic work. Chicano writers have written about it, and so have theorists dealt with its…

  17. Stress-induced neuroplasticity: (mal)adaptation to adverse life events in patients with PTSD--a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, S; Storchak, H; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C

    2014-12-26

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and associated neurochemical reactions, following glucocorticoid release from the adrenal glands, accompanied by rapid physiological responses. Stimulation of this pathway results in the activation of specific brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex which are enriched with glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Recent findings indicate that the activation of GRs mediates the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is crucial for neural plasticity, as it promotes cellular growth and synaptic changes. Hence stress-induced activation of these pathways leads to neuroplastic changes, including the formation of long-lasting memories of the experiences. As a consequence, organisms can learn from stressful events and respond in an adaptive manner to similar demands in the future. Whereas an optimal stress level leads to enhancement of memory performance, the exposure to extreme, traumatic or chronic stressors is a risk factor for psychopathologies which are associated with memory impairment and cognitive deficits such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review article, we will outline the implications of stress exposure on memory formation involving the role of glucocorticoids and BDNF. Within this context, potential adverse effects of neuroplastic alterations will be discussed using the example of PTSD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of maltose fermentation genes in the baking yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Tonomura, K

    1996-10-01

    The presence of any one of the five unlinked MAL loci (MAL1, MAL2, MAL3, MAL4 and MAL6) confers the ability to ferment maltose on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each locus is composed of three genes encoding maltose permease, alpha-glucosidase and MAL activator. Chromosomal DNA of seven representative baking strains has been separated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and probed with three genes in MAL6 locus. The DNA bands to which all of the three MAL-derived probes simultaneously hybridized were chromosome VII carrying MAL1 in all of the strains tested, chromosome XI carrying MAL4 in six strains, chromosome III carrying MAL2 in three strains and chromosomes II and VIII carrying MAL3 and MAL6, respectively, in the one strain. The number of MAL loci in baking strains was comparable to those of brewing strains.

  19. Extraction of hyaluronic acid (HA) from rooster comb and characterization using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled with multiangle light scattering (MALS).

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Won-Suk; Heo, In Sook; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Seungho

    2010-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted in a relatively large scale from rooster comb using a method similar to that reported previously. The extraction method was modified to simplify and to reduce time and cost in order to accommodate a large-scale extraction. Five hundred grams of frozen rooster combs yielded about 500 mg of dried HA. Extracted HA was characterized using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled online to a multiangle light scattering detector and a refractive index detector to determine the molecular size, molecular weight (MW) distribution, and molecular conformation of HA. For characterization of HA, AsFlFFF was operated by a simplified two-step procedure, instead of the conventional three-step procedure, where the first two steps (sample loading and focusing) were combined into one to avoid the adsorption of viscous HA onto the channel membrane. The simplified two-step AsFlFFF yielded reasonably good separations of HA molecules based on their MWs. The weight average MW (M(w) ) and the average root-mean-square (RMS) radius of HA extracted from rooster comb were 1.20×10(6) and 94.7 nm, respectively. When the sample solution was filtered through a 0.45 μm disposable syringe filter, they were reduced down to 3.8×10(5) and 50.1 nm, respectively. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A review of exosome separation techniques and characterization of B16-F10 mouse melanoma exosomes with AF4-UV-MALS-DLS-TEM.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kevin E; Manangon, Eliana; Hood, Joshua L; Wickline, Samuel A; Fernandez, Diego P; Johnson, William P; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-12-01

    Exosomes participate in cancer metastasis, but studying them presents unique challenges as a result of their small size and purification difficulties. Asymmetrical field flow fractionation with in-line ultraviolet absorbance, dynamic light scattering, and multi-angle light scattering was applied to the size separation and characterization of non-labeled B16-F10 exosomes from an aggressive mouse melanoma cell culture line. Fractions were collected and further analyzed using batch mode dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and compared with known size standards. Fractogram peak positions and computed radii show good agreement between samples and across fractions. Ultraviolet absorbance fractograms in combination with transmission electron micrographs were able to resolve subtle heterogeneity of vesicle retention times between separate batches of B16-F10 exosomes collected several weeks apart. Further, asymmetrical field flow fractionation also effectively separated B16-F10 exosomes into vesicle subpopulations by size. Overall, the flow field flow fractionation instrument combined with multiple detectors was able to rapidly characterize and separate exosomes to a degree not previously demonstrated. These approaches have the potential to facilitate a greater understanding of exosome function by subtype, as well as ultimately allow for "label-free" isolation of large scale clinical exosomes for the purpose of developing future exosome-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

  1. One-Step Condensation and Hydrogenation of Furfural-Acetone Using Mixed and Single Catalyst Based on Ni/M-Oxide [M=Al; Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfa, S. M.; Pramesti, I. N.; Mustafidah, H.

    2018-01-01

    Modification of furfural by condensation and hydrogenation reaction is a promising approach to produce higher alkane derivatives (C8-C13) as diesel fraction. This research investigated the catalytic activity of Ni/MgO as bifunctional catalyst compared with MgO-Ni/Al2O3 mixed catalyst for condensation-hydrogenation reaction. The Ni/MgO and Ni/Al2O3 with 20% Ni loading were prepared by wet impregnation methods using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O salt, calcined and reduced at 500°C. The catalyst performance was tested for one-step condensation-hydrogenation reaction using autoclave oil batch reactor. The reaction was conducted by reacting furfural and acetone in 1:1 ratio using water as solvent. Condensation reaction was performed at 100°C for 8 hours, followed by hydrogenation at 120°C during 7 hours. Analysis by gas chromatography showed that C=C double bond of furfurylidene acetone were successfully hydrogenated. Using Ni/MgO catalyst at 120°C, the products were identified as 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-penta-1-ene-3-one (2.68%) and 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-pentan-3-one (trace amount). On the other hand, reaction using mixed catalyst, MgO-Ni/Al2O3 showed better activity over bifunctional Ni/MgO at the same reaction temperature. The products were identified as 4-(2-furanyl)-3-butan-2-one (27.30%); 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-penta-1-ene-3-one (3.82%) and 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-pentan-3-one (1.11%). The impregnation of Ni on MgO decrease the physical properties of catalyst, confirmed by surface area analysis (SAA).

  2. Childhood stunting in relation to the pre- and postnatal environment during the first 2 years of life: The MAL-ED longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Stunting is the most prevalent manifestation of childhood malnutrition. To characterize factors that contribute to stunting in resource-poor settings, we studied a priori selected biological and social factors collected longitudinally in a cohort of newborns. Methods and findings We enrolled 1,868 children across 7 resource-poor settings in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania shortly after birth and followed them for 24 months between 2 November 2009 and 28 February 2014. We collected longitudinal anthropometry, sociodemographic factors, maternal-reported illnesses, and antibiotic use; child feeding practices; dietary intake starting at 9 months; and longitudinal blood, urine, and stool samples to investigate non-diarrheal enteropathogens, micronutrients, gut inflammation and permeability, and systemic inflammation. We categorized length-for-age Z-scores into 3 groups (not stunted, ≥−1; at risk, <−1 to −2; and stunted, <−2), and used multivariable ordinal logistic regression to model the cumulative odds of being in a lower length-for-age category (at risk or stunted). A total of 1,197 children with complete longitudinal data were available for analysis. The prevalence of having a length-for-age Z-score below −1 increased from 43% (range 37%–47% across sites) shortly after birth (mean 7.7 days post-delivery, range 0 to 17 days) to 74% (16%–96%) at 24 months. The prevalence of stunting increased 3-fold during this same time period. Factors that contributed to the odds of being in a lower length-for-age category at 24 months were lower enrollment weight-for-age (interquartile cumulative odds ratio = 1.82, 95% CI 1.49–2.23), shorter maternal height (2.38, 1.89–3.01), higher number of enteropathogens in non-diarrheal stools (1.36, 1.07–1.73), lower socioeconomic status (1.75, 1.20–2.55), and lower percent of energy from protein (1.39, 1.13–1.72). Site-specific analyses suggest that reported associations were similar across settings. While loss to follow-up and missing data are inevitable, some study sites had greater loss to follow-up and more missing data than others, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions Neonatal and maternal factors were early determinants of lower length-for-age, and their contribution remained important throughout the first 24 months of life, whereas the average number of enteropathogens in non-diarrheal stools, socioeconomic status, and dietary intake became increasingly important contributors by 24 months relative to neonatal and maternal factors. PMID:29069076

  3. A review of exosome separation techniques and characterization of B16-F10 mouse melanoma exosomes with AF4-UV-MALS-DLS-TEM

    PubMed Central

    Manangon, Eliana; Hood, Joshua L.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Johnson, William P.; Gale, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes participate in cancer metastasis, but studying them presents unique challenges as a result of their small size and purification difficulties. Asymmetrical field flow fractionation with in-line ultraviolet absorbance, dynamic light scattering, and multi-angle light scattering was applied to the size separation and characterization of non-labeled B16-F10 exosomes from an aggressive mouse melanoma cell culture line. Fractions were collected and further analyzed using batch mode dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and compared with known size standards. Fractogram peak positions and computed radii show good agreement between samples and across fractions. Ultraviolet absorbance fractograms in combination with transmission electron micrographs were able to resolve subtle heterogeneity of vesicle retention times between separate batches of B16-F10 exosomes collected several weeks apart. Further, asymmetrical field flow fractionation also effectively separated B16-F10 exosomes into vesicle subpopulations by size. Overall, the flow field flow fractionation instrument combined with multiple detectors was able to rapidly characterize and separate exosomes to a degree not previously demonstrated. These approaches have the potential to facilitate a greater understanding of exosome function by subtype, as well as ultimately allow for “label-free” isolation of large scale clinical exosomes for the purpose of developing future exosome-based diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25084738

  4. Using Rasch Analysis to Validate the Motor Activity Log and the Lower Functioning Motor Activity Log in Patients With Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chuang, I-Ching; Lin, Keh-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The Motor Activity Log (MAL) and Lower-Functioning MAL (LF-MAL) are used to assess the amount of use of the more impaired arm and the quality of movement during activities in real-life situations for patients with stroke. This study used Rasch analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the MAL and LF-MAL in patients with stroke. This is a methodological study. The MAL and LF-MAL include 2 scales: the amount of use (AOU) and the quality of movement (QOM). Rasch analysis was used to examine the unidimensionality, item difficulty hierarchy, targeting, reliability, and differential item functioning (DIF) of the MAL and LF-MAL. A total of 403 patients with mild or moderate stroke completed the MAL, and 134 patients with moderate/severe stroke finished the LF-MAL. Evidence of disordered thresholds and poor model fit were found both in the MAL and LF-MAL. After the rating categories were collapsed and misfit items were deleted, all items of the revised MAL and LF-MAL exhibited ordering and constituted unidimensional constructs. The person-item map showed that these assessments were difficult for our participants. The person reliability coefficients of these assessments ranged from .79 to .87. No items in the revised MAL and LF-MAL exhibited bias related to patients' characteristics. One limitation is the recruited patients, who have relatively high-functioning ability in the LF-MAL. The revised MAL and LF-MAL are unidimensional scales and have good reliability. The categories function well, and responses to all items in these assessments are not biased by patients' characteristics. However, the revised MAL and LF-MAL both showed floor effect. Further study might add easy items for assessing the performance of activity in real-life situations for patients with stroke. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  5. A multi-center, open-label trial to compare the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of Artemether-Lumefantrine in children with severe acute malnutrition versus children without severe acute malnutrition: study protocol for the MAL-NUT study.

    PubMed

    Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Dicko, Alassane; Baudin, Elisabeth; Guindo, Ousmane; Grandesso, Francesco; Sagara, Issaka; Lasry, Estrella; Palma, Pedro Pablo; Parra, Angeles M Lima; Stepniewska, Kasia; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Barnes, Karen I; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Etard, Jean-François

    2015-06-12

    Malnutrition and malaria frequently coexist in sub-Saharan African countries. Studies on efficacy of antimalarial treatments usually follow the WHO standardized protocol in which severely malnourished children are systematically excluded. Few studies have assessed the efficacy of chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine in severe acute malnourished children. Overall, efficacy of these treatments appeared to be reduced, attributed to lower immunity and for some antimalarials altered pharmacokinetic profiles and lower drug concentrations. However, similar research on the efficacy and pharmacokinetic profiles of artemisinin-combination therapies (ACTs) and especially artemether-lumefantrine in malnourished children is currently lacking. The main objective of this study is to assess whether artemether-lumefantrine is less efficacious in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) compared to non-SAM children, and if so, to what extent this can be attributed to a sub-optimal pharmacokinetic profile. In two sites, Ouelessebougou, Mali and Maradi, Niger, children with uncomplicated microscopically-confirmed P. falciparum malaria aged between 6 and 59 months will be enrolled. Two non-SAM children will be enrolled after the enrolment of each SAM case. Children with severe manifestations of malaria or complications of acute malnutrition needing intensive treatment will be excluded. Treatment intakes will be supervised and children will be followed-up for 42 days, according to WHO guidance for surveillance of antimalarial drug efficacy. Polymerase Chain Reaction genotyping will be used to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection. SAM children will also benefit from the national nutritional rehabilitation program. Outcomes will be compared between the SAM and non-SAM populations. The primary outcome will be adequate clinical and parasitological response at day 28 after PCR correction, estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. To assess the pharmacokinetic profile of lumefantrine, a sparse sampling approach will be used with randomized allocation of sampling times (5 per child). A total of 180 SAM children and 360 non-SAM children will be recruited during the 2013 and 2014 malaria seasons. This study will provide important information that is currently lacking on the effect of SAM on therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of artemether-lumefantrine. If it shows lower therapeutic efficacy and decreased lumefantrine concentrations, it would inform dose optimization studies in SAM children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01958905.

  6. Infant Nutritional Status, Feeding Practices, Enteropathogen Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Illness Are Associated with Gut Barrier Function As Assessed by the Lactulose Mannitol Test in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gwenyth O; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Seidman, Jessica C; Kosek, Margaret N; Haque, Rashidul; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Lima, Aldo A M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kang, Gagandeep; Samie, Amidou; Amour, Caroline; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Oliveira, Domingos B; Alam, Didar; Babji, Sudhir; Bessong, Pascal; Mduma, Estomih; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L; Caulfield, Laura E; For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators

    2017-07-01

    The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio. A total of 6,602 LM tests were conducted in 1,980 children at 3, 6, 9, and 15 months old; percent lactulose excretion, percent mannitol excretion, and the L/M ratio were expressed as age- and sex-specific normalized values using the Brazil cohort as the reference population. Among the factors considered, recent severe diarrhea, lower socioeconomic status, and recent asymptomatic enteropathogen infections were associated with decreased percent mannitol excretion and higher L/M ratios. Poorer concurrent weight-for-age, infection, and recent breastfeeding were associated with increased percent lactulose excretion and increased L/M ratios. Our results support previously reported associations between the L/M ratio and factors related to child nutritional status and enteropathogen exposure. These results were remarkably consistent across sites and support the hypothesis that the frequency of these exposures in communities living in poverty leads to alterations in gut barrier function.

  7. Environmental Assessment Facility Renovation / New Construction and Operation of Marine Corps Units (MAG-42, HMLA-773 and MALS-42) Relocated from Naval Air Station Atlanta to Robins Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-16

    activities within the area do not significantly adversely or significantly positively impact storm water quality . The Proposed Construction Area does...adversely impact storm water quality . Existing buildings receive limited runoff from the adjacent area to the west; however, no indications of adverse... water quality . Existing buildings receive limited runoff from the adjacent area to the north and west; however, no indications of adverse environmental

  8. Infant Nutritional Status, Feeding Practices, Enteropathogen Exposure, Socioeconomic Status, and Illness Are Associated with Gut Barrier Function As Assessed by the Lactulose Mannitol Test in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Seidman, Jessica C.; Kosek, Margaret N.; Haque, Rashidul; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Lima, Aldo A. M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Kang, Gagandeep; Samie, Amidou; Amour, Caroline; Mason, Carl J.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Oliveira, Domingos B.; Alam, Didar; Babji, Sudhir; Bessong, Pascal; Mduma, Estomih; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Lang, Dennis R.; Gottlieb, Michael; Guerrant, Richard L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio. A total of 6,602 LM tests were conducted in 1,980 children at 3, 6, 9, and 15 months old; percent lactulose excretion, percent mannitol excretion, and the L/M ratio were expressed as age- and sex-specific normalized values using the Brazil cohort as the reference population. Among the factors considered, recent severe diarrhea, lower socioeconomic status, and recent asymptomatic enteropathogen infections were associated with decreased percent mannitol excretion and higher L/M ratios. Poorer concurrent weight-for-age, infection, and recent breastfeeding were associated with increased percent lactulose excretion and increased L/M ratios. Our results support previously reported associations between the L/M ratio and factors related to child nutritional status and enteropathogen exposure. These results were remarkably consistent across sites and support the hypothesis that the frequency of these exposures in communities living in poverty leads to alterations in gut barrier function. PMID:28719336

  9. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, and other oilseeds as...

  11. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, and other oilseeds as...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... seed, canola, rapeseed, safflower, flaxseed, mustard seed, crambe, sesame seed, and other oilseeds as...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.401 - DMA responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... peanut MAL, and LDP program training offered by CCC. (4) Provide sufficient personnel, computer hardware, computer communications systems, and software, as determined necessary by CCC, to administer the peanut MAL...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.401 - DMA responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... peanut MAL, and LDP program training offered by CCC. (4) Provide sufficient personnel, computer hardware, computer communications systems, and software, as determined necessary by CCC, to administer the peanut MAL...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.401 - DMA responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... peanut MAL, and LDP program training offered by CCC. (4) Provide sufficient personnel, computer hardware, computer communications systems, and software, as determined necessary by CCC, to administer the peanut MAL...

  16. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Efficacy of ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: 12-month follow-up results of a prospective, randomized, comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Kim, K H; Song, K-H

    2015-07-01

    Early identification and treatment of actinic cheilitis (AC) is recommended. Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapeutic option for AC, PDT for AC does not result in the same satisfactory outcomes as in actinic keratosis (AK). The aim of our study was to compare efficacy, recurrence rate, cosmetic outcome and safety between erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet ablative fractional laser-assisted methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT (Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT) and standard MAL-PDT. Thirty-three patients with histologically confirmed AC randomly received either one session of Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT or two sessions of MAL-PDT. In the MAL-PDT group, the second session of MAL-PDT was administered 7 days later. Patients were followed up at 1 week and 3 and 12 months, and biopsies were taken from all patients at 3 and 12 months after the last treatment session. At the final 12-month follow-up, cosmetic outcomes were assessed. Adverse events were assessed at week 1 of the treatment phase and every subsequent follow-up visit. In the per-protocol (PP) population, Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT was significantly more effective (92% complete response rate) than MAL-PDT (59%; P = 0.040) at the 3-month follow-up, and differences in efficacy remained significant at the 12-month follow-up (85% in Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and 29% in MAL-PDT). The recurrence rate was significantly lower for Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT (8%) than for MAL-PDT (50%) group at 12 months (P = 0.029). No significant difference in cosmetic outcome or safety was observed between Er:YAG AFL MAL-PDT and MAL-PDT. Ablative fractional laser pretreatment has significant benefit for the treatment of AC with PDT. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: matsuura.yoshiyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Highlights: {yields} MAL has a bipartite NLS that binds to Imp{alpha} in an extended conformation. {yields} Mutational analyses verified the functional significance of MAL-Imp{alpha} interactions. {yields} Induced folding and NLS-masking by G-actins inhibit nuclear import of MAL. -- Abstract: The coordination of cytoskeletal actin dynamics with gene expression reprogramming is emerging as a crucial mechanism to control diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, differentiation and neuronal circuit assembly. The actin-binding transcriptional coactivator MAL (also known as MRTF-A/MKL1/BSAC) senses G-actin concentration and transduces Rho GTPase signals to serum response factor (SRF). MAL rapidly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus inmore » unstimulated cells but Rho-induced depletion of G-actin leads to MAL nuclear accumulation and activation of transcription of SRF:MAL-target genes. Although the molecular and structural basis of actin-regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of MAL is not understood fully, it is proposed that nuclear import of MAL is mediated by importin {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer, and that G-actin competes with importin {alpha}/{beta} for the binding to MAL. Here we present structural, biochemical and cell biological evidence that MAL has a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal 'RPEL' domain containing Arg-Pro-X-X-X-Glu-Leu (RPEL) motifs. The NLS residues of MAL adopt an extended conformation and bind along the surface groove of importin-{alpha}, interacting with the major- and minor-NLS binding sites. We also present a crystal structure of wild-type MAL RPEL domain in complex with five G-actins. Comparison of the importin-{alpha}- and actin-complexes revealed that the binding of G-actins to MAL is associated with folding of NLS residues into a helical conformation that is inappropriate for importin-{alpha} recognition.« less

  19. Endocytosis of a maltose permease is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Mizuki; Ichikawa, Takanori; Matsuura, Yuka; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, amylolytic enzyme production is induced by the presence of maltose. Previously, we identified a putative maltose permease (MalP) gene in the maltose-utilizing cluster of A. oryzae. malP disruption causes a significant decrease in α-amylase activity and maltose consumption, indicating that MalP is a maltose transporter required for amylolytic enzyme production in A. oryzae. Although the expression of amylase genes and malP is repressed by the presence of glucose, the effect of glucose on the abundance of functional MalP is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of glucose and other carbon sources on the subcellular localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged MalP. After glucose addition, GFP-MalP at the plasma membrane was internalized and delivered to the vacuole. This glucose-induced internalization of GFP-MalP was inhibited by treatment with latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Furthermore, GFP-MalP internalization was inhibited by repressing the HECT ubiquitin ligase HulA (ortholog of yeast Rsp5). These results suggest that MalP is transported to the vacuole by endocytosis in the presence of glucose. Besides glucose, mannose and 2-deoxyglucose also induced the endocytosis of GFP-MalP and amylolytic enzyme production was inhibited by the addition of these sugars. However, neither the subcellular localization of GFP-MalP nor amylolytic enzyme production was influenced by the addition of xylose or 3-O-methylglucose. These results imply that MalP endocytosis is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maltopentaose-conjugated CTA for RAFT polymerization generating nanostructured bioresource-block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Daichi; Otsuka, Issei; Borsali, Redouane; Takeda, Koichi; Enomoto, Kazushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou; Narumi, Atsushi

    2014-12-08

    We now describe the synthesis of a new family of oligosaccharide-conjugated functional molecules, which act as chain transfer agents (CTAs) for the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The synthesis was started from the catalyst-free direct N-glycosyl reaction of 5-azidopentylamine onto maltopentaose (Mal5) in dry methanol at room temperature and subsequent N-protected reaction with acetic anhydride, producing a stable oligosaccharide-building block, such as Mal5 with an azidopentyl group (Mal5-N3). The azido group was hydrogenated using platinum dioxide (PtO2) as a catalyst to give Mal5 with aminopentyl group (Mal5-NH2), which was then reacted with CTA molecules bearing activated ester moieties. These reactions produced Mal5-modified macro-CTAs (Mal5-CTAs, 1), which were used for the RAFT polymerizations of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) in DMF. The polymerizations were performed using the [M]0/[1]0 values ranging from 50 to 600, affording the Mal5-hybrid amphiphilic block copolymers (BCPs), such as Mal5-polystyrene (2) and Mal5-poly(methyl methacrylate) (3), with a quantitative end-functionality and the controlled molecular weights between 4310 and 20 300 g mol(-1). The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were accomplished for 2 and 3 to ensure their abilities to form phase separated structures in their bulk states with the increasing temperatures from 30 to 190 °C. The featured results were observed for 2 (ϕMal5 = 0.14) and 3 (ϕMal5 = 0.16) at temperatures above 100 °C, where ϕMal5 denotes the volume fraction of the Mal5 unit in the BCP sample. For both BCP samples, the primary scattering peaks q* were clearly observed together with the higher-ordered scattering peaks √2q* and √3q*. Thus, these Mal5-hybrid amphiphilic BCP samples have a body centered cubic (BCC) phase morphology. The domain spacing (d) values of the BCC morphology for 2 (ϕMal5 = 0.14) and 3 (ϕMal5 = 0.16) were 10.4 and 9

  1. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  2. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  3. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  4. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  5. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. (vii) EAL mode=Aldehydes grams/BHP-hr=MAL mode/Measured BHP in mode. Where: MAL mode=Total aldehyde mass emissions (grams per hour) for each test mode. (2... mode=(DCH2O/106)30.026(DVol)/Vm MCH2O mode=(WCH2O/106)30.026(WVol)/Vm (1) If aldehydes are measured...

  6. Molecular characterization of group A Streptococcus maltodextrin catabolism and its role in pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Keith, David B.; Davenport, Michael T.; Horstmann, Nicola; Brennan, Richard G.; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We previously demonstrated that the cell-surface lipoprotein MalE contributes to GAS maltose/maltodextrin utilization, but MalE inactivation does not completely abrogate GAS catabolism of maltose or maltotriose. Using a genome-wide approach, we identified the GAS phosphotransferase system (PTS) responsible for non-MalE maltose/maltotriose transport. This PTS is encoded by an open reading frame (M5005_spy1692) previously annotated as ptsG based on homology with the glucose PTS in Bacillus subtilis. Genetic inactivation of M5005_spy1692 significantly reduced transport rates of radiolabeled maltose and maltotriose, but not glucose, leading us to propose its reannotation as malT for maltose transporter. The ΔmalT, ΔmalE, and ΔmalE:malT strains were significantly attenuated in their growth in human saliva and in their ability to catabolize α-glucans digested by purified human salivary α-amylase. Compared to wild-type, the three isogenic mutant strains were significantly impaired in their ability to colonize the mouse oropharynx. Finally, we discovered that the transcript levels of maltodextrin utilization genes are regulated by competitive binding of the maltose repressor MalR and catabolite control protein A. These data provide novel insights into regulation of the GAS maltodextrin genes and their role in GAS host-pathogen interaction, thereby increasing the understanding of links between nutrient acquisition and virulence in common human pathogens. PMID:18485073

  7. Celiac Plexus Block as a Predictor of Surgical Outcome for Sympathetically Mediated Abdominal Pain in a Case of Suspected Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuo; Fritz, David A; Turner, Suzanne; Hardy, David M; Meiler, Steffen E; Martin, Dan C; Dua, Anterpreet

    2018-02-14

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS), also known as celiac artery compression syndrome, is an uncommon condition classically characterized by chronic abdominal pain, weight loss, and abdominal bruit. Chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by intermittent compression of the celiac artery by the MAL provokes upper abdominal pain that is sympathetically mediated via the celiac plexus. Because it is a diagnosis of exclusion, diagnosis of MALS in the clinical setting is typically challenging. We present an atypical case which highlights the utility of celiac plexus block as both an assistant diagnostic tool and a predictor of surgical outcomes for suspected MALS.

  8. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, themore » mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.« less

  9. Skin tumor development after UV irradiation and photodynamic therapy is unaffected by short-term pretreatment with 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod and calcipotriol. An experimental hairless mouse study.

    PubMed

    Bay, Christiane; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Haedersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) delays ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in hairless mice. Efficacy may be enhanced by combining PDT with antineoplastic or pro-differentiating agents. We investigated if pretreatment with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), imiquimod (IMIQ) or calcipotriol (CAL) before PDT further delays tumor onset. Hairless mice (n=224) were exposed 3 times weekly to 3 standard erythema doses (SED) of UV radiation. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT sessions were given on days 45 and 90 before SCC development. Three applications of topical 5FU, IMIQ or CAL were given before each PDT session. Fluorescence photography quantified protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) formation. PDT delayed UV-induced SCC development by 59 days (212 days UV-MAL-PDT vs. 153 days UV-control, P<0.001). Pretreatment with 5FU, IMIQ or CAL before PDT did not further delay SCC onset compared to PDT alone (207 days UV-5FU-MAL-PDT, 215 days UV-IMIQ-MAL-PDT, 206 days UV-CAL-MAL-PDT vs. 212 days UV-MAL-PDT, P=ns). PpIX fluorescence intensified by 5FU-pretreatment (median 21,392 au UV-5FU-MAL-PDT, P=0.011), decreased after IMIQ-pretreatment (12,452 au UV-IMIQ-MAL-PDT, P<0.001), and was unaffected by CAL-pretreatment (19,567 au UV-CAL-MAL-PDT, P=ns) compared to MAL alone (18,083 au UV-MAL-PDT). Short-term three-day pretreatment with 5FU, IMIQ and CAL before PDT does not further delay tumor onset in UV-exposed hairless mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple α-Glucoside Transporter Genes in Brewer’s Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Lene; Cesar, Lene B.; Meaden, Philip G.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    Maltose and maltotriose are the two most abundant fermentable sugars in brewer’s wort, and the rate of uptake of these sugars by brewer’s yeast can have a major impact on fermentation performance. In spite of this, no information is currently available on the genetics of maltose and maltotriose uptake in brewing strains of yeast. In this work, we studied 30 brewing strains of yeast (5 ale strains and 25 lager strains) with the aim of examining the alleles of maltose and maltotriose transporter genes contained by them. To do this, we hybridized gene probes to chromosome blots. Studies performed with laboratory strains have shown that maltose utilization is conferred by any one of five unlinked but highly homologous MAL loci (MAL1 to MAL4 and MAL6). Gene 1 at each locus encodes a maltose transporter. All of the strains of brewer’s yeast examined except two were found to contain MAL11 and MAL31 sequences, and only one of these strains lacked MAL41. MAL21 was not present in the five ale strains and 12 of the lager strains. MAL61 was not found in any of the yeast strains. In three of the lager strains, there was evidence that MAL transporter gene sequences occurred on chromosomes other than those known to carry MAL loci. Sequences corresponding to the AGT1 gene, which encodes a transporter of several α-glucosides, including maltose and maltotriose, were detected in all but one of the yeast strains. Homologues of AGT1 were identified in three of the lager strains, and two of these homologues were mapped, one to chromosome II and the other to chromosome XI. AGT1 appears to be a member of a family of closely related genes, which may have arisen in brewer’s yeast in response to selective pressure. PMID:9925567

  11. Role of Maltose Enzymes in Glycogen Synthesis by Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Tran, Phuong Lan; Hong, In-Hee; Yong, Hwan-Ung; Oktavina, Ershita Fitria; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Kim, Jung-Wan; Lee, Tae Soo; Park, Sung-Hoon; Boos, Winfried; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Mutants with deletion mutations in the glg and mal gene clusters of Escherichia coli MC4100 were used to gain insight into glycogen and maltodextrin metabolism. Glycogen content, molecular mass, and branch chain distribution were analyzed in the wild type and in ΔmalP (encoding maltodextrin phosphorylase), ΔmalQ (encoding amylomaltase), ΔglgA (encoding glycogen synthase), and ΔglgA ΔmalP derivatives. The wild type showed increasing amounts of glycogen when grown on glucose, maltose, or maltodextrin. When strains were grown on maltose, the glycogen content was 20 times higher in the ΔmalP strain (0.97 mg/mg protein) than in the wild type (0.05 mg/mg protein). When strains were grown on glucose, the ΔmalP strain and the wild type had similar glycogen contents (0.04 mg/mg and 0.03 mg/mg protein, respectively). The ΔmalQ mutant did not grow on maltose but showed wild-type amounts of glycogen when grown on glucose, demonstrating the exclusive function of GlgA for glycogen synthesis in the absence of maltose metabolism. No glycogen was found in the ΔglgA and ΔglgA ΔmalP strains grown on glucose, but substantial amounts (0.18 and 1.0 mg/mg protein, respectively) were found when they were grown on maltodextrin. This demonstrates that the action of MalQ on maltose or maltodextrin can lead to the formation of glycogen and that MalP controls (inhibits) this pathway. In vitro, MalQ in the presence of GlgB (a branching enzyme) was able to form glycogen from maltose or linear maltodextrins. We propose a model of maltodextrin utilization for the formation of glycogen in the absence of glycogen synthase. PMID:21421758

  12. Does Simulator Sickness Impair Learning Decision Making While Driving a Police Vehicle? (Le mal du simulateur: un frein à l'apprentissage de la prise de décision en conduite d'un véhicule de police?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Eve; Bélanger, Danielle-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The use of driving simulators is an innovation for police training in Quebec. There are some issues related to their impact on training objectives. This article presents the results of a study involving 71 police cadets who participated in six training sessions with a driving simulator. The training sessions were designed for developing the…

  13. The Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Maladjustment for Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2002-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between adolescents' perceived social support and self-reported (mal)adjustment indicators among predominantly at-risk, Hispanic students. Results indicated significant relationships in the expected direction between overall social support and clinical and school (mal)adjustment indicators. Parent and classmate…

  14. Using Multimedia to Enhance Knowledge of Service Attitude in the Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chun Min

    2012-01-01

    Having used a quasi-experimental research model and the ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) calibration method to gather and implement data, the researcher developed an interactive multimedia assisted learning (MAL) program promoting proper service attitudes in the hospitality industry. In order to gauge MAL program's…

  15. Is There a Child with Epilepsy in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariasen, Hazel

    1979-01-01

    The condition is defined, and some of its manifestations are outlined, including petit mal epilepsy, psychomotor epilepsy, and grand mal epilepsy. Constructive ways to deal with epileptic students are suggested, including specific ways to handle a seizure, should one occur. (DLS)

  16. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT - A SPECIAL ISSUE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Office of Research and Development has focused much of its ecological research in the Mid;.Atlantic as part of the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA). The goal of MAlA is to improve the assessability o...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... such system; or (3) Other such acceptable evidence of title, as determined by CCC. Wool means the fiber... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... accounting systems. Designated Marketing Association (DMA) means an entity, or a subsidiary thereof, that...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... such system; or (3) Other such acceptable evidence of title, as determined by CCC. Wool means the fiber... bundled peanut MALs and LDPs to a DMA. In the absence of a centralized MAL and LDP processing system for... accounting systems. Designated Marketing Association (DMA) means an entity, or a subsidiary thereof, that...

  19. Results of celiac trunk stenting during fenestrated or branched aortic endografting.

    PubMed

    Wattez, Hélène; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Lopez, Benjamin; Spear, Rafaëlle; Clough, Rachel E; Hertault, Adrien; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stéphan

    2016-12-01

    Endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms involving the visceral segment of the aorta often requires placement of a covered bridging stent in the celiac axis (CA). The median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a fibrous arch that unites the diaphragmatic crura on either side of the aortic hiatus. The ligament may compress and distort the celiac artery and result in difficult cannulation, or stenosis and occlusion of the vessel. This study evaluated the influence of the MAL compression on the technical success and the patency of the celiac artery after branched and fenestrated endovascular aortic repair. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of consecutive patients treated electively for complex aneurysms with branched and fenestrated endovascular aortic repair between January 2007 and April 2014. All data were collected prospectively. Analysis of preoperative computed tomography angiography on a three-dimensional workstation determined the presence of MAL compression. Patency of the CA bridging stent was assessed during follow-up by computed tomography angiography and duplex ultrasound evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the outcomes of patients with MAL (MAL+) and without MAL (MAL-) compression. Of 315 patients treated for aortic disease involving the visceral segment during the study period, 113 had endografts designed with a branch (n = 57) or fenestration (n = 56) for the CA. In 45 patients (39.8%), asymptomatic compression of the CA by the MAL was depicted (MAL+). Complex endovascular techniques were required in this group to access the CA in 16 (14.2%) patients (vs none in the MAL- group; P = .003), which lead to a failed bridging stent implantation in seven patients (6.2%). Increased operative time and dose area product were observed in the MAL+ group, but this did not reach statistical significance. In the MAL+ group, no thrombosis of the CA bridging stents were observed during follow-up; an external compression of the CA bridging stent was

  20. A new maltose-inducible high-performance heterologous expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jie; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Dawei; Wen, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    To improve heterologous proteins production, we constructed a maltose-inducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis. An expression system based on the promoter for maltose utilization constructed in B. subtilis. Successively, to improve the performance of the P malA -derived system, mutagenesis was employed by gradually shortening the length of P malA promoter and altering the spacing between the predicted MalR binding site and the -35 region. Furthermore, deletion of the maltose utilization genes (malL and yvdK) improved the P malA promoter activity. Finally, using this efficient maltose-inducible expression system, we enhanced the production of luciferase and D-aminoacylase, compared with the P hpaII system. A maltose-inducible expression system was constructed and evaluated. It could be used for high level expression of heterologous proteins production.

  1. Medial arcuate ligament: a new anatomic landmark facilitates the location of the renal artery in retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Li, Hong Zhao; Zhang, Xu; Song, Yong; Ma, Xin; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenzheng; Chen, Guang-Fu; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jin Shan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Shi, Tao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. The medial arcuate ligament (MAL) is a tendinous arch in the fascia under the diaphragm that arches across the psoas major muscle and is attached medially to the side of the first or the second lumbar vertebra. The renal artery arises at the level of the intervertebral disc between the L1 and L2 vertebrae. We evaluate the role of the MAL that serves as an anatomic landmark for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. There is a reproducible consistent anatomic relationship between MAL and the renal artery in 210 cases of retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. Two main types of the MAL, the "narrow arch" and the "fascial band" types, can be observed. MAL can serve as an accurate and reproducible anatomic landmark for the identification of the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Haploids from Industrial Strains of Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Strains of baker's yeast conventionally used by the baking industry in Japan were tested for the ability to sporulate and produce viable haploid spores. Three isolates which possessed the properties of baker's yeasts were obtained from single spores. Each strain was a haploid, and one of these strains, YOY34, was characterized. YOY34 fermented maltose and sucrose, but did not utilize galactose, unlike its parental strain. Genetic analysis showed that YOY34 carried two MAL genes, one functional and one cryptic; two SUC genes; and one defective gal gene. The genotype of YOY34 was identified as MATα MAL1 MAL3g SUC2 SUC4 gall. The MAL1 gene from this haploid was constitutively expressed, was dominant over other wild-type MAL tester genes, and gave a weak sucrose fermentation. YOY34 was suitable for both bakery products, like conventional baker's yeasts, and for genetic analysis, like laboratory strains. PMID:16347967

  3. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Component-resolved diagnosis of plant food allergy by SPT.

    PubMed

    Asero, R; Jimeno, L; Barber, D

    2008-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables may contain both labile and stable allergens. The former induce only OAS, whereas stable allergens may induce systemic reactions. Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) of allergy to plant foods is therefore essential for the clinical management of allergic patients. 80 adults allergic to plant foods underwent SPT with purified natural date palm profilin (Pho d 2), purified Mal d 1, a peach extract containing uniquely LTP, and with a kiwi extract containing uniquely stable allergens. 58 (72%) patients were monosensitized: 24 to Mal d 1, 24 to profilin, 7 to LTP, and 3 to kiwi. 22 patients were multi-sensitised: 14 to Mal d 1 and profilin, 2 to Mal d 1 and kiwi, 1 to LTP and profilin, 3 to LTP and Mal d 1, and 2 to LTP, Mal d 1 and profilin. Mal d 1 and LTP sensitisation were associated with apple and peach allergy, respectively, whereas profilin sensitisation was associated with allergy to melon, watermelon, banana, tomato and citrus fruits. 18/21 kiwi-allergic patients were sensitised to one of the cross-reacting allergens, but 2/18 reacted to kiwi-specific allergens as well. In patients with allergy to plant-derived foods CRD can be performed by SPT with purified allergen proteins. In the future, the availability of a larger number of purified natural or recombinant allergens for SPT will represent a simple means to classify food-allergic patients properly on the first visit.

  5. Lipid transfer proteins from fruit: cloning, expression and quantification.

    PubMed

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Leeuwen, W Astrid; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Cornelissen, Jessica; Bulder, Ingrid; Rafalska, Ilona; Besolí, Noèlia Telléz; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Asero, Riccardo; Fernandez Rivas, Montserrat; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Gonzalez Mancebo, Eloina; Mancebo, Eloina Gonzalez; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-08-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. cDNA for Mal d 3 and Pru p 3 was cloned, expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and the resulting proteins were purified via cation exchange chromatography. The immune reactivity of rMal d 3 was compared to nMal d 3 by RAST (inhibition), immunoblotting and basophil histamine release testing. To obtain monoclonal and monospecific polyclonal antibodies, mice and rabbits were immunized with purified nMal d 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mal d 3 was identical to the published sequence, Pru p 3 differed at two positions (S9A and S76H). The rMal d 3 had an IgE-binding potency and biological activity close to its natural counterpart. One sandwich ELISA selectively detecting apple LTP and another cross-reactive with cherry, nectarine and hazelnut LTP were developed. In addition, a competitive RIA was developed with polyclonal rabbit antiserum and labeled nMal d 3. rMal d 3 (as shown before for rPru p 3) may be a useful tool for application in component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy. Assays for the measurement of LTP will increase the traceability of this potentially dangerous allergen. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Enterococcus faecalis utilizes maltose by connecting two incompatible metabolic routes via a novel maltose-6’-phosphate phosphatase (MapP)

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Abdelhamid; Blancato, Víctor S.; Repizo, Guillermo; Henry, Céline; Pikis, Andreas; Bourand, Alexa; de Fátima Álvarez, María; Immel, Stefan; Mechakra-Maza, Aicha; Hartke, Axel; Thompson, John; Magni, Christian; Deutscher, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Summary Similar to Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis transports and phosphorylates maltose via a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):maltose phosphotransferase system (PTS). The maltose-specific PTS permease is encoded by the malT gene. However, E. faecalis lacks a malA gene encoding a 6-phospho-α-glucosidase which in B. subtilis hydrolyses maltose-6’-P into glucose and glucose-6-P. Instead, an operon encoding a maltose phosphorylase (MalP), a phosphoglucomutase and a mutarotase starts upstream from malT. MalP was suggested to split maltose-6-P into glucose-1-P and glucose-6-P. However, purified MalP phosphorolyses maltose but not maltose-6’-P. We discovered that the gene downstream from malT encodes a novel enzyme (MapP) that dephosphorylates maltose-6’-P formed by the PTS. The resulting intracellular maltose is cleaved by MalP into glucose and glucose-1-P. Slow uptake of maltose probably via a maltodextrin ABC transporter allows poor growth for the mapP but not the malP mutant. Synthesis of MapP in a B. subtilis mutant accumulating maltose-6’-P restored growth on maltose. MapP catalyzes the dephosphorylation of intracellular maltose-6’-P, and the resulting maltose is converted by the B. subtilis maltose phosphorylase into glucose and glucose-1-P. MapP therefore connects PTS-mediated maltose uptake to maltose phosphorylase-catalyzed metabolism. Dephosphorylation assays with a wide variety of phospho-substrates revealed that MapP preferably dephosphorylates disaccharides containing an O-α-glycosyl linkage. PMID:23490043

  7. Correlation of sensitizing capacity and T-cell recognition within the Bet v 1 family

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmüller, Claudia; Zulehner, Nora; Roulias, Anargyros; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Faé, Ingrid; Fischer, Gottfried F.; Bohle, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Bet v 1 is the main sensitizing allergen in birch pollen. Like many other major allergens, it contains an immunodominant T cell–activating region (Bet v 1142-156). Api g 1, the Bet v 1 homolog in celery, lacks the ability to sensitize and is devoid of major T-cell epitopes. Objective We analyzed the T-cell epitopes of Mal d 1, the nonsensitizing Bet v 1 homolog in apple, and assessed possible differences in uptake and antigen processing of Bet v 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1. Methods For epitope mapping, Mal d 1–specific T-cell lines were stimulated with overlapping synthetic 12-mer peptides. The surface binding, internalization, and intracellular degradation of Bet v 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1 by antigen-presenting cells were compared by using flow cytometry. All proteins were digested with endolysosomal extracts, and the resulting peptides were identified by means of mass spectrometry. The binding of Bet v 1142-156 and the homologous region in Mal d 1 by HLA class II molecules was analyzed in silico. Results Like Api g 1, Mal d 1 lacked dominant T-cell epitopes. The degree of surface binding and the kinetics of uptake and endolysosomal degradation of Bet v 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1 were comparable. Endolysosomal degradation of Bet v 1 and Mal d 1 resulted in very similar fragments. The Bet v 1142-156 and Mal d 1141-155 regions showed no striking difference in their binding affinities to the most frequent HLA-DR alleles. Conclusion The sensitizing activity of different Bet v 1 homologs correlates with the presence of immunodominant T-cell epitopes. However, the presence of Bet v 1142-156 is not conferred by differential antigen processing. PMID:25670010

  8. Accurate Size and Size-Distribution Determination of Polystyrene Latex Nanoparticles in Aqueous Medium Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Asymmetrical Flow Field Flow Fractionation with Multi-Angle Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Takahashi, Kayori; Kinugasa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of the intensity-average diameter of polystyrene latex (PS-latex) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out through extrapolation of both the concentration of PS-latex and the observed scattering angle. Intensity-average diameter and size distribution were reliably determined by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AFFFF) using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) with consideration of band broadening in AFFFF separation. The intensity-average diameter determined by DLS and AFFFF-MALS agreed well within the estimated uncertainties, although the size distribution of PS-latex determined by DLS was less reliable in comparison with that determined by AFFFF-MALS. PMID:28348293

  9. Translation into French of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII e Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne – qu’est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Les changements au Code International de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIIIe CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s’est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1er janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en ‘Portable Document Format’ (PDF) avec un ‘International Standard Serial Number’ (ISSN) ou un ‘International Standard Book Number’ (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1er janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d’un identifiant (‘identifier’) fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés. Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et Taxon. PMID:22287925

  10. Extrasolare Monde - schöne neue Welten?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René

    2013-10-01

    Während mittlerweile rund 950 Planeten außerhalb des Sonnensystems gefunden wurden, steht der Nachweis von extrasolaren Monden noch aus. Aktuelle Studien zeigen, dass dies mit der heutigen Technologie zum ersten Mal möglich ist.

  11. Legal. Legal experiments.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Richard

    2005-07-01

    As congress debates med-mal fixes, states are once again proving to be laboratories for reform. Legislators and providers are looking for innovative ways to curb the rising costs of liability insurance.

  12. Evaluation of bus management options for Independence National Historical Site

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-07-06

    This project analyzes options and identifies preferred designs for a new transportation center in Independence National Historical Park. The Independence Transportation Center will be part of a planned National Constitution Center at Independence Mal...

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with CVD susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic CVD will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...

  14. Donnie-Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Mary

    1974-01-01

    The mother of a 21-year-old mentally retarded boy, who also suffers from frequent petit mal seizures, describes the developmental and behavioral problems which led her to seek institutional placement. (LH)

  15. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  16. Development of 2-phenlethanol and acetic acid lures to monitor Obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to compare the relative attraction of the benzenoid plant volatiles 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylacetonitrile in combination with acetic acid as lures for male and female adults of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), in apple, Mal...

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Low-osmolarity ORS vs. Modified Rehydration Solution for Malnourished Children for Treatment of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition and Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ruchika; Kumar, Praveen; Aneja, S; Kumar, Virendra; Rehan, Harmeet S

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization-recommended rehydration solution for malnourished children (ReSoMal) for rehydrating severe acute malnourished children is not available in India. In present study, 110 consecutive children aged 6-59 months with severely acute malnourishment and acute diarrhea were randomized to low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) (osmolarity: 245, sodium: 75) with added potassium (20 mmol/l) or modified ReSoMal (osmolarity: 300, sodium: 45). In all, 15.4% of modified ReSoMal group developed hyponatremia as compared with 1.9% in low-osmolarity ORS, but none developed severe hyponatremia or hypernatremia. Both groups had equal number of successful rehydration (52 each). Both types of ORS were effective in correcting hypokalemia and dehydration, but rehydration was achieved in shorter duration with modified ReSoMal. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 6-phospho-alpha-D-glucosidase from Fusobacterium mortiferum: cloning, expression, and assignment to family 4 of the glycosylhydrolases.

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, C L; Reizer, J; Reizer, A; Robrish, S A; Thompson, J

    1997-01-01

    The Fusobacterium mortiferum malH gene, encoding 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase (maltose 6-phosphate hydrolase; EC 3.2.1.122), has been isolated, characterized, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The relative molecular weight of the polypeptide encoded by malH (441 residues; Mr of 49,718) was in agreement with the estimated value (approximately 49,000) obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the enzyme purified from F. mortiferum. The N-terminal sequence of the MalH protein obtained by Edman degradation corresponded to the first 32 amino acids deduced from the malH sequence. The enzyme produced by the strain carrying the cloned malH gene cleaved [U-14C]maltose 6-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) and glucose. The substrate analogs p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside 6-phosphate (pNP alphaGlc6P) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside 6-phosphate (4MU alphaGlc6P) were hydrolyzed to yield Glc6P and the yellow p-nitrophenolate and fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferyl aglycons, respectively. The 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase expressed in E. coli (like the enzyme purified from F. mortiferum) required Fe2+, Mn2+, Co2+, or Ni2+ for activity and was inhibited in air. Synthesis of maltose 6-phosphate hydrolase from the cloned malH gene in E. coli was modulated by addition of various sugars to the growth medium. Computer-based analyses of MalH and its homologs revealed that the phospho-alpha-glucosidase from F. mortiferum belongs to the seven-member family 4 of the glycosylhydrolase superfamily. The cloned 2.2-kb Sau3AI DNA fragment from F. mortiferum contained a second partial open reading frame of 83 residues (designated malB) that was located immediately upstream of malH. The high degree of sequence identity of MalB with IIB(Glc)-like proteins of the phosphoenol pyruvate dependent:sugar phosphotransferase system suggests participation of MalB in translocation of maltose and related alpha-glucosides in F. mortiferum. PMID:9209025

  19. A finite element evaluation of the moment arm hypothesis for altered vertebral shear failure force.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Samuel J; Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of vertebral shear failure is likely a bending moment generated about the pars interarticularis by facet contact, and the moment arm length (MAL) between the centroid of facet contact and the location of pars interarticularis failure has been hypothesised to be an influential modulator of shear failure force. To quantitatively evaluate this hypothesis, anterior shear of C3 over C4 was simulated in a finite element model of the porcine C3-C4 vertebral joint with each combination of five compressive force magnitudes (0-60% of estimated compressive failure force) and three postures (flexed, neutral and extended). Bilateral locations of peak stress within C3's pars interarticularis were identified along with the centroids of contact force on the inferior facets. These measurements were used to calculate the MAL of facet contact force. Changes in MAL were also related to shear failure forces measured from similar in vitro tests. Flexed and extended vertebral postures respectively increased and decreased the MAL by 6.6% and 4.8%. The MAL decreased by only 2.6% from the smallest to the largest compressive force. Furthermore, altered MAL explained 70% of the variance in measured shear failure force from comparable in vitro testing with larger MALs being associated with lower shear failure forces. Our results confirmed that the MAL is indeed a significant modulator of vertebral shear failure force. Considering spine flexion is necessary when assessing low-back shear injury potential because of the association between altered facet articulation and lower vertebral shear failure tolerance.

  20. Reliability and validity of the upper-extremity Motor Activity Log-14 for measuring real-world arm use.

    PubMed

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Morris, David; Vignolo, Mary; McCulloch, Karen

    2005-11-01

    In research on Constraint-Induced Movement (CI) therapy, a structured interview, the Motor Activity Log (MAL), is used to assess how stroke survivors use their more-impaired arm outside the laboratory. This article examines the psychometrics of the 14-item version of this instrument in 2 chronic stroke samples with mild-to-moderate upper-extremity hemiparesis. Participants (n=41) in the first study completed MALs before and after CI therapy or a placebo control procedure. In addition, caregivers independently completed a MAL on the participants. Participants (n=27) in the second study completed MALs and wore accelerometers that monitored their arm movements for 3 days outside the laboratory before and after an automated form of CI therapy. Validity of the participant MAL Quality of Movement (QOM) scale was supported. Correlations between pretreatment-to-posttreatment change scores on the participant QOM scale and caregiver MAL QOM scale, caregiver MAL amount of use (AOU) scale, and accelerometer recordings were 0.70, 0.73, and 0.91 (P<0.01), respectively. Internal consistency (alpha>0.81), test-retest reliability (r>0.91), stability, and responsiveness (ratio>3) of the participant QOM scale were also supported. The participant AOU and caregiver QOM and AOU scales were internally consistent, stable, and sensitive, but were not reliable. The participant MAL QOM scale can be used exclusively to reliably and validly measure real-world, upper-extremity rehabilitation outcome and functional status in chronic stroke patients with mild-to-moderate hemiparesis.

  1. [Preparation of cysteine-click maltose modified silica as a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography material for the enrichment of glycopeptides].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xudong; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhang, Weibing

    2017-07-08

    Because of the low abundance of glycoprotein and glycopeptide in complex biological samples, it is urgent to develop an efficient method for glycopeptide enrichment in comprehensive and in-depth glycoproteomes research. Herein, a novel hydrophilic silica was developed through surface modification with cysteine-click maltose (Cys-Mal@SiO 2 ). The developed hydrophilic silica was packed into a solid phase extraction (SPE) column, and applied to the highly selective enrichment and identification of N -linked glycopeptides. The Cys-Mal@SiO 2 demonstrated better identification capability over Cys@SiO 2 , Mal@SiO 2 and commercial hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in glycopeptide enrichment due to the synergistic effect of the two kinds of hydrophilic molecules. In the selective enrichment of tryptic digest from human immunoglobulin G, glycopeptides with higher signal-to-noises were detected by Cys-Mal@SiO 2 . In addition, 1551 unique glycopeptides with 906 N -glycosylation sites from 466 different N -linked glycoproteins were identified from the proteins extracted from mouse liver after the enrichment with Cys-Mal@SiO 2 . In contrast, the numbers of identified glycopeptides, glycoproteins and N -glycosylation sites identified by Cys@SiO 2 were 211, 67, 127 respectively less than by Cys-Mal@SiO 2 , and the corresponding numbers were 289, 76, 193 by Mal@SiO 2 . These results showed that the developed Cys-Mal@SiO 2 is a promising affinity material for N -glycoproteomics research of real complex biological samples.

  2. Elimination of sucrose transport and hydrolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a platform strain for engineering sucrose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Mans, Robert; Marella, Eko Roy; Cordeiro, Rosa Lorizolla; van den Broek, Marcel; Daran, Jean-Marc G.; Pronk, Jack T.; Gombert, Andreas K.; van Maris, Antonius J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many relevant options to improve efficacy and kinetics of sucrose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, thereby, the economics of sucrose-based processes remain to be investigated. An essential first step is to identify all native sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes and sucrose transporters in this yeast, including those that can be activated by suppressor mutations in sucrose-negative strains. A strain in which all known sucrose-transporter genes (MAL11, MAL21, MAL31, MPH2, MPH3) were deleted did not grow on sucrose after 2 months of incubation. In contrast, a strain with deletions in genes encoding sucrose-hydrolysing enzymes (SUC2, MAL12, MAL22, MAL32) still grew on sucrose. Its specific growth rate increased from 0.08 to 0.25 h−1 after sequential batch cultivation. This increase was accompanied by a 3-fold increase of in vitro sucrose-hydrolysis and isomaltase activities, as well as by a 3- to 5-fold upregulation of the isomaltase-encoding genes IMA1 and IMA5. One-step Cas9-mediated deletion of all isomaltase-encoding genes (IMA1-5) completely abolished sucrose hydrolysis. Even after 2 months of incubation, the resulting strain did not grow on sucrose. This sucrose-negative strain can be used as a platform to test metabolic engineering strategies and for fundamental studies into sucrose hydrolysis or transport. PMID:28087672

  3. The EXCITE Trial: Predicting a clinically meaningful motor activity log outcome.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Woon; Wolf, Steven L; Blanton, Sarah; Winstein, Carolee; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S

    2008-01-01

    This study determined which baseline clinical measurements best predicted a predefined clinically meaningful outcome on the Motor Activity Log (MAL) and developed a predictive multivariate model to determine outcome after 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and 12 months later using the database from participants in the Extremity Constraint Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial. A clinically meaningful CIMT outcome was defined as achieving higher than 3 on the MAL Quality of Movement (QOM) scale. Predictive variables included baseline MAL, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the sensory and motor portion of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), spasticity, visual perception, age, gender, type of stroke, concordance, and time after stroke. Significant predictors identified by univariate analysis were used to develop the multivariate model. Predictive equations were generated and odds ratios for predictors were calculated from the multivariate model. Pretreatment motor function measured by MAL QOM, WMFT, and FMA were significantly associated with outcome immediately after CIMT. Pretreatment MAL QOM, WMFT, proprioception, and age were significantly associated with outcome after 12 months. Each unit of higher pretreatment MAL QOM score and each unit of faster pretreatment WMFT log mean time improved the probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome by 7 and 3 times at posttreatment, and 5 and 2 times after 12 months, respectively. Patients with impaired proprioception had a 20% probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome compared with those with intact proprioception. Baseline clinical measures of motor and sensory function can be used to predict a clinically meaningful outcome after CIMT.

  4. ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure Involves ALMT4, a Phosphorylation-Dependent Vacuolar Anion Channel of Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Baetz, Ulrike; Huck, Nicola V.; Zhang, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed between a pair of guard cells and allow plant uptake of CO2 and water evaporation. Their aperture depends on changes in osmolyte concentration of guard cell vacuoles, specifically of K+ and Mal2−. Efflux of Mal2− from the vacuole is required for stomatal closure; however, it is not clear how the anion is released. Here, we report the identification of ALMT4 (ALUMINUM ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER4) as an Arabidopsis thaliana ion channel that can mediate Mal2− release from the vacuole and is required for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). Knockout mutants showed impaired stomatal closure in response to the drought stress hormone ABA and increased whole-plant wilting in response to drought and ABA. Electrophysiological data show that ALMT4 can mediate Mal2− efflux and that the channel activity is dependent on a phosphorylatable C-terminal serine. Dephosphomimetic mutants of ALMT4 S382 showed increased channel activity and Mal2− efflux. Reconstituting the active channel in almt4 mutants impaired growth and stomatal opening. Phosphomimetic mutants were electrically inactive and phenocopied the almt4 mutants. Surprisingly, S382 can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases in vitro. In brief, ALMT4 likely mediates Mal2− efflux during ABA-induced stomatal closure and its activity depends on phosphorylation. PMID:28874508

  5. Quantitation of influenza virus using field flow fractionation and multi-angle light scattering for quantifying influenza A particles

    PubMed Central

    Bousse, Tatiana; Shore, David A.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Hossain, M. Jaber; Jang, Yunho; Davis, Charles T.; Donis, Ruben O.; Stevens, James

    2017-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in instrumentation and data analysis in field flow fractionation and multi-angle light scattering (FFF-MALS) have enabled greater use of this technique to characterize and quantitate viruses. In this study, the FFF-MALS technique was applied to the characterization and quantitation of type A influenza virus particles to assess its usefulness for vaccine preparation. The use of FFF-MALS for quantitation and measurement of control particles provided data accurate to within 5% of known values, reproducible with a coefficient of variation of 1.9 %. The methods, sensitivity and limit of detection were established by analyzing different volumes of purified virus, which produced a linear regression with fitting value R2 of 0.99. FFF-MALS was further applied to detect and quantitate influenza virus in the supernatant of infected MDCK cells and allantoic fluids of infected eggs. FFF fractograms of the virus present in these different fluids revealed similar distribution of monomeric and oligomeric virions. However, the monomer fraction of cell grown virus has greater size variety. Notably, β-propialactone (BPL) inactivation of influenza viruses did not influence any of the FFF-MALS measurements. Quantitation analysis by FFF-MALS was compared to infectivity assays and real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the limitations of each assay were discussed. PMID:23916678

  6. Structure determination of a sugar-binding protein from the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Francisco Javier; de Souza, Cristiane Santos; Romero, Antonio; Balan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of maltose and related sugars in Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by an ABC transporter encompassing a periplasmic component (the maltose-binding protein or MalE), a pore-forming membrane protein (MalF and MalG) and a membrane-associated ATPase (MalK). In the present study, the structure determination of the apo form of the putative maltose/trehalose-binding protein (Xac-MalE) from the citrus pathogen Xanthomonas citri in space group P6522 is described. The crystals contained two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. Xac-MalE conserves the structural and functional features of sugar-binding proteins and a ligand-binding pocket with similar characteristics to eight different orthologues, including the residues for maltose and trehalose interaction. This is the first structure of a sugar-binding protein from a phytopathogenic bacterium, which is highly conserved in all species from the Xanthomonas genus. PMID:24817711

  7. Surface decoration of red blood cells with maleimidophenyl-polyethylene glycol facilitated by thiolation with iminothiolane: an approach to mask A, B, and D antigens to generate universal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Nacharaju, Parimala; Boctor, Fouad N; Manjula, Belur N; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2005-03-01

    The surface decoration of red blood cells (RBCs) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains has been an approach developed to camouflage the blood group antigens from their antibodies. A PEGylation protocol, however, that can mask the antigens appropriately to inhibit the agglutination of RBCs with the respective antibodies is not available so far. A new approach for PEGylation of RBC membrane proteins has been designed with thiolation-mediated maleimide chemistry. The accessibility of the surface lysine residues of membrane proteins to bulky PEG reagents was increased by linking an extension arm carrying a thiol group. RBCs have been PEGylated by thiolation-mediated chemistry with maleimidophenyl-PEG (Mal-Phe-PEG) reagents of different chain lengths. Mal-Phe-PEG-5000 chains alone masked the most important antigens of the Rh system (C, c, E, e, and D) from their antibodies. The masking of the A and B antigens needed a combination of Mal-Phe-PEG-5000 and Mal-Phe-PEG-20000 chains to inhibit the agglutination of RBCs completely with anti-A or anti-B. Thiolation-mediated PEGylation of RBCs with Mal-Phe-PEG-5000 and Mal-Phe-PEG-20000 converts Group A Rh(D)+ and B Rh(D)+ RBCs into RBCs with serologic behavior comparable to Group O Rh(D)- RBCs that are considered as universal RBCs for transfusion.

  8. Kinetics of NO and O2 binding to a maleimide poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated human haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The hypertensive effect observed with most cell-free haemoglobins has been proposed to result from NO scavenging. However, a newly developed PEG [poly(ethylene glycol)]-conjugated haemoglobin, MalPEG-Hb [maleimide-activated PEG-conjugated haemoglobin], is non-hypertensive with unique physicochemical properties: high O2 affinity, low co-operativity and large molecular radius. It is therefore of interest to compare the ligand-binding properties of MalPEG-Hb with unmodified cell-free HbA (stroma-free human haemoglobin). NO association rates for deoxy and oxyMalPEG-Hb and HbA were found to be identical. These results confirm the lack of correlation between hypertension and NO for a similar modified haemoglobin with high molecular radius and low p50 (pO2 at which haemoglobin is half-saturated with O2) [Rohlfs, Bruner, Chiu, Gonzales, Gonzales, Magde, Magde, Vandegriff and Winslow (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 12128–12134]. The R-state O2 association kinetic constants were also the same for the two haemoglobins. However, even though the p50 of MalPEG-Hb is approx. half of that of HbA, the biphasic O2 dissociation rates measured at relatively high pO2 (150 Torr) were 2-fold higher, giving rise to a 2-fold lower R-state equilibrium association constant for MalPEG-Hb compared with HbA. Thus the O2 affinity of MalPEG-Hb is higher only at pO2 values lower than the intersection point of the O2 equilibrium curves for MalPEG-Hb and HbA. In summary, the present studies found similar rates of NO binding to HbA and MalPEG-Hb, eliminating the possibility that the lack of vasoactivity of MalPEG-Hb is simply the result of reduced molecular reactivity with NO. Alternatively, the unique O2-binding characteristics with low p50 and co-operativity suggest that the ‘R-state’ conformation of MalPEG-Hb is in a more T-state configuration and restricted from conformational change. PMID:15175010

  9. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy combined with trunk restraint in chronic stroke: A double-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Shin, Won-Seob; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the compensatory mechanism by restraining the unnecessary movement may be helpful in relearning the upper-limb movement. To investigate the effects of a modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) with trunk restraint (TR) in chronic stroke patients with moderate impairment. Eighteen participants with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to mCIMT + TR or mCIMT. Each group underwent 20 (1 h/d) intervention session (5 d/wk for 4 weeks). Patients were assessed with the action research arm test (ARAT), the Fugl-Meyer assessment upper extremity (FMA-UE), the modified Barthel index (MBI), and the motor activity log (MAL-AOU and MAL-QOM). The mCIMT combined with trunk restraint group exhibited greater changes in the ARAT, FMA, MBI, and MAL (MAL-AOU and MAL-QOM) compared with the mCIMT group. Statistical analyses showed significantly different in ARAT (Z = -2.17, P = 0.03), FMA-UE (Z = -2.49, P = 0.01), MBI (Z = -2.44, P = 0.02), MAL-AOU (Z = -2.17, P = 0.03), and MAL-QOM (Z = -2.17, P = 0.03) between groups. These finding suggest that mCIMT combined with trunk restraint is more helpful to improve upper-extremity function than mCIMT only in patient with chronic stroke.

  10. Consensus recommendations for the treatment of basal cell carcinomas in Gorlin syndrome with topical methylaminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Basset-Seguin, N; Bissonnette, R; Girard, C; Haedersdal, M; Lear, J T; Paul, C; Piaserico, S

    2014-05-01

    Patients with Gorlin syndrome develop multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), for which treatment is often difficult. Methylaminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is approved for the treatment of superficial and nodular BCCs in Canada and several European countries. To establish consensus recommendations for the use of MAL-PDT in patients with Gorlin syndrome. The Gorlin consensus panel was comprised of 7 dermatologists who had treated a total of 83 patients with Gorlin syndrome using MAL-PDT. Consensus was developed based on the personal experience of the expert and results of literature review (on PUBMED using the keywords 'MAL' and 'PDT' and 'Gorlin' or 'naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome'). Consensus was reached among the experts and the literature review identified 9 relevant reports. The experts considered MAL-PDT a generally effective and safe therapy for treatment of BCC in Gorlin syndrome. For superficial BCC (sBCC), all sizes can be treated, and in nodular BCC (nBCC), better efficacy can be achieved in thinner lesions (<2 mm in thickness). MAL-PDT treatment schedule should be performed according to labelling although in individual cases, it may be adapted and performed on a monthly basis based on clinical assessment. Follow-up should be related to frequency of recurrence, and severity, number and location of lesions. Multiple lesions and large areas may be treated during the same session; however, adequate pain management should be considered. MAL-PDT is safe and effective in patients with Gorlin syndrome. Utilization of these recommendations may improve efficacy and clearance rates in this population. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Effect of an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device on the oxygen saturation of patients during dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Blake, E; Allen, J; Thorn, C; Shore, A; Curnow, A

    2013-05-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) (a topical treatment used for a number of precancerous skin conditions) utilizes the combined interaction of a photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)), light of the appropriate wavelength, and molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species which induce cell death. During treatment, localized oxygen depletion occurs and is thought to contribute to decreased efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device had an effect on localized oxygen saturation levels and/or PpIX fluorescence of skin lesions during MAL-PDT. This study employed an OPI device to apply oxygen under pressure to the skin lesions of patients undergoing standard MAL-PDT. Optical reflectance spectrometry and fluorescence imaging were used to noninvasively monitor the localized oxygen saturation and PpIX fluorescence of the treatment area, respectively. No significant changes in oxygen saturation were observed when these data were combined for the group with OPI and compared to the group that received standard MAL-PDT without OPI. Additionally, no significant difference in PpIX photobleaching or clinical outcome at 3 months between the groups of patients was observed, although the group that received standard MAL-PDT demonstrated a significant increase (p<0.05) in PpIX fluorescence initially and both groups produced a significant decrease (p<0.05) after light irradiation. In conclusion, with this sample size, this OPI device was not found to be an effective method with which to improve tissue oxygenation during MAL-PDT. Further investigation is therefore required to find a more effective method of MAL-PDT enhancement.

  12. Expression of three isoforms of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) in the kidney and regulation by dehydration.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazuko; Izumi, Yuichiro; Inoue, Takeaki; Inoue, Hideki; Nakayama, Yushi; Uematsu, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Takashi; Yamazaki, Taiga; Yasuoka, Yukiko; Makino, Takeshi; Nagaba, Yasushi; Tomita, Kimio; Kobayashi, Noritada; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-10-24

    Sodium reabsorption via Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limbs has a major role for medullary osmotic gradient and subsequent water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. We investigated intrarenal localization of three isoforms of NKCC2 mRNA expressions and the effects of dehydration on them in rats. To further examine the mechanisms of dehydration, the effects of hyperosmolality on NKCC2 mRNA expression in microdissected renal tubules was studied. RT-PCR and RT-competitive PCR were employed. The expressions of NKCC2a and b mRNA were observed in the cortical thick ascending limbs (CAL) and the distal convoluted tubules (DCT) but not in the medullary thick ascending limbs (MAL), whereas NKCC2f mRNA expression was seen in MAL and CAL. Two-day dehydration did not affect these mRNA expressions. In contrast, hyperosmolality increased NKCC2 mRNA expression in MAL in vitro. Bradykinin dose-dependently decreased NKCC2 mRNA expression in MAL. However, dehydration did not change NKCC2 protein expression in membrane fraction from cortex and outer medulla and in microdissected MAL. These data show that NKCC2a/b and f types are mainly present in CAL and MAL, respectively. Although NKCC2 mRNA expression was stimulated by hyperosmolality in vitro, NKCC2 mRNA and protein expressions were not stimulated by dehydration in vivo. These data suggest the presence of the inhibitory factors for NKCC2 expression in dehydration. Considering the role of NKCC2 for the countercurrent multiplier system, NKCC2f expressed in MAL might be more important than NKCC2a/b. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of the physical stability of amorphous indomethacin by mixing it with octaacetylmaltose. inter and intra molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, E; Adrjanowicz, K; Zakowiecki, D; Milanowski, B; Tarnacka, M; Hawelek, L; Dulski, M; Pilch, J; Smolka, W; Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, I; Kaminski, K

    2014-10-01

    To demonstrate a very effective and easy way of stabilization of amorphous indomethacin (IMC) by preparing binary mixtures with octaacetylmaltose (acMAL). In order to understand the origin of increased stability of amorphous system inter- and intramolecular interactions between IMC and acMAL were studied. The amorphous IMC, acMAL and binary mixtures (IMC-acMAL) with different weight ratios were analyzed by using Dielectric Spectroscopy (DS), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR). Our studies have revealed that indomethacin mixed with acetylated saccharide forms homogeneous mixture. Interestingly, even a small amount of modified maltose prevents from recrystallization of amorphous indomethacin. FTIR measurements and QSAR calculations have shown that octaacetylmaltose significantly affects the concentration of indomethacin dimers. Moreover, with increasing the amount of acMAL in the amorphous solid dispersion molecular interactions between matrix and API become more dominant than IMC-IMC ones. Structural investigations with the use of X-ray diffraction technique have demonstrated that binary mixture of indomethacin with acMAL does not recrystallize upon storage at room temperature for more than 1.5 year. Finally, it was shown that acMAL can be used to improve solubility of IMC. Acetylated derivative of maltose might be very effective agent to improve physical stability of amorphous indomethacin as well as to enhance its solubility. Intermolecular interactions between modified carbohydrate and IMC are likely to be responsible for increased stability effect in the glassy state.

  14. Photodynamic therapy: new treatment for recalcitrant Malassezia folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2010-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis commonly has been treated with oral antifungal medications. However, it has many therapeutic weaknesses such as infection relapse, drug resistance, or adverse effects like hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal discomfort. Hence, there remains an ongoing need for alternative treatments for recalcitrant Malassezia folliculitis. Recently, many dermatologists suggest photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an alternative therapeutic option for its antimicrobial effect. To investigate the efficacy of methyl 5-aminolevulinic acid (MAL)-PDT for the treatment of recalcitrant Malassezia folliculitis. Six Korean patients aged 23-47 years with recalcitrant Malassezia folliculitis were enrolled in this study. The patients enrolled in this study either refused oral medication or were unable to take oral antifungal agents due to hepatotoxicity concerns. Thus, we offered these patients MAL-PDT as an alternative treatment option. For all patients, photographs of the lesion(s) were taken prior to initiating treatment. MAL cream (Metvix, Galderma, France) was applied to each lesion (located on the patients' trunks) and covered with an adhesive occlusive dressing polyurethane film (Tegaderm, 3M Healthcare, St. Paul, MN). After 3 hours, the cream was wiped off and illumination was performed immediately thereafter with non-coherent red light using light-emitting diodes (Aktilite lamp, PhotoCure, Oslo, Norway, average wavelength 630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm(2)). Illumination was performed for 7.5 minutes. Patients underwent totally three sessions of MAL-PDT at 2-week intervals. One month after the last PDT treatment, patients returned to the hospital and lesions were photographed. After three sessions of MAL-PDT, inflammatory lesions had decreased and improved obviously in four patients, had improved slightly in one patient, and had not improved in one patient. MAL-PDT may be an effective treatment option for patients with recalcitrant Malassezia folliculitis. However, the

  15. Long-term (6 and 12 months) follow-up of two prospective, randomized, controlled phase III trials of photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA and methyl aminolaevulinate for the treatment of actinic keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Dirschka, T; Radny, P; Dominicus, R; Mensing, H; Brüning, H; Jenne, L; Karl, L; Sebastian, M; Oster-Schmidt, C; Klövekorn, W; Reinhold, U; Tanner, M; Gröne, D; Deichmann, M; Simon, M; Hübinger, F; Hofbauer, G; Krähn-Senftleben, G; Borrosch, F; Reich, K; Berking, C; Wolf, P; Lehmann, P; Moers-Carpi, M; Hönigsmann, H; Wernicke-Panten, K; Hahn, S; Pabst, G; Voss, D; Foguet, M; Schmitz, B; Lübbert, H; Szeimies, R-M

    2013-01-01

    Background Two phase III trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with BF-200 ALA, a recently approved nanoemulsion formulation of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) demonstrated high clearance rates in mild-to-moderate actinic keratosis (AK). The comparison to a registered methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) cream demonstrated significantly superior total patient clearance rates. Objectives To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of PDT for AK 6 and 12 months after the last PDT with BF-200 ALA, MAL or placebo. Methods The follow-up phase (FUP) was performed with patients of two phase III studies. Both studies compared BF-200 ALA with placebo, one of the studies additionally with MAL. Overall recurrence rates and various subgroups (light source, lesion severity, lesion location, complete responders after first PDT) were assessed 6 and 12 months after the last PDT. Results Recurrence rates were similar for BF-200 ALA and MAL, with a tendency to lower recurrence rates for BF-200 ALA. The proportion of patients who were fully cleared during PDT and remained completely clear for at least 12 months after PDT were 47% for BF-200 ALA (both studies) and 36% for MAL treatment. The subgroup that was illuminated with narrow wavelength LED lamps reached 69% and 53% for BF-200 ALA (both studies, respectively) and 41% for MAL. No safety concerns were reported. Conclusions The FUP data confirmed the high efficacy and safety of PDT with BF-200 ALA. The slightly lower recurrence rates after BF-200 ALA treatment compared with MAL treatment enhanced the better treatment outcome due to the significantly superior efficacy. PMID:23252768

  16. Long-term (6 and 12 months) follow-up of two prospective, randomized, controlled phase III trials of photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA and methyl aminolaevulinate for the treatment of actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Dirschka, T; Radny, P; Dominicus, R; Mensing, H; Brüning, H; Jenne, L; Karl, L; Sebastian, M; Oster-Schmidt, C; Klövekorn, W; Reinhold, U; Tanner, M; Gröne, D; Deichmann, M; Simon, M; Hübinger, F; Hofbauer, G; Krähn-Senftleben, G; Borrosch, F; Reich, K; Berking, C; Wolf, P; Lehmann, P; Moers-Carpi, M; Hönigsmann, H; Wernicke-Panten, K; Hahn, S; Pabst, G; Voss, D; Foguet, M; Schmitz, B; Lübbert, H; Szeimies, R-M

    2013-04-01

    Two phase III trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with BF-200 ALA, a recently approved nanoemulsion formulation of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) demonstrated high clearance rates in mild-to-moderate actinic keratosis (AK). The comparison to a registered methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) cream demonstrated significantly superior total patient clearance rates. To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of PDT for AK 6 and 12 months after the last PDT with BF-200 ALA, MAL or placebo. The follow-up phase (FUP) was performed with patients of two phase III studies. Both studies compared BF-200 ALA with placebo, one of the studies additionally with MAL. Overall recurrence rates and various subgroups (light source, lesion severity, lesion location, complete responders after first PDT) were assessed 6 and 12 months after the last PDT. Recurrence rates were similar for BF-200 ALA and MAL, with a tendency to lower recurrence rates for BF-200 ALA. The proportion of patients who were fully cleared during PDT and remained completely clear for at least 12 months after PDT were 47% for BF-200 ALA (both studies) and 36% for MAL treatment. The subgroup that was illuminated with narrow wavelength LED lamps reached 69% and 53% for BF-200 ALA (both studies, respectively) and 41% for MAL. No safety concerns were reported. The FUP data confirmed the high efficacy and safety of PDT with BF-200 ALA. The slightly lower recurrence rates after BF-200 ALA treatment compared with MAL treatment enhanced the better treatment outcome due to the significantly superior efficacy. © 2012 Biofrontera Bioscience GmbH BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Fractional laser-assisted delivery of methyl aminolevulinate: Impact of laser channel depth and incubation time.

    PubMed

    Haak, Christina S; Farinelli, William A; Tam, Joshua; Doukas, Apostolos G; Anderson, R Rox; Haedersdal, Merete

    2012-12-01

    Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) enhances the uptake of topical photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Distribution of photosensitizer into skin layers may depend on depth of laser channels and incubation time. This study evaluates whether depth of intradermal laser channels and incubation time may affect AFXL-assisted delivery of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL). Yorkshire swine were treated with CO2 AFXL at energy levels of 37, 190, and 380 mJ/laser channel and subsequent application of MAL cream (Metvix) for 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes incubation time. Fluorescence photography and fluorescence microscopy quantified MAL-induced porphyrin fluorescence (PpIX) at the skin surface and at five specific skin depths (120, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 1,800 µm). Laser channels penetrated into superficial (∼300 µm), mid (∼1,400 µm), and deep dermis/upper subcutaneous fat layer (∼2,100 µm). Similar fluorescence intensities were induced at the skin surface and throughout skin layers independent of laser channel depth (180 minutes; P < 0.19). AFXL accelerated PpIX fluorescence from skin surface to deep dermis. After laser exposure and 60 minutes MAL incubation, surface fluorescence was significantly higher compared to intact, not laser-exposed skin at 180 minutes (AFXL-MAL 60 minutes vs. MAL 180 minutes, 69.16 a.u. vs. 23.49 a.u.; P < 0.01). Through all skin layers (120-1,800 µm), laser exposure and 120 minutes MAL incubation induced significantly higher fluorescence intensities in HF and dermis than non-laser exposed sites at 180 minutes (1,800 µm, AFXL-MAL 120 minutes vs. MAL 180 minutes, HF 14.76 a.u. vs. 6.69 a.u. and dermis 6.98 a.u. vs. 5.87 a.u.; P < 0.01). AFXL pretreatment accelerates PpIX accumulation, but intradermal depth of laser channels does not affect porphyrin accumulation. Further studies are required to examine these findings in clinical trials. Copyright

  18. Efficacy of ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy with short-incubation time for the treatment of facial and scalp actinic keratosis: 12-month follow-up results of a randomized, prospective, comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Kim, K H; Song, K H

    2015-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is an effective first-line treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). Erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) ablative fractional laser-assisted MAL-PDT (AFL-PDT) has shown significant benefit for the treatment of AK. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy, recurrence rate, cosmetic outcome and safety between AFL-PDT with 2 and 3 h of incubation vs. Conventional MAL-PDT in patients with facial and scalp AK. This prospective randomized trial initially enrolled 440 facial and scalp AK lesions in 93 patients. Patients were randomly assigned to AFL-PDT with a 2-h incubation time (2h-AFL-PDT), 3h-AFL-PDT and 3h-MAL-PDT. All patients underwent one session of MAL-PDT using a red light-emitting diode lamp at 37 J/cm(2) , and AFL-PDT groups were assigned to pretreatment with Er:YAG AFL. Patients were followed up at 1 week, 3 months and 12 months post treatment. Efficacy, cosmetic outcomes and adverse events were assessed. Finally, 427 facial AK lesions in 88 patients were analysed in this study. Three months after the last treatment session, 3h-AFL-PDT (91.7%) was significantly more effective than 2h-AFL-PDT (76.8%) and 3h-MAL-PDT (65.6%, P < 0.001), and differences in efficacy remained significant at the 12-month follow-up. The recurrence rate was significantly lower for 3h-AFL-PDT (7.5%) than for 3h-MAL-PDT (22.1%) at 12 months (P = 0.002);however, no significant difference was found between 2h-AFL-PDT and 3h-MAL-PDT. No significant difference was found in cosmetic outcomes or safety between the three groups. We recommend 3h-AFL-PDT rather than classic MAL-PDT or short-incubation AFL-PDT for treating AK. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Simian Virus 40 T Antigen Oncoprotein, an Anti-Polyomaviral Target

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tushar; Seguin, Sandlin P.; Liang, Mary; Resnick, Lynn; Goldberg, Margot T.; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Pipas, James M.; Wipf, Peter; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyomavirus infections are common and relatively benign in the general human population but can become pathogenic in immunosuppressed patients. Because most treatments for polyomavirus-associated diseases nonspecifically target DNA replication, existing treatments for polyomavirus infection possess undesirable side effects. However, all polyomaviruses express Large Tumor Antigen (T Ag), which is unique to this virus family and may serve as a therapeutic target. Previous screening of pyrimidinone-peptoid hybrid compounds identified MAL2-11B and a MAL2-11B tetrazole derivative as inhibitors of viral replication and T Ag ATPase activity (IC50 of ~20-50μM). To improve upon this scaffold and to develop a structure-activity relationship for this new class of antiviral agents, several iterative series of MAL2-11B derivatives were synthesized. The replacement of a flexible methylene chain linker with a benzyl group or, alternatively, the addition of an ortho-methyl substituent on the biphenyl side chain in MAL2-11B yielded analogs with modestly improved IC50s (~15 μM), which retained antiviral activity. After combining both structural motifs, a new lead compound was identified that inhibited T Ag ATPase activity with an IC50 of ~5 μM. We suggest that the knowledge gained from the structure-activity relationship and a further refinement cycle of the MAL2-11B scaffold will provide a specific, novel therapeutic treatment option for polyomavirus infections and their associated diseases. PMID:25440730

  20. An experimental point of view on hydration/solvation in halophilic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Talon, Romain; Coquelle, Nicolas; Madern, Dominique; Girard, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Protein-solvent interactions govern the behaviors of proteins isolated from extreme halophiles. In this work, we compared the solvent envelopes of two orthologous tetrameric malate dehydrogenases (MalDHs) from halophilic and non-halophilic bacteria. The crystal structure of the MalDH from the non-halophilic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus (Ca MalDH) solved, de novo, at 1.7 Å resolution exhibits numerous water molecules in its solvation shell. We observed that a large number of these water molecules are arranged in pentagonal polygons in the first hydration shell of Ca MalDH. Some of them are clustered in large networks, which cover non-polar amino acid surface. The crystal structure of MalDH from the extreme halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber (Sr) solved at 1.55 Å resolution shows that its surface is strongly enriched in acidic amino acids. The structural comparison of these two models is the first direct observation of the relative impact of acidic surface enrichment on the water structure organization between a halophilic protein and its non-adapted counterpart. The data show that surface acidic amino acids disrupt pentagonal water networks in the hydration shell. These crystallographic observations are discussed with respect to halophilic protein behaviors in solution PMID:24600446

  1. The Motor Activity Log-28: assessing daily use of the hemiparetic arm after stroke.

    PubMed

    Uswatte, G; Taub, E; Morris, D; Light, K; Thompson, P A

    2006-10-10

    Data from monkeys with deafferented forelimbs and humans after stroke indicate that tests of the motor capacity of impaired extremities can overestimate their spontaneous use. Before the Motor Activity Log (MAL) was developed, no instruments assessed spontaneous use of a hemiparetic arm outside the treatment setting. To study the MAL's reliability and validity for assessing real-world quality of movement (QOM scale) and amount of use (AOU scale) of the hemiparetic arm in stroke survivors. Participants in a multisite clinical trial completed a 30-item MAL before and after treatment (n = 106) or an equivalent no-treatment period (n = 116). Participants also completed the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) and wore accelerometers that monitored arm movement for three consecutive days outside the laboratory. All were 3 to 12 months post-stroke and had mild to moderate paresis of an upper extremity. After an item analysis, two MAL tasks were eliminated. Revised participant MAL QOM scores were reliable (r =0.82). Validity was also supported. During the first observation period, the correlation between QOM and SIS Hand Function scale scores was 0.72. The corresponding correlation for QOM and accelerometry values was 0.52. Participant QOM and AOU scores were highly correlated (r = 0.92). The participant Motor Activity Log is reliable and valid in individuals with subacute stroke. It might be employed to assess the real-world effects of upper extremity neurorehabilitation and detect deficits in spontaneous use of the hemiparetic arm in daily life.

  2. Effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy with trunk restraint in early stroke patients: A single-blinded, randomized, controlled, pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Shin, Won-Seob; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2018-01-01

    Reducing compensatory strategies during repetitive upper-limb training may be helpful in relearning motor skills. To explore the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT), additionally modified by adding trunk restraint (TR), on upper-limb function and activities of daily living (ADLs) in early post-stroke patients. Twenty-four participants with early stroke were randomly assigned to mCIMT combined with TR (mCIMT + TR) or mCIMT alone. Each group underwent twenty sessions (1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks). Patients were assessed with the action research arm test (ARAT), the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Modified Barthel index (MBI), the Maximal elbow extension angle during reaching (MEEAR), and Motor Activity Logs (MAL-AOU and MAL-QOM). The mCIMT + TR group exhibited greater improvement in the ARAT, FMA-UE, MBI, MEEAR, and MAL-AOU, and MAL-QOM than the mCIMT group. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in ARAT (P = 0.003), FMA-UE (P = 0.042), MBI (P = 0.001), MEEAR (P = 0.002), and MAL-AOU (P = 0.005) between the groups. Modified CIMT combined with TR may be more effective than mCIMT alone in improving upper-limb function and ADLs in patients with early stroke.

  3. Ability of three motor measures to predict functional outcomes reported by stroke patients after rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Lin, Keh-Chung; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wu, Ching-Yi; Huang, Yan-Hua; Ouyang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the demographic characteristics along with 3 measures of motor function in determining outcomes in activities of daily living (ADL) after distributed constraint-induced therapy (dCIT). The study recruited 69 stroke patients who received 3 weeks of dCIT for 2 hours daily, 5 days a week. The self-reported outcome measures for daily function were the Motor Activity Log (MAL) including the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM), Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (NEADL), and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). Age, sex, onset, side of stroke, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) were the potential predictors. The ARAT grasp-grip-pinch score was the most dominant predictor for MAL-AOU and NEADL (P< 0.05), and the ARAT total score for the subscore of the ADL/instrumental ADL section of the SIS (P< 0.05). The FMA wrist-hand score was a significant predictor for MAL-QOM (P< 0.05). Age was the only demographic factor that significantly predicted NEADL performance (P< 0.05). Among the 3 commonly used measures of motor function after stroke, ARAT was the strongest determinant in predicting MAL-AOU, MAL-QOM, and SIS-ADL/instrumental ADL after dCIT.

  4. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Identification and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from West African sorghum beer.

    PubMed

    van der Aa Kühle, A; Jesperen, L; Glover, R L; Diawara, B; Jakobsen, M

    2001-08-01

    The occurrence and characterization of yeasts isolated from sorghum beer produced in Ghana and Burkina Faso, West Africa, were investigated. The yeasts involved in the fermentations were found to consist of Saccharomyces spp. almost exclusively. Of the isolates investigated, 45% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas more than half of the isolates (53%) had physiological properties atypical of S. cerevisiae or any other member of the complex sensu strictu, as they were able to assimilate only glucose, maltose and ethanol as carbon sources. Both ITS-PCR RFLP and PFGE strongly indicated that these isolates were related to S. cerevisiae, regardless of their phenotypic characteristics. Sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA confirmed the close relatedness to S. cerevisiae with 0.5% nucleotide differences. The MAL1 and MAL3 loci were found for all isolates as the only recognized MAL loci. Besides, for 40% of the isolates the MAL61 probe hybridized to a position of about 950 kbp, which has not formerly been described as a MAL locus. The results showed that the spontaneous fermentation of West African sorghum beer is dominated by a variety of strains of S.cerevisiae not previously described, among which starter cultures should be selected. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Molecular analysis of maltotriose active transport and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a determinant role for the AGT1 permease.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sergio L; Herberts, Ricardo A; Hollatz, Claudia; Trichez, Debora; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-03-01

    Incomplete and/or sluggish maltotriose fermentation causes both quality and economic problems in the ale-brewing industry. Although it has been proposed previously that the sugar uptake must be responsible for these undesirable phenotypes, there have been conflicting reports on whether all the known alpha-glucoside transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MALx1, AGT1, and MPH2 and MPH3 transporters) allow efficient maltotriose utilization by yeast cells. We characterized the kinetics of yeast cell growth, sugar consumption, and ethanol production during maltose or maltotriose utilization by several S. cerevisiae yeast strains (both MAL constitutive and MAL inducible) and by their isogenic counterparts with specific deletions of the AGT1 gene. Our results clearly showed that yeast strains carrying functional permeases encoded by the MAL21, MAL31, and/or MAL41 gene in their plasma membranes were unable to utilize maltotriose. While both high- and low-affinity transport activities were responsible for maltose uptake from the medium, in the case of maltotriose, the only low-affinity (K(m), 36 +/- 2 mM) transport activity was mediated by the AGT1 permease. In conclusion, the AGT1 transporter is required for efficient maltotriose fermentation by S. cerevisiae yeasts, highlighting the importance of this permease for breeding and/or selection programs aimed at improving sluggish maltotriose fermentations.

  7. An experimental point of view on hydration/solvation in halophilic proteins.

    PubMed

    Talon, Romain; Coquelle, Nicolas; Madern, Dominique; Girard, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Protein-solvent interactions govern the behaviors of proteins isolated from extreme halophiles. In this work, we compared the solvent envelopes of two orthologous tetrameric malate dehydrogenases (MalDHs) from halophilic and non-halophilic bacteria. The crystal structure of the MalDH from the non-halophilic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus (Ca MalDH) solved, de novo, at 1.7 Å resolution exhibits numerous water molecules in its solvation shell. We observed that a large number of these water molecules are arranged in pentagonal polygons in the first hydration shell of Ca MalDH. Some of them are clustered in large networks, which cover non-polar amino acid surface. The crystal structure of MalDH from the extreme halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber (Sr) solved at 1.55 Å resolution shows that its surface is strongly enriched in acidic amino acids. The structural comparison of these two models is the first direct observation of the relative impact of acidic surface enrichment on the water structure organization between a halophilic protein and its non-adapted counterpart. The data show that surface acidic amino acids disrupt pentagonal water networks in the hydration shell. These crystallographic observations are discussed with respect to halophilic protein behaviors in solution.

  8. S. pombe CLASP needs dynein, not EB1 or CLIP170, to induce microtubule instability and slows polymerization rates at cell tips in a dynein-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grallert, Agnes; Beuter, Christoph; Craven, Rachel A.; Bagley, Steve; Wilks, Deepti; Fleig, Ursula; Hagan, Iain M.

    2006-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe CLIP170-associated protein (CLASP) Peg1 was identified in a screen for mutants with spindle formation defects and a screen for molecules that antagonized EB1 function. The conditional peg1.1 mutant enabled us to identify key features of Peg1 function. First, Peg1 was required to form a spindle and astral microtubules, yet destabilized interphase microtubules. Second, Peg1 was required to slow the polymerization rate of interphase microtubules that establish end-on contact with the cortex at cell tips. Third, Peg1 antagonized the action of S. pombe CLIP170 (Tip1) and EB1 (Mal3). Fourth, although Peg1 resembled higher eukaryotic CLASPs by physically associating with both Mal3 and Tip1, neither Tip1 nor Mal3 was required for Peg1 to destabilize interphase microtubules or for it to associate with microtubules. Conversely, neither Mal3 nor Tip1 required Peg1 to associate with microtubules or cell tips. Consistently, while mal3.Δ and tip1.Δ disrupted linear growth, corrupting peg1 + did not. Fifth, peg1.1 phenotypes resembled those arising from deletion of the single heavy or both light chains of fission yeast dynein. Furthermore, all interphase phenotypes arising from peg1 + manipulation relied on dynein function. Thus, the impact of S. pombe CLASP on interphase microtubule behavior is more closely aligned to dynein than EB1 or CLIP170. PMID:16951255

  9. The Periplasmic Cyclodextrin Binding Protein CymE from Klebsiella oxytoca and Its Role in Maltodextrin and Cyclodextrin Transport

    PubMed Central

    Pajatsch, Markus; Gerhart, Maria; Peist, Ralf; Horlacher, Reinhold; Boos, Winfried; Böck, August

    1998-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca M5a1 has the capacity to transport and to metabolize α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins. Cyclodextrin transport is mediated by the products of the cymE, cymF, cymG, cymD, and cymA genes, which are functionally homologous to the malE, malF, malG, malK, and lamB gene products of Escherichia coli. CymE, which is the periplasmic binding protein, has been overproduced and purified. By substrate-induced fluorescence quenching, the binding of ligands was analyzed. CymE bound α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin, with dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.02, 0.14 and 0.30 μM, respectively, and linear maltoheptaose, with a Kd of 70 μM. In transport experiments, α-cyclodextrin was taken up by the cym system of K. oxytoca three to five times less efficiently than maltohexaose by the E. coli maltose system. Besides α-cyclodextrin, maltohexaose was also taken up by the K. oxytoca cym system, but because of the inability of maltodextrins to induce the cym system, growth of E. coli mal mutants on linear maltodextrin was not observed when the cells harbored only the cym uptake system. Strains which gained this capacity by mutation could easily be selected, however. PMID:9573146

  10. The effect of folic acid on porphyrin synthesis in tumors and normal skin of mice treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid or methyl 5-aminolevulinate.

    PubMed

    Ma, LiWei; Steindal, Arnfinn E; Juzeniene, Asta; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    2006-08-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or its derivative methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) combined with folic acid was applied in nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma. The aim of the study is to see whether folic acid may increase biosynthesis of porphyrins in tumor tissue after systemic or topical administration of ALA or MAL. The production of porphyrins was determined by spectrofluorometric measurements with an optical fibre probe. It was found that the porphyrin production after i.p injection of 200 mg kg(-1) ALA or MAL was significantly increased by i.p injection of 100 mg kg(-1) folic acid. However, in the case of topically applied 20% ALA, folic acid had no effect. In the case of topically applied 20% MAL, folic acid (i.p or topically applied) reduced the porphyrin synthesis. This might be used for the protection of normal skin against photosensitization. The effects of folic acid were similar in tumors and normal skin. Two mechanisms may explain the results: enhancement of the efficiency of the rate-limiting enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase by folic acid or interference of folic acid with the transport of ALA and MAL to and into the cells synthesizing porphyrins in the tissues. The present data seem to favour the latter mechanism. Folic acid may have a role as an adjuvant in photodynamic therapy with systemically administered ALA and its derivatives.

  11. Relationship between degree of malocclusion and occlusal interference in mice that spontaneously develop anterior transverse crossbite.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yuri; Kajii, Takashi S; Sugawara-Kato, Yuki; Hirabayashi, Yoshifumi; Fujimori, Osamu; Iida, Junichiro

    2010-12-01

    Mice with brachymorphism (bm) have defective chondrogenesis, including abnormal growth of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. Malocclusion (anterior transverse crossbite) sometimes spontaneously occurs in inbred BALB/c-bm/bm mice, before the mandibular incisors erupt and make contact with the maxillary incisors. The aim of this study was to determine whether functional lateral loads to incisors promote anterior transverse crossbites in BALB/c-bm/bm mice. BALB/c-bm/bm mice with normal occlusion (normal group), BALB/c-bm/bm mice with malocclusion in which the incisors were not cut (mal group), and BALB/c-bm/bm mice in which the incisors had been cut to eliminate the functional lateral load during continued growth (mal-cut group) were used. We examined the amounts of shift of the maxillary and mandibular incisors in each group using radiographic images. The amount of shift of the maxillary incisors in the mal group was significantly greater than that in normal group. The total amount of shift from the maxilla to the mandible in the mal group was significantly greater than in the normal and mal-cut groups. The results suggest that a continuous functional lateral load to the incisors is strongly related to promoting and worsening anterior transverse crossbite in BALB/c-bm/bm mice. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David; Loss, Robert; Jarratt, Michael; Abramovits, William; Spencer, James; Geronemus, Roy; Bailin, Philip; Bruce, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. A total of 49 patients with 363 AK lesions had 16.8% MAL cream applied under occlusion for 3 hours, and 47 patients with 360 AK lesions had vehicle cream similarly applied. The lesions were then illuminated (630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm2) with repeated treatment 1 week later. Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment. MAL PDT was superior (P<.0001) to vehicle PDT with respect to lesion complete response (86.2% vs 52.2%, odds ratio 6.9 [95% confidence interval 4.7-10.3]) and patient complete response (59.2% vs 14.9%, odds ratio 13.2 [95% confidence interval 4.1-43.1]). The study population may not be representative of all patients with AK. MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light is an appropriate treatment alternative for multiple AK lesions.

  13. Obituary: Malcolm Raff (1940-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuch, H.

    2011-12-01

    In his seventy years, Malcolm Raff never did figure out exactly what he wanted to be when he grew up. The only son of lawyer Henry Raff and music teacher Ruth Raff (nee Marshak), Mal's interests vacillated between the analytical and the artistic. Early skill as a pianist and trombone player competed for his youthful attention with amateur radio and astronomy, leading him to pursue a liberal arts education at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, from which institution he earned BS degrees in math and physics in 1961. Mal's lifelong passion for flying, leading to his becoming not only a licensed commercial pilot but also a certified flight instructor (airplane, instruments, and helicopter) was kindled in graduate school at the University of Illinois (MS astronomy 1963), and refined during his years at the University of California, Berkeley (PhD astrophysics, 1976). Mal's love of aviation derived in part from his viewing birds as kin. He told his wife Connie to watch birds land if she wanted to understand how an airplane should land. Following a devastating Bay Area oil spill in 1971, he not only assisted with cleanup, but began banding birds, cataloguing their blood samples, and tracking their health. This interest in ornithology continued throughout his life, toward the end of which Mal was a lead technical volunteer for the Mickaboo Bird Rescue Organization, and guardian to a large family of rescued birds, including: QT, an eight year old Lessor Sulpher Crested Cockatoo, adopted four years ago Pique, a 32 year old Red-Vented Cockatoo, adopted two years ago Cabernet, a Crimson Rosella from Australia, age unknown, adopted 2 1/2 years ago Bruno, a ten year old Brown Headed Cow Bird, rescued when found out of its nest Noe, Protrero, Duboce, and Taraval, four Cherry Head Conures of San Francisco's Telegraph Hill, raised by Mal from age two weeks, and all named after streets of San Francisco. After flirting with an academic career for a couple of years in the Berkeley

  14. High Performance Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells with E-beam-Processed TiOx Electron Extraction Layer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianyu; Liu, Chang; Wang, Kai; He, Tianda; Zhu, Yu; Al-Enizi, Abdullah; Elzatahry, Ahmed; Gong, Xiong

    2016-01-27

    Perovskite hybrid solar cells (pero-HSCs) have drawn great attention in the last 5 years. The efficiencies of pero-HSCs have been boosted from 3.8% to over 20%. However, one of the bottlenecks for commercialization of pero-HSCs is to make a high electrical conductive TiOx electron extraction layer (EEL). In this study, we report high performance pero-HSCs with TiOx EEL, where the TiOx EEL is fabricated by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation, which has been proved to be a well-developed manufacturing process. The resistance of the e-beam evaporated TiOx EEL is smaller than that of sol-gel processed TiOx EEL. Moreover, the dark current densities and interfacial charge carrier recombination of pero-HSCs incorporated with e-beam processed TiOx EEL is also smaller than that of pero-HSCs incorporated with sol-gel processed TiOx EEL. All these result in efficient pero-HSCs with high reproducibility. These results demonstrate that our method provides a simple and facile way to approach high performance pero-HSCs.

  15. Recent advances in polymer supporting layered double hydroxides nanocomposite for electrochemical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, T.; Padmanaban, A.; Gnanamoorthy, G.; Manigandan, R.; Praveen Kumar, S.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials having emerging due to their ability of intercalate a variety of anions, either organic or inorganic molecules. The most significance of the LDHs has been found potential applications in catalysis, wastewater treatment, and electrochemical sensors. The Mg-Al LDHs (MAL) and Poly-o-phenylenediamine @ Mg-Al LDHs (P-MAL) was prepared via simple one step hydrothermal method. As prepared material was characterized using many techniques such as, the structural and crystal phase was determined from XRD and Raman analyses. The functional groups were depicted using FT-IR spectroscopy. The optical propertied studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy UV-vis spectroscopy and the emission property were analyzed from Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The surface morphology and average particle size was analyzed using FESEM microscopy. The prepared polymer composite material P-MAL was further used for highly sensitive electrochemical detection towards dopamine (DA).

  16. The EXCITE Trial: Predicting a Clinically Meaningful Motor Activity Log Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Woon; Wolf, Steven L.; Blanton, Sarah; Winstein, Carolee; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective This study determined which baseline clinical measurements best predicted a predefined clinically meaningful outcome on the Motor Activity Log (MAL) and developed a predictive multivariate model to determine outcome after 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and 12 months later using the database from participants in the Extremity Constraint Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial. Methods A clinically meaningful CIMT outcome was defined as achieving higher than 3 on the MAL Quality of Movement (QOM) scale. Predictive variables included baseline MAL, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the sensory and motor portion of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), spasticity, visual perception, age, gender, type of stroke, concordance, and time after stroke. Significant predictors identified by univariate analysis were used to develop the multivariate model. Predictive equations were generated and odds ratios for predictors were calculated from the multivariate model. Results Pretreatment motor function measured by MAL QOM, WMFT, and FMA were significantly associated with outcome immediately after CIMT. Pretreatment MAL QOM, WMFT, proprioception, and age were significantly associated with outcome after 12 months. Each unit of higher pretreatment MAL QOM score and each unit of faster pretreatment WMFT log mean time improved the probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome by 7 and 3 times at posttreatment, and 5 and 2 times after 12 months, respectively. Patients with impaired proprioception had a 20% probability of achieving a clinically meaningful outcome compared with those with intact proprioception. Conclusions Baseline clinical measures of motor and sensory function can be used to predict a clinically meaningful outcome after CIMT. PMID:18780883

  17. Clinimetric properties of the motor activity log for the assessment of arm use in hemiparetic patients.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, J H; Beckerman, H; Knol, D L; de Vet, H C W; Bouter, L M

    2004-06-01

    The Motor Activity Log (MAL) is a semistructured interview for hemiparetic stroke patients to assess the use of their paretic arm and hand (amount of use [AOU]) and quality of movement [QOM]) during activities of daily living. Scores range from 0 to 5. The following clinimetric properties of the MAL were quantified: internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest agreement (Bland and Altman method), cross-sectional construct validity (correlation between AOU and QOM and with the Action Research Arm [ARA] test), longitudinal construct validity (correlation of change on the MAL during the intervention with a global change rating [GCR] and with change on the ARA), and responsiveness (effect size). Two baseline measurements 2 weeks apart and 1 follow-up measurement immediately after 2 weeks of intensive exercise therapy either with or without immobilization of the unimpaired arm (forced use) were performed in 56 chronic stroke patients. Internal consistency was high (AOU: alpha=0.88; QOM: alpha=0.91). The limits of agreement were -0.70 to 0.85 and -0.61 to 0.71 for AOU and QOM, respectively. The correlation with the ARA score (Spearman rho) was 0.63 (AOU and QOM). However, the improvement on the MAL during the intervention was only weakly related to the GCR and to the improvement on the ARA, Spearman rho was between 0.16 and 0.22. The responsiveness ratio was 1.9 (AOU) and 2.0 (QOM). The MAL is internally consistent and relatively stable in chronic stroke patients not undergoing an intervention. The cross-sectional construct validity of the MAL is reasonable, but the results raise doubt about its longitudinal construct validity.

  18. Preponderance of bacterial isolates in urine of HIV-positive malaria-infected pregnant women with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ako-Nai, Kwashie Ajibade; Ebhodaghe, Blessing Itohan; Osho, Patrick; Adejuyigbe, Ebun; Adeyemi, Folasade Mubiat; Kassim, Olakunle O

    2014-12-15

    This study examined HIV and malaria co-infection as a risk factor for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnancy. The study group included 74 pregnant women, 20 to 42 years of age, who attended the antenatal clinic at the Specialist Hospital at Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Forty-four of the pregnant women were either HIV seropositive with malaria infection (HIV+Mal+) or HIV seropositive without malaria (HIV+Mal-). The remaining thirty pregnant women served as controls and included women HIV seronegative but with malaria (HIV-Mal+) and women HIV seronegative without malaria. UTI was indicated by a bacterial colony count of greater than 10⁵/mL of urine, using cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium (CLED) as the primary isolation medium. Bacterial isolates were characterized using convectional bacteriological methods, and antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method. A total of 246 bacterial isolates were recovered from the cultures, with a mean of 3.53 isolates per subject. Women who were HIV+Mal+ had the most diverse group of bacterial isolates and the highest frequency of UTIs. The bacterial isolates from the HIV+Mal+ women also showed the highest degree of antibiotic resistance. While pregnancy and HIV infection may each represent a risk factor for UTI, HIV and malaria co-infection may increase its frequency in pregnancy. The higher frequency of multiple antibiotic resistance observed among the isolates, particularly isolates from HIV+Mal+ subjects, poses a serious public health concern as these strains may aggravate the prognosis of both UTI and HIV infection.

  19. Combined Clinic-Home Approach for Upper Limb Robotic Therapy After Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Grace J; Rivera, Lisa; Stein, Joel

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a combined clinic-home intervention using a robotic elbow brace and, secondarily, to collect preliminary data on the efficacy of this clinic-home intervention. Nonrandomized pre-/postinterventional study. Outpatient clinic and participants' homes. Individuals at least 6 months after stroke (N=11; 5 women and 6 men; mean age, 51.7y; mean time since stroke, 7.6y; mean Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity [FMA-UE] score, 22 of 66) were enrolled from the community. Participants received training in an outpatient clinic from an experienced occupational therapist to gain independence with use of the device (3-9 sessions) followed by a 6-week home program using the device at home. Five instruments were administered before and after the study intervention: Modified Ashworth Scale, Box and Blocks test, FMA-UE, Arm Motor Ability Test, and Motor Activity Log-Amount of Use and Motor Activity Log-How Well subscales (MAL-AOU, MAL-HW). Nine participants completed the study. Participants used the device on average 42.9min/d, 5.3d/wk. The FMA-UE (t=3.32; P=.01), MAL-AOU (t=4.40; P=.002), and MAL-HW (t=4.02; P=.004) scores showed statistically significant improvement from baseline to discharge; the MAL-AOU (t=2.61; P=.035) and MAL-HW (t=2.47; P=.043) scores were also significantly improved from baseline to 3-month follow-up. This combined clinic-home intervention was feasible and effective. Participants demonstrated improvements in arm impairment and self-reported use of the arm from baseline to discharge; they continued to report significant improvement in actual use of the arm at 3-month follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the aes gene of Escherichia coli encoding an enzyme with esterase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Peist, R; Koch, A; Bolek, P; Sewitz, S; Kolbus, T; Boos, W

    1997-01-01

    malQ mutants of Escherichia coli lacking amylomaltase cannot grow on maltose. They express the maltose system constitutively and are sensitive to maltose when grown on another carbon source. In an attempt to isolate a multicopy suppressor that would result in growth on maltose, we transformed a malQ mutant with a gene bank of E. coli DNA which had been digested with Sau3a and cloned in pBR322. We screened the transformants on MacConkey maltose plates. A colony was isolated that appeared to be resistant to maltose and was pink on these plates, but it was still unable to grow on minimal medium with maltose as the carbon source. The plasmid was isolated, and the gene causing this phenotype was characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded protein shows homology to that of lipases and esterases. We termed the gene aes, for acetyl esterase. Extracts of cells harboring plasmid-encoded aes under its own promoter exhibit a fivefold higher capacity to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate than do extracts of cells of plasmid-free strains. Similarly, strains harboring plasmid-encoded aes are able to grow on triacetyl glycerol (triacetin) whereas the plasmid-free strains are not. The expression of plasmid-encoded aes resulted in strong repression of the maltose transport genes in malT+ strains (10-fold reduction), but not in a malT(Con) strain which is independent of the inducer. Also, overproduction of MalT counteracted the Aes-dependent repression, indicating a direct interaction between MalT and Aes. PMID:9401025

  1. Interactive Graphic Simulation of Rolling Element Bearings. Phase I. Low Frequency Phenomenon and RAPIDREB Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    RDRER413 C EH 11-22 HOUSING ELASTIC MODUJLUS (F/L**2). RDRE8415 C PO4 ?3-34 HOUSING POISSON-S PATTO . PDPR416 C DENH 35-46 HOUSING MATERIAL DFNSITY (MA/L...23-34 CAGE POISSON-S PATTO . RDPRE427 C DENC 35-46 CAC7E MATFRIAL DENSITY (MA/L-03), PDPEP4?8 C RDRER4?9 C CARD 11 RDRE9430 C ---- ROPER431 C JF 11-16

  2. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.; Low, Walton H.

    1988-01-01

    Geothermometry calculations of selected ground-water samples from known geothermal areas throughout the basin suggest that the geother- mal system is large in areal extent but has relatively low temperatures. Approximately half of the silica-quartz calculated water temperatures are greater than 90 °C. Radiocarbon dating of geothermal water in the Salmon Falls and Bruneau-Grand View areas in the south central part of the Snake River basin suggests that residence time of the geother- mal water is about 17,700 years.

  3. Quantifying Acoustic Uncertainty due to Marine Mammals and Fish Near the Shelfbreak Front off Cape Hatteras

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-19

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NA 14. ABSTRACT See attached. 15. SUBJECTTERMS Ocean Acoustics, Fish Scatter, Acoustic Propagation, Oceanography 16...imaging fish schools and tracking vocalizing marine mam mals, and 3) understand the correlation between the detailed physica l oceanography and the...Cape Hatteras, N.C. to measure the acoustics, biology, and physica l oceanography of fish schools) and 2) finish publishing our results. APPROACH

  4. Teaching the Student with Epilepsy: A Dilemma or an Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Ann Viva

    The paper looks at epilepsy, with emphasis on student problems and the role of the teacher. Initial sections describe characteristics of absence seizures, generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, and complex partial seizures. The educator's role is considered relating to three areas: medical problems, social problems, and psychological…

  5. Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Carob Germ Proteins Fractions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochemical properties of carob germ proteins were analyzed using a combination of selective extraction, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) and electrophoretic analysis. Using a mo...

  6. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  7. Evidence for Space Charge in Atomic Layer Epitaxy ZnS:Mn Alternating- Current Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    exists wior with ra hho agop io model within the bulk portion of the phosphor layer. Although tAon to obtin alteratinbilarplses with mp del this...field region within the ZnS. emission with a peak at 460 nm and which exhibited ther- Postulating the existence of such a low-field region mal

  8. Perry Lake, Delaware River, Kansas, Cultural Resources Sample Survey of Shoreline Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    they lived by hunting large ani- mals, now extinct, such as the mammoth, with finely made stone weapons. Paleolithic Period characterized by man’s use...with another stone or with a bone or piece of wood. Petroglyph Inscription or incision on a rock graphic in nature. Photogranmetry The art and

  9. EXCHANGING AND INTEGRATING DATA FOR REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To answer questions posed by the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA) regarding the health of estuaries in the coastal U.S. mid-Atlantic region, researchers need data from several databases, operated by different organizations in various formats for their own purposes. Analy...

  10. Biophysical characterization of influenza virus subpopulations using field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering: correlation of particle counts, size distribution and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ziping; McEvoy, Matt; Razinkov, Vladimir; Polozova, Alla; Li, Elizabeth; Casas-Finet, Jose; Tous, Guillermo I; Balu, Palani; Pan, Alfred A; Mehta, Harshvardhan; Schenerman, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  11. Maladjustment of Bully-Victims: Validation with Three Identification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, An; Li, Xiang; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Although knowledge on the psychosocial (mal)adjustment of bully-victims, children who bully others and are victimised by others, has been increasing, the findings have been principally gained utilising a single method to identify bully-victims. The present study examined the psychosocial adjustment of bully-victims (as compared with pure bullies…

  12. Soviet Scientific Personalities and Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-05-25

    34 Fascioliasis in Ani- mals In Japan" et al.■ ; The report an "Veterinary Medicine in the Mongolian People’s Republic and its Campaign Against...scientist, Prof Ono,- reported that an annual loss of 13 billion yen results- from fascioliasis alone. Delegates from foreign countries, in presenting

  13. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-02

    Capabilities Will Be Emphasized Instead of Numbers of Troops,” State Department Press Releases and Documents. August 16, 2004. 28 Kaplan , Robert D., “How We...LAOS MALAYSIA Andaman Sea Str ai t of Mal acca INDONESIA Gul f of Thai l and South Chi na Sea Phuket Hat Yai Pattani Yala Narathiwat Nakhon Ratchasima

  14. INTEGRATION OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA) Project began in 1994 as a partnership between USEPA's Region III Office and Office of Research and Development. This multi-year initiative was envisioned to: (1) improve the quality of environmental science and promote the use of sou...

  15. SUBCHRONIC SODIUM CHLORATE EXPOSURE IN DRINKING WATER RESULTS IN A CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT INCREASE IN RAT THYROID FOLLICULAR CELL HYPERPLASIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (C102) is an effective water disinfectant but sodium chlorate (NaC103) has been identified as a potentially harmful disinfection by-product. Studies were performed to describe the development of thyroid lesions in animals exposed to NaC103 in drinking water. Mal...

  16. [The effect of pre-surgical orthodontics on secondary alveolar bone grafting in the patients with complete cleft lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi-lin; Fu, Min-kui; Ma, Lian

    2004-05-01

    To examine the effect of pre-surgical orthodontics on the outcome of the secondary alveolar bone grafting in the patients with complete cleft lip and palate. Sixteen complete cleft lip and palate patients (9 males and 7 females) with collapsed upper arch or severe mal-positioned upper incisors were selected. The cleft was not easily grafted because of the poor access. The total cleft sites were 22 (10 patients with UCLP and 6 patients with BCLP). The age range of the patients was from 8 to 22 years. Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was mainly to expand the collapsed upper arch and correct the mal-positioned upper incisors. After the secondary alveolar bone grafting, the patients were followed up and anterior occlusal radiograph/intraoral panograph were taken regularly. The observation period was from 6 months to 4 years. Bergland criteria were used to evaluate the interdental septal height. Upper arch expansion and the correction of the mal-positioned upper incisors done by the orthodontic treatment made the bone grafting procedure easier. The clinically successful rate reached 86%. The severe upper arch collapse and mal-positioned upper incisors in the patients with complete cleft lip and palate should be corrected orthodontically before the secondary alveolar bone grafting.

  17. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  18. 75 FR 70811 - Commodity Assessments; Loans, Purchases, and Other Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... program, but is no longer charging fees for the administrative costs. Therefore, the cost to MAL customers... Order 12866 and has not been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. Regulatory Flexibility Act... notice of proposed rulemaking for this rule. Environmental Evaluation The environmental impacts of this...

  19. Deepening Corporate Integrity in the Nigerian University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiogu, Aloy; Onyene, Virgy

    2008-01-01

    The quest and agitation for the enthronement of corporate integrity in the nation's universities by the stakeholders have become almost hysterical given the often alleged, sometimes proven, cases of mal-administration, fund embezzlement and or misappropriation, over bloated or even fake invoicing, unbridled favoritism, sexual harassment, bribery,…

  20. Counselling Needs of Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana: Implications for Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocansey, S. K.; Gyimah, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    In this fast changing world, pupils all over the world have developed severe social and psychological needs that affect their interactions with others and subsequently, the achievement of their life goals. Essentially, the social and psychological needs of school pupils have manifested in diverse mal-adjusted behaviours that hinder their academic…

  1. The Dominant Ms Allele in Onion Shows Reduced Penetrance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The most commonly used source of cytoplasmic male sterility in onion is controlled by the interaction of the cytoplasm [male-sterile (S) or normal (N) male-fertile] and one nuclear male-fertility-restoration locus (Ms). Scoring of genotypes at Ms is generally done by testcrossing male-fertile to mal...

  2. Carboxymethylated-, hydroxypropylsulfonated- and quaternized xylan derivative films

    Treesearch

    Ivan Simkovic; Ivan Kelnar; Iveta Uhliarikova; Raniero Mdndichi; Anurag Mandalika; Thomas Elder

    2014-01-01

    Under alkaline/water conditions carboxymethyl, 2-hydroxypropylsulfonate and trimethylammonium-2-hydroxypropyl groups were introduced into xylan in one step with the goal to prepare film specimens. The materials were characterized by NMR, SEC-MALS, TG/DTG/DTA, AFM and mechanical testing. The properties of triple, double and mono-substituted materials were compared. The...

  3. Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118): Development, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheul, Roel; Andrea, Helene; Berghout, Caspar C.; Dolan, Conor; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; van der Kroft, Petra J. A.; Bateman, Anthony W.; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies involving 2,730 participants on the development and validity testing of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire covering important core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets constituted homogeneous item clusters (i.e.,…

  4. Escherichia coli mutants impaired in maltodextrin transport.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M; Ferenci, T

    1979-10-01

    Wild-type Escherichia coli K-12 was found to grow equally well on maltose and on maltodextrins containing up to seven glucose residues. Three classes of mutants unable to grow on maltodextrins, but still able to grow on maltose, were investigated in detail. The first class, already known, was composed of phage lambda-resistant mutants, which lack the outer membrane protein coded by gene lamB. These mutants grow on maltose and maltotriose but not at all on maltotetraose and longer maltodextrins which cannot cross the outer membrane. A second class of mutants were affected in malE, the structural gene of the periplasmic maltose binding protein. The maltose binding proteins isolated from the new mutants were altered in their substrate binding properties, but not in a way that could account for the mutant phenotypes. Rather, the results of growth experiments and transport studies suggest that these malE mutants are impaired in their ability to transport maltodextrins across the outer membrane. This implies that the maltose binding protein (in wild-type strains) cooperates with the lambda receptor in permeation through the outer membrane. The last class of mutants described in this paper were affected in malG, or perhaps in an as yet undetected gene close to malG. They were defective in the transfer of maltodextrins from the periplasmic space to the cytoplasm but only slightly affected in the transport of maltose.

  5. Developmental Dyscalculia and Medical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, Ruth S.; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    1993-01-01

    Medical evaluation of seven third-grade children with developmental dyscalculia in a mainstream setting identified neurological conditions (including petit mal seizures, Gerstmann syndrome, and attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity) in all the children. Findings suggest that children who are not improving academically should undergo…

  6. Psycholinguistic Abilities in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Isser, Aldine

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities was administered to 22 children (mean age=90 months) with petit mal epilepsy and 28 children (mean age=85 months) evidencing mixed seizures to determine whether any differences would be found when these two groups were compared either with each other or with a randomly selected group of nonepileptic…

  7. Olfactory Transcriptional Analysis of Salmon Exposed to Mixtures of Chlorpyrifos and Malathion Reveal Novel Molecular Pathways of Neurobehavioral Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Espinoza, Herbert M.; MacDonald, James W.; Bammler, Theo K.; Williams, Chase R.; Yeh, Andrew; Louie, Ke’ale W.; Marcinek, David J.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon exposed to sublethal concentrations of organophosphate pesticides (OP) have impaired olfactory function that can lead to loss of behaviors that are essential for survival. These exposures often involve mixtures and can occur at levels below those which inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this study, juvenile Coho salmon were exposed for 24 h to either 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 ppb chlorpyrifos (CPF), 2, 10, or 50 ppb malathion (MAL), or binary mixtures of 0.1 CPF:2 ppb MAL, 0.5 CPF:10 ppb MAL, or 2.5 CPF:10 ppb MAL to mimic single and binary environmental exposures. Microarray analysis of olfactory rosettes from pesticide-exposed salmon revealed differentially expressed genes involved in nervous system function and signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, xenobiotic metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Coho exposed to OP mixtures exhibited a more pronounced loss in detection of a predatory olfactory cue relative to those exposed to single compounds, whereas respirometry experiments demonstrated that exposure to OPs, individually and in mixtures, reduced maximum respiratory capacity of olfactory rosette mitochondria. The observed molecular, biochemical, and behavioral effects occurred largely in the absence of effects on brain AChE. In summary, our results provide new insights associated with the sublethal neurotoxic effects of OP mixtures relevant to environmental exposures involving molecular and cellular pathways of injury to the salmon olfactory system that underlie neurobehavioral injury. PMID:26494550

  8. Maintainability Improvement Through Corrosion Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Aluminum base alloys - Mechanical properties; Lithium- Alloying elements; Crack propagation- Corrosion effects ; Fatigue life - Corrosion... effects on the corrosion fatigue life of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy . Ma,L CORPORATE SOURCE: University of Utah JOURNAL: Dissertation Abstracts International...Diffusion effects ; Hydrogen- Diffusion SECTION HEADINGS: 64 (Corrosion) 52. 715866 87-640094 The Life Prediction for 2024

  9. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  10. Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships With Maladjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Joke; Vasey, Michael W.; Dujardin, Adinda; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Bosmans, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Based on former research, it can be assumed that attachment relationships provide a context in which children develop both the effortful control (EC) capacity and the repertoire of responses to regulate distress. Both are important to understand children's (mal)adjustment. While the latter assumption has been supported in several studies, less is…

  11. The Antiaircraft Journal. Volume 93, Number 3, May-June 1950

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-06-01

    unification. Keep an eye peeled for the revised manuals. 1. Grid inte11lal is in meters. 2. Coordinates are expressed without parentheses, deci- mals, and...Joint Long Range Pr Gr Banana River NAS Sta, Cocoa, Fla. Mancuso, S. J., to Stu Det Hq Second Army, Univ of Pa, Phila, Pa, Marshall, J. E., to 4052d ASV

  12. Real-time Seizure Detection System Using Multiple Single-Neuron Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    electrodes were implanted bilaterally into the temporal lobe of each rat. The rats were anesthetized with nebutal (50mg/kg). Small craniotomies were...1997. [9] Fanselow, E.E., Reid, A.P., Nicolelis, M.A.L., Reduction of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered

  13. Further Development, Fabrication, and Testing of XM36E1 Fuze Setter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    primary func- tion of this circuit, has the same timing characteristics as the original circuit: Half-period pulses are required to be greater than...temperature of -40 0 C. 9 The following corrective action was taken for this mal- fuction : (1) The batteries were replaced, and an investigation of battery

  14. Insecticide-Treated Rodent Baits for Sand Fly Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-28

    Agricul- tural Research Institute study area (KARI; lat 0.47, long 36.00) was comprised of land used for small-scale farming and for forage by goats ...study area. The sites at the KARI and Bogoria study areas had large numbers of a variety of non-reservoir ani- mals, including other small mammals, goats

  15. Parent weight change predicts child weight change in family-based weight control program for pre-school children (Buffalo healthy tots)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Title: PARENT WEIGHT CHANGE PREDICTS CHILD WEIGHT CHANGE IN FAMILY-BASED WEIGHT CONTROL PROGRAM FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (BUFFALO HEALTHY TOTS), Teresa Quattrin, MOl, James N Roemmich, PhDI, Rocco Paluch, MAl, Jihnhee Yu, PhD2, Leonard H Epstein, PhDI and Michelle A Ecker, RD, CDEI . lpediatrics, Uni...

  16. Social Intelligence and Aggression among Senior Secondary School Students: A Comparative Sketch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu M, Sameer

    2007-01-01

    Background of the problem: Recently most of our senior secondary classes are notorious for theft, bullying, ragging, rapes, and even for murder. This is because of ill treatment of our students in their classroom, mal administration of educational institutions, and etc. Diminishing social norms is also an important matter here. India is also…

  17. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience with 23 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr, Layla A.; Faraj, Walid G.; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    BackgroundMedian arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare entity that occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm is low-lying, causing a compression to the underlying celiac trunk. We reviewed the vascular changes associated with MALS in an effort to emphasize the seriousness of this disease and the complications that may result.MethodsThis is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 23 consecutive patients diagnosed with MALS between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a tertiary medical center. Computed tomographic (CT) scans, medical records, and patient follow-up were reviewed.ResultsThe number of patients included herein was 23. The median age wasmore » 56 years (17–83). Sixteen patients (69.6%) had a significant arterial collateral circulation. Eleven patients (47.8%) were found to have visceral artery aneurysms; 4 patients (36.4%) bled secondary to aneurysm rupture. All ruptured aneurysms were treated with endovascular approach. The severity of the hemodynamic changes appears to be greater with complete occlusion,ConclusionsMALS causes pathological hemodynamic changes within the abdominal vasculature. Follow-up is advised for patients who develop a collateral circulation. Resulting aneurysms should preferably be treated when the size ratio approaches three. Treatment of these aneurysms can be done via an endovascular approach coupled with possible celiac artery decompression to restore physiologic blood flow.« less

  18. Effective Computer-Aided Assessment of Mathematics; Principles, Practice and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines some key issues for writing effective computer-aided assessment (CAA) questions in subjects with substantial mathematical or statistical content, especially the importance of control of random parameters and the encoding of wrong methods of solution (mal-rules) commonly used by students. The pros and cons of using CAA and…

  19. Comparative in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of commercial ear cleaners.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Alison; Fazakerley, Jennifer; McEwan, Neil; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ear cleaners against Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Malassezia pachydermatis. Single isolates of each organism were incubated in duplicate at 38 degrees C for 30 min with each ear cleaner diluted 1/2 to 1/256 in phosphate-buffered saline. Positive and negative controls were included. Aliquots were then incubated for 16-18 h on sheep blood agar (bacteria) or for 3 days on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Malassezia) at 38 degrees C. The lowest dilutions exhibiting 100% antimicrobial efficacy for S. intermedius were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum 1/16; Otoclean 1/4; EpiOtic 1/2; MalAcetic 1/2; and Triz Plus 1/2. The results for P. aeruginosa were Sancerum and Triz Plus 1/16; Cleanaural Dog and EpiOtic 1/8; Otoclean 1/4; and MalAcetic 1/2. Results for M. pachydermatis were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum, Otoclean, EpiOtic and Triz Plus 1/8; and MalAcetic 1/4. Cleanaural Cat, MalAcetic HC and Triz EDTA did not display any antimicrobial activity at any dilution. Antimicrobial activity appeared to be associated with the presence of isopropyl alcohol, parachlorometaxylenol and a low pH. The results of this study may help clinicians make evidence-based decisions when selecting ear cleaners for use in individual cases.

  20. Changes in adaptation of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in chickens and mallards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused a severe poultry outbreak in the United States (U.S.) during 2015. In order to examine changes in adaptation of this viral lineage, the infectivity, transmission and pathogenesis of poultry H5N2 viruses was investigated in chickens and mal...

  1. Bacterial-based Systems for Expression and Purification of Recombinant Lassa Virus Proteins of Immunological Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-06

    sites. Abbreviations include: MBP gene (malE), MBP promoter (Ptac), philamentous phage origin of replication ( M13 ori), bacterial origin of replica...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display

  2. Phytophthora austrocedrae.

    Treesearch

    A. Greslebin; E. M. Hansen; L. La Manna

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora austrocedrae Gresl. & E.M. Hansen (2007) was isolated from necrotic lesions of stem and roots of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae). It is homothallic with semi-papillate sporangia, oogonia with amphigynous antheridia, and very slow growth. It is the cause of "mal del...

  3. Fabrication of Polymeric Micelles with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer for Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Hao, Na; Sun, Changzhen; Wu, Zhengfei; Xu, Long; Gao, Wenxia; Cao, Jun; Li, Li; He, Bin

    2017-07-19

    With the aim of obtaining effective cancer therapy with simultaneous cellular imaging, dynamic drug-release monitoring, and chemotherapeutic treatment, a polymeric micelle with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) imaging and a Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect was fabricated as the drug carrier. An amphiphilic conjugate of 1H-pyrrole-1-propanoicacid (MAL)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-Tripp-bearing AIE molecules were synthesized and self-assembled into micelles to load the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Spherical DOX-loaded micelles with the mean size of 106 nm were obtained with good physiological stability (CMC, 12.5 μg/mL), high drug-loading capacity (10.4%), and encapsulation efficiency (86%). The cellular uptake behavior of DOX-loaded MAL-PEG-Tripp micelles was visible for high-quality intracellular imaging due to the AIE property. The delivery of DOX from the drug-loaded micelles was dynamic monitored by the FRET effect between the DOX and MAL-PEG-Tripp. Both in vitro (IC50, 2.36 μg/mL) and in vivo anticancer activity tests revealed that the DOX-loaded MAL-PEG-Tripp micelles exhibited promising therapeutic efficacy to cancer with low systematic toxicity. In summary, this micelle provided an effective way to fabricate novel nanoplatform for intracellular imaging, drug-delivery tracing, and chemotherapy.

  4. Surfactants and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of Couette type flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, A. L.; Halpern, D.; Schweiger, A. S.

    2011-11-01

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of slow Couette- type flows in the presence of insoluble surfactants. It is known that with zero gravity, the surfactant makes the flow unstable to longwave disturbances in certain regions of the parameter space; while in other parametric regions, it reinforces the flow stability (Frenkel and Halpern 2002). Here, we show that in the latter parametric sectors, and when the (gravity) Bond number Bo is below a certain threshold value, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is completely stabilized for a finite interval of Ma, the (surfactant) Marangoni number: MaL MaL, the instability is longwave: the finite interval of unstable wavenumbers borders on the zero value. For Ma >Ma2, and also for MaL MaL, Ma1, and Ma2 as functions of the Bond number. We note that (for an interval of the Bond number) there are two distinct criticalities with nonzero (and distinct) critical wavenumbers.

  5. Study on antidiabetic activity of wheat and barley starch using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiangle light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Zhou, Bing; Jang, Hae-Dong; Lee, Seungho

    2014-05-02

    The ability of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with multiangle light scattering (MALS) and refractive index detector (RI) (AF4-MALS-RI) for monitoring of change in molecular conformation of wheat and barley starch during germination process was evaluated. AF4 provides separation of starch molecules based on their hydrodynamic sizes, and MALS yields the molar mass and molecular size (radius of gyration, Rg). In vitro and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic effect of germinated wheat and barley was studied. The relationship between antidiabetic activity and molecular conformation was, for the first time, investigated. The ratio of Rg to the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and the apparent density were proven to be important parameters as they offer an insight into molecular conformation. Results showed that, when geminated, the apparent density and the antidiabetic activity of barley were significantly increased, suggesting germination makes the molecules more compact which could contribute to enhancement of their antidiabetic activity. The information obtained by AF4-MALS-RI is valuable for understanding of germination mechanism, and thus for developing functional foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Submicrometer Particle Sizing by Multiangle Light Scattering following Fractionation

    PubMed

    Wyatt

    1998-01-01

    The acid test for any particle sizing technique is its ability to determine the differential number fraction size distribution of a simple, well-defined sample. The very best characterized polystyrene latex sphere standards have been measured extensively using transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of a large subpopulation of such samples or by means of the electrostatic classification method as refined at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The great success, in the past decade, of on-line multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection combined with size exclusion chromatography for the measurement of polymer mass and size distributions suggested, in the early 1990s, that a similar attack for particle characterization might prove useful as well. At that time, fractionation of particles was achievable by capillary hydrodynamic chromatography (CHDF) and field flow fractionation (FFF) methods. The latter has proven most useful when combined with MALS to provide accurate differential number fraction size distributions for a broad range of particle classes. The MALS/FFF combination provides unique advantages and precision relative to FFF, photon correlation spectroscopy, and CHDF techniques used alone. For many classes of particles, resolution of the MALS/FFF combination far exceeds that of TEM measurements. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. Copyright 1998Academic Press

  7. On the Delta Sequence of the Thue-Morse Sequence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-27

    S. Plouffe, B.E. Sagan, A relative of the Thue-Morse sequence, in For- mal power series and algebraic combinatorics (Montreal, PQ, 1992), Discrete ... Math . 139, 455–461, 1995. [2] J.-P. Allouche, J. Shallit, The ubiquitous Prouhet-Thue-Morse se- quence, In C. Ding, T. Helleseth,and H. Niederreiter

  8. Chemical Characterization of Compounds Released by Marine Mammals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Glucose . . . 30 Lactose . . . 30 Mannose . . . 31 Xylose . . . 31 TOXICITY AND DISCUSSION OF COMPOUNDS WHICH ARE INSOLUBLE IN WATER AND/OR UNSAFE...glycine; urea; mannose; glycerol; inositol; arabitol; erythritol; mannitol; sorbitol; xylitol; . erythrose; galactose; glucose ; lactose; xylose...of marine mam- mals . 26 15. Summary of physical properties and toxicity information for compounds insoluble in water and/or considered unsafe . . . 27

  9. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    dear friends Leo St. Amour, Ricky T, Andreas Kellas, and Paul Deardorff for taking time out of their busy schedules to proofread this thesis. Last, I...in glibc mal- loc function. Marked as severe on Chromium, but no known exploit Table 5.1: Summary of results of TEASER compared with other tools and

  10. Indonesian Adolescents' Spiritual and Religious Experiences and Their Longitudinal Relations with Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy; French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie A.

    2010-01-01

    The spirituality and religiosity of Indonesian Muslim adolescents were examined longitudinally as were the relations of spirituality and religiosity with (mal)adjustment. At Time 1 (T1), 959 seventh-grade Muslim adolescents were screened for selection of a sample; at Time 2 (T2), 183 eighth-grade adolescents participated; and at Time 3 (T3), 300…

  11. Crystal Structure and Properties of Imidazo-Pyridine Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Farren-Dai, Marco; Cameron, Stanley; Johnson, Michel B; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2018-07-05

    Computational studies were performed on novel protic ionic liquids imidazolium-[1,2-a]-pyridine trifluoroacetate [ImPr][TFA] synthesized by the reaction of imidazo-[1,2a]-pyridine (ImPr) with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and on fused salt imidazolium-[1,2-a]-pyridine maleamic carbonate [ImPr][Mal] synthesized by reaction of ImPr with maleamic acid (Mal). Synthesis was performed as one-pot reactions, which applies green chemistry tenets. Both these compounds begin to decompose at 180°C. Our computational studies suggest another thermal reaction channel, in which [ImPr][Mal] can also thermally polymerizes to polyacrylamide which then cyclizes. This is thermal product remains stable up to 700 degrees, consistent with our thermogravimetric studies. [ImPr][TFA] exhibited good conductivity and ideal ionic behavior, as evaluated by a Walden plot. X-ray crystallography of [ImPr][TFA] revealed a tightly packed system for the crystals as a result of strong ionic interaction, pi-stacking, and fluorine-CH interactions. Both synthesized compounds exhibited some CO 2 absorptivity, with [ImPr][Mal] outperforming [ImPr][TFA] in this regard. The quantum chemistry based computational methods can shed light on many properties of these ionic liquids, but they are challenged in fully describing their ionic nature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SciTech Connect

    Grover, S.; Lorton, L.

    The impacted tooth and its associated pathology provides the most diagnostic challenges to the dentist. Impactions can occur because of mal-positioning of the tooth bud and obstruction in the path of eruption. However, the exact mechanism is still unknown. Four unusual and uncommon cases of impacted permanent molars are being described.

  13. Anion channel sensitivity to cytosolic organic acids implicates a central role for oxaloacetate in integrating ion flux with metabolism in stomatal guard cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhou; Blatt, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Stomatal guard cells play a key role in gas exchange for photosynthesis and in minimizing transpirational water loss from plants by opening and closing the stomatal pore. The bulk of the osmotic content driving stomatal movements depends on ionic fluxes across both the plasma membrane and tonoplast, the metabolism of organic acids, primarily Mal (malate), and its accumulation and loss. Anion channels at the plasma membrane are thought to comprise a major pathway for Mal efflux during stomatal closure, implicating their key role in linking solute flux with metabolism. Nonetheless, little is known of the regulation of anion channel current (I(Cl)) by cytosolic Mal or its immediate metabolite OAA (oxaloacetate). In the present study, we have examined the impact of Mal, OAA and of the monocarboxylic acid anion acetate in guard cells of Vicia faba L. and report that all three organic acids affect I(Cl), but with markedly different characteristics and sidedness to their activities. Most prominent was a suppression of ICl by OAA within the physiological range of concentrations found in vivo. These findings indicate a capacity for OAA to co-ordinate organic acid metabolism with I(Cl) through the direct effect of organic acid pool size. The findings of the present study also add perspective to in vivo recordings using acetate-based electrolytes.

  14. Incorporating Physical, Social, and Institutional Changes in Water Resources Planning and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    species (fish, mussels, mam- mals, birds , and plants) 5. Aesthetic resources 6. Human health and safety 7. Land use 8. Transportation and traffic...focused Rapid Impact Assessment Method (RIAM) which is based on evaluation of six criteria: endangered species habitat , structural diversity of habitats ...additional issues include detrimental consequences to aquatic ecosystems, habitats , and interdependent riparian and aquatic species . To provide an

  15. Broadening of polymer chromatographic signals: Analysis, quantification and correction through effective diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Inmaculada; Coto, Baudilio

    2015-08-14

    Average molecular weights and polydispersity indexes are some of the most important parameters considered in the polymer characterization. Usually, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and multi angle light scattering (MALS) are used for this determination, but GPC values are overestimated due to the dispersion introduced by the column separation. Several procedures were proposed to correct such effect usually involving more complex calibration processes. In this work, a new method of calculation has been considered including diffusion effects. An equation for the concentration profile due to diffusion effects along the GPC column was considered to be a Fickian function and polystyrene narrow standards were used to determine effective diffusion coefficients. The molecular weight distribution function of mono and poly disperse polymers was interpreted as a sum of several Fickian functions representing a sample formed by only few kind of polymer chains with specific molecular weight and diffusion coefficient. Proposed model accurately fit the concentration profile along the whole elution time range as checked by the computed standard deviation. Molecular weights obtained by this new method are similar to those obtained by MALS or traditional GPC while polydispersity index values are intermediate between those obtained by the traditional GPC combined to Universal Calibration method and the MALS method. Values for Pearson and Lin coefficients shows improvement in the correlation of polydispersity index values determined by GPC and MALS methods when diffusion coefficients and new methods are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Factors Governing the Liquid and Glassy States Recrystallization of Celecoxib in Binary Mixtures with Excipients of Different Molecular Weights.

    PubMed

    Grzybowska, K; Chmiel, K; Knapik-Kowalczuk, J; Grzybowski, A; Jurkiewicz, K; Paluch, M

    2017-04-03

    Transformation of poorly water-soluble crystalline pharmaceuticals to the amorphous form is one of the most promising strategies to improve their oral bioavailability. Unfortunately, the amorphous drugs are usually thermodynamically unstable and may quickly return to their crystalline form. A very promising way to enhance the physical stability of amorphous drugs is to prepare amorphous compositions of APIs with certain excipients which can be characterized by significantly different molecular weights, such as polymers, acetate saccharides, and other APIs. By using different experimental techniques (broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction) we compare the effect of adding the large molecular weight polymer-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30)-and the small molecular weight excipient-octaacetylmaltose (acMAL)-on molecular dynamics as well as the tendency to recrystallization of the amorphous celecoxib (CEL) in the amorphous solid dispersions: CEL-PVP and CEL-acMAL. The physical stability investigations of the binary systems were performed in both the supercooled liquid and glassy states. We found that acMAL is a better inhibitor of recrystallization of amorphous CEL than PVP K30 deep in the glassy state (T < T g ). In contrast, PVP K30 is a better crystallization inhibitor of CEL than acMAL in the supercooled liquid state (at T > T g ). We discuss molecular factors governing the recrystallization of amorphous CEL in examined solid dispersions.

  17. Evaluation of occurrences of child maltreatment in teachers' opinions.

    PubMed

    Skórzyńska, H

    1999-01-01

    The fact of maltreatment is recorded in case of an intended or unintended action of the adult that has a negative influence on the child's health or psychophysical development. Apart from the term: mal-treatment a number of other terms are widely used: injuring, abuse, violence, harassment, ill-treatment.

  18. Poisson-Based Inference for Perturbation Models in Adaptive Spelling Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschera, Gian-Marco; Gross, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present an inference algorithm for perturbation models based on Poisson regression. The algorithm is designed to handle unclassified input with multiple errors described by independent mal-rules. This knowledge representation provides an intelligent tutoring system with local and global information about a student, such as error classification…

  19. Family-site interaction in Pinus radiata: implications for progeny testing strategy and regionalised breeding in New Zealand.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; R.D. Brudon

    1990-01-01

    A progeny test of 170 open-pollinated families from second-generation plus trees of Pinus radiata was established on four sites in New Zealand in 1981. Two test sites were on volcanic purnice soils in the Central North Island region and two were on phosphate-retentive clay soils in the Northland region.Assessments of volume growth, stem straightness, mal-...

  20. "Institutional Autism" in Children Adopted Internationally: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gindis, Boris

    2008-01-01

    "Institutional autism" is understood as a "learned behavior" produced by an institutional environment such as an orphanage. Some autistic-like behaviors may be adaptive in an institution, but become mal-adaptive after the child's adoption into a family. A differential diagnosis between autism as a medical condition and learned…

  1. Toward Systemic Linguistics: A Survey of Studies by G. P. Mel'nikov from 1959 to 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupatkin, Ja. B.

    1974-01-01

    Mel'nikov's structural and mathematical studies over twelve years are reviewed beginning with studies in automation in linguistic research. It is noted that Mal'nikov is not a pure structuralist because he considers historical, social, and psychological factors to be essential to language. Function, structure and substance are later combined in…

  2. Genetic and biochemical characterization of an oligo-α-1,6-glucosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; Flórez, Ana Belén; Guadamuro, Lucía; Mayo, Baltasar

    2017-04-04

    Although encoded in the genome of many Lactobacillus spp. strains, α-glucosidases have received little attention compared to other glycosyl hydrolases. In this study, a putative oligosaccharide(oligo)-α-1,6-glucosidase-encoding gene (malL) was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum LL441. malL coded for 572 amino acid residues with a calculated total molecular mass of 66.31kDa. No predicted signal peptide was observed, suggesting this enzyme to be localized within the cytoplasm of the cell. Homology studies of the deduced amino acid sequence in the area of its active sites classified the enzyme as a member of the α-amylase (AmyAC) superfamily of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), family 13 (GH13), subfamily 31 (GH13_31). malL was cloned in Escherichia coli and the coded enzyme overexpressed as a histidine-tagged protein (MalL His ). It was then purified and characterized. MalL His protein showed strong hydrolytic activity towards 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNP-α-Glu) but not to other pNP-α-d- or pNP-β-d-derivatives. When using pNP-α-Glu as a substrate, MalL His showed similar specific activities between pH5.0 and 6.0, and between 20 and 42°C (optimum 30°C). Among the natural carbohydrates assayed, MalL His showed specificity towards isomaltose (V max and K m values of 40.64μmolmin -1 mg -1 and 6.22mM) and much less to isomaltulose (V max and K m values of 168.86μmolmin -1 mg -1 and 244.52mM). However, under the conditions of the assay, the enzyme showed no transglycosylation activity. Characterization of the entire complement of glycosidases in L. plantarum might reveal how strains of this species could be used in new biotechnological applications or in the development of functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of a dopamine transporter polymorphism and behavior in Belgian Malinois

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Belgian Malinois dog breed (MAL) is frequently used in law enforcement and military environments. Owners have reported seizures and unpredictable behavioral changes including dogs’ eyes “glazing over,” dogs’ lack of response to environmental stimuli, and loss of behavioral inhibition including owner-directed biting behavior. Dogs with severe behavioral changes may be euthanized as they can represent a danger to humans and other dogs. In the dog, the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) contains a 38-base pair variable number tandem repeat (DAT-VNTR); alleles have either one or two copies of the 38-base pair sequence. The objective of this study was to assess frequency of DAT-VNTR alleles, and characterize the association between DAT-VNTR alleles and behavior in MAL and other breeds. Results In an American sample of 280 dogs comprising 26 breeds, most breeds are predominantly homozygous for the DAT-VNTR two-tandem-repeat allele (2/2). The one-tandem-repeat allele is over-represented in American MAL (AM-MAL) (n = 144), both as heterozygotes (1/2) and homozygotes (1/1). All AM-MAL with reported seizures (n = 5) were 1/1 genotype. For AM-MAL with at least one “1” allele (1/1 or 1/2 genotype, n = 121), owners reported higher levels of attention, increased frequency of episodic aggression, and increased frequency of loss of responsiveness to environmental stimuli. In behavior observations, Belgian Military Working Dogs (MWD) with 1/1 or 1/2 genotypes displayed fewer distracted behaviors and more stress-related behaviors such as lower posture and increased yawning. Handlers’ treatment of MWD varied with DAT-VNTR genotype as did dogs’ responses to handlers’ behavior. For 1/1 or 1/2 genotype MWD, 1) lower posture after the first aversive stimulus given by handlers was associated with poorer obedience performance; 2) increased aversive stimuli during protection exercises were associated with decreased performance; 3) more aversive

  4. Personality assessment inventory profile and predictors of elevations among dissociative disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Stadnik, Ryan D; Brand, Bethany; Savoca, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Assessing patients with dissociative disorders (DD) using personality tests is difficult. On the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 ( J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989 ), DD patients often obtain elevations on multiple clinical scales as well as on validity scales that were thought to indicate exaggeration yet have been shown to be elevated among traumatized individuals, including those with DD. No research has been conducted to determine how DD patients score on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991 ), which includes the symptom exaggeration scale Negative Impression (NIM) and the malingering scales Malingering Index (MAL) and Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF). The goals of this study were to document the PAI profile of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) patients and to determine how the validity and Schizophrenia scales are related to other PAI scales as well as dissociation. A total of 42 inpatients with DID or DDNOS were assessed on the PAI as well as the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II. The DID/DDNOS patients were elevated on many PAI scales, including NIM and, to a lesser extent, MAL, but not RDF. Dissociation scores significantly and uniquely predicted NIM scores above and beyond Depression and Borderline Features. In addition, after we controlled for MAL and RDF, dissociation was positively associated with NIM. In contrast, after we controlled for the other 2 scales, dissociation was not related to MAL and was negatively related to RDF, indicating that RDF and, to a lesser extent, MAL are better correlates of feigning in DD patients than NIM.

  5. High Temperature Increases the Masculinization Rate of the All-Female (XX) Rainbow Trout “Mal” Population

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia, Karina; Jouanno, Elodie; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Guyomard, René; Helary, Louise; Mourot, Brigitte; Fostier, Alexis; Quillet, Edwige; Guiguen, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Salmonids are generally considered to have a robust genetic sex determination system with a simple male heterogamety (XX/XY). However, spontaneous masculinization of XX females has been found in a rainbow trout population of gynogenetic doubled haploid individuals. The analysis of this masculinization phenotype transmission supported the hypothesis of the involvement of a recessive mutation (termed mal). As temperature effect on sex differentiation has been reported in some salmonid species, in this study we investigated in detail the potential implication of temperature on masculinization in this XX mal-carrying population. Seven families issued from XX mal-carrying parents were exposed from the time of hatching to different rearing water temperatures ((8, 12 and 18°C), and the resulting sex-ratios were confirmed by histological analysis of both gonads. Our results demonstrate that masculinization rates are strongly increased (up to nearly two fold) at the highest temperature treatment (18°C). Interestingly, we also found clear differences between temperatures on the masculinization of the left versus the right gonads with the right gonad consistently more often masculinized than the left one at lower temperatures (8 and 12°C). However, the masculinization rate is also strongly dependent on the genetic background of the XX mal-carrying families. Thus, masculinization in XX mal-carrying rainbow trout is potentially triggered by an interaction between the temperature treatment and a complex genetic background potentially involving some part of the genetic sex differentiation regulatory cascade along with some minor sex-influencing loci. These results indicate that despite its rather strict genetic sex determinism system, rainbow trout sex differentiation can be modulated by temperature, as described in many other fish species. PMID:25501353

  6. Minimal detectable change of the actual amount of use test and the motor activity log: the EXCITE Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuya; Wolf, Steven L; Zhang, Qin; Thompson, Paul A; Winstein, Carolee J

    2012-06-01

    Efficacy of task-oriented training can be reliably trusted only when the inherent measurement variability is determined. The Actual Amount of Use Test (AAUT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) have been used together as measures of spontaneous arm use after an intervention; however, the minimal detectable change (MDC) of AAUT and MAL has not been addressed. To compare the MDC₉₀ of the AAUT and the MAL in the context of a randomized controlled trial of a neurorehabilitation intervention, the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation trial. A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using pre-post test data from the control group. Estimated MDC₉₀ were normalized to the maximum value of the scale of the AAUT and the MAL for each subscale: amount of use (AAUTa, MALa) and quality of movement (AAUTq, MALq). . The MDC₉₀ of the AAUTq and the MALq were 14.4% and 15.4%, respectively. However, the MDC₉₀ required greater change for the AAUTa (24.2%) than the MALa (16.8%). The training-induced spontaneous arm use exceeded the MDC₉₀ for the MAL but fell below that for the AAUT immediately after the intervention and at 1-year follow-up visit. The greater variability and insensitivity to treatment effect for the AAUTa is likely because of the low resolution of its scoring system. As such, there is a considerable need to develop valid and reliable tools that capture purposeful arm use outside the laboratory, perhaps through leveraging new sensing technologies with objective activity monitoring.

  7. Physiological joint line total knee arthroplasty designs are especially sensitive to rotational placement - A finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Moewis, Philippe; Checa, Sara; Kutzner, Ines; Hommel, Hagen; Duda, Georg N

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical and kinematical aligning techniques are the usual positioning methods during total knee arthroplasty. However, alteration of the physiological joint line and unbalanced medio-lateral load distribution are considered disadvantages in the mechanical and kinematical techniques, respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the joint line on the strain and stress distributions in an implanted knee and their sensitivity to rotational mal-alignment. Finite element calculations were conducted to analyse the stresses in the PE-Inlay and the mechanical strains at the bone side of the tibia component-tibia bone interface during normal positioning of the components and internal and external mal-rotation of the tibial component. Two designs were included, a horizontal and a physiological implant. The loading conditions are based on internal knee joint loads during walking. A medialization of the stresses on the PE-Inlay was observed in the physiological implant in a normal position, accompanied by higher stresses in the mal-rotated positions. Within the tibia component-tibia bone interface, similar strain distributions were observed in both implant geometries in the normal position. However, a medialization of the strains was observed in the physiological implant in both mal-rotated conditions with greater bone volume affected by higher strains. Although evident changes due to mal-rotation were observed, the stresses do not suggest a local plastic deformation of the PE-Inlay. The strains values within most of the tibia component-tibia bone interface were in the physiological strain zone and no significant bone changes would be expected. The physiological cut on the articular aspect showed no detrimental effect compared to the horizontal implant.

  8. Effects of Adjuvant Mental Practice on Affected Upper Limb Function Following a Stroke: Results of Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity and Motor Activity Logs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Seung; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Doo Young; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of adjuvant mental practice (MP) on affected upper limb function following a stroke using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. In this AB/BA crossover study, we studied 10 hemiplegic patients who had a stroke within the past 6 months. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group received MP combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy for the first 3 weeks followed by conventional rehabilitation therapy alone for the final 3 weeks; the other group received the same therapy but in reverse order. The MP tasks included drinking from a cup and opening a door. MP was individually administered for 20 minutes, 3 days a week for 3 weeks. To assess the tasks, we used 3D motion analysis and three additional tests: the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity (FMA-UE) and the motor activity logs for amount of use (MAL-AOU) and quality of movement (MAL-QOM). Assessments were performed immediately before treatment (T0), 3 weeks into treatment (T1), and 6 weeks into treatment (T2). Based on the results of the 3D motion analysis and the FMA-UE index (p=0.106), the MAL-AOU scale (p=0.092), and MAL-QOM scale (p=0.273), adjuvant MP did not result in significant improvements. Adjuvant MP had no significant effect on upper limb function following a stroke, according to 3D motion analysis and three clinical assessment tools (the FMA-UE index and the two MAL scales). The importance of this study is its use of objective 3D motion analysis to evaluate the effects of MP. Further studies will be needed to validate these findings.

  9. Use of a pLDH-based dipstick in the diagnostic and therapeutic follow-up of malaria patients in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Mali and diagnosis is typically based on microscopy. Microscopy requires a well trained technician, a reliable power source, a functioning microscope and adequate supplies. The scarcity of resources of community health centres (CHC) does not allow for such a significant investment in only one aspect of malaria control. In this context, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) may improve case management particularly in remote areas. Methods This multicentre study included 725 patients simultaneously screened with OptiMal-IT test and thick smears for malaria parasite detection. While evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of choroquine in 2 study sites, we compared the diagnostic values of thick smear microscopy to OptiMal-IT test applying the WHO 14 days follow-up scheme using samples collected from 344 patients. Results The sensitivity and the specificity of OptiMal-IT compared to thick smear was 97.2% and 95.4%, whereas the positive and negative predictive values were 96.7 and 96.1%, respectively. The percent agreement between the two diagnostic tests was 0.93. The two tests were comparable in detecting malaria at day 0, day 3 and day 14. The only difference was observed at day 7 due to high gametocytemia. Subjectively, health care providers found OptiMal-IT easier to use and store under field conditions. Conclusion OptiMal-IT test revealed similar results when compared to microscopy which is considered the gold standard for malaria diagnostics. The test was found to have a short processing time and was easier to use. These advantages may improve malaria case management by providing a diagnostic and drug efficacy follow-up tool to peripheral health centres with limited resources. PMID:22114867

  10. A double-blind randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl-aminolevulinate vs. Placebo and daylight in patients with facial photodamage.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Mancilla, G A; Hernandez, G

    2016-04-01

    Daylight PDT (dPDT) is easy to use and does not require light equipment. Such therapy has been exhaustively proved to be successful in the treatment of actinic keratosis, but its use in skin photodamage remains unclear. To evaluate dPDT's efficacy in skin facial photodamage. This was a parallel-group double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Sixty participants with symmetric facial photodamage were allocated to topical methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) and daylight vs. matching placebo and daylight. Primary outcome was global photodamage improvement/failure 1 month after the third session. Secondary outcomes included: pain evaluation; specific photodamage severity scores; sun irradiance quantification and Skindex-29 scores. Adverse events were also investigated. Primary analysis included all randomized patients. All patients sun-exposed for 120min in 3 sessions. The risk of failure was lower in the MAL-dPDT group than in the placebo plus daylight group (RR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08-0.41). Mean solar irradiance (W/m(2)) during the first, second and third sessions was 480.82, 430.07 and 435.84, respectively. Items 5 and 14 of Skindex-29 in the MAL-dPDT group showed statistical significant differences. Two patients in the MAL-dPDT group had serious and non-serious events not directly related to the product. dPDT with MAL was un-painful, effective and safe for the treatment of facial photodamage. Herpes simplex prophylaxis should be considered before sessions. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on oligomerization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with light scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyeong; Lee, Seungho; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Nilsson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In this work, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV/Vis, multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-dRI) was employed for analysis of glutamate decarboxylase (LbGadB) from Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis). AF4 provided molecular weight (MW) (or size)-based separation of dimer, hexamer, and aggregates of LbGadB. The effect of pH on oligomerization of LbGadB was investigated, and then AF4 results were compared to those from molecular modeling. The MWs measured by AF4-UV-MALS-dRI for dimeric and hexameric forms of LbGadB were 110 and 350 kDa, respectively, which are in good agreements with those theoretically calculated (110 and 330 kDa). The molecular sizes determined by AF4-UV-MALS-dRI were also in good agreement with those obtained from molecular modeling (6 and 10 nm, respectively, for dimeric and hexameric from AF4-UV-MALS-dRI and 6.4 × 7.6 and 7.6 × 13.1 nm from molecular modeling). The effects of temperature, salt type, and salt concentration on oligomerization of LbGadB were also investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that the hexameric form of LbGadB was most stable at pH 6 and in presence of NaCl or KCl. The results indicate that AF4, in combination of various online detectors mentioned above, provides an effective tool for monitoring of oligomerization of LbGadB under different conditions, such as temperature, pH, type of salts, and salt concentrations.

  12. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-Ai; Song, Zhi-Jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost all Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. The prevalence of birch allergy among patients visiting health care during pollen season can be as high as 16.7% in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch allergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 as well as to the major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4. A relatively high number of patients (17.6%) are IgE-sensitized to birch pollen allergen(s) other than Bet v 1. The high prevalence of specific IgE to Mal d 1 and Gly m 4 among Bet v 1-sensitized patients indicates that pollen-food allergy syndrome could be of clinical relevance in China.

  13. Trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Arai, Chikako; Arai, Norie; Mizote, Akiko; Kohno, Keizo; Iwaki, Kanso; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ushio, Simpei; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-12-01

    Trehalose has been shown to evoke lower insulin secretion than glucose in oral saccharide tolerance tests in humans. Given this hypoinsulinemic effect of trehalose, we hypothesized that trehalose suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy by reducing storage of triglyceride and mitigates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were fed an HFD and given drinking water containing 2.5% saccharide (glucose [Glc], trehalose [Tre], maltose [Mal], high-fructose corn syrup, or fructose [Fru]) ad libitum. After 7 weeks of HFD and saccharide intake, fasting serum insulin levels in the Tre/HFD group were significantly lower than in the Mal/HFD and Glc/HFD groups (P < .05). Furthermore, the Tre/HFD group showed a significantly suppressed elevation of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance compared with the Mal/HFD group (P < .05) and showed a trend toward lower homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance than the Glc/HFD group. After 8 weeks of feeding, mesenteric adipocyte size in the Tre/HFD group showed significantly less hypertrophy than the Glc/HFD, Mal/HFD, high-fructose corn syrup/HFD, or Fru/HFD group. Analysis of gene expression in mesenteric adipocytes showed that no statistically significant difference in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed between the Tre/HFD group and the distilled water/standard diet group, whereas a significant increase in the MCP-1 mRNA expression was observed in the Glc/HFD, Mal/HFD, Fru/HFD, and distilled water/HFD groups. Thus, our data indicate that trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by reducing insulin secretion and down-regulating mRNA expression of MCP-1. These findings further suggest that trehalose is a functional saccharide that mitigates insulin resistance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An abstraction layer for efficient memory management of tabulated chemistry and flamelet solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Steffen; Messig, Danny; Meyer, Bernd; Hasse, Christian

    2013-06-01

    A large number of methods for simulating reactive flows exist, some of them, for example, directly use detailed chemical kinetics or use precomputed and tabulated flame solutions. Both approaches couple the research fields computational fluid dynamics and chemistry tightly together using either an online or offline approach to solve the chemistry domain. The offline approach usually involves a method of generating databases or so-called Lookup-Tables (LUTs). As these LUTs are extended to not only contain material properties but interactions between chemistry and turbulent flow, the number of parameters and thus dimensions increases. Given a reasonable discretisation, file sizes can increase drastically. The main goal of this work is to provide methods that handle large database files efficiently. A Memory Abstraction Layer (MAL) has been developed that handles requested LUT entries efficiently by splitting the database file into several smaller blocks. It keeps the total memory usage at a minimum using thin allocation methods and compression to minimise filesystem operations. The MAL has been evaluated using three different test cases. The first rather generic one is a sequential reading operation on an LUT to evaluate the runtime behaviour as well as the memory consumption of the MAL. The second test case is a simulation of a non-premixed turbulent flame, the so-called HM1 flame, which is a well-known test case in the turbulent combustion community. The third test case is a simulation of a non-premixed laminar flame as described by McEnally in 1996 and Bennett in 2000. Using the previously developed solver 'flameletFoam' in conjunction with the MAL, memory consumption and the performance penalty introduced were studied. The total memory used while running a parallel simulation was reduced significantly while the CPU time overhead associated with the MAL remained low.

  15. Lead and cadmium contamination and exposure risk assessment via consumption of vegetables grown in agricultural soils of five-selected regions of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization result in serious contamination of soil with toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), which can lead to deleterious health impacts in the exposed population. This study aimed to investigate Pb and Cd contamination in agricultural soils and vegetables in five different agricultural sites in Pakistan. The metal transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake of metals, and health risk index (HRI) were also characterized. The Pb concentrations for all soils were below the maximum allowable limits (MAL 350 mg kg−1) set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), for soils in China. Conversely, Cd concentrations in the soils exceeded the MAL set by SEPA (0.6 mg kg−) and the European Union (1.5 mg kg−1) by 62-74% and 4-34%, respectively. The mean Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables ranged from 1.8-11 mgkg−1. The Pb concentrations for leafy vegetables were higher than the fruiting and pulpy vegetables. The Pb concentrations exceeded the MAL (0.3 mg kg−1) for leafy vegetables and the MAL for fruity and rooty/tuber vegetables (0.1 mg kg−1) set by FAO/WHO-CODEX.. Likewise, all vegetables except Pisum sativum (0.12 mg kg−1) contained Cd concentrations that exceeded the MAL set by SEPA. The HRI values for Pb and Cd were <1 for both adults and children for most of the vegetable species except Luffa acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum, Benincasa hispada, Momordi charantia, Aesculantus malvaceae, Cucumis sativus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Brassica oleracea, and Colocasia esculanta for children. Based on these results, consumption of these Pb and Cd contaminated vegetables poses a potential health risk to the local consumers. PMID:27939659

  16. Lead and cadmium contamination and exposure risk assessment via consumption of vegetables grown in agricultural soils of five-selected regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir

    2017-02-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization result in serious contamination of soil with toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), which can lead to deleterious health impacts in the exposed population. This study aimed to investigate Pb and Cd contamination in agricultural soils and vegetables in five different agricultural sites in Pakistan. The metal transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake of metals, and health risk index (HRI) were also characterized. The Pb concentrations for all soils were below the maximum allowable limits (MAL 350 mg kg -1 ) set by State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), for soils in China, while Cd concentrations in the soils were exceeded the MAL (61.7-73.7% and 4.39-34.3%) set by SEPA (0.6 mg kg - ), and European Union, (1.5 mg kg -1 ) respectively. The mean Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables ranged from 1.8 to 11 mg kg -1 . The Pb concentrations for leafy vegetables were higher than the fruiting and pulpy vegetables. The Pb concentrations exceeded the MAL (0.3 mg kg -1 ) for leafy vegetables and the 0.1 mg kg -1 MAL for fruity and rooty/tuber vegetables set by FAO/WHO-CODEX. Likewise, all vegetables except Pisum sativum (0.12 mg kg -1 ) contained Cd concentrations that exceeded the MAL set by SEPA. The HRI values for Pb and Cd were <1 for both adults and children for most of the vegetable species except Luffa acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum, Benincasa hispada, Momordi charantia, Aesculantus malvaceae, Cucumis sativus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Brassica oleracea, and Colocasia esculanta for children. Based on these results, consumption of these Pb and Cd contaminated vegetables poses a potential health risk to the local consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Opposing Forces of A/T-Biased Mutations and G/C-Biased Gene Conversions Shape the Genome of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Andreas M.; Rödelsperger, Christian; Eberhardt, Gabi; Molnar, Ruxandra I.; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    Base substitution mutations are a major source of genetic novelty and mutation accumulation line (MAL) studies revealed a nearly universal AT bias in de novo mutation spectra. While a comparison of de novo mutation spectra with the actual nucleotide composition in the genome suggests the existence of general counterbalancing mechanisms, little is known about the evolutionary and historical details of these opposing forces. Here, we correlate MAL-derived mutation spectra with patterns observed from population resequencing. Variation observed in natural populations has already been subject to evolutionary forces. Distinction between rare and common alleles, the latter of which are close to fixation and of presumably older age, can provide insight into mutational processes and their influence on genome evolution. We provide a genome-wide analysis of de novo mutations in 22 MALs of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus and compare the spectra with natural variants observed in resequencing of 104 natural isolates. MALs show an AT bias of 5.3, one of the highest values observed to date. In contrast, the AT bias in natural variants is much lower. Specifically, rare derived alleles show an AT bias of 2.4, whereas common derived alleles close to fixation show no AT bias at all. These results indicate the existence of a strong opposing force and they suggest that the GC content of the P. pacificus genome is in equilibrium. We discuss GC-biased gene conversion as a potential mechanism acting against AT-biased mutations. This study provides insight into genome evolution by combining MAL studies with natural variation. PMID:24414549

  18. Minimal Detectable Change of the Actual Amount of Use Test and the Motor Activity Log: The EXCITE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuya; Wolf, Steven L.; Zhang, Qin; Thompson, Paul A.; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficacy of task-oriented training can be reliably trusted only when the inherent measurement variability is determined. The Actual Amount of Use Test (AAUT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) have been used together as measures of spontaneous arm use after an intervention; however, the minimal detectable change (MDC) of AAUT and MAL has not been addressed. Objective To compare the MDC90 of the AAUT and the MAL in the context of a randomized controlled trial of a neurorehabilitation intervention, the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation trial. Methods A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using pre–post test data from the control group. Estimated MDC90 were normalized to the maximum value of the scale of the AAUT and the MAL for each subscale: amount of use (AAUTa, MALa) and quality of movement (AAUTq, MALq). Results The MDC90 of the AAUTq and the MALq were 14.4% and 15.4%, respectively. However, the MDC90 required greater change for the AAUTa (24.2%) than the MALa (16.8%). The training-induced spontaneous arm use exceeded the MDC90 for the MAL but fell below that for the AAUT immediately after the intervention and at 1-year follow-up visit. Conclusions The greater variability and insensitivity to treatment effect for the AAUTa is likely because of the low resolution of its scoring system. As such, there is a considerable need to develop valid and reliable tools that capture purposeful arm use outside the laboratory, perhaps through leveraging new sensing technologies with objective activity monitoring. PMID:22275157

  19. Determination of the appropriate catheter length and place for needle thoracostomy by using computed tomography scans of pneumothorax patients.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Haldun; Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Evman, Serdar; Akoglu, Tayfun; Altinok, Arzu Denizbasi; Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge Ecmel; Eroglu, Serkan Emre

    2013-09-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the chest wall thicknesses (CWT) at the 2nd intercostal space (ICS) at the mid-clavicular line (MCL) and 5th ICS at the mid-axillary line (MAL) in a population of patients with a CT confirmed pneumothorax (PTX). This result will help physicians to determine the optimum needle thoracostomy (NT) puncture site in patients with a PTX. All trauma patients who presented consecutively to A&E over a 12-month period were included. Among all the trauma patients with a chest CT (4204 patients), 160 were included in the final analysis. CWTs were measured at both sides and were compared in all subgroup of patients. The average CWT for men on the 2nd ICS-MCL was 38mm and for women was 52mm; on the other hand, on the 5th ICS-MAL was 33mm for men and 38mm for women. On the 2nd ICS-MCL 17% of men and 48% of women; on the 5th ICS-MAL 13% of men and 33% of women would be inaccessible with a routine 5-cm catheter. Patients with trauma, subcutaneous emphysema and multiple rib fractures would have thicker CWT on the 2nd ICS-MCL. Patients with trauma, lung contusion, sternum fracture, subcutaneous emphysema and multiple rib fractures would have thicker CWT on the 5th ICS-MAL. This study confirms that a 5.0-cm catheter would be unlikely to access the pleural space in at least 1/3 of female and 1/10 of male Turkish trauma patients, regardless of the puncture site. If NT is needed, the 5th ICS-MAL is a better option for a puncture site with thinner CWT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Everybody's Different Nobody's Perfect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. Adaptado para los niños del libro "Todos somos diferentes, nadie es ... can do SOMETHING, but NOBODY can do EVERYTHING! ¡Lo que significa que TODOS podemos hacer ALGO, pero ...

  1. Evaluation of Whether Gemfibrozil is a Peroxisome Proliferator in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gemfibrozil is a pharmaceutical that indirectly modulates cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), which are transcriptional cofactors that regulate expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. An enzyme found in the pero...

  2. Room-Temperature and Aqueous Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional TiS2 as an Electron Transport Layer for Highly Efficient and Stable Planar n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Yuan, Ligang; Zhang, Kaicheng; Chen, Qiaoyun; Zhou, Yi; Song, Bo; Li, Yongfang

    2018-05-02

    In this study, a room-temperature and aqueous solution-processed two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide TiS 2 was applied as an electron transport layer (ETL) in planar n-i-p perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs). Upon insertion of the 2D TiS 2 ETL with UV-ozone (UVO) treatment, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the planar Pero-SCs was optimized to 18.79%. To the best of our knowledge, this value should be the highest efficiency to date among those PCEs of the n-i-p Pero-SCs with room-temperature-processed metal compound ETLs. More importantly, the n-i-p Pero-SCs with the UVO-treated 2D TiS 2 as an ETL also show extremely high stability, where the average PCE remained over 95% of its initial value after 816 h storage without encapsulation.

  3. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferators, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are environmentally widespread and persistent and multiple toxicities have been reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds trigger biological activity via activation of the alpha isotype of pero...

  4. J-V and C-V investigation of the effect of small molecular fullerene and non-fullerene acceptors for CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanqiong; Wang, Chao; Yu, Junle; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Bin; Li, Weishi

    2017-11-01

    To find the ideal acceptors for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and get insight into the dielectric property at the interface between perovskite and acceptor, series of small molecular fullerene and non-fullerene acceptors were comparatively investigated. Fullerene acceptors based PSCs show higher performance than non-fullerene acceptors based PSCs. However, the perylene tetracarboxylic diimide based PSC has achieved a η PCE of 4.70%, implying that it is a promising acceptor candidate for PSCs because of its suitable energy level, high electron mobility, and smooth surface. By employing double acceptors of (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/C60 or PCBM/3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole, the PSC stability is greatly improved even without performance enhancement. The perovskite (Pero)/PCBM film shows smooth surface, suggesting that PCBM penetrates into the Pero layer. The hydrophobicity trend of Pero/acceptor composite films is same as the device performance by judging from the water contact angle, and Pero/PCBM as well as Pero/C60 show higher hydrophobicity than other Pero/small-molecular-acceptor composite films. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of the series of single and double acceptor based PSCs were measured. The double acceptor based PSCs show larger depletion layer width (W d) than single acceptor based PSCs. Meanwhile, the defect density (N A) in Pero layer for single acceptor based PSCs is larger than that for double acceptor based PSCs, implying better n-doping of Pero layer by using a single acceptor.

  5. The variable chemotherapeutic response of Malabaricone-A in leukemic and solid tumor cell lines depends on the degree of redox imbalance.

    PubMed

    Manna, Alak; De Sarkar, Sritama; De, Soumita; Bauri, Ajay K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-07-15

    The 'two-faced' character of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in cancer biology by acting as secondary messengers in intracellular signaling cascades, enhancing cell proliferation and survival, thereby sustaining the oncogenic phenotype. Conversely, enhanced generation of ROS can trigger an oxidative assault leading to a redox imbalance translating into an apoptotic cell death. Intrinsically, cancer cells have higher basal levels of ROS which if supplemented by additional oxidative insult by pro-oxidants can be cytotoxic, an example being Malabaricone-A (MAL-A). MAL-A is a plant derived diarylnonanoid, purified from fruit rind of the plant Myristica malabarica whose anti-cancer activity has been demonstrated in leukemic cell lines, the modality of cell death being apoptosis. This study aimed to compare the degree of effectiveness of MAL-A in leukemic vs. solid tumor cell lines. The cytotoxicity of MAL-A was evaluated by the MTS-PMS cell viability assay in leukemic cell lines (MOLT3, K562 and HL-60) and compared with solid tumor cell lines (MCF7, A549 and HepG2); further studies then proceeded with MOLT3 vs. MCF7 and A549. The contribution of redox imbalance in MAL-A induced cytotoxicity was confirmed by pre-incubating cells with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or a thiol depletor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). MAL-A induced redox imbalance was quantitated by flow cytometry, by measuring the generation of ROS and levels of non protein thiols using dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) respectively. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) NQO1 and glutathione-S-transferase GST were measured spectrophotometrically. The mitochondrial involvement of MAL-A induced cell death was measured by evaluation of cardiolipin peroxidation using 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO), transition pore activity with calcein

  6. East African Soil Erosion Recorded in a 300 Year old Coral Colony From Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Fleitmann, D.; McCulloch, M.; Mudelsee, M.; Vuille, M.; McClanahan, T.; Cole, J.; Eggins, S.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion threatens the food security of 2.6 billion people worldwide. The situation is particularly dire in East and Sub-Saharan Africa where per capita food production has declined over the past 45 years. Erosion and the resultant loss of fertile soil is a key socio-economic and ecological problem in Kenya, affecting all sectors of its economy and damaging marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The temporal pattern of soil erosion is almost unknown and currently only sparse and rather anecdotal information exists. To aid in filling this gap of knowledge, we present a 300-year long Barium record from two Kenyan coral colonies (Porites sp., 3°15'S, 40°9' E; Malindi Marine National Park) that documents a dynamic history of soil erosion in the Sabaki river drainage basin. To reconstruct Sabaki River sediment flux to the Malindi coral reef Ba/Ca ratios were measured in the skeleton of two Porites colonies (Mal 96-1 and Mal 95-3). Well-developed annual bands allow us to develop annually precise chronologies. Ba/Ca ratios were measured in core Mal 96-1 at continuous 40 μm intervals (~400 to 500 samples yr-1) using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA- ICP-MS). To test for reproducibility and accuracy of the Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile, coral core Mal 95-3 was analyzed at lower resolution (1 to 12 samples yr-1) using discrete micro-drill sampling and isotope dilution ICP-MS. The close similarity between both coral Ba/Ca profiles, in absolute values as well as general pattern, underscores the accuracy of the LA-ICP-MS technique and adds confidence to our interpretation of the 300 year long Mal 96-1 Ba/Ca profile. The Ba/Ca coral proxy record shows that while the sediment flux from the Sabaki River is nearly constant between 1700 and 1900, a continuous rise in sediment flux is observed since 1900, reflecting steadily increasing demographic pressure on land use. The peak in suspended sediment load and hence soil erosion recorded at the Malindi reef

  7. Site Specific Discrete PEGylation of 124I-Labeled mCC49 Fab′ Fragments Improves Tumor MicroPET/CT Imaging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiming; Carlton, Michelle M.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Milum, Keisha; Kumar, Krishan; Kothandaraman, Shankaran; Hinkle, George H.; Colcher, David; Brody, Rich; Davis, Paul D.; Pokora, Alex; Phelps, Mitchell; Martin, Edward W.; Tweedle, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) antigen is highly overexpressed in various human adenocarcinomas and anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies, and fragments are therefore useful as pharmaceutical targeting vectors. In this study, we investigated the effects of site-specific PEGylation with MW 2–4 kDa discrete, branched PEGylation reagents on mCC49 Fab′ (MW 50 kDa) via in vitro TAG72 binding, and in vivo blood clearance kinetics, biodistribution, and mouse tumor microPET/CT imaging. mCC49Fab′ (Fab′-NEM) was conjugated at a hinge region cysteine with maleimide-dPEG12-(dPEG24COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-A), maleimide-dPEG12-(dPEG12COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-B), or maleimide-dPEG12-(m-dPEG24)3 (Mal-dPEG-C), and then radiolabeled with iodine-124 (124I) in vitro radioligand binding assays and in vivo studies used TAG-72 expressing LS174T human colon carcinoma cells and xenograft mouse tumors. Conjugation of mCC49Fab′ with Mal-dPEG-A (Fab′-A) reduced the binding affinity of the non PEGylated Fab′ by 30%; however, in vivo, Fab′-A significantly lengthened the blood retention vs Fab′-NEM (47.5 vs 28.1%/ID at 1 h, 25.1 vs 8.4%/ID at 5 h, p < 0.01), showed excellent tumor to background, better microPET/CT images due to higher tumor accumulation, and increased tumor concentration in excised tissues at 72 h by 130% (5.09 ± 0.83 vs 3.83 ± 1.50%ID/g, p < 0.05). Despite the strong similarity of the three PEGylation reagents, PEGylation with Mal-dPEG-B or -C reduced the in vitro binding affinity of Fab′-NEM by 70%, blood retention, microPET/CT imaging tumor signal intensity, and residual 72 h tumor concentration by 49% (3.83 ± 1.50 vs 1.97 ± 0.29%ID/g, p < 0.05) and 63% (3.83 ± 1.50 vs 1.42 ± 0.35%ID/g, p < 0.05), respectively. We conclude that remarkably subtle changes in the structure of the PEGylation reagent can create significantly altered biologic behavior. Further study is warranted of conjugates of the triple branched, negatively charged Mal-dPEG-A. PMID

  8. Digestive cell lysosomes as main targets for Ag accumulation and toxicity in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to maltose-stabilised Ag nanoparticles of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-Romero, A; Bilbao, E; Izagirre, U; Cajaraville, M P; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2017-03-01

    Bioavailability and toxicity of maltose-stabilised AgNPs of different sizes (20, 40 and 100 nm) in mussels were compared with bulk and aqueous forms of the metal through a two-tier experimental approach. In the first tier, mussels were exposed for 3 d to a range of concentrations (0.75, 75, 750 μg Ag/l) in the form of Ag20-Mal, Ag40-Mal, Ag100-Mal, bulk Ag and aqueous Ag (as AgNO 3 ), as well as to the concentrations of maltose used in the formulation of NPs. Mortality, bioaccumulation, tissue and cell distribution and lysosomal responses were investigated. In the second tier, mussels were exposed for 21 d to Ag20-Mal, Ag100-Mal, bulk Ag and aqueous Ag at the lowest effective concentration selected after Tier 1 (0.75 μg Ag/l), biomarkers and toxicopathic effects were investigated. Aqueous Ag was lethal within 3 d at 75 μg Ag/l; Ag NPs or bulk Ag did not produce significant mortality at 750 μg Ag/l. Ag accumulation was limited and metallothionein gene transcription was not regulated although metal accumulation occurred in digestive, brown and stomach epithelial cells and in gut lumen after exposure to AgNPs and aqueous Ag starting at low concentrations after 1 d. Electrondense particles (<10 nm) in lysosomes and residual bodies after exposure to AgNPs contained Ag and S (X-ray). Intralysosomal metal accumulation and lysosomal membrane destabilisation were enhanced after exposure to all the forms of Ag and more marked after exposure to Ag20-Mal than to larger NPs. 21 d exposure to AgNPs provoked digestive cell loss and loss of digestive gland integrity, resulting in atrophy-necrosis in digestive alveoli and oedema/hyperplasia in gills (Ag NP), vacuolisation in digestive cells (aqueous Ag) and haemocyte infiltration of connective tissue (all treatments). Intralysosomal metal accumulation, lysosomal responses and toxicopathic effects are enhanced at decreasing sizes and appear to be caused by Ag +  ions released from NPs, although the metal was not

  9. The time-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in nodular basal cell carcinoma following application of methyl aminolevulinate with an oxygen pressure injection device.

    PubMed

    Blake, E; Campbell, S; Allen, J; Mathew, J; Helliwell, P; Curnow, A

    2012-12-05

    Topical protoporphyrin (PpIX)-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the penetration of the prodrug into the skin lesion and subsequent accumulation of the photosensitizer. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT is an established treatment for thinner and superficial non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) but for the treatment of the thicker nodular basal cell carcinoma (nBCC) enhanced penetration of the prodrug is required. This study employed a new higher pressure, oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device, at the time of Metvix® application with a view to enhancing the penetration of MAL into the tumors. Each patient had Metvix® applied to a single nBCC followed by application of a higher pressure OPI device. Following different time intervals (0, 30, 60, 120 or 180 min) the tumors were excised. The maximum depth and area of MAL penetration achieved in each lesion was measured using PpIX fluorescence microscopy. As expected, an increase in the depth of MAL-induced PpIX accumulation and area of tumor sensitized was observed over time; when the Metvix® cream was applied for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min the median depth of PpIX fluorescence was 0%, 21%, 26.5%, 75.5% and 90%, respectively and the median area of tumor sensitized was 0%, 4%, 6%, 19% and 60%, respectively. As the investigation presented here did not include a control arm, the relative depths of fluorescence observed in this study were statistically compared (using the non-parametric Mann Whitney U test) with the results of our previous study where patients had Metvix® cream applied either with or without the standard pressure OPI device. When the higher pressure OPI device was employed compared to without OPI this increase was observed to be greater following 30, 120, and 180 min although overall not significantly (p=0.835). In addition, no significant difference between the higher pressure OPI device employed here and the previously investigated standard pressure OPI device was observed (p=0.403). However

  10. Cellular Action of Vasopressin in Medullary Tubules of Mice with Hereditary Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian A.; Edwards, Richard M.; Valtin, Heinz; Dousa, Thomas P.

    1980-01-01

    Our previous studies (1974. J. Clin. Invest.54: 753-762.) suggested that impaired metabolism of cyclic AMP (cAMP) may be involved in the renal unresponsiveness to vasopressin (VP) in mice with hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). To localize such a defect to specific segments of the nephron, we studied the activities of VP-sensitive adenylate cyclase, cAMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDIE), as well as accumulation of cAMP in medullary collecting tubules (MCT) and in medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop (MAL) microdissected from control mice with normal concentrating ability and from mice with hereditary NDI. Adenylate cyclase activity stimulated by VP or by NaF was only slightly lower (−24%) in MCT from NDI mice, compared with controls. In MAL of NDI mice, basal, VP-sensitive, and NaF-sensitive adenylate cyclase was markedly (> −60%) lower compared with MAL of controls. The specific activity of cAMP-PDIE was markedly higher in MCT of NDI mice compared with controls, but was not different between MAL of control and NDI mice. Under present in vitro conditions, incubation of intact MCT from control mice with VP caused a striking increase in cAMP levels (>10), but VP failed to elicit a change in cAMP levels in MCT from NDI mice. When the cAMP-PDIE inhibitor 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine (MIX) was added to the above incubation, VP caused a significant increase in cAMP levels in MCT from both NDI mice and control mice. Under all tested conditions, cAMP levels in MCT of NDI mice were lower than corresponding values in control MCT. Under the present experimental setting, VP and other stimulating factors (MIX, cholera toxin) did not change cAMP levels in MAL from either control mice or from NDI mice. The results of the present in vitro experiments suggest that the functional unresponsiveness of NDI mice to VP is perhaps mainly the result of the inability of collecting tubules to increase intracellular cAMP levels in response to VP. In turn, this

  11. Oral rehydration of malnourished children with diarrhoea and dehydration: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Houston, Kirsty A; Gibb, Jack G; Maitland, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Background : Diarrhoea complicates over half of admissions to hospital with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of dehydration recommend the use of oral rehydration with ReSoMal (an oral rehydration solution (ORS) for SAM), which has lower sodium (45mmols/l) and higher potassium (40mmols/l) content than old WHO ORS. The composition of ReSoMal was designed specifically to address theoretical risks of sodium overload and potential under-treatment of severe hypokalaemia with rehydration using standard ORS. In African children, severe hyponatraemia at admission is a major risk factor for poor outcome in children with SAM complicated by diarrhoea. We therefore reviewed the evidence for oral rehydration therapy in children with SAM. Methods : We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on 18 th July 2017 comparing different oral rehydration solutions in severely malnourished children with diarrhoea and dehydration, using standard search terms. The author assessed papers for inclusion. The primary endpoint was frequency of hyponatraemia during rehydration. Results : Six RCTs were identified, all published in English and conducted in low resource settings in Asia. A range of ORS were evaluated in these studies, including old WHO ORS, standard hypo-osmolar WHO ORS and ReSoMal. Hyponatraemia was observed in two trials evaluating ReSoMal, three children developed severe hyponatraemia with one experiencing convulsions. Hypo-osmolar ORS was found to have benefits in time to rehydration, reduction of stool output and duration of diarrhoea. No trials reported over-hydration or fatalities. Conclusions : Current WHO guidelines strongly recommend the use of ReSoMal based on low quality of evidence. Studies indicate a significant risk of hyponatraemia on ReSoMal in Asian children, none have been conducted in Africa, where SAM mortality remains high. Further research should be conducted in Africa to

  12. Chlorpropamide action on renal concentrating mechanism in rats with hypothalamic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kusano, E; Braun-Werness, J L; Vick, D J; Keller, M J; Dousa, T P

    1983-10-01

    To determine vasopressin (VP)-potentiating effect of chlorpropamide (CPMD), we studied the effect of CPMD in vivo and in vitro in kidneys and in specific tubule segments of rats with hypothalamic diabetes insipidus, homozygotes of the Brattleboro strain (DI rats). Rats on ad lib. water intake were treated with CPMD (20 mg/100 g body wt s.c. daily) for 7 d. While on ad lib. water intake, the urine flow, urine osmolality, urinary excretion of Na +, K +, creatinine, or total solute excretion did not change. However, corticopapillary gradient of solutes was significantly increased in CPMD-treated rats. Higher tissue osmolality was due to significantly increased concentration of Na +, and to a lesser degree urea, in the medulla and papilla of CPMD-treated rats. Consequently, the osmotic gradient between urine and papillary tissue of CPMD-treated rats (delta = 385 +/- 47 mosM) was significantly (P less than 0.001) higher compared with controls (delta = 150 +/- 26 mosM). Minimum urine osmolality after water loading was higher in CPMD-treated DI rats than in controls. Oxidation of [14C]lactate to 14CO2 coupled to NaCl cotransport was measured in thick medullary ascending limb of Henle's loop (MAL) microdissected from control and CPMD-treated rats. The rate of 14CO2 production was higher (delta + 113% +/- 20; P less than 0.01) in CPMD-treated MAL compared with controls, but 14CO2 production in the presence of 10(-3) M furosemide did not differ between MAL from control and from CPMD-treated rats. These observations suggest that CPMD treatment enhances NaCl transport in MAL. Cyclic AMP metabolism was analyzed in microdissected MAL and in medullary collecting tubule (MCT). MCT from control and from CPMD-treated rats did not differ in the basal or VP-stimulated accumulated of cAMP. The increase in cAMP content elicited by 10(-6) M VP in MAL from CPMD-treated rats (delta + 12.0 +/- 1.8 fmol cAMP/mm) was significantly (P less than 0.02) higher compared with MAL from control rats

  13. Chlorpropamide action on renal concentrating mechanism in rats with hypothalamic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, E; Braun-Werness, J L; Vick, D J; Keller, M J; Dousa, T P

    1983-01-01

    To determine vasopressin (VP)-potentiating effect of chlorpropamide (CPMD), we studied the effect of CPMD in vivo and in vitro in kidneys and in specific tubule segments of rats with hypothalamic diabetes insipidus, homozygotes of the Brattleboro strain (DI rats). Rats on ad lib. water intake were treated with CPMD (20 mg/100 g body wt s.c. daily) for 7 d. While on ad lib. water intake, the urine flow, urine osmolality, urinary excretion of Na +, K +, creatinine, or total solute excretion did not change. However, corticopapillary gradient of solutes was significantly increased in CPMD-treated rats. Higher tissue osmolality was due to significantly increased concentration of Na +, and to a lesser degree urea, in the medulla and papilla of CPMD-treated rats. Consequently, the osmotic gradient between urine and papillary tissue of CPMD-treated rats (delta = 385 +/- 47 mosM) was significantly (P less than 0.001) higher compared with controls (delta = 150 +/- 26 mosM). Minimum urine osmolality after water loading was higher in CPMD-treated DI rats than in controls. Oxidation of [14C]lactate to 14CO2 coupled to NaCl cotransport was measured in thick medullary ascending limb of Henle's loop (MAL) microdissected from control and CPMD-treated rats. The rate of 14CO2 production was higher (delta + 113% +/- 20; P less than 0.01) in CPMD-treated MAL compared with controls, but 14CO2 production in the presence of 10(-3) M furosemide did not differ between MAL from control and from CPMD-treated rats. These observations suggest that CPMD treatment enhances NaCl transport in MAL. Cyclic AMP metabolism was analyzed in microdissected MAL and in medullary collecting tubule (MCT). MCT from control and from CPMD-treated rats did not differ in the basal or VP-stimulated accumulated of cAMP. The increase in cAMP content elicited by 10(-6) M VP in MAL from CPMD-treated rats (delta + 12.0 +/- 1.8 fmol cAMP/mm) was significantly (P less than 0.02) higher compared with MAL from control rats

  14. Effect of harmane on the convulsive threshold in epilepsy models in mice.

    PubMed

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Yillar, Okan; Korcegez, Eylem; Berkman, Kemal

    2003-12-01

    The study investigated the activity of harmane on maximal electroshock seizures (MES) and seizures induced by pentilentetrazole (PTZ) in mice. Initial studies established convulsive current 50 (CC(50)) values or MES and effective dose 50 (ED(50)) for PTZ to produce seizures. Harmane (2.5, 5.0, or 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) increased the threshold of seizures in MES dose-dependently. The convulsions produced by PTZ were decreased by the low dose of harmane (2.5 mg/kg), but the high dose of harmane (10 mg/kg) resulted in worse grade V convulsions followed by more lethality compared with PTZ alone. Therefore, harmane seems to be protective against grand mal seizures in the MES model but not against a petit mal seizure model (PTZ) in mice.

  15. Social and behavior change communication in the fight against malaria in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison

    2017-03-23

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique. RESUMO As redes mosquiteiras impregnadas com insecticidade de longa duração e/ou pulverização intra-domiciliária, associada ao manejo de casos são intervenções-chave no controlo da malária em África. O objetivo deste estudo foi comentar o papel da comunicação para a mudança social e de comportamento como intervenção potencialmente chave no controlo da malária em Moçambique.

  16. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-05

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  17. Co-elution effects can influence molar mass determination of large macromolecules with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multiangle light scattering.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rea, Daysi; Zielke, Claudia; Nilsson, Lars

    2017-07-14

    Starch and hence, amylopectin is an important biomacromolecule in both the human diet as well as in technical applications. Therefore, accurate and reliable analytical methods for its characterization are needed. A suitable method for analyzing macromolecules with ultra-high molar mass, branched structure and high polydispersity is asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. In this paper we illustrate how co-elution of low quantities of very large analytes in AF4 may cause disturbances in the MALS data which, in turn, causes an overestimation of the size. Furthermore, it is shown how pre-injection filtering of the sample can improve the results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of genes involved in glycogen degradation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Strydom, Lindi; Jewell, Jonathan; Meier, Michael A; George, Gavin M; Pfister, Barbara; Zeeman, Samuel; Kossmann, Jens; Lloyd, James R

    2017-02-01

    Escherichia coli accumulate or degrade glycogen depending on environmental carbon supply. Glycogen phosphorylase (GlgP) and glycogen debranching enzyme (GlgX) are known to act on the glycogen polymer, while maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP) is thought to remove maltodextrins released by GlgX. To examine the roles of these enzymes in more detail, single, double and triple mutants lacking all their activities were produced. GlgX and GlgP were shown to act directly on the glycogen polymer, while MalP most likely catabolised soluble malto-oligosaccharides. Interestingly, analysis of a triple mutant lacking all three enzymes indicates the presence of another enzyme that can release maltodextrins from glycogen. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by allmore » geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.« less

  20. New layered double hydroxides by prepared by the intercalation of gibbsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Jennifer R.; Burden, Chloe S.; Fogg, Andrew M.

    2015-04-01

    New layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the composition [MAl4(OH)12]Cl2·1.5H2O (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared by reacting gibbsite, γ-Al(OH)3, with the appropriate chloride salt in a synthesis in which the water of crystallization is the only solvent present and fully characterized. These LDHs have been shown to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with both organic and inorganic anions at room temperature making them comparable to other LDHs in this respect. Reactions under the same conditions with CuCl2·2H2O and ZnCl2 failed to form the desired LDHs but those with nitrate salts did lead to the formation of the previously reported [MAl4(OH)12](NO3)2·1.5H2O (M=Co, Ni) compounds.

  1. Results from a Web-Based Family History Questionnaire for the Cohort of the Robert E. Mitchell Center for Prisoner of War Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-21

    0 0 0 1 1 2 Stent 0 0 0 0 2 2 Stress 0 0 0 1 1 2 Cerebral Hemorrhage 0 0 1 0 0 1 Some Neurological Problems Traced to Vitamin B12... Stents 0 0 0 0 1 1 Grand Mal Seizure 0 0 0 1 0 1 Hardening of the Liver 0 1 0 0 0 1 Heart Murmur 0 0 0 0 1 1 Heart Valve damage from

  2. Engineering Design Handbook Short Fiber Plastic Base Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-31

    ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK N ’~rttl SHORT FIBER PLASTIC BASE COMPOSITES l ,.. HEADQUARTERS, US ARrm MAlERIEL COIVMAND JULY 1975 DEPARTMENT OF...HANDBOOK SHORT FIBER PLASTIC BASE COMPOSITES TABLE OF CONTENTS 31 July 1975 Paragraph Page 1-1 1-2 1-2.1 1-2.2 1-3 1-3.1 1-3.2 1-3.3 1...General ............................... . Molding Short Fiber Compounds ........... . Classification of Polymer Based Composites

  3. Active Solute Transport across Frog Skin and Epithelial Cell Systems According to the Association-Induction Hypothesis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    indicated in insect Malpighian tubules, insect midgut , choroid plexus and gastric mucosa. 9.2.5 Conciliation of the Conflict Between Models of "Homocellular...SeApeinaebility is therefore under close I Ling (P;. 14) control by hormones or drugs that react with receptor sites on these protelns and so...bears remembering that in active transport across bifacial cells the key cation is not always No% Thus in MalPighian tubules of insects the key Lon

  4. A Method for Estimating Missing Hourly Temperatures Using Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    work documented by USAFETAC/PR-90/006, S/urt-Termn Hourl ’y Iernpcrature Interlyolaion, by Mal Wvalter F . Miller, December 1990. In his study, Miller...temperatures for the missing hours and concluded that the best model %as one developed by Hoogenboom and [luck (1986). The Hoogcnboom/Huck model uses a...mean of the error estimate, was determined from the following equation: - 7)) BIAS = 1 N", f (14) where the difference between the observed hourly

  5. Targeted Therapies for Myeloma and Metastatic Bone Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    to produce NPs for in-vivo studies compatible with the short half life of Tc99m. (Fig 6,7) Developed methods to radiolabel polymer nanoparticles...fully characterize PLA-b-PEG-Maleimide block Polymer (PLA-b-PEG-MAL) Propose: To synthesize Maleimide modified PLGA-b-PEG 2000 for NPs bone-targeted... polymer was synthesized and characterized by H-NMR. (Appendix 2) Improved lyostability of polymer nanoparticles, with and without PEG modification

  6. Genetic Evidence for a Tight Cooperation of TatB and TatC during Productive Recognition of Twin-Arginine (Tat) Signal Peptides in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lausberg, Frank; Fleckenstein, Stefan; Kreutzenbeck, Peter; Fröbel, Julia; Rose, Patrick; Müller, Matthias; Freudl, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Tat signal peptides contain a consensus motif (S/T-R-R-X-F-L-K) that is thought to play a crucial role in substrate recognition by the Tat translocase. Replacement of the phenylalanine at the +2 consensus position in the signal peptide of a Tat-specific reporter protein (TorA-MalE) by aspartate blocked export of the corresponding TorA(D+2)-MalE precursor, indicating that this mutation prevents a productive binding of the TorA(D+2) signal peptide to the Tat translocase. Mutations were identified in the extreme amino-terminal regions of TatB and TatC that synergistically suppressed the export defect of TorA(D+2)-MalE when present in pairwise or triple combinations. The observed synergistic suppression activities were even more pronounced in the restoration of membrane translocation of another export-defective precursor, TorA(KQ)-MalE, in which the conserved twin arginine residues had been replaced by lysine-glutamine. Collectively, these findings indicate that the extreme amino-terminal regions of TatB and TatC cooperate tightly during recognition and productive binding of Tat-dependent precursor proteins and, furthermore, that TatB and TatC are both involved in the formation of a specific signal peptide binding site that reaches out as far as the end of the TatB transmembrane segment. PMID:22761916

  7. Genetic evidence for a tight cooperation of TatB and TatC during productive recognition of twin-arginine (Tat) signal peptides in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lausberg, Frank; Fleckenstein, Stefan; Kreutzenbeck, Peter; Fröbel, Julia; Rose, Patrick; Müller, Matthias; Freudl, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Tat signal peptides contain a consensus motif (S/T-R-R-X-F-L-K) that is thought to play a crucial role in substrate recognition by the Tat translocase. Replacement of the phenylalanine at the +2 consensus position in the signal peptide of a Tat-specific reporter protein (TorA-MalE) by aspartate blocked export of the corresponding TorA(D(+2))-MalE precursor, indicating that this mutation prevents a productive binding of the TorA(D(+2)) signal peptide to the Tat translocase. Mutations were identified in the extreme amino-terminal regions of TatB and TatC that synergistically suppressed the export defect of TorA(D(+2))-MalE when present in pairwise or triple combinations. The observed synergistic suppression activities were even more pronounced in the restoration of membrane translocation of another export-defective precursor, TorA(KQ)-MalE, in which the conserved twin arginine residues had been replaced by lysine-glutamine. Collectively, these findings indicate that the extreme amino-terminal regions of TatB and TatC cooperate tightly during recognition and productive binding of Tat-dependent precursor proteins and, furthermore, that TatB and TatC are both involved in the formation of a specific signal peptide binding site that reaches out as far as the end of the TatB transmembrane segment.

  8. A cadaveric study of the anatomical variation of the origins of the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery: a role in median arcuate ligament syndrome?

    PubMed

    Katz-Summercorn, Annalise; Bridger, John

    2013-11-01

    Gray's Anatomy states, "the celiac trunk is the first anterior branch of the abdominal aorta and arises just below the aortic hiatus. The superior mesenteric artery originates from the aorta c1.0 cm below the celiac trunk." (Standring, 2008a, Gray's Anatomy. 40th Ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, p. 1073-1074). During dissection classes with medical students we found this not to be the case. We have re-evaluated the anatomy of the origins of the celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the relationship of the CT to the median arcuate ligament (MAL) in 99 cadavers. We have found the external distance between the CT and SMA to range from 0 to 20 mm (mean 3.4 mm, SD 5.17 mm), with the two in direct apposition in 57.6% (n = 99) of cases: a higher figure than previously documented. However, the internal distance between the CT and SMA ranged from 10 to 30 mm (mean 18.9 mm, SD 4.09 mm). There was no distance measurable between the MAL and the CT in 88 cadavers (92.6%, n = 95) and, of these, 32 (33.7%) showed evidence of compression or kinking of the CT. We suspect that the MAL is responsible for the approximation of the CT to the SMA in these cadavers, and that the high incidence of kinking of the CT (33.7% of cases) may have implications with regard to its role in MAL syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Short incubation fractional CO2 laser-assisted photodynamic therapy vs. conventional photodynamic therapy in field-cancerized skin: 12-month follow-up results of a randomized intraindividual comparison study.

    PubMed

    Vrani, F; Sotiriou, E; Lazaridou, E; Vakirlis, E; Sideris, N; Kirmanidou, E; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A; Ioannides, D

    2018-06-04

    Topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) with 3 h incubation is recommended as a field directed treatment. Skin pretreatment with ablative CO 2 fractional laser (AFXL) prior to MAL-PDT enhances drug penetration and could minimize incubation time. To evaluate and compare the safety and the preventive effect in the development of new non-melanocytic skin cancers (NMSCs) of AFXL-assisted MAL-PDT with 1-h incubation with that of conventional MAL-PDT in patients with clinical and histological signs of field cancerization. Forty-two patients with two mirror cancerized areas of face or scalp were randomized to field treatment with 1-h incubation AFXL-assisted PDT or conventional PDT (CPDT). All patients underwent two treatment sessions 1 week apart. Irradiation was performed using a red light-emitting diode lamp at 37 J/cm 2 . Patients were followed up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months for the evaluation of development of new NMSCs lesions. All patients completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference with respect to the total number of new actinic keratoses at any point of follow-up as well as to the mean time of occurrence of new lesions between treatment fields. Both treatment regimens were safe and well tolerated. Ablative CO 2 fractional laser pretreatment may be considered as an option for reducing photosensitizer occlusion time while providing the same preventative efficacy as CPDT in patients with field-cancerized skin. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Surgical scar remodelling after photodynamic therapy using aminolaevulinic acid or its methylester: a retrospective, blinded study of patients with field cancerization.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, F H; Izikson, L; Tannous, Z; Zurakowski, D; Anderson, R Rox

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a nonsurgical alternative to conventional tumour excision for nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). We evaluated whether patients with field cancerization (multiple NMSCs) treated with aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) or its methylester (MAL) for that indication had PDT-induced changes in surgical scars in the treatment field. Six adult patients with multiple NMSCs and a total of 21 scars from previous excisions were studied in a retrospective blinded evaluation from clinical photographs of scar response to ALA/MAL-PDT. After a 3-h application of topical 20% ALA or 16·8% MAL under occlusion, each field was irradiated with 635-nm light-emitting diode light at the fluence of 200Jcm(-2) . Patients underwent one to three PDT sessions per field at ∼1month intervals, to fields that included scars on the back, thigh, arms and neck. Pre- and post-treatment digital photographs of scars were combined into 92 pairs that were independently and blindly evaluated by three board-certified dermatologists. This study was performed at our academic practice at the Massachusetts General Hospital. PDT produced a statistically significant improvement in scar appearance. The degree of improvement correlated with the number of treatment sessions (two or three treatments; P<0·05). Improvement after a single treatment was not statistically different from baseline ratings (P=0·99). Surgical scar remodelling and clinical improvement may be accomplished via ALA/MAL-PDT, but may require repeated treatment sessions. Larger, prospective studies are necessary to confirm the effectiveness of PDT for this indication. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Causes Selective Death of Mature Oligodendrocytes and Central Nervous System Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Jennifer R.; Ma, Yinghua; Zhao, Baohua; Harris, Jason Michael; Rumah, Kareem Rashid; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ε-toxin) is responsible for a devastating multifocal central nervous system (CNS) white matter disease in ruminant animals. The mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter damage is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which ε-toxin causes pathological changes to white matter. In primary CNS cultures, ε-toxin binds to and kills oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons. In cerebellar organotypic culture, ε-toxin induces demyelination, which occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while preserving neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. ε-Toxin specificity for oligodendrocytes was confirmed using enriched glial culture. Sensitivity to ε-toxin is developmentally regulated, as only mature oligodendrocytes are susceptible to ε-toxin; oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are not. ε-Toxin sensitivity is also dependent on oligodendrocyte expression of the proteolipid myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL), as MAL-deficient oligodendrocytes are insensitive to ε-toxin. In addition, ε-toxin binding to white matter follows the spatial and temporal pattern of MAL expression. A neutralizing antibody against ε-toxin inhibits oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. This study provides several novel insights into the action of ε-toxin in the CNS. (i) ε-Toxin causes selective oligodendrocyte death while preserving all other neural elements. (ii) ε-Toxin-mediated oligodendrocyte death is a cell autonomous effect. (iii) The effects of ε-toxin on the oligodendrocyte lineage are restricted to mature oligodendrocytes. (iv) Expression of the developmentally regulated proteolipid MAL is required for the cytotoxic effects. (v) The cytotoxic effects of ε-toxin can be abrogated by an ε-toxin neutralizing antibody. PMID:26081637

  12. Characterization and differential expression patterns of conserved microRNAs and mRNAs in three genders of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Guo, Wei; Hu, Qing; Zou, Ming; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that can regulate target mRNAs by binding to their sequences in the 3' untranslated region. The expression of miRNAs and their biogenetic pathway are involved in sexual differentiation and in the regulation of the development of germ cells and gonadal somatic cells. The rice field eel (Monopterus albus) undergoes a natural sexual transformation from female to male via an intersex stage during its life cycle. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this sexual transformation, miRNAs present in the different sexual stages of the rice field eel were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology. A significantly differential expression among the 3 genders (p < 0.001) was observed for 48 unique miRNAs and 3 miRNAs*. Only 9 unique miRNAs showed a more than 8-fold change in their expression among the 3 genders, including mal-miR-430a and mal-miR-430c which were higher in females than in males. However, mal-miR-430b was only detected in males. Several potential miRNA target genes (cyp19a, cyp19b, nr5a1b, foxl2 amh, and vasa) were also investigated. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated highly specific expression patterns of these genes in the 3 genders of the rice field eel. Many of these genes are targets of mal-miR-430b according to the TargetScan and miRTarBase. These results suggest that the miR-430 family may be involved in the sexual transformation of the rice field eel. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Use of Polypentapeptides of Elastin to Prevent Postoperative Adhesions: Efficacy in a Contaminated Peritoneal Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    short-gut syndrome, rotomy was conducted to reveal the cranial portion of chronic pain , and female infertility [3, 4]. Many sub- the ileum. The abdominal ...hold the sheets in the proper position. The presence of nal adhesions, chronic abdominal pain , and infertility. Gynecol. suture material acting as a...intra- abdominal landmarks. Opera- of 88 rats were studied with random assignment of ani- tions in this situation are often associated with mals to three

  14. Development and Reliability Testing of the Comprehensive High-Level Activity Mobility Predictor (CHAMP) in Male Servicemembers with Traumatic Lower-Limb Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Levin GT, Ben Abdelkrim N, Laurencelle L, Castagna C. Lower limb maxi- mal dynamic strength and agility determinants in elite basket - ball players . J...IRB = Institutional Review Board, LLL = lower-limb loss, MBP = Medicine Ball Put, MDC = minimal detectable change, NMCSD = Naval Medical Center...consid- ered for the CHAMP. Coordination, power, speed, and agility are important physical components necessary for successful perfor- mance in sports

  15. Spanish-Portuguese consensus statement on use of daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate in the treatment of actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Gilaberte, Y; Aguilar, M; Almagro, M; Correia, O; Guillén, C; Harto, A; Pérez-García, B; Pérez-Pérez, L; Redondo, P; Sánchez-Carpintero, I; Serra-Guillén, C; Valladares, L M

    2015-10-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new type of PDT that is as effective as conventional PDT in grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis but with fewer adverse effects, resulting in greater efficiency. The climatic conditions in the Iberian Peninsula require an appropriately adapted consensus protocol. We describe a protocol for the treatment of grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis with daylight-mediated PDT and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) adapted to the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese patients and the climatic conditions of both countries. Twelve dermatologists from different parts of Spain and Portugal with experience in the treatment of actinic keratosis with PDT convened to draft a consensus statement for daylight-mediated PDT with MAL in these countries. Based on a literature review and their own clinical experience, the group developed a recommended protocol. According to the recommendations adopted, patients with multiple grade 1 and 2 lesions, particularly those at risk of developing cancer, are candidates for this type of therapy. Daylight-mediated PDT can be administered throughout the year, although it is not indicated at temperatures below 10°C or at excessively high temperatures. Likewise, therapy should not be administered when it is raining, snowing, or foggy. The procedure is simple, requiring application of a sunscreen with a protection factor of at least 30 based exclusively on organic filters, appropriate preparation of the lesions, application of MAL without occlusion, and activation in daylight for 2hours. This consensus statement represents a practical and detailed guideline to achieve maximum effectiveness of daylight-mediated PDT with MAL in Spain and Portugal with minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. American Trypanosomiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    the flagellate protozoon Trypanosoma cruzi (previously Schizo- trypanum cruzi). In humans, T. cruzi can infect parenchy- mal cells of many different...Hemiptera, suborder Het- eroptera, family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae), the arthropod vector, in Brazil in 1909.1,2 Chagas used infected reduviid...bugs to experimentally infect a monkey, from which he subsequently isolated blood-stage parasites. Cha- gas later identified the same parasites in the

  17. Metabolism of oxybenzone in a hairy root culture: Perspectives for phytoremediation of a widely used sunscreen agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiran; Huber, Christian; May, Robert; Schröder, Peter

    2016-04-05

    Oxybenzone (OBZ), known as Benzophenone-3, is a commonly used UV filter in sun tans and skin protectants, entering aquatic systems either directly during recreational activities or indirectly through wastewater treatment plants discharge. To study the potential degradation capacity of plants for OBZ in phytotreatment, a well-established hairy root culture (Armoracia rusticana) was treated with OBZ. More than 20% of spiked OBZ (100μM) was eliminated from the medium by hairy roots after 3h of exposure. Two metabolites were identified as oxybenzone-glucoside (OBZ-Glu) and oxybenzone-(6-O-malonyl)-glucoside (OBZ-Mal-Glu) by LC-MS/MS and TOF-MS. Formation of these metabolites was confirmed by enzymatic synthesis, as well as enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis. Incubation with O-glucosyltransferase (O-GT) extracted from roots formed OBZ-Glu; whereas β-d-Glucosidase hydrolyzed OBZ-Glu. However, alkaline hydrolysis led to cleavage of OBZ-Mal-Glu and yielded OBZ-Glu. In the hairy root culture, an excretion of OBZ-Glu into the growth medium was observed while the corresponding OBZ-Mal-Glu remained stored in root cells over the incubation time. We propose that metabolism of oxybenzone in plants involves initial conjugation with glucose to form OBZ-Glu followed by malonylation to yield OBZ-Mal-Glu. To our best knowledge this first finding presenting the potential of plants to degrade benzophenone type UV filters by phytoremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifting-Surface Hydrodynamics for Design of Rotating Blades.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    for which potential flow equations are -niployed and the solution to (oordinate systems are constructed with the same first-order in thiknessto-ch td ...8217 4 4- ’AN., 51)11 Mal. 1476 1A ’’ I A I) Wills VeLi 4) Analysis with an Introtduction ito -If4 4 ~ I e44\\4r AnalyAis. Dover’ Publications, In. . 1Q3 1

  19. Towards a U.S. Army Officer Corps Strategy for Success: Developing Talent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    TOWARDS A U.S. ARMY OFFICER CORPS STRATEGY FOR SUCCESS: DEVELOPING TALENT Casey Wardynski David S . Lyle Michael J. Colarusso March 2010 The views...relationship between responsibility and for- mal developmental time, and sparse non-operational development opportunities are serious challenges that...and whether there is an effective relationship between its developmental and employment strategies. To succeed, Army officer development programs

  20. Identification of a Surrogate Marker for Infection in the African Green Monkey Model of Inhalation Anthrax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    as well as condition and clarity of eyes and nose; clinical signs included breathing rate and pattern; natural behavior included peer interaction ...human cases, fatigue and/or mal- aise was a presenting symptom in only 64% of cases (26). While decreased activity and interaction were noted in some...experimental infection with Leishmania leishmania donovani and Leishmania leishmania infantum. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:37–47. 5. Brachman, P. S. 1980

  1. Proceedings of the Smoke/Obscurants Symposium V, Held at Harry Diamond Laboratories, Adelphi, Maryland on 28-30 April 1981. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    test path. During all battlefield environment tests an AGA recording camera provided LWIR images of the area and of calibrated ther- mal sources in...the observed shifting in the t-52 minute and t-144 minutes curves is consistent with che observed shifting of the latex standards and the nonuniform ...Smoke Week III was 30 Hz. This corresponds to a M.1 m resolution UNCLASSIFIED3 317 A-25 UNCLASSIFIED of the aerosol nonuniformities in the direction

  2. Engineering Factors to be Considered in Tentage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    with a chart which illustrates how factors interact with one another. Much of the chart is speculative but iti does show the complexity of t.-,e...membranes will be different from those of synthetic fibre membranes. First-hand exper-g ience and scientific knowledge in mycology will be instrumental...especially for use in commnercial tentage. Similarly, the colouring must not fade or wash away with time and exposure. 3.13 THERtMAL RESISTANCE The thermal

  3. Kinematic measures of Arm-trunk movements during unilateral and bilateral reaching predict clinically important change in perceived arm use in daily activities after intensive stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Liing, Rong-jiuan; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-09-21

    Kinematic analysis has been used to objectively evaluate movement patterns, quality, and strategies during reaching tasks. However, no study has investigated whether kinematic variables during unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks predict a patient's perceived arm use during activities of daily living (ADL) after an intensive intervention. Therefore, this study investigated whether kinematic measures during unilateral and bilateral reaching tasks before an intervention can predict clinically meaningful improvement in perceived arm use during ADL after intensive poststroke rehabilitation. The study was a secondary analysis of 120 subjects with chronic stroke who received 90-120 min of intensive intervention every weekday for 3-4 weeks. Reaching kinematics during unilateral and bilateral tasks and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) were evaluated before and after the intervention. Kinematic variables explained 22 and 11 % of the variance in actual amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM), respectively, of MAL improvement during unilateral reaching tasks. Kinematic variables also explained 21 and 31 % of the variance in MAL-AOU and MAL-QOM, respectively, during bilateral reaching tasks. Selected kinematic variables, including endpoint variables, trunk involvement, and joint recruitment and interjoint coordination, were significant predictors for improvement in perceived arm use during ADL (P < 0.05). Arm-trunk kinematics may be used to predict clinically meaningful improvement in perceived arm use during ADL after intensive rehabilitation. Involvement of interjoint coordination and trunk control variables as predictors in bilateral reaching models indicates that a high level of motor control (i.e., multijoint coordination) and trunk stability may be important in obtaining treatment gains in arm use, especially for bilateral daily activities, in intensive rehabilitation after stroke.

  4. Effects of sling and voluntary constraint during constraint-induced movement therapy for the arm after stroke: a randomized, prospective, single-centre, blinded observer rated study.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Maciej; Sidaway, Marta; Radwanska, Anna; Zaborska, Joanna; Ujma, Renata; Czlonkowska, Anna

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether a combination of constraint-induced movement therapy and physiotherapy in stroke patients using different constraint regimens (sling versus voluntary constraint) changes or reduces motor deficits, the amount of functional use of the arm and whether the effects of treatment continue after 12 months. Forty-seven stroke patients were stratified and randomly divided into intensive physiotherapy programmes focused on regaining arm functions. Neurorehabilitation Unit of IInd Department of Neurology at Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw. Patients were randomly allocated to: the sling-constraint group (n = 24) or to the voluntary-constraint group (n = 23). Massed practice with the paretic arm (5 hours/day for 15 consecutive working days). Sling-constraint group had their arm immobilized in a hemi-sling during therapy. In addition, individual, 1-hour physiotherapy sessions were conducted in both groups. Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) Arm scale, (0-15), Motor Activity Log - Quality of Movement (MAL-QOM) (0-5 for 30 daily tasks). There was no significant difference between groups after therapy (MAL-QOM mean change for sling group 0.78, SD = 0.46 and for voluntary-constraint group 0.84, SD = 0.48; P = 0.687). All treated patients retained mean gains in real-world arm use (MAL-QOM) mean scores after 12 months follow-up compared with posttreatment values but there was no significant difference between groups (comparison of estimated mean change of MAL-QOM stated 0.23. 95% confidence interval = -0.04-0.50). Voluntary activity constraint in the intact arm is equivalent to sling, standard constraint during massed practice of paretic arm.

  5. Development of Techniques for Multiple Data Stream Analysis and Short- Term Forecasting. Volume I. Multiple Data Stream Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-15

    ir in» l.iit.ii-nlrl-i . i ifr .-Viii ^„,„^>,,,,,.,,.,„.,,,.,™„„,^^^^ I ’Ulis Cable shows great similarity between the NYT and TOL as follows; o...from which the data have been derived. The authors challenge the contention by other data collectors that variation in interaction data derived from...LIC Luxemburg LUX Malagasy MAG Malawi MAW Malaysia MAL Maldive MAD Mali MLI Malta MLT Mauritius MAR Mauritania MAU Mexico MEX Monaco MOC

  6. Selectable tolerance to herbicides by mutated acetolactate synthase genes integrated into the chloroplast genome of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masanori; Goto, Maki; Hanai, Moeko; Shimizu, Tsutomu; Izawa, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi; Yokota, Akiho; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2008-08-01

    Strategies employed for the production of genetically modified (GM) crops are premised on (1) the avoidance of gene transfer in the field; (2) the use of genes derived from edible organisms such as plants; (3) preventing the appearance of herbicide-resistant weeds; and (4) maintaining transgenes without obstructing plant cell propagation. To this end, we developed a novel vector system for chloroplast transformation with acetolactate synthase (ALS). ALS catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched amino acids, and its enzymatic activity is inhibited by certain classes of herbicides. We generated a series of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutated ALS (mALS) genes and introduced constructs with mALS and the aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase gene (aadA) into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplast genome by particle bombardment. Transplastomic plants were selected using their resistance to spectinomycin. The effects of herbicides on transplastomic mALS activity were examined by a colorimetric assay using the leaves of transplastomic plants. We found that transplastomic G121A, A122V, and P197S plants were specifically tolerant to pyrimidinylcarboxylate, imidazolinon, and sulfonylurea/pyrimidinylcarboxylate herbicides, respectively. Transplastomic plants possessing mALSs were able to grow in the presence of various herbicides, thus affirming the relationship between mALSs and the associated resistance to herbicides. Our results show that mALS genes integrated into the chloroplast genome are useful sustainable markers that function to exclude plants other than those that are GM while maintaining transplastomic crops. This investigation suggests that the resistance management of weeds in the field amid growing GM crops is possible using (1) a series of mALSs that confer specific resistance to herbicides and (2) a strategy that employs herbicide rotation.

  7. Anthropometry. A Bibliography with Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    nces fro signific e shirt- (Author) o US per ach ions wea ed. angu obta m t ant slee AF pilots sonal p en velone : d) s ring com...side measured bility. s of the human neck which may influence a person’s • whiplash ’ injury during lateral impact have oeen mal subjects. Subjects...group of lb subjects Deing n average stature close to the both ptrcentile tor data include: measures of head , neck and body anding and normal

  8. Molecular analysis of maltotriose transport and utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Day, Rachel E; Rogers, Peter J; Dawes, Ian W; Higgins, Vincent J

    2002-11-01

    Efficient fermentation of maltotriose is a desired property of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for brewing. In a standard wort, maltotriose is the second most abundant sugar, and slower uptake leads to residual maltotriose in the finished product. The limiting factor of sugar metabolism is its transport, and there are conflicting reports on whether a specific maltotriose permease exists or whether the mechanisms responsible for maltose uptake also carry out maltotriose transport. In this study, radiolabeled maltotriose was used to show that overexpression of the maltose permease gene, MAL61, in an industrial yeast strain resulted in an increase in the rate of transport of maltotriose as well as maltose. A strain derived from W303-1A and lacking any maltose or maltotriose transporter but carrying a functional maltose transport activator (MAL63) was developed. By complementing this strain with permeases encoded by MAL31, MAL61, and AGT1, it was possible to measure their specific transport kinetics by using maltotriose and maltose. All three permeases were capable of high-affinity transport of maltotriose and of allowing growth of the strain on the sugar. Maltotriose utilization from the permease encoded by AGT1 was regulated by the same genetic mechanisms as those involving the maltose transcriptional activator. Competition studies carried out with two industrial strains, one not containing any homologue of AGT1, showed that maltose uptake and maltotriose uptake were competitive and that maltose was the preferred substrate. These results indicate that the presence of residual maltotriose in beer is not due to a genetic or physiological inability of yeast cells to utilize the sugar but rather to the lower affinity for maltotriose uptake in conjunction with deteriorating conditions present at the later stages of fermentation. Here we identify molecular mechanisms regulating the uptake of maltotriose and determine the role of each of the transporter genes in the cells.

  9. RNA Viruses that Cause Hemorrhagic, Encephalitic, and Febrile Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    doses to levels that are subopti- effective dose (ED,0) values for Rift Valley mal for cures in other bunyavirus mouse Fever ( RVF ) virus (ED,, = 80 g...serum protein and AST Etiologic Agent (SGOT) identified in the placebo group by logistic regression], utilizing a stepwise lo- RVF , an old-world...treatment of H FRS in this study. Treatment reduced mortality RVF , distributed throughout sub-Saharan and improved several important aspects of Africa

  10. Drag Reduction Control for Flow over a Hump with Surface-Mounted Thermoacoustic Actuator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    heats this membrane due to Joule heating and creates surface pressure disturbances within the surround- ing fluid. This pressure disturbances are then...graphene) membrane in consideration here can be fabricated extremely thin such that its heat ca- pacity per unit area (HCPUA) is at least two orders...nanotube based actuators is modeled by a ther- mal boundary condition in the present LES. A sinusoidal heat flux qwall = q̂ [ 1+sin(2πft) ] cos ( (x−xa

  11. Bridging the Technology Valley of Death in Joint Medical Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Force lieutenant colonel, is the Air Force Medical Support Agency Advanced Development Liaison Field Engineer in Falls Church, Virginia. Prusaczyk is...Awareness, communication and coordination may be mini - mal among Service S&T and AD programs. Joint Transition Planning Process A Joint Transition...Human Proof of Phase III NDA/BLA ling Approval, Launch Concept*** Launch Review Program Initiation Materiel Technology Engineering & Production

  12. Orcas in Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Whales. Poster presented for the Society for Marine Mam- mal Meeting. Bain, D.E. 2002. A model linking energetic effects of whale watching to killer...P.L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead (eds.). Cetacean societies : field studies of dolphins and whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Baird, R.W...The feeding ecology of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Pacific Northwest. Pages 113-147 in K. Pryor and K.S. Norris (eds.). Dolphin societies

  13. A Survey of Serious Aircraft Accidents Involving Fatigue Fracture. Volume 1. Fixed-Wing Aircraft (Etude sur des Accidents Importants d’Avions du aux Effets des Fractures de Fatigue. Volume 1. Effets sur des Avions).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Bureau of Standards. NTS3 National Transportation Safety Board (USA). NTSB AAR NTSB Aircraft Accident Report. NZ AAR New Zealand Aircraft Accident Report...NZ AI New Zealand Accident Investigation Bureau. 0 -5- RAN Royal Australian Navy RAAI Royal Australian Air Force RAF Royal Air Force, UK S Substantial...Ice land Iraq Ireland Jamaica (1966 -1981) Japan (1973 - Feb. 81) Kenya Lethoso Malaysia Ma law i Mal ta Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway

  14. A Conceptual Plan for Mitigating Anadromous Fish Losses in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Oncorhynchus nerka ) An estimated 1.6 million sockeye salmon smolts pass through the Hanford Reach annually. It is expected that up to 240,000 of these smolts...supplementation or ther- mal modification during critical periods, was selected as a production strategy (Figure 2). 2. Chinook Salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) a...supplemental heating or warmer groundwater would be necessary. 3. Coho Salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) The hatchery production cycle of coho salmon is similar to

  15. Indomethacin Inhibits Circulating PGE2 and Reverses Postexercise Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    after the oral administration of a placebo, the PG inhibitor indomethacin (75 mg/day for 5 days), or naltrexone (reported elsewhere). Circulating...which blocks PGE2 biosynthe- sis via inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity (57). Maxi- mal suppression of PG production occurs with doses between 50...and 150 mg (1). In addition to the indepen- dent effects of PGE2 on NKCA, low circulating levels of PGE2 can synergize with endogenous glucocorticoids

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-16

    general manager is Fahmi , no stranger to Islamic banking. He was until recently the acting general manager of Faysal Finance Institution, a subsidiary...of the Geneva-based Dar al-Mal al-Islami (DMI), headed by Prince Muhammad of Saudi Arabia. Fahmi left under controversial circumstances and THE...irregularities. Fahmi has had long-running difficulty with DMI’s top management for the last two years. Islamic bankers in Turkey claim that he has been

  17. Acute hexogen poisoning after occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Testud, F; Glanclaude, J M; Descotes, J

    1996-01-01

    Hexogen (cyclonite, RDX) nitrate explosive is an infrequent cause of poisoning. A 42-year-old man with no prior history of epilepsy experienced grand mal seizures after sieving fine hexogen (RDX) powder for four hours in an ammunition plant. Physical examination was normal on arrival at the emergency room but recurrent seizures occurred six hour after admission. EEG, CT scan and MRI were normal and the patient recovered uneventfully. The available toxicological data on this rare occupational poisoning are reviewed.

  18. Automated Shirt Collar Manufacturing. Volume 3. Sewing Head Control for High Speed Stitch Contour Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-23

    mal control scheme sums the cost function for all data points from time zero to infinity; however, the preview case sums only through the preview step...shaft speed that is generated by the monitor port on the servo amplifiers. Therefore, the zero frequency gain shown in the figure contains the gain...Delivery Order 0014 SAOORESS (City, State, and ZIP Code ) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Rom415CmrnSainPROGRAM IPROJECT TASK WORK UNITAlexandriaR VA 22304-6100

  19. The Use of Quantitative SPECT/CT Imaging to Assess Residual Limb Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    loss in 2020.4 BACKGROUND The integrity of the vasculature, nerves, and soft tissue within the extremities is of high importance, as an impairment or...formation, and vascular abnormalities .6 Therefore, effective diagnosis can be critical in directing the medical treatment of patients. Standard noninva...and identify damage to their nor- mal fasicular pattern, nerve swelling or thickening, loss of nerve bundle integrity , and development of neuromas

  20. Extreme toxicity from combustion products of a fire-retarded polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Petajan, J H; Voorhees, K J; Packham, S C; Baldwin, R C; Einhorn, I N; Grunnet, M L; Dinger, B G; Birky, M M

    1975-02-28

    The products from nonflaming combustion of wood and a trimethylol-propane-based rigid-urethane foam that was not fire-retarded produced elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels but no abnormal neurological effects. However, when this type of foam contained a reactive phosphate fire retardant, the combustion products caused grand mal seizures and death in rats. The toxic combustion product responsible for the seizures has been identified as 4-ethyl-1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octane-1-oxide.

  1. How Can A Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron Be Measured For Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    accounting measures inappropriately applied to supply chain manamagement. This is evidenced by “a consensus in DOD [that] considers the metrics...filled will degrade the supply effectiveness measure . If that requisition takes 10 or 40 days to fill, however, is not taken into account . These two... measurements need to first be T/M/S specific within each MALS. This accounts for the systematic differences between different fleets of aircraft

  2. Using Human Stem Cells to Study the Role of the Stroma in the Initiation of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    alterations in the epithelium that drives the pr ogressive transformation of nor mal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. It is evident that...of tumor initiation, we propose to use normal human prostate epithelium generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in tissue recombination...serum free conditions for 5-8 days into endoderm in vitro. Confirm endoderm phenotype using immunohistochemistry and FACs analysis . We conducted

  3. Joint acute and endocrine disruptive toxicities of malathion, cypermethrin and prochloraz to embryo-larval zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Yanhua; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Chen; Jiao, Bining; Cai, Leiming; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    It remains a daunting challenge to determine ecotoxicological risks of exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in environmental toxicology. In the present study, we investigated acute and endocrine disruptive toxicities of cypermethrin (CPM), malathion (MAL), prochloraz (PRO) and their binary mixtures of MAL + CPM and MAL + PRO to the early life stages of zebrafish. In the acute lethal toxicity test, three pesticides exhibited different levels of toxicity to zebrafish larvae, and the order of toxicity was as follows: CPM > PRO > MAL. The binary mixture of MAL + CPM displayed a synergistic effect on zebrafish larvae after exposure for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. However, binary mixture of MAL + PRO showed an antagonistic effect. To evaluate the estrogenic effect, the expression of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis was assessed after zebrafish embryos were exposed to CPM, MAL, PRO and their binary mixtures from blastula stage (1 h post-fertilization, 1 hpf) to 14 dpf (14 d post-fertilization). Our data indicated that the transcription patterns of many key genes (vtg1, vtg2, era, erβ1, erβ2, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b) were affected in hatched zebrafish after exposure to CPM, MAL and PRO. Moreover, following exposure to binary mixtures of 1000 μg/L MAL +4 μg/L CPM and 1000 μg/L MAL +900 μg/L PRO, the gene expressions were significantly changed compared with the individual pesticides. Our data provided a better understanding of bidirectional interactions of toxic response induced by these pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hyperspectral Imaging of Cuttlefish Camouflage Indicates Good Color Match in the Eyes of Fish Predators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    research and ecology . Hyperspectral Imaging Adds a Unique Dimension to Quantifying Ani- mal Camouflage in the Eyes of Predators. To understand the adap- tive...signals, i.e., the reflectance spectra of the color patches on the animal or the plant (5, 8, 37, 38). By mapping the spectral data onto the color...Research Grant N000140610202 (to R.H.). 1. Ruxton GD, Sherratt TN, Speed MP (2004) Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals

  5. MX Siting Investigation. MX System Siting Summary Report. Land Acquisition Application Package Map Sheets. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-18

    O006 UNCLASSIFIED E-TR-58-VOL-3 NL3I~hEhE EhHEEE00000000E law 4r: 32 1 8 41 PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET //* LEVEL INVENTORY z ~ DOCUMENT IDENTIFICATION I I...kNPOTTN 44. 4 4F OPERATIO "MAL BASE TE48T SIT *.DeISlrNATED’%RAINING AREA I I IT R8W 0000 1 , Iv t DR V’ NG f4 12 󈧱 00 W - • , .: . .i .. . i

  6. Processing of Sequential and Holistic Stimuli in Left and Right Visual Fields,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    1 7 A-A091 588 AIR =FORCE ACADEMY CO IF/G 5/10 I PROCESSING OF SEQUENTIAL AND HOLISTIC STIMULI IN LEFT AND RIGHT--ETC( U ) OCT 80 E H GALLUSCIO. D A...neocortical commissures sectioned to reduce grand mal seizures have added significantly to 1.. ... . ....... .......- , l - ’ ’ . .... . .. ’ r U I l...REALISTIC AUTISTIC MASLOW RATIONAL INTUITIVE MILNER VERBAL NON-VERBAL NEISSER SEQUENTIAL MULTIPLE ORNSTEIN ANALYTIC HOLISTIC C. S. PEIRCE EXPLICATIVE

  7. Detection of nanoplastics in food by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering: possibilities, challenges and analytical limitations.

    PubMed

    Correia, Manuel; Loeschner, Katrin

    2018-02-06

    We tested the suitability of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for detection of nanoplastics in fish. A homogenized fish sample was spiked with 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) (1.3 mg/g fish). Two sample preparation strategies were tested: acid digestion and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. Both procedures were found suitable for degradation of the organic matrix. However, acid digestion resulted in large PSNPs aggregates/agglomerates (> 1 μm). The presence of large particulates was not observed after enzymatic digestion, and consequently it was chosen as a sample preparation method. The results demonstrated that it was possible to use AF4 for separating the PSNPs from the digested fish and to determine their size by MALS. The PSNPs could be easily detected by following their light scattering (LS) signal with a limit of detection of 52 μg/g fish. The AF4-MALS method could also be exploited for another type of nanoplastics in solution, namely polyethylene (PE). However, it was not possible to detect the PE particles in fish, due to the presence of an elevated LS background. Our results demonstrate that an analytical method developed for a certain type of nanoplastics may not be directly applicable to other types of nanoplastics and may require further adjustment. This work describes for the first time the detection of nanoplastics in a food matrix by AF4-MALS. Despite the current limitations, this is a promising methodology for detecting nanoplastics in food and in experimental studies (e.g., toxicity tests, uptake studies). Graphical abstract Basic concept for the detection of nanoplastics in fish by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering.

  8. Photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis: Retrospective evaluation of outcome.

    PubMed

    Jerjes, Waseem; Hamdoon, Zaid; Abdulkareem, Ali A; Hopper, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive intervention used in the management of tissue disorders. In this retrospective study, a total of 62 patients with actinic keratosis (AKs) were treated with surface illumination PDT. Comparisons with the clinical features, rate of recurrence as well as malignant transformation and overall outcome were made. The medical records of 62 consecutive patients who presented with suspicious skin lesions and diagnosed with AKs were examined. These patients with 178 AKs lesions were treated with surface illumination methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT). The 16% strength cream (MAL) was applied topically 3h prior to tissue illumination. A single-channel 628nm diode laser was used for illumination and light was delivered at 100J/cm 2 per site. These patients were followed-up for a mean of 7.4 years. Eight recurrences were reported after the first round of MAL-PDT, and two recurrences after the second round. Malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was noted in 2 patients only. The 3-year outcome resulted in 60 patients with complete response (CR), and this was maintained at the final outcome (last clinic review). Assessment of lesional outcome vs. response showed that 175/178 treated lesions had complete response (CR) at 3-year follow-up, which increased to 176/178 lesions at the last clinic follow-up. MAL-PDT offers an effective treatment for AKs lesions with excellent cosmetic outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photocatalytic property and structural stability of CuAl-based layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Haiqiang, E-mail: Liuhaiqiang1980@126.com

    2015-07-15

    Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis) were used to confirm the formation of as-synthesized solids with good crystal structure. The photocatalytic activity of those LDH materials for CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light was investigated. The experimental results show that CuNiAl-LDHs with narrowest band gap and largest surface areas behave highest efficiency for methanol generation under visible light compared with CuMgAl-LDHs and CuZnAl-LDHs. The CuNiAL-LDH showed high yield for methanol production i.e. 0.210more » mmol/g h, which was high efficient. In addition, the influence of the different M{sup 2+} on the structures and stability of the CuMAl-LDHs was also investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, electronic arrangement, charge populations, hydrogen-bonding, and binding energies by density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The theoretical calculation results show that the chemical stability of LDH materials followed the order of CuMgAl-LDHs>CuZnAl-LDHs>CuNiAl-LDHs, which is just opposite with the photocatalytic activity and band gaps of three materials. - Graphical abstract: The host–guest calculation models and XRD patterns of CuMAl-LDHs: CuMgAl-LDHs (a), CuZnAl-LDHs (b) and CuNiAl-LDHs (c). - Highlights: • Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) has been synthesized. • CuMgNi shows narrower band gap and more excellent textural properties than other LDHs. • The band gap: CuMgAl« less

  10. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with (18)F-Al labeled Cys(39)-exendin-4.

    PubMed

    Mi, Baoming; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin; Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing; Wu, Yiwei; Yang, Min

    2016-02-26

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. The targeting of (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. The favorable preclinical data indicated that (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies of bioactivity, conformation and pharmacokinetic profiles of site-specific PEGylated thymosin alpha 1 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qie, Jiankun; Ma, Jinbo; Wang, Liangyou; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jianquan; Dong, Sijian; Xie, Jianwei; Sun, Huixian; Zhou, Wenxia; Qi, Chunhui; Zhao, Xiunan; Zhang, Yongxiang; Liu, Keliang

    2007-08-01

    Site-specific mono-PEGylations were performed in different conformational regions of Thymosin alpha 1 (T alpha 1) by introducing one cysteine residue into the chosen site and coupling with thiol-specific mPEG-MAL reagent. Results demonstrated that PEGylated sites and regions influenced the conformations and pharmacokinetic profiles of the peptide greatly with following order: alpha-helix, beta-turn, random coil and terminals, but little on the immunoactivity.

  12. Chronic renal failure in a patient with bilateral ureterocele

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Samuel A.; Rafiu, Mojeed O.; Olanrewaju, Timothy O.

    2015-01-01

    Ureterocele is a congenital anomaly, in which there is mal-development of the caudal segments of the ureter. There is a female preponderance with most cases seen in Caucasians. Among the reported complications of this condition, chronic renal failure occurring in the setting of ureterocele has not been well documented. We report a case of a young girl with bilateral ureterocele presenting with chronic renal failure, whose management presented a diagnostic failure and inadequate treatment. PMID:26108593

  13. The effect of habitat patch size on small mammal populations

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Yates; Susan C. Loeb; David C. Guynn

    1997-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to the conservation of bio­diversity and has 3 components: habitat loss, patch isolation, and patch size. The authors tested the effects of forest-clearing size on small mammal populations in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. These clearings act as islands for many species of small mam­mals, particularly old...

  14. Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    insurgency with informers , spies, and double agents. Eager to snuff out insurgent cross-border sanctuaries, Spinola exe- cuted Operation Mal Verde, a ...fruit when Magaia was shot dead by a fellow FRELIMO fighter suspected of being a double agent working for the COIN force, a move that exploited the...established a network of informants in the local community and, to some degree, within the Clandestine Front as well. It also relied heavily on

  15. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with {sup 18}F-Al labeled Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Baoming; Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University; Xu, Yuping

    Purpose: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. Methods: The targeting of {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined throughmore » post mortern examinations. Results: The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. Conclusion: The favorable preclinical data indicated that {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells.« less

  16. Cross-Linking Interferes With Assessing Sulfur Mustard-Induced DNA Damage in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Using the Comet Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    of SM to impede the migration of H,0 2 -damaged mal ian cell lethality with bifunctional alkylating agents . Chemr. Biol. Iriterui. 38:75-86.DNA is an...3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5400 N-3 position of adenine, and alkylation leads to depurination of Sulfur...mustard (SM) is a blistering agent that produces DNA DNA strands. Subsequent breakage of phosphodiester bonds at strand breaks. To detect SM-induced DNA

  17. Genetic and environmental factors affecting allergen-related gene expression in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh).

    PubMed

    Botton, Alessandro; Lezzer, Paolo; Dorigoni, Alberto; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Ramina, Angelo

    2008-08-13

    Freshly consumed apples can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens, namely, Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, and Mal d 4, and their cross-reactivity with sensitizing allergens of other species. Knowledge of environmental and endogenous factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information to apple breeders, growers, and consumers for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, the adoption of agronomical practices decreasing the allergenic potential, and the consumption of fruits with reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, expression studies were performed by means of real-time PCR for all the known allergen-encoding genes in apple. Fruit samples were collected from 15 apple varieties and from fruits of three different trials, set up to assess the effect of shadowing, elevation, storage, and water stress on the expression of allergen genes. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for the classification of varieties according to gene expression values, pointing out that the cultivars Fuji and Brina were two good hypoallergenic candidates. Shadowing, elevation, and storage significantly affected the transcription of the allergen-encoding genes, whereas water stress slightly influenced the expression of only two genes, in spite of the dramatic effect on both fruit size and vegetative growth of the trees. In particular, shadowing may represent an important cultural practice aimed at reducing apple cortex allergenicity. Moreover, elevation and storage may be combined to reduce the allergenic potential of apple fruits. The possible implications of the results for breeders, growers, and consumers are discussed critically.

  18. Studying of crystal growth and overall crystallization of naproxen from binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, E; Madejczyk, O; Tarnacka, M; Jurkiewicz, K; Kaminski, K; Paluch, M

    2017-04-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to investigate the molecular dynamics and phase transitions in binary mixtures composed of naproxen (NAP) and acetylated saccharides: maltose (acMAL) and sucrose (acSUC). Moreover, the application of BDS method and optical microscopy enabled us to study both crystallization kinetics and crystal growth of naproxen from the solid dispersions with the highest content of modified carbohydrates (1:5wt ratio). It was found that the activation barriers of crystallization estimated from dielectric measurements are completely different for both studied herein mixtures. Much higher E a (=205kJ/mol) was obtained for NAP-acMAL solid dispersion. It is probably due to simultaneous crystallization of both components of the mixture. On the other hand, lower value of E a in the case of NAP-acSUC solid dispersion (81kJ/mol) indicated, that naproxen is the only crystallizing compound. This hypothesis was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. We also suggested that specific intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions between active substance and excipient may be an alternative explanation for the difference between activation barrier obtained for NAP-acMAL and NAP-acSUC binary mixtures. Furthermore, optical measurements showed that the activation energy for crystal growth of naproxen increases in binary mixtures. They also revealed that both excipients: acMAL and acSUC move the temperature of the maximum of crystal growth towards lower temperatures. Interestingly, this maximum occurs for nearly the same structural relaxation time, which is a good approximation of viscosity, for all samples. Finally, it was also noticed that although naproxen crystallizes to the same polymorphic form in both systems, there are some differences in morphology of obtained crystals. Thus, the observed behavior may have a significant impact on the bioavailability and dissolution rate of API produced in that way

  19. High quality adaptive optics zoom with adaptive lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintavalla, M.; Santiago, F.; Bonora, S.; Restaino, S.

    2018-02-01

    We present the combined use of large aperture adaptive lens with large optical power modulation with a multi actuator adaptive lens. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens (M-AL) can correct up to the 4th radial order of Zernike polynomials, without any obstructions (electrodes and actuators) placed inside its clear aperture. We demonstrated that the use of both lenses together can lead to better image quality and to the correction of aberrations of adaptive optics optical systems.

  20. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for a Brigade Combat Team Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    of technologies, like cogeneration or combined heat and power, waste heat recovery, biomass, geother- mal energy, solar heating (and cooling), and...peaks of individual buildings; thus the needed gen- eration and back-up capacity is smaller. To develop the community energy concept, energy models...overall thermal energy system, a hydraulic flow model (Figure 5) should be used to analyze critical capacities and flows in the system. This material is

  1. ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL IN DC-1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male and female CD-1 mice were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in drinking water containing 10% emulphor for 90 days at concentrations of 0.2, 0.6, and 2.0 mg/ml. The mean daily consumption values ranged from 46.3 to 542 mg/kg/day for females and 34.9 and 419 mg/kg/day in mal...

  2. "Other" indirect methods for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trache, Livius

    2018-01-01

    In the house of Trojan Horse Method (THM), I will say a few words about "other" indirect methods we use in Nuclear Physics for Astrophysics. In particular those using Rare Ion Beams that can be used to evaluate radiative proton capture reactions. I add words about work done with the Professore we celebrate today. With a proposal, and some results with TECSA, for a simple method to produce and use isomeric beam of 26mAl.

  3. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

  4. Procedural Tests for Anti-G Protective Devices. Volume II. G-Sensitivity Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    of these valves was used in only one type of aircraft--the ALAR AGV in ...pattern. 3) Total included, inexplicitly in the total for this column along with Failures au.d OTH/MAL’s are Type 6 HOW MALFUNCTION CODES--which...maintenance. Because Type 6 HOW MALFUNCTION CODESI. .were not considered pertinent to this investigation, they wer!. not included in the report. All figures of

  5. The Soviet Involvement in the Ogaden War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Somali border with the only good airport in the Oqaden, to fiqht riqhtists in northwestern Ethiopia. 2 1 Once the Somalis did invade, Moscow played for...Monpoerer rioe of the International Studies Association. Chese Planning and Organization Design. Streaa Italy. 20 Perk Plaze Hotel. St. Louis. Missouri...Jr, . Th Transpor PoPert- of Diute Gases ia Applied Fgelds. 183 pp. Mal PP 264 1979 Werland. Robert G . ’The US Navy on the Pacific, Past. Present

  6. The Transformation from Civilian to United States Marine: A Conscious, Organized and Systematic Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-24

    integrity violations, sexual harassment issues, hazing, theft, substance abuse, and those ’involving both physical and moral courage that may need to be...overwhelming adversity. The goal is to build upon the moral muscle memory of the Marine, to enable him/her to mal <:e the right decision for the right...such as those pertaining to Marine Corps policy and organizational values. Regarding policy, recruits learn the specific regulations about sexual

  7. The diagnostic performance of recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P2beta protein is influenced by its expression system.

    PubMed

    Marcipar, Iván S; Olivares, María Laura; Robles, Lucía; Dekanty, Andrés; Marcipar, Alberto; Silber, Ariel M

    2004-03-01

    In the present work, we have determined the effect of expression vectors and their corresponding host bacteria on the antigenic performance of Trypanosoma cruzi P2beta (TcP2beta) full-length recombinant protein. The gene encoding the TcP2beta ribosomal protein was cloned in pMAL-c2 and pET-32a vectors that allow the expression of high levels of soluble fusion proteins. A panel of 32 positive and 32 negative sera was assayed with the purified proteins expressed using pMal-c2 (TcP2beta-MBP) and pET-32a (TcP2beta-TRX) vectors and with MBP and TRX purified from pMAL-c2 and pET-32a vectors, respectively. The antigenic behavior of each TcP2beta recombinant protein differed in the diagnostic performance in terms of DI(+) (93.7 for TcP2beta-MBP vs 100% for TcP2beta-TRX), in DI(-) (90.5 for TcP2beta-MBP vs 100% for TcP2beta-TRX) and in cross-reaction with negative sera. To determine if the higher reactivity of expressed pMAL-c2 protein was due to folding during protein expression or to a steric effect related to the protein adsorption at the titration plate, the reactivity of sera against soluble proteins was assessed by ELISA inhibition assays. As each soluble protein preserved its level of reactivity, we concluded that differences in reactivity were due to intrinsic characteristics of the proteins and not to differences in patterns of adsorption to the plates.

  8. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  9. Severe lactic acidosis following alcohol related generalised seizures.

    PubMed

    Hulme, J; Sherwood, N

    2004-12-01

    A 45-year-old alcoholic man presented following several short grand-mal seizures. He was not known to be epileptic. Initial investigations demonstrated a severe lactic acidosis. The rise in lactate was one of the highest levels reported in similar patients. The patient recovered within 4 h of management with oxygen, fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Lactic acidosis following convulsions is often associated with spontaneous resolution and a favourable outcome.

  10. International Conference on Solid Films and Surfaces (2nd) (ICSFS-2), Programn and Abstracts Held at College Park, Maryland on 8-11 June 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    film recrystal- lization and the changing of their optical properties. The data of ther- mal treatment of the Zinc Sulphide and Magnium films in...11. J. KtEUZt 2:00 Surface Potentials of Benzene Derivative Monolayers and Submono- layers at the Mercury /Nitrogen Interface. B. J. KINZIG 2:20 Alkoxy...Potentials of Benzene Derivative Monolayers and Submonolayers at the Mercury /Nitrogen Interface by • B. J. Kinzig Naval Research Laboratory Optical

  11. [Efficacy of a rapid test to diagnose Plasmodium vivax in symptomatic patients of Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, Lilia; Rodríguez, Mario H; Betanzos, Angel F; Abadía, Acatl

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic test (OptiMAL), based on immunoreactive strips, to detect Plasmodium vivax infection in febrile patients in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. The presence of parasites in blood samples of 893 patients was investigated by Giemsa-stained thick blood smear microscopic examination (gold standard). A blood drop from the same sample was smeared on immunoreactive strips to investigate the presence of the parasite pLDH. Discordant results were resolved by PCR amplification of the parasite's 18S SSU rRNA, to discard infection. OptiMAL had an overall sensitivity of 93.3% and its specificity was 99.5%. Its positive and negative predictive values were 96.5% and 98.9%, respectively. Signal intensity in OptiMAL strips correlated well with the parasitemia density in the blood samples (r = 0.601, p = 0.0001). This rapid test had acceptable sensitivity and specificity to detect P. vivax under laboratory conditions and could be useful for malaria diagnosis in field operations in Mexico.

  12. Contribution of the Alternative Respiratory Pathway to PSII Photoprotection in C3 and C4 Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Scheibe, Renate; Selinski, Jennifer; Zhang, Li-Tao; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Xiang-Long; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2017-01-09

    The mechanism by which the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway contributes to photosystem II (PSII) photoprotection is in dispute. It was generally thought that the AOX pathway protects photosystems by dissipating excess reducing equivalents exported from chloroplasts through the malate/oxaloacetate (Mal/OAA) shuttle and thus preventing the over-reduction of chloroplasts. In this study, using the aox1a Arabidopsis mutant and nine other C3 and C4 plant species, we revealed an additional action model of the AOX pathway in PSII photoprotection. Although the AOX pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection in C3 leaves treated with high light, this contribution was observed to disappear when photorespiration was suppressed. Disruption or inhibition of the AOX pathway significantly decreased the photorespiration in C3 leaves. Moreover, the AOX pathway did not respond to high light and contributed little to PSII photoprotection in C4 leaves possessing a highly active Mal/OAA shuttle but with little photorespiration. These results demonstrate that the AOX pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection in C3 plants by maintaining photorespiration to detoxify glycolate and via the indirect export of excess reducing equivalents from chloroplasts by the Mal/OAA shuttle. This new action model explains why the AOX pathway does not contribute to PSII photoprotection in C4 plants. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Malaria diagnosis under field conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon.

    PubMed

    Metzger, W G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Rodriguez, I; Gonçalves, J; Bongard, E; Fanello, C I; Vivas, L; Magris, M

    2008-01-01

    To improve practical, accurate diagnosis of malaria in the Amazon rainforest of Venezuela, two rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) (OptiMAL-IT) and FalciVax) and a laboratory light microscope, used in the field with a battery-operated head lamp as an external light source, were evaluated against the standard laboratory microscope procedure for malaria detection. One hundred and thirty-six Yanomami patients were studied for the presence of malaria parasites. Thirty-three patients (24%) were positive for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae). Twenty-one (64%) of the positive patients had <100 parasites/microl. Both RDTs showed poor sensitivity (24.2% for OptiMAL-IT) and 36.4% for FalciVax) but good specificity (99% both for OptiMAL-IT) and FalciVax). Field and laboratory microscopy showed sensitivities of 94% and 91%, respectively. The kappa coefficient was 0.90, indicating a high agreement between field and laboratory microscopy. We conclude that (i) adequate slide reading cannot be substituted by either of the two RDTs in the Venezuelan Amazon and (ii) the use of a light source such as that described above makes slide reading more feasible than hitherto in remote areas without electricity.

  14. The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2005-04-01

    The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality.

  15. Real-time analysis of endogenous protoporphyrin IX fluorescence from δ-aminolevulinic acid and its derivatives reveals distinct time- and dose-dependent characteristics in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Helander, Linda; Illig, Romana; Oberdanner, Christian; Wagner, Andrej; Lettner, Herbert; Jakab, Martin; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2014-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodiagnosis based on the intracellular production of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) by administration of its metabolic precursor δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) achieved their breakthrough upon the clinical approval of MAL (ALA methyl ester) and HAL (ALA hexyl ester). For newly developed ALA derivatives or application in new tumor types, in vitro determination of PPIX formation involves multiparametric experiments covering variable pro-drug concentrations, medium composition, time points of analysis, and cell type(s). This study uses a fluorescence microplate reader with a built-in temperature and atmosphere control to investigate the high-resolution long-term kinetics (72 h) of cellular PPIX fueled by administration of either ALA, MAL, or HAL for each 10 different concentrations. For simultaneous proliferation correction, A431 cells were stably transfected with green fluorescent protein. The results indicate that the peak PPIX level is a function of both, incubation concentration and period: maximal PPIX is generated with 1 to 2-mM ALA/MAL or 0.125-mM HAL; also, the PPIX peak shifts to longer incubation periods with increasing pro-drug concentrations. The results underline the need for detailed temporal analysis of PPIX formation to optimize ALA (derivative)-based PDT or photodiagnosis and highlight the value of environment-controlled microplate readers for automated in vitro analysis.

  16. Study on the synergic effect of natural compounds on the microbial quality decay of packed fish hamburger.

    PubMed

    Corbo, M R; Speranza, B; Filippone, A; Granatiero, S; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2008-10-31

    The effectiveness of natural compounds in slowing down the microbial quality decay of refrigerated fish hamburger is addressed in this study. In particular, the control of the microbiological spoilage by combined use of three antimicrobials, and the determination of their optimal composition to extend the fish hamburger Microbiological Stability Limit (MAL) are the main objectives of this work. Thymol, grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) and lemon extract were tested for monitoring the cell growth of the main fish spoilage microorganisms (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Shewanella putrefaciens), inoculated in fish hamburgers, and the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed to highlight a possible synergic effect of the above natural compounds. Results showed an increase in the MAL value for hamburgers mixed with the antimicrobial compounds, compared to the control sample. The optimal antimicrobial compound composition, which corresponds to the maximal MAL value determined in this study, is: 110 mgL(-1) of thymol, 100 mgL(-1) of GFSE and 120 mgL(-1) of lemon extract. The presence of the natural compounds delay the sensorial quality decay without compromising the flavor of the fish hamburgers.

  17. Widespread loess-like deposit in the Martian northern lowlands identifies Middle Amazonian climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, James A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Platz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Consistently mappable units critical to distinguishing the style and interplay of geologic processes through time are sparse in the Martian lowlands. This study identifies a previously unmapped Middle Amazonian (ca. 1 Ga) unit (Middle Amazonian lowland unit, mAl) that postdates the Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian lowland plains by >2 b.y. The unit is regionally defined by subtle marginal scarps and slopes, has a mean thickness of 32 m, and extends >3.1 × 106 km2 between lat 35°N and 80°N. Pedestal-type craterforms and nested, arcuate ridges (thumbprint terrain) tend to occur adjacent to unit mAl outcrops, suggesting that current outcrops are vestiges of a more extensive deposit that previously covered ∼16 × 106 km2. Exposed layers, surface pits, and the draping of subjacent landforms allude to a sedimentary origin, perhaps as a loess-like deposit emplaced rhythmically through atmospheric fallout. We propose that unit mAl accumulated coevally with, and at the expense of, the erosion of the north polar basal units, identifying a major episode of Middle Amazonian climate-driven sedimentation in the lowlands. This work links ancient sedimentary processes to climate change that occurred well before those implied by current orbital and spin axis models.

  18. Seasonal performance of a malaria rapid diagnosis test at community health clinics in a malaria-hyperendemic region of Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgound Treatment of confirmed malaria patients with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) at remote areas is the goal of many anti-malaria programs. Introduction of effective and affordable malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) in remote areas could be an alternative tool for malaria case management. This study aimed to assess performance of the OptiMAL dipstick for rapid malaria diagnosis in children under five. Methods Malaria symptomatic and asymptomatic children were recruited in a passive manner in two community clinics (CCs). Malaria diagnosis by microscopy and RDT were performed. Performance of the tests was determined. Results RDT showed similar ability (61.2%) to accurately diagnose malaria as microscopy (61.1%). OptiMAL showed a high level of sensitivity and specificity, compared with microscopy, during both transmission seasons (high & low), with a sensitivity of 92.9% vs. 74.9% and a specificity of 77.2% vs. 87.5%. Conclusion By improving the performance of the test through accurate and continuous quality control of the device in the field, OptiMAL could be suitable for use at CCs for the management and control of malaria. PMID:22647557

  19. Protective Effect of Selenium-Based Medicines on Toxicity of Three Common Organophosphorus Compounds in Human Erythrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are used to control pests, however they can reach the food chain and enter the human body causing serious health problems by means of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and oxidative stress (OS). Among the OPs, chlorpyrifos (CHP), malathion (MAL), and diazinon (DIA) are commonly used for commercial extermination purposes, in addition to veterinary practices, domestic, agricul- ture and public health applications. Two new recently registered medicines that contain selenium and other antioxidants, IMOD and angipars (ANG), have shown beneficial ef- fects for OS related disorders. This study examines the effect of selenium-based medi- cines on toxicity of three common OP compounds in erythrocytes. Materials and Methods In the present experimental study, we determined the ef- ficacy of IMOD and ANG on OS induced by three mentioned OP pesticides in human erythrocytes in vitro. After dose-response studies, AChE, lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) were measured in eryth- rocytes after exposure to OPs alone and in combined treatment with IMOD or ANG. Results AChE activity, TAP and TTM reduced in erythrocytes exposed to CHP, MAL and DIA while they were restored in the presence of ANG and IMOD. ANG and IMOD reduced the OPs-induced elevation of LPO. Conclusion The present study shows the positive effects of IMOD and ANG in re- duction of OS and restoration of AChE inhibition induced by CHP, MAL and DIA in erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:26862533

  20. Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingfang; Acosta, Diana M; Whitney, Jon R; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering (CG-MALS) is an emerging technique for the determination of intermolecular interactions via the second virial coefficient B22. With CG-MALS, detailed studies of the second virial coefficient can be carried out more accurately and effectively than with traditional methods. In addition, automated mixing, delivery and measurement enable high speed, continuous, fluctuation-free sample delivery and accurate results. Using CG-MALS we measure the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solutions at various values of pH and ionic strength of a univalent salt (NaCl). The systematic variation of the second virial coefficient as a function of pH and NaCl strength reveals the net charge change and the isoelectric point of BSA under different solution conditions. The magnitude of the second virial coefficient decreases to 1.13 x 10(-5) ml*mol/g(2) near the isoelectric point of pH 4.6 and 25 mM NaCl. These results illuminate the role of fundamental long-range electrostatic and van der Waals forces in protein-protein interactions, specifically their dependence on pH and ionic strength.

  1. Photodynamic Therapy Interventions in Facial Photodamage: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Ruiz-Cañas, V; Miranda, J M; Ferrín, A P; Ramirez, P A; Hernandez, G N

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the combination of a light source and a photosensitizing agent to induce tissue damage via the generation of singlet oxygen. Although topical PDT has been approved for other indications, its use in facial photodamage is uncertain. To assess the efficacy and safety of PDT in facial skin photoaging. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of any form of topical PDT for the treatment of facial photodamage (dermatoheliosis) or photoaging in patients older than 18 years, were included. Photodynamic-therapy using any topical photosensitizing agent at any dose, and with any light-source, were considered. Comparators were chemical exfoliation, intense pulsed light (IPL), light emitting diodes (LED), dermabrasion or microdermabrasion, ablative or non-ablative lasers, injectables, surgery, placebo and/or no treatment. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Google Scholar and RCT's registry databases, was performed. Search was conducted up to May 4th 2016. Four authors independently selected and assessed methodological quality of each RCT. According to inclusion criteria, twelve studies were included (6 aminolevulinate (ALA) trials and 6 methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) trials), but the majority of them had methodological constraints particularly in randomization description and patients/outcome assessors blindness. Overall results indicated that PDT either with ALA or with MAL was effective and safe for facial photodamage treatment, but high quality of evidence was found mainly for MAL studies. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of sludge re-circulating clarifiers design and optimization through numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Davari, S; Lichayee, M J

    2003-01-01

    In steam thermal power plants (TPP) with open re-circulating wet cooling towers, elimination of water hardness and suspended solids (SS) is performed in clarifiers. Most of these clarifiers are of high efficiency sludge re-circulating type (SRC) with capacity between 500-1,500 m3/hr. Improper design and/or mal-operation of clarifiers in TPPs results in working conditions below design capacity or production of soft water with improper quality (hardness and S.S.). This causes accumulation of deposits in heat exchangers, condenser tubes, cooling and service water pipes and boiler tubes as well as increasing the ionic load of water at the demineralizing system inlet. It also increases the amount of chemical consumptions and produces more liquid and solid waste. In this regard, a software program for optimal design and simulation of SRCs has been developed. Then design parameters of existing SRCs in four TPPs in Iran were used as inputs to developed software program and resulting technical specifications were compared with existing ones. In some cases improper design was the main cause of poor outlet water quality. In order to achieve proper efficiency, further investigations were made to obtain control parameters as well as design parameters for both mal-designed and/or mal-operated SRCs.

  3. Systems Dynamic Modeling of the Stomatal Guard Cell Predicts Emergent Behaviors in Transport, Signaling, and Volume Control1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong-Hua; Hills, Adrian; Bätz, Ulrike; Amtmann, Anna; Lew, Virgilio L.; Blatt, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of stomatal movements and their consequences for photosynthesis and transpirational water loss have long been incorporated into mathematical models, but none have been developed from the bottom up that are widely applicable in predicting stomatal behavior at a cellular level. We previously established a systems dynamic model incorporating explicitly the wealth of biophysical and kinetic knowledge available for guard cell transport, signaling, and homeostasis. Here we describe the behavior of the model in response to experimentally documented changes in primary pump activities and malate (Mal) synthesis imposed over a diurnal cycle. We show that the model successfully recapitulates the cyclic variations in H+, K+, Cl−, and Mal concentrations in the cytosol and vacuole known for guard cells. It also yields a number of unexpected and counterintuitive outputs. Among these, we report a diurnal elevation in cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentration and an exchange of vacuolar Cl− with Mal, both of which find substantiation in the literature but had previously been suggested to require additional and complex levels of regulation. These findings highlight the true predictive power of the OnGuard model in providing a framework for systems analysis of stomatal guard cells, and they demonstrate the utility of the OnGuard software and HoTSig library in exploring fundamental problems in cellular physiology and homeostasis. PMID:22635112

  4. Study on aggregation behavior of low density lipoprotein in hen egg yolk plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Magnusson, Emma; Choi, Jaeyeong; Duan, Fei; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and fluorescence (FS) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-FS) was employed for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. AF4 provided separation of three major components of the egg yolk plasma i.e. soluble proteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their aggregates, based on their respective hydrodynamic sizes. Identification of LDL was confirmed by staining the sample with a fluorescent dye, Nile Red. The effect of carrier liquids on aggregation of LDL was investigated. Collected fractions of soluble proteins were characterized using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Moreover, the effect of heat and enzymatic treatment on egg yolk plasma was investigated. The results suggest that enzymatic treatment with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) significantly enhances the heat stability of LDL. The results show that AF4-UV-MALS-FS is a powerful tool for the fractionation and characterization of egg yolk plasma components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Size fractionation and size characterization of nanoemulsions of lipid droplets and large unilamellar lipid vesicles by asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation/multi-angle light scattering and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Vezočnik, Valerija; Rebolj, Katja; Sitar, Simona; Ota, Katja; Tušek-Žnidarič, Magda; Štrus, Jasna; Sepčić, Kristina; Pahovnik, David; Maček, Peter; Žagar, Ema

    2015-10-30

    Asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation technique coupled to a multi-angle light-scattering detector (AF4-MALS) was used together with dynamic light-scattering (DLS) in batch mode and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the size characteristics of the trioleoylglycerol lipid droplets covered by a monolayer of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, in water phase. These lipid droplet nanoemulsions (LD) were formed by ultrasonication. In parallel, the size characteristics of large unilamellar lipid vesicles (LUV) prepared by extrusion and composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol were determined. LD and LUV were prepared at two different molar ratios (1/1, 4/1) of sphingomyelin and cholesterol. In AF4-MALS, various cross-flow conditions and mobile phase compositions were tested to optimize the separation of LD or LUV particles. The particle radii, R, as well as the root-mean-square radii, Rrms, of LD and LUV were determined by AF4-MALS, whereas the hydrodynamic radii, Rh, were obtained by DLS. TEM visualization revealed round shape particles of LD and LUV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis: a retrospective evaluation of 29 patients.

    PubMed

    Fai, D; Romano, I; Cassano, N; Vena, G A

    2012-02-01

    Multiple treatment modalities have been proposed for actinic cheilitis (AC), and topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently been included among these modalities. We report our experience with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) in AC. We performed a retrospective analysis of 29 patients who had undergone MAL-PDT for treatment of AC: 4 patients received one single session and 25 patients two consecutive weekly sessions. At 3 months, 21 patients (72%) obtained a complete clinical response, which was sustained over a follow-up period of 6-36 months (mean, 20 months) in 20 patients. Cosmetic outcome was generally rated as good or very good. Transient local adverse events related to the procedure were common and mild to moderate in the majority of cases. Our preliminary experience suggests that MAL-PDT may be considered a valid modality for the treatment of AC, although long-term follow-up studies in large patient series are required to obtain precise data about clinical and histological recurrences.

  7. Post-translational import of protein into the endoplasmic reticulum of a trypanosome: an in vitro system for discovery of anti-trypanosomal chemical entities.

    PubMed

    Patham, Bhargavi; Duffy, Josh; Lane, Ariel; Davis, Richard C; Wipf, Peter; Fewell, Sheara W; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2009-04-15

    HAT (human African trypanosomiasis), caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is an emerging disease for which new drugs are needed. Expression of plasma membrane proteins [e.g. VSG (variant surface glycoprotein)] is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of an infection by T. brucei. Transport of a majority of proteins to the plasma membrane involves their translocation into the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). Thus inhibition of protein import into the ER of T. brucei would be a logical target for discovery of lead compounds against trypanosomes. We have developed a TbRM (T. brucei microsome) system that imports VSG_117 post-translationally. Using this system, MAL3-101, equisetin and CJ-21,058 were discovered to be small molecule inhibitors of VSG_117 translocation into the ER. These agents also killed bloodstream T. brucei in vitro; the concentrations at which 50% of parasites were killed (IC50) were 1.5 microM (MAL3-101), 3.3 microM (equisetin) and 7 microM (CJ-21,058). Thus VSG_117 import into TbRMs is a rapid and novel assay to identify 'new chemical entities' (e.g. MAL3-101, equisetin and CJ-21,058) for anti-trypanosome drug development.

  8. The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebreda, A R; Hunt, T

    1993-01-01

    During studies of the activation and inactivation of the cyclin B-p34cdc2 protein kinase (MPF) in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs, we found that a bacterially expressed fusion protein between the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and the Xenopus c-mos protein kinase (malE-mos) activated a 42 kDa MAP kinase. The activation of MAP kinase on addition of malE-mos was consistent, whereas the activation of MPF was variable and failed to occur in some oocyte extracts in which cyclin A or okadaic acid activated both MPF and MAP kinase. In cases when MPF activation was transient, MAP kinase activity declined after MPF activity was lost, and MAP kinase, but not MPF, could be maintained at a high level by the presence of malE-mos. When intact oocytes were treated with progesterone, however, the activation of MPF and MAP kinase occurred simultaneously, in contrast to the behaviour of extracts. These observations suggest that one role of c-mos may be to maintain high MAP kinase activity in meiosis. They also imply that the activation of MPF and MAP kinase in vivo are synchronous events that normally rely on an agent that has still to be identified. Images PMID:8387916

  9. Phosphatidylglycerol directs binding and inhibitory action of EIIAGlc protein on the maltose transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Duong, Franck

    2013-08-16

    The signal-transducing protein EIIA(Glc) belongs to the phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. In its dephosphorylated state, EIIA(Glc) is a negative regulator for several permeases, including the maltose transporter MalFGK2. How EIIA(Glc) is targeted to the membrane, how it interacts with the transporter, and how it inhibits sugar uptake remain obscure. We show here that acidic phospholipids together with the N-terminal tail of EIIA(Glc) are essential for the high affinity binding of the protein to the transporter. Using protein docking prediction and chemical cross-linking, we demonstrate that EIIA(Glc) binds to the MalK dimer, interacting with both the nucleotide-binding and the C-terminal regulatory domains. Dissection of the ATPase cycle reveals that EIIA(Glc) does not affect the binding of ATP but rather inhibits the capacity of MalK to cleave ATP. We propose a mechanism of maltose transport inhibition by this central amphitropic regulatory protein.

  10. Efficient tetracycline adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by uranyl coordination polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ya-Nan; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zheng, Yue-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Two mixed uranyl-cadmium malonate coordination polymers [(UO2)2Cd(H-bipy)2(mal)4(H2O)2]·4H2O 1 and [(UO2)Cd(bipy)(mal)2]·H2O 2 (H2mal = malonic acid, bipy =4,4‧-bipyridine) have been synthesized in room temperature. Compound 1 represents a one-dimensional (1D) chain assembly of Cd(II) ions, uranyl centers and malonate ligands. Compound 2 exhibits a two-dimensional (2D) 2D +2D → 3D polycatenated framework based on inclined interlocked 2D 44 sql grids. The two compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. And the ferroelectric property of 2 also has been studied. Moreover, compound 2 exhibits good photocatalytic activity for dye degradation under UV light and is excellent adsorbent for removing tetracycline antibiotics in the aqueous solution.

  11. Two- and three-dimensional networks of gadolinium(III) with dicarboxylate ligands: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pasan, Jorge; Fabelo, Oscar; Hernandez-Molina, María; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2006-12-25

    Four gadolinium(III) complexes with dicarboxylate ligands of formulas [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)5]n.2nH2O (1), [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6]n (2), [NaGd(mal)(ox)(H2O)3]n (3), and [Gd2(ox)3(H2O)6]n.2.5nH2O (4) (mal = malonate; ox = oxalate) have been prepared, and their magnetic properties have been investigated as a function of the temperature. The structures of 1-3 have been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The crystal structure of 4 was already known, and it is made of hexagonal layers of Gd atoms that are bridged by bis-bidentate oxalate. Compound 1 is isostructural with the europium(III) malonate complex [Eu2(mal)3(H2O)5]n.2nH2O,1 whose structure was reported elsewhere. The Gd atoms in 1 define a two-dimensional network where a terminal bidentate and bridging bidentate/bis-monodentate and tris-bidentate coordination modes of malonate occur. Compound 2 has a three-dimensional structure with a structural phase transition at 226 K, which involves a change of the space group from I2/a to Ia. Although its structure at room temperature was already known, that below 226 K was not. Pairs of Gd atoms with a double oxo-carboxylate bridge occur in both phases, and the main differences between both structures deal with the Gd environment and the H-bond pattern. 3 is also a three-dimensional compound, and it was obtained by reacting Gd(III) ions with malonic acid in a silica gel medium. Oxalic acid results as an oxidized product of the malonic acid, and single crystals of the heteroleptic complex were produced. The Gd atoms in 3 are connected through bis-bidentate oxalate and carboxylate-malonate bridges in the anti-anti and anti-syn coordination modes. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit weak but significant ferromagnetic couplings between the Gd(III) ions through the single (1) and double (2) oxo-carboxylate bridges, whereas antiferromagnetic interactions across the bis-bidentate oxalate account for the overall antiferromagnetic behavior observed in 3 and 4.

  12. Needle Thoracostomy: Does Changing Needle Length and Location Change Patient Outcome?

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Lori A; Owen, Scott; Stroh, Geoffory; Ramos, John

    2018-06-01

    Needle thoracostomy (NT) is a common prehospital intervention for patients in extremis or cardiac arrest due to trauma. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes, efficacy, and complications after a change in policy related to NT in a four-county Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system with a catchment area of greater than 1.6 million people. This is a before and after observational study of all patients who had NT performed in the Central California (USA) EMS system. The before, anterior midclavicular line (MCL) group consisted of all patients who underwent NT from May 7, 2007 through February 28, 2013. The after, midaxillary line (MAL) axillary group consisted of all patients who underwent NT from March 1, 2013 through January 30, 2016, after policy revisions changed the timing, needle size, and placement location for NT. All prehospital and hospital records where NT was performed were queried for demographics, mechanism of injury, initial status and post-NT clinical change, reported complications, and final outcome. The trauma registry was accessed to obtain Injury Severity Scores (ISS). Information was manually abstracted by study investigators and examined utilizing univariate and multivariate analyses. Three-hundred and five trauma patients treated with NT were included in this study, of which, 169 patients (the MCL group) were treated with a 14-guage intravenous (IV) catheter at least 5.0-cm long at the second intercostal space (ICS), MCL after being placed in the ambulance; and 136 patients (the MAL group) were treated with a 10-guage IV catheter at least 9.5-cm long at the fifth ICS, MAL on scene. The mean ISS was lower in the MAL cohort (64.5 versus 69.2; P=.007). The mortality rate was 79% in both groups. The multivariate model with regard to survival supported that a lower ISS (P<.001) and reported clinical change after NT (P=.003) were significant indicators of survival. No complications from NT were reported. Changing the timing, length of

  13. Morphological and glycan features of the camel oviduct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Accogli, Gianluca; Monaco, Davide; El Bahrawy, Khalid Ahmed; El-Sayed, Ashraf Abd El-Halim; Ciannarella, Francesca; Beneult, Benedicte; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Desantis, Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    This study describes regional differences in the oviduct of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the growth phase (GP) and the mature phase (MP) of the follicular wave by means of morphometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and glycohistochemistry investigations. Epithelium height significantly increased in the ampulla and decreased in the isthmus passing from the GP to the MP. Under SEM, non-ciliated cells displayed apical blebs (secretory) or short microvilli. Cilia glycocalyx expressed glycans terminating with sialic acid linked α2,6 to Gal/GalNAc (SNA affinity) throughout the oviducts of GP and MP and sialic acid linked α2,3 to Galβ1,3GalNAc (MAL II and KOH-sialidase (K-s)-PNA staining) throughout the MP oviducts. Non-ciliated cells displayed lectin-binding sites from the supra-nuclear cytoplasm to the luminal surface. Ampulla non-ciliated cells showed O-linked (mucin-type) sialoglycans (MAL II and K-s-PNA) during GP and MP and N-linked sialoglycans (SNA) during the MP. Isthmus non-ciliated cells expressed SNA reactivity in GP and MP, also K-s-PNA binders in MP, and MAL II and PNA affinity (Galβ1,3GalNAc) during GP. Galβ1,3GalNAc was sialilated in the non-ciliated cells of GP UTJ. Luminal surface lacked of Galβ1,3GalNAc in GP and MP, whereas it expressed α2,6- and α2,3-linked sialic acids. In GP intraluminal substance reacted with SNA, MAL II, K-s-PNA in ampulla and only with MAL II in the isthmus and UTJ. These results demonstrate that the morphology and the glycan pattern of the camel oviductal epithelium vary during the follicular wave and that could relate to the region-specific functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized, multinational, noninferiority, phase III trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid gel vs. methyl aminolaevulinate cream in the treatment of nonaggressive basal cell carcinoma with photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Morton, C A; Dominicus, R; Radny, P; Dirschka, T; Hauschild, A; Reinhold, U; Aschoff, R; Ulrich, M; Keohane, S; Ekanayake-Bohlig, S; Ibbotson, S; Ostendorf, R; Berking, C; Gröne, D; Schulze, H J; Ockenfels, H M; Jasnoch, V; Kurzen, H; Sebastian, M; Stege, H; Staubach, P; Gupta, G; Hübinger, F; Ziabreva, I; Schmitz, B; Gertzmann, A; Lübbert, H; Szeimies, R-M

    2018-02-12

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer worldwide, affecting mainly adult, fair-skinned individuals. The World Health Organization distinguishes aggressive and nonaggressive forms, of which prototypical variants of the latter are primary nodular and superficial BCC. To demonstrate noninferiority of BF-200 ALA (a nanoemulsion gel containing 5-aminolaevulinic acid) compared with MAL (a cream containing methyl aminolaevulinate) in the treatment of nonaggressive BCC with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Noninferiority of the primary efficacy variable (overall patient complete response 12 weeks after last PDT) would be declared if the mean response for BF-200 ALA was no worse than that for MAL, within a statistical margin of Δ = -15%. The study was a randomized, phase III trial performed in Germany and the U.K. with ongoing 5-year follow-up. Of 281 randomized patients, 138 were treated with BF-200 ALA and 143 with MAL. Patients received two PDT sessions 1 week apart. Remaining lesions 12 weeks after the second PDT were retreated. Illumination was performed with a red light source (635 nm, 37 J cm -2 ). The results shown include clinical end points and patients' reassessment 12 months after the last PDT. The study was registered with EudraCT (number 2013-003241-42). Of the BF-200 ALA-treated patients, 93·4% were complete responders compared with 91·8% in the MAL group. The difference of means was 1·6, with a one-sided 97·5% confidence interval of -6·5, establishing noninferiority (P < 0·0001). The results for secondary efficacy parameters were in line with the primary outcome. Recurrence rates 12 months after the last treatment were ≤ 10%. Treatment of nonaggressive BCC with BF-200 ALA-PDT is highly effective and well tolerated with proven noninferiority to MAL-PDT. It demonstrates low recurrence rates after 1 year of follow-up. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  15. A Semitransparent Inorganic Perovskite Film for Overcoming Ultraviolet Light Instability of Organic Solar Cells and Achieving 14.03% Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijie; Zhang, Jingwen; Xu, Guiying; Xue, Rongming; Li, Yaowen; Zhou, Yinhua; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Yongfang

    2018-05-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) can be unstable under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. To address this issue and enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE), an inorganic-perovskite/organic four-terminal tandem solar cell (TSC) based on a semitransparent inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite solar cell (pero-SC) as the top cell and an OSC as bottom cell is constructed. The high-quality CsPbBr 3 photoactive layer of the planar pero-SC is prepared with a dual-source vacuum coevaporation method, using stoichiometric precursors of CsBr and PbBr 2 with a low evaporation rate. The resultant opaque planar pero-SC exhibits an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 1.44 V and the highest reported PCE of 7.78% for a CsPbBr 3 -based planar pero-SC. Importantly, the devices show no degradation after 120 h UV light illumination. The related semitransparent pero-SC can almost completely filter UV light and well maintain photovoltaic performance; it additionally shows an extremely high average visible transmittance. When it is used to construct a TSC, the top pero-SC acting as a UV filter can utilize UV light for photoelectric conversion, avoiding the instability problem of UV light on the bottom OSC that can meet the industrial standards of UV-light stability for solar cells, and leading to the highest reported PCE of 14.03% for the inorganic-perovskite/organic TSC. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Mechanistic Study of Utilization of Water-Insoluble Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucans by Bifidobacterium breve Strain JCM1192

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Hoi Yee; Li, Tsz Kai; Sham, Lok To; Cheung, Man Kit; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to the genetic inaccessibility of these bacteria, little is known about their mechanisms of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. Bifidobacterium breve strain JCM1192 can grow on water-insoluble yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall glucans (YCWG), which were recently considered as potential prebiotics. According to the results of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, the YCWG were composed of highly branched (1→3,1→6)-β-glucans and (1→4,1→6)-α-glucans. Although the YCWG were composed of 78.3% β-glucans and 21.7% α-glucans, only α-glucans were consumed by the B. breve strain. The ABC transporter (malEFG1) and pullulanase (aapA) genes were transcriptionally upregulated in the metabolism of insoluble yeast glucans, suggesting their potential involvement in the process. A nonsense mutation identified in the gene encoding an ABC transporter ATP-binding protein (MalK) led to growth failure of an ethyl methanesulfonate-generated mutant with yeast glucans. Coculture of the wild-type strain and the mutant showed that this protein was responsible for the import of yeast glucans or their breakdown products, rather than the export of α-glucan-catabolizing enzymes. Further characterization of the carbohydrate utilization of the mutant and three of its revertants indicated that this mutation was pleiotropic: the mutant could not grow with maltose, glycogen, dextrin, raffinose, cellobiose, melibiose, or turanose. We propose that insoluble yeast α-glucans are hydrolyzed by extracellular pullulanase into maltose and/or maltooligosaccharides, which are then transported into the cell by the ABC transport system composed of MalEFG1 and MalK. The mechanism elucidated here will facilitate the development of B. breve and water-insoluble yeast glucans as novel synbiotics. IMPORTANCE In general, Bifidobacterium strains are genetically

  17. Mechanistic Study of Utilization of Water-Insoluble Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucans by Bifidobacterium breve Strain JCM1192.

    PubMed

    Keung, Hoi Yee; Li, Tsz Kai; Sham, Lok To; Cheung, Man Kit; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2017-04-01

    Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to the genetic inaccessibility of these bacteria, little is known about their mechanisms of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. Bifidobacterium breve strain JCM1192 can grow on water-insoluble yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) cell wall glucans (YCWG), which were recently considered as potential prebiotics. According to the results of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, the YCWG were composed of highly branched (1→3,1→6)-β-glucans and (1→4,1→6)-α-glucans. Although the YCWG were composed of 78.3% β-glucans and 21.7% α-glucans, only α-glucans were consumed by the B. breve strain. The ABC transporter ( malEFG1 ) and pullulanase ( aapA ) genes were transcriptionally upregulated in the metabolism of insoluble yeast glucans, suggesting their potential involvement in the process. A nonsense mutation identified in the gene encoding an ABC transporter ATP-binding protein (MalK) led to growth failure of an ethyl methanesulfonate-generated mutant with yeast glucans. Coculture of the wild-type strain and the mutant showed that this protein was responsible for the import of yeast glucans or their breakdown products, rather than the export of α-glucan-catabolizing enzymes. Further characterization of the carbohydrate utilization of the mutant and three of its revertants indicated that this mutation was pleiotropic: the mutant could not grow with maltose, glycogen, dextrin, raffinose, cellobiose, melibiose, or turanose. We propose that insoluble yeast α-glucans are hydrolyzed by extracellular pullulanase into maltose and/or maltooligosaccharides, which are then transported into the cell by the ABC transport system composed of MalEFG1 and MalK. The mechanism elucidated here will facilitate the development of B. breve and water-insoluble yeast glucans as novel synbiotics. IMPORTANCE In general, Bifidobacterium strains are genetically intractable

  18. South Atlantic Conflict of 1982: A Case Study in Military Cohesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Level Technical School); Centro de Instruction de Inteligencia (Center for Intelligence Instruction) and Centro de Altos Estudios (The Center for...pero plenos de emocion y grandeza. (1987). La Semana, 12-15. Gal, R. (1985). Committment and obedience in the military: An Israeli case study. Armed

  19. Profiling of Saharan dust from the Caribbean to western Africa - Part 1: Layering structures and optical properties from shipborne polarization/Raman lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittmeister, Franziska; Ansmann, Albert; Engelmann, Ronny; Skupin, Annett; Baars, Holger; Kanitz, Thomas; Kinne, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    We present final and quality-assured results of multiwavelength polarization/Raman lidar observations of the Saharan air layer (SAL) over the tropical Atlantic. Observations were performed aboard the German research vessel R/V Meteor during the 1-month transatlantic cruise from Guadeloupe to Cabo Verde over 4500 km from 61.5 to 20° W at 14-15° N in April-May 2013. First results of the shipborne lidar measurements, conducted in the framework of SALTRACE (Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Experiment), were reported by Kanitz et al.(2014). Here, we present four observational cases representing key stages of the SAL evolution between Africa and the Caribbean in detail in terms of layering structures and optical properties of the mixture of predominantly dust and aged smoke in the SAL. We discuss to what extent the lidar results confirm the validity of the SAL conceptual model which describes the dust long-range transport and removal processes over the tropical Atlantic. Our observations of a clean marine aerosol layer (MAL, layer from the surface to the SAL base) confirm the conceptual model and suggest that the removal of dust from the MAL, below the SAL, is very efficient. However, the removal of dust from the SAL assumed in the conceptual model to be caused by gravitational settling in combination with large-scale subsidence is weaker than expected. To explain the observed homogenous (height-independent) dust optical properties from the SAL base to the SAL top, from the African coast to the Caribbean, we have to assume that the particle sedimentation strength is reduced and dust vertical mixing and upward transport mechanisms must be active in the SAL. Based on lidar observations on 20 nights at different longitudes in May 2013, we found, on average, MAL and SAL layer mean values (at 532 nm) of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) of 17±5 sr (MAL) and 43±8 sr (SAL), of the particle linear depolarization ratio of 0

  20. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Shuiming; Illa, Eudald; Song, Lijuan; Wu, Shandong; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere; Weg, Eric van de; Chen, Kunsong; Gao, Zhongshan

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica). Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach/almond allergen genes have

  1. Cellular intrinsic factors involved in the resistance of squamous cell carcinoma to photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Gilaberte, Yolanda; Milla, Laura; Salazar, Nerea; Vera-Alvarez, Jesús; Kourani, Omar; Damian, Alejandra; Rivarola, Viviana; Roca, Maria José; Espada, Jesús; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Angeles

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat non-melanoma skin cancer. However, some patients affected with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) do not respond adequately to PDT with methyl-δ-aminolevulinic acid (MAL-PDT) and the tumors acquire an infiltrative phenotype and became histologically more aggressive, less differentiated, and more fibroblastic. To search for potential factors implicated in SCC resistance to PDT, we have used the SCC-13 cell line (parental) and resistant SCC-13 cells obtained by repeated MAL-PDT treatments (5th and 10th PDT-resistant generations). Xenografts assays in immunodeficient mice showed that the tumors generated by resistant cells were bigger than those induced by parental cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array (aCGH) showed that the three cell types presented amplicons in 3p12.1 CADM2, 7p11.2 EFGR, and 11q13.3 CCND1 genes. The 5th and 10th PDT-resistant cells showed an amplicon in 5q11.2 MAP3K1, which was not present in parental cells. The changes detected by aCGH on CCND1, EFGR, and MAP3K1 were confirmed in extracts of SCC-13 cells by reverse-transcriptase PCR and by western blot, and by immunohistochemistry in human biopsies from persistent tumors after MAL-PDT. Our data suggest that genomic imbalances related to CCND1, EFGR, and particularly MAP3K1 seem to be involved in the development of the resistance of SCC to PDT.

  2. Biophysical and medical safety basis of laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltsev, Yu.; Levina, A.

    1996-01-01

    Laser equipment may inflict serious losses to human health if safety norms established by relevant standards and other documentation are not properly observed. It is explained by physical properties of laser emission (LE) which differs from general light sources by quantitative behavior of such parameters as the degrees of coherence, monochromaticity, brightness, polarization. Thus, biological effects due to laser emission, as a rule, are more expressed comparing with other types of emission from other spontaneous light sources. LE effects biological tissues through the density of energy flow and impulse duration. It is common knowledge nowadays that LE biological action is assessed by two criteria: physical parameters and absorptive properties of tissues exposed to rays. LE causes the greatest danger to the eyes due to their specific structure. The next target organ vulnerable to LE is skin. Pathological changes of skin depend on the LE power, time of exposure, wave length, and the extent of skin pigmentation. Along with different kinds of damage directly in the tissues exposed to rays, LE may cause changes in organs and body systems subject to indirect exposure. It is important that these changes may develop due to low intensity levels of LE that do not cause local damage. National and international standards on LE safety are based on maximum allowable levels (MAL) of exposure. It has been generally accepted that the main MAL criterion is LE threshold minimal exposure which causes damage to retina, eyes, and skin. As distinct from foreign safety standards, hygienic norms and regulations are in force in the Russian Federation where additional co-efficients along with standard generally accepted MAL values have been introduced for the persons who are subject to occupational regular exposure to lasers. This approach has been chosen after the results of follow-up and health studies of these occupational contingents have been analyzed, and experiments on laboratory

  3. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  4. The h-region of twin-arginine signal peptides supports productive binding of bacterial Tat precursor proteins to the TatBC receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, Agnes; Fröbel, Julia; Lausberg, Frank; Blümmel, Anne-Sophie; Heide, Anna Katharina; Müller, Matthias; Freudl, Roland

    2017-06-30

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across bacterial membranes. Tat precursor proteins possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal peptides that is involved in their binding to the Tat translocase, but some facets of this interaction remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the hydrophobic (h-) region of the Escherichia coli trimethylamine N -oxide reductase (TorA) signal peptide in TatBC receptor binding in vivo and in vitro We show that besides the RR motif, a minimal, functional h-region in the signal peptide is required for Tat-dependent export in Escherichia coli Furthermore, we identified mutations in the h-region that synergistically suppressed the export defect of a TorA[KQ]-30aa-MalE Tat reporter protein in which the RR motif was replaced with a lysine-glutamine pair. Strikingly, all suppressor mutations increased the hydrophobicity of the h-region. By systematically replacing a neutral residue in the h-region with various amino acids, we detected a positive correlation between the hydrophobicity of the h-region and the translocation efficiency of the resulting reporter variants. In vitro cross-linking of residues located in the periplasmically-oriented part of the TatBC receptor to TorA[KQ]-30aa-MalE reporter variants harboring a more hydrophobic h-region in their signal peptides confirmed that unlike in TorA[KQ]-30aa-MalE with an unaltered h-region, the mutated reporters moved deep into the TatBC-binding cavity. Our results clearly indicate that, besides the Tat motif, the h-region of the Tat signal peptides is another important binding determinant that significantly contributes to the productive interaction of Tat precursor proteins with the TatBC receptor complex. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Retention of differentiated characteristics by cultures of defined rabbit kidney epithelia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Anderson, R J; Breckon, R D; Nathrath, W; Schrier, R W

    1987-02-01

    Rabbit nephron segments of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT); proximal straight tubules (PST); cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop (CAL, MAL); and cortical, outer medullary, and inner medullary collecting tubules (CCT, OMCT, IMCT) were individually microdissected and grown in monolayer culture in hormone supplemented, defined media. Factors favoring a rapid onset of proliferation included young donor age, distal tubule origin, and the addition of 3% fetal calf serum to the medium. All primary cultures had polarized morphology with apical microvilli facing the medium and basement membrane-like material adjacent to the dish. Differentiated properties characteristic of the tubular epithelium of origin retained in cultures included ultrastructural characteristics and cytochemically demonstrable marker enzyme proportions. PCT and PST were rich in alkaline phosphatase; CAL stained strongly for NaK-ATPase; CCT contained two cell populations with regard to cytochrome oxidase reaction. A CCT-specific anti-keratin antibody (aLEA) was immunolocalized in CCT cultures, and a PST cytokeratin antibody stained PST cultures. The biochemical response of adenylate cyclase to putative stimulating agents was the same in primary cultures as in freshly isolated tubules. In PCT and PST adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by arginine vasopressin (AVP); CAL and MAL adenylate cyclase was stimulated by neither PTH nor AVP; CCT, OMCT, and IMCT adenylate cyclase was stimulated by AVP but not by PTH. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in every cultured segment. It is concluded that primary cultures of individually microdissected rabbit PCT, PST, CAL, MAL, CCT, OMCT, and IMCT retain differentiated characteristics with regard to ultrastructure, marker enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and hormone response of adenylate cyclase and provide a new system for studying normal and abnormal functions of the heterogeneous tubular

  6. A Bacterial Glucanotransferase Can Replace the Complex Maltose Metabolism Required for Starch to Sucrose Conversion in Leaves at Night*

    PubMed Central

    Ruzanski, Christian; Smirnova, Julia; Rejzek, Martin; Cockburn, Darrell; Pedersen, Henriette L.; Pike, Marilyn; Willats, William G. T.; Svensson, Birte; Steup, Martin; Ebenhöh, Oliver; Smith, Alison M.; Field, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled conversion of leaf starch to sucrose at night is essential for the normal growth of Arabidopsis. The conversion involves the cytosolic metabolism of maltose to hexose phosphates via an unusual, multidomain protein with 4-glucanotransferase activity, DPE2, believed to transfer glucosyl moieties to a complex heteroglycan prior to their conversion to hexose phosphate via a cytosolic phosphorylase. The significance of this complex pathway is unclear; conversion of maltose to hexose phosphate in bacteria proceeds via a more typical 4-glucanotransferase that does not require a heteroglycan acceptor. It has recently been suggested that DPE2 generates a heterogeneous series of terminal glucan chains on the heteroglycan that acts as a “glucosyl buffer” to ensure a constant rate of sucrose synthesis in the leaf at night. Alternatively, DPE2 and/or the heteroglycan may have specific properties important for their function in the plant. To distinguish between these ideas, we compared the properties of DPE2 with those of the Escherichia coli glucanotransferase MalQ. We found that MalQ cannot use the plant heteroglycan as an acceptor for glucosyl transfer. However, experimental and modeling approaches suggested that it can potentially generate a glucosyl buffer between maltose and hexose phosphate because, unlike DPE2, it can generate polydisperse malto-oligosaccharides from maltose. Consistent with this suggestion, MalQ is capable of restoring an essentially wild-type phenotype when expressed in mutant Arabidopsis plants lacking DPE2. In light of these findings, we discuss the possible evolutionary origins of the complex DPE2-heteroglycan pathway. PMID:23950181

  7. Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kale, Varsha; Friðjónsson, Ólafur; Jónsson, Jón Óskar; Kristinsson, Hörður G; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó

    2015-08-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. Studies have shown that depolymerized CS saccharides may display enhanced bioactivity. The objective of this study was to isolate a CS-degrading enzyme for an efficient production of CS oligo- or disaccharides. CS-degrading bacteria from marine environments were enriched using in situ artificial support colonization containing CS from shark cartilage as substrate. Subsequently, an Arthrobacter species (strain MAT3885) efficiently degrading CS was isolated from a CS enrichment culture. The genomic DNA from strain MAT3885 was pyro-sequenced by using the 454 FLX sequencing technology. Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. The gene, designated choA1, was cloned in Escherichia coli and expressed downstream of and in frame with the E. coli malE gene for obtaining a high yield of soluble recombinant protein. Applying a dual-tag system (MalE-Smt3-ChoA1), the MalE domain was separated from ChoA1 with proteolytic cleavage using Ulp1 protease. ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. The optimum activity of the enzyme was at pH 5.5-7.5 and 40 °C, running a 10-min reaction. The native enzyme was estimated to be a monomer. As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products.

  8. Value of counting positive PHH3 cells in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Shu-Jie; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Shen, Yan; Liu, Yian-Zhu; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors including leiomyosarcomas (LMS), smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), bizarre (atypical) leiomyoma (BLM), mitotically active leiomyoma (MAL) and leiomyoma (LM) depends on a combination of microscopic features, such as mitoses, cytologic atypia, and coagulative tumor cell necrosis. However, a small number of these tumors still pose difficult diagnostic challenges. The assessment of accurate mitotic figures (MF) is one of the major parameters in the proper classification of uterine smooth muscle tumors. This assessment can be hampered by the presence of increased number of apoptotic bodies or pyknotic nuclei, which frequently mimic mitoses. Phospho-histone H3 (PHH3) is a recently described immunomarker specific for cells undergoing mitoses. In our study, we collected 132 cases of uterine smooth muscle tumors, including 26 LMSs, 16 STUMPs, 30 BLMs, 30 MALs and 30 LMs. We used mitosis specific marker PHH3 to count mitotic indexes (MI) of uterine smooth muscle tumors and compared with the mitotic indexes of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). There is a positive correlation with the number of mitotic figures in H&E-stained sections and PHH3-stained sections (r=0.944, P<0.05). The ratio of PHH3-MI to H&E-MI has no statistically significant difference in each group except for LMs (P>0.05). The counting value of PHH3 in LMSs have significantly higher than STUMPs, BLMs, MALs and LMs (P<0.001) and the counting value of PHH3 is 1.5±0.5 times of the number of mitotic indexes in H&E. To conclude, our results show that counting PHH3 is a useful index in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors and it can provide a more accurate index instead of the time-honored mitotic figure counts at a certain ratio. PMID:26191133

  9. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Jennifer A; Moormann, Ann M; Vulule, John; Bockarie, Moses J; Zimmerman, Peter A; Kazura, James W

    2009-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLR) and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA) was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic) or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and Hemoglobin S (HbS) in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective pressure from malaria or any

  10. Preliminary investigation of metal and metalloid contamination of homeopathic products marketed in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tumir, Hrvoje; Bosnir, Jasna; Vedrina-Dragojević, Irena; Dragun, Zrinka; Tomić, Sinisa; Puntarić, Dinko

    2010-07-01

    Due to their popularity as a complementary therapy in many diseases, homeopathic products of animal, vegetable, mineral and chemical origin should be tested for the presence of contaminants to prevent eventual toxic effects. Thirty samples of homeopathic products were analyzed to estimate possible contamination with potentially toxic elements: Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Cr, Ni and Zn, and to assess human exposure to these metals/metalloid as a consequence of their consumption. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine metal and metalloid concentrations. Most tested products had very low metal/metalloid levels (below the limit of quantification of the method), but the metal/metalloid levels in the remaining products were in the following ranges (in microg g(-1)): Pb 0.33-1.29 (6 samples), Cd 2.78 (1 sample), As 0.22 (1 sample), Hg 0.02-0.12 (24 samples), Cr 0.40-10.27 (10 samples), Ni 0.43-55.00 (19 samples), and Zn 2.20-27.80 (11 samples). In the absence of regulatory standards for homeopathic products, the obtained results were compared to maximum allowable levels (MALs) as proposed by USP Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. Some analyzed preparations had metal levels above MALs (Pb: 2 samples; Cd: 1 sample; Ni: 2 samples). However, estimated cumulative daily intakes from tested homeopathic products were in all cases lower than permitted daily exposures for all dosage forms. The risk of bioaccumulation of metals/metalloid from the homeopathic medicines seems to be rather low, due to small quantities of those products prescribed to be applied per day, as well as insignificant metal contamination of the majority of tested products. However, the fact that particular formulations were contaminated by metals above MALs indicates potential risk and points to the necessity of regular monitoring of homeopathic products for metal contamination, due to their frequent and mostly unsupervised use. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptional and Biochemical Analysis of Starch Metabolism in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Seung; Shockley, Keith R.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Conners, Shannon B.; Montero, Clemente I.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Chou, Chung-Jung; Bridger, Stephanie L.; Wigner, Nathan; Brehm, Scott D.; Jenney, Francis E.; Comfort, Donald A.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrococcus furiosus utilizes starch and its degradation products, such as maltose, as primary carbon sources, but the pathways by which these α-glucans are processed have yet to be defined. For example, its genome contains genes proposed to encode five amylolytic enzymes (including a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase [CGTase] and amylopullulanase), as well as two transporters for maltose and maltodextrins (Mal-I and Mal-II), and a range of intracellular enzymes have been purified that reportedly metabolize maltodextrins and maltose. However, precisely which of these enzymes are involved in starch processing is not clear. In this study, starch metabolism in P. furiosus was examined by biochemical analyses in conjunction with global transcriptional response data for cells grown on a variety of glucans. In addition, DNA sequencing led to the correction of two key errors in the genome sequence, and these change the predicted properties of amylopullulanase (now designated PF1935*) and CGTase (PF0478*). Based on all of these data, a pathway is proposed that is specific for starch utilization that involves one transporter (Mal-II [PF1933 to PF1939]) and only three enzymes, amylopullulanase (PF1935*), 4-α-glucanotransferase (PF0272), and maltodextrin phosphorylase (PF1535). Their expression is upregulated on starch, and together they generate glucose and glucose-1-phosphate, which then feed into the novel glycolytic pathway of this organism. In addition, the results indicate that several hypothetical proteins encoded by three gene clusters are also involved in the transport and processing of α-glucan substrates by P. furiosus. PMID:16513741

  12. Molecular Recognition Profiles and Clinical Patterns of PR-10 Sensitization in a Birch-Free Mediterranean Area.

    PubMed

    Scala, Enrico; Abeni, Damiano; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Guerra, Emma Cristina; Locanto, Maria; Pirrotta, Lia; Giani, Mauro; Asero, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The order Fagales represents an important cause of tree-pollen allergy in northern countries. We investigated the IgE recognition profiles, mutual relationships, and association with clinical symptoms of a panel of allergens belonging to the PR-10 family, the main proteins responsible for Fagales allergy (Act d 8, Aln g 1, Api g 1, Ara h 8, Bet v 1, Cor a 1.0101, Cor a 1.0401, Gly m 4, Mal d 1, and Pru p 1). A total of 526 PR-10-reactive subjects living in central and southern Italy were studied by ImmunoCAP-ISAC-112 microarray analysis. Overall, Bet v 1 reactivity was the most commonly (74%) observed among PR-10 proteins, but Cor a 1.0101 was the most prevalent in participants aged <6 years, and between 15 and 65 years. Overall, 26% of the PR-10-reactive persons were Bet v 1 negative, whilst 93.6% of the PR-10 polyreactive individuals were Bet v 1 positive. Among the 10 PR-10s evaluated, 100 combinations were recorded. The strongest association was observed between molecules with the highest sequence identities (Bet v 1 and Cor a 1.0101, Cor a 1.0401 or Aln g 1; Mal d 1 and Pru p 1). Bet v 1-, Cor a 1.0101-, and Aln g 1-specific IgE recognition was associated with respiratory symptoms, whilst Ara h 8, Cor a 1.0401, Gly m 4, Mal d 1, and Pru p 1 were selectively linked to an oral allergic syndrome. Testing IgE reactivity to a panel of PR-10s in a birch-free area discloses peculiar relationships between clinical phenotypes and sensitization profiles, allowing the identification of novel cluster patterns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Genetic characterization of Porcine Circovirus 2 found in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 is the primary etiological agent associated with a group of complex multi-factorial diseases classified as Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD). Sporadic cases reported in Malaysia in 2007 caused major economic losses to the 2.2 billion Malaysian ringgit (MYR) (approximately 0.7 billion US dollar) swine industry. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between the presence of PCV2 and occurrences of PCVAD. Results This study showed that 37 out of 42 farms sampled were positive for PCV2 using PCR screening. Thirteen whole genome of PCV2 isolates from pigs with typical PCVAD symptoms were successfully sequenced. These isolates shared 98.3-99.2% similarities with sequences of isolates from the Netherlands. All thirteen isolates fell into the same clade as PCV2b isolates from other countries. Amino acid sequence analysis of the putative capsid protein (ORF2) of the PCV2 revealed that there are three clusters found in Malaysia, namely cluster 1C and 1A/1B. Of interest, three of the isolates (isolates Mal 005, Mal 006 and Mal 010) had a proline substitution for arginine or isoleucine encoded at nt. position 88-89. Eight of the isolates had mutations at the C terminus of the putative capsid protein suggestive of higher pathogenicity which may account for the high reports of PCVAD clinical symptoms in 2007. Conclusion Phylogenetic study suggests that there may be a link between movements of animals by import of breeders into the country being the route of entry of the virus. While it is not possible to eradicate the virus from commercial pigs, the swine industry in Malaysia can be safeguarded by control measures implemented throughout the country. These measures should include improved biosecurity, disease surveillance; vaccination as well as enforcement of regulations formulated to control and prevent the spread of this disease on a national scale. PMID:21914166

  14. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum—A. cepa monosomic addition lines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium’s defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance. PMID:28800607

  15. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth by simultaneous uptake of glucose and maltose.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Haruyo; Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars. Mal21p was found to be the most resistant transporter to glucose-induced degradation, and strain (HD17) expressing MAL21 grew on a medium containing glucose or maltose, but not on a medium containing both sugars (YPDM). This unexpected growth defect was observed on a medium containing glucose and >0.1% maltose but was not exhibited by a strain that constitutively expressed maltase. The defect depended on intracellular maltose concentration. Although maltose accumulation caused a surge in turgor pressure, addition of sorbitol to YPDM did not increase growth. When strain HD17 was cultivated in a medium containing only maltose, protein synthesis was inhibited at early times but subsequently resumed with reduction in accumulated maltose, but not if the medium was exchanged for YPDM. We conclude that protein synthesis was terminated under the accumulation of maltose, regardless of extracellular osmolarity, and HD17 could not resume growth, because the intracellular concentration of maltose did not decrease due to insufficient synthesis of maltase. Yeast should incorporate maltose after expressing adequate maltase in beer brewing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accumulation of nonesterified fatty acids causes the sustained energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules after hypoxia-reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Feldkamp, Thorsten; Kribben, Andreas; Roeser, Nancy F; Senter, Ruth A; Weinberg, Joel M

    2006-02-01

    Kidney proximal tubules exhibit decreased ATP and reduced, but not absent, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) during reoxygenation after severe hypoxia. This energetic deficit, which plays a pivotal role in overall cellular recovery, cannot be explained by loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity, decreased electron transport, or compromised F1F0-ATPase and adenine nucleotide translocase activities. Addition of oleate to permeabilized tubules produced concentration-dependent decreases of Deltapsi(m) measured by safranin O uptake (threshold for oleate = 0.25 microM, 1.6 nmol/mg protein; maximal effect = 4 microM, 26 nmol/mg) that were reversed by delipidated BSA (dBSA). Cell nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels increased from <1 to 17.4 nmol/mg protein during 60- min hypoxia and remained elevated at 7.6 nmol/mg after 60 min reoxygenation, at which time ATP had recovered to only 10% of control values. Safranin O uptake in reoxygenated tubules, which was decreased 85% after 60-min hypoxia, was normalized by dBSA, which improved ATP synthesis as well. dBSA also almost completely normalized Deltapsi(m) when the duration of hypoxia was increased to 120 min. In intact tubules, the protective substrate combination of alpha-ketoglutarate + malate (alpha-KG/MAL) increased ATP three- to fourfold, limited NEFA accumulation during hypoxia by 50%, and lowered NEFA during reoxygenation. Notably, dBSA also improved ATP recovery when added to intact tubules during reoxygenation and was additive to the effect of alpha-KG/MAL. We conclude that NEFA overload is the primary cause of energetic failure of reoxygenated proximal tubules and lowering NEFA substantially contributes to the benefit from supplementation with alpha-KG/MAL.

  17. Cocrystals of the antimalarial drug 11-azaartemisinin with three alkenoic acids of 1:1 or 2:1 stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Madiha; Wong, Lawrence W Y; Sung, Herman H Y; Haynes, Richard K; Williams, Ian D

    2018-06-01

    The stoichiometry, X-ray structures and stability of four pharmaceutical cocrystals previously identified from liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) of 11-azaartemisinin (11-Aza; systematic name: 1,5,9-trimethyl-14,15,16-trioxa-11-azatetracyclo[10.3.1.0 4,13 .0 8,13 ]hexadecan-10-one) with trans-cinnamic (Cin), maleic (Mal) and fumaric (Fum) acids are herein reported. trans-Cinnamic acid, a mono acid, forms 1:1 cocrystal 11-Aza:Cin (1, C 15 H 23 NO 4 ·C 9 H 8 O 2 ). Maleic acid forms both 1:1 cocrystal 11-Aza:Mal (2, C 15 H 23 NO 4 ·C 4 H 4 O 4 ), in which one COOH group is involved in self-catenation, and 2:1 cocrystal 11-Aza 2 :Mal (3, 2C 15 H 23 NO 4 ·C 4 H 4 O 4 ). Its isomer, fumaric acid, only affords 2:1 cocrystal 11-Aza 2 :Fum (4). All cocrystal formation appears driven by acid-lactam R 2 2 (8) heterosynthons with short O-H...O=C hydrogen bonds [O...O = 2.56 (2) Å], augmented by weaker C=O...H-N contacts. Despite a better packing efficiency, cocrystal 3 is metastable with respect to 2, probably due to a higher conformational energy for the maleic acid molecule in its structure. In each case, the microcrystalline powders from LAG were useful in providing seeding for the single-crystal growth.

  18. Identification of a Disulfide Bridge in Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transporter 2(SNAT2) by Chemical Modification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jiahong; Cai, Ruiping; Yuan, Yanmeng; Guo, Zhanyun; Grewer, Christof; Zhang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) belongs to solute carrier 38 (SLC38) family of transporters, which is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and mediates transport of small, neutral amino acids, exemplified by alanine(Ala, A). Yet structural data on SNAT2, including the relevance of intrinsic cysteine residues on structure and function, is scarce, in spite of its essential roles in many tissues. To better define the potential of intrinsic cysteines to form disulfide bonds in SNAT2, mutagenesis experiments and thiol-specific chemical modifications by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol maleimide (mPEG-Mal, MW 5000) were performed, with or without the reducing regent dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment. Seven single mutant transporters with various cysteine (Cys, C) to alanine (Ala, A) substitutions, and a C245,279A double mutant were introduced to SNAT2 with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag at the C-terminus. The results showed that the cells expressing C245A or C279A were labeled by one equivalent of mPEG-Mal in the presence of DTT, while wild-type or all the other single Cys to Ala mutants were modified by two equivalents of mPEG-Mal. Furthermore, the molecular weight of C245,279A was not changed in the presence or absence of DTT treatment. The results suggest a disulfide bond between Cys245 and Cys279 in SNAT2 which has no effect on cell surface trafficking, as well as transporter function. The proposed disulfide bond may be important to delineate proximity in the extracellular domain of SNAT2 and related proteins.

  19. DNA methylation in human papillomavirus-infected cervical cells is elevated in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; So, Kyeong A; Hong, Sung Ran; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kang, Chun; Hur, Soo Young; Park, Jong Sup; Kim, Tae-Jin

    2016-03-01

    DNA methylation has been shown to be a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA methylation profiles according to liquid-based Pap (LBP) test results and to assess their diagnostic value in a Korean population. A total of 205 patients with various Papanicolaou test results were enrolled to this study (negative, 26; atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 39; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 44; high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 48; and cancer, 48). DNA methylation analysis of four genes, ADCYAP1, PAX1, MAL, and CADM1, was performed on residual cervical cells from LBP samples using a quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing method. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the four methylated genes for cancer detection, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. Sensitivities and specificities were also tested at cutoffs determined from the ROC curves. Cervical cancer cells showed dramatically increased methylation levels for the four genes analyzed. ADCYAP1 and PAX1 also trended toward elevated methylation levels in HSIL samples, although the levels were much lower than those in cancer cells. The sensitivities of methylated ADCYAP1, PAX1, MAL, and CADM1 for the detection of cancer were 79.2%, 75.0%, 70.8%, and 52.1%, and the specificities were 92.0%, 94.0%, 94.7%, and 94.0%, respectively. Methylated ADCYAP1 and PAX1 demonstrated relatively better discriminatory ability than did methylated MAL and CADM1 (area under the curves 0.911 and 0.916 vs. 0.854 and 0.756, respectively). DNA methylation status, especially in the ADCYAP1 and PAX1 genes, showed relatively good specificity, ranging from 90% to 94%. The possible additive and complementary roles of DNA methylation testing with respect to conventional cervical cancer screening programs will need to be validated in prospective population-based studies.

  20. Oxygen saturation and perfusion changes during dermatological methylaminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, J; Thorn, C; Shore, A; Campbell, S; Curnow, A

    2011-12-01

    Methylaminolaevulinate (MAL)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful topical treatment for a number of (pre)cancerous dermatological conditions. In combination, light of the appropriate wavelength, the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and tissue oxygen result in the production of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species inducing cell death. This study investigates real-time changes in localized tissue blood oxygen saturation and perfusion in conjunction with PpIX fluorescence monitoring for the first time during dermatological MAL-PDT. Oxygen saturation, perfusion and PpIX fluorescence were monitored noninvasively utilizing optical reflectance spectroscopy, laser Doppler perfusion imaging and a fluorescence imaging system, respectively. Patients attending for standard dermatological MAL-PDT were recruited to this ethically approved study and monitored prior to, during and after light irradiation. Significant reductions in mean blood oxygen saturation (P < 0·005) and PpIX fluorescence (P < 0·001) were observed within the first minute of irradiation (4·75 J cm(-2) ) while, in contrast, perfusion was observed to increase significantly (P < 0·01) during treatment. The changes in oxygen saturation and PpIX fluorescence were positively correlated during the initial phase of treatment (r(2) = 0·766). Rapid reductions in the localized blood oxygen saturation have been observed for the first time to occur clinically within the initial minutes of light irradiation and positively correlate with the concurrent PpIX photobleaching. Furthermore, perfusion increases, suggesting that the microvasculature compensates for the PDT-induced oxygen depletion. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.