Science.gov

Sample records for recombinant anti-mesothelin immunotoxin

  1. Methylation-associated partial down-regulation of mesothelin causes resistance to anti-mesothelin immunotoxins in a pancreatic cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Hollevoet, Kevin; Mason-Osann, Emily; Müller, Fabian; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Anti-mesothelin Pseudomonas exotoxin A-based recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) present a potential treatment modality for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To study mechanisms of resistance, the sensitive PDAC cell line KLM-1 was intermittently exposed to the anti-mesothelin SS1-LR-GGS RIT. Surviving cells were resistant to various anti-mesothelin RITs (IC50s >1 μg/ml), including the novel de-immunized RG7787. These resistant KLM-1-R cells were equally sensitive to the anti-CD71 HB21(Fv)-PE40 RIT as KLM-1, indicating resistance was specific to anti-mesothelin RITs. Mesothelin gene expression was partially down-regulated in KLM-1-R, resulting in 5-fold lower surface protein levels and decreased cellular uptake of RG7787 compared to KLM-1. Bisulfite sequencing analysis found that the mesothelin promoter region was significantly more methylated in KLM-1-R (59 ± 3.6%) compared to KLM-1 (41 ± 4.8%), indicating hypermethylation as a mechanism of mesothelin downregulation. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine restored original mesothelin surface expression to more than half in KLM-1-R and increased sensitivity to RG7787 (IC50 = 722.4 ± 232.6 ng/ml), although cells remained significantly less sensitive compared to parental KLM-1 cells (IC50 = 4.41 ± 0.38 ng/ml). Mesothelin cDNA introduction in KLM-1-R led to 5-fold higher surface protein levels and significantly higher RG7887 uptake compared to KLM-1. As a result, the original sensitivity to RG7787 was fully restored (IC50 = 4.49 ± 1.11 ng/ml). A significantly higher RG7787 uptake was thus required to reach the original cytotoxicity in resistant cells, hinting that intracellular RIT trafficking is also a limiting factor. RNA deep sequencing analysis of KLM-1 and KLM-1-R cells supported our experimental findings; compared to KLM-1, resistant cells displayed differential expression of genes linked to intracellular transport and an expression pattern that matched a more general hypermethylation status

  2. Immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, R J

    2000-09-01

    Immunotoxins are molecules which contain a protein toxin connected to a targeting antibody. The goal of therapy is for the molecule to bind selectively to cancer cells, or to cells mediating autoimmune disease, internalise and then for the toxin to kill the cell. Several immunotoxins meeting this definition are in preclinical and clinical development, but none are approved yet for use in general practice. One close relative of immunotoxins is the growth factor fusion toxin, wherein the targeting antibody is replaced with a growth factor that selectively binds and this ligand is fused in a recombinant fashion to a protein toxin. One such molecule, containing human interleukin-2 (IL-2) fused to truncated diphtheria toxin (DT), has recently been approved under the name Ontak, and others are under development. A newer class of immunotoxins, termed recombinant immunotoxins, contain the variable or antigen binding domains of an antibody fused in recombinant fashion to a toxin. Recombinant immunotoxins, like growth factor fusion toxins, can be produced efficiently from bacteria and have a defined structure with respect to the linkage between the toxin and the ligand. However, they can, like conventional immunotoxins, be directed to antigens other than growth factor receptors, including receptor subunits. Several recombinant immunotoxins are under clinical testing and major responses have been reported, particularly in haematological malignancies. Some of these molecules may enter clinical practice in the future as targeted therapy, which is a modality distinct from those of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.

  3. Immunogenicity of therapeutic recombinant immunotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Ronit; Onda, Masanori; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant Immunotoxins (RITs) are chimeric proteins designed to treat cancer. They are made up of an Fv or Fab that targets an antigen on a cancer cell fused to a 38 kDa portion of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38). Because PE38 is a bacterial protein, it is highly immunogenic in patients with solid tumors that have normal immune systems, but much less immunogenic in patients with hematologic malignancies where the immune system is suppressed. RITs have shown efficacy in refractory hairy cell leukemia and in some children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but have been much less effective in solid tumors, because neutralizing antibodies develop and prevent additional treatment cycles. In this paper we will 1) review data from clinical trials describing the immunogenicity of PE38 in different patient populations, 2) review results form clinical trials using different immunosuppressive drugs and 3) describe our efforts to make new less-immunogenic RITs by identifying and removing T and B cell epitopes to hide the RIT from the immune system. PMID:26864110

  4. Recombinant immunotoxins in targeted cancer cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Y

    2001-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy in general and immunotherapy in particular combines rational drug design with the progress in understanding cancer biology. This approach takes advantage of our recent knowledge of the mechanisms by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells, thus using the special properties of cancer cells to device novel therapeutic strategies. Recombinant immunotoxins are excellent examples of such processes, combining the knowledge of antigen expression by cancer cells with the enormous developments in recombinant DNA technology and antibody engineering. Recombinant immunotoxins are composed of a very potent protein toxin fused to a targeting moiety such as a recombinant antibody fragment or growth factor. These molecules bind to surface antigens specific for cancer cells and kill the target cells by catalytic inhibition of protein synthesis. Recombinant immunotoxins are developed for solid tumors and hematological malignancies and have been characterized intensively for their biological activity in vitro on cultured tumor cell lines as well as in vivo in animal models of human tumor xenografts. The excellent in vitro and in vivo activities of recombinant immunotoxins have lead to their preclinical development and to the initiation of clinical trail protocols. Recent trail results have demonstrated potent clinical efficacy in patients with malignant diseases that are refractory to traditional modalities of cancer treatment: surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The results demonstrate that such strategies can be developed into a separate modality of cancer treatment with the basic rationale of specifically targeting cancer cells on the basis of their unique surface markers. Efforts are now being made to improve the current molecules and to develop new agents with better clinical efficacy. This can be achieved by development of novel targeting moieties with improved specificity that will reduce toxicity to normal tissues. In this review

  5. Quantification of recombinant immunotoxin delivery to solid tumors allows for direct comparison of in vivo and in vitro results

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Osann, Emily; Hollevoet, Kevin; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors present challenges for delivery of protein therapeutics; current methods cannot quantify the functional effects of these agents. RG7787 (anti-mesothelin recombinant immunotoxin) is highly cytotoxic to pancreatic cancer cell lines, but with limited activity in vivo. To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a flow cytometry method to quantify the amount of RG7787 internalized per cell in tumors and used it to analyze tumor responses by determining the number of molecules of RG7787 internalized per cell in vivo and comparing it to that needed to kill cells in vitro. At a maximum tolerated dose of 7.5 mg/kg, tumor cells in vivo internalized a wide range of RG7787 with the average amount equivalent to the amount that induced growth arrest in vitro. However, 20% of cells accumulated 20,300 ITs per cell, sufficient to kill cells in vitro. At 2.5 mg/kg the top 20% of cells internalized enough RG7787 to only induce growth arrest. These data are in agreement with tumor responses; 22% regression following a 7.5 mg/kg dose and growth stabilization following 2.5 mg/kg. Comparing amounts of RIT delivered in vivo and in vitro can explain tumor responses and should facilitate the development of more active immunotoxins and other antibody based agents. PMID:26111884

  6. Recombinant immunotoxins containing truncated bacterial toxins for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Immunotoxins are molecules that contain a protein toxin and a ligand that is either an antibody or a growth factor. The ligand binds to a target cell antigen, and the target cell internalizes the immunotoxin, allowing the toxin to migrate to the cytoplasm where it can kill the cell. In the case of recombinant immunotoxins, the ligand and toxin are encoded in DNA that is then expressed in bacteria, and the purified immunotoxin contains the ligand and toxin fused together. Among the most active recombinant immunotoxins clinically tested are those that are targeted to hematologic malignancies. One agent, containing human interleukin-2 and truncated diphtheria toxin (denileukin diftitox), has been approved for use in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and has shown activity in other hematologic malignancies, including leukemias and lymphomas. Diphtheria toxin has also been targeted by other ligands, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3, to target myelogenous leukemia cells. Single-chain antibodies containing variable heavy and light antibody domains have been fused to truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin to target lymphomas and lymphocytic leukemias. Recombinant immunotoxins anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2), targeting CD25, and RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22, CAT-3888), targeting CD22, have each been tested in patients. Major responses have been observed after failure of standard chemotherapy. The most successful application of recombinant immunotoxins today is in hairy cell leukemia, where BL22 has induced complete remissions in most patients who were previously treated with optimal chemotherapy.

  7. Development of a diphtheria toxin based anti-porcine CD3 recombinant immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhirui; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Crepeau, Rebecca; Matar, Abraham; Hanekamp, Isabel; Srinivasan, Srimathi; Neville, David M.; Sachs, David H.; Huang, Christene A.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-CD3 immunotoxins, which induce profound but transient T cell depletion in vivo by inhibiting eukaryotic protein synthesis in CD3+ cells, are effective reagents in large animal models of transplantation tolerance and autoimmune disease therapy. A diphtheria toxin based anti-porcine CD3 recombinant immunotoxin was constructed by fusing the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 with two identical tandem single chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from the anti-porcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15. The recombinant immunotoxin was expressed in a diphtheria-toxin resistant yeast Pichia pastoris strain under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter. The secreted recombinant immunotoxin was purified sequentially with hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Butyl 650 M) followed by strong anion exchange (Poros 50 HQ). The purified anti-porcine CD3 immunotoxin was tested in vivo in four animals; peripheral blood CD3+ T cell numbers were reduced by 80% and lymph node T cells decreased from 74% CD3+ cells pretreatment to 24% CD3+ cells remaining in the lymph node following 4 days of immunotoxin treatment. No clinical toxicity was observed in any of the experimental swine. We anticipate that this conjugate will provide an important tool for in vivo depletion of T cells in swine transplantation models. PMID:21866954

  8. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of a Recombinant Immunotoxin Targeting EpCAM

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Minghua; Qiu, Feng; Li, Tingting; Sun, Yuanjie; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhu, Ping; Qi, Xiaokun; Wan, Jun; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in human epithelioma but with relatively low expression in normal epithelial tissues. To exploit this differential expression pattern for targeted cancer therapy, an EpCAM-targeted immunotoxin was developed and its antitumor activity was investigated in vitro. An immunotoxin (scFv2A9-PE or APE) was constructed by genetically fusing a truncated form (PE38KDEL) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin with an anti-EpCAM single-chain variable fragment (scFv). ELISA and flow cytometry were performed to verify immunotoxin (scFv2A9-PE or APE) antigen-binding activity with EpCAM. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Confocal microscopy was used to observe its cellular localization. The results of ELISA and flow cytometry revealed that the immunotoxin efficiently recognized recombinant and natural EpCAM. Its antigen-binding activity was relatively lower than 2A9. MTT assay confirmed potent reduction in EpCAM-positive HHCC (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell viability (IC50 50 pM). Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunotoxin localized to endoplasmic reticulum 24 h later. In conclusion, we described the development of an EpCAM-targeted immunotoxin with potent activity against tumor cells, which may lay the foundation for future development of therapeutic antibody for the treatment of EpCAM-positive tumors. PMID:25960617

  9. Development of a recombinant hCG-specific single chain immunotoxin cytotoxic to hCG expressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nand, Kripa N; Gupta, Jagdish C; Panda, A K; Jain, S K

    2015-02-01

    A large number of cancers express human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or its subunits ectopically. Patients harboring such cancers have poor prognosis and adverse survival. PiPP is a monoclonal antibody of high affinity and specificity for hCGβ/hCG. Work was carried out to develop a PiPP based recombinant immunotoxin for the immunotherapy of hCG expressing cancers. Recombinant PiPP antibody was constructed in scFv format in which gene encoding the VH and VL domains were joined through a linker. This scFv gene was fused to the gene expressing Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38), and cloned in a Escherichia coli based expression vector under the control of strong bacteriophage T7 promoter. Immunotoxin conjugating scFv(PiPP) and PE38, was expressed in E. coli as recombinant protein. Recombinant PiPP immunotoxin was purified from the bacterial cell lysate and tested for binding and killing of hCGβ expressing lymphoma, T-lymphoblastic leukemia and lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Immunotoxin showed nearly 90% killing on the cells. This is the first ever report on recombinant immunotoxin for binding and cytotoxicity to hCG expressing cancer cells, and thus can be a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of hCG expressing cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 5036 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Human Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and stomach/gastric... the treatment of mesothelin-expressing cancers, including mesothelioma, lung cancer, stomach/gastric... Human Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Human Cancers AGENCY: National...

  11. 77 FR 8263 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Anti-mesothelin Targeted Immunotoxins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is notice, in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1) and 37 CFR Part 404.7(a)(1)(i), that the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health.../00224 entitled ``Mesothelin Antigen and Methods and Kits for Targeting It'' , U.S. Patent...

  12. Targeting tumor-associated macrophages in an experimental glioma model with a recombinant immunotoxin to folate receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Taku; Tanaka, Masashi; Tsuneyoshi, Yasuhiro; Xu, Baohui; Michie, Sara A; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori; Matsuyama, Takami

    2009-10-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in glioblastomas and a high degree of macrophage infiltration is associated with a poor prognosis for glioblastoma patients. However, it is unclear whether TAMs in glioblastomas promote tumor growth. In this study, we found that folate receptor beta (FR beta) was expressed on macrophages in human glioblastomas and a rat C6 glioma implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. To target FR beta-expressing TAMs, we produced a recombinant immunotoxin consisting of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain Fv portions of an anti-mouse FR beta monoclonal antibody and Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Injection of the immunotoxin into C6 glioma xenografts in nude mice significantly depleted TAMs and reduced tumor growth. The immunotoxin targeting FR beta-expressing macrophages will provide a therapeutic tool for human glioblastomas.

  13. In vitro and in vivo effects of a recombinant anti-PSMA immunotoxin in combination with docetaxel against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Schultze-Seemann, Susanne; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Wolf, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Docetaxel (DOC) is used for the first-line treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). However, the therapeutic effects are limited, only about one half of patients respond to the therapy and severe side effects possibly lead to discontinuation of treatment. Therefore, actual research is focused on the development of new DOC-based combination treatments. In this study we investigated the antitumor effects of a recombinant immunotoxin targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in combination with DOC in vitro and in vivo. The immunotoxin consists of an anti-PSMA single chain antibody fragment (scFv) as binding and a truncated form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A (PE40) as toxin domain. The immunotoxin induced apoptosis and specifically reduced the viability of androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells. A synergistic cytotoxic activity was observed in combination with DOC with IC50 values in the low picomolar or even femtomolar range. Moreover, combination treatment resulted in an enhanced antitumor activity in a C4-2 SCID mouse xenograft model. This highlights the immunotoxin as a promising therapeutic agent for a future DOC-based combination therapy of CPRC. PMID:26968813

  14. Recombinant Immunotoxin Therapy of Glioblastoma: Smart Design, Key Findings, and Specific Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shaowei; Liu, Yuanyi; Wang, Paul C.; Gu, Xinbin

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) refer to a group of recombinant protein-based therapeutics, which consists of two components: an antibody variable fragment or a specific ligand that allows RITs to bind specifically to target cells and an engineered toxin fragment that kills the target cells upon internalization. To date, over 1,000 RITs have been generated and significant success has been achieved in the therapy of hematological malignancies. However, the immunogenicity and off-target toxicities of RITs remain as significant barriers for their application to solid tumor therapy. A group of RITs have also been generated for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, and some have demonstrated evidence of tumor response and an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical trials. Different from other solid tumors, how to efficiently deliver the RITs to intracranial tumors is more critical and needs to be solved urgently. In this article, we first review the design and expression of RITs, then summarize the key findings in the preclinical and clinical development of RIT therapy of glioblastoma multiforme, and lastly discuss the specific issues that still remain to forward RIT therapy to clinical practice. PMID:28752098

  15. Selective Elimination of Human Regulatory T Lymphocytes In Vitro With the Recombinant Immunotoxin LMB-2

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Peter; Powell, Daniel J.; Maker, Ajay V.; Kreitman, Robert J.; Pastan, Ira; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) can inhibit the proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD4+CD25− helper T cells in mice and humans. In murine tumor models, the presence of these Treg cells can inhibit the antitumor effectiveness of T-cell transfer and active immunization approaches. We have thus initiated efforts to eliminate Treg cells selectively from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to potentially bolster antitumor responses. LMB-2 is a recombinant immunotoxin that is a fusion of a single-chain Fv fragment of the anti-Tac anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody to a truncated form of the bacterial Pseudomonas exotoxin A. In vitro incubation of human PBMCs with LMB-2 reduced the levels of CD4+CD25+ and Foxp3-expressing cells without impairing the function of the remaining lymphocytes. The short in vivo half-life of LMB-2 makes it an attractive candidate for reducing human Treg cells in vivo before the administration of cancer vaccine or cell transfer immunotherapy approaches. PMID:16531821

  16. A bivalent recombinant immunotoxin with high potency against tumors with EGFR and EGFRvIII expression.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Liu, Yuanyi; Gao, Shuying; Lin, Stephen; Gu, Xinbin; Pomper, Martin G; Wang, Paul C; Shan, Liang

    2015-01-01

    EGFR and EGFRvIII are overexpressed in various types of cancer, serving as optimal targets for cancer therapy. Capitalizing on the high specificity of humanized antibody 806 (mAb806) to the EGFR and EGFRvIII overexpressed in cancer, we designed and generated a bivalent recombinant immunotoxin (RIT, DT390-BiscFv806) by fusing the mAb806-derived bivalent single-chain variable fragment with a diphtheria toxin fragment, DT390. In vitro, DT390-BiscFv806 efficiently internalized into the cells and exhibited high cytotoxicity against the U87 glioblastoma cells and the EGFRvIII-transfected U87 (U87-EGFRvIII) cells with a half maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of 1.47 nM and 2.26 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Notably, DT390-BiscFv806 was 4 orders of magnitude more potent against the U87-EGFRvIII cells than against the parent U87 cells. The cytotoxicity against a group of 6 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were further analyzed, showing an IC50 ranging from 0.24 nM to 156 nM, depending on the expression level of EGFR/EGFRvIII. In animals, the U87-EGFRvIII tumor xenografts grew extremely faster than the parental U87, and systemic administration of DT390-BiscFv806 significantly inhibited the growth of established U87-EGFRvIII and U87 tumor xenografts, showing a growth inhibition rate of 76.3% (59.82-96.2%) and 59.4% (31.5-76.0%), respectively. In pathology, the RIT-treated tumors exhibited a low mitotic activity and a large number of degenerative tumor cells, compared with the control tumors. The results indicate that DT390-BiscFv806 is promising for treatment of various types of cancer, especially for those with high EGFR expression or with EGFR and EGFRvIII co-expression.

  17. Dual B- and T-cell de-immunization of recombinant immunotoxin targeting mesothelin with high cytotoxic activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Ronit; Onda, Masanori; Park, Dong; Addissie, Selamawit; Xiang, Laiman; Zhang, Jingli; Hassan, Raffit; Pastan, Ira

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are genetically engineered proteins being developed to treat cancer. They are composed of an Fv that targets a cancer antigen and a portion of a protein toxin. Their clinical success is limited by their immunogenicity. Our goal is to produce a new RIT that targets mesothelin and is non-immunogenic by combining mutations that decrease B- and T-cell epitopes. Starting with an immunotoxin that has B-cell epitopes suppressed, we added mutations step-wise that suppress T-cell epitopes. The final protein (LMB-T14) has greatly reduced antigenicity as assessed by binding to human anti-sera and a greatly decreased ability to activate helper T-cells evaluated in a T-cell activation assay. It is very cytotoxic to mesothelioma cells from patients, and to cancer cell lines. LMB-T14 produces complete remissions of a mesothelin expressing cancer (A431/H9) xenograft. The approach used here can be used to de-immunize other therapeutic foreign proteins. PMID:27167198

  18. Site-specific chemical modification with polyethylene glycol of recombinant immunotoxin anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2) improves antitumor activity and reduces animal toxicity and immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Onda, Masanori; Nagata, Satoshi; Lee, Byungkook; Kreitman, Robert J.; Pastan, Ira

    2000-01-01

    Chemical modification of proteins with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) can increase plasma half-lives, stability, and therapeutic potency. To make a PEGylated recombinant immunotoxin with improved therapeutic properties, we prepared a mutant of anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2), a recombinant immunotoxin composed of a single-chain Fv fragment of the anti-human Tac monoclonal antibody to the IL-2 receptor α subunit fused to a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin. For site-specific PEGylation of LMB-2, one cysteine residue was introduced into the peptide connector (ASGCGPE) between the Fv and the toxin. This mutant LMB-2 (cys1-LMB-2), which retained full cytotoxic activity, was then site-specifically conjugated with 5 or 20 kDa of polyethylene glycol-maleimide. When compared with unmodified LMB-2, both PEGylated immunotoxins showed similar cytotoxic activities in vitro but superior stability at 37°C in mouse serum, a 5- to 8-fold increase in plasma half-lives in mice, and a 3- to 4-fold increase in antitumor activity. This was accompanied by a substantial decrease in animal toxicity and immunogenicity. Site-specific PEGylation of recombinant immunotoxins may increase their therapeutic potency in humans. PMID:10890891

  19. Selective killing of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytically infected cells with a recombinant immunotoxin targeting the viral gpK8.1A envelope glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Deboeeta; Chandran, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically associated with three neoplastic syndromes: Kaposi sarcoma and the uncommon HIV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The incidence of the latter B-cell pathology has been increasing in spite of antiretroviral therapy; its association with lytic virus replication has prompted interest in therapeutic strategies aimed at this phase of the virus life cycle. We designed and expressed a recombinant immunotoxin (2014-PE38) targeting the gpK8.1A viral glycoprotein expressed on the surface of the virion and infected cells. We show that this immunotoxin selectively kills KSHV-infected cells in dose-dependent fashion, resulting in major reductions of infectious virus release. The immunotoxin and ganciclovir, an inhibitor of viral DNA replication, showed marked reciprocal potentiation of antiviral activities. These results suggest that the immunotoxin, alone or in combination, may represent a new approach to treat diseases associated with KSHV lytic replication. PMID:22377676

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies of antitumor effects of the recombinant immunotoxin MSH-PE38KDEL on melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hui, Q; Ma, J; Song, J; Liu, Z; Ren, H; Jiang, W; Wang, Y; Xu, Y; Guo, D; Zhang, X; Lu, S

    2014-01-01

    MSH-PE38KDEL is a chimeric molecule composed of MSH, and fused to a truncated mutant form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38KDEL). Our study aims to evaluate the specific cytotoxicity of recombinant immunotoxin MSH-PE38KDEL on melanoma cells A875 and B16 in vitro, as well as its inhibition of metastatic melanoma in vivo. MSH-PE38KDEL was expressed in Escherichia coli, and greater than 90% purity was obtained. The purified MSH-PE38KDEL was found to be selectively cytotoxic to MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells in vitro. The specific cytotoxicity of recombinant MSH-PE38KDEL to A875 and B16 was over 85% by cell viability assay; however, MSH-PE38KDEL had no cytotoxicity to the human 2BS cells. The anti-tumor activity of MSH-PE38KDEL was evaluated in mice with induced melanoma through intra-tumor or intravenous administration. The results showed that 90% melanoma growths were inhibited, and 40% of the tumors were disappeared completely. Histopathology results showed MSH-PE38KDEL can effectively inhibit intrahepatic metastasis. In conclusion, MSH-PE38KDEL had cytotoxic effects on MSH receptor-positive melanoma cells, and causes significant tumor growth inhibition. These results support a possible new approach for the treatment of melanoma.

  1. A novel recombinant immunotoxin with the smallest ribosome-inactivating protein Luffin P1: T-cell cytotoxicity and prolongation of allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rupeng; Gan, Chenjun; Gao, Wenda; He, Weifeng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yanmeng; Zhuo, Junyi; Tan, Jianglin; Peng, Xu; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2010-03-01

    In the creation of stable tolerance to MHC-incompatible allografts, reducing the large mass of donor-reactive cells via apoptosis is often required. Apoptosis induction by immunotoxins targeting surface molecules specifically presented on donor-reactive cytopathic T effector (T(eff)) cells is a promising strategy. Traditionally, the toxin moieties are bacterial exotoxins or plant-derived ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) with large molecular size and strong immunogenicity, hence causing the problems of tissue penetration, host immune reaction and quick clearance. We have identified a novel class of small molecule RIPs (<10 kD) from the seeds of the plant Luffa cylindrica. The smallest member of this family, Luffin P1, has a molecular weight of 5226.8 Da, yet possessing a highly potent inhibitory activity on cell-free protein synthesis with IC50 of 0.88 nM. We now report a recombinant hIL-2-Luffin P1 immunotoxin, which strongly inhibited T-cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction and ConA response with IC50 of 1.8-10 nM. In vivo, hIL-2-Luffin P1 significantly prolonged the survival of major MHC-mismatched skin and kidney allografts in animal models. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of the smallest immunotoxin that could be further combined with other pharmacological and immunological reagents for synergistic control of pathogenic lymphocytes in immune-mediated diseases.

  2. A novel recombinant immunotoxin with the smallest ribosome-inactivating protein Luffin P1: T-cell cytotoxicity and prolongation of allograft survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rupeng; Gan, Chenjun; Gao, Wenda; He, Weifeng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yanmeng; Zhuo, Junyi; Tan, Jianglin; Peng, Xu; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In the creation of stable tolerance to MHC-incompatible allografts, reducing the large mass of donor-reactive cells via apoptosis is often required. Apoptosis induction by immunotoxins targeting surface molecules specifically presented on donor-reactive cytopathic T effector (Teff) cells is a promising strategy. Traditionally, the toxin moieties are bacterial exotoxins or plant-derived ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) with large molecular size and strong immunogenicity, hence causing the problems of tissue penetration, host immune reaction and quick clearance. We have identified a novel class of small molecule RIPs (<10 kD) from the seeds of the plant Luffa cylindrica. The smallest member of this family, Luffin P1, has a molecular weight of 5226.8 Da, yet possessing a highly potent inhibitory activity on cell-free protein synthesis with IC50 of 0.88 nM. We now report a recombinant hIL-2-Luffin P1 immunotoxin, which strongly inhibited T-cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction and ConA response with IC50 of 1.8–10 nM. In vivo, hIL-2-Luffin P1 significantly prolonged the survival of major MHC-mismatched skin and kidney allografts in animal models. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of the smallest immunotoxin that could be further combined with other pharmacological and immunological reagents for synergistic control of pathogenic lymphocytes in immune-mediated diseases. PMID:19583807

  3. Target-specific cytotoxic activity of recombinant immunotoxin scFv(MUC1)-ETA on breast carcinoma cells and primary breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravibhushan; Samant, Urmila; Hyland, Stephen; Chaudhari, Pradip R; Wels, Winfried S; Bandyopadhyay, Dilip

    2007-02-01

    MUC1 is a mucin family protein, overexpressed in more than 90% of breast cancers in an underglycosylated form, exposing the core peptides of the extracellular domain that act as a potential target for antibody-mediated therapy. We have developed an anti-MUC1 scFv antibody from a phage library of mice immunized with synthetic peptide MUC1-variable number of tandem repeats. MUC1 binding phages were affinity selected through biopanning using a biotin-streptavidin pull-down method. The selected phage clones showed target-specific binding to MUC1-expressing cells. Fusion of truncated Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) to a high binder, phage-derived scFv clone and bacterial expression and purification of recombinant scFv(MUC1)-ETA immunotoxin were done with good yield and purity. In vitro target-specific cytotoxic activity and target-specific binding of immunotoxin were shown on MUC1-expressing cells and primary breast tumor samples. A truncated ETA fusion protein expressed from the same vector but lacking scFv did not show cytotoxic effects, confirming target specificity. Our results suggest that the scFv(MUC1)-ETA immunotoxin has therapeutic potential and deserves further development and characterization for MUC1-specific breast cancers treatment.

  4. Non-invasive tumor detection in small animals using novel functional Pluronic nanomicelles conjugated with anti-mesothelin antibody.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Yong, Ken-Tye; Law, Wing-Chueng; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Wu, Fang; Zhao, Weiwei; Huang, Kun; Erogbogbo, Folarin; Bergey, Earl J; Prasad, Paras N

    2011-04-01

    In this study QDs were encapsulated in carboxylated PluronicF127 (F127COOH) triblock polymeric micelles and conjugated with anti-mesothelin antibody for the purpose of alleviating potential toxicity, enhancing the stability and improving targeting efficiency of CdTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in tumors. The amphiphilic triblock polymer of F127COOH contains hydrophilic carboxylated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) units. After encapsulating QDs into carboxylated F127 (F127COOH-QD) micelles, the particles were conjugated with anti-mesothelin antibodies to allow targeting of cancerous areas. The size of the monodispersed spherical QD-containing micelles was determined to be ∼120 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was estimated to be 4.7 × 10(-7) M. In an in vitro study, the anti-methoselin antibody conjugated F127COOH (Me-F127COOH-QD) nanomicelles showed negligible cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1). Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the Me-F127COOH-QD nanomicelles were taken up more efficiently by Panc-1 cells, due to antibody mediated targeting. An in vivo imaging study showed that Me-F127COOH-QD nanomicelles accumulated at the pancreatic tumor site 15 min after intravenous injection. In addition, the low in vivo toxicity of the nanomicellar formulation was evaluated by pathological assays. These results suggest that anti-mesothein antibody conjugated carboxylated F127 nanomicelles may serve as a promising nanoscale platform for early human pancreatic cancer detection and targeted drug delivery.

  5. Comparison of growth inhibition of a human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line by free monoclonal antibodies and their corresponding antibody-recombinant ricin A chain immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Ettenson, D; Sheldon, K; Marks, A; Houston, L L; Baumal, R

    1988-01-01

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (8C, IgG2a; M2A, IgG2a; M2D, IgG2b; 10B, IgG1) directed against the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line HEY were compared for their ability in the free form and as immunotoxins made with recombinant ricin A chain (rRA) to inhibit the growth of HEY cells. For in vitro studies cultured HEY cells were assayed for protein synthesis and plated in agarose to form colonies, and for in vivo studies they were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into BALB/c nu/nu (nude) mice at a challenge dose (3 X 10(5) cells) which produced carcinomatosis with ascites, leading to death 30 days following injection. In the free form, mAB 8C was the most potent in inhibiting colony formation in the complement (C)-mediated and ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity) assays in vitro. This mAb was also the only one capable of prolonging survival of mice, both in tumor cell neutralization, and tumor growth inhibition experiments. The four mAb-rRA immunotoxins were effective in inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of 10(-7) M monensin. However, in vivo, only 8C-rRA and M2A-rRA were capable of prolonging survival of mice in tumor growth inhibition experiments. Our results suggest that mAb 8C might be useful in the free form and as an 8C-rRA immunotoxin for i.p. immunotherapy of ovarian cancer.

  6. Design, characterization and anti-tumour cytotoxicity of a panel of recombinant, mammalian ribonuclease-based immunotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Deonarain, M. P.; Epenetos, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BSRNase) is an unusual member of the ribonuclease superfamily, because of its remarkable anti-tumour and immunosuppressive properties. We describe here the construction, expression, purification and characterization of a panel of six immunotoxins based upon this enzyme and show that we can increase its anti-tumour activity by over 2 x 10(4)-fold. This is achieved by improving tumour cell targeting using a single-chain Fv (scFv) directed against the oncofetal antigen placental alkaline phosphatase. As well as the simple scFv-BSRNase fusion protein, we have constructed five other derivatives with additional peptides designed to improve folding and intracellular trafficking and delivery. We find that the molecule most cytotoxic to antigen (PLAP)-positive cells in vitro is one that contains a C-terminal 'KDEL' endoplasmic reticulum retention signal and a peptide sequence derived from diphtheria toxin. All these molecules are produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as insoluble inclusion bodies and require extensive in vitro processing to recover antigen binding and ribonuclease activity. Despite incomplete ribonuclease activity and quaternary assembly, these molecules are promising reagents for specific chemotherapy of cancer and are potentially less harmful and immunogenic than current immunotoxins. Images Figure 2 PMID:9484808

  7. Development and investigation of recombinant immunotoxin protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40).

    PubMed

    Shilova, O N; Souslova, E A; Pilunov, A M; Deyev, S M; Petrov, R V

    2016-11-01

    Development of agents for theranostics implies combining the targeting module, the effector module, and the detection module within the same complex or recombinant protein. We have constructed, isolated, and characterized the 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) protein, which exhibits fluorescent properties and specifically binds to cancer cells expressing the HER2 receptor and reduces their viability. The ability of the obtained targeted antitumor agent 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) to selectively stain the HER2-positive cells and its highly selective cytotoxicity against these cells make the obtained targeted recombinant protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) a promising theranostic agent for the diagnostics and therapy of HER2-positive human tumors.

  8. Recombinant immunotoxins and retargeted killer cells: employing engineered antibody fragments for tumor-specific targeting of cytotoxic effectors.

    PubMed

    Wels, Winfried; Biburger, Markus; Müller, Tina; Dälken, Benjamin; Giesübel, Ulrike; Tonn, Torsten; Uherek, Christoph

    2004-03-01

    Over the past years, monoclonal antibodies have attracted enormous interest as targeted therapeutics, and a number of such reagents are in clinical use. However, responses could not be achieved in all patients with tumors expressing high levels of the respective target antigens, suggesting that other factors such as limited recruitment of endogenous immune effector mechanisms can also influence treatment outcome. This justifies the search for alternative, potentially more effective reagents. Antibody-toxins and cytolytic effector cells genetically modified to carry antibody-based receptors on the surface, represent such tailor-made targeting vehicles with the potential of improved tumor localization and enhanced efficacy. In this way, advances in recombinant antibody technology have made it possible to circumvent problems inherent in chemical coupling of antibodies and toxins, and have allowed construction via gene fusion of recombinant molecules which combine antibody-mediated recognition of tumor cells with specific delivery of potent protein toxins of bacterial or plant origin. Likewise, recombinant antibody fragments provide the basis for the construction of chimeric antigen receptors that, upon expression in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells, link antibody-mediated recognition of tumor antigens with these effector cells' potent cytolytic activities, thereby making them promising cellular therapeutics for adoptive cancer therapy. Here, general principles for the derivation of cytotoxic proteins and effector cells with antibody-dependent tumor specificity are summarized, and current strategies to employ these molecules and cells for directed cancer therapy are discussed, focusing mainly on the tumor-associated antigens epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the closely related ErbB2 (HER2) as targets.

  9. Targeting of locus ceruleus noradrenergic neurons expressing human interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit in transgenic mice by a recombinant immunotoxin anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38: a study for exploring noradrenergic influence upon anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Keiichi; Sugimoto, Naoya; Suzuki, Saya; Sawada, Keisuke; Das, Gopal; Uchida, Katsuya; Fuse, Toshimitsu; Ohara, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2011-04-20

    The noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the locus ceruleus (LC) were ablated with a high degree of selectivity by immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting. Transgenic mice were used in which the human interleukin-2 receptor-α subunit (hIL-2Rα; Tac) is expressed under the promoter of dopamine β-hydroxylase. The recombinant immunotoxin, which is composed of the Fv fragment of an anti-hIL-2Rα monoclonal antibody fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin [anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38], was injected bilaterally into the LC of the mouse. As a result, the LC-NA neurons disappeared almost completely, and tissue noradrenaline was depleted in brain regions that receive NA inputs from the LC. The decrement of tissue noradrenaline content was more profound compared with that in mice treated with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), a neurotoxin capable of ablating axons originating from the LC-NA neurons. Mice treated with either the immunotoxin or DSP-4 presented increased anxiety-like behaviors; in contrast, only the immunotoxin-treated mice, and not the DSP-4-treated mice, showed increased depression-like behavior. The immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting may provide a means for further unraveling the links between the LC and pathological manifestations of neurological disorders.

  10. Advances in Anticancer Immunotoxin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alewine, Christine; Hassan, Raffit

    2015-01-01

    Immunotoxins are a novel class of antibody-conjugated therapeutics currently in clinical development for a variety of malignancies. They consist of an antibody-based targeting domain fused to a bacterial toxin payload for cell killing. Immunotoxins kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis, a unique mechanism of action that is toxic to both dividing and nondividing cells. Recent advances in the design and administration of immunotoxins are overcoming historical challenges in the field, leading to renewed interest in these therapeutics. PMID:25561510

  11. Affinity-matured recombinant immunotoxin targeting gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6'-isoLD1 on malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Hailan; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Chandramohan, Vidya; Keir, Stephen T; Pegram, Charles N; Bao, Xuhui; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2013-01-01

    About 60 percent of glioblastomas highly express the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 on the cell surface, providing ideal targets for brain tumor immunotherapy. A novel recombinant immunotoxin, DmAb14m-(scFv)-PE38KDEL (DmAb14m-IT), specific for the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, was constructed with improved affinity and increased cytotoxicity for immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. We isolated an scFv parental clone from a previously established murine hybridoma, DmAb14, that is specific to both 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. We then performed in vitro affinity maturation by CDR hotspot random mutagenesis. The binding affinity and specificity of affinity-matured DmAb14m-IT were measured by surface-plasmon resonance, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of DmAb14m-IT was measured by protein synthesis inhibition and cell death assays in human cell lines expressing gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 (D54MG and D336MG) and xenograft-derived cells (D2224MG). As a result, the KD of DmAb14m-IT for gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 was 2.6 × 10−9M. Also, DmAb14m-IT showed a significantly higher internalization rate in cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. The DmAb14m-IT IC50 was 80 ng/mL (1194 pM) on the D54MG cell line, 5 ng/ml (75 pM) on the D336MG cell line, and 0.5 ng/ml (7.5 pM) on the D2224MG xenograft-derived cells. There was no cytotoxicity on ganglioside-negative HEK293 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the specific apparent affinity of DmAb14m-IT with 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. In conclusion, DmAb14m-IT showed specific binding affinity, a significantly high internalization rate, and selective cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines and xenograft-derived cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, thereby displaying robust therapeutic potential for testing the antitumor efficacy of DmAb14m-IT at the preclinical level and

  12. Affinity-matured recombinant immunotoxin targeting gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 on malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Piao, Hailan; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Chandramohan, Vidya; Keir, Stephen T; Pegram, Charles N; Bao, Xuhui; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2013-01-01

    About 60 percent of glioblastomas highly express the gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 on the cell surface, providing ideal targets for brain tumor immunotherapy. A novel recombinant immunotoxin, DmAb14m-(scFv)-PE38KDEL (DmAb14m-IT), specific for the gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, was constructed with improved affinity and increased cytotoxicity for immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. We isolated an scFv parental clone from a previously established murine hybridoma, DmAb14, that is specific to both 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. We then performed in vitro affinity maturation by CDR hotspot random mutagenesis. The binding affinity and specificity of affinity-matured DmAb14m-IT were measured by surface-plasmon resonance, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of DmAb14m-IT was measured by protein synthesis inhibition and cell death assays in human cell lines expressing gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 (D54MG and D336MG) and xenograft-derived cells (D2224MG). As a result, the KD of DmAb14m-IT for gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 was 2.6 × 10(-9)M. Also, DmAb14m-IT showed a significantly higher internalization rate in cells expressing 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. The DmAb14m-IT IC 50 was 80 ng/mL (1194 pM) on the D54MG cell line, 5 ng/ml (75 pM) on the D336MG cell line, and 0.5 ng/ml (7.5 pM) on the D2224MG xenograft-derived cells. There was no cytotoxicity on ganglioside-negative HEK293 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the specific apparent affinity of DmAb14m-IT with 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. In conclusion, DmAb14m-IT showed specific binding affinity, a significantly high internalization rate, and selective cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines and xenograft-derived cells expressing 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, thereby displaying robust therapeutic potential for testing the antitumor efficacy of DmAb14m-IT at the preclinical level and eventually in the clinical setting.

  13. Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Bryan D.; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer, yet no effective therapeutics exist. This review provides an overview of the recent development of recombinant immunotoxins for the treatment of glypican-3 (GPC3) expressing HCC. GPC3 is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in HCC, but is absent from normal adult human tissues. Treatment of HCC with anti-GPC3 immunotoxins represents a new therapeutic option. Using phage display and hybridoma technologies, three high affinity antibodies (HN3, HS20 and YP7) have been generated against GPC3. Two of these antibodies (HN3 and HS20) have demonstrated the ability to inhibit Wnt/Yap signaling, leading to a reduction in liver cancer cell proliferation. By combining the HN3 antibody capable of inhibiting Wnt/Yap signaling with the protein synthesis inhibitory domain of the Pseudomonas exotoxin, a recombinant immunotoxin that exhibits a dual inhibitory mechanism was generated. This immunotoxin was found to be highly effective in the treatment of human HCCs in mouse xenograft models. Engineering of the toxin fragment to reduce the level of immunogenicity is currently being explored. The development of immunotoxins provides opportunities for novel liver cancer therapies. PMID:27669301

  14. In vitro and in vivo targeting imaging of pancreatic cancer using a Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoprobe modified with anti-mesothelin antibody

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Le, Wenjun; Mei, Tianxiao; Wang, Tiegong; Chen, Luguang; Lei, Yi; Cui, Shaobin; Chen, Bingdi; Cui, Zheng; Shao, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with a 5-year survival rate <5% mainly due to lack of early diagnosis and effective therapy. In an effort to improve the early diagnostic rate of pancreatic cancer, a nanoprobe Fe3O4@SiO2 modified with anti-mesothelin antibody (A-MFS) was prepared to target cells and tumor tissues highly expressing mesothelin in vitro (human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990) and in vivo (subcutaneously transplanted tumors) studies. The A-MFS probe was successfully prepared and was spherical and uniform with a hydrodynamic diameter between 110 and 130 nm. Cell Counting Kit-8 testing indicated that A-MFS was nontoxic in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro study showed that the A-MFS probe specifically targeted SW1990 cells with high mesothelin expression. The in vivo study was conducted in Siemens 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. The average T2-weighted signal values of the xenografts were 966.533±31.56 before injecting A-MFS and 691.133±56.84 before injecting saline solution. After injection of 0.1 mL A-MFS via nude mouse caudal vein for 2.5 hours, the average T2-weighted signal of the xenograft decreased by 342.533±42.6. The signal value decreased by −61.233±33.9 and −58.7±19.4 after injection of the saline and Fe3O4@SiO2. The decrease of tumor signal by A-MFS was much more significant than that by saline and Fe3O4@SiO2 (P<0.05). The results demonstrated the high stability and nontoxicity of A-MFS, which effectively targeted pancreatic cancer in vitro and in vivo. A-MFS is a promising agent for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27274243

  15. Immune Depletion to Enhance Immunotoxin Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with advanced mesothelioma who have not benefited from previous chemotherapy will receive pentostatin and cyclophosphamide to prevent an anti-immunotoxin immune response prior to and in conjunction with SS1P immunotoxin therapy.

  16. Immunotoxin: A new tool for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Allahyari, Hossein; Heidari, Sahar; Ghamgosha, Mehdi; Saffarian, Parvaneh; Amani, Jafar

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is one of the main reasons of death in the most countries and in Iran. Immunotherapy quickly became one of the best methods of cancer treatment, along with chemotherapy and radiation. "Immunotoxin Therapy" is a promising way of cancer therapy that is mentioned in this field. Immunotoxins are made from a toxin attaching to an antibody target proteins present on cancer cells. The first-generation immunotoxins were made of a full-length toxin attached to whole monoclonal antibodies. But, these immunotoxins could bind to normal cells. DAB389IL2 was the first immunotoxin approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Current trends and researches are ongoing on finding proteins that in combination with immunotoxins have minimal immunogenicity and the most potency for target cell killing.

  17. Scintigraphic monitoring of immunotoxins using radionuclides and heterobifunctional chelators

    SciTech Connect

    Reardan, D.; Bernhard, S.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method for in vivo radioimmunodetection of cytotoxic immunotoxin. It comprises administering internally to a mammal a radio-labeled immunotoxin, wherein a heterobifunctional chelating agent provides a chemical bridge between a radiolabel and a cytotoxic component bound to the antigen-binding component of the immunotoxin, and detecting externally the distribution of the immunotoxin in the mammal.

  18. Alkylating agents and immunotoxins exert synergistic cytotoxic activity against ovarian cancer cells. Mechanism of action.

    PubMed Central

    Lidor, Y J; O'Briant, K C; Xu, F J; Hamilton, T C; Ozols, R F; Bast, R C

    1993-01-01

    Alkylating agents can be administered in high dosage to patients with ovarian cancer using autologous bone marrow support, but drug-resistant tumor cells can still persist. Immunotoxins provide reagents that might eliminate drug resistant cells. In the present study, concurrent treatment with alkylators and immunotoxins proved superior to treatment with each agent alone. Toxin immunoconjugates prepared from different monoclonal antibodies and recombinant ricin A chain (rRTA) inhibited clonogenic growth of ovarian cancer cell lines in limiting dilution assays. When alkylating agents and toxin conjugates were used in combination, the addition of the immunotoxins to cisplatin, or to cisplatin and thiotepa, produced synergistic cytotoxic activity against the OVCA 432 and OVCAR III cell lines. Studies performed to clarify the mechanism of action showed that cisplatin and thiotepa had no influence on internalization and binding of the 317G5-rRTA immunotoxin. Intracellular uptake of [195m]Pt-cisplatin was not affected by the immunoconjugate and thiotepa. The combination of the 317G5-rRTA and thiotepa, as well as 317G5-rRTA alone, increased [195m]Pt cisplatin-DNA adduct levels. The immunotoxin alone and in combination with the alkylators decreased intracellular glutathione levels and reduced glutathione-S-transferase activity. Repair of DNA damage induced by the combination of alkylators and 317G5-rRTA was significantly reduced when compared to repair after damage with alkylators alone. These findings suggest that immunotoxins affect levels and activity of enzymes required for the prevention and repair of alkylator damage. Images PMID:8227359

  19. Humanized CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins exhibit promising anti-T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia potential

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuan; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xuejun; Tang, Xiaowen; Bao, Yangyi; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Yuhui; Tian, Fang; Liu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background Nanobodies, named as VHHs (variable domain of heavy chain of HCAb [heavy-chain antibodies]), are derived from heavy-chain-only antibodies that circulate in sera of camelids. Their exceptional physicochemical properties, possibility of humanization, and unique antigen recognition properties make them excellent candidates for targeted delivery of biologically active components, including immunotoxins. In our previous efforts, we have successfully generated the monovalent and bivalent CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins, which can effectively trigger the apoptosis of CD7-positive malignant cells. To pursue the possibility of translating those immunotoxins into clinics, we humanized the nanobody sequences (designated as dhuVHH6) as well as further truncated the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE)-derived PE38 toxin to produce a more protease-resistant form, which is named as PE-LR, by deleting majority of PE domain II. Methods and results Three new types of immunotoxins, dhuVHH6-PE38, dVHH6-PE-LR, and dhuVHH6-PE-LR, were successfully constructed. These recombinant immunotoxins were expressed in Escherichia coli and showed that nanobody immunotoxins have the benefits of easy soluble expression in a prokaryotic expression system. Flow cytometry results revealed that all immunotoxins still maintained the ability to bind specifically to CD7-positive T lymphocyte strains without binding to CD7-negative control cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that these proteins can be endocytosed into the cytoplasm after binding with CD7-positive cells and that this phenomenon was not observed in CD7-negative cells. WST-8 experiments showed that all immunotoxins retained the highly effective and specific growth inhibition activity in CD7-positive cell lines and primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. Further in vivo animal model experiments showed that humanized dhuVHH6-PE38 immunotoxin can tolerate higher doses and extend the survival of NOD-Prkdcem26Il

  20. Immunotoxin Therapies for the Treatment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nathan; FitzGerald, David

    2016-01-01

    Many epithelial cancers rely on enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to drive proliferation and survival pathways. Development of therapeutics to target EGFR signaling has been of high importance, and multiple examples have been approved for human use. However, many of the current small molecule or antibody-based therapeutics are of limited effectiveness due to the inevitable development of resistance and toxicity to normal tissues. Recombinant immunotoxins are therapeutic molecules consisting of an antibody or receptor ligand joined to a protein cytotoxin, combining the specific targeting of a cancer-expressed receptor with the potent cell killing of cytotoxic enzymes. Over the decades, many bacterial- or plant-based immunotoxins have been developed with the goal of targeting the broad range of cancers reliant upon EGFR overexpression. Many examples demonstrate excellent anti-cancer properties in preclinical development, and several EGFR-targeted immunotoxins have progressed to human trials. This review summarizes much of the past and current work in the development of immunotoxins for targeting EGFR-driven cancers. PMID:27153091

  1. Immunotoxin Therapy for Relapsed Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have relapsed multiple times or not responded to prior chemotherapy will be treated with an experimental immunotoxin called moxetumomab pasudotox given intravenously on days 1, 3, and 5 of 28-day cycles

  2. Antitumor Effects of Immunotoxins are Enhanced by Lowering HCK or Treatment with Src Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Xiang, Laiman; FitzGerald, David J.; Pastan, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) are agents being developed for cancer treatment. They are composed of an Fv that binds to a cancer cell, fused to a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. SS1P is a RIT that targets mesothelin, a protein expressed on mesothelioma as well as pancreatic, ovarian, lung and other cancers. Because the protein tyrosine kinase (TK) family regulates a variety of cellular processes and pathways, we hypothesized that TKs might regulate susceptibility to immunotoxin killing. To investigate their role we used siRNAs to lower the level of expression of the 88 known TKs. We identified 5 TKs, INSR, HCK, SRC, PDGFRβ, and BMX that enhance the activity of SS1P when their level of expression is lowered by siRNAs. We further investigated the Src family member HCK in this study. Knocking down of SRC slightly increased SS1P killing in A431/H9 cells, but knocking down HCK substantially enhanced killing by SS1P. We investigated the mechanism of enhancement and found that HCK knock down enhanced SS1P cleavage by furin and lowered levels of Mcl-1 and raised Bax. We then found that Src inhibitors mimic the stimulatory effect of HCK knock down, both SU6656 and SKI-606 (Bosutinib) enhanced immunotoxin killing of mesothelin expressing cells by SS1P and CD22 expressing cells by HA22 (Moxetumomab pasudotox). SU6656 also enhanced the antitumor effects of SS1P and HA22 in mouse xenograft tumor models. Our data suggest that the combination of immunotoxin with TK inhibitors may be an effective way to treat some cancers. PMID:24145282

  3. Enhancement of immunotoxin activity using chemical and biological reagents.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major discoveries of effective therapeutics is the use of targeted treatment, such as antibody-directed toxins, i.e. immunotoxins; however, this medicine delivery strategy is still at a developmental stage. A number of problems need to be resolved; one is their inefficacy when applied in vivo. Research has stimulated interest in this area through the use of chemical reagents and other moieties to increase the activity of immunotoxins. In this article, reagents that can potentiate the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins are reviewed and the mechanisms that increase activity of immunotoxins are discussed. Lysosomotropic amines, especially ammonium chloride and chloroquine, may raise the pH value of the lysosome in which the conjugates enter. Carboxylic ionophores, e.g. monensin, can influence Golgi vacuolation, which may facilitate the routing of conjugates, augmenting activity. Calcium channel antagonists may increase immunotoxin killing through morphological or other mechanisms that are not yet well understood. Viral particles and surface structure can enhance the cytotoxicity of conjugates, probably through the mechanism of disrupting endosomes. In addition, cytokines, beta-adrenergic blockers, immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporin A) and some antibiotics (daunorubicin) can be used to increase the effect of immunotoxins. PMID:9155057

  4. The current status of immunotoxins: an overview of experimental and clinical studies as presented at the Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Uckun, F M; Frankel, A

    1993-02-01

    The Third International Symposium on Immunotoxins was held on June 19-21, 1992 in Orlando, Florida. This symposium was sponsored by NATO, NIH, Pierce Chemical Company, Walt Disney Cancer Institute at Florida Hospital, Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center, Xoma, Immunogen, Seragen, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chiron, Ortho Biotech, Upjohn, Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Abbot Laboratories, Lilly Research Laboratories, and Evans & Sutherland. The Pierce Immunotoxin Award which recognizes outstanding contributions to immunotoxin research and development, was presented to Drs David FitzGerald, Fatih Uckun, David Eisenberg, and Ira Wool, for their contributions to the immunotoxin field.

  5. Induction and increase of HLA-DR antigen expression by immune interferon on ML-3 cell line enhances the anti-HLA-DR immunotoxin activity.

    PubMed Central

    Chiron, M; Jaffrezou, J P; Carayon, P; Bordier, C; Roubinet, F; Xavier, C; Brandely, M; Laurent, G

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of induction and increase target antigen expression on immunotoxin potency, we measured the potentiating effect of recombinant immune interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) on the cytotoxicity of an anti HLA-DR ricin A-chain immunotoxin (2G5 RTA-IT) on the myeloid cell line ML-3. After 48 h of incubation with rIFN-gamma (500 U/ml) the percentage of 2G5-positive cells increased from 40% to 79%, and the 2G5 mean density was enhanced by 10-fold (11,000 versus 110,000 molecules/cell). Concurrently, rIFN-gamma pretreatment induced a dramatic improvement of 2G5 RTA-IT dose-effect cytotoxicity, as well as immunotoxin cytotoxicity kinetics. When 2G5 RTA-IT was used at the optimal dose of 10(-8)M (the maximum dose which avoided non-specific ricin A-chain cytotoxicity), the immunotoxin-induced cell kill increased with the percentage of DR-positive ML-3 cells according to a similar linear-logarithmic function of rIFN-gamma concentration. Moreover, in the same range of rIFN-gamma concentrations, the killing values and the percentage of DR-positive ML-3 cells were similar if not identical. These findings imply that the enhancement of 2G5 RTA-IT cytotoxicity by rIFN-gamma is mainly related to the rIFN-gamma 2G5 antigen induction on HLA-DR negative cells when immunotoxin was used at 10(-8) M. Furthermore, 2G5 RTA-IT dose-effect cytotoxicity on DR-expressing ML-3 cells, when used at lower concentrations, was also increased by rIFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. This result suggests that for immunotoxin concentrations close to the limiting membrane saturation dose (10(-10)M), rIFN-gamma may not solely act by inducing HLA-DR expression on DR-negative ML-3 subpopulation but also by increasing individual cellular DR density on DR expressing ML-3 cells. Finally, our study showed that immunotoxin potency on malignant cell populations which display an heterogeneous antigen expression, could be greatly improved by the use of rIFN-gamma. PMID:2122930

  6. Single-chain antibody-based immunotoxins targeting Her2/neu: design optimization and impact of affinity on antitumor efficacy and off-target toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Marks, James D; Huang, Qian; Rudnick, Stephen I; Xiong, Chiyi; Hittelman, Walter N; Wen, Xiaoxia; Marks, John W; Cheung, Lawrence H; Boland, Kim; Li, Chun; Adams, Gregory P; Rosenblum, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant immunotoxins, consisting of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) genetically fused to polypeptide toxins, represent potentially effective candidates for cancer therapeutics. We evaluated the affinity of various anti-Her2/neu scFv fused to recombinant gelonin (rGel) and its effect on antitumor efficacy and off-target toxicity. A series of rGel-based immunotoxins were created from the human anti-Her2/neu scFv C6.5 and various affinity mutants (designated ML3-9, MH3-B1, and B1D3) with affinities ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-11) mol/L. Against Her2/neu-overexpressing tumor cells, immunotoxins with increasing affinity displayed improved internalization and enhanced autophagic cytotoxicity. Targeting indices were highest for the highest affinity B1D3/rGel construct. However, the addition of free Her2/neu extracellular domain (ECD) significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of B1D3/rGel because of immune complex formation. In contrast, ECD addition had little impact on the lower affinity constructs in vitro. In vivo studies against established BT474 M1 xenografts showed growth suppression by all immunotoxins. Surprisingly, therapy with the B1D3-rGel induced significant liver toxicity because of immune complex formation with shed Her2/neu antigen in circulation. The MH3-B1/rGel construct with intermediate affinity showed effective tumor growth inhibition without inducing hepatotoxicity or complex formation. These findings show that while high-affinity constructs can be potent antitumor agents, they may also be associated with mistargeting through the facile formation of complexes with soluble antigen leading to significant off-target toxicity. Constructs composed of intermediate-affinity antibodies are also potent agents that are more resistant to immune complex formation. Therefore, affinity is an exceptionally important consideration when evaluating the design and efficacy of targeted therapeutics.

  7. Essential role for Bim in mediating the apoptotic and antitumor activities of immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Antignani, A; Segal, D; Simon, N; Kreitman, R J; Huang, D; FitzGerald, D J

    2017-08-31

    Protein synthesis is crucial for regulating cell homeostasis and, when unrestricted, it can lead to tumorigenesis. Immunotoxins derived from Pseudomonas exotoxin are antibody-toxin fusion proteins that inhibit protein synthesis of mammalian cells via ADP-ribosylation of the eukaryotic elongation factor-2. Here we investigate the role of the Bcl-2 family proteins in the response of cancer cells to immunotoxin challenge. Besides the well-known reduction of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family member, Mcl-1, following inhibition of protein synthesis, we show for the first time that immunotoxins also reduce the levels of selected proapoptotic BH-3-only proteins. Among these, only Bim protein levels correlated with the ability of immunotoxins to induce an apoptotic response. To support our findings, we verified that a Bim knockout completely abolished immunotoxin-mediated apoptosis. Further, mice bearing either wild-type or Bid knockout tumors responded to immunotoxin treatment with a decrease in growth kinetics, whereas mice engrafted with Bim knockout tumors showed no reduction in tumor size or prolongation of survival following immunotoxin treatment. From these results, we conclude that Bim expression is a major susceptibility factor for tumor cell death and, as such, constitutes a potential biomarker that could be evaluated before immunotoxin treatment. In support of this hypothesis, clinically, we analyzed patient cells before immunotoxin treatment and report that samples of hairy cell leukemia with high levels of Bim protein responded with a greater decrease in leukemic cell count compared with those samples expressing a low level of Bim.

  8. Kinetics of cytotoxicity induced by immunotoxins. Enhancement by lysosomotropic amines and carboxylic ionophores.

    PubMed

    Casellas, P; Bourrie, B J; Gros, P; Jansen, F K

    1984-08-10

    The kinetics of cytotoxicity induced by ricin and a series of immunotoxins consisting of ricin A-chain coupled to antibodies against cell-surface antigens has been studied. The inhibition of protein synthesis in cells treated with immunotoxins or ricin occurs after a lag period. The rate of protein synthesis decreases according to a mono-exponential function, indicating a first-order process. With increasing concentration of immunotoxin, a maximal rate of inhibition is reached. The inactivation rate induced by immunotoxins was much slower than that achieved with ricin, even when products were compared on a basis of an identical number of molecules bound per cell, demonstrating the real higher efficacy of ricin. The time required to reduce protein synthesis by 90%, denoted T10, was 1.4-1.6 h with ricin, 60 h with anti-T65 immunotoxin on CEM human T leukemia cells (T65 positive), 65 h with anti-p97 immunotoxin on SK-MEL 28 human melanoma cells (p97 positive), and 20 h with an IgM anti-Thy 1.2 immunotoxin on WEHI-7 mouse T leukemia cells (Thy 1.2 positive). In this latter case, when the IgM antibody was replaced by an IgG anti-Thy 1.2, a 5-fold increase in the inactivation rate was obtained, demonstrating the importance of the binding moiety for the immunotoxins. Lysosomotropic amines such as ammonium chloride, chloroquine, and methylamine and carboxylic ionophores such as monensin, which are known to interfere with the uptake of certain macromolecules, strongly increased the rate of protein synthesis inhibition by all immunotoxins tested and increased 4-50,000-fold the sensitivity of cells to the immunotoxin. Enhancement in the inactivation rate was as much as 7-10-fold when either of these compounds was added, generating T10 values comparable to those of ricin.

  9. Towards Engineering Novel PE-Based Immunotoxins by Targeting Them to the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Marta; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Grzesik, Joanna; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Salkowska, Anna; Rodakowska, Ewelina; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Rychlewski, Leszek; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-11-10

    Exotoxin A (PE) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase, which can permanently inhibit translation in the attacked cells. Consequently, this toxin is frequently used in immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we propose a novel modification to PE by incorporating the NLS sequence at its C-terminus, to make it a selective agent against fast-proliferating cancer cells, as a nucleus-accumulated toxin should be separated from its natural substrate (eEF2) in slowly dividing cells. Here, we report the cytotoxic activity and selected biochemical properties of newly designed PE mutein using two cellular models: A549 and HepG2. We also present a newly developed protocol for efficient purification of recombinant PE and its muteins with very high purity and activity. We found that furin cleavage is not critical for the activity of PE in the analyzed cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed increased toxicity of the toxin accumulated in the nucleus. This might be explained by unexpected nuclease activity of PE and its potential ability to cleave chromosomal DNA, which seems to be a putative alternative intoxication mechanism. Further experimental investigations should address this newly detected activity to identify catalytic residues and elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for this action.

  10. Towards Engineering Novel PE-Based Immunotoxins by Targeting Them to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Marta; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Grzesik, Joanna; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Salkowska, Anna; Rodakowska, Ewelina; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Rychlewski, Leszek; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Exotoxin A (PE) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase, which can permanently inhibit translation in the attacked cells. Consequently, this toxin is frequently used in immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we propose a novel modification to PE by incorporating the NLS sequence at its C-terminus, to make it a selective agent against fast-proliferating cancer cells, as a nucleus-accumulated toxin should be separated from its natural substrate (eEF2) in slowly dividing cells. Here, we report the cytotoxic activity and selected biochemical properties of newly designed PE mutein using two cellular models: A549 and HepG2. We also present a newly developed protocol for efficient purification of recombinant PE and its muteins with very high purity and activity. We found that furin cleavage is not critical for the activity of PE in the analyzed cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed increased toxicity of the toxin accumulated in the nucleus. This might be explained by unexpected nuclease activity of PE and its potential ability to cleave chromosomal DNA, which seems to be a putative alternative intoxication mechanism. Further experimental investigations should address this newly detected activity to identify catalytic residues and elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for this action. PMID:27834892

  11. Experimental treatment of human Hodgkin's disease with ricin A-chain immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Engert, A; Gottstein, C; Winkler, U; Amlot, P; Pileri, S; Diehl, V; Thorpe, P

    1994-05-01

    In the present paper we describe the evaluation of ricin A-chain immunotoxins for clinical application in Hodgkin's disease. The immunotoxins were constructed by chemically linking deglycosylated ricin-A to monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) recognising lymphocyte activation markers CD25, CD30, or IRac, which are expressed by Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells. The cytotoxic effects of the immunotoxins were investigated in vitro against L540Cy Hodgkin cells and in vivo against Hodgkin's tumors in nude mice and disseminated Hodgkin's tumors in SCID mice. MoAbs were evaluated for crossreactivity with normal human tissues and staining of sections from Hodgkin's disease tissue. Of 32 MoAbs, eight showed little crossreactivity with vital human organs and produced highly active immunotoxins. The most effective immunotoxin, RFT5 gamma l.dgA (CD25), inhibits the growth of H-RS cells at concentrations of 7 x 10(-12) M. RFT5 gamma l.dgA destroys about 60% of solid Hodgkin's tumors of 0.5 cm diameter in nude mice and induces complete remissions in 95% of SCID mice with disseminated Hodgkin's tumors when administered one day after tumor challenge. This immunotoxin binds to all H-RS cells in more than 90% of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Patients with refractory Hodgkin's disease are currently being treated in a phase-I/II clinical trial.

  12. The novel multispecies Fc-specific Pseudomonas exotoxin A fusion protein α-Fc-ETA' enables screening of antibodies for immunotoxin development.

    PubMed

    Klausz, Katja; Kellner, Christian; Derer, Stefanie; Valerius, Thomas; Staudinger, Matthias; Burger, Renate; Gramatzki, Martin; Peipp, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Immunoconjugates that deliver cytotoxic payloads to cancer cells represent a promising class of therapeutic agents which are intensively investigated in various clinical applications. Prerequisites for the generation of effective immunoconjugates are antibodies which efficiently deliver the respective cytotoxic payload. To facilitate the selection of human or mouse antibodies that display favorable characteristics as immunotoxins, we developed a novel Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA)-based screening protein. The α-Fc-ETA' consists of a multispecies-specific Fc-binding domain antibody genetically fused to a truncated ETA version (ETA'). α-Fc-ETA' non-covalently bound to human and mouse antibodies but did not form immune complexes with bovine immunoglobulins. In combination with antibodies harboring human or mouse Fc domains α-Fc-ETA' inhibited proliferation of antigen-expressing tumor cells. The cytotoxic effects were strictly antibody dependent and were observed with low α-Fc-ETA' concentrations. Mouse antibodies directed against CD7 and CD317/HM1.24 that previously had been used for the generation of functional recombinant immunotoxins, also showed activity in combination with α-Fc-ETA' by inhibiting growth of antigen-positive myeloma and leukemia cell lines. In contrast, α-kappa-ETA', a similarly designed human kappa light chain-specific fusion protein, was only specifically active in combination with antibodies containing a human kappa light chain. Thus, the novel α-Fc-ETA' fusion protein is broadly applicable in screening antibodies and Fc-containing antibody derivatives from different species to select for candidates with favorable characteristics for immunotoxin development.

  13. Different sensitivity of CD30+ cell lines to Ber-H2/saporin-S6 immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Bolognesi, A; Olivieri, F; Polito, L; Stirpe, F

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro sensitivity of cells to a Ber-H2(anti-CD30)/saporin-S6 immunotoxin has been investigated. The CD30+ cell lines, K562, L428 and L540, were used to study cell binding, uptake and degradation of the immunotoxin. K562 cells were less sensitive than L428 and L540 cells to the immunotoxin by approximately one order of magnitude. The difference in cytotoxicity correlated with the intracellular accumulation and with the ratio of degraded over total internalized Ber-H2/saporin-S6, regardless of the immunotoxin binding to the cells. After 6 h incubation, the less sensitive K562 cells (i) accumulated only one third and one tenth of the immunotoxin accumulated by the more sensitive L428 and L540 cells, respectively, and (ii) degraded two thirds of the internalized protein versus one third degraded by either L428 or L540 cells. Ammonium chloride and chloroquine reduced the cytotoxicity of the immunotoxin towards K562 but not to L540 cells. This effect correlated with the increment of immunotoxin catabolism by K562 cells in the presence of chloroquine. In conclusion, uptake alone of an immunotoxin by target cells is not sufficient to assure its efficacy which might also depend on intracellular routing. Only a cytotoxicity test may be really predictive.

  14. Noradrenergic lesioning with an anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sympathectomy has been achieved by a variety of methods but each has its limitations. These include lack of tissue specificity, incomplete lesioning, and the age range of susceptibility to the lesioning. To circumvent these drawbacks, an immunotoxin was constructed using a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic specific enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) coupled via a disulfide bond to saporin, a ribosomal inactivating protein. Three days after intravenous injection of the anti-D beta H immunotoxin (50 micrograms) into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, 66% of neurons in the superior cervical ganglia were chromatolytic. Superior cervical ganglia neurons were poisoned in 1 day old and 1 week old (86% of neurons) neonatal rats following subcutaneous injection of 3.75 and 15 micrograms, respectively. The anti-D beta H immunotoxin will be a useful tool in the study of the peripheral noradrenergic system in adult and neonatal animals.

  15. Influence of relative binding affinity on efficacy in a panel of anti-CD3 scFv immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hexham, J M; Dudas, D; Hugo, R; Thompson, J; King, V; Dowling, C; Neville, D M; Digan, M E; Lake, P

    2001-09-01

    The in vitro cell killing potency of an immunotoxin reflects the aggregate of several independent biochemical properties. These include antigen binding affinity; internalization rate, intracellular processing and intrinsic toxin domain potency. This study examines the influence of antigen binding affinity on potency in various immunotoxin fusion proteins where target antigen binding is mediated by single chain antibody variable region fragments (scFv). Firstly, the relationship between affinity and potency was examined in a panel of four scFv immunotoxins generated from different anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies fused to the 38 kDa fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE38). Of these four scFv-PE38 immunotoxins, the one derived from the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody UCHT1 has highest cell killing potency. Analysis of these four scFv-PE38 immunotoxins indicated a correlation between antigen binding affinity and immunotoxin potency in the cell killing assay with the exception of the scFvPE38 immunotoxin derived from the antibody BC3. However this scFv appeared to suffer a greater drop in affinity ( approximately 100x), relative to the parent Mab than did the other three scFvs used in this study (2-10x). Secondly, the scFv(UCHT1)-PE38 immunotoxin was then compared with a further panel of scFv(UCHT1)-derived immunotoxins including a divalent PE38 version and both monovalent and divalent Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin (DT389) fusion proteins. When the scFv-UCHT1 domain was amino-terminally positioned relative to the toxin, as in the scFv(UCHT1)-PE38, an approximately 10-fold higher antigen-binding affinity was observed than with the C-terminal fusion, used in the DT389-scFv(UCHT1) molecule. Despite this lower antigen-binding activity, the DT389-scFv immunotoxin had a 60-fold higher potency in the T-cell-killing assay. Thirdly, a divalent form of the DT389-scFv construct, containing tandem scFv domains, had a 10-fold higher binding activity, which was exactly

  16. Immunotoxin targeting glypican-3 regresses liver cancer via dual inhibition of Wnt signalling and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Tang, Zhewei; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Feng, Mingqian; Qian, Min; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Ho, Mitchell

    2015-03-11

    Glypican-3 is a cell surface glycoprotein that associates with Wnt in liver cancer. We develop two antibodies targeting glypican-3, HN3 and YP7. The first antibody recognizes a functional epitope and inhibits Wnt signalling, whereas the second antibody recognizes a C-terminal epitope but does not inhibit Wnt signalling. Both are fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) to create immunotoxins. Interestingly, the immunotoxin based on HN3 (HN3-PE38) has superior antitumor activity as compared with YP7 (YP7-PE38) both in vitro and in vivo. Intravenous administration of HN3-PE38 alone, or in combination with chemotherapy, induces regression of Hep3B and HepG2 liver tumour xenografts in mice. This study establishes glypican-3 as a promising candidate for immunotoxin-based liver cancer therapy. Our results demonstrate immunotoxin-induced tumour regression via dual mechanisms: inactivation of cancer signalling via the antibody and inhibition of protein synthesis via the toxin.

  17. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for the development of breast cancer immunotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn, M.J.; Ring, D.; Frankel, A.

    1985-03-01

    Eighty-five antibodies recognizing breast cancer-selective antigens were conjugated to ricin toxin A-chain using a disulfide linkage. The cytotoxicities of the resulting immunotoxins were determined on breast cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts. Twenty-four antibodies formed immunotoxins that were toxic to at least one breast cancer cell line at concentrations of 10 nM or less but were nontoxic to human fibroblast lines used as negative controls. Some of the breast tumor-selective immunotoxins were as toxic as a conjugate between monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor and ricin toxin A-chain (50% inhibition of cellular protein synthesis at approximately 0.1 nM). Another set of four immunotoxins were indiscriminately toxic to human breast tumor cell lines, two human fibroblast cell lines, and a human lymphoblastoid line. Several of the antibodies the toxin conjugates of which specifically killed breast cancer cell lines may be useful in cancer therapy, since they show a wide range of binding to individual breast tumors and cell lines and a limited range of binding to normal tissue types.

  18. GUCY2C lysosomotropic endocytosis delivers immunotoxin therapy to metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marszalowicz, Glen P.; Snook, Adam E.; Magee, Michael S.; Merlino, Dante; Lisa, D. Berman-Booty; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of targeted cancer therapy has been limited by the paucity of determinants which are tumor-specific and generally associated with disease, and have cell dynamics which effectively deploy cytotoxic payloads. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) may be ideal for targeting because it is normally expressed only in insulated barrier compartments, including intestine and brain, but over-expressed by systemic metastatic colorectal tumors. Here, we reveal that GUCY2C rapidly internalizes from the cell surface to lysosomes in intestinal and colorectal cancer cells. Endocytosis is independent of ligand binding and receptor activation, and is mediated by clathrin. This mechanism suggests a design for immunotoxins comprising a GUCY2C-directed monoclonal antibody conjugated through a reducible disulfide linkage to ricin A chain, which is activated to a potent cytotoxin in lysosomes. Indeed, this immunotoxin specifically killed GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer cells in a lysosomal- and clathrin-dependent fashion. Moreover, this immunotoxin reduced pulmonary tumors >80% (p<0.001), and improved survival 25% (p<0.001), in mice with established colorectal cancer metastases. Further, therapeutic efficacy was achieved without histologic evidence of toxicity in normal tissues. These observations support GUCY2C-targeted immunotoxins as novel therapeutics for metastatic tumors originating in the GI tract, including colorectum, stomach, esophagus, and pancreas. PMID:25294806

  19. Phage display-based generation of novel internalizing antibody fragments for immunotoxin-based treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fitting, Jenny; Blume, Tobias; ten Haaf, Andre; Blau, Wolfgang; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Tur, Mehmet Kemal; Barth, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The current standard treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chemotherapy based on cytarabine and daunorubicine (7 + 3), but it discriminates poorly between malignant and benign cells. Dose-limiting off‑target effects and intrinsic drug resistance result in the inefficient eradication of leukemic blast cells and their survival beyond remission. This minimal residual disease is the major cause of relapse and is responsible for a 5-year survival rate of only 24%. More specific and efficient approaches are therefore required to eradicate malignant cells while leaving healthy cells unaffected. In this study, we generated scFv antibodies that bind specifically to the surface of AML blast cells and AML bone marrow biopsy specimens. We isolated the antibodies by phage display, using subtractive whole-cell panning with AML M2‑derived Kasumi‑1 cells. By selecting for internalizing scFv antibody fragments, we focused on potentially novel agents for intracellular drug delivery and tumor modulation. Two independent methods showed that 4 binders were internalized by Kasumi-1 cells. Furthermore, we observed the AML‑selective inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by a recombinant immunotoxin comprising one scFv fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA'). This method may therefore be useful for the selection of novel disease-specific internalizing antibody fragments, providing a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of AML patients. PMID:25760770

  20. [New perspectives in oncology: is selective destruction of tumor cells with immunotoxins in Hodgkin's disease an additional therapeutic alternative?].

    PubMed

    Engert, A; Gottstein, C; Winkler, U; Schön, G; Amlot, P; Thorpe, P; Diehl, V

    1992-10-15

    In the present paper, the authors describe the production and testing of immunotoxins for clinical application in Hodgkin's disease. The immunotoxins were constructed by chemical coupling of deglycolysated ricin-A to monoclonal antibodies against antigens on Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg cells (CD25, CD30, IRac). The cytotoxic effect of the immunotoxins was investigated in vitro against Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg cells (H-RS) and in vivo against solid Hodgkin's tumors in nude mice and disseminated Hodgkin's tumors in SCID mice. Cross-reactivity with normal tissue and the staining behaviour observed in sections of Hodgkin's tissue of various subtypes proved important parameters for the assessment of clinical applicability. Of more than 30 evaluated MoAb's, eight immunotoxins were produced, of which six showed both, cytotoxic effects of considerable potency against Hodgkin's tumor cells and low cross-reactivity with vital human organs. The most effective immunotoxin, RFT5 gamma 1.dgA, (CD25) inhibits the growth of H-RS cells at concentrations of 7 pMol and destroys about 60% of solid Hodgkin's tumors of 0.5 cm in diameter in nude mice. This immunotoxin binds to virtually all tumor cells in more than 90% of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Sufficient quantities of RFT5 gamma 1.dgA were produced for the treatment of patients with refractory Hodgkin's disease. These patients are currently being treated in a phase I clinical trial.

  1. Novel CD7-specific nanobody-based immunotoxins potently enhanced apoptosis of CD7-positive malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jinle; Li, Jialu; Zhu, Xuejun; Yu, Yuan; Chen, Dan; Yuan, Lei; Gu, Zhenyang; Zhang, Xingding; Qi, Lin; Gong, Zhishu; Jiang, Pengjun; Yu, Juhua; Meng, Huimin; An, Gangli

    2016-01-01

    Various CD7-targeting immunotoxins have been tested for its potential in treating CD7+ malignant patients but none of those immunotoxins was approved clinically because of lacking enough efficacy and safety. Here we successfully constructed the monovalent and bivalent CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins PG001 and PG002, both conjugated with a truncated derivative of Pseudomonas exotoxin A respectively. The prokaryotic system expressed immunotoxins not only maintained their binding specificity for CD7-positive cells with a Kd of 16.74 nM and 3.6 nM for PG001 and PG002 respectively, but also efficiently promoted antigen-restricted apoptosis of the CD7-positive leukemia cell lines Jurkat and CEM, and primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells with an in vitro cytotoxic activity (EC50) in the range of 23-30 pM for PG002. In NOD/SCID mice transplanted with CEM cells, PG001 and PG002 prevented engraftment of the cells and markedly prolonged mouse survival. Owing to the efficient antigen-restricted anti-leukemic activity of PG002, this CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxin exhibited a superior anti-CD7 positive malignancies activity than previously reported immunotoxins, and may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in treating CD7-positive leukemia and lymphoma, which still remain a significant clinical challenge. PMID:27083001

  2. Prospects of bacterial and plant protein-based immunotoxins for treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Tiefenthaler, Georg; Schiller, Christian; Weiss, Elisabeth H; Georges, Guy; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial- and plant-derived immunotoxins have documented potential for treatment of cancer. We discuss Anthrax toxin, ribosome inactivating-toxins, such as saporin and ricin, and ADP-ribosylating toxins such as Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin, with focus on the latter, which has been most thoroughly investigated. Regarding their potential as anticancer agents, critical issues such as immunogenicity and toxicity are outlined. We describe different generations of immunotoxins, the pathways for the delivery of the cytotoxic 'warheads', molecular parameters modulating efficacy, and combination therapy with other anticancer agents. Finally, we discuss deimmunization strategies based on the removal of B- and T-cell epitopes from the cytotoxic component, and highlight promising clinical proof-of-concept studies.

  3. A protein in neuroblastoma could be a target of immunotoxins or immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A cell surface protein, glycoprotein glypican-2 (GPC2), has been found to be an effective therapeutic target in cell cultures and mouse models that mimic childhood neuroblastoma.  The CCR scientists who made this discovery, reported July 24, 2017, in PNAS, have also produced immunotoxins and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, a type of immunotherapy, that have shown promise against this solid tumor. Read more...

  4. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lonce, S.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1995-01-01

    Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.

  5. High in Vitro Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Dimeric Rituximab/Saporin-S6 Immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea; Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD20 mAb Rituximab has revolutionized lymphoma therapy, in spite of a number of unresponsive or relapsing patients. Immunotoxins, consisting of toxins coupled to antibodies, are being investigated for their potential ability to augment Rituximab efficacy. Here, we compare the anti-tumor effect of high- and low-molecular-weight Rituximab/saporin-S6 immunotoxins, named HMW-IT and LMW-IT, respectively. Saporin-S6 is a potent and stable plant enzyme belonging to ribosome-inactivating proteins that causes protein synthesis arrest and consequent cell death. Saporin-S6 was conjugated to Rituximab through an artificial disulfide bond. The inhibitory activity of HMW-IT and LMW-IT was evaluated on cell-free protein synthesis and in two CD20+ lymphoma cell lines, Raji and D430B. Two different conjugates were separated on the basis of their molecular weight and further characterized. Both HMW-IT (dimeric) and LMW-IT (monomeric) maintained a high level of enzymatic activity in a cell-free system. HMW-IT, thanks to a higher toxin payload and more efficient antigen capping, showed stronger in vitro anti-tumor efficacy than LMW-IT against lymphoma cells. Dimeric HMW-IT can be used for lymphoma therapy at least for ex vivo treatments. The possibility of using HMW-IT augments the yield in immunotoxin preparation and allows the targeting of antigens with low internalization rates. PMID:27338475

  6. Successful treatment of disseminated human Hodgkin's disease in SCID mice with deglycosylated ricin A-chain immunotoxins.

    PubMed

    Winkler, U; Gottstein, C; Schön, G; Kapp, U; Wolf, J; Hansmann, M L; Bohlen, H; Thorpe, P; Diehl, V; Engert, A

    1994-01-15

    To evaluate the effects of deglycosylated ricin A-chain (dgA) immunotoxins against disseminated Hodgkin's lymphoma, we used RFT5.dgA (CD25) and IRac.dgA (70 kD) to treat L540Cy Hodgkin cells in severely immunodeficient SCID mice. In this model, more than 90% of the animals developed multiple lymphomas in various organs such as the lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow, and extranodal sites that killed untreated animals after a mean survival time (MST) of 36.3 days. A single intraperitoneal injection of 8 micrograms of either immunotoxin rendered 95% (RFT5.dgA) and 93% (IRac.dgA), respectively, of mice tumor-free when applied 1 day after tumor challenge. The MST of the RFT5.dgA-treated group was extended by more than 80 days (P < .00001). SCID mice treated 12 days after tumor challenge had lower remission rates (46%), suggesting that the antitumor effect of the immunotoxins depends on the number of tumor cells present. We conclude that ricin A-chain immunotoxins have potent antitumor effects against disseminated Hodgkin's tumors in SCID mice and that this model is ideally suited for the evaluation of different immunotoxin treatment modalities.

  7. Efficacy of RG7787, a next-generation mesothelin-targeted immunotoxin, against triple-negative breast and gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Alewine, Christine; Xiang, Laiman; Yamori, Takao; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bosslet, Klaus; Pastan, Ira

    2014-11-01

    The RG7787 mesothelin-targeted recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) consists of an antibody fragment targeting mesothelin (MSLN) fused to a 24-kD fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A for cell killing. Compared with prior RITs, RG7787 has improved properties for clinical development including decreased nonspecific toxicity and immunogenicity and resistance to degradation by lysosomal proteases. MSLN is a cell surface glycoprotein highly expressed by many solid tumor malignancies. New reports have demonstrated that MSLN is expressed by a significant percentage of triple-negative breast and gastric cancer clinical specimens. Here, panels of triple-negative breast and gastric cancer cell lines were tested for surface MSLN expression, and for sensitivity to RG7787 in vitro and in animal models. RG7787 produced >95% cell killing of the HCC70 and SUM149 breast cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 < 100 pmol/L. RG7787 was also effective against gastric cancer cell lines MKN28, MKN45, and MKN74 in vitro, with subnanomolar IC50s. In a nude mouse model, RG7787 treatment (2.5 mg/kg i.v. qod ×3-4) resulted in a statistically significant 41% decrease in volumes of HCC70 xenograft tumors (P < 0.0001) and an 18% decrease in MKN28 tumors (P < 0.0001). Pretreatment with paclitaxel (50 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced efficacy, producing 88% and 70% reduction in tumor volumes for HCC70 and MKN28, respectively, a statistically significant improvement over paclitaxel alone (P < 0.0001 for both). RG7787 merits clinical testing for triple-negative breast and gastric cancers. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. In vitro and in vivo activity of the low-immunogenic antimesothelin immunotoxin RG7787 in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hollevoet, Kevin; Mason-Osann, Emily; Liu, Xiu-fen; Imhof-Jung, Sabine; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Pastan, Ira

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis, and new therapies are needed. RG7787 is a novel low-immunogenic antimesothelin recombinant immunotoxin (RIT), engineered to overcome the limitations of SS1P, a RIT now in clinical trials. In vitro activity was evaluated on five established PDAC cell lines (KLM-1, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Panc 3.014, and PK-1) and on PDAC cells directly established from a patient tumor (GUMC108). RG7787 had subnanomolar IC50s in most cell lines, and was significantly more active than SS1P in GUMC108, KLM-1, and Panc 3.014 cells. GUMC108 was most sensitive, with RG7787 killing >99% of the cells. In a subcutaneous KLM-1 xenograft mouse model, two cycles of 3 × 2.5 mg/kg RG7787 QOD combined with two cycles of 1 × 50 mg/kg paclitaxel induced near-complete responses, with all tumors regressing below 5 mm(3) within 30 days after therapy was initiated (>95% decrease) and no significant growth increase for at least another 3 weeks. RG7787 alone gave limited but significant regressions and paclitaxel by itself arrested tumor growth. Quantifying the uptake of Alexa Fluor 647-labeled RG7787 in tumors showed that the RIT reached only 45% of KLM-1 cells, accounting in part for the limited responses. Paclitaxel did not improve RG7787 uptake, which thus cannot explain the beneficial effect of the combination therapy. In conclusion, RG7787 has high cytotoxic activity on PDAC cell lines as well as on primary patient cells. In vivo, this novel RIT gives durable near-complete tumor responses when combined with paclitaxel. RG7787 merits further evaluation for the treatment of PDAC.

  9. Efficacy of RG7787, a Next Generation Mesothelin-targeted Immunotoxin, Against Triple-negative Breast and Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Alewine, Christine; Xiang, Laiman; Yamori, Takao; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bosslet, Klaus; Pastan, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The RG7787 mesothelin-targeted recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) consists of an antibody fragment targeting mesothelin (MSLN) fused to a 24-kD fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A for cell killing. Compared to prior RITs, RG7787 has improved properties for clinical development including decreased non-specific toxicity and immunogenicity and resistance to degradation by lysosomal proteases. MSLN is a cell surface glycoprotein highly expressed by many solid tumor malignancies. New reports have demonstrated MSLN is expressed by a significant percentage of triple-negative breast and gastric cancer clinical specimens. Here, panels of triple-negative breast and gastric cancer cell lines were tested for surface MSLN expression, and for sensitivity to RG7787 in vitro and in animal models. RG7787 produced >95% cell killing of the HCC70 and SUM149 breast cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 < 100 pM. RG7787 was also effective against gastric cancer cell lines MKN28, MKN45 and MKN74 in vitro, with subnanomolar IC50’s. In a nude mouse model, RG7787 treatment (2.5 mg/kg I.V. qod x3-4) resulted in a statistically significant 41% decrease in volumes of HCC70 xenograft tumors (p < 0.0001) and an 18% decrease in MKN28 tumors (p < 0.0001). Pre-treatment with paclitaxel (50 mg/kg ip) enhanced efficacy, producing 88% and 70% reduction in tumor volumes for HCC70 and MKN28, respectively, a statistically significant improvement over paclitaxel alone (p < 0.0001 for both). RG7787 merits clinical testing for triple-negative breast and gastric cancers. PMID:25239937

  10. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment.

  11. A novel bispecific immunotoxin delivered by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to target blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Xinlin; Huang, Min; Ke, Yiquan; Wang, Jihui; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    In previous years, immunotoxins have been shown to be a greatly promising therapeutic tool for brain malignancies, such as gliomas. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) exhibit tropism to tumor tissue. However, the effect of bispecific immunotoxins in malignant gliomas is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of bispecific immunotoxins in human malignant gliomas. In the present study, the bispecific immunotoxin VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was established using deoxyribonucleic acid shuffling and cloning techniques. The VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was delivered by hMSCs to mouse malignant gliomas. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxins on glioma-derived blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of immunotoxins were examined in vivo. In vitro, transfected hMSCs significantly inhibited the cell viability of gliomas cell lines U87 and U251 in a dose-dependent manner compared with untransfected hMSCs (P<0.01). In vivo, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model. The bispecific immunotoxin secreted from hMSCs acts as a novel strategy for improving treatment options for malignant gliomas in the clinic.

  12. Enhanced Eradication of Lymphoma by Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells Secreting an Engineered Tumor-Specific Immunotoxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    particularly in hairy cell leukemia , were offset by an unfavorable toxicity profile. The current project will use the anti- tumor activity of CD22-PEA...Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells Secreting an Engineered Tumor-Specific Immunotoxin PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yotnda Patricia, Ph.D...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Baylor College of Medicine Cell and Gene Center Houston, TX 77030 REPORT DATE: June 2008 TYPE OF

  13. Inhibition of antibody response to Pseudomonas exotoxin and an immunotoxin containing Pseudomonas exotoxin by 15-deoxyspergualin in mice.

    PubMed

    Pai, L H; FitzGerald, D J; Tepper, M; Schacter, B; Spitalny, G; Pastan, I

    1990-12-15

    Immunotoxins are potent cell-killing agents that may be useful in the treatment of cancer. The early production of neutralizing antibodies to immunotoxins is one of the major limiting factors for their use in humans. 15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG), a derivative of spergualin, which is a metabolite of Bacillus laterosporus, has been found to have immunosuppressive activity in rodents, dogs, and primates. We examined the suppressive activity of DSG on the antibody response to Pseudomonas exotoxin in mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male BDF1 mice were immunized with a single dose of a nontoxic mutant of Pseudomonas exotoxin (40 micrograms) and then treated with i.p. injections of DSF at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 3 days. Although antibodies to Pseudomonas exotoxin were observed within 7 days in the control group, there was complete suppression of antibody production in the DSG-treated group. Immunosuppression has also been observed in animals immunized with multiple doses (10 mg x 7 d) of Pseudomonas exotoxin and treated with DSG at a dose of 5 mg/kg for 21 days. Similar immunosuppression was observed in mice given multiple doses of the immunotoxin, anti-Tac-LysPE40. We conclude that the immunosuppressive activity of DSG may be useful in increasing the duration of immunotoxin treatment.

  14. A new design immunotoxin for killing high-grade glioma U87 cells: from in vitro to in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luqiu, Zhou; Yiquan, Ke; Gengqiang, Ling; Yijing, Liu; Xiaodan, Jiang; Yingqian, Cai

    2012-01-01

    A new wave of engineered antibodies, leading to increased effectiveness of functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or complement-dependent cytotoxicity, is being evaluated in clinical settings. Several, such as immunotoxins, are expected to receive approval for usage soon. In this study, using a cognate heavy framework region (HFR2), two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs, i.e., LCDR1 and HCDR3) were fused to the first 388 amino acid residues of diphtheria toxin (DT388) to establish the immunotoxin IT-87. It was found that the mimetics of LCDR1-HFR2-HCDR3 retained the antigen recognition of their parent antibody. The immunotoxin IT-87 could especially kill the U87 MG glioblastoma cell line, the targets of the parent antibody, in vitro; however, the IT-87 could not kill Rajicells. In SCID mice bearing both U87 and Raji cells, the IT-87 directly targeted the U87-induced tumors (via tumor-specific surface markers) and inhibited the growth of the cells in vivo over a 20-day daily IT-87 treatment period. It is believed that the design of this particular immunotoxin could be the basis for even more promising molecules to be used in the treatment of human cancers.

  15. In vivo therapy of a murine B cell tumor (BCL1) using antibody-ricin A chain immunotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Krolick, K.A.; Uhr, J.W.; Slavin, S.; Vitetta, E.S.

    1982-06-01

    Prolonged remissions were induced in mice bearing advanced BCL1 tumors by the combined approach of nonspecific cytoreductive therapy and administration of a tumor-reactive immunotoxin. Thus, the vast majority of the tumor cells (approximately 95%) were first killed by nonspecific cytoreductive therapy using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and splenectomy. The residual tumor cells were then eliminated by intravenous administration of an anti-delta immunotoxin. In three of four experiments, all animals treated in the above fashion appeared tumor free 12-16 wk later. In one experiment, blood cells from the mice in remission were transferred to normal BALB/c recipients, and the latter animals have not developed detectable tumor for the 6 mo of observation. Because 1-10 adoptively transferred BCL1 cells will cause tumor in normal BALB/c mice by 12 wk, the inability to transfer tumor to recipients might indicate that the donor animals were tumor free. In the remainder of the animals treated with the tumor-reactive immunotoxin there was a substantial remission in all animals, but the disease eventually reappeared. In contrast, all mice treated with the control immunotoxin or antibody alone relapsed significantly earlier (3-4 wk after splenectomy).

  16. High throughput cytotoxicity screening of anti-HER2 immunotoxins conjugated with antibody fragments from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shin-Chen; Chen, Hong-Sen; Lin, Hung-Wei; Chao, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Fu, Chi-Yu; Yu, Chung-Ming; Huang, Kai-Fa; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Immunotoxins are an important class of antibody-based therapeutics. The potency of the immunotoxins depends on the antibody fragments as the guiding modules targeting designated molecules on cell surfaces. Phage-displayed synthetic antibody scFv libraries provide abundant antibody fragment candidates as targeting modules for the immunoconjugates, but the discovery of optimally functional immunoconjugates is limited by the scFv-payload conjugation procedure. In this work, cytotoxicity screening of non-covalently assembled immunotoxins was developed in high throughput format to discover highly functional synthetic antibody fragments for delivering toxin payloads. The principles governing the efficiency of the antibodies as targeting modules have been elucidated from large volume of cytotoxicity data: (a) epitope and paratope of the antibody-based targeting module are major determinants for the potency of the immunotoxins; (b) immunotoxins with bivalent antibody-based targeting modules are generally superior in cytotoxic potency to those with corresponding monovalent targeting module; and (c) the potency of the immunotoxins is positively correlated with the densities of the cell surface antigen. These findings suggest that screening against the target cells with a large pool of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries without the limitations of natural antibody responses can lead to optimal potency and minimal off-target toxicity of the immunoconjugates. PMID:27550798

  17. Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Cancer | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of mesothelin-expressing cancers.

  18. 76 FR 63317 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Human Anti-Mesothelin Monoclonal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... therapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and stomach... cancers, including mesothelioma, lung cancer, stomach/gastric cancer, ovarian cancer and pancreatic...

  19. Immunotoxins and Anticancer Drug Conjugate Assemblies: The Role of the Linkage between Components

    PubMed Central

    Dosio, Franco; Brusa, Paola; Cattel, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Immunotoxins and antibody-drug conjugates are protein-based drugs combining a target-specific binding domain with a cytotoxic domain. Such compounds are potentially therapeutic against diseases including cancer, and several clinical trials have shown encouraging results. Although the targeted elimination of malignant cells is an elegant concept, there are numerous practical challenges that limit conjugates’ therapeutic use, including inefficient cellular uptake, low cytotoxicity, and off-target effects. During the preparation of immunoconjugates by chemical synthesis, the choice of the hinge component joining the two building blocks is of paramount importance: the conjugate must remain stable in vivo but must afford efficient release of the toxic moiety when the target is reached. Vast efforts have been made, and the present article reviews strategies employed in developing immunoconjugates, focusing on the evolution of chemical linkers. PMID:22069744

  20. A CSPG4-specific immunotoxin kills rhabdomyosarcoma cells and binds to primary tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Hannes; Niesen, Judith; Mladenov, Radoslav; Stein, Christoph; Pardo, Alessa; Fey, Georg; Helfrich, Wijnand; Fischer, Rainer; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Barth, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) remains challenging, with metastatic and alveolar RMS offering a particularly poor prognosis. Therefore, the identification and evaluation of novel antigens, which are suitable targets for immunotherapy, is one attractive possibility to improve the treatment of this disease. Here we show that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is expressed on RMS cell lines and RMS patient material. We evaluated the immunotoxin (IT) αMCSP-ETA', which specifically recognizes CSPG4 on the RMS cell lines RD, FL-OH1, TE-671 and Rh30. It is internalized rapidly, induces apoptosis and thus kills RMS cells selectively. We also demonstrate the specific binding of this IT to RMS primary tumor material from three different patients.

  1. CD21(-/low) marginal zone B cells highly express Fc receptor-like 5 protein and are killed by anti-Fc receptor-like 5 immunotoxins in hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Benjamin; Nagata, Satoshi; Ise, Tomoko; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Pastan, Ira; Klatzmann, David; Saadoun, David; Cacoub, Patrice

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The expansion of clonal and autoreactive rheumatoid factor-bearing CD21(-/low) marginal zone (MZ) B cells was demonstrated in patients with HCV-associated MC vasculitis. Fc receptor-like (FCRL) proteins comprise a family of immunoregulatory proteins preferentially expressed on B lineage cells. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of FCRL proteins 1-5 on B cells from patients with HCV-associated MC vasculitis. Expression of FCRL proteins 1-5 was assessed by flow cytometry on B cells from 15 HCV-infected patients with type II MC (7 of whom had B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), 20 HCV-infected patients without MC, and 20 healthy donors. To evaluate FCRL-5 as an immunotherapy target in HCV-associated MC vasculitis, 2 anti-FCRL-5 recombinant immunotoxins were produced using anti-FCRL-5 monoclonal antibodies and Pseudomonas exotoxin. Expression of FCRLs 2, 3, and 5 was markedly increased while expression of FCRL-1 was decreased on clonal CD21(-/low) MZ B cells, as compared with other B cell subsets, from HCV-infected patients and healthy donors. However, there was no difference in the pattern of FCRL expression between HCV-MC patients with lymphoma and those without lymphoma. The anti-FCRL-5 immunotoxins showed specific cytotoxicity against FCRL-5-expressing clonal CD21(-/low) MZ B cells isolated from HCV-infected patients as well as FCRL-5-transfected cell lines. No cytotoxicity against T cells or conventional B cells was observed. These findings suggest that FCRL-5-targeting therapies could be a specific treatment for HCV-associated MC vasculitis and other FCRL-5-positive autoimmune B cell disorders. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Targeted Delivery of Immunotoxin by Antibody to Ganglioside GD3: A Novel Drug Delivery Route for Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Vilcaes, Aldo A.; Iglesias-Bartolomé, Ramiro; Ruggiero, Fernando M.; Daniotti, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids expressed on plasma membranes from nearly all vertebrate cells. The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays essential roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is up regulated in neuroectodermal and epithelial derived cancers. R24 antibody, directed against ganglioside GD3, is a validated tumor target which is specifically endocytosed and accumulated in endosomes. Here, we exploit the internalization feature of the R24 antibody for the selective delivery of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to GD3-expressing cells [human (SK-Mel-28) and mouse (B16) melanoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells]. This immunotoxin showed a specific cytotoxicity on tumor cells grew on 2D monolayers, which was further evident by the lack of any effect on GD3-negative cells. To estimate the potential antitumor activity of R24-saporin complex, we also evaluated the effect of the immunotoxin on the clonogenic growth of SK-Mel-28 and CHO-K1GD3+ cells cultured in attachment-free conditions. A drastic growth inhibition (>80–90%) of the cell colonies was reached after 3 days of immunotoxin treatment. By the contrary, colonies continue to growth at the same concentration of the immuntoxin, but in the absence of R24 antibody, or in the absence of both immunotoxin and R24, undoubtedly indicating the specificity of the effect observed. Thus, the ganglioside GD3 emerge as a novel and attractive class of cell surface molecule for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents and, therefore, provides a rationale for future therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:23383146

  3. Targeted delivery of immunotoxin by antibody to ganglioside GD3: a novel drug delivery route for tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Torres Demichelis, Vanina; Vilcaes, Aldo A; Iglesias-Bartolomé, Ramiro; Ruggiero, Fernando M; Daniotti, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids expressed on plasma membranes from nearly all vertebrate cells. The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays essential roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is up regulated in neuroectodermal and epithelial derived cancers. R24 antibody, directed against ganglioside GD3, is a validated tumor target which is specifically endocytosed and accumulated in endosomes. Here, we exploit the internalization feature of the R24 antibody for the selective delivery of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, to GD3-expressing cells [human (SK-Mel-28) and mouse (B16) melanoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells]. This immunotoxin showed a specific cytotoxicity on tumor cells grew on 2D monolayers, which was further evident by the lack of any effect on GD3-negative cells. To estimate the potential antitumor activity of R24-saporin complex, we also evaluated the effect of the immunotoxin on the clonogenic growth of SK-Mel-28 and CHO-K1(GD3+) cells cultured in attachment-free conditions. A drastic growth inhibition (>80-90%) of the cell colonies was reached after 3 days of immunotoxin treatment. By the contrary, colonies continue to growth at the same concentration of the immuntoxin, but in the absence of R24 antibody, or in the absence of both immunotoxin and R24, undoubtedly indicating the specificity of the effect observed. Thus, the ganglioside GD3 emerge as a novel and attractive class of cell surface molecule for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents and, therefore, provides a rationale for future therapeutic intervention in cancer.

  4. Cytotoxic effect of the immunotoxin constructed of the ribosome-inactivating protein curcin and the monoclonal antibody against Her2 receptor on tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Quintero, Lidia Patricia; Contis Montes de Oca, Arturo; Romero Rojas, Andrés; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Ayala, Alma Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of the curcin on cancer cells allows to consider this protein as the toxic component of an immunotoxin directed to Her2, which is associated with cancer. Reductive amination was proposed to conjugate curcin and an anti-Her2; the binding was tested using Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, and immunocytochemistry. The in vitro cytotoxicity of curcin and the immunotoxin was assessed on breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 (Her2(+)) and MDA-MB-231 (Her2(-)). IC50 values for curcin were 15.5 ± 8.3 and 18.6 ± 2.4 μg/mL, respectively, statistically equivalent (p < 0.05). While to the immunotoxin was 2.2 ± 0.08 for SK-BR-3 and 147.6 ± 2.5 μg/mL for MDA-MB-231. These values showed that the immunotoxin was seven times more toxic to the SK-BR-3 than curcin and eight times less toxic to the MDA-MB-231. The immunotoxin composed of curcin and an antibody against Her2 and constructed by reductive amination could be a therapeutic candidate against Her2(+) cancer.

  5. Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by a T cell-specific immunotoxin containing daunomycin

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, S.S.; Inazawa, M.; Sinha, N.; Sawada, S.; Vergidis, R.; Diener, E.

    1987-12-01

    Daunomycin coupled via an acid-sensitive spacer to monoclonal Thy-1.2-specific antibody was used to purge T lymphocytes from a 1:1 mixture of murine C57BL/6J bone marrow and spleen cells prior to engraftment in fully allogeneic, irradiated BALB/c recipients. Treatment of bone marrow with the immunotoxin at a concentration used for purging had no effect on the viability of committed hematopoietic progenitor or multipotent stem cells. All of the recipients of purged bone marrow were at least 80% chimeric for donor peripheral blood cells and none developed graft-versus-host disease. Out of 50 chimeras, 49 were still alive more than 200 days posttransplantation. The chimeras were shown to be tolerant to donor tissue as tested by mixed lymphocyte reactivity, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and skin grafting. The same tests revealed full immunocompetence of chimeras to third-party alloantigens. In vivo IgM and IgG antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were similar in magnitude in allogeneically and syngeneically reconstituted mice.

  6. Novel Chemokine-Based Immunotoxins for Potent and Selective Targeting of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G.; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel; Krzywkowski, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Immunotoxins as antiviral therapeutics are largely unexplored but have promising prospective due to their high selectivity potential and their unparalleled efficiency. One recent example targeted the virus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor US28 as a strategy for specific and efficient treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. US28 is expressed on virus-infected cells and scavenge chemokines by rapid internalization. The chemokine-based fusion-toxin protein (FTP) consisted of a variant (F49A) of CX3CL1 specifically targeting US28 linked to the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE). Here, we systematically seek to improve F49A-FTP by modifications in its three structural domains; we generated variants with (1) altered chemokine sequence (K14A, F49L, and F49E), (2) shortened and elongated linker region, and (3) modified toxin domain. Only F49L-FTP displayed higher selectivity in its binding to US28 versus CX3CR1, the endogenous receptor for CX3CL1, but this was not matched by a more selective killing of US28-expressing cells. A longer linker and different toxin variants decreased US28 affinity and selective killing. Thereby, F49A-FTP represents the best candidate for HCMV treatment. Many viruses encode internalizing receptors suggesting that not only HCMV but also, for instance, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus may be targeted by FTPs. PMID:28251165

  7. Novel Chemokine-Based Immunotoxins for Potent and Selective Targeting of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel; Krzywkowski, Karen; Kledal, Thomas N; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2017-01-01

    Immunotoxins as antiviral therapeutics are largely unexplored but have promising prospective due to their high selectivity potential and their unparalleled efficiency. One recent example targeted the virus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor US28 as a strategy for specific and efficient treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. US28 is expressed on virus-infected cells and scavenge chemokines by rapid internalization. The chemokine-based fusion-toxin protein (FTP) consisted of a variant (F49A) of CX3CL1 specifically targeting US28 linked to the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE). Here, we systematically seek to improve F49A-FTP by modifications in its three structural domains; we generated variants with (1) altered chemokine sequence (K14A, F49L, and F49E), (2) shortened and elongated linker region, and (3) modified toxin domain. Only F49L-FTP displayed higher selectivity in its binding to US28 versus CX3CR1, the endogenous receptor for CX3CL1, but this was not matched by a more selective killing of US28-expressing cells. A longer linker and different toxin variants decreased US28 affinity and selective killing. Thereby, F49A-FTP represents the best candidate for HCMV treatment. Many viruses encode internalizing receptors suggesting that not only HCMV but also, for instance, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus may be targeted by FTPs.

  8. Changes in electrocortical power and coherence in response to the selective cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin

    PubMed Central

    Holschneider, Daniel P.; Waite, Jerene J.; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Walton, Nancy Y.; Scremin, Oscar U.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain electrical activity in response to cholinergic agonists, antagonists, or excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain may not be reflective entirely of changes in cholinergic tone, in so far as these interventions also involve noncholinergic neurons. We examined electrocortical activity in rats following bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporin (1.8 μg/ventricle), a selective cholinergic immunotoxin directed to the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75. The immunotoxin resulted in extensive loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in neocortex (80%–84%) and hippocampus (93%), with relative sparing of entorhinal-piriform cortex (42%) and amygdala (28%). Electrocortical activity demonstrated modest increases in 1- to 4-Hz power, decreases in 20- to 44-Hz power, and decreases in 4- to 8-Hz intra- and interhemispheric coherence. Rhythmic slow activity (RSA) occurred robustly in toxin-treated animals during voluntary movement and in response to physostigmine, with no significant differences seen in power and peak frequency in comparison with controls. Physostigmine significantly increased intrahemispheric coherence in lesioned and intact animals, with minor increases seen in interhemispheric coherence. Our study suggests that: (1) electrocortical changes in response to selective cholinergic deafferentation are more modest than those previously reported following excitotoxic lesions; (2) changes in cholinergic tone affect primarily brain electrical transmission within, in contrast to between hemispheres; and (3) a substantial cholinergic reserve remains following administration of 192 IgG-saporin, despite dramatic losses of ChAT in cortex and hippocampus. Persistence of a cholinergically modulated RSA suggests that such activity may be mediated through cholinergic neurons which, because they lack the p75 receptor, remain unaffected by the immunotoxin. PMID:10369149

  9. Enhanced Eradication of Lymphoma by Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T-Cells Secreting an Engineered Tumor-Specific Immunotoxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    immunotoxin RFB4(dsFv)-PE38 (BL22) in patients with hairy cell leukemia . J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 2983-2990. 27. Amlot PL, Stone MJ, Cunningham D, Fay...directs targeting to B lymphocytes. CD22-PEA was tested in a Phase I trial in B- cell malignancies, but tumor responses, particularly in hairy cell ...majority of B-malignant cells express CD22 antigen, therefore a CD22-based IT could be of great importance in the treatment of many B- cell leukemias

  10. A guide to taming a toxin: recombinant immunotoxins constructed from Pseudomonas exotoxin A for the treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, John E.; Pastan, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is a highly toxic protein secreted by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The modular structure and corresponding mechanism of action of PE make it amenable to extensive modifications that can redirect its potent cytotoxicity from disease to a therapeutic function. In combination with a variety of artificial targeting elements, such as receptor ligands and antibody fragments, PE becomes a selective agent for the elimination of specific cell populations. This review summarizes our current understanding of PE, its intoxication pathway, and ongoing efforts to convert this toxin into a treatment for cancer. PMID:21585657

  11. Anti-melanoma activity of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin in dacarbazine resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Oystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    We have earlier shown that the 9.2.27 Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) immunotoxin (IT) efficiently kills melanoma cells through inhibition of protein synthesis followed by some morphologic and biochemical features of apoptosis, a different cell killing mechanism than the one caused by Dacarbazine (DTIC), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat malignant melanoma. To examine whether induced DTIC resistance also is a determining factor for the effectiveness of 9.2.27PE IT, we developed a DTIC resistant subline, FEMX-200DR, from the DTIC sensitive cell line FEMX. The cell variants were treated with 9.2.27PE, an IT binding to the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) expressed on most malignant melanoma cells. The IT was equally effective in killing the FEMX-200DR and the FEMX cells, and the cell death was primarily caused by inhibition of protein synthesis. The DNA repair enzyme and apoptotic marker PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, was inactivated, although we observed only a minor activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, intracellular proteases involved in apoptosis. In addition to being DTIC resistant, the FEMX-200DR cells were also more resistant to apoptosis than the parent cells as a 3 times higher concentration of the apoptotic inducer Staurosporine was needed to obtain IC50. Furthermore, in early passage malignant melanoma cell lines established from lymph node metastases, the 9.2.27PE caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability independent of their DTIC sensitivity. These findings show that the 9.2.27PE IT efficiently can cause cell death in malignant melanoma cells independent of their level of resistance to apoptosis and DTIC.

  12. Eradication of tumor colonization and invasion by a B cell-specific immunotoxin in a murine model for human primary intraocular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuqing; Mahesh, Sankaranarayana P; Shen, De Fen; Liu, Baoying; Siu, Willie O; Hwang, Frank S; Wang, Qing-Chen; Chan, Chi-Chao; Pastan, Ira; Nussenblatt, Robert B

    2006-11-01

    Human primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is predominantly a B cell-originated malignant disease with no appropriate animal models and effective therapies available. This study aimed to establish a mouse model to closely mimic human B-cell PIOL and to test the therapeutic potential of a recently developed immunotoxin targeting human B-cell lymphomas. Human B-cell lymphoma cells were intravitreally injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice. The resemblance of this tumor model to human PIOL was examined by fundoscopy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluated for molecular markers. The therapeutic effectiveness of immunotoxin HA22 was tested by injecting the drug intravitreally. Results showed that the murine model resembles human PIOL closely. Pathologic examination revealed that the tumor cells initially colonized on the retinal surface, followed by infiltrating through the retinal layers, expanding preferentially in the subretinal space, and eventually penetrating through the retinal pigment epithelium into the choroid. Several putative molecular markers for human PIOL were expressed in vivo in this model. Tumor metastasis into the central nervous system was also observed. A single intravitreal injection of immunotoxin HA22 after the establishment of the PIOL resulted in complete regression of the tumor. This is the first report of a murine model that closely mimics human B-cell PIOL. This model may be a valuable tool in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of human PIOL and for the evaluation of new therapeutic approaches. The results of B cell-specific immunotoxin therapy may have clinical implications in treating human PIOL.

  13. Immunotoxins Constructed with Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins and their Enhancers: A Lethal Cocktail with Tumor Specific Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Weng, Alexander; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik; Thakur, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    The term ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) is used to denominate proteins mostly of plant origin, which have N-glycosidase enzymatic activity leading to a complete destruction of the ribosomal function. The discovery of the RIPs was almost a century ago, but their usage has seen transition only in the last four decades. With the advent of antibody therapy, the RIPs have been a subject of extensive research especially in targeted tumor therapies, which is the primary focus of this review. In the present work we enumerate 250 RIPs, which have been identified so far. An attempt has been made to identify all the RIPs that have been used for the construction of immunotoxins, which are conjugates or fusion proteins of an antibody or ligand with a toxin. The data from 1960 onwards is reviewed in this paper and an extensive list of more than 450 immunotoxins is reported. The clinical reach of tumor-targeted toxins has been identified and detailed in the work as well. While there is a lot of potential that RIPs embrace for targeted tumor therapies, the success in preclinical and clinical evaluations has been limited mainly because of their inability to escape the endo/lysosomal degradation. Various strategies that can increase the efficacy and lower the required dose for targeted toxins have been compiled in this article. It is plausible that with the advancements in platform technologies or improved endosomal escape the usage of tumor targeted RIPs would see the daylight of clinical success. PMID:25341935

  14. Non-genotoxic conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a hematopoietic-cell-specific internalizing immunotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Saez, Borja; Hoggatt, Jonathan; Schajnovitz, Amir; Sykes, David B; Tate, Tiffany A; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Kfoury, Youmna; Ruchika, FNU; Rossi, Derrick J; Verdine, Gregory L; Mansour, Michael K; Scadden, David T

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, congenital immunodeficiencies, and other conditions, possibly including AIDS. Autologous HSCT using genetically corrected cells would avoid the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but the genotoxicity of conditioning remains a substantial barrier to the development of this approach. Here we report an internalizing immunotoxin targeting the hematopoietic-cell-restricted CD45 receptor that effectively conditions immunocompetent mice. A single dose of the immunotoxin, CD45–saporin (SAP), enabled efficient (>90%) engraftment of donor cells and full correction of a sickle-cell anemia model. In contrast to irradiation, CD45–SAP completely avoided neutropenia and anemia, spared bone marrow and thymic niches, enabling rapid recovery of T and B cells, preserved anti-fungal immunity, and had minimal overall toxicity. This non-genotoxic conditioning method may provide an attractive alternative to current conditioning regimens for HSCT in the treatment of non-malignant blood diseases. PMID:27272386

  15. A multi-antigen vaccine in combination with an immunotoxin targeting tumor-associated fibroblast for treating murine melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jinxu; Hu, Biliang; Li, Si; Zhang, Chupei; Liu, Yarong; Wang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutically effective cancer vaccine must generate potent antitumor immune responses and be able to overcome tolerance mechanisms mediated by the progressing tumor itself. Previous studies showed that glycoprotein 100 (gp100), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) are promising immunogens for melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, we administered these three melanoma-associated antigens via lentiviral vectors (termed LV-3Ag) and found that this multi-antigen vaccine strategy markedly increased functional T-cell infiltration into tumors and generated protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. We also engineered a novel immunotoxin, αFAP-PE38, capable of targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing fibroblasts within the tumor stroma. When combined with αFAP-PE38, LV-3Ag exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor effects on tumor growth in an established B16 melanoma model. The mechanism of action underlying this combination treatment likely modulates the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and, consequently, activates cytotoxic CD8+ T cells capable of specifically recognizing and destroying tumor cells. Taken together, these results provide a strong rationale for combining an immunotoxin with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27119119

  16. A Comparison of the Anti-Tumor Effects of a Chimeric versus Murine Anti-CD19 Immunotoxins on Human B Cell Lymphoma and Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Lydia K.; Pop, Laurentiu M.; Liu, Xiaoyun; Vitetta, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) affects five to six thousand adults and almost three thousand children every year. Approximately 25% of the children and 60% of the adults die from their disease, highlighting the need for new therapies that complement rather than overlap chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Immunotherapy is a class of therapies where toxicities and mechanisms of action do not overlap with those of chemotherapy. Because CD19 is a B cell- restricted membrane antigen that is expressed on the majority of pre-B tumor cells, a CD19-based immunotherapy is being developed for ALL. In this study, the anti-tumor activities of immunotoxins (ITs) constructed by conjugating a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), HD37, or its chimeric (c) construct to recombinant ricin toxin A chain (rRTA) were compared both in vitro using human pre-B ALL and Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines and in vivo using a disseminated human pre-B ALL tumor cell xenograft model. The murine and chimeric HD37 IT constructs were equally cytotoxic to pre-B ALL and Burkitt’s lymphoma cells in vitro and their use in vivo resulted in equivalent increases in survival of SCID mice with human pre-B ALL tumors when compared with control mice. PMID:22069716

  17. Production of recombinant immunotherapeutics for anticancer treatment: the role of bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Pranchevicius, Maria-Cristina S; Vieira, Thiessa R

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most important health problems because many cases are difficult to prevent. Cancer still has unknown mechanisms of pathogenesis, and its capacity to produce temporary or permanent damage, besides death, is very high. Although many anticancer therapies are available, finding a cure for cancer continues to be a difficult task. Thus, many efforts have been made to develop more effective treatments, such as immunotherapy based on a new class of tumor-specific products that are produced using recombinant DNA technology. These recombinant products are used with the main objectives of killing the tumor and stimulating immune cells to respond to the cancer cells. The principal recombinant products in anticancer therapy are immunostimulants, vaccines, antibodies, immunotoxins and fusion proteins. This review focuses on the general aspects of these genetically engineered products, their clinical performance, current advances and future prospects for this type of anticancer therapy.

  18. A novel combination immunotherapy for cancer by IL-13Rα2-targeted DNA vaccine and immunotoxin in murine tumor models.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hideyuki; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Husain, Syed R; Puri, Raj K

    2011-11-15

    Optimum efficacy of therapeutic cancer vaccines may require combinations that generate effective antitumor immune responses, as well as overcome immune evasion and tolerance mechanisms mediated by progressing tumor. Previous studies showed that IL-13Rα2, a unique tumor-associated Ag, is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. A targeted cytotoxin composed of IL-13 and mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin induced specific killing of IL-13Rα2(+) tumor cells. When combined with IL-13Rα2 DNA cancer vaccine, surprisingly, it mediated synergistic antitumor effects on tumor growth and metastasis in established murine breast carcinoma and sarcoma tumor models. The mechanism of synergistic activity involved direct killing of tumor cells and cell-mediated immune responses, as well as elimination of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, consequently, regulatory T cells. These novel results provide a strong rationale for combining immunotoxins with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.

  19. Therapeutically targeting glypican-2 via single-domain antibody-based chimeric antigen receptors and immunotoxins in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Fu, Haiying; Hewitt, Stephen M; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Ho, Mitchell

    2017-08-08

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that is fatal in almost half of patients despite intense multimodality treatment. This cancer is derived from neuroendocrine tissue located in the sympathetic nervous system. Glypican-2 (GPC2) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is important for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. In this study, we find that GPC2 protein is highly expressed in about half of neuroblastoma cases and that high GPC2 expression correlates with poor overall survival compared with patients with low GPC2 expression. We demonstrate that silencing of GPC2 by CRISPR-Cas9 or siRNA results in the inhibition of neuroblastoma tumor cell growth. GPC2 silencing inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduces the expression of the target gene N-Myc, an oncogenic driver of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We have isolated human single-domain antibodies specific for GPC2 by phage display technology and found that the single-domain antibodies can inhibit active β-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction of GPC2 and Wnt3a. To explore GPC2 as a potential target in neuroblastoma, we have developed two forms of antibody therapeutics, immunotoxins and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Immunotoxin treatment was demonstrated to inhibit neuroblastoma growth in mice. CAR T cells targeting GPC2 eliminated tumors in a disseminated neuroblastoma mouse model where tumor metastasis had spread to multiple clinically relevant sites, including spine, skull, legs, and pelvis. This study suggests GPC2 as a promising therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.

  20. Combined use of an immunotoxin and cyclosporine to prevent both activated and quiescent peripheral blood T cells from producing type 1 human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, K D; Ramilo, O; Vitetta, E S

    1993-01-01

    Two different populations of infected T cells are present in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals: activated cells that produce virions and quiescent cells that harbor the viral genome but are unable to produce virus unless they are activated. Using an in vitro model of acute HIV infection, we have evaluated the effect of depleting activated T cells with an immunotoxin and subsequently inhibiting activation of quiescent T cells with an immunosuppressive agent. CD25 (Tac, p55), the alpha chain of the interleukin 2 receptor, is expressed on activated, but not quiescent, T cells. An anti-CD25-ricin A chain immunotoxin eliminated activated, CD25+ HIV-infected cells and, thereby, inhibited viral production by these cells. Subsequent addition of cyclosporine to the residual CD25- cells prevented their activation and thereby suppressed their ability to produce virus and to propagate the infection to uninfected T cells. Images PMID:8434001

  1. Purification and characterization of a novel type i ribosome inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from Pachyrhizus erosus seeds, and preparation of its immunotoxin against human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-Lin; Cheng, Yuan-Liu; Qiu, Yi; Shen, Cai-Hong; Yi, Bin; Peng, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Pachyrhizus erosus seeds have a high protein content and are used in China due to their cytotoxic effect. Here we report the biological and pharmacological activity of the protein extracts from P. erosus seeds. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from P. erosus seeds was successively purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-sepharose FF, and Sephacryl S-200. Pachyerosin showed to be a type I ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.19. It strongly inhibited protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.37 ng/mL and showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes with an EC50 of 85.9 pM. The N-terminal 27 amino acids of pachyerosin revealed a 60.71% sequence identity with abrin A from the seeds of Abrus precatorius. With the aim of targeting the delivery of pachyerosin, immunotoxin was prepared by conjugating pachyerosin with anti-human AFP monoclonal antibodies SM0736. The immunotoxin pachyerosin-SM0736 efficiently inhibited the growth of the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 with an IC50 of 0.050 ± 0.004 nM, 2360 times lower than that of pachyerosin and 430 times lower than that of the immunotoxin against human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. These results imply that pachyerosin may be used as a new promising anticancer agent.

  2. Selective ablation of dopamine β-hydroxylase neurons in the brain by immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting: new insights into brain catecholaminergic circuitry and catecholamine-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Keiichi; Ohara, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) has been implicated in a variety of physiological functions including sleep/wakefulness, cognition/memory, stress/emotion, and pain. Marked loss of LC-noradrenergic (NAergic) neurons is observed in autopsy specimens of patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD), and part of the clinical symptoms of these diseases may be related to dysfunction of the LC. Neurotoxins have been utilized to ablate LC-NAergic neurons in experimental animals for elucidating the pathophysiological implication of the loss of LC, but there are methodological drawbacks in previously utilized methods. We employed immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting to overcome these problems. Following complete disruption of the LC-NAergic neurons by immunotoxin, mice showed behavioral changes, which resembled the nonmotor symptoms of PD. The LC-NAergic neurons did not regenerate following ablation, so the immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting may be useful especially for studying the long-term effects of the loss of LC-NAergic neurons on brain functions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A deimmunised form of the ribotoxin, α-sarcin, lacking CD4+ T cell epitopes and its use as an immunotoxin warhead.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tim D; Hearn, Arron R; Holgate, Robert G E; Kozub, Dorota; Fogg, Mark H; Carr, Francis J; Baker, Matthew P; Lacadena, Javier; Gehlsen, Kurt R

    2016-08-29

    Fungal ribotoxins that block protein synthesis can be useful warheads in the context of a targeted immunotoxin. α-Sarcin is a small (17 kDa) fungal ribonuclease produced by Aspergillus giganteus that functions by catalytically cleaving a single phosphodiester bond in the sarcin-ricin loop of the large ribosomal subunit, thus making the ribosome unrecognisable to elongation factors and leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Peptide mapping using an ex vivo human T cell assay determined that α-sarcin contained two T cell epitopes; one in the N-terminal 20 amino acids and the other in the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Various mutations were tested individually within each epitope and then in combination to isolate deimmunised α-sarcin variants that had the desired properties of silencing T cell epitopes and retention of the ability to inhibit protein synthesis (equivalent to wild-type, WT α-sarcin). A deimmunised variant (D9T/Q142T) demonstrated a complete lack of T cell activation in in vitro whole protein human T cell assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors with diverse HLA allotypes. Generation of an immunotoxin by fusion of the D9T/Q142T variant to a single-chain Fv targeting Her2 demonstrated potent cell killing equivalent to a fusion protein comprising the WT α-sarcin. These results represent the first fungal ribotoxin to be deimmunised with the potential to construct a new generation of deimmunised immunotoxin therapeutics.

  4. Norovirus recombination.

    PubMed

    Bull, Rowena A; Tanaka, Mark M; White, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    RNA recombination is a significant driving force in viral evolution. Increased awareness of recombination within the genus Norovirus of the family Calicivirus has led to a rise in the identification of norovirus (NoV) recombinants and they are now reported at high frequency. Currently, there is no classification system for recombinant NoVs and a widely accepted recombinant genotyping system is still needed. Consequently, there is duplication in reporting of novel recombinants. This has led to difficulties in defining the number and types of recombinants in circulation. In this study, 120 NoV nucleotide sequences were compiled from the current GenBank database and published literature. NoV recombinants and their recombination breakpoints were identified using three methods: phylogenetic analysis, SimPlot analysis and the maximum chi2 method. A total of 20 NoV recombinant types were identified in circulation worldwide. The recombination point is the ORF1/2 overlap in all isolates except one, which demonstrated a double recombination event within the polymerase region.

  5. Treatment of premalignancy: prevention of lymphoma in radiation leukemia virus-inoculated mice by cyclosporin A and immunotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Yefenof, E; Abboud, G; Epszteyn, S; Vitetta, E S

    1992-01-01

    Radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced preleukemic (PL) latency is characterized by the appearance of virus-infected PL cells in the thymus. The survival of these PL cells is dependent upon autostimulation with interleukin 4 (IL-4). We have intervened prophylactically in RadLV-induced preleukemia by using cyclosporin-A (CSA), which inhibits IL-4 production, and an immunotoxin (ITx) that kills PL cells. CSA efficiently inhibited IL-4 secretion from RadLV-induced PL and leukemic cells, and its administration to PL mice caused a significant delay in their death. An ITx consisting of anti-RadLV glycoprotein-70 (gp70) antibody coupled to ricin A chain efficiently inhibited protein synthesis in virus-infected cells in vitro and, when injected into PL mice, also delayed their death. Combined treatment with CSA and ITx prevented 75% of the treated PL mice from developing lymphoma. These results show that the development of malignancy from a premalignant state can be averted by a combination of therapeutic modalities that decrease the size and growth rate of the premalignant cell population. PMID:1731346

  6. Actinomycin D enhances killing of cancer cells by immunotoxin RG7787 through activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu Fen; Xiang, Laiman; Zhou, Qi; Carralot, Jean-Philippe; Prunotto, Marco; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Pastan, Ira

    2016-01-01

    RG7787 is a mesothelin-targeted immunotoxin designed to have low-immunogenicity, high-cytotoxic activity and fewer side effects. RG7787 kills many types of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells lines and causes tumor regressions in mice. Safety and immunogenicity of RG7787 is now being assessed in a phase I trial. To enhance the antitumor activity of RG7787, we screened for clinically used drugs that can synergize with RG7787. Actinomycin D is a potent transcription inhibitor that is used for treating several cancers. We report here that actinomycin D and RG7787 act synergistically to kill many mesothelin-positive cancer cell lines and produce major regressions of pancreatic and stomach cancer xenografts. Analyses of RNA expression show that RG7787 or actinomycin D alone and together increase levels of TNF/TNFR family members and NF-κB–regulated genes. Western blots revealed the combination changed apoptotic protein levels and enhanced cleavage of Caspases and PARP. PMID:27601652

  7. Cytotoxicity of the anti-CD22 immunotoxin HA22 (CAT-8015) against paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Mussai, Francis; Campana, Dario; Bhojwani, Deepa; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Steinberg, Seth M; Wayne, Alan S; Pastan, Ira

    2010-08-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) remains the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in paediatrics and outcome is poor for patients who have high-risk ALL or relapse. HA22 (CAT-8015) is an immunotoxin composed of an anti-CD22 variable fragment linked to a 38 kDa truncated protein derived from Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Using a bone marrow mesenchymal cell culture assay to support ALL cell viability, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of HA22 against ALL blasts from newly diagnosed (n = 13) and relapsed patients (n = 22). There was interpatient variability in sensitivity to HA22. Twenty-four of 35 patient samples tested were sensitive (median 50% lethal concentration 3 ng/ml, range 1-80 ng/ml). Blasts from the other 11 patients were not killed by 500 ng/ml HA22. The median 50% lethal concentration was 20 ng/ml for all patients. There was no significant difference in HA22 sensitivity between diagnosis and relapse samples but peripheral blood ALL blasts were more sensitive to HA22 than those from bone marrow (P = 0.008). Thus, HA22, at concentrations achievable in patients, is highly cytotoxic to B-lineage ALL cells. These results provide a strong rationale for clinical testing of this agent in children with drug-resistant ALL and offers the potential to reduce morbidities of treatment while improving outcome.

  8. A deimmunised form of the ribotoxin, α-sarcin, lacking CD4+ T cell epitopes and its use as an immunotoxin warhead

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tim D.; Hearn, Arron R.; Holgate, Robert G.E.; Kozub, Dorota; Fogg, Mark H.; Carr, Francis J.; Baker, Matthew P.; Lacadena, Javier; Gehlsen, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal ribotoxins that block protein synthesis can be useful warheads in the context of a targeted immunotoxin. α-Sarcin is a small (17 kDa) fungal ribonuclease produced by Aspergillus giganteus that functions by catalytically cleaving a single phosphodiester bond in the sarcin–ricin loop of the large ribosomal subunit, thus making the ribosome unrecognisable to elongation factors and leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Peptide mapping using an ex vivo human T cell assay determined that α-sarcin contained two T cell epitopes; one in the N-terminal 20 amino acids and the other in the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Various mutations were tested individually within each epitope and then in combination to isolate deimmunised α-sarcin variants that had the desired properties of silencing T cell epitopes and retention of the ability to inhibit protein synthesis (equivalent to wild-type, WT α-sarcin). A deimmunised variant (D9T/Q142T) demonstrated a complete lack of T cell activation in in vitro whole protein human T cell assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors with diverse HLA allotypes. Generation of an immunotoxin by fusion of the D9T/Q142T variant to a single-chain Fv targeting Her2 demonstrated potent cell killing equivalent to a fusion protein comprising the WT α-sarcin. These results represent the first fungal ribotoxin to be deimmunised with the potential to construct a new generation of deimmunised immunotoxin therapeutics. PMID:27578884

  9. Kinetics of cellular trafficking and cytotoxicity of 9.2.27-gelonin immunotoxins targeted against the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen.

    PubMed

    Chan, M C; Murphy, R M

    1999-02-01

    The high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA) is expressed on a large majority of melanoma tissues but not on most normal or other neoplastic tissues. Monoclonal antibody 9.2.27 binds with high affinity and specificity to the HMW-MAA, making it an attractive choice as an agent for targeting toxins or chemotherapeutic agents specifically towards melanomas. To characterize the interactions between 9.2.27 and melanoma cells more carefully, data on the kinetics of binding, internalization, and degradation of 9.2.27 by SK-MEL-2 cells were collected. Binding of 9.2.27 to SK-MEL-2 cells was rapid, and followed by slow loss of surface-bound antibody, probably because of loss of surface antigen caused by degradation and/or shedding. A small fraction (approx. 5%) of surface-bound 9.2.27 was internalized and degraded. A mathematical model describing these interactions was developed, and equilibrium and kinetic constants were fitted to the data. To evaluate the utility of 9.2.27 as a toxin-targeting agent, 9.2.27-gelonin immunotoxins were constructed and tested in protein synthesis inhibition assays. The dependence of the toxicity data for 9.2.27-gelonin on time and concentration was quantitatively related to the accumulated intracellular exposure to 9.2.27-gelonin by a relatively simple equation. This equation had been previously validated for immunotoxins targeted against the transferrin receptor, for which the trafficking kinetics are quite dissimilar from those of the HMW-MAA. The success of the approach here suggests that this method may be widely applicable for analysis of immunotoxin efficacy.

  10. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  11. Genetic Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  12. Antitumor effects of ricin A chain immunotoxins prepared from intact antibodies and Fab' fragments on solid human Hodgkin's disease tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Engert, A; Martin, G; Pfreundschuh, M; Amlot, P; Hsu, S M; Diehl, V; Thorpe, P

    1990-05-15

    Three monoclonal antibodies which strongly bind to Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells and two corresponding Fab' fragments were linked to deglycosylated ricin A chain (dg A) to evaluate their potential as immunotoxins for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Two of the antibodies, Ber-H2 and HRS-3, were shown to bind to the same epitope on the CD30 antigen, whereas the third antibody, IRac, bound to a different antigen. None of the antibodies significantly cross-reacted with normal human tissues as judged by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase analyses on frozen sections from 28 normal tissues. All three antibodies formed potent and specific immunotoxins. They inhibited protein synthesis of the L540 Hodgkin's disease cell line in vitro by 50% at concentrations of 1 x 10(-11) M for IRac.dgA, 9 x 10(-11) M for HRS-3.dgA, and 2 x 10(-10) M for Ber-H2.dgA. HRS-3 Fab' and IRac Fab' immunotoxins were 7.8- and 60-fold less cytotoxic, respectively, than their intact counterparts in vitro. In vivo, a single i.v. injection of a dose of Ber-H2.dgA, HRS-3.dgA, or IRac.dgA corresponding to 40% of the LD50 induced lasting complete remissions in 38, 44, and 50%, respectively, of mice with solid s.c. L540 tumors of 60 to 80 mm3 size (0.5-cm diameter). At equivalent dosage (40% of the LD50), the HRS-3 Fab'.dgA and the IRac Fab'.dgA both induced lasting complete remissions in 25% of the mice, although the HRS-3 Fab'.dgA was significantly superior to IRac Fab'.dgA at retarding tumor growth in the remaining animals. The effectiveness of the immunotoxins depended on the size of the tumor at the time of injection, since IRac.dgA treatment induced complete remissions in 100% of mice with small tumors (10 to 20 mm3, approximately 0.3 cm in diameter) but only 13% of mice with larger tumors of 400 to 600 mm3 (approximately 1 cm in diameter). Tumors which regrew after IRac.dgA treatment mainly consisted of antigen-deficient mutants having reduced sensitivity to IRac.dgA but normal

  13. Phase I trial of EpCAM-targeting immunotoxin MOC31PE, alone and in combination with cyclosporin

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Y; Engebraaten, O; Juell, S; Aamdal, S; Brunsvig, P; Fodstad, Ø; Dueland, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: A phase I trial was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of the anti-EpCAM immunotoxin (IT) MOC31PE in cancer patients. An important part of the study was to investigate whether the addition of Sandimmune (cyclosporin, CsA) suppressed the development of anti-IT antibodies. Methods: Patients with EpCAM-positive metastatic disease were eligible for treatment with intravenous MOC31PE using a modified Fibonacci dose escalation sequence. Maximum tolerated dose was first established without, then with intravenously administered CsA. Results: Sixty-three patients were treated with MOC31PE in doses ranging from 0.5 to 8 μg kg−1. Maximum tolerated dose was 8 μg kg−1 for MOC31PE alone, and 6.5 μg kg−1 when combined with CsA. The dose-limiting adverse event was reversible liver toxicity. No radiological complete or partial responses were observed, whereas stable disease was seen in 36% of the patients receiving MOC31PE only. The pharmacokinetic profile of MOC31PE was characterised by linear kinetics and with a half-life of ∼3 h. The addition of CsA delayed the generation of anti-IT antibodies. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of MOC31PE can safely be administered to cancer patients. Immune suppression with CsA delays the development of anti-MOC31PE antibodies. The antitumour effect of MOC31PE warrants further evaluation in EpCAM-positive metastatic disease. PMID:26554649

  14. Photosynthetic biomanufacturing in green algae; production of recombinant proteins for industrial, nutritional, and medical uses.

    PubMed

    Rasala, Beth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant proteins are widely used for industrial, nutritional, and medical applications. Green microalgae have attracted considerable attention recently as a biomanufacturing platform for the production of recombinant proteins for a number of reasons. These photosynthetic eukaryotic microorganisms are safe, scalable, easy to genetically modify through transformation, mutagenesis, or breeding, and inexpensive to grow. Many microalgae species are genetically transformable, but the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most widely used host for recombinant protein expression. An extensive suite of molecular genetic tools has been developed for C. reinhardtii over the last 25 years, including a fully sequenced genome, well-established methods for transformation, mutagenesis and breeding, and transformation vectors for high levels of recombinant protein accumulation and secretion. Here, we review recent successes in the development of C. reinhardtii as a biomanufacturing host for recombinant proteins, including antibodies and immunotoxins, hormones, industrial enzymes, an orally-active colostral protein for gastrointestinal health, and subunit vaccines. In addition, we review the biomanufacturing potential of other green algae from the genera Dunaliella and Chlorella.

  15. Preclinical studies with the anti-CD19-saporin immunotoxin BU12-SAPORIN for the treatment of human-B-cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Flavell, D. J.; Flavell, S. U.; Boehm, D. A.; Emery, L.; Noss, A.; Ling, N. R.; Richardson, P. R.; Hardie, D.; Wright, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    The immunotoxin BU12-SAPORIN was constructed by covalently coupling the single-chain ribosome-inactivating protein saporin to the anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody BU12 via a disulphide linker using the heterobifunctional reagent SPDP. The immunoreactivity and specificity of BU12-SAPORIN was identical to that of unmodified native BU12 antibody. BU12-SAPORIN was selectively cytotoxic in vitro in a dose-dependent manner for the CD19+ human common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (cALL) cell line NALM-6 but exhibited no toxicity for the CD19- T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cell line HSB-2. The survival of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with disseminated NALM-6 leukaemia was significantly prolonged compared with sham-treated control animals by a course of therapy with BU12-SAPORIN but not with the irrelevant anti-CD7 immunotoxin HB2-SAPORIN. BU12-SAPORIN had no therapeutic effect in SCID mice with disseminated CD19- HSB-2 leukaemia. These preclinical studies have clearly demonstrated the selective cytotoxicity of BU12-SAPORIN for CD19+ target cells both in vitro and in vivo. This, taken together with the lack of expression of the CD19 molecule by any normal life-sustaining tissue and its ubiquitous and homogeneous expression by the majority of cALL and B-NHL cells, provides the rationale for undertaking a phase I trial of systemic therapy with BU12-SAPORIN. Images Figure 1 PMID:8519647

  16. Recombinant allergens

    PubMed Central

    Jutel, Marek; Solarewicz-Madejek, Katarzyna; Smolinska, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only known causative treatment of allergic diseases. Recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies arose from a strong need to both to improve safety and enhance efficacy of SIT. In addition, new vaccines can be effective in allergies including food allergy or atopic dermatitis, which poorly respond to the current treatment with allergen extracts. A number of successful clinical studies with both wild-type and hypoallergenic derivatives of recombinant allergens vaccines have been reported for the last decade. They showed high efficacy and safety profile as well as very strong modulation of T and B cell responses to specific allergens. PMID:23095874

  17. The MOC31PE immunotoxin reduces cell migration and induces gene expression and cell death in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The standard treatment of ovarian cancer with chemotherapy often leads to drug resistance and relapse of the disease, and the need for development of novel therapy alternatives is obvious. The MOC31PE immunotoxin binds to the cell surface antigen EpCAM, which is expressed by the majority of epithelial cancers including ovarian carcinomas, and we studied the cytotoxic effects of MOC31PE in ovarian cancer cells. Methods Investigation of the effects of MOC31PE treatment on protein synthesis, cell viability, proliferation and gene expression of the ovarian cancer cell lines B76 and HOC7. Results MOC31PE treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent reduction of protein synthesis with ID50 values of less than 10 ng/ml, followed by reduced cell viability. In a gene expression array monitoring the expression of 84 key genes in cancer pathways, 13 of the genes were differentially expressed by MOC31PE treatment in comparison to untreated cells. By combining MOC31PE and the immune suppressor cyclosporin A (CsA) the MOC31PE effect on protein synthesis inhibition and cell viability increased tenfold. Cell migration was also reduced, both in the individual MOC31PE and CsA treatment, but even more when combining MOC31PE and CsA. In tumor metastasis PCR arrays, 23 of 84 genes were differentially expressed comparing CsA versus MOC31PE + CsA treatment. Increased expression of the tumor suppressor KISS1 and the nuclear receptor NR4A3 was observed, and the differential candidate gene expression was confirmed in complementary qPCR analyses. For NR4A3 this was not accompanied by increased protein expression. However, a subcellular fractionation assay revealed increased mitochondrial NR4A3 in MOC31PE treated cells, suggesting a role for this protein in MOC31PE-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that MOC31PE may become a new targeted therapy for ovarian cancer and that the MOC31PE anti-cancer effect is potentiated by CsA. PMID:24528603

  18. EGFR/EGFRvIII-targeted immunotoxin therapy for the treatment of glioblastomas via convection-enhanced delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xuhui; Pastan, Ira; Bigner, Darell D.; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor among all primary brain and central nervous system tumors. The median survival time for glioblastoma patients given the current standard of care treatment (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) is less than 15 months. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more efficient therapeutics to improve the poor survival rates of patients with glioblastoma. To address this need, we have developed a novel tumor-targeted immunotoxin (IT), D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL (D2C7-IT), by fusing the single chain variable fragment (scFv) from the D2C7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the Pseudomonas Exotoxin (PE38KDEL). D2C7-IT reacts with both the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRwt) and EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), two onco-proteins frequently amplified or overexpressed in glioblastomas. Surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant binding capacity of D2C7-IT to both EGFRwt and EGFRvIII proteins. In vitro cytotoxicity data showed that D2C7-IT can effectively inhibit protein synthesis and kill a variety of EGFRwt-, EGFRvIII-, and both EGFRwt- and EGFRvIII-expressing glioblastoma xenograft cells and human tumor cell lines. Furthermore, D2C7-IT exhibited a robust anti-tumor efficacy in orthotopic mouse glioma models when administered via intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery (CED). A preclinical toxicity study was therefore conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of D2C7-IT via intracerebral CED for 72 hours in rats. Based on this successful rat toxicity study, an Investigational New Drug (IND) application (#116855) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and is now in effect for a Phase I/II D2C7-IT clinical trial (D2C7 for Adult Patients with Recurrent Malignant Glioma, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02303678). While it is still too early to draw conclusions from the trial, results thus far are

  19. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  20. Recombinant gonadotropins.

    PubMed

    Lathi, R B; Milki, A A

    2001-10-01

    Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to produce large amounts of human gene products for pharmacologic applications, supplanting the need for human tissues. The genes for the alpha and beta subunits of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been characterized and cloned. Recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of fertility disorders. In comparison with the urinary gonadotropin products, human menopausal gonadotropins (HMG), and urinary follitropins (uFSH), rFSH is more potent and better tolerated by patients. Recombinant HCG appears to be as efficacious as urinary HCG with the benefit of improved local tolerance. Recombinant LH (rLH) is likely to be recommended as a supplement to rFSH for ovulation induction in hypogonadotropic women. It may also benefit in vitro fertilization patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with rFSH combined with pituitary suppression, with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or antagonist.

  1. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  2. Depletion of cholinergic amacrine cells by a novel immunotoxin does not perturb the formation of segregated on and off cone bipolar cell projections.

    PubMed

    Gunhan, Emine; Choudary, Prabhakara V; Landerholm, Thomas E; Chalupa, Leo M

    2002-03-15

    Cone bipolar cells are the first retinal neurons that respond in a differential manner to light onset and offset. In the mature retina, the terminal arbors of On and Off cone bipolar cells terminate in different sublaminas of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) where they form synapses with the dendrites of On and Off retinal ganglion cells and with the stratified processes of cholinergic amacrine cells. Here we first show that cholinergic processes within the On and Off sublaminas of the IPL are present early in development, being evident in the rat on the day of birth, approximately 10 d before the formation of segregated cone bipolar cell axons. This temporal sequence, as well as our previous finding that the segregation of On and Off cone bipolar cell inputs occurs in the absence of retinal ganglion cells, suggested that cholinergic amacrine cells could provide a scaffold for the subsequent in-growth of bipolar cell axons. To test this hypothesis directly, a new cholinergic cell immunotoxin was constructed by conjugating saporin, the ribosome-inactivating protein toxin, to an antibody against the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. A single intraocular injection of the immunotoxin caused a rapid, complete, and selective loss of cholinergic amacrine cells from the developing rat retina. On and Off cone bipolar cells were visualized using an antibody against recoverin, the calcium-binding protein that labels the soma and processes of these interneurons. After complete depletion of cholinergic amacrine cells, cone bipolar cell axon terminals still formed their two characteristic strata within the IPL. These findings demonstrate that the presence of cholinergic amacrine cells is not required for the segregation of recoverin-positive On and Off cone bipolar cell projections.

  3. Membrane cholesterol is essential for triterpenoid saponin augmentation of a saporin-based immunotoxin directed against CD19 on human lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy S; Baker, Ella J; Holmes, Suzanne E; Koster, Grielof; Hunt, Alan N; Johnston, David A; Flavell, Sopsamorn U; Flavell, David J

    2017-05-01

    Triterpenoid saponins from Saponinum Album (SA) exert potent lytic effects on eukaryotic cell plasma membranes and, when used at sub-lytic concentrations, significantly augment the cytotoxicity of saporin-based immunotoxins (IT). To help elucidate the mechanism(s) behind these two phenomena we investigated the role of cholesterol to both. Human Daudi lymphoma cells were lipid deprived using a combination of three different approaches. Following treatment, the total cellular lipid content was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol content measured using the lipophilic fluorescent probe NR12S. Maximal lipid deprivation of cells resulted in a complete loss of sensitivity to lysis by SA. Similarly augmentation of the anti-CD19 immunotoxin (IT) BU12-SAPORIN by SA was lost but without a concomitant loss of intrinsic IT cytotoxicity. The lytic activity of SA was restored following incubation of lipid deprived Daudi cells with Synthecol or LDL. The augmentative effect of SA on IT cytotoxicity for Daudi cells was restored following repletion of PM cholesterol levels with LDL. NR12S fluorescence and ESI-MS analysis of cellular lipids demonstrated that restoration of SA lytic activity by Synthecol was entirely due to increased PM cholesterol levels. Restoration of cellular and PM cholesterol levels by LDL also restored the augmentative effect of SA for IT, an effect associated with repletion of PM cholesterol with minor changes in some phospholipid species. These results indicate that the lytic and IT augmentative properties of SA are cholesterol-dependent in contrast to intrinsic IT cytotoxicity that is at least partially cholesterol independent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lektine, Toxine und Immunotoxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbruck, Gerhard

    1981-12-01

    A definition and classification of lectins (carbohydrate-binding (glyco)proteins) is given on the basis of new data and experimental results. Especially the biological role of bacterial, vertebrate and sponge lectins is discussed. The lectin-toxin combination offers an excellent model not only for studying adhesion to and penetration through the cell membrane, but also for hybridization with antibody fragments showing anti-tumor specificity.

  5. 75 FR 55809 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Immunotoxins/Targeted Toxins for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Health Service, DHHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is notice, in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(c)(1) and... ``Mesothelin Antigen and Methods and Kits for Targeting It'' , U.S. Patent 5,747,654 entitled ``Recombinant... (AML)) or (c) Annexin A2-expressing cancers (such as glioma, ovarian cancer and pancreatic...

  6. Intrathecal administration of single-chain immunotoxin, LMB-7 [B3(Fv)-PE38], produces cures of carcinomatous meningitis in a rat model.

    PubMed Central

    Pastan, I H; Archer, G E; McLendon, R E; Friedman, H S; Fuchs, H E; Wang, Q C; Pai, L H; Herndon, J; Bigner, D D

    1995-01-01

    LMB-7 [B3(Fv)-PE38] is a single-chain immunotoxin constructed from the murine monoclonal antibody B3 and a truncated from of Pseudomonas exotoxin PE38. Antibody B3 recognizes a carbohydrate epitope found on solid tumors that frequently invade the intrathecal space and cause neoplastic meningitis. We tested the therapeutic value of intrathecally administered LMB-7 by using a model of human neoplastic meningitis in athymic rats. This model is representative of a clinical situation in that antibody B3 cross-reacts with a number of normal tissues that can be used to monitor potential systemic toxicity. Treatment was begun 3 days after A431 tumor implantation. Without treatment, the animals median survival was 10 days. Intrathecal administration of 10 micrograms of LMB-7 in 40 microliters on days 3, 5, and 7 produced 4 of 10 and 8 of 10 long-term survivors (> 170 days) in two experiments. Of the long-term survivors, 2 of 4 and 7 of 8 survivors had no microscopic evidence of tumor and were considered histologic cures. Lack of significant toxicity in the effective dose range and specificity make LMB-7 an excellent candidate for intrathecal treatment of neoplastic meningitis in humans. PMID:7708720

  7. Epitope mapping and key amino acid identification of anti-CD22 immunotoxin CAT-8015 using hybrid β-lactamase display

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, D.; Popovic, B.; Sridharan, S.; Giannotta, F.; Filée, P.; Yilmaz, N.; Minter, R.

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are a commercially successful class of drug molecules and there are now a growing number of antibodies coupled to toxic payloads, which demonstrate clinical efficacy. Determining the precise epitope of therapeutic antibodies is beneficial in understanding the structure–activity relationship of the drug, but in many cases is not done due to the structural complexity of, in particular, conformational protein epitopes. Using the immunotoxin CAT-8015 as a test case, this study demonstrates that a new methodology, hybrid β-lactamase display, can be employed to elucidate a complex epitope on CD22. Following insertion of random CD22 gene fragments into a permissive site within β-lactamase, proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were first screened for correct folding by resistance to ampicillin and then selected by phage display for affinity to CAT-8015. The optimal protein region recognised by CAT-8015 could then be used as a tool for fine epitope mapping, using alanine-scanning analysis, demonstrating that this technology is well suited to the rapid characterisation of antibody epitopes. PMID:21159620

  8. Epitope mapping and key amino acid identification of anti-CD22 immunotoxin CAT-8015 using hybrid β-lactamase display.

    PubMed

    Bannister, D; Popovic, B; Sridharan, S; Giannotta, F; Filée, P; Yilmaz, N; Minter, R

    2011-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are a commercially successful class of drug molecules and there are now a growing number of antibodies coupled to toxic payloads, which demonstrate clinical efficacy. Determining the precise epitope of therapeutic antibodies is beneficial in understanding the structure-activity relationship of the drug, but in many cases is not done due to the structural complexity of, in particular, conformational protein epitopes. Using the immunotoxin CAT-8015 as a test case, this study demonstrates that a new methodology, hybrid β-lactamase display, can be employed to elucidate a complex epitope on CD22. Following insertion of random CD22 gene fragments into a permissive site within β-lactamase, proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were first screened for correct folding by resistance to ampicillin and then selected by phage display for affinity to CAT-8015. The optimal protein region recognised by CAT-8015 could then be used as a tool for fine epitope mapping, using alanine-scanning analysis, demonstrating that this technology is well suited to the rapid characterisation of antibody epitopes.

  9. Effect of Chelator Conjugation Level and Injection Dose on Tumor and Organ Uptake of 111In Labeled MORAb-009, an Anti-mesothelin Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Shin, I. S.; Lee, S.-M.; Kim, H. S.; Yao, Z.; Regino, C.; Sato, N.; Cheng, K. T.; Hassan, R.; Campo, M. F.; Albone, E. F.; Choyke, P. L.; Pastan, I.; Paik, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Radiolabeling of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a metallic radionuclide requires the conjugation of a bifunctional chelator to the mAb. The conjugation, however, can alter the physical and immunological properties of the mAb, consequently affecting its tumor targeting pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated the effect of the amount of 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-cyclohexyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″) conjugated to MORAb-009, a mAb directed against mesothelin and the effect of MORAb dose on the biodistribution of 111In labeled MORAb-009. Methods We used nude mice bearing A431/K5 tumor as a mesothelin-positive tumor model and A431 tumor as a mesothelin-negative control. To find the optimal level of CHX-A″ conjugation, CHX-A″-MORAb-009 conjugates with 2.4, 3.5, and 5.5 CHX-A″ molecules were investigated. To investigate the effect of injected MORAb-009 dose on neutralizing the shed-mesothelin in the circulation, the biodistribution studies were performed after the i.v. co-injection of the 111In labeled MORAb-009 (2.4 CHX-A″/MORAb-009) with three different doses, 0.2, 2, and 30 μg of MORAb-009. Results The tumor uptake in A431/K5 tumor was 4 times higher than that in A431 tumor, indicating that the tumor uptake in A431/K5 was mesothelin-mediated. The conjugate with 5.5 CHX-A″ showed a lower isoelectric point (pI) and lower immunoreactivity (IR) than the 2.4 CHX-A″ conjugate. These differences were reflected in biodistribution of the 111In label. The 111In labeled MORAb-009 conjugated with 2.4 CHX-A″ produced higher tumor uptake, and lower liver and spleen uptakes than the 5.5 CHX-A″ conjugate. The biodistribution studies also revealed that the tumor uptake was significantly affected by the injected MORAb-009 dose and tumor size. The 30 μg dose produced higher tumor uptake than the 0.2 and 2 μg doses whereas the 30 μg dose produced lower liver and spleen uptakes than the 0.2 μg dose. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the number of chelate conjugation and the injected dose are two important parameters to achieve high tumor and low non-target organ uptake of 111In labeled MORAb-009. This study also suggests that the injected dose of mAb could be individualized based on the tumor size or the blood level of shed-antigen in a patient to achieve the ideal tumor-to-organ radioactivity ratios. PMID:21741258

  10. Combination of the PI3K Inhibitor ZSTK474 with a PSMA-Targeted Immunotoxin Accelerates Apoptosis and Regression of Prostate Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Daniele; Hassan, Sazzad; Choi, Young A; Flores, Anabel; Karpova, Yelena; Yancey, Dana; Pullikuth, Ashok; Sui, Guangchao; Sadelain, Michel; Debinski, Waldemar; Kulik, George

    2013-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is activated in most advanced prostate cancers, yet so far treatments with PI3K inhibitors have been at best tumorostatic in preclinical cancer models and do not show significant antitumor efficacy in clinical trials. Results from tissue culture experiments in prostate cancer cells suggest that PI3K inhibitors should be combined with other cytotoxic agents; however, the general toxicity of such combinations prevents translating these experimental data into preclinical and clinical models. We investigated the emerging concept of tumor-targeted synthetic lethality in prostate cancer cells by using the pan-PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 and the immunotoxin J591PE, a protein chimera between the single-chain variable fragment of the monoclonal antibody J591 against the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and the truncated form of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE38QQR). The combination of ZSTK474 and J591PE increased apoptosis within 6 hours and cell death (monitored at 24–48 hours) in the PSMA-expressing cells LNCaP, C4-2, and C4-2Luc but not in control cells that do not express PSMA (PC3 and BT549 cells). Mechanistic analysis suggested that induction of apoptosis requires Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) dephosphorylation and decreased expression of myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein 1 (MCL-1). A single injection of ZSTK474 and J591PE into engrafted prostate cancer C4-2Luc cells led to consistent and stable reduction of luminescence within 6 days. These results suggest that the combination of a PI3K inhibitor and a PSMA-targeted protein synthesis inhibitor toxin represents a promising novel strategy for advanced prostate cancer therapy that should be further investigated. PMID:24204196

  11. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  12. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  13. IL-2 immunotoxin denileukin diftitox reduces regulatory T cells and enhances vaccine-mediated T-cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Litzinger, Mary T.; Fernando, Romaine; Curiel, Tyler J.; Grosenbach, Douglas W.; Palena, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have been implicated in the lack of effective antitumor immunity. Denileukin diftitox (DAB389IL-2), a fusion protein of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and diphtheria toxin, provides a means of targeting Treg cells. In this study, we examined (1) the effect of denileukin diftitox on the deletion of Treg cells in various lymphoid compartments and (2) the dose scheduling of denileukin diftitox in combination with a recombinant poxviral vaccine to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. Treg cells in spleen, peripheral blood, and bone marrow of normal C57BL/6 mice were variously reduced after a single intraperitoneal injection of denileukin diftitox; the reduction was evident within 24 hours and lasted approximately 10 days. Injection of denileukin diftitox 1 day before vaccination enhanced antigen-specific T-cell responses above levels induced by vaccination alone. These studies show for the first time in a murine model (1) the differential effects of denileukin diftitox on Treg cells in different cellular compartments, (2) the advantage of combining denileukin diftitox with a vaccine to enhance antigen-specific T-cell immune responses, (3) the lack of inhibition by denileukin diftitox of host immune responses directed against a live viral vector, and (4) the importance of dose scheduling of denileukin diftitox when used in combination with a vaccine. PMID:17616639

  14. Photoionization and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretically self-consistent calculations for photoionization and (e + ion) recombination are described. The same eigenfunction expansion for the ion is employed in coupled channel calculations for both processes, thus ensuring consistency between cross sections and rates. The theoretical treatment of (e + ion) recombination subsumes both the non-resonant recombination ("radiative recombination"), and the resonant recombination ("di-electronic recombination") processes in a unified scheme. In addition to the total, unified recombination rates, level-specific recombination rates and photoionization cross sections are obtained for a large number of atomic levels. Both relativistic Breit-Pauli, and non-relativistic LS coupling, calculations are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method. Although the calculations are computationally intensive, they yield nearly all photoionization and recombination parameters needed for astrophysical photoionization models with higher precision than hitherto possible, estimated at about 10-20% from comparison with experimentally available data (including experimentally derived DR rates). Results are electronically available for over 40 atoms and ions. Photoionization and recombination of He-, and Li-like C and Fe are described for X-ray modeling. The unified method yields total and complete (e+ion) recombination rate coefficients, that can not otherwise be obtained theoretically or experimentally.

  15. Preclinical toxicity evaluation of a novel immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, administered via intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery in rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xuhui; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Reynolds, Randall P; Norton, John N; Wetsel, William C; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Aryal, Dipendra K; McLendon, Roger E; Levin, Edward D; Petry, Neil A; Zalutsky, Michael R; Burnett, Bruce K; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2016-04-01

    D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL (D2C7-IT) is a novel immunotoxin that reacts with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRwt) and mutant EGFRvIII proteins overexpressed in glioblastomas. This study assessed the toxicity of intracerebral administration of D2C7-IT to support an initial Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug application. After the optimization of the formulation and administration, two cohorts (an acute and chronic cohort necropsied on study days 5 and 34) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (four groups of 5 males and 5 females) were infused with the D2C7-IT formulation at total doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.4 μg (the acute cohort) and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.35 μg (the chronic cohort) for approximately 72 h by intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery using osmotic pumps. Mortality was observed in the 0.40 μg (5/10 rats) and 0.35 μg (4/10 rats) high-dose groups of each cohort. Body weight loss and abnormal behavior were only revealed in the rats treated with high doses of D2C7-IT. No dose-related effects were observed in clinical laboratory tests in either cohort. A gross pathologic examination of systemic tissues from the high-dose and control groups in both cohorts exhibited no dose-related or drug-related pathologic findings. Brain histopathology revealed the frequent occurrence of dose-related encephalomalacia, edema, and demyelination in the high-dose groups of both cohorts. In this study, the maximum tolerated dose of D2C7-IT was determined to be between 0.10 and 0.35 μg, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-level was 0.05 μg in SD rats. Both parameters were utilized to design the Phase I/II D2C7-IT clinical trial.

  16. Preclinical Toxicity Evaluation of a Novel Immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, Administered via Intracerebral Convection-Enhanced Delivery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xuhui; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Reynolds, Randall P.; Norton, John N.; Wetsel, William C.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Aryal, Dipendra K.; McLendon, Roger E.; Levin, Edward D.; Petry, Neil A.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Burnett, Bruce K.; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Pastan, Ira H.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL (D2C7-IT) is a novel immunotoxin that reacts with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRwt) and mutant EGFRvIII proteins overexpressed in glioblastomas. This study assessed the toxicity of intracerebral administration of D2C7-IT to support an initial Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug application. After the optimization of the formulation and administration, two cohorts (an acute and chronic cohort necropsied on study days 5 and 34) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (four groups of 5 males and 5 females) were infused with the D2C7-IT formulation at total doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.4 µg (the acute cohort) and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.35 µg (the chronic cohort) for approximately 72 hours by intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery using osmotic pumps. Mortality was observed in the 0.40 µg (5/10 rats) and 0.35 µg (4/10 rats) high-dose groups of each cohort. Body weight loss and abnormal behavior were only revealed in the rats treated with high doses of D2C7-IT. No dose-related effects were observed in clinical laboratory tests in either cohort. A gross pathologic examination of systemic tissues from the high-dose and control groups in both cohorts exhibited no dose-related or drug-related pathologic findings. Brain histopathology revealed the frequent occurrence of dose-related encephalomalacia, edema, and demyelination in the high-dose groups of both cohorts. In this study, the maximum tolerated dose of D2C7-IT was determined to be between 0.10 and 0.35 µg, and the no observed adverse effect level was 0.05 µg in SD rats. Both parameters were utilized to design the Phase I/II D2C7-IT clinical trial. PMID:26728879

  17. Recombination of cluster ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1993-01-01

    Some of our recent work on molecular band emissions from recombination of molecular dimer ions (N4(+) and CO(+) CO) is discussed. Much of the experimental work was done by Y. S. Cao; the results on N4(+) recombination have been published. A brief progress report is given on our ongoing measurements of neutral products of recombination using the flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe technique in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence.

  18. Recombinant Baculovirus Isolation.

    PubMed

    King, Linda A; Hitchman, Richard; Possee, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Although there are several different methods available of making recombinant baculovirus expression vectors (reviewed in Chapter 3 ), all require a stage in which insect cells are transfected with either the virus genome alone (Bac-to-Bac(®) or BaculoDirect™, Invitrogen) or virus genome and transfer vector. In the latter case, this allows the natural process of homologous recombination to transfer the foreign gene, under control of the polyhedrin or other baculovirus gene promoter, from the transfer vector to the virus genome to create the recombinant virus. Previously, many methods required a plaque-assay to separate parental and recombinant virus prior to amplification and use of the recombinant virus. Fortunately, this step is no longer required for most systems currently available. This chapter provides an overview of the historical development of increasingly more efficient systems for the isolation of recombinant baculoviruses (Chapter 3 provides a full account of the different systems and transfer vectors available). The practical details cover: transfection of insect cells with either virus DNA or virus DNA and plasmid transfer vector; a reliable plaque-assay method that can be used to separate recombinant virus from parental (nonrecombinant) virus where this is necessary; methods for the small-scale amplification of recombinant virus; and subsequent titration by plaque-assay or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods unique to the Bac-to-Bac(®) system are also covered and include the transformation of bacterial cells and isolation of bacmid DNA ready for transfection of insect cells.

  19. Recombination and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Aisha H.; Hawkins, Michelle; McGlynn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The links between recombination and replication have been appreciated for decades and it is now generally accepted that these two fundamental aspects of DNA metabolism are inseparable: Homologous recombination is essential for completion of DNA replication and vice versa. This review focuses on the roles that recombination enzymes play in underpinning genome duplication, aiding replication fork movement in the face of the many replisome barriers that challenge genome stability. These links have many conserved features across all domains of life, reflecting the conserved nature of the substrate for these reactions, DNA. PMID:25341919

  20. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  1. Surface recombination in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, J.M.; Walukiewicz, W.

    1995-07-01

    We propose two general criteria for a surface defect state to act as an efficient, nonradiative recombination center. The first is that the thermal ionization energy should not deviate from the mid-gap energy by more than the relaxation energy of the defect, In this case the activation energy for the recombination is given by the barrier for the capture of the first carrier, whereas the second carrier is captured athermally. The second citerion is related to the position of the average dangling bond energy relative to the band edges. If, as in the cases of InP or InAs, it is located close to a band edge, a low surface recombination velocity is expected. However a much faster recombination is predicated and experimentally observed in the materials with the average dangling bond energy located close to the mid-gap. The relevance of these criteria for the novel wide-gap optoelectronic materials is discussed.

  2. Multiphoton Assisted Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, E. S.; Jones, R. R.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2008-12-01

    We have observed multiphoton assisted recombination in the presence of a 38.8 GHz microwave field. Stimulated emission of up to ten microwave photons results in energy transfer from continuum electrons, enabling recombination. The maximum electron energy loss is far greater than the 2Up predicted by the standard “simpleman’s” model. The data are well reproduced by both an approximate analytic expression and numerical simulations in which the combined Coulomb and radiation fields are taken into account.

  3. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  4. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  5. Recombination and chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, David J; Søballe, Britta; Barre, François-Xavier; Filipe, Sergio; Lau, Ivy; Massey, Thomas; Yates, James

    2004-01-01

    The duplication of DNA and faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes at cell division is frequently dependent on recombinational processes. The rebuilding of broken or stalled replication forks is universally dependent on homologous recombination proteins. In bacteria with circular chromosomes, crossing over by homologous recombination can generate dimeric chromosomes, which cannot be segregated to daughter cells unless they are converted to monomers before cell division by the conserved Xer site-specific recombination system. Dimer resolution also requires FtsK, a division septum-located protein, which coordinates chromosome segregation with cell division, and uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to activate the dimer resolution reaction. FtsK can also translocate DNA, facilitate synapsis of sister chromosomes and minimize entanglement and catenation of newly replicated sister chromosomes. The visualization of the replication/recombination-associated proteins, RecQ and RarA, and specific genes within living Escherichia coli cells, reveals further aspects of the processes that link replication with recombination, chromosome segregation and cell division, and provides new insight into how these may be coordinated. PMID:15065657

  6. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  7. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  8. The dissociative recombination of ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubé, S.; Lehfaoui, L.; Rowe, B. R.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    1998-09-01

    The dissociative recombination rate coefficient for 0953-4075/31/18/016/img2 has been measured at 300 K using a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. A value of 0953-4075/31/18/016/img3 has been found.

  9. Introduction to dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.; Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1989-01-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions with electrons has important consequences in many areas of physical science. Ab-initio calculations coupled with resonant scattering theory and multichannel quantum defect studies have produced detailed results illuminating the role of ion vibrational excitation, the quantum yields of the DR products, and the role of Rydberg states. The theoretical and experimental results are discussed.

  10. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D’Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew RM

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products. PMID:25530082

  11. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  12. Recombineering linear BACs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingwen; Narayanan, Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Recombineering is a powerful genetic engineering technique based on homologous recombination that can be used to accurately modify DNA independent of its sequence or size. One novel application of recombineering is the assembly of linear BACs in E. coli that can replicate autonomously as linear plasmids. A circular BAC is inserted with a short telomeric sequence from phage N15, which is subsequently cut and rejoined by the phage protelomerase enzyme to generate a linear BAC with terminal hairpin telomeres. Telomere-capped linear BACs are protected against exonuclease attack both in vitro and in vivo in E. coli cells and can replicate stably. Here we describe step-by-step protocols to linearize any BAC clone by recombineering, including inserting and screening for presence of the N15 telomeric sequence, linearizing BACs in vivo in E. coli, extracting linear BACs, and verifying the presence of hairpin telomere structures. Linear BACs may be useful for functional expression of genomic loci in cells, maintenance of linear viral genomes in their natural conformation, and for constructing innovative artificial chromosome structures for applications in mammalian and plant cells.

  13. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  14. Genomic homologous recombination in planta.

    PubMed Central

    Gal, S; Pisan, B; Hohn, T; Grimsley, N; Hohn, B

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring intrachromosomal homologous recombination in whole plants is described. A multimer of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) sequences, arranged such that CaMV could only be produced by recombination, was integrated into Brassica napus nuclear DNA. This set-up allowed scoring of recombination events by the appearance of viral symptoms. The repeated homologous regions were derived from two different strains of CaMV so that different recombinant viruses (i.e. different recombination events) could be distinguished. In most of the transgenic plants, a single major virus species was detected. About half of the transgenic plants contained viruses of the same type, suggesting a hotspot for recombination. The remainder of the plants contained viruses with cross-over sites distributed throughout the rest of the homologous sequence. Sequence analysis of two recombinant molecules suggest that mismatch repair is linked to the recombination process. Images PMID:2026150

  15. Purification and characterization of Moschatin, a novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), and preparation of its immunotoxin against human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Heng Chuan; Li, Feng; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Zu Chuan

    2003-10-01

    A novel ribosome-inactivating protein designated Moschatin from the mature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) has been successively purified to homogeneity, using ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-cellulose 52 column chromatography, Blue Sepharose CL-6B Affinity column chromatography and FPLC size-exclusion column chromatography. Moschatin is a type 1 RIP with a pI of 9.4 and molecular weight of approximately 29 kD. It is a rRNA N-glycosidase and potently blocked the protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate with a IC50 of 0.26 nM. Using the anti-human melanoma McAb Ng76, a novel immunotoxin Moschatin-Ng76 was prepared successfully and it efficiently inhibited the growth of targeted melanoma cells M21 with a IC50 of 0.04 nM, 1500 times lower than that of free Moschatin. The results implied that Moschatin could be used as a new potential anticancer agent.

  16. Engineering and biological characterization of VB6-845, an anti-EpCAM immunotoxin containing a T-cell epitope-depleted variant of the plant toxin bouganin.

    PubMed

    Cizeau, Jeannick; Grenkow, Danielle M; Brown, Jennifer G; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2009-01-01

    The clinical development of immunotoxins in the treatment of solid tumors has been impeded in part, by the induction of an immune response directed primarily against the toxin moiety. Bouganin, a type I ribosome inactivating protein isolated from the leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd, was mutated to remove the T-cell epitopes while preserving the biological activity of the wild-type molecule. The T-cell epitope-depleted variant of bouganin (de-bouganin) was genetically linked to an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) Fab moiety via a peptidic linker containing a furin proteolytic site to create the fusion construct VB6-845. To determine the optimal construct design for VB6-845, several dicistronic units where de-bouganin was genetically linked to either the N-terminal or C-terminal of either the heavy or light chain were engineered. Only the C-terminal variants expressed the full-length molecule. An in vitro assessment of the biological activity of VB6-845 showed that it bound and selectively killed EpCAM-positive cell lines with a greater potency than many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated using an EpCAM-positive human tumor xenograft model in SCID mice with the majority of the mice treated being tumor free at the end of the study.

  17. Site directed recombination

    DOEpatents

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  18. The recombination epoch revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of cosmological recombination have shown that this process produces as a by-product a highly superthermal population of Ly-alpha photons which retard completion of recombination. Cosmological redshifting was thought to determine the frequency distribution of the photons, while two-photon decay of hydrogen's 2s state was thought to control their numbers. It is shown here that frequency diffusion due to photon scattering dominate the cosmological redshift in the frequency range near line center which fixes the ratio of ground state to excited state population, while incoherent scattering into the far-red damping wing effectively destroys Ly-alpha photons as a rate which is competitive with two-photon decay. The former effect tends to hold back recombination, while the latter tends to accelerate it; the net results depends on cosmological parameters, particularly the combination Omega(b) h/sq rt (2q0), where Omega(b) is the fraction of the critical density provided by baryons.

  19. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  20. Cell biology of mitotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-03-02

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect to capacity of homologous recombination.

  1. Cell Biology of Mitotic Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect to capacity of homologous recombination. PMID:25731763

  2. Orientation Dependence in Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, K.; Takahashi, N.; Fujitani, Y.; Yoshikura, H.; Kobayashi, I.

    1996-01-01

    Homologous recombination was investigated in Escherichia coli with two plasmids, each carrying the homologous region (two defective neo genes, one with an amino-end deletion and the other with a carboxyl-end deletion) in either direct or inverted orientation. Recombination efficiency was measured in recBC sbcBC and recBC sbcA strains in three ways. First, we measured the frequency of cells carrying neo(+) recombinant plasmids in stationary phase. Recombination between direct repeats was much more frequent than between inverted repeats in the recBC sbcBC strain but was equally frequent in the two substrates in the recBC sbcA strain. Second, the fluctuation test was used to exclude bias by a rate difference between the recombinant and parental plasmids and led to the same conclusion. Third, direct selection for recombinants just after transformation with or without substrate double-strand breaks yielded essentially the same results. Double-strand breaks elevated recombination in both the strains and in both substrates. These results are consistant with our previous findings that the major route of recombination in recBC sbcBC strains generates only one recombinant DNA from two DNAs and in recBC sbcA strains generates two recombinant DNAs from two DNAs. PMID:8722759

  3. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  4. Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.

  5. Expression of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  6. Dissociative recombination of HCl+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Åsa; Fonseca dos Santos, Samantha; E. Orel, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The dissociative recombination of HCl+, including both the direct and indirect mechanisms, is studied. For the direct process, the relevant electronic states are calculated ab initio by combining electron scattering calculations to obtain resonance positions and autoionization widths with multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ion and Rydberg states. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed by solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the indirect process, an upper bound value for the cross section is obtained using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Vibrational excitations of the ionic core from the ground vibrational state, v = 0 , to the first three excited vibrational states, v = 1 , v = 2 , and v = 3 , are considered. Autoionization is neglected and the effect of the spin-orbit splitting of the ionic potential energy upon the indirect dissociative recombination cross section is considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  7. Recombinant electric storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Flicker, R.P.; Fenstermacher, S.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a recombinant storage battery. It comprises: a plurality of positive plates containing about 2 to 4 percent of antimony based upon the total weight of the alloy and positive active material, and essentially antimony free negative plates in a closed case; a fibrous sheet plate separator between adjacent ones of the plates, and a body of an electrolyte to which the sheet separators are inert absorbed by each of the separators and maintained in contact with each of the adjacent ones of the plates. Each of the separator sheets comprising first fibers which impart to the sheet a given absorbency greater than 90 percent relative to the electrolyte and second fibers which impart to the sheet a different absorbency less than 80 percent relative to the electrolyte. The first and second fibers being present in such proportions that each of the sheet separators has an absorbency with respect to the electrolyte of from 75 to 95 percent and the second fibers being present in such proportions that the battery has a recombination rate adequate to compensate for gassing.

  8. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  9. Cocktails of ricin A-chain immunotoxins against different antigens on Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells have superior anti-tumor effects against H-RS cells in vitro and solid Hodgkin tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Engert, A; Gottstein, C; Bohlen, H; Winkler, U; Schön, G; Manske, O; Schnell, R; Diehl, V; Thorpe, P

    1995-10-09

    Three ricin A-chain immunotoxins (ITs) recognizing different antigens on Hodgkin-Reed/Sternberg (H-RS) cells were evaluated for their anti-tumor effects when used in combination as "cocktails". These ITs, BB10.dgA (CD25), HRS3.dgA (CD30), and IRac.dgA (70 kDa), strongly inhibited the growth of L540Cy H-RS cells in vitro. The protein synthesis of this cell line was reduced more efficiently by the combination of 2 of these ITs than by BB10.dgA, HRS3.dgA or IRac.dgA alone. A cocktail of all 3 ITs was most effective in vitro. This was at least in part due to the non-homogeneous distribution of CD25, CD30 or IRac on the L540Cy H-RS target cells and to the fact that subpopulations deficient in one antigen nevertheless expressed appreciable levels of the other target antigens. IT cocktails were also superior as anti-tumor agents in nude mice with solid L540Cy tumors. Ninety percent of mice treated with cocktails containing 2 or 3 ITs had continuous complete remissions (CCR), as compared with only 40% of mice treated with the same dose of a single IT. Analysis of 7 L540Cy sub-lines re-established ex vivo from mice that relapsed after having achieved complete remission (CR) after therapy with a single IT showed that the surviving tumor cells were antigen-deficient variants which were resistant to the original IT, but which could be killed by ITs directed against other target antigens. Thus, IT cocktails give superior results against human H-RS cells, both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Recombineering: A Homologous Recombination-Based Method of Genetic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Shyam K.; Thomason, Lynn C.; Kuznetsov, Sergey G.; Court, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Recombineering is an efficient method of in vivo genetic engineering applicable to chromosomal as well as episomal replicons in E. coli. This method circumvents the need for most standard in vitro cloning techniques. Recombineering allows construction of DNA molecules with precise junctions without constraints being imposed by restriction enzyme site location. Bacteriophage homologous recombination proteins catalyze these recombineering reactions using double- and single-strand linear DNA substrates, so-called targeting constructs, introduced by electroporation. Gene knockouts, deletions and point mutations are readily made, gene tags can be inserted, and regions of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) or the E. coli genome can be subcloned by gene retrieval using recombineering. Most of these constructs can be made within about a week's time. PMID:19180090

  11. Primordial magnetogenesis before recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, Ophélia; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2016-04-01

    The origin of large magnetic fields in the Universe remains currently unknown. We investigate here a mechanism before recombination based on known physics. The source of the vorticity is due to the changes in the photon distribution function caused by the fluctuations in the background photons. We show that the magnetic field generated in the MHD limit, due to the Coulomb scattering, is of the order 10-49 G on a coherence scale of 10 kpc. We explicitly show that the magnetic fields generated from this process are sustainable and are not erased by resistive diffusion. We compare the results with current observations and discuss the implications. Our seed magnetic fields are generated on small scales whereas the main mechanisms studied in the literature are on scale bigger than 1 Mpc. However, compared to more exotic theories generating seed magnetic fields on similar scales, the strength of our fields are generally smaller.

  12. Demystified...recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Nelson, P N; Warren, P; Astley, S J; Murray, P G; Greenman, J

    2004-09-01

    Recombinant antibodies are important tools for biomedical research and are increasingly being used as clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. In this article, a background to humanized antibodies is given, together with details of the generation of antibody fragments--for example, single chain Fv fragments. Phage antibody fragments are fast becoming popular and can be generated by simple established methods of affinity enrichment from libraries derived from immune cells. Phage display methodology can also be used for the affinity enrichment of existing antibody fragments to provide a reagent with a higher affinity. Here, phage antibodies are demystified to provide a greater understanding of the potential of these reagents and to engage clinicians and biomedical scientists alike to think about potential applications in pathology and clinical settings.

  13. Recombinant glucose uptake system

    DOEpatents

    Ingrahm, Lonnie O.; Snoep, Jacob L.; Arfman, Nico

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant organisms are disclosed that contain a pathway for glucose uptake other than the pathway normally utilized by the host cell. In particular, the host cell is one in which glucose transport into the cell normally is coupled to PEP production. This host cell is transformed so that it uses an alternative pathway for glucose transport that is not coupled to PEP production. In a preferred embodiment, the host cell is a bacterium other than Z. mobilis that has been transformed to contain the glf and glk genes of Z. mobilis. By uncoupling glucose transport into the cell from PEP utilization, more PEP is produced for synthesis of products of commercial importance from a given quantity of biomass supplied to the host cells.

  14. The recombination of genetic material

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic recombination is the major mechanism by which new arrangements of genetic elements are produced in all living organisms, from the simplest bacterial viruses to humans. This volume presents an overview of the types of recombination found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  15. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  16. Bimolecular Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhwani, Girish; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.

    2014-04-01

    The recombination of electrons and holes is a major loss mechanism in photovoltaic devices that controls their performance. We review scientific literature on bimolecular recombination (BR) in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices to bring forward existing ideas on the origin and nature of BR and highlight both experimental and theoretical work done to quantify its extent. For these systems, Langevin theory fails to explain BR, and recombination dynamics turns out to be dependent on mobility, temperature, electric field, charge carrier concentration, and trapped charges. Relationships among the photocurrent, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and morphology are discussed. Finally, we highlight the recent emergence of a molecular-level picture of recombination, taking into account the spin and delocalization of charges. Together with the macroscopic picture of recombination, these new insights allow for a comprehensive understanding of BR and provide design principles for future materials and devices.

  17. The cytotoxicity of anti-CD22 immunotoxin is enhanced by bryostatin 1 in B-cell lymphomas through CD22 upregulation and PKC-βII depletion

    PubMed Central

    Biberacher, Viola; Decker, Thomas; Oelsner, Madlen; Wagner, Michaela; Bogner, Christian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Kreitman, Robert J.; Peschel, Christian; Pastan, Ira; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of potent first-line therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, treatment remains palliative and all patients frequently relapse. Treatment options for these patients are more limited. BL22 is a recombinant protein composed of the variable region of a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD22 and of PE38, a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin. BL22 is a very potent drug already used in patients with hairy cell leukemia, whereas in chronic lymphocytic leukemia its cytotoxicity is limited by a lower expression of CD22. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by pre-activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with bryostatin 1. Design and Methods Primary malignant B cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma patients were used in vitro to assess the therapeutic impact of drug combinations using BL22 and bryostatin 1. Results We demonstrate that bryostatin 1 sensitizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for the cytotoxic effects of BL22 through activation of protein kinase C and subsequently increased CD22 surface expression. Dose and time response analysis reveals that activation of protein kinase C further activates an autocrine feedback loop degrading protein kinase C-βII protein. Depletion of protein kinase C-βII and upregulation of CD22 persist for several days following pre-stimulation with bryostatin 1. Therefore, our data provide a rationale for the sequential administration of BL22 following bryostatin 1 treatment. In addition to primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, bryostatin 1 also sensitizes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma cells to BL22 induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our data suggest that the combination of bryostatin 1 with antibodies directed against CD22 is a potent drug combination for the treatment of low- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma. PMID:22180432

  18. The cytotoxicity of anti-CD22 immunotoxin is enhanced by bryostatin 1 in B-cell lymphomas through CD22 upregulation and PKC-βII depletion.

    PubMed

    Biberacher, Viola; Decker, Thomas; Oelsner, Madlen; Wagner, Michaela; Bogner, Christian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Kreitman, Robert J; Peschel, Christian; Pastan, Ira; Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo

    2012-05-01

    In spite of potent first-line therapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, treatment remains palliative and all patients frequently relapse. Treatment options for these patients are more limited. BL22 is a recombinant protein composed of the variable region of a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD22 and of PE38, a truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin. BL22 is a very potent drug already used in patients with hairy cell leukemia, whereas in chronic lymphocytic leukemia its cytotoxicity is limited by a lower expression of CD22. Here we demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by pre-activation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with bryostatin 1. Primary malignant B cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma patients were used in vitro to assess the therapeutic impact of drug combinations using BL22 and bryostatin 1. We demonstrate that bryostatin 1 sensitizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells for the cytotoxic effects of BL22 through activation of protein kinase C and subsequently increased CD22 surface expression. Dose and time response analysis reveals that activation of protein kinase C further activates an autocrine feedback loop degrading protein kinase C-βII protein. Depletion of protein kinase C-βII and upregulation of CD22 persist for several days following pre-stimulation with bryostatin 1. Therefore, our data provide a rationale for the sequential administration of BL22 following bryostatin 1 treatment. In addition to primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, bryostatin 1 also sensitizes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma cells to BL22 induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the combination of bryostatin 1 with antibodies directed against CD22 is a potent drug combination for the treatment of low- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma.

  19. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  20. Testing for recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, Joris R; Bollen, Mathieu; Beullens, Monique

    2008-03-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells. Recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) is illicitly used to improve performance in endurance sports. Doping in sports is discouraged by the screening of athletes for rhEpo. Both direct tests (indicating the presence of exogeneous Epo isoforms) and indirect tests (indicating hematological changes induced by exogenous Epo administration) can be used for Epo detection. At present, the test adopted by the World Anti Doping Agency is based on a combination of isoelectric focusing and double immunoblotting, and distinguishes between endogenous and rhEpo. However, the adopted monoclonal anti-Epo antibodies are not monospecific. Therefore, the test can occasionally lead to the false-positive detection of rhEpo (epoetin-beta) in post-exercise, protein-rich urine, or in case of contamination of the sample with microorganisms. An improved preanalytical care may counteract a lot of these problems. Adaptation of the criteria may be helpful to further refine direct Epo testing. Indirect tests have the disadvantage that they require blood instead of urine samples, but they can be applied to detect a broader range of performance improving techniques which are illicitly used in sports.

  1. Recombinant monoclonal antibody technology.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D L

    2002-01-01

    With the development of murine hybridoma technology over a quarter century ago, the ability to produce large quantities of well-characterized monoclonal antibody preparations revolutionized diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. For many applications in transfusion medicine, however, the production of serological reagents in mice has certain biological limitations relating to the difficulty in obtaining murine monoclonal antibodies specific for many human blood group antigens. Furthermore, for therapeutic purposes, the efficacy of murine-derived immunoglobulin preparations is limited by the induction of anti-mouse immune responses. Technical difficulties inherent in human hybridoma formation have led to novel molecular approaches that facilitate the isolation and production of human antibodies without the need for B-cell transformation, tissue culture, or even immunized individuals. These technologies, referred to as 'repertoire cloning' or 'Fab/phage display', involve the rapid cloning of immunoglobulin gene segments to create immune libraries from which antibodies with desired specificities can be selected. The use of such recombinant methods in transfusion medicine is anticipated to play an important role in the development and production of renewable supplies of low-cost reagents for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  2. Recombineering: genetic engineering in bacteria using homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Lynn C; Sawitzke, James A; Li, Xintian; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L

    2014-04-14

    The bacterial chromosome and bacterial plasmids can be engineered in vivo by homologous recombination using PCR products and synthetic oligonucleotides as substrates. This is possible because bacteriophage-encoded recombination proteins efficiently recombine sequences with homologies as short as 35 to 50 bases. Recombineering allows DNA sequences to be inserted or deleted without regard to location of restriction sites. This unit first describes preparation of electrocompetent cells expressing the recombineering functions and their transformation with dsDNA or ssDNA. It then presents support protocols that describe several two-step selection/counter-selection methods of making genetic alterations without leaving any unwanted changes in the targeted DNA, and a method for retrieving onto a plasmid a genetic marker (cloning by retrieval) from the Escherichia coli chromosome or a co-electroporated DNA fragment. Additional protocols describe methods to screen for unselected mutations, removal of the defective prophage from recombineering strains, and other useful techniques. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Perovskite photovoltaics: Slow recombination unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Jacques-E.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most salient features of hybrid lead halide perovskites is the extended lifetime of their photogenerated charge carriers. This property has now been shown experimentally to originate from a slow, thermally activated recombination process.

  4. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  5. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  6. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  7. Three Decades of Recombinant DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jackie

    1985-01-01

    Discusses highlights in the development of genetic engineering, examining techniques with recombinant DNA, legal and ethical issues, GenBank (a national database of nucleic acid sequences), and other topics. (JN)

  8. Stable recombination hotspots in birds.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sonal; Leffler, Ellen M; Sannareddy, Keerthi; Turner, Isaac; Venn, Oliver; Hooper, Daniel M; Strand, Alva I; Li, Qiye; Raney, Brian; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Griffith, Simon C; McVean, Gil; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-11-20

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have recombination hotspots, which are enriched near functional genomic elements. Unlike in mice and apes, most hotspots are shared between the two species, and their conservation seems to extend over tens of millions of years. These observations suggest that in the absence of PRDM9, recombination targets functional features that both enable access to the genome and constrain its evolution.

  9. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  10. Three Decades of Recombinant DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jackie

    1985-01-01

    Discusses highlights in the development of genetic engineering, examining techniques with recombinant DNA, legal and ethical issues, GenBank (a national database of nucleic acid sequences), and other topics. (JN)

  11. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    MedlinePlus

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...

  12. Combinatorics in Recombinational Population Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Laxmi

    The work that I will discuss is motivated by the need for understanding, and processing, the manifestations of recombination events in chromosome sequences. In this talk, we focus on two related problems. First, we explore the very general problem of reconstructability of pedigree history. How plausible is it to unravel the history of a complete unit (chromosome) of inheritance? The second problem deals with reconstructing the recombinational history of a collection of chromosomes.

  13. Recombinant protein expression in Nicotiana.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Nobuyuki; Davis, Keith R; Palmer, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant protein pharmaceuticals are now widely used in treatment of chronic diseases, and several recombinant protein subunit vaccines are approved for human and veterinary use. With growing demand for complex protein pharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, manufacturing capacity is becoming limited. There is increasing need for safe, scalable, and economical alternatives to mammalian cell culture-based manufacturing systems, which require substantial capital investment for new manufacturing facilities. Since a seminal paper reporting immunoglobulin expression in transgenic plants was published in 1989, there have been many technological advances in plant expression systems to the present time where production of proteins in leaf tissues of nonfood crops such as Nicotiana species is considered a viable alternative. In particular, transient expression systems derived from recombinant plant viral vectors offer opportunities for rapid expression screening, construct optimization, and expression scale-up. Extraction of recombinant proteins from Nicotiana leaf tissues can be achieved by collection of secreted protein fractions, or from a total protein extract after grinding the leaves with buffer. After separation from solids, the major purification challenge is contamination with elements of the photosynthetic complex, which can be solved by application of a variety of facile and proven strategies. In conclusion, the technologies required for safe, efficient, scalable manufacture of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana leaf tissues have matured to the point where several products have already been tested in phase I clinical trials and will soon be followed by a rich pipeline of recombinant vaccines, microbicides, and therapeutic proteins.

  14. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  15. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  16. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  17. Recombination Drives Vertebrate Genome Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process. PMID:22570634

  18. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  19. DNA recombination. Recombination initiation maps of individual human genomes.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Florencia; Brick, Kevin; Khil, Pavel; Smagulova, Fatima; Petukhova, Galina V; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2014-11-14

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced in meiosis to initiate recombination and generate crossovers, the reciprocal exchanges of genetic material between parental chromosomes. Here, we present high-resolution maps of meiotic DSBs in individual human genomes. Comparing DSB maps between individuals shows that along with DNA binding by PRDM9, additional factors may dictate the efficiency of DSB formation. We find evidence for both GC-biased gene conversion and mutagenesis around meiotic DSB hotspots, while frequent colocalization of DSB hotspots with chromosome rearrangement breakpoints implicates the aberrant repair of meiotic DSBs in genomic disorders. Furthermore, our data indicate that DSB frequency is a major determinant of crossover rate. These maps provide new insights into the regulation of meiotic recombination and the impact of meiotic recombination on genome function.

  20. Recombinant allergens for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Oliver; Häfner, Dietrich; Nandy, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Recombinant DNA technology provides the means for producing allergens that are equivalent to their natural counterparts and also genetically engineered variants with reduced IgE-binding activity. The proteins are produced as chemically defined molecules with consistent structural and immunologic properties. Several hundred allergens have been cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins, and these provide the means for making a very detailed diagnosis of a patient's sensitization profile. Clinical development programs are now in progress to assess the suitability of recombinant allergens for both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. Recombinant hypoallergenic variants, which are developed with the aim of increasing the doses that can be administered while at the same time reducing the risks for therapy-associated side effects, are also in clinical trials for subcutaneous immunotherapy. Grass and birch pollen preparations have been shown to be clinically effective, and studies with various other allergens are in progress. Personalized or patient-tailored immunotherapy is still a very distant prospect, but the first recombinant products based on single allergens or defined mixtures could reach the market within the next 5 years. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  2. The Dissociative Recombination of OH(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical quantum chemical calculations of the cross sections and rates for the dissociative recombination of the upsilon = 0 level of the ground state of OH(+) show that recombination occurs primarily along the 2 (2)Pi diabatic route. The products are 0((1)D) and a hot H atom with 6.1 eV kinetic energy. The coupling to the resonances is very small and the indirect recombination mechanism plays only a minor role. The recommended value for the rate coefficient is (6.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(exp -9)x (T(e)/1300)(exp -0.48) cu.cm/s for 10 less than T(e) less than 1000 K.

  3. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  4. DNA recombination: the replication connection.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    1999-07-01

    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise after exposure to ionizing radiation or enzymatic cleavage, but especially during the process of DNA replication itself. Homologous recombination plays a critical role in repair of such DSBs. There has been significant progress in our understanding of two processes that occur in DSB repair: gene conversion and recombination-dependent DNA replication. Recent evidence suggests that gene conversion and break-induced replication are related processes that both begin with the establishment of a replication fork in which both leading- and lagging-strand synthesis occur. There has also been much progress in characterization of the biochemical roles of recombination proteins that are highly conserved from yeast to humans.

  5. Variation in Recombination Rate: Adaptive or Not?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Kathryn R; Noor, Mohamed A F; Singh, Nadia D

    2017-03-27

    Rates of meiotic recombination are widely variable both within and among species. However, the functional significance of this variation remains largely unknown. Is the observed within-species variation in recombination rate adaptive? Recent work has revealed new insight into the scale and scope of population-level variation in recombination rate. These data indicate that the magnitude of within-population variation in recombination is similar among taxa. The apparent similarity of the variance in recombination rate among individuals between distantly related species suggests that the relative costs and benefits of recombination that establish the upper and lower bounds may be similar across species. Here we review the current data on intraspecific variation in recombination rate and discuss the molecular and evolutionary costs and benefits of recombination frequency. We place this variation in the context of adaptation and highlight the need for more empirical studies focused on the adaptive value of variation in recombination rate.

  6. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  7. CRMAGE: CRISPR Optimized MAGE Recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Sommer, Morten O. A.; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches is the lack of efficient genome engineering technologies. Here, we combine CRISPR/Cas9 and λ Red recombineering based MAGE technology (CRMAGE) to create a highly efficient and fast method for genome engineering of Escherichia coli. Using CRMAGE, the recombineering efficiency was between 96.5% and 99.7% for gene recoding of three genomic targets, compared to between 0.68% and 5.4% using traditional recombineering. For modulation of protein synthesis (small insertion/RBS substitution) the efficiency was increased from 6% to 70%. CRMAGE can be multiplexed and enables introduction of at least two mutations in a single round of recombineering with similar efficiencies. PAM-independent loci were targeted using degenerate codons, thereby making it possible to modify any site in the genome. CRMAGE is based on two plasmids that are assembled by a USER-cloning approach enabling quick and cost efficient gRNA replacement. CRMAGE furthermore utilizes CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient plasmid curing, thereby enabling multiple engineering rounds per day. To facilitate the design process, a web-based tool was developed to predict both the λ Red oligos and the gRNAs. The CRMAGE platform enables highly efficient and fast genome editing and may open up promising prospective for automation of genome-scale engineering. PMID:26797514

  8. Genetic recombination and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, B; Betancourt, A J; Kaiser, V B; Gordo, I

    2009-01-01

    Reduced rates of genetic recombination are often associated with reduced genetic variability and levels of adaptation. Several different evolutionary processes, collectively known as Hill-Robertson (HR) effects, have been proposed as causes of these correlates of recombination. Here, we use DNA sequence polymorphism and divergence data from the noncrossing over dot chromosome of Drosophila to discriminate between two of the major forms of HR effects: selective sweeps and background selection. This chromosome shows reduced levels of silent variability and reduced effectiveness of selection. We show that neither model fits the data on variability. We propose that, in large genomic regions with restricted recombination, HR effects among nonsynonymous mutations undermine the effective strength of selection, so that their background selection effects are weakened. This modified model fits the data on variability and also explains why variability in very large nonrecombining genomes is not completely wiped out. We also show that HR effects of this type can produce an individual selection advantage to recombination, as well as greatly reduce the mean fitness of nonrecombining genomes and genomic regions.

  9. Dissociative Recombination of Complex Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1999-10-01

    The FALP-MS apparatus at the University of Rennes allows the measurement of rate coefficients for the recombination of molecular ions to be made (at 300K) even though several ions may be present in the afterglow. The recombination of a number of hydrocarbon ions derived from alkane ( Lehfaoui et al. J. Chem. Phys. 106, 5406, 1997.), alkene ( Rebrion-Rowe et al. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7185, 1998.) and aromatic (Rebrion-Rowe et al. (Submitted to J. Chem. Phys.)) parent molecules has been studied. Despite the wide range of complexity of these compounds, the measured recombination rates are remarkably similar having values in the range of 4-10-7 cm^3.s-1. Plans are being laid for a new version of this apparatus that will allow pre-prepared ions to be injected into the inert buffer gas flow. This will allow reactive ions to be studied as well as halogen containing ions whose recombination rates would normally be masked by electron attachment to their parent gases in a conventional flowing afterglow apparatus. A high temperature modification to the CRESU supersonic flow apparatus (J.L. Le Garrec et al. J. Chem. Phys. 107, 54, 1997.) in our laboratory will allow electron attachment to radicals to be studied by means of the mass spectrometric detection of products, Langmuir probe measurement of the electron density in the flow and Laser Induced Fluorescent identification of the radical species. Such measurements are needed for the modeling of semiconductor processing plasmas.

  10. Improving recombinant protein purification yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production of adequate amounts of recombinant proteins is essential for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. It’s technologically challenging and a limiting factor for tung oil research because analytical reagents such as high qua...

  11. Recombination in Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F. Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus. PMID:22069526

  12. Recombinant expression in moderate halophiles.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Masao; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Hiroko

    2010-04-01

    A novel expression of recombinant proteins was developed using moderate halophiles that accumulate osmolytes and hence provide cytoplasmic environments where osmolyte-driven folding can take place. Promoters and selection marker were developed for high expression of foreign proteins. Examples are given for expression of bacterial nucleoside diphosphate kinase and human serine racemase.

  13. Recombination in hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    González-Candelas, Fernando; López-Labrador, F Xavier; Bracho, María Alma

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.

  14. Recombinant DNA: History of the Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.; Stanziale, William G.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards associated with recombinant DNA research are presented along with some social implications and the development of recombinant DNA research guidelines by the National Institutes of Health. (SA)

  15. Super-dissociative recombination of H2+?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. B. A.; Yousif, F. B.; van der Donk, P. J. T.; Morgan, T. J.; Chibisov, M. I.

    1995-11-01

    The dissociative recombination of vibrationally excited H2+ ions to form products in high Rydberg states has been measured. Surprisingly large cross-sections are found for this channel. This seems to be an example of super-dissociative recombination.

  16. Meiotic Recombination: The Essence of Heredity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Neil

    2015-10-28

    The study of homologous recombination has its historical roots in meiosis. In this context, recombination occurs as a programmed event that culminates in the formation of crossovers, which are essential for accurate chromosome segregation and create new combinations of parental alleles. Thus, meiotic recombination underlies both the independent assortment of parental chromosomes and genetic linkage. This review highlights the features of meiotic recombination that distinguish it from recombinational repair in somatic cells, and how the molecular processes of meiotic recombination are embedded and interdependent with the chromosome structures that characterize meiotic prophase. A more in-depth review presents our understanding of how crossover and noncrossover pathways of meiotic recombination are differentiated and regulated. The final section of this review summarizes the studies that have defined defective recombination as a leading cause of pregnancy loss and congenital disease in humans.

  17. Recombinant DNA: History of the Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.; Stanziale, William G.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards associated with recombinant DNA research are presented along with some social implications and the development of recombinant DNA research guidelines by the National Institutes of Health. (SA)

  18. Single-crossover recombination and ancestral recombination trees.

    PubMed

    Baake, Ellen; von Wangenheim, Ute

    2014-05-01

    We consider the Wright-Fisher model for a population of [Formula: see text] individuals, each identified with a sequence of a finite number of sites, and single-crossover recombination between them. We trace back the ancestry of single individuals from the present population. In the [Formula: see text] limit without rescaling of parameters or time, this ancestral process is described by a random tree, whose branching events correspond to the splitting of the sequence due to recombination. With the help of a decomposition of the trees into subtrees, we calculate the probabilities of the topologies of the ancestral trees. At the same time, these probabilities lead to a semi-explicit solution of the deterministic single-crossover equation. The latter is a discrete-time dynamical system that emerges from the Wright-Fisher model via a law of large numbers and has been waiting for a solution for many decades.

  19. Nondisjunction of chromosome 15: origin and recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W P; Bernasconi, F; Mutirangura, A; Ledbetter, D H; Langlois, S; Malcolm, S; Morris, M A; Schinzel, A A

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-two cases of uniparental disomy (UPD), ascertained from Prader-Willi syndrome patients (N = 27) and Angelman syndrome patients (N = 5), are used to investigate the pattern of recombination associated with nondisjunction of chromosome 15. In addition, the meiotic stage of nondisjunction is inferred by using markers mapping near the centromere. Two basic approaches to the analysis of recombination are utilized. Standard methods of centromere mapping are employed to determine the level of recombination in specific pairwise intervals along the chromosome. This method shows a significant reduction in recombination for two of five intervals examined. Second, the observed frequency of each recombinant class (i.e., zero, one, two, three, or more observable crossovers) is compared with expected values. This is useful for testing whether the reduction in recombination can be attributed solely to a proportion of cases with no recombination at all (because of asynapsis), with the remaining groups showing normal recombination (or even excess recombination), or whether recombination is uniformly reduced. Analysis of maternal UPD(15) data shows a slight reduction in the multiple-recombinant classes, with a corresponding increase in both the zero- and one-recombinant classes over expected values. The majority, more than 82%, of the extra chromosomes in maternal UPD(15) cases are due to meiotic I nondisjunction events. In contrast, most paternal UPD(15) cases so far examined appear to have a postzygotic origin of the extra paternal chromosome. PMID:8352279

  20. Extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, W; Witte, A; Eko, F O; Kamal, M; Jechlinger, W; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Haidinger, W; Huter, V; Felnerova, D; Stralis-Alves, N; Lechleitner, S; Melzer, H; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Kuen, B; Mayr, B; Mayrhofer, P; Geretschläger, R; Haslberger, A; Hensel, A

    1999-08-20

    Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts from a variety of bacteria are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extends the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying foreign epitopes further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts have inherent adjuvant properties, they can be used as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Subunits or other ligands can also be coupled to matrixes like dextran which are used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in this production. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. The endotoxic component of the outer membrane does not limit the use of ghosts as vaccine candidates but triggers the release of several potent immunoregulatory cytokines. As carriers, there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens that can be inserted in the membrane and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, peri

  1. Recombination Catalysts for Hypersonic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinitz, W.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of commercially-viable access to space will require technologies that reduce propulsion system weight and complexity, while extracting maximum energy from the products of combustion. This work is directed toward developing effective nozzle recombination catalysts for the supersonic and hypersonic aeropropulsion engines used to provide such access to space. Effective nozzle recombination will significantly reduce rk=le length (hence, propulsion system weight) and reduce fuel requirements, further decreasing the vehicle's gross lift-off weight. Two such catalysts have been identified in this work, barium and antimony compounds, by developing chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for these materials and determining the engine performance enhancement for a typical flight trajectory. Significant performance improvements are indicated, using only 2% (mole or mass) of these compounds in the combustor product gas.

  2. Recombinant protein polymers in biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wookhyun

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring protein-based materials have been found that function as critical components in biomechanical response, fibers and adhesives. A relatively small but growing number of recombinant protein-based materials that mimic the desired features of their natural sources, such as collagens, elastins and silks, are considered as an alternative to conventional synthetic polymers. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated the synthesis of repetitive protein polymers with precise control of molecular weights which are designed by using synthetic genes encoding tandem repeats of oligopeptide originating from a modular domain of natural proteins. Many repeat sequences as protein polymer building blocks adopt a well-defined secondary structure and undergo self-assembly to result in physically cross-linked networks or with chemical cross-linking so that further form three-dimensional architectures similar to natural counterparts. In this review, recombinant protein polymers currently developed will be presented that have emerged as promising class of next generation biomaterials.

  3. Chemical kinetics of geminal recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, P.P.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Brin, E.F.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1988-09-01

    The kinetics of geminal recombination of triplet radical pairs formed in photoreduction of benzophenone by p-cresol in glycerin solution was studied by pulsed laser photolysis. The experiments were conducted at several temperatures and in a constant magnetic field of H = 0.34 T. The parameters in six kinetic equations describing geminal recombination were determined with a computer. The values of the sums of the squares of the residual deviations of the approximation were obtained. It was found that the kinetics are best described by the functions proposed by Noyes and Shushin. It was shown that it is necessary to use the mutual diffusion coefficient of the radicals, which is significantly smaller than the sum of the estimations of the experimental values of the radical diffusion coefficients, for describing the kinetics due to the correlations of the molecular motions of the radicals in the cage.

  4. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies.

  5. [Chromosome recombination in rice meiosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Luo, Wei-Xiong; Li, Ming; Luo, Qiong

    2011-06-01

    Meiosis is a highly conservative process, which plays important role in the life cycles of all sexually reproductive organisms, while the pairing, synapsis, and recombination are the key events in this process and have become the hotspots in meiosis studies. At present, we cannot observe the process of cross and recombination of chromosomes directly in plant meiosis, and generally conclude the process by analysis the genetic population. In the present study, we analyzed 32 DH lines using graphical genotypes, and found 4 chromosomes out of 32 DH lines had regional heterozygosis, which was further confirmed using STS markers. We suggested that it may cause by repair incompletion or mis-repair of chromsome. These results provid some directly evidence for explaining the mechanism of plant meiosis.

  6. Novel applications of recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Edward J; Thiemermann, Christoph; Yaqoob, Magdi M

    2006-04-01

    Recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) was introduced into clinical practice after the identification of EPO as the major haemopoietic growth factor determining survival and maturation of erythroid precursors. Advances in our understanding of the novel sites of action of EPO in the vasculature, brain, heart and kidney have opened new avenues of therapeutic potential for EPO, and have led to an increased understanding of the biological roles of EPO and its mechanisms of cell protection.

  7. Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastan, Ira; Fitzgerald, David

    1991-11-01

    Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either growth factor-toxin fusions or antibody-toxin fusions can be chosen, depending on the cellular target.

  8. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques.

    PubMed

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  9. Recombinant Cyclophilins Lack Nuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    Several single-domain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cyclophilins have been identified as also being unspecific nucleases with a role in DNA degradation during the lytic processes that accompany bacterial cell death and eukaryotic apoptosis. Evidence is provided here that the supposed nuclease activity of human and bacterial recombinant cyclophilins is due to contamination of the proteins by the host Escherichia coli endonuclease and is not an intrinsic property of these proteins. PMID:15342605

  10. Recombinant cyclophilins lack nuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Manteca, Angel; Sanchez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    Several single-domain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cyclophilins have been identified as also being unspecific nucleases with a role in DNA degradation during the lytic processes that accompany bacterial cell death and eukaryotic apoptosis. Evidence is provided here that the supposed nuclease activity of human and bacterial recombinant cyclophilins is due to contamination of the proteins by the host Escherichia coli endonuclease and is not an intrinsic property of these proteins.

  11. Stimulated recombination in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Muoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.; Jimenez, P.; Pea, J.

    1986-09-01

    In this comment we study the problem of the stimulated recombination in an open system from a stochastic point of view. We set up the bivariate master equation for the number of photons and ions inside the system. Then we perform a systematic expansion, with the system volume as an expansion parameter, and we obtain the fluctuations of the number of photons and ions around its macroscopic values in the linear noise approximation; the stationary solution is also investigated.

  12. Recombinant baculoviruses for insect control.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, A B; Kamita, S G; Hinton, A C; Huang, Q; Severson, T F; Kang, K; Hammock, B D

    2001-10-01

    Baculoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses which are highly selective for several insect groups. They are valuable natural control agents, but their utility in many agricultural applications has been limited by their slow speed of kill and narrow host specificity. Baculoviruses have been genetically modified to express foreign genes under powerful promoters in order to accelerate their speed of kill. In our and other laboratories, the expression of genes coding for insect juvenile hormone esterases and various peptide neurotoxins has resulted in recombinant baculoviruses with promise as biological insecticides. These viruses are efficacious in the laboratory, greenhouse and field and dramatically reduce damage caused by insect feeding. The recombinant viruses synergize and are synergized by classical pesticides such as pyrethroids. Since they are highly selective for pest insects, they can be used without disrupting biological control. Because the recombinant virus produces fewer progeny in infected larvae than the wild-type virus, they are rapidly out-competed in the ecosystem. The viruses can be used effectively with crops expressing endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis. They can be produced industrially but also by village industries, indicating that they have the potential to deliver sustainable pest control in developing countries. It remains to be seen, however, whether the current generation of recombinant baculoviruses will be competitive with the new generation of synthetic chemical pesticides. Current research clearly indicates, though, that the use of biological vectors of genes for insect control will find a place in agriculture. Baculoviruses will also prove valuable in testing the potential utility of proteins and peptides for insect control.

  13. Recombinant vector and eukaryotic host transformed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Sugden, W.M.

    1987-08-11

    A recombinant plasmid is described comprising: a segment from a first plasmid which is not a lymphotrophic herpes virus segment and which facilitates the replication of the recombinant plasmid in a prokaryotic host; a segment from a lymphotrophic herpes virus which is linked to the first plasmid segment such that is a capable of assisting in maintaining the recombinant plasmid as a plasmid if the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a eukaryotic host that has been transformed by the lymphotrophic herpes virus; and a foreign eukaryotic gene component linked as part of the recombinant plasmid.

  14. Interchromosomal recombination in Zea mays.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, W; Timmermans, M C; Messing, J

    1998-01-01

    A new allele of the 27-kD zein locus in maize has been generated by interchromosomal recombination between chromosomes of two different inbred lines. A continuous patch of at least 11,817 bp of inbred W64A, containing the previously characterized Ra allele of the 27-kD zein gene, has been inserted into the genome of A188 by a single crossover. While both junction sequences are conserved, sequences of the two homologs between these junctions differ considerably. W64A contains the 7313-bp-long retrotransposon, Zeon-1. A188 contains a second copy of the 27-kD zein gene and a 2-kb repetitive element. Therefore, recombination results in a 7.3-kb insertion and a 14-kb deletion compared to the original S+A188 allele. If nonpairing sequences are looped out, 206 single base changes, frequently clustered, are present. The structure of this allele may explain how a recently discovered example of somatic recombination occurred in an A188/W64A hybrid. This would indicate that despite these sequence differences, pairing between these alleles could occur early during plant development. Therefore, such a somatically derived chimeric chromosome can also be heritable and give rise to new alleles. PMID:9799274

  15. Production systems for recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schirrmann, Thomas; Al-Halabi, Laila; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Recombinant antibodies are the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Furthermore, antibodies are key detection reagents in research and diagnostics. The increasing demand for antibodies with regards to amount and quality resulted in the development of a variety of recombinant production systems employing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines as well as mammalian cell lines. More recently, antibodies were also successfully produced in transgenic plants and animals. Currently, the production of recombinant antibodies for therapy is performed in mammalian cell lines to reduce the risk of immunogenicity caused by non-human post-translational modifications, in particular glycosylation. However, novel strategies already allow human-like glycosylation patterns in yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies not requiring glycosylation of the Fc portion have been conceived, most prominently using bispecific antibodies or scFv fusion proteins, which can be produced in bacteria. Here, we review all current antibody production systems considering their advantages and limitations with respect to intended applications.

  16. Nondisjunction of chromosome 15: Origin and recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A.; Mutirangura, A.; Ledbetter, D.H. ); Langlois, S. ); Morris, M.A.; Malcolm, S.

    1993-09-01

    Thirty-two cases of uniparental disomy (UPD), ascertained from Prader-Willi syndrome patients (N=27) and Angelman syndrome patients (N-5), are used to investigate the pattern of recombination associated with nondisjunction of chromosome 15. In addition, the meiotic stage of nondisjunction is inferred by using markers mapping near the centromere. Two basic approaches to the analysis of recombination in specific pairwise intervals along the chromosome. This method shows a significant reduction in recombination for two of five intervals examined. Second, the observed frequency of each recombinant class (i.e., zero, one, two, three, or more observable crossovers) is compared with expected values. This is useful for testing whether the reduction in recombination can be attributed solely to a proportion of cases with no recombination at all (because of asynapsis), with the remaining groups showing normal recombination (or even excess recombination), or whether recombination is uniformly reduced. Analysis of maternal UPD(15) data shows a slight reduction in the multiple-recombinant classes, with a corresponding increase in both the zero- and one-recombinant classes over expected values. The majority, more than 82%, of the extra chromosomes in maternal UPD(15) cases are due to meiotic I nondisjunction events. In contrast, more paternal UPD(15) cases so far examined appear to have a postzygotic origin of the extra paternal chromosome. 33 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Isolation of Meiotic Recombinants from Mouse Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Francesca; Jasin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination during meiosis is critical for the formation of gametes. Recombination is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks which preferentially occur at hotspots dispersed throughout the genome. These double-strand breaks are repaired from the homolog, resulting in either a crossover or noncrossover product. Multiple noncrossover events are required for homolog pairing, and at least one crossover is critical for proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. Consequently, homologous recombination in meiosis occurs at high frequencies. This chapter describes how to characterize crossovers and noncrossovers at a hotspot in mice using allele-specific PCR. Amplification of recombinant products directly from sperm DNA is a powerful approach to determine recombination frequencies and map recombination breakpoints, providing insight into homologous recombination mechanisms. PMID:21660699

  18. Mechanistic features of recombination in HIV.

    PubMed

    Galetto, Román; Negroni, Matteo

    2005-01-01

    The importance of recombination in retroviral evolution has been acknowledged for several decades. Consequently, after the identification of HIV as the etiological agent of AIDS, it was suspected that recombination could also play a central role in the evolution of this virus. However, only recently, extensive epidemiologic studies of HIV infections worldwide have provided an estimate for the occurrence of recombination in vivo, unveiling recombination frequencies that dwarf those initially expected. Nowadays, recombination is regarded as an integral part of the infectious cycle of this retrovirus, which impacts on diagnosis and treatment of infections, especially when genetically distant viruses have been at the origin of the recombinant forms. Retroviral recombination is observed when two genetically divergent genomic RNA molecules are present in the same viral particle, and arises during the reverse transcription step. This review focuses on the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for the occurrence of recombination in retroviruses, from the strand displacement model, according to which recombination occurs during second DNA strand synthesis; to the description of the factors responsible for copy-choice recombination during first DNA strand synthesis, such as the presence of breaks, pause sites, or secondary structures in the genomic RNA. Most of these models have been supported by experimental data obtained from in vitro reconstituted systems or from cell infection studies using academic model sequences. The situation in vivo is expected to be more complex, since several factors come into play when recombination involves relatively distant isolates, as in the case of inter-subtype recombination. At present, it is clear that further studies are needed in order to evaluate whether a prevailing mechanism exists for in vivo recombination, and these studies will also be essential for understanding how the underlying mechanisms of recombination contribute

  19. Expression and purification of cysteine introduced recombinant saporin.

    PubMed

    Günhan, Emine; Swe, Mimi; Palazoglu, Mine; Voss, John C; Chalupa, Leo M

    2008-04-01

    Saporin, a ribosome inactivating protein is widely used for immunotoxin construction. Here we describe a mutation of saporin (sap)-3 DNA by introducing a cysteine residue, followed by protein expression and purification by ion exchange chromatography. The purified Cys255sap-3, sap-3 isomer and commercially purchased saporin, were tested for toxicity using assays measuring inhibition for protein synthesis. The IC(50) values showed that the toxicity of the Cys255sap-3 is equivalent to the sap-3 isomer and commercial saporin. Reactivity of Cys255sap-3 was confirmed by labeling with a thio-specific fluorescent probe as well as conjugation with a nonspecific mouse IgG. We have found that a single cysteine within saporin provides a method for antibody conjugation that ensures a uniform and reproducible modification of a saporin variant retaining high activity.

  20. Bacteriophage recombination systems and biotechnical applications.

    PubMed

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophage recombination systems have been widely used in biotechnology for modifying prokaryotic species, for creating transgenic animals and plants, and more recently, for human cell gene manipulation. In contrast to homologous recombination, which benefits from the endogenous recombination machinery of the cell, site-specific recombination requires an exogenous source of recombinase in mammalian cells. The mechanism of bacteriophage evolution and their coexistence with bacterial cells has become a point of interest ever since bacterial viruses' life cycles were first explored. Phage recombinases have already been exploited as valuable genetic tools and new phage enzymes, and their potential application to genetic engineering and genome manipulation, vectorology, and generation of new transgene delivery vectors, and cell therapy are attractive areas of research that continue to be investigated. The significance and role of phage recombination systems in biotechnology is reviewed in this paper, with specific focus on homologous and site-specific recombination conferred by the coli phages, λ, and N15, the integrase from the Streptomyces phage, ΦC31, the recombination system of phage P1, and the recently characterized recombination functions of Yersinia phage, PY54. Key steps of the molecular mechanisms involving phage recombination functions and their application to molecular engineering, our novel exploitations of the PY54-derived recombination system, and its application to the development of new DNA vectors are discussed.

  1. Current Trends of HIV Recombination Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Katherine A.; Wong, Justin J.L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major characteristics of HIV-1 is its high genetic variability and extensive heterogeneity. This characteristic is due to its molecular traits, which in turn allows it to vary, recombine, and diversify at a high frequency. As such, it generates complex molecular forms, termed recombinants, which evade the human immune system and so survive. There is no sequence constraint to the recombination pattern as it appears to occur at inter-group (between groups M and O), as well as interand intra-subtype within group M. Rapid emergence and active global transmission of HIV-1 recombinants, known as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs), requires urgent attention. To date, 55 CRFs have been reported around the world. The first CRF01_AE originated from Central Africa but spread widely in Asia. The most recent CRF; CRF55_01B is a recombinant form of CRF01_AE and subtype B, although its origin is yet to be publicly disclosed. HIV-1 recombination is an ongoing event and plays an indispensable role in HIV epidemics in different regions. Africa, Asia and South America are identified as recombination hot-spots. They are affected by continual emergence and cocirculation of newly emerging CRFs and URFs, which are now responsible for almost 20% of HIV-1 infections worldwide. Better understanding of recombinants is necessary to determine their biological and molecular attributes. PMID:24470968

  2. Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

  3. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  4. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in pro­karyal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included. PMID:20382987

  5. Regulation of recombination and genomic maintenance.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2015-08-03

    Recombination is a central process to stably maintain and transmit a genome through somatic cell divisions and to new generations. Hence, recombination needs to be coordinated with other events occurring on the DNA template, such as DNA replication, transcription, and the specialized chromosomal functions at centromeres and telomeres. Moreover, regulation with respect to the cell-cycle stage is required as much as spatiotemporal coordination within the nuclear volume. These regulatory mechanisms impinge on the DNA substrate through modifications of the chromatin and directly on recombination proteins through a myriad of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and additional mechanisms. Although recombination is primarily appreciated to maintain genomic stability, the process also contributes to gross chromosomal arrangements and copy-number changes. Hence, the recombination process itself requires quality control to ensure high fidelity and avoid genomic instability. Evidently, recombination and its regulatory processes have significant impact on human disease, specifically cancer and, possibly, neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. PMID:24119078

  7. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-11-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks.

  8. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  9. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    PubMed

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  10. Rapid Purification of Recombinant Histones

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Henrike; Becker, Peter B.; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method “rapid histone purification” (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants. PMID:25090252

  11. Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Corchero, José Luis; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Most of the hosts used to produce the 151 recombinant pharmaceuticals so far approved for human use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast. This fact indicates that despite the diverse bottlenecks and obstacles that microbial systems pose to the efficient production of functional mammalian proteins, namely lack or unconventional post-translational modifications, proteolytic instability, poor solubility and activation of cell stress responses, among others, they represent convenient and powerful tools for recombinant protein production. The entering into the market of a progressively increasing number of protein drugs produced in non-microbial systems has not impaired the development of products obtained in microbial cells, proving the robustness of the microbial set of cellular systems (so far Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisae) developed for protein drug production. We summarize here the nature, properties and applications of all those pharmaceuticals and the relevant features of the current and potential producing hosts, in a comparative way. PMID:19317892

  12. Human Insulin from Recombinant DNA Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Irving S.

    1983-02-01

    Human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology is the first commercial health care product derived from this technology. Work on this product was initiated before there were federal guidelines for large-scale recombinant DNA work or commercial development of recombinant DNA products. The steps taken to facilitate acceptance of large-scale work and proof of the identity and safety of such a product are described. While basic studies in recombinant DNA technology will continue to have a profound impact on research in the life sciences, commercial applications may well be controlled by economic conditions and the availability of investment capital.

  13. Theory of recombination in directed molecular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Hwa, Terence; Levine, Herbert; Kessler, David A.

    2003-03-01

    Recombination is a fundamental process driving the evolution of biological organisms in nature. It is also a very efficient method being used in in vitro directed evolution of molecules. Here we propose a simple model for the directed evolution of protein-binding DNA sequences subject to recombination, substitution, and competitive selection. This turns out to be a rare model of involving recombination which is analytically tractable. We characterize the dynamical and steady-state behaviors of this model and verify them numerically. We discuss the manner in which recombination drastically speeds up the evolutionary process.

  14. Homologous recombination and its regulation

    PubMed Central

    Krejci, Lumir; Altmannova, Veronika; Spirek, Mario; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is critical both for repairing DNA lesions in mitosis and for chromosomal pairing and exchange during meiosis. However, some forms of HR can also lead to undesirable DNA rearrangements. Multiple regulatory mechanisms have evolved to ensure that HR takes place at the right time, place and manner. Several of these impinge on the control of Rad51 nucleofilaments that play a central role in HR. Some factors promote the formation of these structures while others lead to their disassembly or the use of alternative repair pathways. In this article, we review these mechanisms in both mitotic and meiotic environments and in different eukaryotic taxa, with an emphasis on yeast and mammal systems. Since mutations in several proteins that regulate Rad51 nucleofilaments are associated with cancer and cancer-prone syndromes, we discuss how understanding their functions can lead to the development of better tools for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:22467216

  15. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Free recombination within Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suerbaum, Sebastian; Smith, John Maynard; Bapumia, Khairun; Morelli, Giovanna; Smith, Noel H.; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Dyrek, Isabelle; Achtman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Sequences of three gene fragments (flaA, flaB, and vacA) from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in Germany, Canada, and South Africa were analyzed for diversity and for linkage equilibrium by using the Homoplasy Test and compatibility matrices. Horizontal genetic exchange in H. pylori is so frequent that different loci and polymorphisms within each locus are all at linkage equilibrium. These results indicate that H. pylori is panmictic. Comparisons with sequences from Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Drosophila melanogaster showed that recombination in H. pylori was much more frequent than in other species. In contrast, when multiple family members infected with H. pylori were investigated, some strains were indistinguishable at all three loci. Thus, H. pylori is clonal over short time periods after natural transmission. PMID:9770535

  17. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Michael W

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  18. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  19. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human-chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  1. Oligo Recombination in Gram Negative Bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Homologous recombination is important for bacterial survival because it simultaneously provides genomic stability as well as genomic plasticity. Of the mechanistic pathways for homologous recombination, those mediated by RecA are the most thoroughly characterized and are understood to be structural...

  2. Oligonucleotide recombination in gram negative bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report describes several key aspects of a novel form of RecA-independent homologous recombination. We found that synthetic single stranded DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced into bacteria by transformation can site-specifically recombine with bacterial chromosomes in the absence of any a...

  3. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  4. Dielectronic recombination lines of C{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sochi, Taha Storey, Peter J.

    2013-11-15

    The present paper presents atomic data generated to investigate the recombination lines of C II in the spectra of planetary nebulae. These data include energies of bound and autoionizing states, oscillator strengths and radiative transition probabilities, autoionization probabilities, and recombination coefficients. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C{sup 2+} plus electron system.

  5. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  6. Dissociative recombination: Results from storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Mats

    2005-05-27

    The focus of this article is on the measurement of product branching ratios in the dissociative recombination of polyatomic molecular ions with electrons by means of ion storage rings. Recombination of ions of interest in astrophysics, plasma-assisted combustion, thermonuclear fusion, protein fragmentation, and atmospheric physics are reviewed and discussed.

  7. Dissociative recombination of highly symmetric polyatomic ions.

    PubMed

    Douguet, Nicolas; Orel, Ann E; Greene, Chris H; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

    2012-01-13

    A general first-principles theory of dissociative recombination is developed for highly symmetric molecular ions and applied to H(3)O(+) and CH(3)(+), which play an important role in astrophysical, combustion, and laboratory plasma environments. The theoretical cross sections obtained for the dissociative recombination of the two ions are in good agreement with existing experimental data from storage ring experiments.

  8. Radiofrequency recombination lines from the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    Observations of recombination lines form normal H II regions, extended H II regions, nonthermal sources, and the H I medium are discussed. Detection of recombination lines from elements other than hydrogen may provide a means of identifying fossil Stromgren spheres at high temperature.

  9. V(D)J recombination deficiencies.

    PubMed

    de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    V(D)J recombination not only comprises the molecular mechanism that insures diversity of the immune system but also constitutes a critical checkpoint in the developmental program of B- and T-lymphocytes. The analysis of human patients with Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) has contributed to the understanding of the biochemistry of the V(D)J recombination reaction. The molecular study V(D)J recombination settings in humans, mice and in cellular mutants has allowed to unravel the process of Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), one of the key pathway that insure proper repair of DNA double strand breaks (dsb), whether they occur during V(D)J recombination or secondary to other DNA injuries. Two NHEJ factors, Artemis and Cernunnos, were indeed discovered through the study of human V(D)J recombination defective human SCID patients.

  10. Fine-Scale Population Recombination Rates, Hotspots, and Correlates of Recombination in the Medicago truncatula Genome

    PubMed Central

    Paape, Timothy; Zhou, Peng; Branca, Antoine; Briskine, Roman; Young, Nevin; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recombination rates vary across the genome and in many species show significant relationships with several genomic features, including distance to the centromere, gene density, and GC content. Studies of fine-scale recombination rates have also revealed that in several species, there are recombination hotspots, that is, short regions with recombination rates 10–100 greater than those in surrounding regions. In this study, we analyzed whole-genome resequence data from 26 accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula to gain insight into the genomic features that are related to high- and low-recombination rates and recombination hotspots at 1 kb scales. We found that high-recombination regions (1-kb windows among those in the highest 5% of the distribution) on all three chromosomes were significantly closer to the centromere, had higher gene density, and lower GC content than low-recombination windows. High-recombination windows are also significantly overrepresented among some gene functional categories—most strongly NB–ARC and LRR genes, both of which are important in plant defense against pathogens. Similar to high-recombination windows, recombination hotspots (1-kb windows with significantly higher recombination than the surrounding region) are significantly nearer to the centromere than nonhotspot windows. By contrast, we detected no difference in gene density or GC content between hotspot and nonhotspot windows. Using linear model wavelet analysis to examine the relationship between recombination and genomic features across multiple spatial scales, we find a significant negative correlation with distance to the centromere across scales up to 512 kb, whereas gene density and GC content show significantly positive and negative correlations, respectively, only up to 64 kb. Correlations between recombination and genomic features, particularly gene density and polymorphism, suggest that they are scale dependent and need to be assessed at scales relevant

  11. Identifying the Important HIV-1 Recombination Breakpoints

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jun; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Arts, Eric J.; Negroni, Matteo; Robertson, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant HIV-1 genomes contribute significantly to the diversity of variants within the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is assumed that some of these mosaic genomes may have novel properties that have led to their prevalence, particularly in the case of the circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In regions of the HIV-1 genome where recombination has a tendency to convey a selective advantage to the virus, we predict that the distribution of breakpoints—the identifiable boundaries that delimit the mosaic structure—will deviate from the underlying null distribution. To test this hypothesis, we generate a probabilistic model of HIV-1 copy-choice recombination and compare the predicted breakpoint distribution to the distribution from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Across much of the HIV-1 genome, we find that the observed frequencies of inter-subtype recombination are predicted accurately by our model. This observation strongly indicates that in these regions a probabilistic model, dependent on local sequence identity, is sufficient to explain breakpoint locations. In regions where there is a significant over- (either side of the env gene) or under- (short regions within gag, pol, and most of env) representation of breakpoints, we infer natural selection to be influencing the recombination pattern. The paucity of recombination breakpoints within most of the envelope gene indicates that recombinants generated in this region are less likely to be successful. The breakpoints at a higher frequency than predicted by our model are approximately at either side of env, indicating increased selection for these recombinants as a consequence of this region, or at least part of it, having a tendency to be recombined as an entire unit. Our findings thus provide the first clear indication of the existence of a specific portion of the genome that deviates from a probabilistic null model for recombination. This suggests that, despite the wide diversity of recombinant forms seen in the viral

  12. Optimal expression condition of recombinant RAP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Bi, Hao; Liu, Zhiguo; Guo, Jianli; Qu, Shen

    2007-02-01

    In order to construct the expression recombinant of human receptor associated protein (RAP), optimize its expression condition and obtain the recombinant protein after expression with high efficiency, two prokaryotic expression vectors-pT7-PL and pET-28a(+) were used to construct the expression recombinant containing RAP cDNA, and the expression efficiency of two kinds of expression E. coli of BL21 strains was compared. The effect of different induction conditions on the expression of recombinant RAP was observed. After recombinant protein was purified with Ni(+) -nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni(+) -NTA) affinity chromatogram, its binding ability with microphage was observed. The results showed that two recombinant plasmids both obtained high expression of RAP. The expression levels of RAP in plasmid pT7-PL-RAP in BL21 (DE3, plysS) strain were significantly higher than in BL21 (DE3) strain. The expression of pT7-PL-RAP in the presence of chloramphenicol was higher than in the absence of chloramphenicol, and most of the inducible expressed RAP was soluble. The RAP which was purified by Ni(+) -NTA resin could strongly bind with the RAW264.7 cells rich in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family receptors. It was concluded that the expression condition of recombinant RAP was optimized and functional RAP was obtained, which offered a good foundation for the further production of RAP as research tool.

  13. Homologous recombination in plants is organ specific.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alexander; Filkowski, Jody; Hudson, Darryl; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2006-03-20

    In this paper we analysed the genome stability of various Arabidopsis thaliana plant organs using a transgenic recombination system. The system was based on two copies of non-functional GUS (lines #651 and #11) or LUC (line #15D8) reporter genes serving as a recombination substrate. Both reporter assays showed that recombination in flowers or stems were rare events. Most of the recombination sectors were found in leaves and roots, with leaves having over 2-fold greater number of the recombination events per single cell genome as compared to roots. The recombination events per single genome were 9.7-fold more frequent on the lateral half of the leaves than on the medial halves. This correlated with a 2.5-fold higher metabolic activity in the energy source (lateral) versus energy sink (medial) of leaves. Higher metabolic activity was paralleled by a higher anthocyanin production in lateral halves. The level of double strand break (DSB) occurrence was also different among plant organs; the highest level was observed in roots and the lowest in leaves. High level of DSBs strongly positively correlated with the activity of the key repair enzymes, AtKU70 and AtRAD51. The ratio of AtRAD51 to AtKU70 expression was the highest in leaves, supporting the more active involvement of homologous recombination pathway in the repair of DSBs in this organ. Western blot analysis confirmed the real time PCR expression data for AtKU70 gene.

  14. Electron Recombination in a Dense Hydrogen Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, M.R.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Yonehara, K.; Leonova, M.A.; Schwarz, T.A.; Chung, M.; /Unlisted /IIT, Chicago /Fermilab /MUONS Inc., Batavia /Turin Polytechnic

    2012-05-01

    A high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF cavity was subjected to an intense proton beam to study the evolution of the beam induced plasma inside the cavity. Varying beam intensities, gas pressures and electric fields were tested. Beam induced ionized electrons load the cavity, thereby decreasing the accelerating gradient. The extent and duration of this degradation has been measured. A model of the recombination between ionized electrons and ions is presented, with the intent of producing a baseline for the physics inside such a cavity used in a muon accelerator. Analysis of the data taken during the summer of 2011 shows that self recombination takes place in pure hydrogen gas. The decay of the number of electrons in the cavity once the beam is turned off indicates self recombination rather than attachment to electronegative dopants or impurities. The cross section of electron recombination grows for larger clusters of hydrogen and so at the equilibrium of electron production and recombination in the cavity, processes involving H{sub 5}{sup +} or larger clusters must be taking place. The measured recombination rates during this time match or exceed the analytic predicted values. The accelerating gradient in the cavity recovers fully in time for the next beam pulse of a muon collider. Exactly what the recombination rate is and how much the gradient degrades during the 60 ns muon collider beam pulse will be extrapolated from data taken during the spring of 2012.

  15. Implications of recombination for HIV diversity.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Galetto, Roman; Negroni, Matteo

    2008-06-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population is characterised by extensive genetic variability that results from high error and recombination rates of the reverse transcription process, and from the fast turnover of virions in HIV-infected individuals. Among the viral variants encountered at the global scale, recombinant forms are extremely abundant. Some of these recombinants (known as circulating recombinant forms) become fixed and undergo rapid expansion in the population. The reasons underlying their epidemiological success remain at present poorly understood and constitute a fascinating area for future research to improve our understanding of immune escape, pathogenicity and transmission. Recombinant viruses are generated during reverse transcription as a consequence of template switching between the two genetically different genomic RNAs present in a heterozygous virus. Recombination can thereby generate shortcuts in evolution by producing mosaic reverse transcription products of parental genomes. Therefore, in a single infectious cycle multiple mutations that are positively selected can be combined or, conversely, negatively selected mutations can be removed. Recombination is therefore involved in different aspects of HIV evolution, adaptation to its host, and escape from antiviral treatments.

  16. First-principles study of Frenkel pair recombination in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shi-Yao; Jin, Shuo; Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-01

    The recombination of one Frenkel pair in tungsten has been investigated through first-principles simulation. Two different recombination types have been identified: instantaneous and thermally activated. The small recombination barriers for thermally activated recombination cases indicate that recombination can occur easily with a slightly increased temperature. For both of the two recombination types, recombination occurs through the self-interstitial atom moving towards the vacancy. The recombination process can be direct or through replacement sequences, depending on the vertical distance between the vacancy and the <1 1 1> line of self-interstitial atom pair.

  17. Intraspecific variation of recombination rate in maize

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sexually reproducing organisms, meiotic crossovers ensure the proper segregation of chromosomes and contribute to genetic diversity by shuffling allelic combinations. Such genetic reassortment is exploited in breeding to combine favorable alleles, and in genetic research to identify genetic factors underlying traits of interest via linkage or association-based approaches. Crossover numbers and distributions along chromosomes vary between species, but little is known about their intraspecies variation. Results Here, we report on the variation of recombination rates between 22 European maize inbred lines that belong to the Dent and Flint gene pools. We genotype 23 doubled-haploid populations derived from crosses between these lines with a 50 k-SNP array and construct high-density genetic maps, showing good correspondence with the maize B73 genome sequence assembly. By aligning each genetic map to the B73 sequence, we obtain the recombination rates along chromosomes specific to each population. We identify significant differences in recombination rates at the genome-wide, chromosome, and intrachromosomal levels between populations, as well as significant variation for genome-wide recombination rates among maize lines. Crossover interference analysis using a two-pathway modeling framework reveals a negative association between recombination rate and interference strength. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present work provides the most comprehensive study on intraspecific variation of recombination rates and crossover interference strength in eukaryotes. Differences found in recombination rates will allow for selection of high or low recombining lines in crossing programs. Our methodology should pave the way for precise identification of genes controlling recombination rates in maize and other organisms. PMID:24050704

  18. Production of recombinant proteins by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Ward, Owen P

    2012-01-01

    The initial focus of recombinant protein production by filamentous fungi related to exploiting the extraordinary extracellular enzyme synthesis and secretion machinery of industrial strains, including Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Rhizopus species, was to produce single recombinant protein products. An early recognized disadvantage of filamentous fungi as hosts of recombinant proteins was their common ability to produce homologous proteases which could degrade the heterologous protein product and strategies to prevent proteolysis have met with some limited success. It was also recognized that the protein glycosylation patterns in filamentous fungi and in mammals were quite different, such that filamentous fungi are likely not to be the most suitable microbial hosts for production of recombinant human glycoproteins for therapeutic use. By combining the experience gained from production of single recombinant proteins with new scientific information being generated through genomics and proteomics research, biotechnologists are now poised to extend the biomanufacturing capabilities of recombinant filamentous fungi by enabling them to express genes encoding multiple proteins, including, for example, new biosynthetic pathways for production of new primary or secondary metabolites. It is recognized that filamentous fungi, most species of which have not yet been isolated, represent an enormously diverse source of novel biosynthetic pathways, and that the natural fungal host harboring a valuable biosynthesis pathway may often not be the most suitable organism for biomanufacture purposes. Hence it is expected that substantial effort will be directed to transforming other fungal hosts, non-fungal microbial hosts and indeed non microbial hosts to express some of these novel biosynthetic pathways. But future applications of recombinant expression of proteins will not be confined to biomanufacturing. Opportunities to exploit recombinant technology to unravel the

  19. [Enzymatic regulatory processes in gene recombination].

    PubMed

    Kovarskiĭ, V A; Profir, A V

    1988-01-01

    Recombination bistability in the system of genetic regulation in pro- and eucaryots is analysed on the basis of sigmoid kinetics of regulatory enzymes. It is shown that under an increase of either exogenic factors (temperature) or endogenic factors (concentration of molecules, which activate the enzymes) of crucial values, bistability solutions for recombination frequencies are possible. Histeresic character of the dependence of this value on the external parameters is pointed out. The role of fluctuation processes in distortion of the memory effects is discussed. On the basis of monostable solutions molecular account for the empiric Plau law is given for U-shaped dependence of recombination frequency on temperature.

  20. Spacecraft thermal energy accommodation from atomic recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Marinelli, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of atomic recombination probabilities important in determining energy release to reusable spacecraft thermal protection surfaces during reentry are presented. An experimental apparatus constructed to examine recombination of atomic oxygen from thermal protection and reference materials at reentry temperatures is described. The materials are examined under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to develop and maintain well characterized surface conditions that are free of contamination. When compared with stagnation point heat transfer measurements performed in arc jet facilities, these measurements indicate that a significant fraction of the excess energy available from atom recombination is removed from the surface as metastable O2.

  1. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  2. Recombination of N4(+) ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Y. S.; Johnsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    Using a modified high-pressure-afterglow/mass spectrometer apparatus similar to that described by Lee and Johnsen (1989), spectroscopic observations of afterglow helium plasmas, with N2 as a minor additive, were carried out in order to verify the mechanism suggested by Bates (1991) for dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions. It was found that dissociative recombination of electrons with N4(+) ions results in the formation of N2 molecules in the C 3Pi(u) (v = 0,1) state, with the recombination rate coefficient of (2.6 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -6 cu cm/sec at 300 K.

  3. DSMC modeling of flows with recombination reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimelshein, Sergey; Wysong, Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    An empirical microscopic recombination model is developed for the direct simulation Monte Carlo method that complements the extended weak vibrational bias model of dissociation. The model maintains the correct equilibrium reaction constant in a wide range of temperatures by using the collision theory to enforce the number of recombination events. It also strictly follows the detailed balance requirement for equilibrium gas. The model and its implementation are verified with oxygen and nitrogen heat bath relaxation and compared with available experimental data on atomic oxygen recombination in argon and molecular nitrogen.

  4. Disease diagnosis by recombinant DNA methods

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, C.T.

    1987-06-05

    Recombinant DNA procedures have now been applied to the problem of the identification of molecular defects in man that account for heritable diseases, somatic mutations associated with neoplasia, and acquired infectious disease. Thus, recombinant DNA technology has rapidly expanded the ability to diagnose disease. Substantial advances in the simplification of procedures for diagnostic purposes have been made, and the informed physician has gained in diagnostic accuracy as a consequence of these developments. The wide application of recombinant DNA diagnostics will depend on simplicity, speed of results, and cost containment. 66 references, 7 figures.

  5. Recombination lasing in a magnetoplasmadynamic arcjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. M.; Jahn, R. G.; von Jaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    The plasmadynamic recombination laser concept is verified experimentally in a high-power quasisteady MPD arcjet operating at 4 kA and 12 g/sec of argon. Measurements of the spatial variation of electron temperature, electron density, and population densities in the arc exhaust flow confirm that inverted populations of the 4p to 4s Ar II transitions are established by collisional-radiative recombination of the Ar III ion. Using an optical cavity aligned transversely to the flow, recombination lasing of seven such transitions, 5145, 4880, 4764, 4727, 4658, 4579, and 4545 A, is observed spectrophotographically and photoelectrically over the entire 1-msec discharge.

  6. Recombination lasing in a magnetoplasmadynamic arcjet

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Jahn, R.G.; von Jaskowsky, W.F.; Clark, K.E.

    1980-01-01

    The plasmadynamic recombination laser concept is verified experimentally in a high-power quasisteady MPD arcjet operating at 4 kA and 12 g/sec of argon. Measurements of the spatial variation of electron temperature, electron density, and population densities in the arc exhaust flow confirm that inverted populations of the 4p to 4s Ar II transitions are established by collisional-radiative recombination of the Ar III ion. Using an optical cavity aligned transversely to the flow, recombination lasing of seven such transitions, 5145, 4880, 4764, 4727, 4658, 4579, and 4545 A, is observed spectrophotograpically and photoelectrically over the entire 1-msec discharge.

  7. Recombinant horseradish peroxidase: production and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, V G; Andreeva, I P; Rubtsova, M Yu; Egorov, A M

    2015-04-01

    Horseradish peroxidase is a key enzyme in bio- and immunochemical analysis. New approaches in functional expression of the peroxidase gene in E. coli cells and the subsequent refolding of the resulting protein yield a recombinant enzyme that is comparable in its spectral and catalytic characteristics to the native plant peroxidase. Genetic engineering approaches allow production of recombinant peroxidase conjugates with both protein antigens and Fab antibody fragments. The present article reviews the use of recombinant horseradish peroxidase as the marker enzyme in ELISA procedures as well as in amperometric sensors based on direct electron transfer.

  8. Bacterial genome remodeling through bacteriophage recombination.

    PubMed

    Menouni, Rachid; Hutinet, Geoffrey; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Ansaldi, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages co-exist and co-evolve with their hosts in natural environments. Virulent phages lyse infected cells through lytic cycles, whereas temperate phages often remain dormant and can undergo lysogenic or lytic cycles. In their lysogenic state, prophages are actually part of the host genome and replicate passively in rhythm with host division. However, prophages are far from being passive residents: they can modify or bring new properties to their host. In this review, we focus on two important phage-encoded recombination mechanisms, i.e. site-specific recombination and homologous recombination, and how they remodel bacterial genomes.

  9. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  10. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  11. The Kinetics of Nitrogen Atom Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Ronald; Winkler, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of the kinetics of the recombination of nitrogen atoms in which concentration-time relations are determined directly by utilizing visual observations of emissions to make gas phase titrations of N atoms with NO. (MLH)

  12. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  14. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  15. The homologous recombination system of Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Holloman, William K; Schirawski, Jan; Holliday, Robin

    2008-08-01

    Homologous recombination is a high fidelity, template-dependent process that is used in repair of damaged DNA, recovery of broken replication forks, and disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. Much of what is known about recombination genes and mechanisms comes from studies on baker's yeast. Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete fungus, is distant evolutionarily from baker's yeast and so offers the possibility of gaining insight into recombination from an alternative perspective. Here we have surveyed the genome of U. maydis to determine the composition of its homologous recombination system. Compared to baker's yeast, there are fundamental differences in the function as well as in the repertoire of dedicated components. These include the use of a BRCA2 homolog and its modifier Dss1 rather than Rad52 as a mediator of Rad51, the presence of only a single Rad51 paralog, and the absence of Dmc1 and auxiliary meiotic proteins.

  16. The homologous recombination system of Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Holloman, William K.; Schirawski, Jan; Holliday, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a high fidelity, template-dependent process that is used in repair of damaged DNA, recovery of broken replication forks, and disjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis. Much of what is known about recombination genes and mechanisms comes from studies on baker's yeast. Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete fungus, is distant evolutionarily from baker's yeast and so offers the possibility of gaining insight into recombination from an alternative perspective. Here we have surveyed the genome of Ustilago maydis to determine the composition of its homologous recombination system. Compared to baker's yeast, there are fundamental differences in the function as well as in the repertoire of dedicated components. These include the use of a BRCA2 homolog and its modifier Dss1 rather than Rad52 as a mediator of Rad51, the presence of only a single Rad51 paralog, and the absence of Dmc1 and auxiliary meiotic proteins. PMID:18502156

  17. Strategies for RNA-Guided DNA Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeleska, Angela; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Landweber, Laura F.

    We present a model for homologous DNA recombination events guided by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) templates, and apply this model to DNA rearrangements in some groups of ciliates, such as Stylonychia or Oxytricha. In these organisms, differentiation of a somatic macronucleus from a germline micronucleus involves extensive gene rearrangement, which can be modeled as topological braiding of the DNA, with the template-guided alignment proceeding through DNA branch migration. We show that a graph structure, which we refer to as an assembly graph, containing only 1- and 4-valent vertices can provide a physical representation of the DNA at the time of recombination. With this representation, 4-valent vertices correspond to the alignment of the recombination sites, and we model the actual recombination event as smoothing of these vertices.

  18. Epigenetic control of meiotic recombination in plants.

    PubMed

    Yelina, Natasha; Diaz, Patrick; Lambing, Christophe; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is a deeply conserved process within eukaryotes that has a profound effect on patterns of natural genetic variation. During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo DNA double strand breaks generated by the Spo11 endonuclease. These breaks can be repaired as crossovers that result in reciprocal exchange between chromosomes. The frequency of recombination along chromosomes is highly variable, for example, crossovers are rarely observed in heterochromatin and the centromeric regions. Recent work in plants has shown that crossover hotspots occur in gene promoters and are associated with specific chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z. Meiotic chromosomes are also organized in loop-base arrays connected to an underlying chromosome axis, which likely interacts with chromatin to organize patterns of recombination. Therefore, epigenetic information exerts a major influence on patterns of meiotic recombination along chromosomes, genetic variation within populations and evolution of plant genomes.

  19. The Kinetics of Nitrogen Atom Recombination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Ronald; Winkler, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study of the kinetics of the recombination of nitrogen atoms in which concentration-time relations are determined directly by utilizing visual observations of emissions to make gas phase titrations of N atoms with NO. (MLH)

  20. Dielectronic recombination resonances in Na8+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, D.; Lindroth, E.; Kieslich, S.; Brandau, C.; Schippers, S.; Shi, W.; Müller, A.; Gwinner, G.; Schnell, M.; Wolf, A.

    2004-12-01

    The electron-ion recombination spectrum of the Li-like Na8+ ion in the energy range 0.0-0.5eV is presented. Experimental results obtained by storage-ring techniques are compared with a calculated spectrum, based on a combination of relativistic many-body methods and complex rotation, and the agreement is found to be very good. The deviations between measured and calculated dielectronic recombination resonance energies are usually below about 2meV with a maximum difference at 5.5meV , while the theoretical cross sections deviate by at most 20% from the experiment. The recombination spectrum in the investigated energy region is determined by the 2pj7ℓj' Rydberg manifold of dielectronic recombination resonances, comprising 61 states within half an eV above the ground state of Na8+ . The theoretical resonance parameters of all contributing states are provided.

  1. Oxidative refolding of recombinant prochymosin.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, C; Tang, B; Zhang, Y; Yang, K

    1999-01-01

    The disulphide-coupled refolding of recombinant prochymosin from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies was investigated. Prochymosin solubilized from inclusion bodies is endowed with free thiol groups and disulphide bonds. This partially reduced form undergoes renaturation more efficiently than the fully reduced form, suggesting that some native structural elements existing in inclusion bodies and remaining after denaturation function as nuclei to initiate correct refolding. This assumption is supported by the finding that in the solubilized prochymosin molecule the cysteine residues located in the N-terminal domain of the protein are not incorrectly paired with the other cysteines in the C-terminal domain. Addition of GSH/GSSG into the refolding system facilitates disulphide rearrangement and thus enhances renaturation, especially for the fully reduced prochymosin. Based on the results described in this and previous papers [Tang, Zhang and Yang (1994) Biochem. J. 301, 17-20], a model to depict the refolding process of prochymosin is proposed. Briefly, the refolding process of prochymosin consists of two stages: the formation and rearrangement of disulphide bonds occurs at the first stage in a pH11 buffer, whereas the formation and adjustment of tertiary structure leading to the native conformation takes place at the second stage at pH8. The pH11 conditions help polypeptides to refold in such a way as to favour the formation of native disulphide bonds. Disulphide rearrangement, the rate-limiting step during refolding, can be achieved by thiol/disulphide exchange initiated by free thiol groups present in the prochymosin polypeptide, GSH/GSSG or protein disulphide isomerase. PMID:10229691

  2. Fermentations with new recombinant organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nichols, N.N.; Dien, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    US fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. The authors have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21--34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different industrially hardened strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks.

  3. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  4. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  5. Recombination-generation currents in degenerate semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1978-01-01

    The classical Shockley-Read-Hall theory of free carrier recombination and generation via traps is extended to degenerate semiconductors. A concise and simple expression is found which avoids completely the concept of a Fermi level, a concept which is alien to nonequilibrium situations. Assumptions made in deriving the recombination generation current are carefully delineated and are found to be basically identical to those made in the original theory applicable to nondegenerate semiconductors.

  6. Recombination-generation currents in degenerate semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Roos, O.

    1978-01-01

    The classical Shockley-Read-Hall theory of free carrier recombination and generation via traps is extended to degenerate semiconductors. A concise and simple expression is found which avoids completely the concept of a Fermi level, a concept which is alien to nonequilibrium situations. Assumptions made in deriving the recombination generation current are carefully delineated and are found to be basically identical to those made in the original theory applicable to nondegenerate semiconductors.

  7. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  8. Recombination rate predicts inversion size in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, M; Barbadilla, A; Ruiz, A

    1999-01-01

    Most species of the Drosophila genus and other Diptera are polymorphic for paracentric inversions. A common observation is that successful inversions are of intermediate size. We test here the hypothesis that the selected property is the recombination length of inversions, not their physical length. If so, physical length of successful inversions should be negatively correlated with recombination rate across species. This prediction was tested by a comprehensive statistical analysis of inversion size and recombination map length in 12 Diptera species for which appropriate data are available. We found that (1) there is a wide variation in recombination map length among species; (2) physical length of successful inversions varies greatly among species and is inversely correlated with the species recombination map length; and (3) neither the among-species variation in inversion length nor the correlation are observed in unsuccessful inversions. The clear differences between successful and unsuccessful inversions point to natural selection as the most likely explanation for our results. Presumably the selective advantage of an inversion increases with its length, but so does its detrimental effect on fertility due to double crossovers. Our analysis provides the strongest and most extensive evidence in favor of the notion that the adaptive value of inversions stems from their effect on recombination. PMID:10471710

  9. Multiple geminate ligand recombinations in human hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Esquerra, R M; Goldbeck, R A; Reaney, S H; Batchelder, A M; Wen, Y; Lewis, J W; Kliger, D S

    2000-01-01

    The geminate ligand recombination reactions of photolyzed carbonmonoxyhemoglobin were studied in a nanosecond double-excitation-pulse time-resolved absorption experiment. The second laser pulse, delayed by intervals as long as 400 ns after the first, provided a measure of the geminate kinetics by rephotolyzing ligands that have recombined during the delay time. The peak-to-trough magnitude of the Soret band photolysis difference spectrum measured as a function of the delay between excitation pulses showed that the room temperature kinetics of geminate recombination in adult human hemoglobin are best described by two exponential processes, with lifetimes of 36 and 162 ns. The relative amounts of bimolecular recombination to T- and R-state hemoglobins and the temperature dependence of the submicrosecond kinetics between 283 and 323 K are also consistent with biexponential kinetics for geminate recombination. These results are discussed in terms of two models: geminate recombination kinetics modulated by concurrent protein relaxation and heterogeneous kinetics arising from alpha and beta chain differences. PMID:10827999

  10. Recombination hotspots: Models and tools for detection.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prosenjit; Nag, Debjyoti; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2016-04-01

    Recombination hotspots are the regions within the genome where the rate, and the frequency of recombination are optimum with a size varying from 1 to 2kb. The recombination event is mediated by the double-stranded break formation, guided by the combined enzymatic action of DNA topoisomerase and Spo 11 endonuclease. These regions are distributed non-uniformly throughout the human genome and cause distortions in the genetic map. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the number of hotspots known in humans has increased manifold in recent years. A few facts about the hotspot evolutions were also put forward, indicating the differences in the hotspot position between chimpanzees and humans. In mice, recombination hot spots were found to be clustered within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Several models, that help explain meiotic recombination has been proposed. Moreover, scientists also developed some computational tools to locate the hotspot position and estimate their recombination rate in humans is of great interest to population and medical geneticists. Here we reviewed the molecular mechanisms, models and in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  11. Dissociation of recombinant prion autocatalysis from infectivity.

    PubMed

    Noble, Geoffrey P; Supattapone, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Within the mammalian prion field, the existence of recombinant prion protein (PrP) conformers with self-replicating (ie. autocatalytic) activity in vitro but little to no infectious activity in vivo challenges a key prediction of the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication--that autocatalytic PrP conformers should be infectious. To understand this dissociation of autocatalysis from infectivity, we recently performed a structural and functional comparison between a highly infectious and non-infectious pair of autocatalytic recombinant PrP conformers derived from the same initial prion strain. (1) We identified restricted, C-terminal structural differences between these 2 conformers and provided evidence that these relatively subtle differences prevent the non-infectious conformer from templating the conversion of native PrP(C) substrates containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. (1) In this article we discuss a model, consistent with these findings, in which recombinant PrP, lacking post-translational modifications and associated folding constraints, is capable of adopting a wide variety of autocatalytic conformations. Only a subset of these recombinant conformers can be adopted by post-translationally modified native PrP(C), and this subset represents the recombinant conformers with high specific infectivity. We examine this model's implications for the generation of highly infectious recombinant prions and the protein-only hypothesis of prion replication.

  12. Homologous recombination using bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cary; Fischer, Tobias; Munroe, Elizabeth

    2015-02-02

    This protocol introduces the technique of homologous recombination in bacteria to insert a linear DNA fragment into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Homologous recombination allows the modification of large DNA molecules, in contrast with conventional restriction endonuclease-based strategies, which cleave large DNAs into numerous fragments and are unlikely to permit the precise targeting afforded by recombination-based approaches. The method uses a phage lambda-derived recombination system (using exo, beta, and gam) as well as other enzymatic activities provided by the host (Escherichia coli). In the method described here, a DNA fragment encoding enhanced cyan fluorescent protein is inserted immediately after the start codon of the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase ("ChAT"), the final enzyme in acetylcholine biosynthesis, using homologous recombination between sequences that are present both on the introduced DNA fragment and in the target BAC. The desired recombination products are identified via positive selection for resistance to kanamycin. In principle, the resulting modified BAC could be used to produce transgenic mice that express this fluorescent protein in cholinergic neurons. The approach described here could be used to insert any DNA fragment.

  13. Phylogenetic study of recombinant strains of Potato virus Y

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato virus Y (PVY) exists as a complex of strains, including a growing number of recombinants. Evolution of PVY proceeds through accumulation of mutations and more rapidly through recombination. Here, the role of recombination in PVY evolution and the origin of common PVY recombinants were studied...

  14. Oligonucleotide recombination enabled site-specific mutagenesis in bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombineering refers to a strategy for engineering DNA sequences using a specialized mode of homologous recombination. This technology can be used for rapidly constructing precise changes in bacterial genome sequences in vivo. Oligo recombination is one type of recombineering that uses ssDNA olig...

  15. Construction of gene-targeting vectors by recombineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song-Choon; Wang, Wei; Liu, Pentao

    2009-01-01

    Recombineering is a technology that utilizes the efficient homologous recombination functions encoded by gamma phage to manipulate DNA in Escherichia coli. Construction of knockout vectors has been greatly facilitated by recombineering as it allows one to choose any genomic region to manipulate. We describe here an efficient recombineering-based protocol for making mouse conditional knockout targeting vectors.

  16. Recombination hotspots and host susceptibility modulate the adaptive value of recombination during maize streak virus evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maize streak virus -strain A (MSV-A; Genus Mastrevirus, Family Geminiviridae), the maize-adapted strain of MSV that causes maize streak disease throughout sub-Saharan Africa, probably arose between 100 and 200 years ago via homologous recombination between two MSV strains adapted to wild grasses. MSV recombination experiments and analyses of natural MSV recombination patterns have revealed that this recombination event entailed the exchange of the movement protein - coat protein gene cassette, bounded by the two genomic regions most prone to recombination in mastrevirus genomes; the first surrounding the virion-strand origin of replication, and the second around the interface between the coat protein gene and the short intergenic region. Therefore, aside from the likely adaptive advantages presented by a modular exchange of this cassette, these specific breakpoints may have been largely predetermined by the underlying mechanisms of mastrevirus recombination. To investigate this hypothesis, we constructed artificial, low-fitness, reciprocal chimaeric MSV genomes using alternating genomic segments from two MSV strains; a grass-adapted MSV-B, and a maize-adapted MSV-A. Between them, each pair of reciprocal chimaeric genomes represented all of the genetic material required to reconstruct - via recombination - the highly maize-adapted MSV-A genotype, MSV-MatA. We then co-infected a selection of differentially MSV-resistant maize genotypes with pairs of reciprocal chimaeras to determine the efficiency with which recombination would give rise to high-fitness progeny genomes resembling MSV-MatA. Results Recombinants resembling MSV-MatA invariably arose in all of our experiments. However, the accuracy and efficiency with which the MSV-MatA genotype was recovered across all replicates of each experiment depended on the MSV susceptibility of the maize genotypes used and the precise positions - in relation to known recombination hotspots - of the breakpoints

  17. Probing cellular processes with oligo-mediated recombination; using knowledge gained to optimize recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Sawitzke, James A.; Costantino, Nina; Li, Xin-tian; Thomason, Lynn C.; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Court, Carolyn; Court, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination with single-strand DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) in E. coli is an efficient and rapid way to modify replicons in vivo. The generation of a nucleotide alteration by oligo recombination provides novel assays for studying cellular processes. Single-strand exonucleases inhibit oligo recombination, and by mutating all four known exonucleases recombination is increased. Increasing the oligo concentration or addition of non-specific carrier oligo titrates out the exonucleases. In a model for oligo recombination, λ Beta protein anneals the oligo to complementary single-strand DNA at the replication fork. Mismatches are created and the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system acts to eliminate the mismatches inhibiting recombination. Three ways to evade MMR through oligo design include, in addition to the desired change 1) a C~C mismatch six bp from that change, 2) four or more adjacent mismatches, or 3) mismatches at four or more consecutive wobble positions. The latter proves useful for making high frequency changes that alter only the target amino-acid sequence and even allows modification of essential genes. Efficient uptake of DNA is important for oligo-mediated recombination. Uptake of oligos or plasmids is growth media-dependent and is 10,000-fold reduced for cells grown in minimal vs rich medium. Genome-wide engineering technologies utilizing recombineering will benefit from both optimized recombination frequencies and a greater understanding of how biological processes such as DNA replication and cell division impact recombinants formed at multiple chromosomal loci. Recombination events at multiple loci in individual cells are described here. PMID:21256136

  18. Genetic recombination of the hepatitis C virus: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Morel, V; Fournier, C; François, C; Brochot, E; Helle, F; Duverlie, G; Castelain, S

    2011-02-01

    Genetic recombination is a well-known feature of RNA viruses that plays a significant role in their evolution. Although recombination is well documented for Flaviviridae family viruses, the first natural recombinant strain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified as recently as 2002. Since then, a few other natural inter-genotypic, intra-genotypic and intra-subtype recombinant HCV strains have been described. However, the frequency of recombination may have been underestimated because not all known HCV recombinants are screened for in routine practice. Furthermore, the choice of treatment regimen and its predictive outcome remain problematic as the therapeutic strategy for HCV infection is genotype dependent. HCV recombination also raises many questions concerning its mechanisms and effects on the epidemiological and physiopathological features of the virus. This review provides an update on recombinant HCV strains, the process that gives rise to recombinants and clinical implications of recombination. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Somatic recombination, gene amplification and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramel, C; Cederberg, H; Magnusson, J; Vogel, E; Natarajan, A T; Mullender, L H; Nivard, J M; Parry, J M; Leyson, A; Comendador, M A; Sierra, L M; Ferreiro, J A; Consuegra, S

    1996-06-12

    The principle objective of this research programme, to analyse chemical induction of somatic recombination and related endpoints, i.e., mobilization of transposing elements and gene amplification, has been approached by means of several assay systems. These have included Drosophila, Saccharomyces and mammalian cell cultures. 6.1. Screening assays for mitotic recombination. A large number of chemicals have been investigated in the three Drosophila assay systems employed--the multiple wing hair/flare wing spot system developed by Graf et al., 1984, the white-ivory system developed by Green et al., 1986 and the white/white+ eye spot assay developed by Vogel (Vogel and Nivard, 1993). Particularly the screening of 181 chemicals, covering a wide array of chemical classes, by the last mentioned assay has shown that measurement of somatic recombination in Drosophila constitutes a sensitive and efficient short-term test which shows a remarkably good correlation with the agent score of 83 short-term tests analysed by ICPEMC (Mendelsohn et al., 1992; Table 2) as well as the assay performance in international collaborative programmes measuring carcinogen/non-carcinogens (de Serres and Ashby, 1981; Ashby et al., 1985, 1988). Also the wing spot assay has gained wide international recognition as a similarly sensitive test. These two assay systems in Drosophila measure both intrachromosomal events and interchromosomal recombination. The white-ivory system on the other hand is based on the loss of a tandem duplication in the white locus, the mechanism of which is less known, but probably involves intrachromosomal recombination. The difference in the mechanism between this assay and the former two was indicated by the lack of response to methotrexate in the white-ivory assay, while this compound was strongly recombinogenic in both the wing spot and white/white+ assays. The use of different strains of Drosophila with the white/white+ assay demonstrated the importance of the

  20. Hydrodynamic characterization of recombinant human fibrinogen species

    PubMed Central

    Raynal, Bertrand; Cardinali, Barbara; Grimbergen, Jos; Profumo, Aldo; Lord, Susan T.; England, Patrick; Rocco, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibrinogen is a key component of the blood coagulation system and plays important, diverse roles in several relevant pathologies such as thrombosis, hemorrhage, and cancer. It is a large glycoprotein whose three-dimensional molecular structure is not fully known. Furthermore, circulating fibrinogen is highly heterogeneous, mainly due to proteolytic degradation and alternative mRNA processing. Recombinant production of human fibrinogen allows investigating the impact on the three-dimensional structure of specific changes in the primary structure. Methods We performed analytical ultracentrifugation analyses of a full-length recombinant human fibrinogen, its counterpart purified from human plasma, and a recombinant human fibrinogen with both Aα chains truncated at amino acid 251, thus missing their last 359 amino acid residues. Results We have accurately determined the translational diffusion and sedimentation coefficients (Dt(20,w)0, s(20,w)0) of all three species. This was confirmed by derived molecular weights within 1% for the full length species, and 5% for the truncated species, as assessed by comparison with SDS-PAGE/Western blot analyses and primary structure data. No significant differences in the values of Dt(20,w)0 and s(20,w)0 were found between the recombinant and purified full length human fibrinogens, while slightly lower and higher values, respectively, resulted for the recombinant truncated human fibrinogen compared to a previously characterized purified human fibrinogen fragment X obtained by plasmin digestion. Conclusions Full-length recombinant fibrinogen is less polydisperse but hydrodynamically indistinguishable from its counterpart purified from human plasma. Recombinant Aα251-truncated human fibrinogen instead behaves differently from fragment X, suggesting a role for the Bβ residues 1–52 in inter-molecular interactions. Overall, these new hydrodynamic data will constitute a reliable benchmark against which models of

  1. Ion recombination correction in carbon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Hopfgartner, J; Lee, N D; Delor, A; Thomas, R A S; Romano, F; Fukumura, A; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2016-07-01

    In this work, ion recombination is studied as a function of energy and depth in carbon ion beams. Measurements were performed in three different passively scattered carbon ion beams with energies of 62 MeV/n, 135 MeV/n, and 290 MeV/n using various types of plane-parallel ionization chambers. Experimental results were compared with two analytical models for initial recombination. One model is generally used for photon beams and the other model, developed by Jaffé, takes into account the ionization density along the ion track. An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect on the ion recombination correction with varying ionization chamber orientation with respect to the direction of the ion tracks. The variation of the ion recombination correction factors as a function of depth was studied for a Markus ionization chamber in the 62 MeV/n nonmodulated carbon ion beam. This variation can be related to the depth distribution of linear energy transfer. Results show that the theory for photon beams is not applicable to carbon ion beams. On the other hand, by optimizing the value of the ionization density and the initial mean-square radius, good agreement is found between Jaffé's theory and the experimental results. As predicted by Jaffé's theory, the results confirm that ion recombination corrections strongly decrease with an increasing angle between the ion tracks and the electric field lines. For the Markus ionization chamber, the variation of the ion recombination correction factor with depth was modeled adequately by a sigmoid function, which is approximately constant in the plateau and strongly increasing in the Bragg peak region to values of up to 1.06. Except in the distal edge region, all experimental results are accurately described by Jaffé's theory. Experimental results confirm that ion recombination in the investigated carbon ion beams is dominated by initial recombination. Ion recombination corrections are found to be significant and cannot be

  2. Multiple mutant analysis of recombination in yeast.

    PubMed

    Malone, R E

    1983-01-01

    Summary. The RAD6, RAD50, and RAD52 loci have been identified as genes which code for functions which may act during meiotic recombination in yeast (Game et al.1980; Prakash et al. 1980). By use of the spol3-1 mutation,which allows sporulating cells to bypass the first meiotic division, the rad50-1 mutation has been directly implicated as a general meiotic Rec- mutation by examination of viable ascospores (Malone and Esposito 1981). Since the rad6-1 and rad52-1 mutations do not yield viable ascospores in the presence of spol3-1, multiple rad mutants have been constructed and analyzed. This analysis has demonstrated that in meiosis tad50-1 is epistatic to rad52-1, and rad6-1 is epistatic to rad50-1. This suggests that the order of action of these genes during meiosis is RAD6, RAD50, and then RAD52. The data for rad6-1 can be interpreted to suggest that RAD6 may not code for a recombination function,per se, although it may be required for recombination to occur. Analysis of mitotic recombination indicates that rad52-1 is epistatic to rad50-1 ; in mitosis; this is consistent with the hypothesis that the RAD50 gene codes for a recombination function required in meiosis but not in mitosis.

  3. Graded recombination layers for multijunction photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Ghada I; Wang, Xihua; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-06-13

    Multijunction devices consist of a stack of semiconductor junctions having bandgaps tuned across a broad spectrum. In solar cells this concept is used to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic harvesting, while light emitters and detectors use it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We recently reported a tandem solar cell in which the recombination layer was implemented using a progression of n-type oxides whose doping densities and work functions serve to connect, with negligible resistive loss at solar current densities, the constituent cells. Here we present the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We report the number of interlayers and the requirements on work function and doping of each interlayer, to bridge an work function difference as high as 1.6 eV. We also find solutions that minimize the doping required of the interlayers in order to minimize optical absorption due to free carriers in the graded recombination layer (GRL). We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the interlayers.

  4. Evolvability of an Optimal Recombination Rate

    PubMed Central

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution and maintenance of genetic recombination and its relation to the mutational process is a long-standing, fundamental problem in evolutionary biology that is linked to the general problem of evolution of evolvability. We explored a stochastic model of the evolution of recombination using additive fitness and infinite allele assumptions but no assumptions on the sign or magnitude of the epistasis and the distribution of mutation effects. In this model, fluctuating negative epistasis and predominantly deleterious mutations arise naturally as a consequence of the additive fitness and a reservoir from which new alleles arrive with a fixed distribution of fitness effects. Analysis of the model revealed a nonmonotonic effect of recombination intensity on fitness, with an optimal recombination rate value which maximized fitness in steady state. The optimal recombination rate depended on the mutation rate and was evolvable, that is, subject to selection. The predictions of the model were compatible with the observations on the dependence between genome rearrangement rate and gene flux in microbial genomes. PMID:26660159

  5. Recombination in Eukaryotic Single Stranded DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Darren P.; Biagini, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Golden, Michael; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Although single stranded (ss) DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution. PMID:21994803

  6. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence. PMID:21510849

  7. Evolvability of an Optimal Recombination Rate.

    PubMed

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-12-10

    Evolution and maintenance of genetic recombination and its relation to the mutational process is a long-standing, fundamental problem in evolutionary biology that is linked to the general problem of evolution of evolvability. We explored a stochastic model of the evolution of recombination using additive fitness and infinite allele assumptions but no assumptions on the sign or magnitude of the epistasis and the distribution of mutation effects. In this model, fluctuating negative epistasis and predominantly deleterious mutations arise naturally as a consequence of the additive fitness and a reservoir from which new alleles arrive with a fixed distribution of fitness effects. Analysis of the model revealed a nonmonotonic effect of recombination intensity on fitness, with an optimal recombination rate value which maximized fitness in steady state. The optimal recombination rate depended on the mutation rate and was evolvable, that is, subject to selection. The predictions of the model were compatible with the observations on the dependence between genome rearrangement rate and gene flux in microbial genomes.

  8. Recombination in eukaryotic single stranded DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darren P; Biagini, Philippe; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Golden, Michael; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-09-01

    Although single stranded (ss) DNA viruses that infect humans and their domesticated animals do not generally cause major diseases, the arthropod borne ssDNA viruses of plants do, and as a result seriously constrain food production in most temperate regions of the world. Besides the well known plant and animal-infecting ssDNA viruses, it has recently become apparent through metagenomic surveys of ssDNA molecules that there also exist large numbers of other diverse ssDNA viruses within almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments. The host ranges of these viruses probably span the tree of life and they are likely to be important components of global ecosystems. Various lines of evidence suggest that a pivotal evolutionary process during the generation of this global ssDNA virus diversity has probably been genetic recombination. High rates of homologous recombination, non-homologous recombination and genome component reassortment are known to occur within and between various different ssDNA virus species and we look here at the various roles that these different types of recombination may play, both in the day-to-day biology, and in the longer term evolution, of these viruses. We specifically focus on the ecological, biochemical and selective factors underlying patterns of genetic exchange detectable amongst the ssDNA viruses and discuss how these should all be considered when assessing the adaptive value of recombination during ssDNA virus evolution.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis recombinational pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J C; Lüder, G; Tailor, R H

    1991-01-01

    Recombination in Bacillus subtilis requires the products of numerous rec loci. To dissect the various mechanisms which may be involved in genetic recombination, we constructed a series of isogenic strains containing more than one mutant rec allele. On the basis of their impairment in genetic exchange, the various loci (represented by specific rec alleles) were classified into different epistatic groups. Group alpha consists of rec genes represented by recB, recD, recF, recG, recL, and recR mutations, while group beta comprises the addA and addB mutations. Group gamma consists of the recH and recP mutations. These results suggest that B. subtilis has multiple pathways for genetic recombination and that the products of the genes within the alpha, beta, and gamma epistatic groups are involved in these alternative recombination pathways. The RecA protein is required in all three pathways of intermolecular recombination. PMID:1905712

  10. Immunological characterization of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Simionatto, Simone; Marchioro, Silvana B; Galli, Vanessa; Brum, Clarice B; Klein, Catia S; Rebelatto, Raquel; Silva, Everton F; Borsuk, Sibele; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2012-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, is highly prevalent worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. Commercial vaccines are widely used in the control of this disease, however, they provide only partial protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate 34 recombinant proteins of M. hyopneumoniae expressed in Escherichia coli. Antigenic and immunogenic properties of these proteins were analyzed. For this, the proteins were tested against hyperimmune and convalescent pig sera through ELISA and Western blot. Immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated in BALB/c mice following intramuscular inoculation. Most antigens were able to induce a strong immune response and sera from inoculated mice were able to recognize native proteins by cell ELISA and Western blot. Several recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by convalescent pig sera, indicating they are expressed during infection. These data may help to develop more efficacious vaccines against M. hyopneumoniae.

  11. Dielectronic recombination of xenonlike tungsten ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schippers, S.; Bernhardt, D.; Mueller, A.; Krantz, C.; Grieser, M.; Repnow, R.; Wolf, A.; Lestinsky, M.; Hahn, M.; Novotny, O.; Savin, D. W.

    2011-01-15

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of xenonlike W{sup 20+} forming W{sup 19+} has been studied experimentally at a heavy-ion storage ring. A merged-beams method has been employed for obtaining absolute rate coefficients for electron-ion recombination in the collision-energy range 0-140 eV. The measured rate coefficient is dominated by strong DR resonances even at the lowest experimental energies. At plasma temperatures where the fractional abundance of W{sup 20+} is expected to peak in a fusion plasma, the experimentally derived plasma recombination rate coefficient is over a factor of 4 larger than the theoretically calculated rate coefficient which is currently used in fusion plasma modeling. The largest part of this discrepancy stems most probably from the neglect in the theoretical calculations of DR associated with fine-structure excitations of the W{sup 20+}([Kr]4d{sup 10} 4f{sup 8}) ion core.

  12. Applications and challenges of multivalent recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Naim, Hussein Y

    2013-03-01

    The exceptional discoveries of antigen/gene delivery systems have allowed the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine candidates. The vaccine candidates employ various antigen-delivery systems, particularly recombinant viral vectors. Recombinant viral vectors are experimental vaccines similar to DNA vaccines, but they use attenuated viruses or bacterium as a carrier "vector" to introduce microbial DNA to cells of the body. They closely mimic a natural infection and therefore can efficiently stimulate the immune system. Although such recombinant vectors may face extensive preclinical testing and will possibly have to meet stringent regulatory requirements, some of these vectors (e.g. measles virus vectors) may benefit from the profound industrial and clinical experience of the parent vaccine. Most notably, novel vaccines based on live attenuated viruses combine the induction of broad, strong and persistent immune responses with acceptable safety profiles. We assess certain technologies in light of their use against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  13. Transcription and Recombination: When RNA Meets DNA

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription–replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. PMID:25085910

  14. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Genetics of meiosis and recombination in mice.

    PubMed

    Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina; Schimenti, John C

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis is one of the most critical developmental processes in sexually reproducing organisms. One round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell divisions results in generation of haploid gametes (sperm and eggs in mammals). Meiotic failure typically leads to infertility in mammals. In the process of meiotic recombination, maternal and paternal genomes are shuffled, creating new allelic combinations and thus genetic variety. However, in order to achieve this, meiotic cells must self-inflict DNA damage in the form of programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). Complex processes evolved to ensure proper DSB repair, and to do so in a way that favors interhomolog reciprocal recombination and crossovers. The hallmark of meiosis, a structurally conserved proteinaceous structure called the synaptonemal complex, is found only in meiotic cells. Conversely, meiotic homologous recombination is an adaptation of the mitotic DNA repair process but involving specialized proteins. In this chapter, we summarize current developments in mammalian meiosis enabled by genetically modified mice.

  16. Initiation of meiotic recombination in chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takatomi; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-08-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is markedly activated during meiotic prophase to play central roles in faithful chromosome segregation and conferring genetic diversity to gametes. It is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the conserved protein Spo11, and preferentially occurs at discrete sites called hotspots. Since the functions of Spo11 are influenced by both of local chromatin at hotspots and higher-order chromosome structures, formation of meiotic DSBs is under regulation of chromatin structure. Therefore, investigating features and roles of meiotic chromatin is crucial to elucidate the in vivo mechanism of meiotic recombination initiation. Recent progress in genome-wide chromatin analyses tremendously improved our understanding on this point, but many critical questions are left unaddressed. In this review, we summarize current knowledge in the field, and also discuss the future problems that must be solved to understand the role of chromatin structure in meiotic recombination.

  17. Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Gattermeier, Irene; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Baines, John F; Schlipalius, David; Mougel, Florence; Emore, Christine; Rueppell, Olav; Sirviö, Anu; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg; Solignac, Michel; Page, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    The first draft of the honey bee genome sequence and improved genetic maps are utilized to analyze a genome displaying 10 times higher levels of recombination (19 cM/Mb) than previously analyzed genomes of higher eukaryotes. The exceptionally high recombination rate is distributed genome-wide, but varies by two orders of magnitude. Analysis of chromosome, sequence, and gene parameters with respect to recombination showed that local recombination rate is associated with distance to the telomere, GC content, and the number of simple repeats as described for low-recombining genomes. Recombination rate does not decrease with chromosome size. On average 5.7 recombination events per chromosome pair per meiosis are found in the honey bee genome. This contrasts with a wide range of taxa that have a uniform recombination frequency of about 1.6 per chromosome pair. The excess of recombination activity does not support a mechanistic role of recombination in stabilizing pairs of homologous chromosome during chromosome pairing. Recombination rate is associated with gene size, suggesting that introns are larger in regions of low recombination and may improve the efficacy of selection in these regions. Very few transposons and no retrotransposons are present in the high-recombining genome. We propose evolutionary explanations for the exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate.

  18. Recent Theoretical Studies On Excitation and Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Anil K.

    2000-01-01

    New advances in the theoretical treatment of atomic processes in plasmas are described. These enable not only an integrated, unified, and self-consistent treatment of important radiative and collisional processes, but also large-scale computation of atomic data with high accuracy. An extension of the R-matrix work, from excitation and photoionization to electron-ion recombination, includes a unified method that subsumes both the radiative and the di-electronic recombination processes in an ab initio manner. The extensive collisional calculations for iron and iron-peak elements under the Iron Project are also discussed.

  19. Graph Model of Coalescence with Recombinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Laxmi

    One of the primary genetic events shaping an autosomal chromosome is recombination. This is a process that occurs during meiosis, in eukaryotes, that results in the offsprings having different combinations of (homologous) genes, or chromosomal segments, of the two parents. The presence of these recombination events in the evolutionary history of each chromosome complicates the genetic landscape of a population, and understanding the manifestations of these genetic exchanges in the chromosome sequences has been a subject of intense curiosity (see [Hud83, Gri99, HSW05] and citations therein).

  20. CosmoRec: Cosmological Recombination code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Jens; Thomas, Rajat Mani

    2013-04-01

    CosmoRec solves the recombination problem including recombinations to highly excited states, corrections to the 2s-1s two-photon channel, HI Lyn-feedback, n>2 two-photon profile corrections, and n≥2 Raman-processes. The code can solve the radiative transfer equation of the Lyman-series photon field to obtain the required modifications to the rate equations of the resolved levels, and handles electron scattering, the effect of HeI intercombination transitions, and absorption of helium photons by hydrogen. It also allows accounting for dark matter annihilation and optionally includes detailed helium radiative transfer effects.

  1. Recombination-pumped triatomic hydrogen infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saykally, R. J.; Michael, E. A.; Wang, J.; Greene, Chris H.

    2010-12-01

    Mid-infrared laser lines observed in hydrogen/rare gas discharges are assigned to three-body recombination processes involving an electron, a rare gas (He or Ne) atom, and the triatomic hydrogen ion (H3+). Calculations of radiative transitions between neutral H3 Rydberg states support this interpretation, and link it to recent results for hydrogenic/rare gas afterglow plasmas. A mechanism for the population inversion is proposed, and the potential generality and astrophysical implications of such molecular recombination laser systems are briefly discussed.

  2. The mismatch repair system reduces meiotic homeologous recombination and stimulates recombination-dependent chromosome loss.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, S R; Hunter, N; Louis, E J; Borts, R H

    1996-01-01

    Efficient genetic recombination requires near-perfect homology between participating molecules. Sequence divergence reduces the frequency of recombination, a process that is dependent on the activity of the mismatch repair system. The effects of chromosomal divergence in diploids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which one copy of chromosome III is derived from a closely related species, Saccharomyces paradoxus, have been examined. Meiotic recombination between the diverged chromosomes is decreased by 25-fold. Spore viability is reduced with an observable increase in the number of tetrads with only two or three viable spores. Asci with only two viable spores are disomic for chromosome III, consistent with meiosis I nondisjunction of the homeologs. Asci with three viable spores are highly enriched for recombinants relative to tetrads with four viable spores. In 96% of the class with three viable spores, only one spore possesses a recombinant chromosome III, suggesting that the recombination process itself contributes to meiotic death. This phenomenon is dependent on the activities of the mismatch repair genes PMS1 and MSH2. A model of mismatch-stimulated chromosome loss is proposed to account for this observation. As expected, crossing over is increased in pms1 and msh2 mutants. Furthermore, genetic exchange in pms1 msh2 double mutants is affected to a greater extent than in either mutant alone, suggesting that the two proteins act independently to inhibit homeologous recombination. All mismatch repair-deficient strains exhibited reductions in the rate of chromosome III nondisjunction. PMID:8887641

  3. Anomalous Abundances in Gaseous Nebulae From Recombination and Collisional Lines: Improved Photoionization and Recombination Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anil Kumar; Nahar, S. N.; Eissner, W. B.; Montenegro, M.

    2011-01-01

    A perplexing anomaly arises in the determination of abundances of common elements in gaseous nebulae, as derived from collisionally excited lines (CEL) as opposed to those from Recombination Lines (RCL). The "abundance discrepancy factors" can range from a factor of 2 to an order of magnitude or more. That has led to quite different interpretation of the physical structure and processes in gaseous nebulae, such as temperature fluctuations across the object, or metal-rich concentrations leading to a dual-abundnace scenario. We show that the problem may lie in inaccuracies in photoionization and recombination models neglecting low-energy resonance phenomena due to fine structure. Whereas the atomic physics of electron impact excitation of forbidden lines is well understood, and accurate collision strengths have long been available, that is not generally the case for electron-ion recombination cross sections. A major problem is the inclusion of relativisitic effects as it pertains to the existence of very low-energy fine structure resonances in photoionization cross sections. We carry out new relativistic calculations for photoionization and recombination cross sections using a recently extended version of the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes, and the unified electron-ion recombination method that subsumes both the radiative and the dielectronic recombination (RR and DR) processes in an ab initio and self-consistent manner. We find that near-thresold resonances manifest themselves within fine structure levels of the ground state of ions, enhancing low-temperature recombination rate coefficients at 1000-10,000 K. The resulting enahncement in level-specific and total recombination rate coefficients should therefore lead to reduced abundances derived from RCL, and in accordance with those from CEL. We present results for photoionization of O II into, and recombination from, O III. Theoretical cross sections are benchmarked against high-resolution measurements from synchrotron

  4. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  5. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  6. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  7. Measuring Diffusion and Recombination in Polycrystalline Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Light-beam-induced currents yield information about solar cell material. Apparatus measures short-circuit current generated when spot of concentrated light is scanned across grains and grain boundaries in material under test. Technique used to evaluate SOC samples for diffusion and recombination effects of cell processing and chemical and structural defects.

  8. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  9. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  10. Recombinant CBM-fusion technology - Applications overview.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Carvalho, Vera; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are small components of several enzymes, which present an independent fold and function, and specific carbohydrate-binding activity. Their major function is to bind the enzyme to the substrate enhancing its catalytic activity, especially in the case of insoluble substrates. The immense diversity of CBMs, together with their unique properties, has long raised their attention for many biotechnological applications. Recombinant DNA technology has been used for cloning and characterizing new CBMs. In addition, it has been employed to improve the purity and availability of many CBMs, but mainly, to construct bi-functional CBM-fused proteins for specific applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the uses of CBMs recombinantly produced from heterologous organisms, or by the original host, along with the latest advances. Emphasis is given particularly to the applications of recombinant CBM-fusions in: (a) modification of fibers, (b) production, purification and immobilization of recombinant proteins, (c) functionalization of biomaterials and (d) development of microarrays and probes.

  11. Recombinative plasma in electron runaway discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Usuriaga, O.C.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Soboleva, T.K.; Tsypin, V.S.; Fonseca, A.M.M.; Ruchko, L.F.; Sanada, E.K.

    2005-07-15

    Cold recombinative plasma is the basic feature of the new regime of runaway discharges recently discovered in the Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien tokamak [R. M. O. Galvao et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1181 (2001)]. With low plasma temperature, the resistive plasma current and primary Dreicer process of runaway generation are strongly suppressed at the stationary phase of the discharge. In this case, the runaway avalanche, which has been recently recognized as a novel important mechanism for runaway electron generation in large tokamaks, such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, during disruptions, and for electric breakdown in matter, is the only mechanism responsible for toroidal current generation and can be easily observed. The measurement of plasma temperature by the usual methods is a difficult task in fully runaway discharges. In the present work, various indirect evidences for low-temperature recombinative plasma are presented. The direct observation of recombinative plasma is obtained as plasma detachment from the limiter. The model of cold recombinative plasma is also supported by measurements of plasma density and H{sub {alpha}} emission radial profiles, analysis of time variations of these parameters due to the relaxation instability, estimations of plasma resistivity from voltage spikes, and energy and particle balance calculations.

  12. Recombinant MVA vaccines: dispelling the myths.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Carroll, Miles W

    2013-09-06

    Diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and cancer are prime targets for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination, but have proven partially or wholly resistant to traditional approaches to vaccine design. New vaccines based on recombinant viral vectors expressing a foreign antigen are under intense development for these and other indications. One of the most advanced and most promising vectors is the attenuated, non-replicating poxvirus MVA (modified vaccinia virus Ankara), a safer derivative of the uniquely successful smallpox vaccine. Despite the ability of recombinant MVA to induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses against transgenic antigen in humans, especially when used as the latter element of a heterologous prime-boost regimen, doubts are occasionally expressed about the ultimate feasibility of this approach. In this review, five common misconceptions over recombinant MVA are discussed, and evidence is cited to show that recombinant MVA is at least sufficiently genetically stable, manufacturable, safe, and immunogenic (even in the face of prior anti-vector immunity) to warrant reasonable hope over the feasibility of large-scale deployment, should useful levels of protection against target pathogens, or therapeutic benefit for cancer, be demonstrated in efficacy trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elimination kinetic of recombinant somatotropin in bovine.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Marie-Hélène; Rochereau-Roulet, Sandrine; Pinel, Gaud; Cesbron, Nora; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST), also called growth hormone is a protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland and responsible directly or indirectly for various effects on growth, development and reproductive functions. Its recombinant bovine somatotropin form (rbST) is used in dairy cattle to enhance milk production. Even if the effects of treatment with rbST have been largely studied, until now analytical methods able to detect rbST were limited to immunoassays, which suffer from the impossibility to distinguish between the endogenous and the recombinant form. In this study, a sample preparation procedure based on different precipitation steps, extraction on solid phase and enzymatic digestion was used to purify rbST from serum. The detection was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode (LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS) allowing the unambiguous identification and quantification of rbST in serum. Samples collected from a cow treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin were analysed and for the first time, the elimination kinetic specific to recombinant somatotropin has been characterized in serum. Detection of rbST was possible from 4h 30min to 4 days after administration and concentration was found up to 10ngmL(-1) during the kinetic.

  14. DNA Sequence Alignment during Homologous Recombination*

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination allows for the regulated exchange of genetic information between two different DNA molecules of identical or nearly identical sequence composition, and is a major pathway for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. A key facet of homologous recombination is the ability of recombination proteins to perfectly align the damaged DNA with homologous sequence located elsewhere in the genome. This reaction is referred to as the homology search and is akin to the target searches conducted by many different DNA-binding proteins. Here I briefly highlight early investigations into the homology search mechanism, and then describe more recent research. Based on these studies, I summarize a model that includes a combination of intersegmental transfer, short-distance one-dimensional sliding, and length-specific microhomology recognition to efficiently align DNA sequences during the homology search. I also suggest some future directions to help further our understanding of the homology search. Where appropriate, I direct the reader to other recent reviews describing various issues related to homologous recombination. PMID:27129270

  15. DNA Sequence Alignment during Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Greene, Eric C

    2016-05-27

    Homologous recombination allows for the regulated exchange of genetic information between two different DNA molecules of identical or nearly identical sequence composition, and is a major pathway for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. A key facet of homologous recombination is the ability of recombination proteins to perfectly align the damaged DNA with homologous sequence located elsewhere in the genome. This reaction is referred to as the homology search and is akin to the target searches conducted by many different DNA-binding proteins. Here I briefly highlight early investigations into the homology search mechanism, and then describe more recent research. Based on these studies, I summarize a model that includes a combination of intersegmental transfer, short-distance one-dimensional sliding, and length-specific microhomology recognition to efficiently align DNA sequences during the homology search. I also suggest some future directions to help further our understanding of the homology search. Where appropriate, I direct the reader to other recent reviews describing various issues related to homologous recombination. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Meiotic recombination hotspots - a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-07-01

    During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover. Meiotic recombination has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and is an important tool during crop breeding. Crossovers initiate from programmed DNA double-stranded breaks that are processed to form single-stranded DNA, which can invade a homologous chromosome. Strand invasion events mature into double Holliday junctions that can be resolved as crossovers. Extensive variation in the frequency of meiotic recombination occurs along chromosomes and is typically focused in narrow hotspots, observed both at the level of DNA breaks and final crossovers. We review methodologies to profile hotspots at different steps of the meiotic recombination pathway that have been used in different eukaryote species. We then discuss what these studies have revealed concerning specification of hotspot locations and activity and the contributions of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Understanding hotspots is important for interpreting patterns of genetic variation in populations and how eukaryotic genomes evolve. In addition, manipulation of hotspots will allow us to accelerate crop breeding, where meiotic recombination distributions can be limiting. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Isaac; Charkey, Allen

    1989-01-01

    An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

  18. Electron Beam Could Probe Recombination Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonroos, O.

    1983-01-01

    Electron beam probe technique estimate electron/hole capture cross sections in semiconductors with wide band gaps. Amplitude-modulated electron beam induces short-circuit current collected by ohmic contacts. Phase shift between this current and electron-beam current measured as function of frequency. Results of measurements used to ascertain recombination rates and energy levels.

  19. Recombination-dependent concatemeric plasmid replication.

    PubMed Central

    Viret, J F; Bravo, A; Alonso, J C

    1991-01-01

    The replication of covalently closed circular supercoiled (form I) DNA in prokaryotes is generally controlled at the initiation level by a rate-limiting effector. Once initiated, replication proceeds via one of two possible modes (theta or sigma replication) which do not rely on functions involved in DNA repair and general recombination. Recently, a novel plasmid replication mode, leading to the accumulation of linear multigenome-length plasmid concatemers in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, has been described. Unlike form I DNA replication, an intermediate recombination step is most probably involved in the initiation of concatemeric plasmid DNA replication. On the basis of structural and functional studies, we infer that recombination-dependent plasmid replication shares important features with phage late replication modes and, in several aspects, parallels the synthesis of plasmid concatemers in phage-infected cells. The characterization of the concatemeric plasmid replication mode has allowed new insights into the mechanisms of DNA replication and recombination in prokaryotes. PMID:1779931

  20. The Role of Recombinant Genetics in Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Troy A.

    1983-01-01

    To eliminate the public's fear of recombinant genetics the important link between science and the humanities should be part of the educational system. Universal applied genetics guidelines are needed that encompass philosophical and technical issues. Biological advances can revitalize humankind in the future. (AM)

  1. Science: The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the status of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) and attempts to rationalize Suburban Highway Policy. Effective communication among members of the RAC is a current problem facing the committee. A federal transportation priority spending policy is suggested during these times of money and fuel shortages. (MA)

  2. Recombinant DNA: Scientific and Social Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Vaughn

    1979-01-01

    This article is designed to inform chemical educators not engaged in this technology as to the nature and methods used in the technology, the reasons for scientific and social concern, and the attempts made to assuage concerns involving recombinant DNA research. (author/BB)

  3. Evidence for homologous recombination in Chikungunya Virus.

    PubMed

    Casal, Pablo E; Chouhy, Diego; Bolatti, Elisa M; Perez, Germán R; Stella, Emma J; Giri, Adriana A

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, causes acute fever and joint pain in humans. Recently, endemic CHIKV infection outbreaks have jeopardized public health in wider geographical regions. Here, we analyze the phylogenetic associations of CHIKV and explore the potential recombination events on 152 genomic isolates deposited in GenBank database. The CHIKV genotypes [West African, Asian, East/Central/South African (ECSA)], and a clear division of ECSA clade into three sub-groups (I-II-III), were defined by Bayesian analysis; similar results were obtained using E1 gene sequences. A nucleotide identity-based approach is provided to facilitate CHIKV classification within ECSA clade. Using seven methods to detect recombination, we found a statistically significant event (p-values range: 1.14×10(-7)-4.45×10(-24)) located within the nsP3 coding region. This finding was further confirmed by phylogenetic networks (PHI Test, p=0.004) and phylogenetic tree incongruence analysis. The recombinant strain, KJ679578/India/2011 (ECSA III), derives from viruses of ECSA III and ECSA I. Our study demonstrates that recombination is an additional mechanism of genetic diversity in CHIKV that might assist in the cross-species transmission process.

  4. CATALYTIC RECOMBINER FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-07-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen recombiner is described for use with water-boiler type reactors. The catalyst used is the wellknown platinized alumina, and the novelty lies in the structural arrangement used to prevent flashback through the gas input system. The recombiner is cylindrical, the gases at the input end being deflected by a baffle plate through a first flashback shield of steel shot into an annular passage adjacent to and extending the full length of the housing. Below the baffle plate the gases flow first through an outer annular array of alumina pellets which serve as a second flashback shield, a means of distributing the flowing gases evenly and as a means of reducing radiation losses to the walls. Thereafter the gases flow inio the centrally disposed catalyst bed where recombination is effected. The steam and uncombined gases flow into a centrally disposed cylindrical passage inside the catalyst bod and thereafter out through the exit port. A high rate of recombination is effected.

  5. Recombination of ozone via the chaperon mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail V.; Schinke, Reinhard

    2006-03-01

    The recombination of ozone via the chaperon mechanism, i.e., ArO +O2→Ar+O3 and ArO2+O→Ar+O3, is studied by means of classical trajectories and a pairwise additive Ar -O3 potential energy surface. The recombination rate coefficient has a strong temperature dependence, which approximately can be described by T-n with n ≈3. It is negligible for temperatures above 700 K or so, but it becomes important for low temperatures. The calculations unambiguously affirm the conclusions of Hippler et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6560 (1990)] and Luther et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 2764 (2005)] that the chaperon mechanism makes a sizable contribution to the recombination of O3 at room temperature and below. The dependence of the chaperon recombination rate coefficient on the isotopomer, studied for two different isotope combinations, is only in rough qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The oxygen atom isotope exchange reaction involving ArO and ArO2 van der Waals complexes is also investigated; the weak binding of O or O2 to Ar has only a small effect.

  6. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  7. Recombinant Antibodies for Academia: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Pierre; Hartley, Oliver

    2016-12-21

    After several decades of optimization, phage display technology enables the routine isolation and production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in vitro. As such it has the potential to provide the academic community with a vast, inexpensive and renewable supply of well-characterized reagents, reducing bottlenecks in basic science, helping increase reproducibility of experiments, and phasing out the use of animals for production and discovery of antibodies. Yet the overwhelming majority of fundamental research laboratories still use incompletely characterized antibodies developed in animals. In order to promote increased use of recombinant antibodies in academia, we have recently initiated an open source recombinant antibody facility in Geneva (http://www.unige.ch/antibodies). Here we describe our experience at the Geneva Antibody Facility: the various techniques involved in isolation and production of antibodies, the strategic choices that we have made, and what we hope will be a bright future for this project as part of a growing movement in the scientific community to replace all animal-derived antibodies with recombinant antibodies.

  8. Mismatch repair during homologous and homeologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Spies, Maria; Fishel, Richard

    2015-03-02

    Homologous recombination (HR) and mismatch repair (MMR) are inextricably linked. HR pairs homologous chromosomes before meiosis I and is ultimately responsible for generating genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. HR is initiated in meiosis by numerous programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; several hundred in mammals). A characteristic feature of HR is the exchange of DNA strands, which results in the formation of heteroduplex DNA. Mismatched nucleotides arise in heteroduplex DNA because the participating parental chromosomes contain nonidentical sequences. These mismatched nucleotides may be processed by MMR, resulting in nonreciprocal exchange of genetic information (gene conversion). MMR and HR also play prominent roles in mitotic cells during genome duplication; MMR rectifies polymerase misincorporation errors, whereas HR contributes to replication fork maintenance, as well as the repair of spontaneous DSBs and genotoxic lesions that affect both DNA strands. MMR suppresses HR when the heteroduplex DNA contains excessive mismatched nucleotides, termed homeologous recombination. The regulation of homeologous recombination by MMR ensures the accuracy of DSB repair and significantly contributes to species barriers during sexual reproduction. This review discusses the history, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, and the current state of studies on the role of MMR in homologous and homeologous recombination from bacteria to humans.

  9. Nonreplicating vaccinia vector efficiently expresses recombinant genes.

    PubMed

    Sutter, G; Moss, B

    1992-11-15

    Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that has been safety tested in humans, was evaluated for use as an expression vector. MVA has multiple genomic deletions and is severely host cell restricted: it grows well in avian cells but is unable to multiply in human and most other mammalian cells tested. Nevertheless, we found that replication of viral DNA appeared normal and that both early and late viral proteins were synthesized in human cells. Proteolytic processing of viral structural proteins was inhibited, however, and only immature virus particles were detected by electron microscopy. We constructed an insertion plasmid with the Escherichia coli lacZ gene under the control of the vaccinia virus late promoter P11, flanked by sequences of MVA DNA, to allow homologous recombination at the site of a naturally occurring 3500-base-pair deletion within the MVA genome. MVA recombinants were isolated and propagated in permissive avian cells and shown to express the enzyme beta-galactosidase upon infection of nonpermissive human cells. The amount of enzyme made was similar to that produced by a recombinant of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve, which also had the lacZ gene under control of the P11 promoter, but multiplied to high titers. Since recombinant gene expression is unimpaired in nonpermissive human cells, MVA may serve as a highly efficient and exceptionally safe vector.

  10. Recombination Modification in a Fluctuating Environment

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Brian

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of the evolution of increased recombination between two loci subjected to interactive selection in a temporally fluctuating environment. Both cyclical and stochastic environments are considered. It is shown that temporal variation in the linkage disequilibrium coefficient for the pair of selected loci, due to fluctuations in the selective values of the genotypes at these loci, can give rise to selection in favor of modifier genes increasing recombination. The equilibrium level of recombination established in a given population depends on several factors; it is highest for intermediate values of the environmental periodicity or autocorrelation, for cases when the modifier genes are themselves closely linked to the selected loci, and for high levels of environmental variation. In general, it seems that the rate of modification of recombination values by this process will be low except when the modifiers are tightly linked to the selected loci. The possible evolutionary significance of this process is discussed in relation to observations on genetic systems of plants and animals. PMID:1269919

  11. Recombinant DNA: Scientific and Social Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandegrift, Vaughn

    1979-01-01

    This article is designed to inform chemical educators not engaged in this technology as to the nature and methods used in the technology, the reasons for scientific and social concern, and the attempts made to assuage concerns involving recombinant DNA research. (author/BB)

  12. Vaccine development using recombinant DNA technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccines induce an immune response in the host that subsequently recognizes infectious agents and helps fight off the disease; vaccines must do this without causing the disease. This paper reviews the development of recombinant DNA technologies as a means of providing new ways for attenuating diseas...

  13. Science: The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the status of the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) and attempts to rationalize Suburban Highway Policy. Effective communication among members of the RAC is a current problem facing the committee. A federal transportation priority spending policy is suggested during these times of money and fuel shortages. (MA)

  14. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  15. Mismatch Repair during Homologous and Homeologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Spies, Maria; Fishel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and mismatch repair (MMR) are inextricably linked. HR pairs homologous chromosomes before meiosis I and is ultimately responsible for generating genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. HR is initiated in meiosis by numerous programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; several hundred in mammals). A characteristic feature of HR is the exchange of DNA strands, which results in the formation of heteroduplex DNA. Mismatched nucleotides arise in heteroduplex DNA because the participating parental chromosomes contain nonidentical sequences. These mismatched nucleotides may be processed by MMR, resulting in nonreciprocal exchange of genetic information (gene conversion). MMR and HR also play prominent roles in mitotic cells during genome duplication; MMR rectifies polymerase misincorporation errors, whereas HR contributes to replication fork maintenance, as well as the repair of spontaneous DSBs and genotoxic lesions that affect both DNA strands. MMR suppresses HR when the heteroduplex DNA contains excessive mismatched nucleotides, termed homeologous recombination. The regulation of homeologous recombination by MMR ensures the accuracy of DSB repair and significantly contributes to species barriers during sexual reproduction. This review discusses the history, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, and the current state of studies on the role of MMR in homologous and homeologous recombination from bacteria to humans. PMID:25731766

  16. Recombination Modulates How Selection Affects Linked Sites in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Loewe, Laurence; Goldstein, Steve; Himmel, Tiffany L.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most influential observations in molecular evolution has been a strong association between local recombination rate and nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. This is interpreted as evidence for ubiquitous natural selection. The alternative explanation, that recombination is mutagenic, has been rejected by the absence of a similar association between local recombination rate and nucleotide divergence between species. However, many recent studies show that recombination rates are often very different even in closely related species, questioning whether an association between recombination rate and divergence between species has been tested satisfactorily. To circumvent this problem, we directly surveyed recombination across approximately 43% of the D. pseudoobscura physical genome in two separate recombination maps and 31% of the D. miranda physical genome, and we identified both global and local differences in recombination rate between these two closely related species. Using only regions with conserved recombination rates between and within species and accounting for multiple covariates, our data support the conclusion that recombination is positively related to diversity because recombination modulates Hill–Robertson effects in the genome and not because recombination is predominately mutagenic. Finally, we find evidence for dips in diversity around nonsynonymous substitutions. We infer that at least some of this reduction in diversity resulted from selective sweeps and examine these dips in the context of recombination rate. PMID:23152720

  17. Evolution of the Genomic Recombination Rate in Murid Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2011-01-01

    Although very closely related species can differ in their fine-scale patterns of recombination hotspots, variation in the average genomic recombination rate among recently diverged taxa has rarely been surveyed. We measured recombination rates in eight species that collectively represent several temporal scales of divergence within a single rodent family, Muridae. We used a cytological approach that enables in situ visualization of crossovers at meiosis to quantify recombination rates in multiple males from each rodent group. We uncovered large differences in genomic recombination rate between rodent species, which were independent of karyotypic variation. The divergence in genomic recombination rate that we document is not proportional to DNA sequence divergence, suggesting that recombination has evolved at variable rates along the murid phylogeny. Additionally, we document significant variation in genomic recombination rate both within and between subspecies of house mice. Recombination rates estimated in F1 hybrids reveal evidence for sex-linked loci contributing to the evolution of recombination in house mice. Our results provide one of the first detailed portraits of genomic-scale recombination rate variation within a single mammalian family and demonstrate that the low recombination rates in laboratory mice and rats reflect a more general reduction in recombination rate across murid rodents. PMID:21149647

  18. Recombination phenomena in high efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The dominant recombination phenomena which limit the highest efficiency attainable in silicon solar cells under terrestrial sunlight are reviewed. The ultimate achievable efficiency is limited by the two intrinsic recombination mechanisms, the interband Auger recombination and interband Radiative recombination, both of which occur in the entire cell body but principally in the base layer. It is suggested that an optimum (26%) cell design is one with lowly doped 50 to 100 micron thick base, a perfect BSF, and zero extrinsic recombination such as the thermal mechanism at recombination centers the Shockley-Read-Hall process (SRH) in the bulk, on the surface and at the interfaces. The importance of recombination at the interfaces of a high-efficiency cell is demonstrated by the ohmic contact on the back surface whose interface recombination velocity is infinite. The importance of surface and interface recombination is demonstrated by representing the auger and radiative recombination losses by effective recombination velocities. It is demonstrated that the three highest efficiency cells may all be limited by the SRH recombination losses at recombination centers in the base layer.

  19. Norovirus Recombination in ORF1/ORF2 Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rowena A.; Hansman, Grant S.; Clancy, Leighton E.; Tanaka, Mark M.; Rawlinson, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II (GI and GII) are now recognized as the predominant worldwide cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Three recombinant NoV GII isolates were identified and characterized, 2 of which are unrelated to any previously published recombinant NoV. Using data from the current study, published sequences, database searches, and molecular techniques, we identified 23 recombinant NoV GII and 1 recombinant NoV GI isolates. Analysis of the genetic relationships among the recombinant NoV GII isolates identified 9 independent recombinant sequences; the other 14 strains were close relatives. Two of the 9 independent recombinant NoV were closely related to other recombinants only in the polymerase region, and in a similar fashion 1 recombinant NoV was closely related to another only in the capsid region. Breakpoint analysis of recombinant NoV showed that recombination occurred in the open reading frame (ORF)1/ORF2 overlap. We provide evidence to support the theory of the role of subgenomic RNA promoters as recombination hotspots and describe a simple mechanism of how recombination might occur in NoV. PMID:16022784

  20. Radiative transfer effects in primordial hydrogen recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Ali-Haiemoud, Yacine; Hirata, Christopher M.; Grin, Daniel

    2010-12-15

    The calculation of a highly accurate cosmological recombination history has been the object of particular attention recently, as it constitutes the major theoretical uncertainty when predicting the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies. Lyman transitions, in particular the Lyman-{alpha} line, have long been recognized as one of the bottlenecks of recombination, due to their very low escape probabilities. The Sobolev approximation does not describe radiative transfer in the vicinity of Lyman lines to a sufficient degree of accuracy, and several corrections have already been computed in other works. In this paper, we compute the impact of some radiative transfer effects that were previously ignored, or for which previous treatments were incomplete. First, the effect of Thomson scattering in the vicinity of the Lyman-{alpha} line is evaluated, using a full redistribution kernel incorporated into a radiative transfer code. The effect of feedback of distortions generated by the optically thick deuterium Lyman-{alpha} line blueward of the hydrogen line is investigated with an analytic approximation. It is shown that both effects are negligible during cosmological hydrogen recombination. Second, the importance of high-lying, nonoverlapping Lyman transitions is assessed. It is shown that escape from lines above Ly{gamma} and frequency diffusion in Ly{beta} and higher lines can be neglected without loss of accuracy. Third, a formalism generalizing the Sobolev approximation is developed to account for the overlap of the high-lying Lyman lines, which is shown to lead to negligible changes to the recombination history. Finally, the possibility of a cosmological hydrogen recombination maser is investigated. It is shown that there is no such maser in the purely radiative treatment presented here.

  1. Recombinant antibodies and their use in biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Shen, Zhihong; Mernaugh, Ray

    2012-04-01

    Inexpensive, noninvasive immunoassays can be used to quickly detect disease in humans. Immunoassay sensitivity and specificity are decidedly dependent upon high-affinity, antigen-specific antibodies. Antibodies are produced biologically. As such, antibody quality and suitability for use in immunoassays cannot be readily determined or controlled by human intervention. However, the process through which high-quality antibodies can be obtained has been shortened and streamlined by use of genetic engineering and recombinant antibody techniques. Antibodies that traditionally take several months or more to produce when animals are used can now be developed in a few weeks as recombinant antibodies produced in bacteria, yeast, or other cell types. Typically most immunoassays use two or more antibodies or antibody fragments to detect antigens that are indicators of disease. However, a label-free biosensor, for example, a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) needs one antibody only. As such, the cost and time needed to design and develop an immunoassay can be substantially reduced if recombinant antibodies and biosensors are used rather than traditional antibody and assay (e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) methods. Unlike traditional antibodies, recombinant antibodies can be genetically engineered to self-assemble on biosensor surfaces, at high density, and correctly oriented to enhance antigen-binding activity and to increase assay sensitivity, specificity, and stability. Additionally, biosensor surface chemistry and physical and electronic properties can be modified to further increase immunoassay performance above and beyond that obtained by use of traditional methods. This review describes some of the techniques investigators have used to develop highly specific and sensitive, recombinant antibody-based biosensors for detection of antigens in simple or complex biological samples.

  2. Efficient generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors by Cre-lox recombination in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, K.; Barker, C.; Danthinne, X.; Imperiale, M. J.; Nabel, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although recombinant adenovirus vectors are attractive for use in gene expression studies and therapeutic applications, the construction of these vectors remains relatively time-consuming. We report here a strategy that simplifies the production of adenoviruses using the Cre-loxP system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-length recombinant adenovirus DNA was generated in vitro by Cre-mediated recombination between loxP sites in a linearized shuttle plasmid containing a transgene and adenovirus genomic DNA. RESULTS: After transfection of Cre-treated DNA into 293 cells, replication-defective viral vectors were rapidly obtained without detectable wild-type virus. CONCLUSION: This system facilitates the development of recombinant adenoviral vectors for basic and clinical research. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:10448644

  3. Regulation of V(D)J recombination by nucleosome positioning at recombination signal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Matthias; Mamais, Adamantios; McBlane, Fraser; Xiao, Hua; Boyes, Joan

    2003-01-01

    A key component in the regulation of V(D)J recombination is control of the accessibility of RAG proteins to recombination signal sequences (RSS). Nucleosomes are known to inhibit this accessibility. We show here that the signal sequence itself represses accessibility by causing nucleosome positioning over the RSS. This positioning is mediated, in vitro and in vivo, by the conserved nonamer of the RSS. Consistent with this strong positioning, nucleosomes at RSSs are resistant to remodelling by nucleosome sliding. In vivo we find that consensus RSSs are preferentially protected, whereas those that lack a consensus nonamer, including some cryptic RSSs, fail to position nucleosomes. Decreased protection of these non-consensus RSSs correlates with their increased use in recombination assays. We therefore suggest that nucleosome positioning by RSSs provides a previously unanticipated level of protection and regulation of V(D)J recombination. PMID:14517257

  4. Regulation of V(D)J recombination by nucleosome positioning at recombination signal sequences.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Matthias; Mamais, Adamantios; McBlane, Fraser; Xiao, Hua; Boyes, Joan

    2003-10-01

    A key component in the regulation of V(D)J recombination is control of the accessibility of RAG proteins to recombination signal sequences (RSS). Nucleosomes are known to inhibit this accessibility. We show here that the signal sequence itself represses accessibility by causing nucleosome positioning over the RSS. This positioning is mediated, in vitro and in vivo, by the conserved nonamer of the RSS. Consistent with this strong positioning, nucleosomes at RSSs are resistant to remodelling by nucleosome sliding. In vivo we find that consensus RSSs are preferentially protected, whereas those that lack a consensus nonamer, including some cryptic RSSs, fail to position nucleosomes. Decreased protection of these non-consensus RSSs correlates with their increased use in recombination assays. We therefore suggest that nucleosome positioning by RSSs provides a previously unanticipated level of protection and regulation of V(D)J recombination.

  5. Detecting and Analyzing Genetic Recombination Using RDP4.

    PubMed

    Martin, Darren P; Murrell, Ben; Khoosal, Arjun; Muhire, Brejnev

    2017-01-01

    Recombination between nucleotide sequences is a major process influencing the evolution of most species on Earth. The evolutionary value of recombination has been widely debated and so too has its influence on evolutionary analysis methods that assume nucleotide sequences replicate without recombining. When nucleic acids recombine, the evolution of the daughter or recombinant molecule cannot be accurately described by a single phylogeny. This simple fact can seriously undermine the accuracy of any phylogenetics-based analytical approach which assumes that the evolutionary history of a set of recombining sequences can be adequately described by a single phylogenetic tree. There are presently a large number of available methods and associated computer programs for analyzing and characterizing recombination in various classes of nucleotide sequence datasets. Here we examine the use of some of these methods to derive and test recombination hypotheses using multiple sequence alignments.

  6. High recombination potential of subtype A HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Nikolaitchik, Olga; Keele, Brandon; Gorelick, Robert; Alvord, W Gregory; Mazurov, Dmitriy; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2015-10-01

    Recombination can assort polymorphic alleles to increase diversity in the HIV-1 population. To better understand the recombination potential of subtype A HIV-1, we generated viruses containing sequences from two variants circulating in Russia and analyzed the polymerase gene (pol) of the recombinants after one round of HIV-1 replication using single-genome sequencing. We observed that recombination occurred throughout pol and could easily assort alleles containing mutations that conferred resistance to currently approved antivirals. We measured the recombination rate in various regions of pol including a G-rich region that has been previously proposed to be a recombination hot spot. Our study does not support a recombination hot spot in this G-rich region. Importantly, of the 58 proviral sequences containing crossover event(s) in pol, we found that each sequence was a unique genotype indicating that recombination is a powerful genetic mechanism in assorting the genomes of subtype A HIV-1 variants.

  7. Recombination in adenovirus: analysis of crossover sites in intertypic overlap recombinants.

    PubMed

    Mautner, V; Mackay, N

    1984-11-01

    Overlap recombination has been used as a means of generating intertypic recombinants with crossover sites located within a defined region of the adenovirus genome. Using terminal DNA fragments of adenovirus type 2 and type 5 that overlap within the vicinity of the hexon coding region (51.6-59.7 map units), two different crosses could be studied; in one the overlap entirely encompasses the hexon and there are homologous regions at either side of the overlap where recombination is expected, and in the other only one side of the overlap is capable of sustaining recombination. The overall distribution of crossover sites within the overlap has been determined by restriction endonuclease mapping, and analysed in terms of the extent of homology between Ad2 and Ad5 in this region as defined by the DNA sequences (R. Kinloch, N. Mackay, and V. Mautner (1984). J. Biol. Chem., 259, 6431-6436; G. Akusjärvi, P. Aleström, M. Pettersson, M. Lager, H. Jörnvall, and U. Pettersson (1984). Submitted). Crossovers are found only in regions of relatively high DNA homology, as previously shown for intertypic recombination between temperature-sensitive viruses (M. E. G. Boursnell and V. Mautner (1981). Virology 112, 198-209). The presence of a free DNA end within the heterologous zone is insufficient to overcome the barrier to recombination. In crosses where recombination is confined to a relatively small homologous zone (45.9-53.0 mu) there is no special distribution of crossovers within the interval; no "hot spot" is discernible at the free DNA end, suggesting that a free DNA end is not especially recombinogenic, nor at the junction between the homologous and heterologous zones, suggesting that branch migration up to the heterology does not always occur. A cross designed to furnish evidence for gene conversion gave rise to a "conventional" recombinant with a crossover located within a 21-nucleotide tract of homology.

  8. Identifying Recombination Hot Spots in the HIV-1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Redmond P.; Schlub, Timothy E.; Grimm, Andrew J.; Waugh, Caryll; Ellenberg, Paula; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; Cromer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 infection is characterized by the rapid generation of genetic diversity that facilitates viral escape from immune selection and antiretroviral therapy. Despite recombination's crucial role in viral diversity and evolution, little is known about the genomic factors that influence recombination between highly similar genomes. In this study, we use a minimally modified full-length HIV-1 genome and high-throughput sequence analysis to study recombination in gag and pol in T cells. We find that recombination is favored at a number of recombination hot spots, where recombination occurs six times more frequently than at corresponding cold spots. Interestingly, these hot spots occur near important features of the HIV-1 genome but do not occur at sites immediately around protease inhibitor or reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance mutations. We show that the recombination hot and cold spots are consistent across five blood donors and are independent of coreceptor-mediated entry. Finally, we check common experimental confounders and find that these are not driving the location of recombination hot spots. This is the first study to identify the location of recombination hot spots between two similar viral genomes with great statistical power and under conditions that closely reflect natural recombination events among HIV-1 quasispecies. IMPORTANCE The ability of HIV-1 to evade the immune system and antiretroviral therapy depends on genetic diversity within the viral quasispecies. Retroviral recombination is an important mechanism that helps to generate and maintain this genetic diversity, but little is known about how recombination rates vary within the HIV-1 genome. We measured recombination rates in gag and pol and identified recombination hot and cold spots, demonstrating that recombination is not random but depends on the underlying gene sequence. The strength and location of these recombination hot and cold spots can be used to improve models of

  9. Recombination: a frank view of exchanges and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    2000-06-01

    The study of double-strand chromosome break repair by homologous and nonhomologous recombination is a growth industry. In the past year, there have been important advances both in understanding the connection between recombination and DNA replication and in linking recombination with origins of human cancer. At the same time, a combination of biochemical, genetic, molecular biological, and cytological approaches have provided a clearer vision of the specific functions of a variety of recombination proteins.

  10. Experimental risk assessment of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) used as live vaccines were assessed for: 1) the potential for recombinant NDV-vectored vaccines (rNDV) containing the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) H5 gene to recombine with low pathogenicity H5, H6 and H9 AIV strains, and originate a virus with increased vi...

  11. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies.

  12. Characterization of recombinant tetanus toxin derivatives suitable for vaccine development.

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, D; Turcotte, C; Frankel, G; Li, Y; Dolly, O; Wilkin, G; Marriott, D; Fairweather, N; Dougan, G

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant derivatives of tetanus toxin (TeTx) were isolated and used to immunize mice. Recombinant TeTx light chain, a derivative of fragment C that had lost the ability to bind neurons, and a recombinant TeTx holotoxoid that could protect mice against TeTx challenge were identified. PMID:7622252

  13. Recombinations to the Rydberg states of hydrogen and their effect during the cosmological recombination epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, J.; Vasil, G. M.; Dursi, L. J.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the effect of recombinations to highly excited states (n > 100) in hydrogen during the cosmological recombination epoch. For this purpose, we developed a new ordinary differential equation solver for the recombination problem, based on an implicit Gear's method. This solver allows us to include up to 350 l-resolved shells or ~61000 separate levels in the hydrogen model and to solve the recombination problem for one cosmology in ~27 h. This is a huge improvement in performance over our previous recombination code, for which a 100-shell computation (5050 separate states) already required ~150 h on a single processor. We show that for 350 shells down to redshift z ~ 200, the results for the free electron fraction have practically converged. The final modification in the free electron fraction at z ~ 200 decreases from about ΔNe/Ne ~ 2.8 per cent for 100 shells to ΔNe/Ne ~ 1.6 per cent for 350 shells. However, the associated changes in the cosmic microwave background power spectra at large multipoles l are rather small, so that for accurate computations in connection with the analysis of Planck data already ~100 shells are expected to be sufficient. Nevertheless, the total value of τ could still be affected at a significant level. We also briefly investigate the effect of collisions on the recombination dynamics. With our current estimates for the collisional rates we find a correction of ΔNe/Ne ~ -8.8 × 10-4 at z ~ 700, which is mainly caused by l-changing collisions with protons. Furthermore, we present results on the cosmological recombination spectrum, showing that at low frequencies collisional processes are important. However, the current accuracy of collisional rates is insufficient for precise computations of templates for the recombination spectrum at ν <~ 1GHz, and also the effect of collisions on the recombination dynamics suffers from the uncertainty in these rates. Improvements in collisional rates will therefore become

  14. Using Crossover Breakpoints in Recombinant Inbred Lines to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling the Global Recombination Frequency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombination is a crucial component of evolution and breeding, producing new genetic combinations on which selection can act. Rates of recombination vary tremendously, not only between species but also within species and for specific chromosomal segments. In this study, by examining recombination...

  15. Dissipative Stern-Gerlach recombination experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Caldeira, A. O.

    2006-04-15

    The possibility of obtaining the initial pure state in a usual Stern-Gerlach experiment through the recombination of the two emerging beams is investigated. We have extended the previous work of Englert, Schwinger, and Scully [Found Phys. 18, 1045 (1988)] including the fluctuations of the magnetic field generated by a properly chosen magnet. As a result we obtained an attenuation factor to the possible revival of coherence when the beams are perfectly recombined. When the source of the magnetic field is a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) the attenuation factor can be controlled by external circuits and the spin decoherence directly measured. For the proposed SQUID with dimensions in the scale of microns the attenuation factor has been shown unimportant when compared with the interaction time of the spin with the magnet.

  16. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandez, J. L. A.; Ivanova, N.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of an ˜1.5 M⊙ red giant star in an ˜30 d orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  17. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  18. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    PubMed

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products.

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background Bispectrum from Recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiqi; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-03-01

    We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmic-variance limited data to lmax⁡=2000, its signal-to-noise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to fNLeff=-2.79, and will bias a local signal by fNLloc≃0.82.

  20. Designing Smart Materials with Recombinant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hollingshead, Sydney; Lin, Charng-Yu; Liu, Julie C

    2017-07-01

    Recombinant protein design allows modular protein domains with different functionalities and responsive behaviors to be easily combined. Inclusion of these protein domains can enable recombinant proteins to have complex responses to their environment (e.g., temperature-triggered aggregation followed by enzyme-mediated cleavage for drug delivery or pH-triggered conformational change and self-assembly leading to structural stabilization by adjacent complementary residues). These "smart" behaviors can be tuned by amino acid identity and sequence, chemical modifications, and addition of other components. A wide variety of domains and peptides have smart behavior. This review focuses on protein designs for self-assembly or conformational changes due to stimuli such as shifts in temperature or pH. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Scaling and fractal behaviour underlying meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Waxman, D; Stoletzki, N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate some of the mathematical properties of meiotic recombination. Working within the framework of a genetic model with n loci, where alpha alleles are possible at each locus, we find that the proportion of all possible diploid parental genotypes that can produce a particular haploid gamete is exp[-n log(alpha(2)/[2alpha-1])]. We show that this proportion connects recombination with a fractal geometry of dimension log(2alpha-1)/log(alpha). The fractal dimension of a geometric object manifests itself when it is measured at increasingly smaller length scales. Decreasing the length scale of a geometric object is found to be directly analogous, in a genetics problem, to specifying a multilocus haplotype at a larger number of loci, and it is here that the fractal dimension reveals itself.

  2. Recombination clumping factor during cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the role of recombinations in the intergalactic medium, and the related concept of the clumping factor, during cosmic reionization. The clumping factor is, in general, a local quantity that depends on both the local overdensity and the scale below which the baryon density field can be assumed smooth. That scale, called the filtering scale, depends on over-density and local thermal history. We present a method for building a self-consistent analytical model of inhomogeneous reionization, assuming the linear growth rate of the density fluctuation, which simultaneously accounts for these effects. We show that taking into account the local clumping factor introduces significant corrections to the total recombination rate, compared to the model with a globally uniform clumping factor.

  3. Dissociative Recombination of CD 3 OD 2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert, W. D.; Hellberg, F.; Österdahl, F.; Semaniak, J.; Millar, T. J.; Roberts, H.; Thomas, R. D.; Hamberg, M.; Ugglas, M. Af; Ehlerding, A.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Kaminska, M.; Larsson, M.

    2005-08-01

    The branching ratios of the different reaction pathways and the overall rate of the dissociative recombination of CD_{3}OD_{2}^{+} were measured at the CRYRING storage ring located at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. A preliminary analysis of the data yielded that formation of methanol accounts for only 6 ± 2% of the total reaction rate. Largely, dissociative recombination of CD_{3}OD_{2}^{+} involves fragmentation of the C-O bond, the major process being the three-body break-up forming CD_{3}, OD and D (branching ratio 0.59). A non-negligible formation of interstellar methanol by the previously proposed mechanism is therefore very unlikely.

  4. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, Fabio; Fumasoni, Marco; Szakal, Barnabas; Maloisel, Laurent; Branzei, Dana

    2010-11-11

    Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different players contribute to

  5. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  6. Mechanism and Regulation of Meiotic Recombination Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Isabel; Keeney, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination involves the formation and repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the conserved Spo11 protein. This review summarizes recent studies pertaining to the formation of meiotic DSBs, including the mechanism of DNA cleavage by Spo11, proteins required for break formation, and mechanisms that control the location, timing, and number of DSBs. Where appropriate, findings in different organisms are discussed to highlight evolutionary conservation or divergence. PMID:25324213

  7. Development of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Recombinant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.

  8. (Photoexcited charge pair escape and recombination)

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Progress in four research areas on this project are summarized under the following topics: (1) Geminate charge pair recombination in hexane; (2) Fast current measurements resulting from excitation of charge transfer (CT) states; (3) Measurement of the dipole moment of excited states by DC conductivity; and (4) Charge separation at macroscopic interfaces between electron donor and acceptor solids. In a final section, personnel who have contributed to the project during the past budget period are described.

  9. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  10. Three-Body Recombination of Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    Dayside photodissociation of O2 and CO2 in the atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars produces oxygen atoms that eventually undergo three-body recombination O + O + M -> O2* + M The variety of electronic states produced is observable as nightglow emissions, which have been the subject of many laboratory and interpretive investigations. Here we review the current understanding of the overall temperature-dependent rate coefficient for three-body recombination of oxygen atoms and describe a strategy for its measurement. The most recent measurement [1] is almost 30 years old. The most comprehensive review [2] is more than 25 years old and shows that the absolute rate coefficients for recombination and the reverse process, collision-induced dissociation, as well as the dependence on temperature and collider, are poorly determined, in spite of the relatively narrow error bars reported in the various studies. The most recent high-temperature dissociation study [3] actually increases the divergence. We plan experiments with a commercial F2 laser, providing roughly 50 mJ of 157 nm radiation in a 3-4 mm beam, to achieve greater than 80% dissociation of molecular oxygen, in the range from 0.5 to 5 torr. In a high-pressure N2 background (30-200 torr) the oxygen atoms will recombine in a time scale from 0.1 to 10 ms, as monitored by 845 nm fluorescence excited by two photons at 226 nm. [1] I. M. Campbell and C. N. Gray, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 607 (1973). [2] D. L. Baulch, D. D. Drysdale, J. Duxbury, and S. J. Grant, Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions Vol. 3 ``Homogeneous Gas Phase Reactions of the O2--O3 System, the CO--O2--H2 System, and of Sulphur-Containing Species," (Butterworths, London, 1976). [3] V. Naudet, S. Abid, and C. E. Paillard, J. Chim. Phys. 96, 1123 (1999).

  11. Dielectronic recombination rate in statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, A. V.; Leontyev, D. S.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurigyn, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate of multielectron ions was calculated by means of the statistical approach. It is based on an idea of collective excitations of atomic electrons with the local plasma frequencies. These frequencies are expressed via the Thomas-Fermi model electron density distribution. The statistical approach provides fast computation of DR rates that are compared with the modern quantum mechanical calculations. The results are important for current studies of thermonuclear plasmas with the tungsten impurities.

  12. Dielectronic recombination rate in statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demura, A. V.; Leontyev, D. S.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Shurigyn, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The dielectronic recombination rate of multielectron ions was calculated by means of the statistical approach. It is based on an idea of collective excitations of atomic electrons with the local plasma frequencies. These frequencies are expressed via the Thomas-Fermi model electron density distribution. The statistical approach provides fast computation of DR rates that are compared with the modern quantum mechanical calculations. The results are important for current studies of thermonuclear plasmas with the tungsten impurities.

  13. Recombinant organisms capable of fermenting cellobiose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Lai, Xiaokuang; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; York, Sean W.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant microorganism which expresses pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, Klebsiella phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and Klebsiella (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II, wherein said phospho-.beta.-glucosidase and said (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase) cellobiose-utilizing Enzyme II are heterologous to said microorganism and wherein said microorganism is capable of utilizing both hemicellulose and cellulose, including cellobiose, in the production of ethanol.

  14. Mammalian recombination hot spots: properties, control and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Paigen, Kenneth; Petkov, Petko

    2015-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, generates the raw material of evolution, is essential for reproduction and lies at the heart of all genetic analysis. Recent advances in our ability to construct genome-scale, high-resolution recombination maps and new molecular techniques for analysing recombination products have substantially furthered our understanding of this important biological phenomenon in humans and mice: from describing the properties of recombination hot spots in male and female meiosis to the recombination landscape along chromosomes. This progress has been accompanied by the identification of trans-acting systems that regulate the location and relative activity of individual hot spots. PMID:20168297

  15. Molecular genetics of DNA viruses: recombinant virus technology.

    PubMed

    Neuhierl, Bernhard; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant viral genomes cloned onto BAC vectors can be subjected to extensive molecular genetic analysis in the context of E. coli. Thus, the recombinant virus technology exploits the power of prokaryotic genetics to introduce all kinds of mutations into the recombinant genome. All available techniques are based on homologous recombination between a targeting vector carrying the mutated version of the gene of interest and the recombinant virus. After modification, the mutant viral genome is stably introduced into eukaryotic cells permissive for viral lytic replication. In these cells, mutant viral genomes can be packaged into infectious particles to evaluate the effect of these mutations in the context of the complete genome.

  16. [Homologous recombination among bacterial genomes: the measurement and identification].

    PubMed

    Xianwei, Yang; Ruifu, Yang; Yujun, Cui

    2016-02-01

    Homologous recombination is one of important sources in shaping the bacterial population diversity, which disrupts the clonal relationship among different lineages through horizontal transferring of DNA-segments. As consequence of blurring the vertical inheritance signals, the homologous recombination raises difficulties in phylogenetic analysis and reconstruction of population structure. Here we discuss the impacts of homologous recombination in inferring phylogenetic relationship among bacterial isolates, and summarize the tools and models separately used in recombination measurement and identification. We also highlight the merits and drawbacks of various approaches, aiming to assist in the practical application for the analysis of homologous recombination in bacterial evolution research.

  17. Multicopy Plasmid Modification with Phage λ Red Recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Lynn C.; Costantino, Nina; Shaw, Dana V.; Court, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Recombineering, in vivo genetic engineering using the bacteriophage λ Red generalized recombination system, was used to create various modifications of a multicopy plasmid derived from pBR322. All genetic modifications possible on the E. coli chromosome and on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are also possible on multicopy plasmids and are obtained with similar frequencies to their chromosomal counterparts, including creation of point mutations (5-10% unselected frequency), deletions and substitutions. Parental and recombinant plasmids are nearly always present as a mixture following recombination, and circular multimeric plasmid molecules are often generated during the recombineering. PMID:17434584

  18. A non-sister act: recombination template choice during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Humphryes, Neil; Hochwagen, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Meiotic recombination has two key functions: the faithful assortment of chromosomes into gametes and the creation of genetic diversity. Both processes require that meiotic recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes, rather than sister chromatids. Accordingly, a host of regulatory factors are activated during meiosis to distinguish sisters from homologs, suppress recombination between sister chromatids and promote the chromatids of the homologous chromosome as the preferred recombination partners. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of meiotic recombination template choice, focusing primarily on developments in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the regulation is currently best understood.

  19. Radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, N. V.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2012-01-15

    The mechanism of the radiative recombination of hot carriers in narrow-gap semiconductors is analyzed using the example of indium antimonide. It is shown that the CHCC Auger recombination process may lead to pronounced carrier heating at high excitation levels. The distribution functions and concentrations of hot carriers are determined. The radiative recombination rate of hot carriers and the radiation gain coefficient are calculated in terms of the Kane model. It is demonstrated that the radiative recombination of hot carriers will make a substantial contribution to the total radiative recombination rate at high carrier concentrations.

  20. RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF Be-LIKE Si

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, I.; Boehm, S.; Schuch, R.; Loch, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    Recombination of Be-like Si{sup 10+} over the 0-43 eV electron-ion energy range is measured at the CRYRING electron cooler. In addition to radiative and dielectronic recombination, the recombination spectrum also shows strong contributions from trielectronic recombination. Below 100 meV, several very strong resonances associated with a spin-flip of the excited electron dominate the spectrum and also dominate the recombination in the photoionized plasma. The resonant plasma rate coefficients corrected for the experimental field ionization are in good agreement with calculated results by Gu and with AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. All other calculations significantly underestimate the plasma rate coefficients at low temperatures.

  1. V(D)J recombination frequency is affected by the sequence interposed between a pair of recombination signals: sequence comparison reveals a putative recombinational enhancer element.

    PubMed

    Roch, F A; Hobi, R; Berchtold, M W; Kuenzle, C C

    1997-06-15

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain intron enhancer (Emu) not only stimulates transcription but also V(D)J recombination of chromosomally integrated recombination substrates. We aimed at reproducing this effect in recombination competent cells by transient transfection of extrachromosomal substrates. These we prepared by interposing between the recombination signal sequences (RSS) of the plasmid pBlueRec various fragments, including Emu, possibly affecting V(D)J recombination. Our work shows that sequences inserted between RSS 23 and RSS 12, with distances from their proximal ends of 26 and 284 bp respectively, can markedly affect the frequency of V(D)J recombination. We report that the entire Emu, the Emu core as well as its flanking 5' and 3' matrix associated regions (5' and 3' MARs) upregulate V(D)J recombination while the downstream section of the 3' MAR of Emu does not. Also, prokaryotic sequences markedly suppress V(D)J recombination. This confirms previous results obtained with chromosomally integrated substrates, except for the finding that the full length 3' MAR of Emu stimulates V(D)J recombination in an episomal but not in a chromosomal context. The fact that other MARs do not share this activity suggests that the effect is no mediated through attachment of the recombination substrate to a nuclear matrix-associated recombination complex but through cis-activation. The presence of a 26 bp A-T-rich sequence motif in the 5' and 3' MARs of Emu and in all of the other upregulating fragments investigated, leads us to propose that the motif represents a novel recombinational enhancer element distinct from those constituting the Emu core.

  2. Development of Prototype Filovirus Recombinant Antigen Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Matt L.; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B.; Millett, Molly M.; Nelson, Diana S.; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Oda, Shun-ichiro; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Rowland, Megan M.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Akdag, Marjan; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Baimba, Francis; Gbakie, Michael; Safa, Sadiki; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Cross, Robert W.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Grant, Donald S.; Shaffer, Jeffery G.; Schieffelin, John S.; Wilson, Russell B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.; Khan, S. Humarr; Pitts, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Throughout the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, major gaps were exposed in the availability of validated rapid diagnostic platforms, protective vaccines, and effective therapeutic agents. These gaps potentiated the development of prototype rapid lateral flow immunodiagnostic (LFI) assays that are true point-of-contact platforms, for the detection of active Ebola infections in small blood samples. Methods. Recombinant Ebola and Marburg virus matrix VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) antigens were used to derive a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies were tested using a multivariate approach to identify antibody-antigen combinations suitable for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and LFI assay development. Results. Polyclonal antibodies generated in goats were superior reagents for capture and detection of recombinant VP40 in test sample matrices. These antibodies were optimized for use in antigen-capture ELISA and LFI assay platforms. Prototype immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISAs were similarly developed that specifically detect Ebola virus–specific antibodies in the serum of experimentally infected nonhuman primates and in blood samples obtained from patients with Ebola from Sierra Leone. Conclusions. The prototype recombinant Ebola LFI assays developed in these studies have sensitivities that are useful for clinical diagnosis of acute ebolavirus infections. The antigen-capture and IgM/IgG ELISAs provide additional confirmatory assay platforms for detecting VP40 and other ebolavirus-specific immunoglobulins. PMID:26232440

  3. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection.

  4. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-01-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. Images PMID:1313899

  5. Dissociative recombination of molecular ions with electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, Rainer

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented for the present state of the art of laboratory measurements of the dissociative recombination of molecular ions with electrons. Most work has focussed on obtaining rates and their temperature dependence, as these are of primary interest for model calculations of ionospheres. A comparison of data obtained using the microwave afterglow method, the flowing afterglow technique, and the merged beam technique shows that generally the agreement is quite good, but there are some serious discrepancies, especially in the case of H(3+) recombination, that need to be resolved. Results of some earlier experimental work need to be reexamined in the light of more recent developments. Such cases are pointed out and a compilation of rate coefficients that have withstood scrutiny is presented. Recent advances in experimental methods, such as the use of laser-in-duced fluorescence, make it possible to identify some neutral products of dissociative recombination. What has been done so far and what results one might expect from future work are briefly reviewed.

  6. Recombinant allergens for diagnosis of cockroach allergy.

    PubMed

    Arruda, L Karla; Barbosa, Michelle C R; Santos, Ana Beatriz R; Moreno, Adriana S; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50- 64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients.

  7. Novel recombinant papillomavirus genomes expressing selectable genes

    PubMed Central

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Porter, Samuel; McKinney, Caleb; Stepp, Wesley H.; McBride, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    Papillomaviruses infect and replicate in keratinocytes, but viral proteins are initially expressed at low levels and there is no effective and quantitative method to determine the efficiency of infection on a cell-to-cell basis. Here we describe human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes that express marker proteins (antibiotic resistance genes and Green Fluorescent Protein), and can be used to elucidate early stages in HPV infection of primary keratinocytes. To generate these recombinant genomes, the late region of the oncogenic HPV18 genome was replaced by CpG free marker genes. Insertion of these exogenous genes did not affect early replication, and had only minimal effects on early viral transcription. When introduced into primary keratinocytes, the recombinant marker genomes gave rise to drug-resistant keratinocyte colonies and cell lines, which maintained the extrachromosomal recombinant genome long-term. Furthermore, the HPV18 “marker” genomes could be packaged into viral particles (quasivirions) and used to infect primary human keratinocytes in culture. This resulted in the outgrowth of drug-resistant keratinocyte colonies containing replicating HPV18 genomes. In summary, we describe HPV18 marker genomes that can be used to quantitatively investigate many aspects of the viral life cycle. PMID:27892937

  8. Formation and recombination of protonated acetonitrile clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plasil, R.; Glosík, J.; Zakouril, P.

    1999-07-01

    Formation of the protonated acetonitrile cluster ions CH3CNH+.CH3CN and their subsequent dissociative recombination with electrons was studied in a high-pressure flowing afterglow using the axially movable Langmuir probe. The first step is the binary proton transfer reaction of H3O+ with CH3CN with the rate coefficient k1 = (5.9±1.9) × 10-9 cm3 s-1. Resulting CH3CNH+ ions further associate with the neutral acetonitrile molecules at pressures 3-5 Torr with the effective binary rate coefficient k2eff = (2.1±0.7) × 10-9 cm3 s-1 forming the clusters H+.(CH3CN)2. Further reaction of these clusters with CH3CN is very slow with the effective binary rate coefficient k3eff = (1.1±0.3) × 10-12 cm3 s-1. The large difference between k2eff and k3eff facilitated the study of dissociative recombination of H+.(CH3CN)2 cluster ions with electrons at thermal energy and pressure p = 4.5-7.0 Torr. The recombination rate coefficient thus obtained is (2.8±1) × 10-6 cm3 s-1.

  9. Production of recombinant allergens in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of allergenic proteins are of plant origin. Hence, plant-based expression systems are considered ideal for the recombinant production of certain allergens. First attempts to establish production of plant-derived allergens in plants focused on transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana infected with recombinant viral vectors. Accordingly, allergens from birch and mugwort pollen, as well as from apple have been expressed in plants. Production of house dust mite allergens has been achieved by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco plants. Beside the use of plants as production systems, other approaches have focused on the development of edible vaccines expressing allergens or epitopes thereof, which bypasses the need of allergen purification. The potential of this approach has been convincingly demonstrated for transgenic rice seeds expressing seven dominant human T cell epitopes derived from Japanese cedar pollen allergens. Parallel to efforts in developing recombinant-based diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, different gene-silencing approaches have been used to decrease the expression of allergenic proteins in allergen sources. In this way hypoallergenic ryegrass, soybean, rice, apple, and tomato were developed. PMID:21258627

  10. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    PubMed

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Creating porcine biomedical models through recombineering.

    PubMed

    Rogatcheva, Margarita M; Rund, Laurie A; Swanson, Kelly S; Marron, Brandy M; Beever, Jonathan E; Counter, Christopher M; Schook, Lawrence B

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics provide genetic information from humans and other mammals (mouse, rat, dog and primates) traditionally used as models as well as new candidates (pigs and cattle). In addition, linked enabling technologies, such as transgenesis and animal cloning, provide innovative ways to design and perform experiments to dissect complex biological systems. Exploitation of genomic information overcomes the traditional need to choose naturally occurring models. Thus, investigators can utilize emerging genomic knowledge and tools to create relevant animal models. This approach is referred to as reverse genetics. In contrast to 'forward genetics', in which gene(s) responsible for a particular phenotype are identified by positional cloning (phenotype to genotype), the 'reverse genetics' approach determines the function of a gene and predicts the phenotype of a cell, tissue, or organism (genotype to phenotype). The convergence of classical and reverse genetics, along with genomics, provides a working definition of a 'genetic model' organism (3). The recent construction of phenotypic maps defining quantitative trait loci (QTL) in various domesticated species provides insights into how allelic variations contribute to phenotypic diversity. Targeted chromosomal regions are characterized by the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs to isolate and characterize genes contributing towards phenotypic variation. Recombineering provides a powerful methodology to harvest genetic information responsible for phenotype. Linking recombineering with gene-targeted homologous recombination, coupled with nuclear transfer (NT) technology can provide 'clones' of genetically modified animals.

  12. Adaptation despite gene flow? Low recombination helps.

    PubMed

    Marques, David A

    2017-09-01

    About 15,000 years earlier, the Northern half of Europe and North America was buried under a few kilometres of ice. Since then, many organisms have colonized and rapidly adapted to the new, vacant habitats. Some, like the threespine stickleback fish, have done so more successfully than others: from the sea, stickleback have adapted to a multitude of lake and stream habitats with a vast array of complex phenotypes and life histories. Previous studies showed that most of these "ecotypes" differ in multiple divergently selected genes throughout the genome. But how are well-adapted ecotypes of one habitat protected from maladaptive gene flow from ecotypes of another, adjacent habitat? According to a From the Cover meta-analysis in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Samuk et al., 2017), low recombination rate regions in the genome offer such protection. While inversions have often been highlighted as an efficient way to maintain linkage disequilibrium among sets of adaptive variants in the face of gene flow, Samuk et al. (2017) show that variation in recombination rate across the genome may perform a similar role in threespine stickleback. With this study, theoretical predictions for the importance of low recombination regions in adaptation are for the first time tested with a highly replicated population genomic data set. The findings from this study have implications for the adaptability of species, speciation and the evolution of genome architecture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Extracellular recombinant protein production from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Chen, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Escherichia coli is the most commonly used host for recombinant protein production and metabolic engineering. Extracellular production of enzymes and proteins is advantageous as it could greatly reduce the complexity of a bioprocess and improve product quality. Extracellular production of proteins is necessary for metabolic engineering applications in which substrates are polymers such as lignocelluloses or xenobiotics since adequate uptake of these substrates is often an issue. The dogma that E. coli secretes no protein has been challenged by the recognition of both its natural ability to secrete protein in common laboratory strains and increased ability to secrete proteins in engineered cells. The very existence of this review dedicated to extracellular production is a testimony for outstanding achievements made collectively by the community in this regard. Four strategies have emerged to engineer E. coli cells to secrete recombinant proteins. In some cases, impressive secretion levels, several grams per liter, were reached. This secretion level is on par with other eukaryotic expression systems. Amid the optimism, it is important to recognize that significant challenges remain, especially when considering the success cannot be predicted a priori and involves much trials and errors. This review provides an overview of recent developments in engineering E. coli for extracellular production of recombinant proteins and an analysis of pros and cons of each strategy.

  14. Recombinant Origin of the Retrovirus XMRV

    PubMed Central

    Paprotka, Tobias; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A.; Cingöz, Oya; Martinez, Anthony; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Tepper, Clifford G.; Hu, Wei-Shau; Fivash, Matthew J.; Coffin, John M.; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2012-01-01

    The retrovirus XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) has been detected in human prostate tumors and in blood samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, but these findings have not been replicated. We hypothesized that an understanding of when and how XMRV first arose might help explain the discrepant results. We studied human prostate cancer cell lines CWR22Rv1 and CWR-R1, which produce XMRV virtually identical to the viruses recently found in patient samples, as well as their progenitor human prostate tumor xenograft (CWR22) that had been passaged in mice. We detected XMRV infection in the two cell lines and in the later passage xenografts, but not in the early passages. Importantly, we found that the host mice contained two proviruses, PreXMRV-1 and PreXMRV-2, which share 99.92% identity with XMRV over >3.2-kb stretches of their genomes. We conclude that XMRV was not present in the original CWR22 tumor but was generated by recombination of two proviruses during tumor passaging in mice. The probability that an identical recombinant was generated independently is negligible (~10-12); our results suggest that the association of XMRV with human disease is due to contamination of human samples with virus originating from this recombination event. PMID:21628392

  15. Random-walk model of homologous recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Youhei; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    1995-12-01

    Interaction between two homologous (i.e., identical or nearly identical) DNA sequences leads to their homologous recombination in the cell. We present the following stochastic model to explain the dependence of the frequency of homologous recombination on the length of the homologous region. The branch point connecting the two DNAs in a reaction intermediate follows the random-walk process along the homology (N base-pairs). If the branch point reaches either of the homology ends, it bounds back to the homologous region at a probability of γ (reflection coefficient) and is destroyed at a probability of 1-γ. When γ is small, the frequency of homologous recombination is found to be proportional to N3 for smaller N and a linear function of N for larger N. The exponent of the nonlinear dependence for smaller N decreases from three as γ increases. When γ=1, only the linear dependence is left. These theoretical results can explain many experimental data in various systems. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  16. Recombinant Allergens for Diagnosis of Cockroach Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Michelle C. R.; Santos, Ana Beatriz R.; Moreno, Adriana S.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomés, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins have allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease. Recombinant cockroach allergens have been used for skin testing or in vitro methods to measure IgE antibody levels in serum. Early studies evaluating selected U.S. patients revealed that a cocktail of four cockroach allergens, Bla g 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, and Bla g 5, would identify 95 % of cockroach allergic patients. More recent studies pointed to an important role of sensitization to tropomyosin among certain populations, and suggested that a cocktail of five allergens Bla g 1 and/or Per a 1, Bla g 2, Bla g 4, Bla g 5, and Bla g 7, and/or Per a 7, would be expected to diagnose 50–64 % of cockroach-allergic patients worldwide. Variation in IgE reactivity profiles could be in part due to IgE responses to cross-reactive homologous allergens from different origins. The availability of purified natural or recombinant cockroach allergens provides the capacity to improve diagnosis of cockroach allergy and to develop novel forms of immunotherapy for cockroach-allergic patients. PMID:24563284

  17. Monitoring DNA recombination initiated by HO endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Neal; Haber, James E

    2012-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) have proven to be very potent initiators of recombination in yeast and other organisms. A single, site-specific DSB initiates homologous DNA repair events such as gene conversion, break-induced replication, and single-strand annealing, as well as nonhomologous end joining, microhomology-mediated end joining, and new telomere addition. When repair is either delayed or prevented, a single DSB can trigger checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. In budding yeast, expressing the HO endonuclease under the control of a galactose-inducible promoter has been instrumental in the study of these processes by providing us a way to synchronously induce a DSB at a unique site in vivo. We describe how the HO endonuclease has been used to study the recombination events in mating-type (MAT) switching. Southern blots provide an overview of the process by allowing one to examine the formation of the DSB, DNA degradation at the break, and formation of the product. Denaturing gels and slot blots as well as PCR have provided important tools to follow the progression of resection in wild-type and mutant cells. PCR has also been important in allowing us to follow the kinetics of certain recombination intermediates such as the initiation of repair DNA synthesis or the removal of nonhomologous Y sequences during MAT switching. Finally chromatin immunoprecipitation has been used to follow the recruitment of key proteins to the DSB and in subsequent steps in DSB repair.

  18. Design and construction of recombinant inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are a collection of strains that can be used to map quantitative trait loci. Parent strains are crossed to create recombinants that are then inbred to isogenicity, resulting in a permanent resource for trait mapping and analysis. Here I describe the process of designing and constructing RILs. This consists of the following steps. Parent strains are selected based on phenotype, marker availability, and compatibility, and they may be genetically engineered to remove unwanted variation or to introduce reporters. A construction design scheme is determined, including the target population size, if and how advanced intercrossing will be done, and the number of generations of inbreeding. Parent crosses and F1 crosses are performed to create an F2 population. Depending on design, advanced intercrossing may be implemented to increase mapping resolution through the accumulation of additional meiotic crossover events. Finally, lines are inbred to create genetically stable recombinant lines. I discuss tips and techniques for maximizing mapping power and resolution and minimizing resource investment for each stage of the process.

  19. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed.

  20. Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombination in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, G V; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Mycobacterium avium, are major pathogens of man. Although insertional mutagenesis has been an invaluable genetic tool for analyzing the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, it has not yet been possible to apply it to the mycobacteria. To overcome intrinsic difficulties in directly manipulating the genetics of slow-growing mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains, we developed a system for random shuttle mutagenesis. A genomic library of Mycobacterium smegmatis was subjected to transposon mutagenesis with Tn5 seq1, a derivative of Tn5, in Escherichia coli and these transposon-containing recombinant plasmids were reintroduced into mycobacterial chromosomes by homologous recombination. This system has allowed us to isolate several random auxotrophic mutants of M. smegmatis. To extend this strategy to M. tuberculosis and BCG, targeted mutagenesis was performed using a cloned BCG methionine gene that was subjected to Tn5 seq1 mutagenesis in E. coli and reintroduced into the mycobacteria. Surprisingly for prokaryotes, both BCG and M. tuberculosis were found to incorporate linear DNA fragments into illegitimate sites throughout the mycobacterial genomes at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-4) relative to the number of transformants obtained with autonomously replicating vectors. Thus the efficient illegitimate recombination of linear DNA fragments provides the basis for an insertional mutagenesis system for M. tuberculosis and BCG. Images PMID:2052623

  1. FASEB Summer Research Conference. Genetic Recombination and Chromosome Rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 meeting entitled ''Genetic Recombination and Genome Rearrangements'' was held July 21-26 in Snowmass, Colorado. The goal of the meeting was to bring together scientists using diverse approaches to study all aspects of genetic recombination. This goal was achieved by integrating talks covering the genetics, biochemistry and structural biology of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and nonhomologous recombination. The format of the meeting consisted of a keynote address on the opening evening, two formal plenary sessions on each of the four full meeting days, a single afternoon workshop consisting of short talks chosen from among submitted abstracts, and afternoon poster sessions on each of the four full meeting days. The eight plenary session were entitled: (1) Recombination Mechanisms, (2) Prokaryotic Recombination, (3) Repair and Recombination, (4) Site-specific Recombination and Transposition, (5) Eukaryotic Recombination I, (6) Genome Rearrangements, (7) Meiosis, and (8) Eukaryotic Recombination II. Each session included a mix of genetic, biochemical and structural talks; talks were limited to 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes of very lively, general discussion. Much of the data presented in the plenary sessions was unpublished, thus providing attendees with the most up-to-date knowledge of this rapidly-moving field.

  2. Somatic homologous recombination in planta: the recombination frequency is dependent on the allelic state of recombining sequences and may be influenced by genomic position effects.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, P; Hohn, B; Gal, S

    1993-02-01

    We have previously described a non-selective method for scoring somatic recombination in the genome of whole plants. The recombination substrate consists of a defective partial dimer of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) sequences, which can code for production of viable virus only upon homologous recombination; this leads to disease symptoms on leaves. Brassica napus plants (rapeseed) harbouring the recombination substrate as a transgene were used to examine the time in plant development at which recombination takes place. The analysis of three transgene loci revealed recombination frequencies specific for each locus. Recombination frequencies were increased if more than one transgene locus was present per genome, either in allelic (homozygosity of the transgene locus) or in non-allelic positions. In both cases, the overall recombination frequency was found to be elevated to approximately the sum of the frequencies for the individual transgene loci or slightly higher, suggesting that the respective transgene loci behave largely independently of each other. For all plants tested (single locus, two or multiple loci) maximal recombination frequencies were of the order of 10(-6) events per cell division.

  3. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Mens, Helene; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development. PMID:21994801

  4. The roles of host factors in tombusvirus RNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    RNA viruses are the champions of evolution due to high frequency mutations and genetic recombination occurring during virus replication. These genetic events are due to the error-prone nature of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp). Recently emerging models on viral RNA recombination, however, also include key roles for host and environmental factors. Accordingly, genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a model host have identified 38 host proteins affecting viral RNA recombination. Follow-up studies have identified key host proteins and cellular pathways involved in TBSV RNA recombination. In addition, environmental factors, such as salt stress, have been shown to affect TBSV recombination via influencing key host or viral factors involved in the recombination process. These advances will help build more accurate models on viral recombination, evolution, and adaptation.

  5. Interplay between modifications of chromatin and meiotic recombination hotspots.

    PubMed

    Brachet, Elsa; Sommermeyer, Vérane; Borde, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    Meiotic recombination lies at the heart of sexual reproduction. It is essential for producing viable gametes with a normal haploid genomic content and its dysfunctions can be at the source of aneuploidies, such as the Down syndrome, or many genetic disorders. Meiotic recombination also generates genetic diversity that is transmitted to progeny by shuffling maternal and paternal alleles along chromosomes. Recombination takes place at non-random chromosomal sites called 'hotspots'. Recent evidence has shown that their location is influenced by properties of chromatin. In addition, many studies in somatic cells have highlighted the need for changes in chromatin dynamics to allow the process of recombination. In this review, we discuss how changes in the chromatin landscape may influence the recombination map, and reciprocally, how recombination events may lead to epigenetic modifications at sites of recombination, which could be transmitted to progeny.

  6. Recombinant Patterns of Nine Novel HIV-1 Recombinant Strains Identified in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Hongru; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Cuiying; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze

    2016-05-01

    We found cluster 1 and cluster 2 that were identified as two potential circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) by analyzing the recombinant breakpoints and phylogenetic tree. Three sequences composed of CRF01_AE, subtype C, and potential subtype B (N/A) in cluster 1 had nearly identical recombinant breakpoints, and four sequences composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B in cluster 2 possessed identical breakpoints. Demographic characteristics indicated that there were no epidemiological linkages among three subjects in cluster 1 and four subjects in cluster 2, respectively. Likewise, two unique recombinant forms (URFs) were found in this study: one URF was composed of subtype C and subtype B, and subtype B was inserted into a backbone of subtype C; another URF was composed of subtype C, subtype B, CRF01_AE, and subtype A2. It was inferred that the potential novel CRFs and URFs have spread into general populations, suggesting that the series research of novel recombinant strains will be a priority for our researches in the future.

  7. Recombinant levels of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants deficient in various replication, recombination, or repair genes.

    PubMed Central

    Zieg, J; Maples, V F; Kushner, S R

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing mutations in lexA, rep, uvrA, uvrD, uvrE, lig, polA, dam, or xthA were constructed and tested for conjugation and transduction proficiencies and ability to form Lac+ recombinants in an assay system utilizing a nontandem duplication of two partially deleted lactose operons (lacMS286phi80dIIlacBK1). lexA and rep mutants were as deficient (20% of wild type) as recB and recC strains in their ability to produce Lac+ progeny. All the other strains exhibited increased frequencies of Lac+ recombinant formation, compared with wild type, ranging from 2- to 13-fold. Some strains showed markedly increased conjugation proficiency (dam uvrD) compared to wild type, while others appeared deficient (polA107). Some differences in transduction proficiency were also observed. Analysis of the Lac+ recombinants formed by the various mutants indicated that they were identical to the recombinants formed by a wild-type strain. The results indicate that genetic recombination in E. coli is a highly regulated process involving multiple gene products. PMID:350859

  8. Recombination in quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mora-Seró, Iván; Giménez, Sixto; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Gómez, Roberto; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Bisquert, Juan

    2009-11-17

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have attracted significant attention as promising third-generation photovoltaic devices. In the form of quantum dots (QDs), the semiconductor sensitizers have very useful and often tunable properties; moreover, their theoretical thermodynamic efficiency might be as high as 44%, better than the original 31% calculated ceiling. Unfortunately, the practical performance of these devices still lags behind that of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this Account, we summarize the strategies for depositing CdSe quantum dots on nanostructured mesoporous TiO(2) electrodes and discuss the methods that facilitate improvement in the performance and stability of QDSCs. One particularly significant factor for solar cells that use polysulfide electrolyte as the redox couple, which provides the best performance among QDSCs, is the passivation of the photoanode surface with a ZnS coating, which leads to a dramatic increase of photocurrents and efficiencies. However, these solar cells usually show a poor current-potential characteristic, so a general investigation of the recombination mechanisms is required for improvements. A physical model based on recombination through a monoenergetic TiO(2) surface state that takes into account the effect of the surface coverage has been developed to better understand the recombination mechanisms of QDSCs. The three main methods of QD adsorption on TiO(2) are (i) in situ growth of QDs by chemical bath deposition (CBD), (ii) deposition of presynthesized colloidal QDs by direct adsorption (DA), and (iii) deposition of presynthesized colloidal QDs by linker-assisted adsorption (LA). A systematic investigation by impedance spectroscopy of QDSCs prepared by these methods showed a decrease in the charge-transfer resistance and increased electron lifetimes for CBD samples; the same result was found after ZnS coating because of the covering of the TiO(2) surface. The increase of the lifetime with the ZnS treatment

  9. Evolution of meiotic recombination genes in maize and teosinte.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet K; Warzecha, Tomasz; Pawlowski, Wojciech P

    2017-01-25

    Meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. The role of recombination in evolution is recognized but little is known about how evolutionary forces affect the recombination pathway itself. Although the recombination pathway is fundamentally conserved across different species, genetic variation in recombination components and outcomes has been observed. Theoretical predictions and empirical studies suggest that changes in the recombination pathway are likely to provide adaptive abilities to populations experiencing directional or strong selection pressures, such as those occurring during species domestication. We hypothesized that adaptive changes in recombination may be associated with adaptive evolution patterns of genes involved in meiotic recombination. To examine how maize evolution and domestication affected meiotic recombination genes, we studied patterns of sequence polymorphism and divergence in eleven genes controlling key steps in the meiotic recombination pathway in a diverse set of maize inbred lines and several accessions of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We discovered that, even though the recombination genes generally exhibited high sequence conservation expected in a pathway controlling a key cellular process, they showed substantial levels and diverse patterns of sequence polymorphism. Among others, we found differences in sequence polymorphism patterns between tropical and temperate maize germplasms. Several recombination genes displayed patterns of polymorphism indicative of adaptive evolution. Despite their ancient origin and overall sequence conservation, meiotic recombination genes can exhibit extensive and complex patterns of molecular evolution. Changes in these genes could affect the functioning of the recombination pathway, and may have contributed to the successful domestication of maize and its expansion to new cultivation areas.

  10. Mobility dependent recombination models for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenpfahl, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Modern solar cell technologies are driven by the effort to enhance power conversion efficiencies. A main mechanism limiting power conversion efficiencies is charge carrier recombination which is a direct function of the encounter probability of both recombination partners. In inorganic solar cells with rather high charge carrier mobilities, charge carrier recombination is often dominated by energetic states which subsequently trap both recombination partners for recombination. Free charge carriers move fast enough for Coulomb attraction to be irrelevant for the encounter probability. Thus, charge carrier recombination is independent of charge carrier mobilities. In organic semiconductors charge carrier mobilities are much lower. Therefore, electrons and holes have more time react to mutual Coulomb-forces. This results in the strong charge carrier mobility dependencies of the observed charge carrier recombination rates. In 1903 Paul Langevin published a fundamental model to describe the recombination of ions in gas-phase or aqueous solutions, known today as Langevin recombination. During the last decades this model was used to interpret and model recombination in organic semiconductors. However, certain experiments especially with bulk-heterojunction solar cells reveal much lower recombination rates than predicted by Langevin. In search of an explanation, many material and device properties such as morphology and energetic properties have been examined in order to extend the validity of the Langevin model. A key argument for most of these extended models is, that electron and hole must find each other at a mutual spatial location. This encounter may be limited for instance by trapping of charges in trap states, by selective electrodes separating electrons and holes, or simply by the morphology of the involved semiconductors, making it impossible for electrons and holes to recombine at high rates. In this review, we discuss the development of mobility limited

  11. Allele-dependent recombination frequency: homology requirement in meiotic recombination at the hot spot in the mouse major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Sagai, T; Lindahl, K F; Toyoda, Y; Moriwaki, K; Shiroishi, T

    1995-05-20

    Meiotic recombination break joints in the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are clustered within short segments known as hot spots. We systematically investigated the requirement for sequence homology between two chromosomes for recombination activity at the hot spot next to the Lmp2 gene. The results indicated that a high rate of recombination required a high degree of similarity of overall genome structure at the hot spot. In particular, the same copy number of repetitive sequences within the hot spot was essential for a high frequency of recombination, suggesting that recombination in mouse meiosis is more sensitive to heterozygous deletion or insertion of DNA than to mismatches of single-base substitutions.

  12. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  13. Poliovirus Polymerase Leu420 Facilitates RNA Recombination and Ribavirin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Brian J.; Peersen, Olve B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA recombination is important in the formation of picornavirus species groups and the ongoing evolution of viruses within species groups. In this study, we examined the structure and function of poliovirus polymerase, 3Dpol, as it relates to RNA recombination. Recombination occurs when nascent RNA products exchange one viral RNA template for another during RNA replication. Because recombination is a natural aspect of picornavirus replication, we hypothesized that some features of 3Dpol may exist, in part, to facilitate RNA recombination. Furthermore, we reasoned that alanine substitution mutations that disrupt 3Dpol-RNA interactions within the polymerase elongation complex might increase and/or decrease the magnitudes of recombination. We found that an L420A mutation in 3Dpol decreased the frequency of RNA recombination, whereas alanine substitutions at other sites in 3Dpol increased the frequency of recombination. The 3Dpol Leu420 side chain interacts with a ribose in the nascent RNA product 3 nucleotides from the active site of the polymerase. Notably, the L420A mutation that reduced recombination also rendered the virus more susceptible to inhibition by ribavirin, coincident with the accumulation of ribavirin-induced G→A and C→U mutations in viral RNA. We conclude that 3Dpol Leu420 is critically important for RNA recombination and that RNA recombination contributes to ribavirin resistance. IMPORTANCE Recombination contributes to the formation of picornavirus species groups and the emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). The recombinant viruses that arise in nature are occasionally more fit than either parental strain, especially when the two partners in recombination are closely related, i.e., members of characteristic species groups, such as enterovirus species groups A to H or rhinovirus species groups A to C. Our study shows that RNA recombination requires conserved features of the viral polymerase. Furthermore, a

  14. Cosmological recombination: feedback of helium photons and its effect on the recombination spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, J.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the reprocessing of high-frequency photons emitted by HeII and HeI during the epoch of cosmological recombination by HeI and HI. We demonstrate that, in comparison to computations which neglect all feedback processes, the number of cosmological recombination photons that are related to the presence of helium in the early Universe could be increased by ~40-70 per cent. Our computations imply that per helium nucleus ~3-6 additional photons could be produced. Therefore, a total of ~12-14 helium-related photons per helium atom are emitted during cosmological recombination. This is an important addition to cosmological recombination spectrum which in the future may render it slightly easier to determine the primordial abundance of helium using differential measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) energy spectrum. Also, since these photons are the only witnesses of the feedback process at high redshift, observing them in principle offers a way to check our understanding of the recombination physics. Here, most interestingly, the feedback of HeII photons on HeI leads to the appearance of several additional, rather narrow spectral features in the HeI recombination spectrum at low frequencies. Consequently, the signatures of helium-related features in the CMB spectral distortion from cosmological recombination at some given frequency can exceed the average level of ~17 per cent several times. We find that in particular the bands around ν ~ 10, ~35, ~80 and ~200GHz seem to be affected strongly. In addition, we computed the changes in the cosmological ionization history, finding that only the feedback of primary HeI photons on the dynamics of HeII -> HeI recombination has an effect, producing a change of ΔNe/Ne ~ +0.17 per cent at z ~ 2300. This result seems to be ~2-3 times smaller than the one obtained in earlier computations for this process, however, the difference will not be very important for the analysis of future CMB data.

  15. Accurately Measuring Recombination between Closely Related HIV-1 Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Andrew J.; Mak, Johnson; Davenport, Miles P.

    2010-01-01

    Retroviral recombination is thought to play an important role in the generation of immune escape and multiple drug resistance by shuffling pre-existing mutations in the viral population. Current estimates of HIV-1 recombination rates are derived from measurements within reporter gene sequences or genetically divergent HIV sequences. These measurements do not mimic the recombination occurring in vivo, between closely related genomes. Additionally, the methods used to measure recombination make a variety of assumptions about the underlying process, and often fail to account adequately for issues such as co-infection of cells or the possibility of multiple template switches between recombination sites. We have developed a HIV-1 marker system by making a small number of codon modifications in gag which allow recombination to be measured over various lengths between closely related viral genomes. We have developed statistical tools to measure recombination rates that can compensate for the possibility of multiple template switches. Our results show that when multiple template switches are ignored the error is substantial, particularly when recombination rates are high, or the genomic distance is large. We demonstrate that this system is applicable to other studies to accurately measure the recombination rate and show that recombination does not occur randomly within the HIV genome. PMID:20442872

  16. Live-Cell Imaging of Vaccinia Virus Recombination.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Patrick; Noyce, Ryan S; Evans, David H

    2016-08-01

    Recombination between co-infecting poxviruses provides an important mechanism for generating the genetic diversity that underpins evolution. However, poxviruses replicate in membrane-bound cytoplasmic structures known as factories or virosomes. These are enclosed structures that could impede DNA mixing between co-infecting viruses, and mixing would seem to be essential for this process. We hypothesize that virosome fusion events would be a prerequisite for recombination between co-infecting poxviruses, and this requirement could delay or limit viral recombination. We have engineered vaccinia virus (VACV) to express overlapping portions of mCherry fluorescent protein fused to a cro DNA-binding element. In cells also expressing an EGFP-cro fusion protein, this permits live tracking of virus DNA and genetic recombination using confocal microscopy. Our studies show that different types of recombination events exhibit different timing patterns, depending upon the relative locations of the recombining elements. Recombination between partly duplicated sequences is detected soon after post-replicative genes are expressed, as long as the reporter gene sequences are located in cis within an infecting genome. The same kinetics are also observed when the recombining elements are divided between VACV and transfected DNA. In contrast, recombination is delayed when the recombining sequences are located on different co-infecting viruses, and mature recombinants aren't detected until well after late gene expression is well established. The delay supports the hypothesis that factories impede inter-viral recombination, but even after factories merge there remain further constraints limiting virus DNA mixing and recombinant gene assembly. This delay could be related to the continued presence of ER-derived membranes within the fused virosomes, membranes that may once have wrapped individual factories.

  17. Live-Cell Imaging of Vaccinia Virus Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Paszkowski, Patrick; Noyce, Ryan S.; Evans, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between co-infecting poxviruses provides an important mechanism for generating the genetic diversity that underpins evolution. However, poxviruses replicate in membrane-bound cytoplasmic structures known as factories or virosomes. These are enclosed structures that could impede DNA mixing between co-infecting viruses, and mixing would seem to be essential for this process. We hypothesize that virosome fusion events would be a prerequisite for recombination between co-infecting poxviruses, and this requirement could delay or limit viral recombination. We have engineered vaccinia virus (VACV) to express overlapping portions of mCherry fluorescent protein fused to a cro DNA-binding element. In cells also expressing an EGFP-cro fusion protein, this permits live tracking of virus DNA and genetic recombination using confocal microscopy. Our studies show that different types of recombination events exhibit different timing patterns, depending upon the relative locations of the recombining elements. Recombination between partly duplicated sequences is detected soon after post-replicative genes are expressed, as long as the reporter gene sequences are located in cis within an infecting genome. The same kinetics are also observed when the recombining elements are divided between VACV and transfected DNA. In contrast, recombination is delayed when the recombining sequences are located on different co-infecting viruses, and mature recombinants aren’t detected until well after late gene expression is well established. The delay supports the hypothesis that factories impede inter-viral recombination, but even after factories merge there remain further constraints limiting virus DNA mixing and recombinant gene assembly. This delay could be related to the continued presence of ER-derived membranes within the fused virosomes, membranes that may once have wrapped individual factories. PMID:27525721

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meiotic Recombination Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Ferdouse; Chowdhury, Reshmi; Cheung, Vivian G.; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Feingold, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential step in gametogenesis, and is one that also generates genetic diversity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and molecular studies have identified genes that influence of human meiotic recombination. RNF212 is associated with total or average number of recombination events, and PRDM9 is associated with the locations of hotspots, or sequences where crossing over appears to cluster. In addition, a common inversion on chromosome 17 is strongly associated with recombination. Other genes have been identified by GWAS, but those results have not been replicated. In this study, using new datasets, we characterized additional recombination phenotypes to uncover novel candidates and further dissect the role of already known loci. We used three datasets totaling 1562 two-generation families, including 3108 parents with 4304 children. We estimated five different recombination phenotypes including two novel phenotypes (average recombination counts within recombination hotspots and outside of hotspots) using dense SNP array genotype data. We then performed gender-specific and combined-sex genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses. We replicated associations for several previously reported recombination genes, including RNF212 and PRDM9. By looking specifically at recombination events outside of hotspots, we showed for the first time that PRDM9 has different effects in males and females. We identified several new candidate loci, particularly for recombination events outside of hotspots. These include regions near the genes SPINK6, EVC2, ARHGAP25, and DLGAP2. This study expands our understanding of human meiotic recombination by characterizing additional features that vary across individuals, and identifying regulatory variants influencing the numbers and locations of recombination events. PMID:27733454

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meiotic Recombination Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Begum, Ferdouse; Chowdhury, Reshmi; Cheung, Vivian G; Sherman, Stephanie L; Feingold, Eleanor

    2016-12-07

    Meiotic recombination is an essential step in gametogenesis, and is one that also generates genetic diversity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and molecular studies have identified genes that influence of human meiotic recombination. RNF212 is associated with total or average number of recombination events, and PRDM9 is associated with the locations of hotspots, or sequences where crossing over appears to cluster. In addition, a common inversion on chromosome 17 is strongly associated with recombination. Other genes have been identified by GWAS, but those results have not been replicated. In this study, using new datasets, we characterized additional recombination phenotypes to uncover novel candidates and further dissect the role of already known loci. We used three datasets totaling 1562 two-generation families, including 3108 parents with 4304 children. We estimated five different recombination phenotypes including two novel phenotypes (average recombination counts within recombination hotspots and outside of hotspots) using dense SNP array genotype data. We then performed gender-specific and combined-sex genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses. We replicated associations for several previously reported recombination genes, including RNF212 and PRDM9 By looking specifically at recombination events outside of hotspots, we showed for the first time that PRDM9 has different effects in males and females. We identified several new candidate loci, particularly for recombination events outside of hotspots. These include regions near the genes SPINK6, EVC2, ARHGAP25, and DLGAP2 This study expands our understanding of human meiotic recombination by characterizing additional features that vary across individuals, and identifying regulatory variants influencing the numbers and locations of recombination events.

  20. Preparation of recombinant alpha-thrombin: high-level expression of recombinant human prethrombin-2 and its activation by recombinant ecarin.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takayuki; Soejima, Kenji; Nakahara, Yo; Morikawa, Wataru; Ushio, Yoshitaka; Kamachi, Yasuharu; Nakatake, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Keishin; Nakagaki, Tomohiro; Nozaki, Chikateru

    2004-05-01

    We have established a large-scale manufacturing system to produce recombinant human alpha-thrombin. In this system, a high yield of alpha-thrombin is prepared from prethrombin-2 activated by recombinant ecarin. We produced human prethrombin-2 using mouse myeloma cells and an expression plasmid carrying the chicken beta-actin promoter and mutant dihydrofolate reductase gene for gene amplification. To increase prethrombin-2 expression further, we performed fed-batch cultivation with the addition of vegetable peptone in 50 liters of suspension culture. After five feedings of vegetable peptone, the expression level of the recombinant prethrombin-2 reached 200 micro g/ml. Subsequently, the recombinant prethrombin-2 could be activated to alpha-thrombin by recombinant ecarin expressed in a similar manner. Finally, recombinant alpha-thrombin was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography using a benzamidine-Sepharose gel. The yield from prethrombin-2 in culture medium was approximately 70%. The activity of the purified recombinant alpha-thrombin, including hydrolysis of a chromogenic substrate, release of fibrinopeptide A, and activation of protein C, was indistinguishable from that of plasma-derived alpha-thrombin. Our system is suitable for the large-scale production of recombinant alpha-thrombin, which can be used in place of clinically available alpha-thrombin derived from human or bovine plasma.

  1. Development of Prototype Filovirus Recombinant Antigen Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Matt L; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Millett, Molly M; Nelson, Diana S; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Fusco, Marnie L; Abelson, Dafna M; Oda, Shun-Ichiro; Hartnett, Jessica N; Rowland, Megan M; Heinrich, Megan L; Akdag, Marjan; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Baimba, Francis; Gbakie, Michael; Safa, Sadiki; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakosky, Peter C; Grant, Donald S; Shaffer, Jeffery G; Schieffelin, John S; Wilson, Russell B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F; Khan, S Humarr; Pitts, Kelly R

    2015-10-01

    Throughout the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, major gaps were exposed in the availability of validated rapid diagnostic platforms, protective vaccines, and effective therapeutic agents. These gaps potentiated the development of prototype rapid lateral flow immunodiagnostic (LFI) assays that are true point-of-contact platforms, for the detection of active Ebola infections in small blood samples. Recombinant Ebola and Marburg virus matrix VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) antigens were used to derive a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies were tested using a multivariate approach to identify antibody-antigen combinations suitable for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and LFI assay development. Polyclonal antibodies generated in goats were superior reagents for capture and detection of recombinant VP40 in test sample matrices. These antibodies were optimized for use in antigen-capture ELISA and LFI assay platforms. Prototype immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISAs were similarly developed that specifically detect Ebola virus-specific antibodies in the serum of experimentally infected nonhuman primates and in blood samples obtained from patients with Ebola from Sierra Leone. The prototype recombinant Ebola LFI assays developed in these studies have sensitivities that are useful for clinical diagnosis of acute ebolavirus infections. The antigen-capture and IgM/IgG ELISAs provide additional confirmatory assay platforms for detecting VP40 and other ebolavirus-specific immunoglobulins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Spatiotemporal regulation of meiotic recombination by Liaisonin

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Tomoichiro; Ito, Masaru; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction involves diversification of genetic information in successive generations. Meiotic recombination, which substantially contributes to the increase in genetic diversity, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Spo11 protein. Spo11 requires additional partner proteins for its DNA cleavage reaction. DSBs are preferentially introduced at defined chromosomal sites called “recombination hotspots.” Recent studies have revealed that meiotically established higher-order chromosome structures, such as chromosome axes and loops, are also crucial in the control of DSB formation. Most of the DSB sites are located within chromatin loop regions, while many of the proteins involved in DSB formation reside on chromosomal axes. Hence, DSB proteins and DSB sites seem to be distantly located. To resolve this paradox, we conducted comprehensive proteomics and ChIP-chip analyses on Spo11 partners in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in combination with mutant studies. We identified two distinct DSB complexes, the “DSBC (DSB Catalytic core)“ and “SFT (Seven-Fifteen-Twenty four; Rec7-Rec15-Rec24)” subcomplexes. The DSBC subcomplex contains Spo11 and functions as the catalytic core for the DNA cleavage reaction. The SFT subcomplex is assumed to execute regulatory functions. To activate the DSBC subcomplex, the SFT subcomplex tethers hotspots to axes via its interaction with Mde2, which can interact with proteins in both DSBC and SFT subcomplexes. Thus, Mde2 is likely to bridge these two subcomplexes, forming a “tethered loop-axis complex.” It should be noted that Mde2 expression is strictly regulated by S phase checkpoint monitoring of the completion of DNA replication. From these observations, we proposed that Mde2 is a central coupler for meiotic recombination initiation to establish a tethered loop-axis complex in liaison with the S phase checkpoint. PMID:23572041

  3. Spatiotemporal regulation of meiotic recombination by Liaisonin.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Tomoichiro; Ito, Masaru; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction involves diversification of genetic information in successive generations. Meiotic recombination, which substantially contributes to the increase in genetic diversity, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Spo11 protein. Spo11 requires additional partner proteins for its DNA cleavage reaction. DSBs are preferentially introduced at defined chromosomal sites called "recombination hotspots." Recent studies have revealed that meiotically established higher-order chromosome structures, such as chromosome axes and loops, are also crucial in the control of DSB formation. Most of the DSB sites are located within chromatin loop regions, while many of the proteins involved in DSB formation reside on chromosomal axes. Hence, DSB proteins and DSB sites seem to be distantly located. To resolve this paradox, we conducted comprehensive proteomics and ChIP-chip analyses on Spo11 partners in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in combination with mutant studies. We identified two distinct DSB complexes, the "DSBC (DSB Catalytic core)" and "SFT (Seven-Fifteen-Twenty four; Rec7-Rec15-Rec24)" subcomplexes. The DSBC subcomplex contains Spo11 and functions as the catalytic core for the DNA cleavage reaction. The SFT subcomplex is assumed to execute regulatory functions. To activate the DSBC subcomplex, the SFT subcomplex tethers hotspots to axes via its interaction with Mde2, which can interact with proteins in both DSBC and SFT subcomplexes. Thus, Mde2 is likely to bridge these two subcomplexes, forming a "tethered loop-axis complex." It should be noted that Mde2 expression is strictly regulated by S phase checkpoint monitoring of the completion of DNA replication. From these observations, we proposed that Mde2 is a central coupler for meiotic recombination initiation to establish a tethered loop-axis complex in liaison with the S phase checkpoint.

  4. Ab initio studies of dissociative recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1989-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of the dissociative recombination of O2(+) and N2(+) are reported. An approach for calculating autoionization widths from high-principal-quantum-number Rydberg states is summarized, and an example is presented for the lowest dissociative state of O2. For O2(+), the 1Sigma(+)u state is the sole source of O(1S) from the lowest 10 vibrational levels of the ion. Rate coefficients for generating O(1S) and O(1D) at ionospheric temperatures are reported.

  5. Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1995-01-19

    This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs.

  6. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-06-08

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. © 2015 Helma et al.

  7. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  8. Patterns of recombination on human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Schlumpf, K.S.; Kim, D.; Haines, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    Virtually all genetic linkage maps generated to date are gross averages across individuals, ages, and (often) sexes. In addition, although some level of positive interference has been assumed, until recently little evidence to support this in humans has been available. The major stumbling block has been the quality of the data available, since even a few genotypic errors can have drastic effects on both the map length and the number of apparent recombinants. In addition, variation in recombination by factors other than sex have pretty much been ignored. To explore recombination in more detail, we have generated a microsatellite marker map of human chromosome 22. This map includes 32 markers genotyped through 46 sibships of the Venezuelan Reference Pedigree (VRP). Extensive error checking and regenotyping was performed to remove as many genotypic errors as possible, but no genotypes were removed simply because they created unlikely events. The following 1000:1 odds map has been obtained: cen--F8VWFP1--11--S264--3-S311--4--S257--2--TOP1P2--3--S156--1--CRYB2--1--S258--2--S310--6--S193--1--S275--3--S268--1--S280--4--S304--3--S283--2--LiR1--3--IL2RB--3--S299--1--S302--1--S537--2--S270--4--PDGF--8--S274--qter. The female map (91 cM) is twice as long as the male map (46 cM) and the log-likelihood difference in the maps (22.3) is highly significant (P=0.001, df=22) and appears constant across the chromosome. Analysis of recombination with age showed no particular trends for either males or females when chromosomes were grouped into three categories (20, 20-30, 30+) by parental age at birth of child. Positive interference was found in maternally derived chromosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=30.5 (4), p<0.005), but not in paternally derived chromosomes ({chi}{sup 2}=6.24 (3), P=0.10). This contrasts to data from chromosomes 9 and 21 where positive interference was found for both sexes. More detailed analyses are in progress.

  9. An introduction to recombination and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mcpeek, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    With a garden as his laboratory, Mendel was able to discern basic probabilistic laws of heredity. Although it first appeared as a baffling exception to one of Mendel`s principles, the phenomenon of variable linkage between characters was soon recognized to be a powerful tool in the process of chromosome mapping and location of genes of interest. In this introduction, we first describe Mendel`s work and the subsequent discovery of linkage. Next we describe the apparent cause of variable linkage, namely recombination, and we introduce linkage analysis. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-12-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/, which is much higher then that (approx. =10/sup 5/ cm/sup -3/) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model.

  11. Recombination Dynamics in Quantum Well Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouquet, Julie Elizabeth

    Time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence as a function of excitation energy density have been observed in order to study recombination dynamics in GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1 -x)As quantum well structures. The study of room temperature photoluminescence from the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) -grown multiple quantum well structure and photoluminescence peak energy as a function of tem- perature shows that room temperature recombination at excitation densities above the low 10('16) cm('-3) level is due to free carriers, not excitons. This is the first study of time-resolved photoluminescence of impurities in quantum wells; data taken at different emission wave- lengths at low temperatures shows that the impurity-related states at photon energies lower than the free exciton peaks luminesce much more slowly than the free exciton states. Results from a similar structure grown by metal -organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are explained by saturation of traps. An unusual increase in decay rate observed tens of nanoseconds after excitation is probably due to carriers falling out of the trap states. Since this is the first study of time-resolved photoluminescence of MOCVD-grown quantum well structures, this unusual behavior may be realted to the MOCVD growth process. Further investigations indi- cate that the traps are not active at low temperatures; they become active at approximately 150 K. The traps are probably associated with the (hetero)interfaces rather than the bulk Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As material. The 34 K photoluminescence spectrum of this sample revealed a peak shifted down by approximately 36 meV from the main peak. Time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence results here show that this peak is not a stimulated phonon emission sideband, but rather is an due to an acceptor impurity, probably carbon. Photo- luminescence for excitation above and below the barrier bandgap shows that carriers are efficiently collected in the wells in both single and multiple

  12. Cooling and recombination processes in cometary plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, M. K.; Ong, R. S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The ion electron plasma in comets is examined for cooling processes which result from its interactions with the neutral coma. A cometary coma model is formulated that is composed predominantly of H2O and its decomposition products where electrons are cooled in a variety of processes at rates varying with energy. It is shown that solar plasma plus accumulated cometary ions and electrons is affected very strongly as it flows into the coma. The electrons are rapidly cooled and all but some 10% of the ions undergo charge exchange. Photodissociation of H2O is assumed where ion electron recombination is the dominant loss process.

  13. Dissociation and recombination in an inhomogeneous gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuščer, Ivan

    1991-09-01

    The system of Boltzmann equations of Ludwig and Heil for a dissociating gas mixture is reviewed and reformulated in terms of differential cross sections. For the purpose of Monte Carlo simulations, collision models of the type of Borgnakke and Larsen are proposed. In case of short-lived transient flows of molecular gases and at not too high temperatures, simulation of scattering collisions is expected to suffice; the distribution function of the dissociated particles can be evaluated afterwards by integration, and recombination can be ignored.

  14. Genomic correlates of recombination rate and its variability across eight recombination maps in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin R; DeFelice, Dominick S; Hunt, Greg J; Ihle, Kate E; Amdam, Gro V; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-02-21

    Meiotic recombination has traditionally been explained based on the structural requirement to stabilize homologous chromosome pairs to ensure their proper meiotic segregation. Competing hypotheses seek to explain the emerging findings of significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between genomes, but intraspecific comparisons of genome-wide recombination patterns are rare. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) exhibits the highest rate of genomic recombination among multicellular animals with about five cross-over events per chromatid. Here, we present a comparative analysis of recombination rates across eight genetic linkage maps of the honey bee genome to investigate which genomic sequence features are correlated with recombination rate and with its variation across the eight data sets, ranging in average marker spacing ranging from 1 Mbp to 120 kbp. Overall, we found that GC content explained best the variation in local recombination rate along chromosomes at the analyzed 100 kbp scale. In contrast, variation among the different maps was correlated to the abundance of microsatellites and several specific tri- and tetra-nucleotides. The combined evidence from eight medium-scale recombination maps of the honey bee genome suggests that recombination rate variation in this highly recombining genome might be due to the DNA configuration instead of distinct sequence motifs. However, more fine-scale analyses are needed. The empirical basis of eight differing genetic maps allowed for robust conclusions about the correlates of the local recombination rates and enabled the study of the relation between DNA features and variability in local recombination rates, which is particularly relevant in the honey bee genome with its exceptionally high recombination rate.

  15. Histone deacetylases 9 and 10 are required for homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Kotian, Shweta; Liyanarachchi, Sandhya; Zelent, Arthur; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2011-03-11

    We tested the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the homologous recombination process. A tissue-culture based homology-directed repair assay was used in which repair of a double-stranded break by homologous recombination results in gene conversion of an inactive GFP allele to an active GFP gene. Our rationale was that hyperacetylation caused by HDAC inhibitor treatment would increase chromatin accessibility to repair factors, thereby increasing homologous recombination. Contrary to expectation, treatment of cells with the inhibitors significantly reduced homologous recombination activity. Using RNA interference to deplete each HDAC, we found that depletion of either HDAC9 or HDAC10 specifically inhibited homologous recombination. By assaying for sensitivity of cells to the interstrand cross-linker mitomycin C, we found that treatment of cells with HDAC inhibitors or depletion of HDAC9 or HDAC10 resulted in increased sensitivity to mitomycin C. Our data reveal an unanticipated function of HDAC9 and HDAC10 in the homologous recombination process.

  16. Recombinant DNA products: Insulin, interferon and growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Bollon, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides the discussion of products of biotechnology of recombinant DNA. The contents include: Recombinant DNA techniques; isolation, cloning, and expression of genes; from somatostatin to human insulin; yeast; an alternative organism for foreign protein production; background in human interferon; preclinical assessment of biological properties of recombinant DNA derived human interferons; human clinical trials of bacteria-derived human ..cap alpha.. interferon.f large scale production of human alpha interferon from bacteria; direct expression of human growth hormone in escherichia coli with the lipoprotein promoter; biological actions in humans of recombinant DNA synthesized human growth hormone; NIH guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA molecules; appendix; viral vectors and the NHY guidelines; FDA's role in approval and regulation of recombinant DNA drugs; and index.

  17. Mismatch repair proteins: key regulators of genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Surtees, J A; Argueso, J L; Alani, E

    2004-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) systems are central to maintaining genome stability in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. MMR proteins play a fundamental role in avoiding mutations, primarily by removing misincorporation errors that occur during DNA replication. MMR proteins also act during genetic recombination in steps that include repairing mismatches in heteroduplex DNA, modulating meiotic crossover control, removing 3' non-homologous tails during double-strand break repair, and preventing recombination between divergent sequences. In this review we will, first, discuss roles for MMR proteins in repairing mismatches that occur during recombination, particularly during meiosis. We will also explore how studying this process has helped to refine models of double-strand break repair, and particularly to our understanding of gene conversion gradients. Second, we will examine the role of MMR proteins in repressing homeologous recombination, i.e. recombination between divergent sequences. We will also compare the requirements for MMR proteins in preventing homeologous recombination to the requirements for these proteins in mismatch repair.

  18. Proteins involved in meiotic recombination: a role in male infertility?

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Matthew L; Hassold, Terry J; Carrell, Douglas T

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of crossovers, by which genetic information is exchanged between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Recombination is a complex process involving many proteins. Alterations in the genes involved in recombination may result in infertility. Molecular studies have improved our understanding of the roles and mechanisms of the proteins and protein complexes involved in recombination, some of which have function in mitotic cells as well as meiotic cells. Human gene sequencing studies have been performed for some of these genes and have provided further information on the phenotypes observed in some infertile individuals. However, further studies are needed to help elucidate the particular role(s) of a given protein and to increase our understanding of these protein systems. This review will focus on our current understanding of proteins involved in meiotic recombination from a genomic perspective, summarizing our current understanding of known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms that may affect male fertility by altering meiotic recombination.

  19. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  20. Recombination in feline immunodeficiency virus genomes from naturally infected cougars.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Trevor C; Poss, Mary

    2007-08-01

    Recombination contributes significantly to diversity within virus populations and ultimately to viral evolution. Here we use a recently developed statistical test to perform exploratory analysis of recombination in fourteen feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVpco) genomes derived from a wild population of cougars. We use both the global and local Phi statistical test as an overall guide to predict where recombination may have occurred. Further analyses, including similarity plots and phylogenetic incongruence tests, confirmed that three FIVpco lineages were derived from recombinant events. Interestingly, the regions of mosaic origin were clustered in the area encoding lentiviral accessory genes and largely spared the viral structural genes. Because some of the mosaic strains are currently geographically disparate, our data indicate that the dispersal of cougars infected with these strains was preceded by recombination events. These results suggest that recombination has played an important role in the evolution of FIVpco for this wild population of cougars.

  1. Improvement in the visual discrimination of recombinant clones by size reduction of non-recombinant colonies.

    PubMed

    Sektas, Marian; Furmanek-Blaszk, Beata

    2013-11-01

    A flexible approach circumventing cloning problems related to incomplete vector double digest is described. DNA methyltransferase gene insertion into MCS of commonly used expression vectors facilitates identification of both: i) the correct linear fragment in agarose gels due to the dilator effect, and ii) recombinant colonies by size and opacity differences resulting from methyltransferase toxicity.

  2. Radiation induction of delayed recombination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Jun; Uematsu, Norio; Shiraishi, Satomi; Toyoshima, Megumi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Niwa, Ohtsura

    2008-08-02

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce delayed chromosome and gene mutations in the descendants of the irradiated tissue culture cells. Molecular mechanisms of such delayed mutations are yet to be elucidated, since high genomic complexity of mammalian cells makes it difficult to analyze. We now tested radiation induction of delayed recombination in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by monitoring the frequency of homologous recombination after X-irradiation. A reporter with 200 bp tandem repeats went through spontaneous recombination at a frequency of 1.0 x 10(-4), and the frequency increased dose-dependently to around 10 x 10(-4) at 500 Gy of X-irradiation. Although the repair of initial DNA damage was thought to be completed before the restart of cell division cycle, the elevation of the recombination frequency persisted for 8-10 cell generations after irradiation (delayed recombination). The delayed recombination suggests that descendants of the irradiated cells keep a memory of the initial DNA damage which upregulates recombination machinery for 8-10 generations even in the absence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Since radical scavengers were ineffective in inhibiting the delayed recombination, a memory by continuous production of DNA damaging agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) was excluded. Recombination was induced in trans in a reporter on chromosome III by a DNA DSB at a site on chromosome I, suggesting the untargeted nature of delayed recombination. Interestingly, Rad22 foci persisted in the X-irradiated population in parallel with the elevation of the recombination frequency. These results suggest that the epigenetic damage memory induced by DNA DSB upregulates untargeted and delayed recombination in S. pombe.

  3. Spin multiplicity and entanglement swapping in radical ion recombinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.; Anishchik, S. V.

    2009-08-01

    We address the problem of relative frequencies of singlet and triplet recombinations in a multiparticle system, which consists of spin-correlated radical ion pairs. The nonlocal swapping of spin correlations due to cross-recombinations is taken into account. It is shown that this swapping does not contribute to singlet and triplet recombination frequencies in the absence of spin evolution in the correlated pairs.

  4. Effect of Energetic Ion on Spatial Distribution of Recombining Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, A.; Daibo, A.; Kitajima, S.; Kumagai, T.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tsubota, S.

    Spatial distribution of electron density is considered. By using a one-dimensional recombining plasma model, effects of transient energetic ion flux are investigated. The time response of the system against the transient flux is dominated by the recombination frequency. The magnitude of modification of the spatial distribution is determined by the ratio between the ionization due to the energetic ion and the recombination of the bulk plasma.

  5. The Many Landscapes of Recombination in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Comeron, Josep M.; Ratnappan, Ramesh; Bailin, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Recombination is a fundamental biological process with profound evolutionary implications. Theory predicts that recombination increases the effectiveness of selection in natural populations. Yet, direct tests of this prediction have been restricted to qualitative trends due to the lack of detailed characterization of recombination rate variation across genomes and within species. The use of imprecise recombination rates can also skew population genetic analyses designed to assess the presence and mode of selection across genomes. Here we report the first integrated high-resolution description of genomic and population variation in recombination, which also distinguishes between the two outcomes of meiotic recombination: crossing over (CO) and gene conversion (GC). We characterized the products of 5,860 female meioses in Drosophila melanogaster by genotyping a total of 139 million informative SNPs and mapped 106,964 recombination events at a resolution down to 2 kilobases. This approach allowed us to generate whole-genome CO and GC maps as well as a detailed description of variation in recombination among individuals of this species. We describe many levels of variation in recombination rates. At a large-scale (100 kb), CO rates exhibit extreme and highly punctuated variation along chromosomes, with hot and coldspots. We also show extensive intra-specific variation in CO landscapes that is associated with hotspots at low frequency in our sample. GC rates are more uniformly distributed across the genome than CO rates and detectable in regions with reduced or absent CO. At a local scale, recombination events are associated with numerous sequence motifs and tend to occur within transcript regions, thus suggesting that chromatin accessibility favors double-strand breaks. All these non-independent layers of variation in recombination across genomes and among individuals need to be taken into account in order to obtain relevant estimates of recombination rates, and should

  6. Novel assay to quantify recombination in a calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Symes, Sally J; Job, Natalie; Ficorilli, Nino; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Gilkerson, James R

    2015-05-15

    Recombination is an important contributor to genomic evolution in many viral families, including the Caliciviridae. While it is known that genomic recombination in caliciviruses contributes to their rapid evolution, the precise molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The majority of reported recombination events in feline calicivirus (FCV) occur at a "hot spot" between the non-structural protein coding region (open reading frame 1) and structural protein coding region (open reading frame 2). To gain a better understanding of the rate of recombination at this point, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to quantify the rate of recombination between two divergent strains of FCV during co-infection in cell culture. The assay utilised virus-specific primers upstream and downstream of the recombinational "hot spot" that hybridise with only one of the strains in the co-infection. Recombinant progeny that shared ORF1 sequence identity with one parental virus and ORF2 sequence identity with the other parental virus, and the site of recombination, was confirmed by sequencing the amplicon generated by the assay. Recombinants were detected in co-infected cells using this assay, but not in cells infected with single strains that were mixed together following infection, thus confirming its specificity. Recombination between two FCVs in co-infected cell cultures was estimated to occur at a rate of at least 6.8×10(-6) single direction recombinant genomes per parental virus genome. Further application of this assay will enable factors influencing recombination in caliciviruses to be explored in greater detail, both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recombinant avidin and avidin-fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Airenne, K J; Marjomäki, V S; Kulomaa, M S

    1999-12-31

    Both chicken egg-white avidin and its bacterial relative streptavidin are well known for their extraordinary high affinity with biotin (Kd approximately 10(-15) M). They are widely used as tools in a number of affinity-based separations, in diagnostic assays and in a variety of other applications. These methods have collectively become known as (strept)avidin-biotin technology. Biotin can easily and effectively be attached to different molecules, termed binders and probes, without destroying their biological activity. The exceptional stability of the avidin-biotin complex and the wide range of commercially available reagents explain the popularity of this system. In order by genetic engineering to modify the unwanted properties of avidin and to further expand the existing avidin-biotin technology, production systems for recombinant avidin and avidin-fusion proteins have been established. This review article presents an overview of the current status of these systems. Future trends in the production and applications of recombinant avidin and avidin-fusion proteins are also discussed.

  8. Sorbitol production using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Dong, Hongwei; Zhong, Jianjiang; Ryu, Dewey D Y; Bao, Jie

    2010-07-20

    A recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain harboring the plasmid pHW20a-gfo for over-expression of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) was constructed. The specific activity of GFOR enzyme in the new recombinant strain was at least two folds greater than that in the wild strain. The maximum GFOR activity achieved in terms of the volumetric, and the cellular were 2.59 U ml(-1), and 0.70 U mg(-1), respectively, in the batch cultures. A significant improvement of the bioconversion process for the production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose was made using divalent metal ions which drastically reduced the ethanol yield and significantly increased the yield of target product. Among several divalent metal ions evaluated, Zn(2+) was found to be most effective by inhibiting the Entner-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. The yield of the byproduct ethanol was reduced from 16.7 to 1.8 gl(-1) and the sorbitol yield was increased to almost 100% from 89%. The Ca(2+) enhanced the sorbitol yield and the formation of calcium gluconate salt made the separation of gluconate from the reaction system easier. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic field spectrum at cosmological recombination revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2015-06-01

    If vector type perturbations are present in the primordial plasma before recombination, the generation of magnetic fields is known to be inevitable through the Harrison mechanism. In the context of the standard cosmological perturbation theory, nonlinear couplings of first-order scalar perturbations create second-order vector perturbations, which generate magnetic fields. Here we reinvestigate the generation of magnetic fields at second-order in cosmological perturbations on the basis of our previous study, and extend it by newly taking into account the time evolution of purely second-order vector perturbations with a newly developed second-order Boltzmann code. We confirm that the amplitude of magnetic fields from the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes is consistent with the result in our previous study. However, we find, both numerically and analytically, that the magnetic fields from the purely second-order vector perturbations partially cancel out the magnetic fields from one of the product-terms of the first-order scalar modes, in the tight coupling regime in the radiation dominated era. Therefore, the amplitude of the magnetic fields on small scales, k ≳10 h Mpc-1 , is smaller than the previous estimates. The amplitude of the generated magnetic fields at cosmological recombination is about Brec=5.0 ×10-24 Gauss on k =5.0 ×10-1 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we discuss the reason for the discrepancies that exist in estimates of the amplitude of magnetic fields among other authors.

  10. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  11. Recent advances in recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Renate; Casanova, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Designing appropriate expression vectors is one of the critical steps in the generation of stable cell lines for recombinant protein production. Conventional expression vectors are severely affected by the chromatin environment surrounding their integration site into the host genome, resulting in low expression levels and transgene silencing. In the past, a new generation of expression vectors and different strategies was developed to overcome the chromatin effects. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are cloning vectors capable of accommodating up to 350 Kb. Thus, BACs can carry a whole eukaryotic locus with all the elements controlling the expression of a gene; therefore, BACs harbor their own chromatin environment. Expression vectors based on BACs containing open/permissive chromatin loci are not affected by the chromatin surrounding their integration site in the host cell genome. Consequently, BAC-based expression vectors containing the appropriate loci confer predictable and high levels of expression over time. These properties make BAC-based expression vectors a very attractive tool applied to the recombinant protein production field. PMID:23680894

  12. Recombination activity of copper in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, R.; Istratov, A. A.; Weber, E. R.

    2001-10-01

    The carrier recombination activity of copper in n-type and p-type silicon has been investigated. The minority carrier diffusion length has been found to decrease monotonically with increasing copper concentration in n Si and to exhibit a step-like behavior in p-type silicon at Cu concentrations above a certain critical level. It is suggested that the impact of copper on the minority carrier diffusion length is determined by the formation of copper precipitates. This process is retarded in perfect silicon due to the large lattice mismatch between Cu3Si and the silicon lattice and even more retarded in p Si, due to electrostatic repulsion effects between the positively charged copper precipitates and interstitial copper ions. Comparison of the impact of Cu on minority carrier diffusion length obtained with p-Si samples of different resistivity confirmed the electrostatic model. Studies of the impact of copper on minority carrier diffusion length in samples with internal gettering sites indicated that they provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for Cu precipitation at subcritical Cu concentration. Above a certain threshold of Cu concentration, the bulk recombination activity is dominated by quasihomogeneous formation of Cu precipitates, a process that is not detectably affected by the presence of oxide precipitates.

  13. Mitotic recombination of chromosome 17 in astrocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.D.; Carlbom, E.; Nordenskjold, M.; Collins, V.P.; Cavenee, W.K. )

    1989-04-01

    Allelic combinations at seven loci on human chromosome 17 defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms were determined in tumor and normal tissues from 35 patients with gliomas. Loss of constitutional heterozygosity at one or more of these loci was observed in 8 of the 24 tumors displaying astrocytic differentiation and in the single primitive neuroectodermal tumor examined. The astrocytomas showing these losses included examples of each adult malignancy grade of the disease, including glioblastoma (malignancy grade IV), and seven of them demonstrated concurrent maintenance of heterozygosity for at least one chromosome 17 locus. Determination of allele dosage together with the genotypic data indicated that the tumor chromosomes 17 were derived by mitotic recombination in 7 of the 9 cases with shared homozygosity of the region 17p11.2-ptr in all cases. In contrast, tumors of oligodendrocytic, ependymal, or mixed cellular differentiation did not exhibit loss of alleles at any of the loci examined. These data suggest that the somatic attainment of homozygosity for loci on chromosome 17p is frequently associated with the oncogenesis of central nervous system tumors, particularly those showing solely astrocytic differentiation, and that mitotic recombination mapping is a useful approach towards the subregional localization of a locus whose rearrangement is involved in this disease.

  14. Modified Fragmentation Function from Quark Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, A.; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Within the framework of the constituent quark model, it isshown that the single hadron fragmentation function of a parton can beexpressed as a convolution of shower diquark or triquark distributionfunction and quark recombination probability, if the interference betweenamplitudes of quark recombination with different momenta is neglected.Therecombination probability is determined by the hadron's wavefunction inthe constituent quark model. The shower diquark or triquark distributionfunctions of a fragmenting jet are defined in terms of overlappingmatrices of constituent quarks and parton field operators. They aresimilar in form to dihadron or trihadron fragmentation functions in termsof parton operator and hadron states. Extending the formalism to thefield theory at finite temperature, we automatically derive contributionsto the effective single hadron fragmentation function from therecombination of shower and thermal constituent quarks. Suchcontributions involve single or diquark distribution functions which inturn can be related to diquark or triquark distribution functions via sumrules. We also derive QCD evolution equations for quark distributionfunctions that in turn determine the evolution of the effective jetfragmentation functions in a thermal medium.

  15. Recombinant fungal entomopathogen RNAi target insect gene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiongbo; Wu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology is considered as an alternative for control of pests. However, RNAi has not been used in field conditions yet, since delivering exogenous ds/siRNA to target pests is very difficult. The laboratory methods of introducing the ds/siRNA into insects through feeding, micro feeding / dripping and injecting cannot be used in fields. Transgenic crop is perhaps the most effective application of RNAi for pest control, but it needs long-time basic researches in order to reduce the cost and evaluate the safety. Therefore, transgenic microbe is maybe a better choice. Entomopathogenic fungi generally invade the host insects through cuticle like chemical insecticides contact insect to control sucking sap pests. Isaria fumosorosea is a common fungal entomopathogen in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. We constructed a recombinant strain of I. fumosorosea expressing specific dsRNA of whitefly's TLR7 gene. It could silence the TLR7 gene and improve the virulence against whitefly. Transgenic fungal entomopathogen has shown great potential to attain the application of RNAi technology for pests control in fields. In the future, the research interests should be focused on the selection of susceptible target pests and their vital genes, and optimizing the methods for screening genes and recombinants as well.

  16. Ethanol precipitation for purification of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tscheliessnig, Anne; Satzer, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Schulz, Henk; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-20

    Currently, the golden standard for the purification of recombinant humanized antibodies (rhAbs) from CHO cell culture is protein A chromatography. However, due to increasing rhAbs titers alternative methods have come into focus. A new strategy for purification of recombinant human antibodies from CHO cell culture supernatant based on cold ethanol precipitation (CEP) and CaCl2 precipitation has been developed. This method is based on the cold ethanol precipitation, the process used for purification of antibodies and other components from blood plasma. We proof the applicability of the developed process for four different antibodies resulting in similar yield and purity as a protein A chromatography based process. This process can be further improved using an anion-exchange chromatography in flowthrough mode e.g. a monolith as last step so that residual host cell protein is reduced to a minimum. Beside the ethanol based process, our data also suggest that ethanol could be replaced with methanol or isopropanol. The process is suited for continuous operation.

  17. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  18. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  19. Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zichao; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2007-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a sugar polymer of a repeating disaccharide, beta1-3 D-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) beta1-4 D-glucuronic acid (GlcA). It finds applications in numerous biomedical procedures such as ophthalmic surgery and osteoarthritis treatment. Until recently, the only commercial sources were extraction of rooster combs and from fermentation of pathogenic Streptococcus. In this work, we demonstrate that metabolic engineering strategies enable the recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan in a safe microorganism. Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 is a commercial production strain for a food polymer, Curdlan. A broad host range expression vector was successfully developed to express the 3 kb HA synthase gene from Pasteurella multocida, along with a kfiD gene encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K5 strain. Coexpression of these two heterologous enzymes enables Agrobacterium to produce HA. Hyaluronan was accumulated up to 0.3 g/L in shaker flask cultivation. The molecular weight of the polymer from various Agrobacterium strains is in the range of 0.7-2 MD. To our knowledge, this is the first successful recombinant hyaluronan synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium that naturally produces a food product. The ease of genetic modifications provides future opportunities to tailor properties of polymers for specific applications.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide induced conversion of recombinant prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Fozia; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Ladner, Carol L; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Ametaj, Burim N; Wishart, David S

    2014-01-01

    The conformational conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the β-rich infectious isoform PrPSc is considered a critical and central feature in prion pathology. Although PrPSc is the critical component of the infectious agent, as proposed in the “protein-only” prion hypothesis, cellular components have been identified as important cofactors in triggering and enhancing the conversion of PrPC to proteinase K resistant PrPSc. A number of in vitro systems using various chemical and/or physical agents such as guanidine hydrochloride, urea, SDS, high temperature, and low pH, have been developed that cause PrPC conversion, their amplification, and amyloid fibril formation often under non-physiological conditions. In our ongoing efforts to look for endogenous and exogenous chemical mediators that might initiate, influence, or result in the natural conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, we discovered that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacterial membranes interacts with recombinant prion proteins and induces conversion to an isoform richer in β sheet at near physiological conditions as long as the LPS concentration remains above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). More significant was the LPS mediated conversion that was observed even at sub-molar ratios of LPS to recombinant ShPrP (90–232). PMID:24819168