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Sample records for recombinant bhv-1 expressing

  1. A proteomic study of the differential protein expression in MDBK cells after bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection (BHV-1) strain treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Yang, Yanling; Liu, Linna; Liao, Peng; Wen, Yongjun; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    Different BHV-1 strains, such as the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strains and the attenuated vaccine strain IBRV LNM, produces different clinical immune responses; however, the study of the differential protein expression in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells after BHV-1-infection still remains unclear. Here, we applied a comparative proteomic strategy, based on 2D and MALDI-TOF/MS platforms, to examine the differential expression of proteins in MDBK cells that were treated and not treated with virulent IBRV LN01/08 and attenuated IBRV LNM strains. A total of eight differential proteins, including pyruvate kinase, heat shock protein (HSP) 90 (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1), annexin A, albumin (ALB), scinderin (SCIN), tubulin (alpha 1a) and vimentin (VIM), were identified. Among these proteins, pyruvate kinase, and HSP90 (HSP90AB1), tubulin and vimentin were identified in the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strain group, but were not identified in the attenuated IBRV LNM group. These results play an important role in tumor formation and development, cell migration, tumor cell line apoptosis, cell invasion and viral infection. The HSP90 (HSP90AA1) protein was identified in the control group and the attenuated IBRV LNM-infected group. Most studies have shown that HSP90 proteins were more of a cancer gene target, and inhibiting its function would result to oncogene degradation during cancer treatment. On the other hand, ALB is associated to cell differentiation, apoptosis, necrosis, cell death, viral infection, autophagy, interstitial tissue inflammation, and cell survival. These results provide a theoretical basis for the systematic understanding of BHV-1-infection mechanisms and BHV-1-induced immune responses. PMID:26064331

  2. A proteomic study of the differential protein expression in MDBK cells after bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection (BHV-1) strain treatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Yang, Yanling; Liu, Linna; Liao, Peng; Wen, Yongjun; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    Different BHV-1 strains, such as the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strains and the attenuated vaccine strain IBRV LNM, produces different clinical immune responses; however, the study of the differential protein expression in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells after BHV-1-infection still remains unclear. Here, we applied a comparative proteomic strategy, based on 2D and MALDI-TOF/MS platforms, to examine the differential expression of proteins in MDBK cells that were treated and not treated with virulent IBRV LN01/08 and attenuated IBRV LNM strains. A total of eight differential proteins, including pyruvate kinase, heat shock protein (HSP) 90 (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1), annexin A, albumin (ALB), scinderin (SCIN), tubulin (alpha 1a) and vimentin (VIM), were identified. Among these proteins, pyruvate kinase, and HSP90 (HSP90AB1), tubulin and vimentin were identified in the virulent IBRV LN01/08 strain group, but were not identified in the attenuated IBRV LNM group. These results play an important role in tumor formation and development, cell migration, tumor cell line apoptosis, cell invasion and viral infection. The HSP90 (HSP90AA1) protein was identified in the control group and the attenuated IBRV LNM-infected group. Most studies have shown that HSP90 proteins were more of a cancer gene target, and inhibiting its function would result to oncogene degradation during cancer treatment. On the other hand, ALB is associated to cell differentiation, apoptosis, necrosis, cell death, viral infection, autophagy, interstitial tissue inflammation, and cell survival. These results provide a theoretical basis for the systematic understanding of BHV-1-infection mechanisms and BHV-1-induced immune responses.

  3. Induction of humoral responses to BHV-1 glycoprotein D expressed by HSV-1 amplicon vectors

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Andrea Maria; Berois, Mabel Beatriz; Tomé, Lorena Magalí; Epstein, Alberto L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors are versatile and useful tools for transferring genes into cells that are capable of stimulating a specific immune response to their expressed antigens. In this work, two HSV-1-derived amplicon vectors were generated. One of these expressed the full-length glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus 1 while the second expressed the truncated form of gD (gDtr) which lacked the trans-membrane region. After evaluating gD expression in the infected cells, the ability of both vectors to induce a specific gD immune response was tested in BALB/c mice that were intramuscularly immunized. Specific serum antibody responses were detected in mice inoculated with both vectors, and the response against truncated gD was higher than the response against full-length gD. These results reinforce previous findings that HSV-1 amplicon vectors can potentially deliver antigens to animals and highlight the prospective use of these vectors for treating infectious bovine rhinotracheitis disease. PMID:22437537

  4. Evaluation of BHV-1 antibody titer in a cattle herd against different BHV-1 strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Megan; Reed, Aimee; Estill, Charles; Izume, Satoko; Dong, Jing; Jin, Ling

    2015-09-30

    Although modified-live multivalent vaccines, such as PregGuard GOLD and Bovi-Shield Gold, have been used routinely in both beef and dairy cattle in the US, abortion and respiratory diseases still occasionally occur following vaccination. To determine whether the antibody induced by the multivalent vaccine can recognize BHV-1 isolates from aborted animals, BHV-1 antibody titer was evaluated with two isolates from abortion cases and two vaccine BHV-1 viruses. Cattle serum was collected from a dairy herd that was vaccinated annually with Bovi-Shield Gold 5 vaccine. Among the 28 cattle tested, no statistical significant difference in serum neutralization titer was observed when test virus was either vaccine virus or clinical isolates. It suggests that the BHV-1 antibody from the vaccinated cattle can recognize both the vaccine virus and clinical isolates. However, it is noticed that cows at 5 years old or older had a significantly lower BHV-1 antibody titer on average than the average of SN titer in 3 year-old cows. Similarly, cows at 5 years or older had a significantly lower BVDV antibody titer than cows at about 2 years of age. In addition, cattle vaccinated within 0-2 months had a significantly higher BHV-1 titer than those that received vaccination 6 months or greater prior to titer measurement. In contrast, cattle that received a vaccination 6 months prior had a significantly higher anti-BVDV antibody titer than those vaccinated within 1-2 months. The BVDV antibody titers remained relatively unchanged between 6 months and 1 year post-vaccination. Our study suggests little antigenic variation exists between BHV-1 disease isolates and BHV-1 of the multivalent vaccines. In addition, BHV-1 antibody titer is relatively lower at 6 months post vaccination in those tested animals. However, the BVDV antibody titer remained relatively high after 6 months from time of vaccination.

  5. Characterization of thymus atrophy in calves with subclinical BVD challenged with BHV-1.

    PubMed

    Romero-Palomo, F; Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Lauzi, S; Bautista, M J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-05-15

    Since the thymus is a target organ for the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), our experiment aimed to understand its relationship with the immunosuppressive effect by studying the consequences of a previous infection with BVDV on the thymus of calves challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1.1 (BHV-1). For this purpose, 12 animals were inoculated intranasally with non-cytopathic BVDV-1; 12 days later, 10 of them were coinfected intranasally with BHV-1. These animals were euthanized in batches of two at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7 or 14 dpi with BHV-1. Another 10 calves were inoculated solely with BHV-1 and euthanized in batches of two at 1, 2, 4, 7 or 14 dpi with BHV-1; two uninoculated calves were used as negative controls. Thymus samples from these animals were processed for viral detection and histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies focused on BVDV/BHV-1 antigens, cortex:medulla ratio, apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3), collagen deposition, and factor VIII endothelial detection. Our study revealed the immunohistochemical presence of BVDV antigen in all animals in the BVDV-infected group, unlike BHV-1 detection, which was observed in animals in both infection groups only by molecular techniques. BVDV-preinfected animals showed severe atrophic changes associated with reduced cortex:medulla ratio, higher presence of cortical apoptosis, and increased collagen deposition and vascularization. However, calves solely infected with BHV-1 did not show atrophic changes. These findings could affect not only the numbers of circulating and local mature T cells but also the T cell-mediated immunity, which seems to be impaired during infections with this virus, thus favoring pathogenic effects during secondary infections.

  6. BVDV and BHV-1 Infections in Dairy Herds in Northern and Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, J; Ståhl, K; Moreno-López, J; Chanlun, A; Aiumlamai, S; Alenius, S

    2004-01-01

    Bulk milk samples from 220 dairy herds were collected at 9 public milk collection centres in the northeastern and northern Thailand, and a subset of 11 herds was selected for individual testing. The samples were tested for presence of antibodies to BVDV and BHV-1 using an indirect ELISA. The results from the bulk milk testing demonstrated a moderate level of exposure to BVDV and BHV-1 (73% and 67%, respectively). However, the low proportion of herds with high BVDV antibody-levels (13%) and the low within-herd seroprevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 in the 11 herds (24% and 5%, respectively), particularly among the young stock (15% and 0%, respectively), demonstrated a low prevalence of active BVDV infection and a low rate of reactivation of latent BHV-1. The presence of a self-clearance process was also indicated by the results from the individual testing. Moreover, a surprisingly low prevalence of BVDV and BHV-1 antibody-positive herds at one of the milk centres was found. This centre was established 5–10 years before the others. Our impression is that this reflects the self-clearance process, where consecutive replacement of imported infected animals without further spread has resulted in a nearly total elimination of the infections. Based on our experiences and on these results we are convinced that this process can continue if there is awareness of herd biosecurity. This is especially important in the context of a future intensification of the dairy production. PMID:15663078

  7. Concurrent testing of breeding bulls for bovineherpes virus 1 infection (BHV-1) in India.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Chintu; Nandi, Sukdeb; Chander, Vishal; Mohapatra, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, sera from 65 breeding and 19 training bulls from Uttar Pradesh State in north India were tested for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The VNT test could detect 56 (86.15%) and 9 (47.37%) of the samples from breeding and training bulls as positive for BHV-1 antibodies whereas in ELISA 63 (96.92%) and 10 (52.63%) were found positive, respectively. Semen samples from the breeding bulls were simultaneously tested by the Taqman based real time PCR (qPCR). Of the 65 samples screened, only 40 (61.54%) were found to contain BHV-1 DNA indicating that all the seropositive bulls are not shedding the virus in semen. When the RT-PCR positive samples were subjected to virus isolation on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, no virus isolates could be obtained. The advantages of concomitant testing of serum and semen of breeding bulls and measures for control of BHV-1 infections in bull farms are discussed.

  8. Simulated hazards of loosing infection-free status in a Dutch BHV1 model.

    PubMed

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A; Labrovic, A; Frankena, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Nielen, M

    2004-01-30

    A compulsory eradication programme for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) was implemented in the Netherlands in 1998. At the start of the programme, about 25% of the dairy herds were certified BHV1-free. Simulation models have played an important role in the decision-making process associated with BHV1 eradication. Our objective in this study was to improve understanding of model behaviour (as part of internal validation) regarding loss by herds of the BHV1-free certificate. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, the association between farm characteristics and the risk of certificate loss during simulation was quantified. The overall fraction of herds experiencing certificate loss amongst initially certified during simulation was 3.0% in 6.5 years. Factors that increased risk for earlier certificate loss in the final multivariable Cox model were higher 'yearly number of cattle purchased', 'farm density within a 1 km radius' and 'cattle density within a 1 km radius'. Qualitative behaviour of risk factors we found agreed with observations in field studies. PMID:15154684

  9. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) up-regulates telomerase activity in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Diodato, A; Longo, M; Pacelli, F; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G

    2006-03-31

    The proliferative capacity of mammalian cells is regulated by telomerase, an enzyme uniquely specialised for telomeric DNA synthesis. The critical role of telomerase activation in tumor progression and maintenance has been well established in studies of cancer and of oncogenic transformation in cell culture. Experimental data suggest that telomerase activation has an important role in normal somatic cells, and that failure to activate sufficient telomerase also promotes disease. Evidence regarding the role of telomerase in the pathogenesis of several viruses including human immunodeficiency virus has led to an increased interest in the role of telomerase activity in other virus infections. In this research we evaluated the telomerase modulating activity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in MDBK cells. MDBK cells were infected at different multiplicity of infection with BHV-1 Cooper strain and telomerase activity at different times post-infection was measured by the TRAP assay. Our data indicate that BHV-1 significantly up-regulates telomerase activity at 3 and 6h post-infection decreasing after the 24h post-infection. Our data, showed that the effect was mediated by an immediate-early or early viral gene, and use of the protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide confirmed that an immediate early gene is primarily responsible.

  10. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of BVDV, BHV-1, BHV-4, BHV-5 and Brucella spp. infections in cattle in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Muhammet Eren; Azkur, Ahmet Kursat; Gazyagci, Serkal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiological data of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4), bovine herpesvirus-5 (BHV-5) and Brucella-associated cattle that were previously reported to have abortion and infertility problems in Ankara, Corum, Kirikkale and Yozgat provinces, Turkey. Whole blood and sera samples were obtained from 656 cattle, and antibodies against Brucella spp. were detected in 45 (6.86%) and 41 (6.25%) animals by Rose Bengal plate and serum tube agglutination tests, respectively. The seropositivity rates against BVDV, BHV-1 and BHV-4 were 70.89%, 41.3% and 28.78%, respectively. RT-PCR and PCR were performed to detect RNA and DNA viruses in blood samples, respectively. The BVDV 5'-untranslated region and BHV-1 gB gene detected in this study were phylogenetically analyzed. The BVDV strains analyzed in this study were closely related to those previously reported from Turkey. The nucleotide sequence from the BHV-1 strain detected in this study is the first nucleotide sequence of BHV-1 circulating in this area of Turkey deposited in the GenBank. The presence of Brucella spp. and prevalence of BHV-1, BHV-4 and BVDV in cattle should be further investigated throughout these regions.

  11. Distribution of BHV1 in fractions of semen from a naturally infected bull.

    PubMed

    Guérin, C; Harlay, T; Guérin, B; Thibier, M

    1993-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of BHV1 (Bovine Herpesvirus 1) in the semen from a naturally infected bull and more particularly, to determine if there were viral particles associated with sperm that could interfere with in-vivo or in-vitro fertilization. Frozen semen from a single ejaculate that had been previously identified as being contaminated with BHV1 was used. The contents of 12 ministraws were mixed. Two aliquotes served as controls, the first was held at 0 degrees C in ice water while the second was held at 4 degrees C in the centrifuge during the procedure. The remaining semen was separated into seminal plasma and sperm cell fractions by centrifugation. The seminal plasma was kept at 0 degrees C until viral titration. The pellet was treated by 10 consecutive washes in PBS and by a trypsin treatment after the fifth wash. Subsequently, the last pellet was macerated to break the cell membranes. Aliquotes for viral titration were taken from all washing fluids, from pellets after the fourth, sixth and tenth washes, and from the last crushed pellet. These aliquotes were kept in ice water until titration. The virus was titrated on secondary cell cultures of fetal calf kidney. The titers were 4.3, 4.2 and 4.4 log TCID50/ml, respectively, in the 2 controls and the seminal plasma. Titers declined from 3.8 log to 0 from the first to the tenth wash. The titer was 2.2 log in the resuspended pellet of sperm cell fraction prior to trypsin treatment. No virus was detected in the sixth pellet, the tenth one or from the crushed cells. It was concluded that a significant proportion of the BHV1 particles was associated with the sperm cells. Ten washes and a trypsin treatment could remove the adsorbed virus. No viral particles were detected within the sperm cells.

  12. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of functional bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gIV in transfected bovine cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tikoo, S K; Fitzpatrick, D R; Babiuk, L A; Zamb, T J

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gIV was mapped, cloned, and sequenced. The gene is situated between map units 0.892 and 0.902 and encodes a predicted protein of 417 amino acids with a signal sequence cleavage site between amino acids 18 and 19. Comparison of the BHV-1 amino acid sequence with the homologous glycoproteins of other alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gD, revealed significant homology in the amino-terminal half of the molecules, including six invariant cysteine residues. The identity of the open reading frame was verified by expression of the authentic recombinant BHV-1 gIV in bovine cells by using eucaryotic expression vectors pRSDneo (strong, constitutive promoter) and pMSG (weak, dexamethasone-inducible promoter). Constitutive expression of gIV proved toxic to cells, since stable cell lines could only be established when the gIV gene was placed under the control of an inducible promoter. Expression of gIV was cell associated and localized predominantly in the perinuclear region, although nuclear and plasma membrane staining was also observed. Radioimmunoprecipitation revealed that the recombinant glycoprotein was efficiently processed and had a molecular weight similar to that of the native form of gIV expressed in BHV-1-infected bovine cells. Recombinant gIV produced in the transfected bovine cells induced cell fusion, polykaryon formation, and nuclear fusion. In addition, expression of gIV interfered with BHV-1 replication in the transfected bovine cells. Images PMID:2168991

  13. Enhanced efficacy with azacytidine and oncolytic BHV-1 in a tolerized cotton rat model of breast adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cuddington, Breanne P; Verschoor, Meghan; Ashkar, Ali; Mossman, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses selectively replicate in cancer cells by exploiting biochemical differences between normal and tumor cells. Treatment with epigenetic modifiers such as 5-Azacytidine, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, increases the replication and cytotoxicity of oncolytic viruses in vivo and in vitro. The cotton rat is an attractive animal to study oncolytic viruses, as syngeneic models of breast adenocarcinoma and osteosarcoma are well established, and many features of primary and secondary tumor growth recapitulate human disease. Treatment of LCRT breast cancer cells with 5-Azacytidine increases bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro, with Chou-Talalay analysis indicating a very strong synergy. In vivo, BHV-1 monotherapy delayed tumor growth but did not improve survival of cotton rats with subcutaneous breast adenocarcinomas. However, combination therapy significantly decreased the incidence of secondary lesions, with enhanced tumor cell clearance and evidence of immune cell infiltration compared to BHV-1 monotherapy. Together, these results warrant further investigation of BHV-1 combination therapy with epigenetic modifiers for the treatment of breast cancer, particularly in the context of the prevention and treatment of secondary lesions. PMID:27119103

  14. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  15. Expression of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gI and gIII in transfected murine cells.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, D R; Zamb, T; Parker, M D; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S; Babiuk, L A; Lawman, M J

    1988-11-01

    Genes encoding two of the major glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), gI and gIII, were cloned into the eucaryotic expression vectors pRSVcat and pSV2neo and transfected into murine LMTK- cells, and cloned cell lines were established. The relative amounts of gI or gIII expressed from the two vectors were similar. Expression of gI was cell associated and localized predominantly in the perinuclear region, but nuclear and plasma membrane staining was also observed. Expression of gI was additionally associated with cell fusion and the formation of polykaryons and giant cells. Expression of gIII was localized predominantly in the nuclear and plasma membranes. Radioimmunoprecipitation in the presence or absence of tunicamycin revealed that the recombinant glycoproteins were proteolytically processed and glycosylated and had molecular weights similar to those of the forms of gI and gIII expressed in BHV-1-infected bovine cells. However, both recombinant glycoproteins were glycosylated to a lesser extent than were the forms found in BHV-1-infected bovine cells. For gI, a deficiency in N-linked glycosylation of the amino-terminal half of the protein was identified; for gIII, a deficiency in O-linked glycosylation was implicated. The reactivity pattern of a panel of gI- and gIII-specific monoclonal antibodies, including six which recognize conformation-dependent epitopes, was found to be unaffected by the glycosylation differences and was identical for transfected or BHV-1-infected murine cells. Use of the transfected cells as targets in immune-mediated cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the functional recognition of recombinant gI and gIII by murine antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunization of mice with the transfected cells elicited BHV-1-specific virus-neutralizing antibody, thus verifying the antigenic authenticity of the recombinant glycoproteins and the important role of gI and gIII as targets of the immune response to BHV-1 in this murine model system.

  16. Adjuvant effects of sulfolipo-cyclodextrin in a squalane-in-water and water-in-mineral oil emulsions for BHV-1 vaccines in cattle.

    PubMed

    Romera, S A; Hilgers, L A; Puntel, M; Zamorano, P I; Alcon, V L; Dus Santos, M J; Blanco Viera, J; Borca, M V; Sadir, A M

    2000-08-15

    The antibody and cell mediated immune responses induced by BHV-1 were analysed in cattle after vaccination and challenge exposure to the virulent strain LA of BHV-1. Animals were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) with inactivated virus vaccines against BHV-1 containing either a water in mineral oil adjuvant (W/O), a water in mineral oil adjuvant plus Avridine (W/O+Avridine) or sulfolipo-cyclodextrin in squalane in-water emulsion (SL-CD/S/W). No significant differences were registered in the antibody response induced by the three evaluated vaccines. However, the BHV-1 specific cell-mediated immunite response was stronger and appeared earlier when SL-CD/S/W was included in the formulation. The efficacy of the vaccines was also evaluated after intranasal challenge of the calves with a virulent BHV-1 LA strain. Animals vaccinated with SL-CD/S/W had reduced virus excretion and clinical symptoms compared with the mock-vaccinated animals. Comparison of levels of BHV-1 specific IgG2 and IgG1 with virus shedding revealed that, regardless of the adjuvant administered, animals showing BHV-1 specific IgG2/IgG1 ratios higher than 1 were those with a significant lower number of individuals shedding virus. Additionally, animals vaccinated with SL-CD/S/W presented no post-vaccinal reactions. These factors, combined with the higher efficacy and the ease of manipulation of the biodegradable oil, makes the vaccine formulated with this new adjuvant an important contribution for the veterinary vaccines industry.

  17. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections in dairy herds: self clearance and the detection of seroconversions against a new atypical pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Kampa, Jaruwan; Alenius, Stefan; Emanuelson, Ulf; Chanlun, Aran; Aiumlamai, Suneerat

    2009-11-01

    The epidemiology of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was studied in a population of small dairy herds that had not been vaccinated. Bulk tank milk samples of 186 herds in Thailand were collected four times between 2002 and 2004. Serum samples from individual animals in 11 herds were also taken on three occasions. The prevalence of BHV-1 in the 186 herds was 61% in 2002, decreasing to 48% in 2004 and for BVDV was 91% in 2002, decreasing to 72% in 2004. A BVDV antigen-positive calf was found in one of the 11 herds, and animals in this herd and three other herds seroconverted to a recently described atypical BVDV strain (HoBi). This study showed a significantly decreasing prevalence for both BHV-1 and BVDV due to a self-clearance process. Further studies are needed to find out how the atypical BVDV strain entered the cattle population.

  18. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) replication in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, F; Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Ciarcia, R; Florio, S; Pacilio, M; Fucito, A; Rossi, A; Iovane, G; Giordano, A

    2008-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental toxin of current interest. In the last years, higher levels of TCDD than those permitted in UE [European Commission. 2002. European Commission Recommendation 2002/201/CE. Official Gazette, L 67/69] were detected in milk samples from cow, water buffalo, goat, and sheep raised on some areas of Campania Region (South Italy). Dioxin often causes immunosuppression and might render the animal liable to viral infections. In addition, viral infections are able to alter the pattern of dioxin distribution in different organs of the exposed animals. Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is a widespread pathogen, which causes infectious rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle. Herein, we have studied the effects of TCDD and BHV-1 infection, in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, alone as well as in association, so as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and virus replication. We have observed an increase in cell viability of confluent monolayers at low TCDD concentrations. TCDD treated cells demonstrated increased viability compared to controls as evaluated by MTT test. TCDD exposure increased cell proliferation but induced no changes on apoptosis. Cells exposed to TCDD along with BHV-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy, represented by ample syncytia formation with the elimination of the cellular sheets and increased viral titer. These results suggest that TCDD increases viral replication in MDBK cells while BHV-1 further decreases viability of TCDD exposed cells. Since very low concentrations (0.01 pg/ml) are sufficient to augment BHV-1 titer, TCDD may contribute to reactivate BHV-1 from latency, leading to recurrent disease and increase virus transmission. PMID:17516555

  19. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) replication in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, F; Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Ciarcia, R; Florio, S; Pacilio, M; Fucito, A; Rossi, A; Iovane, G; Giordano, A

    2008-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental toxin of current interest. In the last years, higher levels of TCDD than those permitted in UE [European Commission. 2002. European Commission Recommendation 2002/201/CE. Official Gazette, L 67/69] were detected in milk samples from cow, water buffalo, goat, and sheep raised on some areas of Campania Region (South Italy). Dioxin often causes immunosuppression and might render the animal liable to viral infections. In addition, viral infections are able to alter the pattern of dioxin distribution in different organs of the exposed animals. Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is a widespread pathogen, which causes infectious rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle. Herein, we have studied the effects of TCDD and BHV-1 infection, in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, alone as well as in association, so as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and virus replication. We have observed an increase in cell viability of confluent monolayers at low TCDD concentrations. TCDD treated cells demonstrated increased viability compared to controls as evaluated by MTT test. TCDD exposure increased cell proliferation but induced no changes on apoptosis. Cells exposed to TCDD along with BHV-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy, represented by ample syncytia formation with the elimination of the cellular sheets and increased viral titer. These results suggest that TCDD increases viral replication in MDBK cells while BHV-1 further decreases viability of TCDD exposed cells. Since very low concentrations (0.01 pg/ml) are sufficient to augment BHV-1 titer, TCDD may contribute to reactivate BHV-1 from latency, leading to recurrent disease and increase virus transmission.

  20. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals. PMID:21141278

  1. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals.

  2. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  3. Protein and DNA elements involved in transactivation of the promoter of the bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1 IE-1 transcription unit by the BHV alpha gene trans-inducing factor.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, V; Bratanich, A C; Carpenter, D; O'Hare, P

    1994-01-01

    In herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, the transcription of immediate-early (alpha) genes is regulated by a virion component, the alpha gene trans-inducing factor (alpha TIF). This protein forms a complex with cellular factors and TAATGARAT motifs present in one or more copies in the promoters of all alpha genes. We have characterized the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) homolog of this protein. Like its HSV counterpart, the BHV alpha TIF was synthesized in the later stages of infection and could be demonstrated to be a component of purified virions. In transient expression assays, BHV alpha TIF was a strong transactivator and stimulated the activity of IE-1, the major BHV-1 alpha gene promoter, with an efficiency comparable to that of HSV alpha TIF. This stimulation was largely dependent on a TAATGAGCT sequence present in a single copy in IE-1, and BHV alpha TIF, in conjunction with cellular factors, formed a complex with oligonucleotides containing this sequence. Despite these similarities between the two alpha TIFs, our preliminary observations suggest that the proteins may activate transcription by different mechanisms. Although BHV alpha TIF strongly transactivated IE-1, it differed from its HSV counterpart in that the carboxyl terminus of BHV alpha TIF, when fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4, was a relatively poor stimulator of a promoter containing GAL4-binding sites. Also unlike HSV alpha TIF, removal of the carboxyl terminus of BHV alpha TIF reduced but did not eliminate the ability of the protein to transactivate IE-1. These results are discussed in view of the structural similarities and differences among the alpha TIFs of alphaherpes-viruses. Images PMID:8035488

  4. Identification of a mutant bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in post-arrival outbreaks of IBR in feedlot calves and protection with conventional vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, S; Myers, D; Doig, P A; Karvonen, B; Habermehl, M; Babiuk, L A; Jelinski, M; Van Donkersgoed, J; Schlesinger, K; Rinehart, C

    2001-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) have recently been observed in vaccinated feedlot calves in Alberta a few months post-arrival. To investigate the cause of these outbreaks, lung and tracheal tissues were collected from calves that died of IBR during a post-arrival outbreak of disease. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), the causative agent of IBR, was isolated from 6 out of 15 tissues. Of these 6 isolates, 5 failed to react with a monoclonal antibody specific for one of the epitopes on glycoprotein D, one of the most important antigens of BHV-1. The ability of one of these mutant BHV-1 isolates to cause disease in calves vaccinated with a modified-live IBR vaccine was assessed in an experimental challenge study. After one vaccination, the majority of the calves developed humoral and cellular immune responses. Secondary vaccination resulted in a substantially enhanced level of immunity in all animals. Three months after the second vaccination, calves were either challenged with one of the mutant isolates or with a conventional challenge strain of BHV-1. Regardless of the type of virus used for challenge, vaccinated calves experienced significantly (P < 0.05) less weight loss and temperature rises, had lower nasal scores, and shed less virus than non-vaccinated animals. The only statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference between the 2 challenge viruses was the amount of virus shed, which was higher in non-vaccinated calves challenged with the mutant virus than in those challenged with the conventional virus. These data show that calves vaccinated with a modified-live IBR vaccine are protected from challenge with either the mutant or the conventional virus. Images Figure 1. PMID:11346260

  5. Recombinant expression systems for allergen vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2006-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy of future is likely to be based on allergy vaccines that contain engineered allergens modified to abolish or substantially reduce their IgE-binding activity in order to remove the risk of unwanted anaphylactic responses. The development of efficient systems for the production of recombinant allergens in sufficient quantities is requirement for establishing use of engineered allergens as components of allergy vaccines. This review outlines relative advantages and disadvantages of various heterologous systems for production of recombinant allergens. Microbial systems are most convenient and cost effective platforms for the production of recombinant allergens. However, lack of post-translational processing implies that some allergens have to be expressed in eukaryotic systems for proper folding and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Yeast systems can yield high levels of recombinant allergens but often are associated with hyper- glycosylation problems. Mammalian cell culture systems offer suitable post -translational modifications but are nearly hundred fold more expensive than microbial systems. The use of plants as bio-factories for production of recombinant allergens is emerging as a very attractive option as plants-based production system offer several advantages over other expression systems such as post translational processing of proteins, low production costs, scale up ability and enhanced safety due to absence of animal or human pathogens.

  6. Antiviral effect of HPMPC (Cidofovir®), entrapped in cationic liposomes: in vitro study on MDBK cell and BHV-1 virus.

    PubMed

    Korvasová, Zina; Drašar, Lukáš; Mašek, Josef; Turánek Knotigová, Pavlína; Kulich, Pavel; Matiašovic, Ján; Kovařčík, Kamil; Bartheldyová, Eliška; Koudelka, Štěpán; Škrabalová, Michaela; Miller, Andrew D; Holý, Antonín; Ledvina, Miroslav; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2012-06-10

    We designed and synthesised a series of new cationic lipids based on spermine linked to various hydrophobic anchors. These lipids could be potentially useful for the preparation of stable cationic liposomes intended for the construction of drug targeting systems applicable in the field of anticancer/antiviral therapy, vaccine carriers, and vectors for the gene therapy. Low in vitro toxicity was found for these compounds, especially for LD1, in several cell lines. The delivery of both a fluorescence marker (calcein) and antiviral drugs into cells has been achieved owing to a large extent of internalization of cationic liposomes (labelled by Lyssamine-Rhodamine PE or fluorescein-PE) as demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry. The bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) virus infection in vitro model using MDBK cells was employed to study the effect of the established antiviral drug HPMPC (Cidofovir®) developed by Prof. A. Holý. Inhibition of BHV-1 virus replication was studied by quantitative RT-PCR and confirmed by both Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We found that in vitro antiviral activity of HPMPC was significantly improved by formulation in cationic liposomes, which decreased the viral replication by about 2 orders of magnitude.

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  8. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E.; Moriyama, Hideaki; Storz, Jay F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the α- and β-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression of wildtype and mutant Hbs of other species. Methodology/Principal Findings As a test case for our expression system, we produced recombinant Hbs of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a species that has been the subject of research on mechanisms of Hb adaptation to hypoxia. By experimentally assessing the combined effects of induction temperature, induction time and E. coli expression strain on the solubility of recombinant deer mouse Hbs, we identified combinations of expression conditions that greatly enhanced the yield of recombinant protein and which also increased the efficiency of post-translational modifications. Conclusion/Significance Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need for additional reconstitution or heme-incorporation steps. Moreover, our plasmid construct contains a combination of unique restriction sites that allows us to produce recombinant Hbs with different α- and β-chain subunit combinations by means of cassette mutagenesis. PMID:21625463

  9. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  10. Recombinant expression and epitope mapping of grass pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Smith, P M; Ong, E K; Knox, R B; Singh, M B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the expression of recombinant forms of Group 1 allergens from rye-grass and Bermuda grass pollens. Recombinant Lol p 1 expressed in bacteria bound serum IgE from allergic patients. Based on analysis of fragments of the Lol p 1 cDNA clone, the major IgE-reactive epitope has been mapped to the C-terminus. However, although SDS-denatured natural Cyn d 1 (from Bermuda grass) bound IgE, the full or partial recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria did not bind IgE. We have since expressed Cyn d 1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris and restored IgE binding. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of Lol p 5, Lol p 5A and Lol p 5B, have been expressed in bacteria and resulting polypeptides show IgE-binding. Random fragments of these clones have been generated and when expressed as partial recombinant proteins in bacteria, allowed us to identify the major IgE-binding epitopes. The allergenic epitopes were localised towards the C-terminal half of the molecule. Although both isoforms shared similar IgE-reactive epitopes, Lol p 5B did not recognise the Lol p 5A-specific monoclonal antibody A7. At sequence level, there appear to be several amino acid differences between the antigenic epitopes of these two isoallergens. These results aid in the design of diagnostics and in grass pollen immunotherapy.

  11. Optimizing transient recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ralph F; Wall, Vanessa E; Esposito, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cells has become a routine process for expressing recombinant proteins in cell lines such as human embryonic kidney 293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rapidly increasing need for recombinant proteins requires further improvements in TGE technology. While a great deal of focus has been directed toward optimizing the secretion of antibodies and other naturally secreted targets, much less work has been done on ways to improve cytoplasmic expression in mammalian cells. The benefits to protein production in mammalian cells, particularly for eukaryotic proteins, should be very significant - glycosylation and other posttranslational modifications will likely be native or near-native, solubility and protein folding would likely improve overexpression in heterologous hosts, and expression of proteins in their proper intracellular compartments is much more likely to occur. Improvements in this area have been slow, however, due to limited development of the cell culture processes needed for low-cost, higher-throughput expression in mammalian cells, and the relatively low diversity of DNA vectors for protein production in these systems. Here, we describe how the use of recombinational cloning, coupled with improvements in transfection protocols which increase speed and lower cost, can be combined to make mammalian cells much more amenable for routine recombinant protein expression. PMID:21987258

  12. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal po...

  13. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  14. Recombinant production of mecasermin in E. coli expression system

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, S.; Babaeipour, V.; Seyedi, H.A. Eslampanah; Rahaie, M.; Mofid, M.R.; Haddad, L.; Namvaran, M.M.; Fallah, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human Insulin-like growth factor 1 (hIGF-1) consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intermolecular disulfide bridges possessing valuable therapeutic effects. To date, numerous variants of specifically engineered hIGF-1 have been produced so as to improve hIGF-1 biological activity, stability and stronger binding to IGF-1 receptor. Mecasermin is one of the modified variants with one amino acid substitution near the N-terminal (T4I) approved for the treatment of growth failure diabetes, wound healing, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and severe primary IGF-1 deficiency. No scientific report for recombinant production of mecasermin in Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system has been sofar reported. In the present study, we therefore investigated the overexpression of mecasermin in two different E. coli strains in order to obtain higher yield of recombinant protein. To achieve this goal, mecasermin DNA encoding sequence was designed based on polypeptide sequence, optimized according to E. coli codon preference, and cloned in pET15b. Recombinant vector, pET15-mecasermin, transferred into two E. coli strains rigami B (DE3) and BL21 (DE3) and induced for expression in a small scale. Results revealed the E. coli Origami B (DE3) expression system was a preferable host for mecasermin production due to its high expression level being around twice as much as BL21 (DE3). Large scale mecasermin production was performed in batch culture and produced recombinant protein specifically confirmed by western blotting and mass spectroscopy. Since major part of recombinant mecasermin was expressed as inclusion body, isolation and refolding was accomplished through developed purification procedure, and finally recombinant protein was successfully purified by gel filtration chromatography. PMID:26339260

  15. [Comparison of expression and antibacterial activities of recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in four Lactobacillus species].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Wu, Xiao; He, Jia; Qiao, Xinyuan; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2014-09-01

    The coding sequence for the mature peptide of porcine lactoferrin (Plf) was synthesized according to the codon usage of lactobacillus, to establish optimized porcine lactoferrin Lactobacillus expression system. The gene was ligated into the Xho I/BamH I site of Lactobacillus expression vector pPG612.1 and the recombinant plasmid pPG612.1-plf was transformed individually into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS1.0413, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 or Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS1.0652 by electroporation. After induction with xylose, expression of the recombinant proteins was detected by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of recombinant Plf proteins from four recombinant species was determined quantitatively by ELISA. The antibacterial activities of recombinant proteins were measured by agar diffusion method. The result shows that Plf was correctly expressed in four species of recombinant lactobacillus, with molecular weight of about 73 kDa. The expression levels in recombinant Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei were 9.6 μg/mL, 10.8 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial activity experiment shows that the recombinant proteins were active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria, Pasteurella. The recombinant Plf expressed by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum showed the best antibacterial activity among all recombinant lactobacillus species. These data represent a basis for the development and application of porcine lactoferrin from recombinant lactobacillus.

  16. Antigenic structures stably expressed by recombinant TGEV-derived vectors.

    PubMed

    Becares, Martina; Sanchez, Carlos M; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses with potential as immunization vectors, expressing high levels of heterologous genes and eliciting both secretory and systemic immune responses. Nevertheless, its high recombination rate may result in the loss of the full-length foreign gene, limiting their use as vectors. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was engineered to express porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) small protein domains, as a strategy to improve heterologous gene stability. After serial passage in tissue cultures, stable expression of small PRRSV protein antigenic domains was achieved. Therefore, size reduction of the heterologous genes inserted in CoV-derived vectors led to the stable expression of antigenic domains. Immunization of piglets with these TGEV vectors led to partial protection against a challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain, as immunized animals showed reduced clinical signs and lung damage. Further improvement of TGEV-derived vectors will require the engineering of vectors with decreased recombination rate.

  17. Transient Expression of Tetrameric Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Alkanaimsh, Salem; Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Guerrero, Andrés; Tu, Aye M; Hashimoto, Bryce; Hwang, Min Sook; Phu, My L; Arzola, Lucas; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Falk, Bryce W; Nandi, Somen; Rodriguez, Raymond L; McDonald, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the expression, extraction and purification of plant-derived tetrameric recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE), we describe the development and use of plant viral amplicon-based gene expression system; Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) RNA-based overexpression vector (TRBO) to express enzymatically active FLAG-tagged plant made recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rBChE) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using transient agroinfiltration. Two gene expression cassettes were designed to express the recombinant protein in either the ER or to the apoplastic compartment. Leaf homogenization was used to isolate ER-retained recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE-ER) while apoplast-targeted rBChE was isolated by either leaf homogenization (prBChE) or vacuum-extraction of apoplastic wash fluid (prBChE-AWF). rBChE from apoplast wash fluid had a higher specific activity but lower enzyme yield than leaf homogenate. To optimize the isolation and purification of total recombinant protein from leaf homogenates, an acidic extraction buffer was used. The acidic extraction buffer yielded >95% enzymatically active tetrameric rBChE as verified by Coomassie stained and native gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, when compared to human butyrylcholinesterase, the prBChE was found to be similar in terms of tetramerization and enzyme kinetics. The N-linked glycan profile of purified prBChE-ER was found to be mostly high mannose structures while the N-linked glycans on prBChE-AWF were primarily complex. The glycan profile of the prBChE leaf homogenates showed a mixture of high mannose, complex and paucimannose type N-glycans. These findings demonstrate the ability of plants to produce rBChE that is enzymatically active and whose oligomeric state is comparable to mammalian butyrylcholinesterase. The process of plant made rBChE tetramerization and strategies for improving its pharmacokinetics properties are also discussed. PMID:27379103

  18. Transient Expression of Tetrameric Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Alkanaimsh, Salem; Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Guerrero, Andrés; Tu, Aye M.; Hashimoto, Bryce; Hwang, Min Sook; Phu, My L.; Arzola, Lucas; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Falk, Bryce W.; Nandi, Somen; Rodriguez, Raymond L.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize the expression, extraction and purification of plant-derived tetrameric recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE), we describe the development and use of plant viral amplicon-based gene expression system; Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) RNA-based overexpression vector (TRBO) to express enzymatically active FLAG-tagged plant made recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (rBChE) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using transient agroinfiltration. Two gene expression cassettes were designed to express the recombinant protein in either the ER or to the apoplastic compartment. Leaf homogenization was used to isolate ER-retained recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (prBChE-ER) while apoplast-targeted rBChE was isolated by either leaf homogenization (prBChE) or vacuum-extraction of apoplastic wash fluid (prBChE-AWF). rBChE from apoplast wash fluid had a higher specific activity but lower enzyme yield than leaf homogenate. To optimize the isolation and purification of total recombinant protein from leaf homogenates, an acidic extraction buffer was used. The acidic extraction buffer yielded >95% enzymatically active tetrameric rBChE as verified by Coomassie stained and native gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, when compared to human butyrylcholinesterase, the prBChE was found to be similar in terms of tetramerization and enzyme kinetics. The N-linked glycan profile of purified prBChE-ER was found to be mostly high mannose structures while the N-linked glycans on prBChE-AWF were primarily complex. The glycan profile of the prBChE leaf homogenates showed a mixture of high mannose, complex and paucimannose type N-glycans. These findings demonstrate the ability of plants to produce rBChE that is enzymatically active and whose oligomeric state is comparable to mammalian butyrylcholinesterase. The process of plant made rBChE tetramerization and strategies for improving its pharmacokinetics properties are also discussed. PMID:27379103

  19. A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H; Schlom, J; Kantor, J

    1991-07-30

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a 180-kDa glycoprotein expressed on most gastrointestinal carcinomas. A 2.4-kb cDNA clone, containing the complete coding sequence, was isolated from a human colon tumor cell library and inserted into a vaccinia virus genome. This newly developed construct was characterized by Southern blotting, DNA hybridization studies, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The CEA gene was stably integrated into the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. The recombinant was efficiently replicated upon serial passages in cell cultures and in animals. The recombinant virus expresses on the surface of infected cells a protein product recognized by a monoclonal antibody (COL-I) directed against CEA. Immunization of mice with the vaccinia construct elicited a humoral immune response against CEA. Pilot studies also showed that administration of the recombinant CEA vaccinia construct was able to greatly reduce the growth in mice of a syngeneic murine colon adenocarcinoma which had been transduced with the human CEA gene. The use of this new recombinant CEA vaccinia construct may thus provide an approach in the specific active immunotherapy of human GI cancer and other CEA expressing carcinoma types.

  20. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  1. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2000-08-22

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  2. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  3. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous gene

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2007-03-20

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  4. Expression of Recombinant Vaccines and Antibodies in Plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Plants are able to perform post-translational maturations of therapeutic proteins required for their functional biological activity and suitable in vivo pharmacokinetics. Plants can be a low-cost, large-scale production platform of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins such as vaccines and antibodies. Plants, however, lack mechanisms of processing authentic human N-glycosylation, which imposes a major limitation in their use as an expression system for therapeutic glycoproducts. Efforts have been made to circumvent plant-specific N-glycosylation, as well as to supplement the plant's endogenous system with human glycosyltransferases for non-immunogenic and humanized N-glycan production. Herein we review studies on the potential of plants to serve as production systems for therapeutic and prophylactic biopharmaceuticals. We have especially focused on recombinant vaccines and antibodies and new expression strategies to overcome the existing problems associated with their production in plants. PMID:24937251

  5. Expression of recombinant vaccines and antibodies in plants.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kisung

    2014-06-01

    Plants are able to perform post-translational maturations of therapeutic proteins required for their functional biological activity and suitable in vivo pharmacokinetics. Plants can be a low-cost, large-scale production platform of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins such as vaccines and antibodies. Plants, however, lack mechanisms of processing authentic human N-glycosylation, which imposes a major limitation in their use as an expression system for therapeutic glycoproducts. Efforts have been made to circumvent plant-specific N-glycosylation, as well as to supplement the plant's endogenous system with human glycosyltransferases for non-immunogenic and humanized N-glycan production. Herein we review studies on the potential of plants to serve as production systems for therapeutic and prophylactic biopharmaceuticals. We have especially focused on recombinant vaccines and antibodies and new expression strategies to overcome the existing problems associated with their production in plants.

  6. Genetically Engineered Poxviruses for Recombinant Gene Expression, Vaccination, and Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Vaccinia virus, no longer required for immunization against smallpox, now serves as a unique vector for expressing genes within the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. As a research tool, recombinant vaccinia viruses are used to synthesize and analyze the structure--function relationships of proteins, determine the targets of humoral and cell-mediated immunity, and investigate the types of immune response needed for protection against specific infectious diseases and cancer. The vaccine potential of recombinant vaccinia virus has been realized in the form of an effective oral wild-life rabies vaccine, although no product for humans has been licensed. A genetically altered vaccinia virus that is unable to replicate in mammalian cells and produces diminished cytopathic effects retains the capacity for high-level gene expression and immunogenicity while promising exceptional safety for laboratory workers and potential vaccine recipients.

  7. Expression and Purification of Chaperone-Active Recombinant Clusterin

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, Rebecca A.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Clusterin was the first described secreted mammalian chaperone and is implicated as being a key player in both intra- and extracellular proteostasis. Its unique combination of structural features and biological chaperone activity has, however, previously made it very challenging to express and purify the protein in a correctly processed and chaperone-active form. While there are multiple reports in the literature describing the use of recombinant clusterin, all of these reports suffer from one or more of the following shortcomings: details of the methods used to produce the protein are poorly described, the product is incompletely (if at all) characterised, and purity (if shown) is in many cases inadequate. The current report provides the first well validated method to economically produce pure chaperone-active recombinant clusterin. The method was developed after trialling expression in cultured bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian cells, and involves the expression of recombinant clusterin from stably transfected HEK293 cells in protein-free medium. The product is expressed at between 7.5 and 10 µg/ml of culture, and is readily purified by a combination of immunoaffinity, cation exchange and size exclusion chromatography. The purified product was shown to be glycosylated, correctly proteolytically cleaved into α- and β-subunits, and have chaperone activity similar to that of human plasma clusterin. This new method creates the opportunity to use mutagenesis and metabolic labelling approaches in future studies to delineate functionally important sites within clusterin, and also provides a theoretically unlimited supply of recombinant clusterin which may in the future find applications in the development of therapeutics. PMID:24466307

  8. Expression and characterization of bovine lactoperoxidase by recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuya; Sato, Sanae; Kumura, Haruto; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi

    2003-10-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a heme-containing oxidation-reduction enzyme present in milk. In this study, the gene encoding bovine lactoperoxidase (bLPO) was inserted into a baculovirus transfer vector, and a recombinant virus expressing bLPO was isolated. A bLPO-related recombinant baculovirus-expressed protein of 78 kDa was detected using anti-bLPO antibodies. After digestion with N-glycosidase F, the molecular weight of the recombinant bLPO (rbLPO) decreased. In addition, rbLPO reacted with lectin, indicating that the protein was glycosylated. The rbLPO activity and heme content in the culture supernatants increased upon addition of delta-aminolevulinic acid, which is a heme precursor. Differences in the delta-aminolevulinic acid-dependent circular dichroism spectrum and rbLPO pepsin hydrolysis were observed. These results suggest that the secondary structure and structural stability of rbLPO depends on the heme environment. Our data suggest that this bLPO expression system is useful for studying structure, catalytic mechanisms, and biological function.

  9. Recombinant allergen Lol p II: expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, E; Brandazza, A; De Lalla, C; Musco, G; Siccardi, A G; Arosio, P; Sidoli, A

    1995-05-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) is a major cause of type I allergies worldwide. It contains complex mixtures of proteins, among which Lol p II is a major allergen. Previously, we have reported the cloning and sequencing of Lol p II and its expression in fusion with the heavy chain of human ferritin as carrier polypeptide (Sidoli et al., 1993, J. biol. Chem. 268, 21819-21825). Here, we describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p II overproduced as a non-fusion protein in the periplasm of E. coli. The recombinant allergen was expressed in high yields and was easily purified in milligram amounts. It competed with the natural Lol p II for binding to specific IgE, and it induced allergic responses in skin prick tests, indicating to be immunologically analogous to the natural protein. Biochemical analyses indicate that recombinant Lol p II is a highly stable and soluble monomeric molecule which behaves like a small globular protein.

  10. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C expression in MDBK cells and its reactivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Saini, M; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Garg, S K

    1998-12-01

    Glycoprotein C (gC) of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is a major viral glycoprotein expressed at high level on the surface of infected cells and on the virion envelope. This glycoprotein is also a major target of immune response at both humoral and cellular levels. The plasmid pRSV-gC having complete coding gene for BHV-1 gC was transfected into MDBK cells and the expression of gC in these cells was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis. Transcription of the gC gene was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of total RNA isolated from transfected cells. MDBK cells expressing BHV-1 gC were used as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of antibodies against BHV-1 in field sera. The results were found comparable (92.44%) with those obtained with BHV-1 purified antigen.

  11. [Expression and purification of recombinant Schistosoma japonicum paramyosin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J C; Yi, X Y; Kalinna, B H; McManus, D P

    2000-04-28

    Paramyosin of Schistosoma japonicum was expressed at a high level in E. coli. The recombinant protein could be easily purified from bacteria lysate by fast protein liquid chromatography(FLPC) on a TALON resin column, due to the protein being expressed with a tag of six histidine residue fused to the N-terminus. The protein was completely soluble and could be eluted under non-denaturing condition using imidazole. To eliminate imidazole and residue of E. coli, the elution was further purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein will be used in water buffaloes in the study on protective immunity against Schistosoma japonicum.

  12. Purification and biological characterization of bacterially expressed recombinant buffalo prolactin.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Manoj; Muralidhar, Kambadur

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant prolactin (PRL) from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has been cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. The hormone was also successfully refolded into a biologically active form. Total RNA was purified from buffalo pituitaries and the buPRL cDNA was synthesized using primers designed on bovine PRL sequence. This prolactin cDNA was cloned in a pET 28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS. Most of the expressed protein was present as insoluble inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were solubilized and buPRL was purified by Ni-NTA column. The purified protein was refolded by gradually decreasing the concentration of denaturant during dialysis. Total yield of the refolded and soluble prolactin was 22 mg/L from 100 mL bacterial culture in LB medium. The recombinant prolactin was as active as native prolactin in stimulating growth of Nb2 lymphoma cells.

  13. Human recombinant soluble guanylyl cyclase: expression, purification, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Martin, E.; Murad, F.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha1- and beta1-subunits of human soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were coexpressed in the Sf9 cells/baculovirus system. In addition to the native enzyme, constructs with hexahistidine tag at the amino and carboxyl termini of each subunit were coexpressed. This permitted the rapid and efficient purification of active recombinant enzyme on a nickel-affinity column. The enzyme has one heme per heterodimer and was readily activated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'furyl)-1-benzyl-indazole (YC-1). Sodium nitroprusside and YC-1 treatment potentiated each other in combination and demonstrated a remarkable 2,200-fold stimulation of the human recombinant sGC. The effects were inhibited with 1H-(1,2, 4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1one (ODQ). The kinetics of the recombinant enzyme with respect to GTP was examined. The products of the reaction, cGMP and pyrophosphate, inhibited the enzyme. The extent of inhibition by cGMP depended on the activation state of the enzyme, whereas inhibition by pyrophosphate was not affected by the enzyme state. Both reaction products displayed independent binding and cooperativity with respect to enzyme inhibition. The expression of large quantities of active enzyme will facilitate structural characterization of the protein.

  14. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. PMID:26021569

  15. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Emily J.; Yates, Laura E.; Terra, Vanessa S.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology. PMID:27110302

  16. Expression and export: recombinant protein production systems for Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, André; Dersch, Petra

    2010-07-01

    Several Aspergillus species, in particular Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, are widely used as protein production hosts in various biotechnological applications. In order to improve the expression and secretion of recombinant proteins in these filamentous fungi, several novel genetic engineering strategies have been developed in recent years. This review describes state-of-the-art genetic manipulation technologies used for strain improvement, as well as recent advances in designing the most appropriate engineering strategy for a particular protein production process. Furthermore, current developments in identifying bottlenecks in the protein production and secretion pathways are described and novel approaches to overcome these limitations are introduced. An appropriate combination of expression vectors and optimized host strains will provide cell factories customized for each production process and expand the great potential of Aspergilli as biotechnology workhorses to more complex multi-step industrial applications.

  17. Engineering, expression, purification, and production of recombinant thermolysin.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Kuniyo; Kusano, Masayuki; Hashida, Yasuhiko; Minoda, Masashi; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Thermolysin [EC 3.4.24.27] is a thermostable neutral zinc metalloproteinase originally identified in the culture broth of Bacillus thermoproteolyticus Rokko. Since the discovery in 1962, the enzyme has been extensively studied regarding its structure and catalytic mechanism. Today, thermolysin is a representative of zinc metalloproteinase and an attractive target in protein engineering to understand the catalytic mechanism, thermostability, and halophilicity. Thermolysin is used in industry, especially for the enzymatic synthesis of N-carbobenzoxy L-Asp-L-Phe methyl ester (ZDFM), a precursor of an artificial sweetener, aspartame. Generation of genetically engineered thermolysin with higher activity in the synthesis of ZDFM has been highly desired. In accordance with the expansion of studies on thermolysin, various strategies for its expression and purification have been devised and successfully used. In this review, we aim to outline recombinant thermolysins associated with their engineering, expression, purification, and production.

  18. Bacterial expression and purification of recombinant bovine Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Philippa M; Maxwell, Gavin; Campo, M Saveria

    2002-02-01

    We have previously described a recombinant phagemid expression vector, pComBov, designed for the production of native sequence bovine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated by antibody phage display. Bovine mAb Fab fragments isolated from libraries constructed using pComBov in Escherichia coli strain XL1-Blue, which is routinely used for antibodies expressed on the surface of phage, were expressed at very low yields. Therefore, a study was undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions for maximal expression of bovine Fab fragments in E. coli. By varying the E. coli strain, and the temperature and length of the culture growth, we were able to substantially increase the yield of soluble Fab fragments. A high yield of Fab fragments was found in the culture growth medium, which enabled us to devise a rapid and simple single-step method for the purification of native (nondenatured) Fabs based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography against a six-histidine amino acid carboxyl-terminal extension of the heavy-chain constant region. Using these methods we were able to express and purify antigen-specific bovine Fab fragments from E. coli. PMID:11812221

  19. Cloning, Expression and Biological Analysis of Recombinant Chicken IFN-gamma Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interferon-gamma (CHIFN-') derived from the spleen cells of White Leghorns chicken, a local Chinese breeding species was amplified by RT-PCR. The gene encoding CHIFN-' with the deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, resulting in a recombin...

  20. Glutathione production by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing bifunctional glutathione synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important bioactive substance applied widely in pharmaceutical and food industries. Due to the strong product inhibition in the GSH biosynthetic pathway, high levels of intracellular content, yield and productivity of GSH are difficult to achieve. Recently, a novel bifunctional GSH synthetase was identified to be less sensitive to GSH. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing gshF encoding the bifunctional glutathione synthetase of Streptococcus thermophilus was constructed for GSH production. In this study, efficient GSH production using this engineered strain was investigated. The cultivation process was optimized by controlling dissolved oxygen (DO), amino acid addition and glucose feeding. 36.8 mM (11.3 g/L) GSH were formed at a productivity of 2.06 mM/h when the amino acid precursors (75 mM each) were added and glucose was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. PMID:26586402

  1. Expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein in Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Nilasari, Dewi; Dover, Nir; Rech, Sabine; Komives, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biocatalysts are used in a wide range of industries to produce large scale quantities of proteins, amino acids, and commodity chemicals. While the majority of these processes use glucose or other low-cost sugars as the substrate, Bacillus methanolicus is one example of a biocatalyst that has shown sustained growth on methanol as a carbon source at elevated temperature (50-53°C optimum) resulting in reduced feed and utility costs. Specifically, the complete chemical process enabled by this approach takes methane from natural gas, and following a low-cost conversion to methanol, can be used for the production of high value products. In this study, production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) by B. methanolicus is explored. A plasmid was constructed that incorporates the methanol dehydrogenase (mdh) promoter of B. methanolicus MGA3 together with the GFPuv gene. The plasmid, pNW33N, was shown to be effective for expression in other Bacillus strains, although not previously in B. methanolicus. A published electroporation protocol for transformation of B. methanolicus was modified to result in expression of GFP using plasmid pNW33N-mdh-GFPuv (pNmG). Transformation was confirmed by both agarose gel electrophoresis and by observation of green fluorescence under UV light exposure. The mass yield of cells and protein were measured in shake flask experiments. The optimum concentration of methanol for protein production was found to be at 200 mM. Higher concentrations than 200 mM resulted in slightly higher biomass production but lower amounts of recombinant protein. PMID:22275315

  2. Expression of factor VIII in recombinant and transgenic systems.

    PubMed

    Soukharev, Serguei; Hammond, David; Ananyeva, Natalya M; Anderson, Julia A M; Hauser, Charlotte A E; Pipe, Steven; Saenko, Evgueni L

    2002-01-01

    Deficiency in a coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) causes a genetic disorder hemophilia A, which is treated by repeated infusions of expensive FVIII products. Recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), the culmination of years of extensive international research, is an important alternative to plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII) and is considered to have a higher margin of safety. Advances in biotechnology allowed production of rFVIII at industrial scale, which significantly improved treatment of hemophilia A patients. We review the contemporary methods used for FVIII expression in mammalian cell culture systems and discuss the factors responsible for insufficient recoveries of rFVIII, such as inefficient accumulation of FVIII mRNA in the cell, complexity of the mechanisms of FVIII secretion, and instability of secreted FVIII. The approaches to improve the yield of rFVIII in cell culture systems include genetic engineering of B-domain-deleted FVIII, introduction of introns into FVIII cDNA constructs for more efficient processing and accumulation of FVIII mRNA, and introduction of mutations into chaperone-binding sites of FVIII to improve its secretion. Design of FVIII with prolonged half-life in vivo is considered as another promising direction in improving rFVIII protein and efficiency of hemophilia A therapy. As an alternative to expression of rFVIII in cell culture systems, we discuss production of rFVIII in transgenic animals, where high levels of rFVIII have been successfully secreted into milk. We also pay attention to the major limitations of this approach, such as safety issues associated with potential transmission of animal pathogens. Finally, we present a brief characterization of commercial recombinant FVIII products currently available on the market for hemophilia A treatment.

  3. Reporter-Expressing, Replicating-Competent Recombinant Arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose an important public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and current anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetic approaches has provided investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the study of arenavirus biology including virus-host interactions underlying arenavirus induced disease. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription, as well as particle assembly and budding. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis. The use of reverse genetics approaches has also allowed the generation of recombinant arenaviruses expressing additional genes of interest. These advances in arenavirus molecular genetics have also facilitated the implementation of novel screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs, and the development of novel strategies for the generation of arenavirus live-attenuated vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on reporter-expressing, replicating-competent arenaviruses harboring reporter genes in different locations of the viral genome and their use for studying and understanding arenavirus biology and the identification of anti-arenaviral drugs to combat these important human pathogens. PMID:27447662

  4. Reporter-Expressing, Replicating-Competent Recombinant Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose an important public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and current anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetic approaches has provided investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the study of arenavirus biology including virus–host interactions underlying arenavirus induced disease. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription, as well as particle assembly and budding. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis. The use of reverse genetics approaches has also allowed the generation of recombinant arenaviruses expressing additional genes of interest. These advances in arenavirus molecular genetics have also facilitated the implementation of novel screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs, and the development of novel strategies for the generation of arenavirus live-attenuated vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on reporter-expressing, replicating-competent arenaviruses harboring reporter genes in different locations of the viral genome and their use for studying and understanding arenavirus biology and the identification of anti-arenaviral drugs to combat these important human pathogens. PMID:27447662

  5. Production of recombinant botulism antigens: a review of expression systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, G M S G; Cunha, C E P; Salvarani, F M; Gonçalves, L A; Pires, P S; Conceição, F R; Lobato, F C F

    2014-08-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by intoxication with neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Despite their similar mechanism of action, the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified in eight serotypes (A to H). As to veterinary medicine, the impact of this disease is essentially economic, since different species of production animals can be affected, especially by BoNT/C and D. In human health, botulism is feared in a possible biological warfare, what would involve mainly the BoNT/A, B, E and F. In both cases, the most effective way to deal with botulism is through prevention, which involves vaccination. However, the current vaccines against this disease have several drawbacks on their process of production and, besides this, can be dangerous to producers since it requires certain level of biosafety. This way, recombinant vaccines have been shown to be a great alternative for the development of vaccines against both animal and human botulism. All BoNTs have a 50-kDa light chain (LC) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (HC). The latter one presents two domains of 50 kDa, called the N-terminal (HN) and C-terminal (HC) halves. Among these regions, the HC alone seem to confer the proper immune response against intoxication. Since innumerous studies describe the expression of these distinct regions using different systems, strategies, and protocols, it is difficult to define the best option for a viable vaccine production. Thereby, the present review describes the problematic of botulism and discusses the main advances for the viable production of vaccines for both human and veterinary medicine using recombinant antigens.

  6. Production of recombinant botulism antigens: a review of expression systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, G M S G; Cunha, C E P; Salvarani, F M; Gonçalves, L A; Pires, P S; Conceição, F R; Lobato, F C F

    2014-08-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by intoxication with neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Despite their similar mechanism of action, the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified in eight serotypes (A to H). As to veterinary medicine, the impact of this disease is essentially economic, since different species of production animals can be affected, especially by BoNT/C and D. In human health, botulism is feared in a possible biological warfare, what would involve mainly the BoNT/A, B, E and F. In both cases, the most effective way to deal with botulism is through prevention, which involves vaccination. However, the current vaccines against this disease have several drawbacks on their process of production and, besides this, can be dangerous to producers since it requires certain level of biosafety. This way, recombinant vaccines have been shown to be a great alternative for the development of vaccines against both animal and human botulism. All BoNTs have a 50-kDa light chain (LC) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (HC). The latter one presents two domains of 50 kDa, called the N-terminal (HN) and C-terminal (HC) halves. Among these regions, the HC alone seem to confer the proper immune response against intoxication. Since innumerous studies describe the expression of these distinct regions using different systems, strategies, and protocols, it is difficult to define the best option for a viable vaccine production. Thereby, the present review describes the problematic of botulism and discusses the main advances for the viable production of vaccines for both human and veterinary medicine using recombinant antigens. PMID:24930432

  7. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  8. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. PMID:26297626

  9. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment.

  10. [Eukaryotic Expression and Immunogenic Research of Recombination Ebola Virus Membrane Protein Gp-Fc].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Ren; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Xuan; Hou, Mieling; An, Lina; Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yuxi; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We used 293 cells to express the recombinant membrane protein of the Ebola virus. Then, the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein was studied by immunized BALB/c mice. According to the codon use frequency of humans, the gene encoding the extracellular domain of the Ebola virus membrane protein was optimized, synthesized, and inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pXG-Fc to construct the human IgG Fc and Ebola GP fusion protein expression plasmid pXG-modGP-Fc. To achieve expression, the fusion protein expression vector was transfected into high-density 293 cells using transient transfection technology. The recombinant protein was purified by protein A affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified fusion protein, and serum antibody titers evaluated by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purification and analyses of the protein revealed that the eukaryotic expression vector could express the recombinant protein GP-Fc effectively, and that the recombinant protein in the supernatant of the cell culture was present as a dimer. After immunization with the purified recombinant protein, a high titer of antigen-specific IgG could be detected in the serum of immunized mice by indirect ELISA, showing that the recombinant protein had good immunogenicity. These data suggest that we obtained a recombinant protein with good immunogenicity. Our study is the basis for development of a vaccine against the Ebola virus and for screening of monoclonal antibodies.

  11. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Listrom, C D; Morizono, H; Rajagopal, B S; McCann, M T; Tuchman, M; Allewell, N M

    1997-01-01

    A bacterial expression system has been engineered for human glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) that produces approximately 60 mg of enzyme (20% of the bacterial soluble protein) and yields approx. 8 mg of purified enzyme per litre of culture. The recombinant enzyme was purified 5-fold to apparent homogeneity and characterized. It has a subunit molecular mass of approx. 45000 Da. The Vmax value obtained using a radioactive assay with ammonia and l-[G-3H]glutamic acid as substrates was 15.9 micromol/min per mg, 40% higher than that obtained in the colorimetric assay (9.9 micromol/min per mg) with hydroxylamine replacing ammonia as a substrate. Km values for glutamate were 3.0 mM and 3.5 mM, and for ATP they were 2.0 mM and 2. 9 mM for the radioactive and spectrophotometric assays respectively. The Km for ammonia in the radioactive assay was 0.15 mM. The midpoint of thermal inactivation was 49.7 degrees C. Hydroxylamine, Mg(II) and Mg(II)-ATP stabilized the enzyme against thermal inactivation, whereas ATP promoted inactivation. The pure enzyme is stable for several months in storage and provides a source for additional studies, including X-ray crystallography. PMID:9359847

  12. Recombinant Gene Expression in vivo within Endothelial Cells of the Arterial Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Plautz, Gregory; Boyce, Frederick M.; Stanley, James C.; Nabel, Gary J.

    1989-06-01

    A technique for the transfer of endothelial cells and expression of recombinant genes in vivo could allow the introduction of proteins of therapeutic value in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Porcine endothelial cells expressing recombinant β -galactosidase from a murine amphotropic retroviral vector were introduced with a catheter into denuded iliofemoral arteries of syngeneic animals. Arterial segments explanted 2 to 4 weeks later contained endothelial cells expressing β -galactosidase, an indication that they were successfully implanted on the vessel wall.

  13. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese.

  14. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese. PMID:26341925

  15. Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok

    2011-08-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s⁻¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ∼10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common α/β barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism. PMID:21511036

  16. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant nitrate reductase expressed and purified from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Phillip; Probst, Corinna; Dammeyer, Thorben; Buchmeier, Sabine; Jänsch, Lothar; Wissing, Josef; Tinnefeld, Philip; Mendel, Ralf R; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Kruse, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    We established an expression and purification procedure for recombinant protein production in Neurospora crassa (N. crassa). This Strep-tag® based system was successfully used for purifying recombinant N. crassa nitrate reductase (NR), whose enzymatic activity was compared to recombinant N. crassa NR purified from Escherichia coli. The purity of the two different NR preparations was similar but NR purified from N. crassa showed a significantly higher nitrate turnover rate. Two phosphorylation sites were identified for NR purified from the endogenous expression system. We conclude that homologous expression of N. crassa NR yields a higher active enzyme and propose that NR phosphorylation causes enhanced enzymatic activity. PMID:25914160

  17. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant nitrate reductase expressed and purified from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Phillip; Probst, Corinna; Dammeyer, Thorben; Buchmeier, Sabine; Jänsch, Lothar; Wissing, Josef; Tinnefeld, Philip; Mendel, Ralf R; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Kruse, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    We established an expression and purification procedure for recombinant protein production in Neurospora crassa (N. crassa). This Strep-tag® based system was successfully used for purifying recombinant N. crassa nitrate reductase (NR), whose enzymatic activity was compared to recombinant N. crassa NR purified from Escherichia coli. The purity of the two different NR preparations was similar but NR purified from N. crassa showed a significantly higher nitrate turnover rate. Two phosphorylation sites were identified for NR purified from the endogenous expression system. We conclude that homologous expression of N. crassa NR yields a higher active enzyme and propose that NR phosphorylation causes enhanced enzymatic activity.

  18. Infectious bronchitis virus S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing the IBV S2 gene (rLS/IBV.S2). The recombinant virus showed reduced pathogenicity compared to the parental LaSota strain but effectively elicited hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and protected chickens against lethal...

  19. Expression of the synthetic gene for human angiogenin in recombinant vaccinia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Netesova, N.A.; Petrov, V.S.; Cheshenko, N.V.

    1995-08-01

    The gene for angiogenin was cloned into vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant virus expressing angiogenin was obtained. The level of protein synthesis directed by the recombinant virus was analyzed by immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies against human angiogenin. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

  1. CHO expressed recombinant human lactoferrin as an adjuvant for BCG.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin (LF), an iron binding protein with immune modulatory activities, has adjuvant activity to enhance vaccine efficacy. Tuberculosis (TB) is a pulmonary disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Progressive TB disease is clinically defined by damaging pulmonary pathology, a result of inflammation due to immune reactivity. The current vaccine for TB, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), has only limited efficacy to prevent adult pulmonary TB. This study examines a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) expressed recombinant human LF (rHLF) to boost efficacy of the BCG vaccine and delay early pathology post infectious challenge. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with BCG, or BCG admixed with either rHLF or bovine LF (bLF; internal control), or remained unvaccinated. Mice were then aerosol challenged with Erdman MTB. All vaccinated mice demonstrated decreased organ bacterial load up to 19 weeks post infection compared with non-vaccinated controls. Furthermore, mice receiving bLF or rHLF supplemented BCG vaccines showed a modest decrease in lung pathology developed over time, compared to the BCG vaccine alone. While mice vaccinated with BCG/rHLF demonstrated increased general lung inflammation at day 7, it occurred without noticeable increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. At later times, decreased pathology in the rHLF groups correlated with decreased inflammatory cytokines. Splenic recall to BCG antigens showed BCG/rHLF vaccination increased production of IFN-γ, IL-6, and GM-CSF compared to naïve, BCG, and BCG/bLF groups. Analysis of T cell stimulating functions of bone marrow derived macrophages and dendritic cells treated with BCG/bLF or BCG/rHLF showed decreases in IL-10 production when co-cultured with sensitized CD4 and CD8 T cells, compared to those cultured with macrophages/dendritic cells treated with BCG without LF. These results indicate that addition of rHLF to the BCG vaccine can modulate development

  2. Expression and characterisation of recombinant molecules in transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Nicolau B; Murad, Andre M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Coelho, Cintia; Rech, Elibio L

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are organs specialised in accumulating proteins, and they may provide a potential economically viable platform for the large-scale production and storage of many molecules for pharmaceutical and other productive sectors. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] has a high seed protein content and represents an excellent source of abundant and cheap biomass. Under greenhouse conditions and a daily photoperiod of 23 h of light, the soybean plant's vegetative growth can be significantly extended by inducing more than a tenfold increase in seed production when compared with plants cultivated under field conditions. Some factors involved in the production of different recombinant proteins in soybean seeds are discussed in this review. These include transgenic system, regulatory sequences and the use of Mass Spectrometry as a new tool for molecular characterisation of seed produced recombinant proteins. The important intrinsic characteristics and possibility of genetically engineering soybean seeds, using current advances in recombinant DNA technology including metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, should form the foundation for large-scale and more precise genome modification, making this crop an important candidate as bioreactor for production of recombinant molecules.

  3. Production of a recombinant Fab in Pichia pastoris from a Monocistronic expression vector.

    PubMed

    Burtet, Rafael Trindade; Santos-Silva, Marcos Antônio; Buss, Guilherme Antônio Marques; Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

    2007-12-01

    Recombinant Fab is usually expressed using dicistronic vectors producing the heavy and light chains separately. We developed an improved vector for Fab fragment expression in Pichia pastoris, which allows a stoichiometric expression of both chains based on a monocistronic arrangement. The protein is produced as a unique polypeptide harbouring a KEX2 processing site between both chains. After KEX cleavage, a correctly folded mature Fab is formed. The produced recombinant protein is characterized as a heterodimeric functional Fab. The vector described is a new tool for the proper expression of antibody fragments or any heterodimeric polypeptides.

  4. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  5. Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Human Endostatin in Periplasm of Escherichia coli Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Mohajeri, Abbas; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Karimi, Pouran; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recombinant human endostatin (rhEs) is an angiogenesis inhibitor which is used as a specific drug in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. In the current research, we developed an efficient method for expressing soluble form of the rhEs protein in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli via fusing with pelB signal peptide. Methods: The human endostatin (hEs) gene was amplified using synthetic (hEs) gene as a template; then, cloned and expressed under T7 lac promoter. IPTG was used as an inducer for rhEs expression. Next, the osmotic shock was used to extraction of protein from the periplasmic space. The presence of rhEs in the periplasmic space was approved by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Results: The results show the applicability of pelB fusion protein system usage for secreting rhEs in the periplasm of E. coli in the laboratory scale. The rhEs represents approximately 35 % (0.83mg/l) of the total cell protein. Conclusion: The present study apparently is the first report of codon-optimized rhEs expression as a fusion with pelB signal peptide. The results presented the successful secretion of soluble rhEs to the periplasmic space. PMID:27478780

  6. Expression, purification, and immobilization of recombinant tamavidin 2 fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Tsunashima, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Tamavidin 2 is a fungal avidin-like protein that binds biotin with high affinity. Unlike avidin or streptavidin, tamavidin 2 in soluble form is produced at high levels in Escherichia coli. In this chapter, we describe a method for immobilization and purification of recombinant proteins with the use of tamavidin 2 as an affinity tag. The protein fused to tamavidin 2 is tightly immobilized and simultaneously purified on biotinylated magnetic microbeads without loss of activity. PMID:24943317

  7. Mutants of Streptomyces roseosporus that express enhanced recombination within partially homologous genes.

    PubMed

    Hosted, T J; Baltz, R H

    1996-10-01

    Streptomyces roseosporus mutants that express enhanced recombination between partially homologous (homeologous) sequences were isolated by selection for recombination between the bacteriophage phi C31 derivative KC570 containing the Streptomyces coelicolor glucose kinase (glk) gene and the S. roseosporus chromosome. The frequencies of homeologous recombination in the ehr mutants were determined by measuring the chromosomal insertion frequencies of plasmids containing S. coelicolor glnA or whiG genes. S. roseosporus ehr mutants showed 10(2)- to 10(4)-fold increases in homeologous recombination relative to Ehr+ strains, but no increase in homologous recombination. Southern hybridization analysis revealed single unique sites for the insertion of each of the plasmids, and the crossovers occurred in frame and in proper translational register, yielding functional chimeric glnA and whiG genes.

  8. High-level expression and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen as biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Masaki; Imamura, Takayuki; Yano, Kentaro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Meta, Akihiro; Tokieda, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Fibrinogen is a large and complex glycoprotein containing two sets of each of three different chains (α, β and γ). There have been no reports of high-level expression of fibrinogen at commercial levels using mammalian cultured cells such as CHO cells because of the difficulty in highly expressing a protein with such a complex structure. We achieved high-level (1.3 g/l or higher) expression of recombinant human fibrinogen using CHO DG44 cells by optimizing the expression system and culture conditions. We also succeeded in establishing a high-recovery preparation method for recombinant fibrinogen that rarely yields degraded products. To characterize the properties of the recombinant human fibrinogen, we performed SDS-PAGE; western blotting of the α, β and γ chains using specific antibodies and scanning electron microscopy observations of fibrin fibres. We also evaluated the functional equivalence between recombinant fibrinogen and plasma fibrinogen with respect to the release of fibrinopeptides initiated by thrombin and its cross-linking properties. The basic properties of recombinant fibrinogen showed no apparent differences from those of plasma fibrinogen. Here, we report the development of methods for the culture and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen of satisfactory quality that can be scaled up to the commercial level.

  9. The recombinant expression and activity detection of MAF-1 fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ping; Wu, Jianwei; Gao, Song; Guo, Guo; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study establishes the recombinant expression system of MAF-1 (Musca domestica antifungal peptide-1) and demonstrates the antifungal activity of the expression product and shows the relationship between biological activity and structure. The gene segments on mature peptide part of MAF-1 were cloned, based on the primers designed according to the cDNA sequence of MAF-1. We constructed the recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmid using prokaryotic expression vector (pET-28a(+)) and converted it to the competent cell of BL21(DE3) to gain recombinant MAF-1 fusion protein with His tag sequence through purifying affinity chromatographic column of Ni-NTA. To conduct the Western Blotting test, recombinant MAF-1 fusion protein was used to produce the polyclonal antibody of rat. The antifungal activity of the expression product was detected using Candida albicans (ATCC10231) as the indicator. The MAF-1 recombinant fusion protein was purified to exhibit obvious antifungal activity, which lays the foundation for the further study of MAF-1 biological activity, the relationship between structure and function, as well as control of gene expression. PMID:26423137

  10. [Expression, refolding and biological activity of recombinant type-I metalloproteinase acutolysin a from Agkistrodon acutus].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kai-Jun; Yu, Hong-Xiu; Zou, Chun-Sen; Yuan, Pei-Hua; Liu, Jing

    2002-09-01

    Type-I snake venom metalloproteinase acutolysin A gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pBAD/gIIIA and the resulting recombinant plasmid pDS was obtained. By the induction with 0.02% L-(+)-arabinose, the recombinant metalloproteinase was expressed in insoluble inclusion body in E. coli TOP10 and reached up to 5%--10% of total bacterial proteins. The recombinant metalloproteinase has an additional sequence of N-terminal 22 amino acids and C-terminal 8 amino acids (housing 6 histidines), both of which derived from the vector. The purified inclusion body was solubilized by 8 mol/L urea or 6 mol/L guanidine-HCl and the denatured soluble recombinant metalloproteinase was allowed to refold in vitro. Western blotting and ELISA obviously showed that the renatured recombinant metalloproteinase possessed strong immune reactivity very closely related to natural acutolysin A. Animal experiments showed that the refolded recombinant metalloproteinase had an obvious hemorrhagic activity. Except PMSF, 1 mmol/L EDTA, 1 mmol/L EGTA, and 3 mmol/L imidazole could inhibit the hemorrhagic activity of the recombinant and the natural metalloproteinases to different extent. Based on the investigations of others and our experimental results, the hemorrhagic mechanism of snake metalloproteinases was discussed.

  11. Optimization of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase expression and purification.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajdeep; Rudra, Paulami; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Sengupta, Shreya; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the human pathogen that causes tuberculosis, warrants enormous attention due to the emergence of multi drug resistant and extremely drug resistant strains. RNA polymerase (RNAP), the key enzyme in gene regulation, is an attractive target for anti-TB drugs. Understanding the structure-function relationship of M. tuberculosis RNAP and the mechanism of gene regulation by RNAP in conjunction with different σ factors and transcriptional regulators would provide significant information for anti-tuberculosis drug development targeting RNAP. Studies with M. tuberculosis RNAP remain tedious because of the extremely slow-growing nature of the bacteria and requirement of special laboratory facility. Here, we have developed and optimized recombinant methods to prepare M. tuberculosis RNAP core and RNAP holo enzymes assembled in vivo in Escherichia coli. These methods yield high amounts of transcriptionally active enzymes, free of E. coli RNAP contamination. The recombinant M. tuberculosis RNAP is used to develop a highly sensitive fluorescence based in vitro transcription assay that could be easily adopted in a high-throughput format to screen RNAP inhibitors. These recombinant methods would be useful to set a platform for M. tuberculosis RNAP targeted anti TB drug development, to analyse the structure/function of M. tuberculosis RNAP and to analyse the interactions among promoter DNA, RNAP, σ factors, and transcription regulators of M. tuberculosis in vitro, avoiding the hazard of handling of pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Rapid screening for the robust expression of recombinant proteins in algal plastids.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Daniel; Gimpel, Javier; Mayfield, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has many advantages as a photosynthetic model organism. One of these is facile, targeted chloroplast transformation by particle bombardment. Functional recombinant proteins can be expressed to significant levels in this system, potentially outperforming higher plants in speed of scaling, cost, and space requirements. Several strategies and regulatory regions can be used for achieving transgene expression. Here we present two of those strategies: one makes use of the psbD promoter for expressing moderate levels of the recombinant protein in a photosynthetic background. The other strategy is based on the strong psbA promoter for obtaining high yields of the recombinant product in a non-photosynthetic strain. We herein describe the vectors, transformation procedures, and screening methods associated with these two strategies. PMID:24599869

  13. Expression of Functional Recombinant Human Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) Using the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Yaghoub; Azari, Shahram; Kalhor, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a unique multifunctional enzyme. The enzyme possesses enzymatic activities such as transamidation/crosslinking and non-enzymatic functions such as cell migration and signal transduction. TG2 has been shown to be involved in molecular mechanisms of cancers and several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. The present study aimed at cloning and expression of full length human TG2 in Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system and evaluation of its activity. Methods: pFastBac HTA donor vector containing coding sequence of human TG2 was constructed. The construct was transformed to DH10Bac for generating recombinant bacmid. The verified bacmid was transfected to insect cell line (Sf9). Expression of recombinant TG2 was examined by RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Functional analysis was evaluated by fluorometric assay and gel electrophoresis. Results: Recombinant bacmid was verified by amplification of a band near to 4500 bp. Expression analysis showed that the enzyme was expressed as a protein with a molecular weight near 80 kDa. Western blot confirmed the presence of TG2 and the activity assays including flurometric assay indicated that the recombinant TG2 was functional. The electrophoresis assay conformed that the expressed TG2 was the indeed capable of crosslinking in the presence of physiological concentration calcium ions. Conclusion: Human TG2 was expressed efficiently in the active biological form in the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The expressed enzyme could be used for medical diagnostic, or studies which aim at finding novel inhibitors of the enzymes . To best of our knowledge, this is probably the first report of expression of full length human tissue transglutaminase (TG2) using the Bac-to-Bac expression system. PMID:27123417

  14. Data of expression and purification of recombinant Taq DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Fang, Na; Zhong, Niannian; Yang, Yueyang; Guo, Yujian; Ji, Shaoping

    2016-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is widely used in many experimental conditions, and Taq DNA polymerase is critical in PCR process. In this article, the Taq DNA polymerase expression plasmid is reconstructed and the protein product is obtained by rapid purification, ("Rapid purification of high-activity Taq DNA polymerase" (Pluthero, 1993 [1]), "Single-step purification of a thermostable DNA polymerase expressed in Escherichia coli" (Desai and Pfaffle, 1995 [2])). Here we present the production data from protein expression and provide the analysis results of the production from two different vectors. Meanwhile, the purification data is also provided to show the purity of the protein product. PMID:27656666

  15. Genetic control of antibody responses induced by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing a foreign antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lagranderie, M; Lo-Man, R; Dériaud, E; Gicquel, B; Gheorghiu, M; Leclerc, C

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing foreign antigens represents a promising candidate for the development of future vaccines and was shown in several experimental models to induce protective immunity against bacterial or parasitic infections. Innate resistance to BCG infection is under genetic control and could modify the immune responses induced against an antigen delivered by such engineered microorganisms. To investigate this question, we analyzed the immune responses of various inbred strains of mice to recombinant BCG expressing beta-galactosidase. These experiments demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed strong antibody responses against BCG expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of two different promoters. In contrast, C57BL/6, C3H, and CBA mice produced high anti-beta-galactosidase antibody titers only when immunized with recombinant BCG expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of the pblaF* promoter, which induced the production of high levels of this antigen. This difference in mouse responsiveness to recombinant BCG was not due to innate resistance to BCG infection, since similar immune responses were induced in Ity(r) and Ity(s) congenic strains of mice. In contrast, the analysis of anti-beta-galactosidase antibody responses of H-2 congenic mice in two different genetic backgrounds demonstrated that H-2 genes are involved in the immune responsiveness to beta-galactosidase delivered by recombinant BCG. Together, these results demonstrate that immune responses to an antigen delivered by recombinant BCG are under complex genetic influences which could play a crucial role in the efficiency of future recombinant BCG vaccines. PMID:9234754

  16. Chloroplast-Based Expression of Recombinant Proteins by Gateway® Cloning Technology.

    PubMed

    Gottschamel, Johanna; Lössl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Plastid transformation for the expression of recombinant proteins and entire enzymatic pathways has become a promising tool for plant biotechnology in the past decade. Several improvements of the technology have turned plant plastids into robust and dependable expression platforms for multiple high value compounds. In this chapter, we describe our current methodology based on Gateway(®) recombinant cloning, which we have adapted for plastid transformation. We describe the steps required for cloning, biolistic transformation, identification, and regeneration of transplastomic plant lines and Western blot analysis. PMID:26614278

  17. Construction and characterization of a recombinant reticuloendotheliosis virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyun; Hu, Feng; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Yongqiang; Shen, Nan; Hua, Yuping; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-09-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an immunosuppressive and oncogenic disease in chickens and other birds. In this study, based on an infectious clone of REV, named HLJR0901, a recombinant virus containing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene was constructed by inserting the EGFP expression cassette downstream of the 3' terminus of the viral env gene. An EGFP-tagged REV that stably expresses EGFP was rescued. This visible recombinant REV could contribute to the further understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in the replication and pathogenicity of REV.

  18. Functional characterization of recombinant batroxobin, a snake venom thrombin-like enzyme, expressed from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Choi, Won-Seok; Koh, You-Seok; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Jang, Yangsoo; Chung, Kwang-Hoe

    2004-07-30

    A thrombin-like enzyme of Bothrops atrox moojeni venom, batroxobin, specifically cleaves fibrinogen alpha chain, resulting in the formation of non-crosslinked fibrin clots. The cDNA encoding batroxobin was cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and the molecular function of purified recombinant protein was also characterized. The recombinant batroxobin had an apparent molecular weight of 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis and biochemical activities similar to those of native batroxobin. The purified recombinant protein strongly converted fibrinogen into fibrin clot in vitro, and shortened bleeding time and whole blood coagulation time in vivo. However, it did not make any considerable alterations on other blood coagulation factors. Several lines of experimental evidence in this study suggest that the recombinant batroxobin is a potent pro-coagulant agent. PMID:15280019

  19. Optimization of Recombinant Expression of Synthetic Bacterial Phytase in Pichia pastoris Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Dehnavi, Ehsan; Aghaeepoor, Mojtaba; Amani, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli phytase is an acidic histidine phytase with great specific activity. Pichia pastoris is a powerful system for the heterologous expression of active and soluble proteins which can express recombinant proteins in high cell density fermenter without loss of product yield and efficiently secrete heterologous proteins into the media. Recombinant protein expression is influenced by expression conditions such as temperature, concentration of inducer, and pH. By optimization, the yield of expressed proteins can be increase. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been widely used for the optimization and studying of different parameters in biotechnological processes. Objectives: In this study, the expression of synthetic appA gene in P. pastoris was greatly improved by adjusting the expression condition. Materials and Methods: The appA gene with 410 amino acids was synthesized by P. pastoris codon preference and cloned in expression vector pPinkα-HC, under the control of AOX1 promoter, and it was transformed into P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Recombinant phytase was expressed in buffered methanol-complex medium (BMMY) and the expression was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzymatic assay. To achieve the highest level of expression, methanol concentration, pH and temperature were optimized via RSM. Finally, the optimum pH and temperature for recombinant phytase activity was determined. Results: Escherichia coli phytase was expressed in P. pastoris under different cultivation conditions (post-induction temperature, methanol concentration, and post-induction pH). The optimized conditions by RSM using face centered central composite design were 1% (v/v) methanol, pH = 5.8, and 24.5°C. Under the optimized conditions, appA was successfully expressed in P. pastoris and the maximum phytase activity was 237.2 U/mL after 72 hours of expression. Conclusions: By optimization of recombinant

  20. Positive correlation between evolutionary rate and recombination rate in Drosophila genes with male-biased expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Parsch, John

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that genes that are expressed predominantly or exclusively in males tend to evolve rapidly in comparison to other genes. In most cases, however, it is unknown whether this rapid evolution is the result of increased positive (or sexual) selection on male-expressed traits or if it is due to a relaxation of selective constraints. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we analyzed the relationship between the nonsynonymous substitution rate (dN) and local recombination rate for 343 Drosophila genes that were classified as male, female, or nonsex biased in their expression. For the male-biased genes, a positive correlation between dN and recombination rate was observed. This can be explained by an increased rate of adaptive evolution in regions of higher recombination due to a reduction of Hill-Robertson interference. In contrast, the correlation between dN and recombination rate was negative for both female- and nonsex-biased genes, suggesting that these genes are primarily subject to purifying selection, which is expected to be less effective in regions of reduced recombination.

  1. Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Elliott, R M

    1991-08-01

    A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence of the Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae) L genome segment has been constructed and cloned into two recombinant vaccinia virus expression systems. In the first, the L gene is under control of vaccinia virus P7.5 promoter; in the second, the L gene is under control of the bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter, and expression of the L gene requires coinfection with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which synthesizes T7 RNA polymerase. Both systems express a protein which is the same size as the Bunyamwera virus L protein and is recognized by a monospecific L antiserum. The expressed L protein was shown to be functional in synthesizing Bunyamwera virus RNA in a nucleocapsid transfection assay: recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were transfected with purified Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsids, and subsequently, total cellular RNA was analyzed by Northern (RNA) blotting. No Bunyamwera virus RNA was detected in control transfections, but in cells which had previously been infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the L protein, both positive- and negative-sense Bunyamwera virus S segment RNA was detected. The suitability of this system to delineate functional domains within the Bunyamwera virus L protein is discussed.

  2. Regulation of human peripheral blood monocyte DR antigen expression in vitro by lymphokines and recombinant interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Sztein, M B; Steeg, P S; Johnson, H M; Oppenheim, J J

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro regulation of adult human monocyte DR antigen expression was studied. Normally about 75% of freshly obtained human peripheral blood monocytes express DR antigens as determined by anti-DR and complement-mediated cytotoxicity assays. DR expression on monocytes in unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures persisted to variable degrees for up to 5 d of incubation. However, when the mononuclear cells were thoroughly depleted of nonadherent cells, cultured monocytes consistently exhibited progressively decreased DR expression over 2-5 d of incubation. Readdition of nonadherent cells to the adherent cell population prevented or delayed this decrease in monocyte DR antigen expression. Thus, monocyte DR expression diminished markedly during in vitro incubation; however, the presence of nonadherent cells somehow interfered with this process. In other experiments, peripheral adherent monocytes, which had been cultured for 2-3 d to reduce their DR expression, could be induced to reexpress DR antigens after 2 d of incubation with unpurified lymphokine-containing culture supernatants, recombinant human interferon-alpha, or recombinant human gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The reinduction of DR expression on human monocytes by lymphokines was abrogated by an antiserum produced to the synthetic N-terminal amino acids of human IFN-gamma, indicating that IFN-gamma is the active mediator in the lymphokine-containing preparations. Monocytes cultured with lymphokines or recombinant interferons also could initiate a significantly greater mixed lymphocyte response than control monocytes. Thus, IFN-gamma-containing lymphokines and recombinant interferons are required to induce human monocyte DR expression and accessory cell capacity in vitro, since in their absence monocytes become DR antigen-deficient. Finally, incubation of unfractionated human mononuclear cells with anti-human IFN-gamma also promoted the loss of monocyte DR expression. These findings suggest

  3. Efficient generation and rapid isolation via stoplight recombination of Herpes simplex viruses expressing model antigenic and immunological epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rebecca L; Ramsay, Alistair J; Foster, Timothy P

    2012-01-01

    Generation and isolation of recombinant herpesviruses by traditional homologous recombination methods can be a tedious, time-consuming process. Therefore, a novel stoplight recombination selection method was developed that facilitated rapid identification and purification of recombinant viruses expressing fusions of immunological epitopes with EGFP. This "traffic-light" approach provided a visual indication of the presence and purity of recombinant HSV-1 isolates by producing three identifying signals: (1) red fluorescence indicates non-recombinant viruses that should be avoided; (2) yellow fluorescence indicates cells co-infected with non-recombinant and recombinant viruses that are chosen with caution; (3) green fluorescence indicates pure recombinant isolates and to proceed with preparation of viral stocks. Adaptability of this system was demonstrated by creating three recombinant viruses that expressed model immunological epitopes. Diagnostic PCR established that the fluorescent stoplight indicators were effective at differentiating between the presence of background virus contamination and pure recombinant viruses specifying immunological epitopes. This enabled isolation of pure recombinant viral stocks that exhibited wildtype-like viral replication and cell-to-cell spread following three rounds of plaque purification. Expression of specific immunological epitopes was confirmed by western analysis, and the utility of these viruses for examining host immune responses to HSV-1 was determined by a functional T cell assay.

  4. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secr...

  5. Construction of a recombinant herpesvirus expressing the jellyfish green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Boldogköi, Z; Erdélyi, F; Sik, A; Freund, T F; Fodor, I

    1999-01-01

    Here we report the insertion of a synthetic version of the cDNA encoding the jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) green fluorescent protein (gfph ) into the genome of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus (PrV). A putative latency promoter (PLAT) located at the inverted repeat region of the PrV genome was chosen as the target site for the insertion. Recombinant viral DNA designated as vLAT-gfp was generated as a result of homologous recombination between the transfected viral DNA and a plasmid containing the GFP-expression cassette flanked by viral sequences homologous to the target region. Plaques containing recombinant virus were selected visually using a fluorescent microscope. We demonstrated a GFP-expression in infected neurons of rat brain which showed normal morphology at early stage of viral infection by monitoring fluorescent light emission. PMID:10398563

  6. A Polyclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Bovine Haptoglobin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Donghua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp), without the signal peptide sequence, was synthesized based on the codon usage bias of Escherichia coli. The synthesized pirBoHp gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a (+), which contains a His-tag. The recombinant pirBoHp protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Western blot analysis showed that the purified recombinant pirBoHp protein could be recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody. Further investigations indicated that a polyclonal antibody against the recombinant pirBoHp protein could recognize the α and β chains of native bovine haptoglobin in a pooled plasma sample from dairy cattle suffering from foot rot. PMID:24328747

  7. The functional expression and motile properties of recombinant outer arm dynein from Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Edamatsu, Masaki

    2014-05-16

    Cilia and flagella are motile organelles that play various roles in eukaryotic cells. Ciliary movement is driven by axonemal dyneins (outer arm and inner arm dyneins) that bind to peripheral microtubule doublets. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of ciliary movement requires the genetic engineering of axonemal dyneins; however, no expression system for axonemal dyneins has been previously established. This study is the first to purify recombinant axonemal dynein with motile activity. In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, recombinant outer arm dynein purified from ciliary extract was able to slide microtubules in a gliding assay. Furthermore, the recombinant dynein moved processively along microtubules in a single-molecule motility assay. This expression system will be useful for investigating the unique properties of diverse axonemal dyneins and will enable future molecular studies on ciliary movement.

  8. [Expression, purification of recombinant cationic peptide AIK in Escherichia coli and its antitumor activity].

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangfang; Sun, Huiying; Xu, Hui; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Haiyuan; Li, Yilan; Ning, Xuelian; Sun, Yue; Bai, Jing; Fu, Songbin; Zhou, Chunshui

    2015-12-01

    AIK is a novel cationic peptide with potential antitumor activity. In order to construct the AIK expression vector by Gateway technology, and establish an optimal expression and purification method for recombinant AIK, a set of primers containing AttB sites were designed and used to create the AttB-TEV-FLAG-AIR fusion gene by overlapping PCR. The resulting fusion gene was cloned into the donor vector pDONR223 by attB and attP mediated recombination (BP reaction), then, transferred into the destination vector pDESTl 5 by attL and attR mediated recombination (LR reaction). All the cloning was verified by both colony PCR and DNA sequencing. The BL21 F. coli transformed by the GST-AIR expression plasmid was used to express the GST-AIK fusion protein with IPTG induction and the induction conditions were optimized. GST-AIR fusion protein was purified by glutathione magnetic beads, followed by rTEV cleavage to remove GST tag and MTS assay to test the growth inhibition activity of the recombinant AIR on human leukemia HL-60 cells. We found that a high level of soluble expression of GST-AIK protein (more than 30% out of the total bacterial proteins) was achieved upon 0.1 mmol/L ITPG induction for 4 h at 37 °C in the transformed BL21 F. coli with starting OD₆₀₀ at 1.0. Through GST affinity purification and rTEV cleavage, the purity of the resulting recombinant AIK was greater than 95%. And the MTS assays on HL-60 cells confirmed that the recombinant AIK retains an antitumor activity at a level similar to the chemically synthesized AIK. Taken together, we have established a method for expression and purification of recombinant AIK with a potent activity against tumor cells, which will be beneficial for the large-scale production and application of recombinant AIK in the future. PMID:27093838

  9. Tunable recombinant protein expression in E. coli: enabler for continuous processing?

    PubMed

    Marschall, Lukas; Sagmeister, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Tuning of transcription is a powerful process technological tool for efficient recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. Many challenges such as product toxicity, formation of inclusion bodies, cell death, and metabolic burden are associated with non-suitable (too high or too low) levels of recombinant protein expression. Tunable expression systems allow adjusting the recombinant protein expression using process technological means. This enables to exploit the cell's metabolic capacities to a maximum. Within this article, we review genetic and process technological aspects of tunable expression systems in E. coli, providing a roadmap for the industrial exploitation of the reviewed technologies. We attempt to differentiate the term "expression tuning" from its inflationary use by providing a concise definition and highlight interesting fields of application for this versatile new technology. Dependent on the type of inducer (metabolizable or non-metabolizable), different process strategies are required in order to achieve tuning. To fully profit from the benefits of tunable systems, an independent control of growth rate and expression rate is indispensable. Being able to tackle problems such as long-term culture stability and constant product quality expression tuning is a promising enabler for continuous processing in biopharmaceutical production. PMID:27170324

  10. Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins-Expression and Purification.

    PubMed

    Gaines, William A; Marcotte, William R

    2011-03-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification.

  11. Recombinant Dragline Silk-Like Proteins—Expression and Purification

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, William A.; Marcotte, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with impressive physical characteristics making it attractive for use in advanced materials. The fiber is composed of two proteins (spidroins MaSp1 and MaSp2), each of which contains a large central repeat array flanked by non-repetitive N- and C-terminal domains. The repeat arrays appear to be largely responsible for the tensile properties of the fiber, suggesting that the N- and C-terminal domains may be involved in self-assembly. We recently isolated the MaSp1 and MaSp2 N-terminal domains from Nephila clavipes and have incorporated these into mini-silk genes for expression in transgenic systems. Current efforts involve the development of expression vectors that will allow purification using a removable affinity tag for scalable protein purification. PMID:23914141

  12. Recombinant expression of Laceyella sacchari thermitase in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Casper M; Madsen, Søren M; Vrang, Astrid; Hansen, Ole C; Johnsen, Mads G

    2013-12-01

    Thermitase (EC 3.4.21.66) is a thermostable endo-protease with the ability to convert various food relevant substrates into low-molecular weight peptides. A thermitase produced by Laceyella sacchari strain DSM43353 was found to have a mature amino acid sequence nearly identical to that of the original thermitase isolated from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. The DSM43353 thermitase gene sequence contains a pro-peptide including parts of an I9 inhibitor motif. Expression of the thermitase gene in the Lactococcus lactis P170 expression system allowed secretion of stable thermitase in an auto-induced fermentation setup at 30°C. Thermitase accumulated in the culture supernatant during batch fermentations and was easily activated at 50°C or by prolonged dialysis. The activation step resulted in an almost complete degradation of endogenous L. lactis host proteins present in the supernatant. Mature activated product was stable at 50°C and functional at pH values between pH 6 and pH 11, suggesting that substrate hydrolysis can be performed over a broad range of pH values. The L. lactis based P170 expression system is a simple and safe system for obtaining food compatible thermitase in the range of 100 mg/L.

  13. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECOMBINANT JUVENILE HORMONE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (JHEH) FROM MANDUCA SEXTA. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cDNA of the microsomal Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase (JHEH) from Manduca sexta was expressed in vitro in the baculovirus system. In insect cell culture, the recombinant enzyme (Ms-JHEH) was produced at a high level (100 fold over background EH catalytic activit...

  14. S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against IBV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that chickens primed with a recombinant LaSota virus (rLS) expressing the IBV S2 gene (rLS/IBV.S2) and boosted with an attenuated IBV Massachusetts (Mass)-type vaccine were protected against heterologous IBV Arkansas (Ark)-type virulent challenge. In the current study, we...

  15. Expression and activity of recombinant proaerolysin derived from Aeromonas hydrophila cultured from diseased channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proaerolysin-coding gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of A. hydrophila and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant proaerolysin was inactive and could be activated by treatment with proteases, furin and trypsin, and extra-cellular proteins (ECPs, the cell-free supernatant of...

  16. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  17. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ryuichi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV-LACK, rCDV-TSA, and rCDV-LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV-TSA- and rCDV-LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV-LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  18. Expression and in vitro assembly of recombinant glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Diruggiero, J; Robb, F T

    1995-01-01

    The gdhA gene, encoding the hexameric glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, was expressed in Escherichia coli by using the pET11-d system. The recombinant GDH was soluble and constituted 15% of the E. coli cell extract. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant protein was identical to the sequence of the P. furiosus enzyme, except for the presence of an initial methionine which was absent from the enzyme purified from P. furiosus. By molecular exclusion chromatography we showed that the recombinant GDH was composed of equal amounts of monomeric and hexameric forms. Heat treatment of the recombinant protein triggered in vitro assembly of inactive monomers into hexamers, resulting in increased GDH activity. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme, purified by heat treatment and affinity chromatography, was equivalent to that of the native enzyme from P. furiosus. The recombinant GDH displayed a slightly lower level of thermostability, with a half-life of 8 h at 100 degrees C, compared with 10.5 h for the enzyme purified from P. furiosus. PMID:7887598

  19. Expression of human recombinant granzyme A zymogen and its activation by the cysteine proteinase cathepsin C.

    PubMed

    Kummer, J A; Kamp, A M; Citarella, F; Horrevoets, A J; Hack, C E

    1996-04-19

    Human granzyme A is one of the serine proteinases present in the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Granzymes are synthesized as inactive proenzymes with an amino-terminal prodipeptide, which is processed during transport of granzymes to the cytotoxic granules, where they are stored as active proteinases. In this study, we explored the possibility of producing recombinant granzymes. Recombinant human granzyme A zymogen was expressed in several eukaryotic cell lines (HepG2, Jurkat, and COS-1) after infection with a recombinant vaccinia virus containing full-length granzyme A cDNA. Immunoblot analysis of cell lysates showed that all infected cells produced a disulfide-linked homodimer of identical molecular weight as natural granzyme A. Infected HepG2 cells produced the largest amount of this protease (approximately 160 times more than lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells). The recombinant protein only had high mannose type oligosaccharides as did the natural protein. Although infected HepG2 and COS cells contained high granzyme A antigen levels, lysates from these cells did not show any granzyme A proteolytic activity. However, the inactive proenzyme could be converted into active granzyme A by incubation with the thiol proteinase cathepsin C (dipeptidyl peptidase I). This study is the first to demonstrate expression of an active recombinant human cytotoxic lymphocyte proteinase and conversion of inactive progranzyme A into an active enzyme by cathepsin C. We suggest that a similar approach can be used for the production of other granzymes and related proteinases.

  20. Trichloroethylene degradation using recombinant bacteria expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase from methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.; Wood, T.K.

    1995-12-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. trichosporium OB3b has the ability to degrade many halogenated aliphatic compounds that are found in contaminated soil and groundwater. For efficient trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in a foreign host, efforts are being made to improve inconsistent and low sMMO activity of the recombinant strain constructed previously (Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20). Additional smmo-containing recombinant strains have been constructed including various Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Rhizobium strains. Recombinant facultative methylotrophs containing the smmo locus were also constructed through electroporation and tri-parental mating using a new plasmid pSMMO50. TCE degradation by these recombinant strains was examined. The effect of metal ions on in vitro sMMO activity was also discerned to optimize the expression medium. Among the metal ions examined, Cu(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) inhibited sMMO purified from trichosporium OB3b, and the effect of the metal ions on each of the components of sMMO will also be discussed. In addition, the post-segregational killing locus (hok/sok) from E. coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the smmo locus to stabilize the recombinant plasmid in these host cells, and chemostat cultures were used to optimize expression of active sMMO by varying the growth rate.

  1. Simultaneous expression of the Lassa virus N and GPC genes from a single recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, H G; Goldsmith, C S; Regnery, H L; Auperin, D D

    1991-03-01

    A new transfer vector was constructed that directs the insertion of two heterologous genes into the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene during a single recombination event. This vector, pDAVAC2, contains bidirectional vaccinia P7.5 early/late promoter elements and two unique cloning sites. cDNA clones containing the complete coding sequences for the Lassa virus (Josiah strain) nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (GPC) genes were inserted into the vaccinia TK gene using this transfer vector. The recombinant virus, V-LSGN-II, expressed proteins in cell culture that appeared to be authentic with respect to electrophoretic mobility, glycosylation, and post-translational cleavage. Indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) of recombinant virus-infected cells demonstrated both the bright granular and diffuse patterns of staining characteristic of the Lassa nucleoprotein and glycoprotein, respectively. Electron-dense inclusion bodies typical of arenavirus-infected cells were observed by electron microscopy in V-LSN and V-LSGN-II-infected cells, but not in V-LSGPC-infected cells. Mice inoculated with V-LSGN-II by intraperitoneal injection developed serum antibodies that reacted with authentic Lassa proteins in immunofluorescence and radioimmune precipitation assays. This recombinant virus represents an additional candidate for a Lassa fever vaccine and demonstrates the feasibility of expressing any two genes of interest in a single recombinant vaccinia virus through the use of the transfer vector pDAVAC2.

  2. Production of itaconic acid in Escherichia coli expressing recombinant α-amylase using starch as substrate.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shusuke; Chin, Taejun; Nagata, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ohara, Hitomi; Aso, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Several studies on fermentative production of a vinyl monomer itaconic acid from hydrolyzed starch using Aspergillus terreus have been reported. Herein, we report itaconic acid production by Escherichia coli expressing recombinant α-amylase, using soluble starch as its sole carbon source. To express α-amylase in E. coli, we first constructed recombinant plasmids expressing α-amylases by using cell surface display technology derived from two amylolytic bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) and Streptococcus bovis NRIC 1535. The recombinant α-amylase from S. bovis (SBA) showed activity at 28°C, which is the optimal temperature for production of itaconic acid, while α-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens displayed no noticeable activity. E. coli cells expressing SBA produced 0.15 g/L itaconic acid after 69 h cultivation under pH-stat conditions, using 1% starch as the sole carbon source. In fact, E. coli cells expressing SBA had similar growth rates when grown in the presence of 1% glucose or starch, thereby highlighting the expression of an active α-amylase that enabled utilization of starch to produce itaconic acid in E. coli.

  3. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, E.; Avia, M.; Rangel, G.; de Molina, A.; Alejo, A.; Sevilla, N.

    2016-01-01

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. PMID:26739058

  4. Vaccinia Virus Recombinants: Expression of VSV Genes and Protective Immunization of Mice and Cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackett, M.; Yilma, T.; Rose, J. K.; Moss, B.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a contagious disease of horses, cattle, and pigs. When DNA copies of messenger RNA's for the G or N proteins of VSV were linked to a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the vaccinia genome, the recombinants retained infectivity and synthesized VSV polypeptides. After intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the G protein, mice produced VSV-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous challenge with VSV. In cattle, the degree of protection against intradermalingually injected VSV was correlated with the level of neutralizing antibody produced following vaccination.

  5. Recombinant expression and biological characterization of the antimicrobial peptide fowlicidin-2 in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Li-Wei; Tian, Shi-Xun; Gao, Wei; Yang, Na; Qu, Pei; Liu, Di; Jiao, Jian; Wang, Jue; Feng, Xing-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Fowlicidins are a group of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides that were initially identified in chickens. Fowlicidin-2, which is composed of 31 amino acids, is widely expressed in the majority of tissues in chickens and has an important role in innate immunity. In the present study, a recombinant expression system for fowlicidin-2 was successfully constructed using Pichia pastoris X-33 and the expression vector pPICZα-A. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, 85.6 mg fowlicidin-2 with >95% purity was obtained from 1 liter culture medium following purification by ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The recombinant fowlicidin-2 exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and had a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 1 to 4 µM. Furthermore, recombinant fowlicidin-2 exhibited hemolytic activity, promoting 50% human erythrocyte hemolysis in the concentration range of 128–256 µM, and anticancer activity, resulting in the death of 50% of A375 human malignant melanoma cells in the concentration range of 2–4 µM. The results of the present study suggest that recombinant fowlicidin-2 may be a promising candidate for therapeutic applications. PMID:27698732

  6. Recombinant expression and biological characterization of the antimicrobial peptide fowlicidin-2 in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Li-Wei; Tian, Shi-Xun; Gao, Wei; Yang, Na; Qu, Pei; Liu, Di; Jiao, Jian; Wang, Jue; Feng, Xing-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Fowlicidins are a group of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides that were initially identified in chickens. Fowlicidin-2, which is composed of 31 amino acids, is widely expressed in the majority of tissues in chickens and has an important role in innate immunity. In the present study, a recombinant expression system for fowlicidin-2 was successfully constructed using Pichia pastoris X-33 and the expression vector pPICZα-A. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, 85.6 mg fowlicidin-2 with >95% purity was obtained from 1 liter culture medium following purification by ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The recombinant fowlicidin-2 exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and had a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 1 to 4 µM. Furthermore, recombinant fowlicidin-2 exhibited hemolytic activity, promoting 50% human erythrocyte hemolysis in the concentration range of 128–256 µM, and anticancer activity, resulting in the death of 50% of A375 human malignant melanoma cells in the concentration range of 2–4 µM. The results of the present study suggest that recombinant fowlicidin-2 may be a promising candidate for therapeutic applications.

  7. Characterization and Recombinant Expression of Terebrid Venom Peptide from Terebra guttata.

    PubMed

    Moon, John; Gorson, Juliette; Wright, Mary Elizabeth; Yee, Laurel; Khawaja, Samer; Shin, Hye Young; Karma, Yasmine; Musunri, Rajeeva Lochan; Yun, Michelle; Holford, Mande

    2016-03-03

    Venom peptides found in terebrid snails expand the toolbox of active compounds that can be applied to investigate cellular physiology and can be further developed as future therapeutics. However, unlike other predatory organisms, such as snakes, terebrids produce very small quantities of venom, making it difficult to obtain sufficient amounts for biochemical characterization. Here, we describe the first recombinant expression and characterization of terebrid peptide, teretoxin Tgu6.1, from Terebra guttata. Tgu6.1 is a novel forty-four amino acid teretoxin peptide with a VI/VII cysteine framework (C-C-CC-C-C) similar to O, M and I conotoxin superfamilies. A ligation-independent cloning strategy with an ompT protease deficient strain of E. coli was employed to recombinantly produce Tgu6.1. Thioredoxin was introduced in the plasmid to combat disulfide folding and solubility issues. Specifically Histidine-6 tag and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography were applied as a purification method, and enterokinase was used as a specific cleavage protease to effectively produce high yields of folded Tgu6.1 without extra residues to the primary sequence. The recombinantly-expressed Tgu6.1 peptide was bioactive, displaying a paralytic effect when injected into a Nereis virens polychaete bioassay. The recombinant strategy described to express Tgu6.1 can be applied to produce high yields of other disulfide-rich peptides.

  8. Characterization and Recombinant Expression of Terebrid Venom Peptide from Terebra guttata

    PubMed Central

    Moon, John; Gorson, Juliette; Wright, Mary Elizabeth; Yee, Laurel; Khawaja, Samer; Shin, Hye Young; Karma, Yasmine; Musunri, Rajeeva Lochan; Yun, Michelle; Holford, Mande

    2016-01-01

    Venom peptides found in terebrid snails expand the toolbox of active compounds that can be applied to investigate cellular physiology and can be further developed as future therapeutics. However, unlike other predatory organisms, such as snakes, terebrids produce very small quantities of venom, making it difficult to obtain sufficient amounts for biochemical characterization. Here, we describe the first recombinant expression and characterization of terebrid peptide, teretoxin Tgu6.1, from Terebra guttata. Tgu6.1 is a novel forty-four amino acid teretoxin peptide with a VI/VII cysteine framework (C–C–CC–C–C) similar to O, M and I conotoxin superfamilies. A ligation-independent cloning strategy with an ompT protease deficient strain of E. coli was employed to recombinantly produce Tgu6.1. Thioredoxin was introduced in the plasmid to combat disulfide folding and solubility issues. Specifically Histidine-6 tag and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography were applied as a purification method, and enterokinase was used as a specific cleavage protease to effectively produce high yields of folded Tgu6.1 without extra residues to the primary sequence. The recombinantly-expressed Tgu6.1 peptide was bioactive, displaying a paralytic effect when injected into a Nereis virens polychaete bioassay. The recombinant strategy described to express Tgu6.1 can be applied to produce high yields of other disulfide-rich peptides. PMID:26950153

  9. Productivity of cyclohexanone oxidation of the recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing chnB of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Doo, Eun-Hee; Lee, Won-Heong; Seo, Hyo-Seel; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Jin-Byung

    2009-06-15

    The biocatalytic efficiency of recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing the chnB gene encoding cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIMB 9871 was investigated. Optimization of an expression system and induction conditions enabled the recombinant biocatalyst to produce CHMO to a specific activity of ca. 0.5 U mg(-1) protein. Tight control of feeding of an energy source (i.e., glucose) and dissolved oxygen tension during fed-batch culture-based biotransformation allowed the cells to produce epsilon-caprolactone to a concentration of 16.0 g l(-1). The specific and volumetric productivity for cyclohexanone oxidation were 0.12 g g drycells(-1)h(-1) (17.5 U g(-1) of dry cells) and 2.3 g l(-1)h(-1) (330 U l(-1)), respectively. These values correspond to over 5.4- and 2.7-fold of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the same gene under similar reaction conditions. It could be concluded that the recombinant C. glutamicum is a promising biocatalyst for Baeyer-Villiger oxidations.

  10. Multiplexed expression and screening for recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Susan DJ; Crofts, Anna M; Shadbolt, S Paul; McCafferty, John; Dyson, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Background A variety of approaches to understanding protein structure and function require production of recombinant protein. Mammalian based expression systems have advantages over bacterial systems for certain classes of protein but can be slower and more laborious. Thus the availability of a simple system for production and rapid screening of constructs or conditions for mammalian expression would be of great benefit. To this end we have coupled an efficient recombinant protein production system based on transient transfection in HEK-293 EBNA1 (HEK-293E) suspension cells with a dot blot method allowing pre-screening of proteins expressed in cells in a high throughput manner. Results A nested PCR approach was used to clone 21 extracellular domains of mouse receptors as CD4 fusions within a mammalian GATEWAY expression vector system. Following transient transfection, HEK-293E cells grown in 2 ml cultures in 24-deep well blocks showed similar growth kinetics, viability and recombinant protein expression profiles, to those grown in 50 ml shake flask cultures as judged by western blotting. Following optimisation, fluorescent dot blot analysis of transfection supernatants was shown to be a rapid method for analysing protein expression yielding similar results as western blot analysis. Addition of urea enhanced the binding of glycoproteins to a nitrocellulose membrane. A good correlation was observed between the results of a plate based small scale transient transfection dot blot pre-screen and successful purification of proteins expressed at the 50 ml scale. Conclusion The combination of small scale multi-well plate culture and dot blotting described here will allow the multiplex analysis of different mammalian expression experiments enabling a faster identification of high yield expression constructs or conditions prior to large scale protein production. The methods for parallel GATEWAY cloning and expression of multiple constructs in cell culture will also be useful

  11. Expression of recombinant human anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Yao, N; Ai, L; Dong, Y Y; Liu, X M; Wang, D Z; Wang, N; Li, X W; Wang, F W; Li, Xk; Li, H Y; Jiang, C

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α scFv-Fc was expressed in TKO mutant Arabidopsis thaliana seeds using plant-specific codons. Immunoblotting using a human IgG1 antibody detected the expression of anti-TNF-α proteins in plants. Results from qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the time of harvest significantly affected the protein yield and quality. Our results indicate that the Phaseolus vulgaris β-phaseolin promoter directed anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc expression in A. thaliana seeds, with a maximum yield obtained at 20-days of development. Although the yield of anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc protein was not very high, accumulation of recombinant proteins in seeds is an attractive and simple method that can be used to purify biologically active anti-TNF-α scFv-Fc. PMID:27420937

  12. Bicistronic expression plasmid for the rapid production of recombinant fused proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yero, Daniel; Pajón, Rolando; Niebla, Olivia; Sardiñas, Gretel; Vivar, Isbel; Perera, Yasser; García, Darien; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem

    2006-04-01

    In the post-genomic era, every aspect of the production of proteins must be accelerated. In this way, several vectors are currently exploited for rapid production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. N-terminal fusions to the first 47 amino acids of the LpdA (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase A) protein of Neisseria meningitidis have been shown to increase the expression of recombinant proteins. Consequently, we have constructed a modified N-terminal LpdA fusion vector, introducing the blue/white colony selection by exploiting a bicistronic gene organization. In the new vector, the sequence encoding the first 47 amino acids of meningococcal LpdA and the alpha-peptide sequence of beta-galactosidase were connected via a ribosome-binding site, and two MCSs (multiple cloning sites) were located surrounding the latter, allowing efficient cloning by colour selection of recombinants. The vector was also improved with the addition of a C-terminal polyhistidine tag, and an EKS (enterokinase recognition sequence) immediately after the LpdA fusion sequence. The new plasmid was employed in the expression and purification of six different bacterial polypeptides. One of these recombinant proteins, P6 protein from Haemophilus influenzae, was used as a model and its N-terminal fusion sequence was totally removed from the recombinant version after incubation with the enterokinase protease, while the polyhistidine tail successfully allowed the purification of the unfused protein from the protease reaction. Two completely new neisserial vaccine candidates, NMB0088 and NMB1126 proteins, were cloned, expressed and purified using this system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of the cloning and expression of these proteins in E. coli.

  13. Characterization and high expression of recombinant Ustilago maydis xylanase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Han, Hongjuan; You, Shuang; Zhu, Bo; Fu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baihui; Qiu, Jin; Yu, Chengye; Chen, Lei; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant xylanase gene (rxynUMB) from Ustilago maydis 521 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the enzyme was purified and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that rxynUMB belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11. The Trp84, Trp95, Glu93, and Glu189 residues are proposed to be present at the active site. The apparent molecular mass of the recombinant xylananse was approximately 24 kDa, and the optimum pH and temperature were 4.3 and 50 °C, respectively. Xylanase activity was enhanced by 166 and 115% with Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The biochemical properties of this recombinant xylanase suggest that it may be a useful candidate for a variety of commercial applications.

  14. Recombinant cold-adapted trypsin I from Atlantic cod-expression, purification, and identification.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, Gudrún; Bjarnason, Jón Bragi; Gudmundsdóttir, Agústa

    2004-01-01

    Atlantic cod trypsin I is a cold-adapted proteolytic enzyme exhibiting approximately 20 times higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) than its mesophilic bovine counterpart for the simple amide substrate BAPNA. In general, cold-adapted proteolytic enzymes are sensitive to autolytic degradation, thermal inactivation as well as molecular aggregation, even at temperatures as low as 18-25 degrees C which may explain the problems observed with their expression, activation, and purification. Prior to the data presented here, there have been no reports in the literature on the expression of psychrophilic or cold-adapted proteolytic enzymes from fish. Nevertheless, numerous cold-adapted proteolytic microbial enzymes have been successfully expressed in bacteria and yeast. This report describes successful expression, activation, and purification of the recombinant cod trypsin I in the His-Patch ThioFusion Escherichia coli expression system. The E. coli pThioHis expression vector used in the study enabled the formation of a fusion protein between a highly soluble fraction of HP-thioredoxin contained in the vector and the N-terminal end of the precursor form of cod trypsin I. The HP-thioredoxin part of the fusion protein binds to a metal-chelating ProBond column, which facilitated its purification. The cod trypsin I part of the purified fusion protein was released by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in concomitant activation of the recombinant enzyme. The recombinant cod trypsin I was purified to homogeneity on a trypsin-specific benzamidine affinity column. The identity of the recombinant enzyme was demonstrated by electrophoresis and chromatography.

  15. A new rabies vaccine based on a recombinant ORF virus (parapoxvirus) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Amann, Ralf; Rohde, Jörg; Wulle, Ulrich; Conlee, Douglas; Raue, Rudiger; Martinon, Olivier; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim

    2013-02-01

    The present study describes the generation of a new Orf virus (ORFV) recombinant, D1701-V-RabG, expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein that is correctly presented on the surface of infected cells without the need of replication or production of infectious recombinant virus. One single immunization with recombinant ORFV can stimulate high RABV-specific virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers in mice, cats, and dogs, representing all nonpermissive hosts for the ORFV vector. The protective immune response against severe lethal challenge infection was analyzed in detail in mice using different dosages, numbers, and routes for immunization with the ORFV recombinant. Long-term levels of VNA could be elicited that remained greater than 0.5 IU per ml serum, indicative for the protective status. Single applications of higher doses (10(7) PFU) can be sufficient to confer complete protection against intracranial (i.c.) challenge, whereas booster immunization was needed for protection by the application of lower dosages. Anamnestic immune responses were achieved by each of the seven tested routes of inoculation, including oral application. Finally, in vivo antibody-mediated depletion of CD4-positive and/or CD8-posititve T cell subpopulations during immunization and/or challenge infection attested the importance of CD4 T cells for the induction of protective immunity by D1701-V-RabG. This report demonstrates another example of the potential of the ORFV vector and also indicates the capability of the new recombinant for vaccination of animals. PMID:23175365

  16. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human transferrin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Deshui; Nandi, Somen; Bryan, Paula; Pettit, Steve; Nguyen, Diane; Santos, Mary Ann; Huang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Transferrin is an essential ingredient used in cell culture media due to its crucial role in regulating cellular iron uptake, transport, and utilization. It is also a promising drug carrier used to increase a drug’s therapeutic index via the unique transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Due to the high risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens from the use of human- or animal plasma-derived transferrin, recombinant transferrin is preferred for use as a replacement for native transferrin. We expressed recombinant human transferrin in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at a high level of 1% seed dry weight (10 g/kg). The recombinant human transferrin was able to be extracted with saline buffers and then purified by a one step anion exchange chromatographic process to greater than 95% purity. The rice-derived recombinant human transferrin was shown to be not only structurally similar to the native human transferrin, but also functionally the same as native transferrin in terms of reversible iron binding and promoting cell growth and productivity. These results indicate that rice-derived recombinant human transferrin should be a safe and low cost alternative to human or animal plasma-derived transferrin for use in cell culture-based biopharmaceutical production of protein therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:20447458

  17. [The expression of BmK AngM1 in Mut(s) and Mut(+) recombinants of Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-hua; Liang, Lan; Chen, Jing-jing; Gong, Ting; Hou, Qi; Yang, Jin-ling; Zhu, Ping

    2015-07-01

    BmK AngM1 is a long-chain scorpion toxin purified from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch. It has been reported to exhibit evident analgesic effect and low toxicity, and has the potential to be a novel analgesic drug. The BmKAngM1 gene was transformed into Pichiapastoris GS115. Mut+ and Mut(s) recombinant strains were screened by phenotype and Mut+ recombinant strains were used to detect BmK AngMl gene copy number in the real-time PCR. Expression of BmK AngM1 in the Mut+ recombinant strain was compared with that of the Mut(s) recombinant strain with the same single copy of BmK AngM1 gene under the same condition. The results indicated that the transcription level of BmK AngM1 gene in the Mut(s) recombinant strain was 2.7 fold of that in the Mut recombinant strain in the real-time PCR, and the expression of BmK AngM 1 in the Mut(s) recombinant strain was 1.5 fold of that in the Mut+ recombinant strain. Therefore, Mut(s) recombinant strain showed better ability to express BmK AngM1 than Mut+ recombinant strain. PMID:26552156

  18. Recombinant sterol esterase from Ophiostoma piceae: an improved biocatalyst expressed in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ascomycete Ophiostoma piceae produces a sterol esterase (OPE) with high affinity towards p-nitrophenol, glycerol and sterol esters. Its hydrolytic activity on natural mixtures of triglycerides and sterol esters has been proposed for pitch biocontrol in paper industry since these compounds produce important economic losses during paper pulp manufacture. Results Recently, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and the hydrolytic activity of the recombinant protein (OPE*) studied. After the initial screening of different clones expressing the enzyme, only one was selected for showing the highest production rate. Different culture conditions were tested to improve the expression of the recombinant enzyme. Complex media were better than minimal media for production, but in any case the levels of enzymatic activity were higher (7-fold in the best case) than those obtained from O. piceae. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 76 kDa, higher than that reported for the native enzyme under SDS-PAGE (60 kDa). Steady-state kinetic characterization of the recombinant protein showed improved catalytic efficiency for this enzyme as compared to the native one, for all the assayed substrates (p-nitrophenol, glycerol, and cholesterol esters). Different causes for this were studied, as the increased glycosylation degree of the recombinant enzyme, their secondary structures or the oxidation of methionine residues. However, none of these could explain the improvements found in the recombinant protein. N-terminal sequencing of OPE* showed that two populations of this enzyme were expressed, having either 6 or 8 amino acid residues more than the native one. This fact affected the aggregation behaviour of the recombinant protein, as was corroborated by analytical ultracentrifugation, thus improving the catalytic efficiency of this enzyme. Conclusion P. pastoris resulted to be an optimum biofactory for the

  19. Tunable recombinant protein expression with E. coli in a mixed-feed environment.

    PubMed

    Sagmeister, Patrick; Schimek, Clemens; Meitz, Andrea; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Controlling the recombinant protein production rate in Escherichia coli is of utmost importance to ensure product quality and quantity. Up to now, only the genetic construct, introduced into E. coli, and the specific growth rate of the culture were used to influence and stir the productivity. However, bioprocess technological means to control or even tune the productivity of E. coli are scarce. Here, we present a novel method for the process-technological control over the recombinant protein expression rate in E. coli. A mixed-feed fed-batch bioprocess based on the araBAD promoter expression system using both D-glucose and L-arabinose as assimilable C-sources was designed. Using the model product green fluorescent protein, we show that the specific product formation rate can be efficiently tuned even on the cellular level only via the uptake rate of L-arabinose. This novel approach introduces an additional degree of freedom for the design of recombinant bioprocesses with E. coli. We anticipate that the presented method will result in significant quality and robustness improvement as well as cost and process time reduction for recombinant bacterial bioprocesses in the future.

  20. A recombinant canine distemper virus expressing a modified rabies virus glycoprotein induces immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhili; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Jiazeng; Yi, Bao; Hou, Qiang; Mao, Yaping; Liu, Weiquan

    2015-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RV) are two important pathogens of the dog. CDV, a member of the morbillivirus genus, has shown promise as an expression vector. The glycoprotein from RV is a main contributor to protective immunity and capable of eliciting the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we recovered an attenuated strain of canine distemper virus and constructed a recombinant virus, rCDV-RV-G, expressing a modified (R333Q) rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) of RV Flury strain LEP. RV-G expression by the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Furthermore, G was proved to be incorporated into the surface of CDV particles. While replication of the recombinant virus was slightly reduced compared with the parental CDV, it stably expressed the RV-G over ten serial passages. Inoculation of mice induced specific neutralizing antibodies against both RV-G and CDV. Therefore, the rCDV-RV-G has the potential as a vaccine that may be used to control rabies virus infection in dogs and other animals. PMID:25764477

  1. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  2. Recombinant Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterisation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Nephroblastoma-Overexpressed Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bohr, Wilhelm; Kupper, Michael; Hoffmann, Kurt; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The CCN family of proteins, especially its prominent member, the Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has been identified as a possible biomarker for the diagnosis of fibrotic diseases. As a downstream mediator of TGF-β1 signalling, it is involved in tissue scarring, stimulates interstitial deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, and promotes proliferation of several cell types. Another member of this family, the Nephroblastoma-Overexpressed protein (NOV/CCN3), has growth-inhibiting properties. First reports further suggest that these two CCN family members act opposite to each other in regulating extracellular matrix protein expression and reciprocally influence their own expression when over-expressed. We have established stable HEK and Flp-In-293 clones as productive sources for recombinant human CCN2/CTGF. In addition, we generated an adenoviral vector for recombinant expression of rat NOV and established protocols to purify large quantities of these CCN proteins. The identity of purified human CCN2/CTGF and rat CCN3/NOV was proven by In-gel digest followed by ESI-TOF/MS mass spectrometry. The biological activity of purified proteins was demonstrated using a Smad3-sensitive reporter gene and BrdU proliferation assay in permanent cell line EA•hy 926 cells. We further demonstrate for the first time that both recombinant CCN proteins are N-glycosylated. PMID:21209863

  3. Milk composition studies in transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Hernan; Hockley, Duncan K; Olaniyan, Benjamen; Brochu, Eric; Zhao, Xin; Mustafa, Arif; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2008-10-01

    The use of the mammary gland of transgenic goats as a bioreactor is a well established platform for the efficient production of recombinant proteins, especially for molecules that cannot be adequately produced in traditional systems using genetically engineered microorganisms and cells. However, the extraordinary demand placed on the secretory epithelium by the expression of large amounts of the recombinant protein, may result in a compromised mammary physiology. In this study, milk composition was compared between control and transgenic goats expressing high levels (1-5 g/l) of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase in the milk. Casein concentration, as evaluated by acid precipitation, was significantly reduced in the transgenic compared with the control goats throughout lactation (P < 0.01). Milk fatty acid composition for transgenic goats, as determined by gas chromatography, was found to have significantly fewer short chain fatty acids (P < 0.01) and more saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) compared to controls, suggesting an overall metabolic stress and/or decreased expression of key enzymes (e.g. fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase). The concentration of Na(+), K(+), assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum albumin, determined by bromocresol green dye and scanning densitometry, were similar in transgenic and control goats during the first several weeks of lactation. However, as lactation progressed, a significant increase in Na and serum albumin concentrations and a decrease in K(+) concentration were found in the milk of transgenic goats, while control animals remained unchanged (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that: (a) high expression of recombinant proteins may be associated with a slow-down in other synthetic activities at the mammary epithelium, as evidenced by a reduced casein expression and a decreased de-novo synthesis of fatty acids; (b) the development of permeable tight junctions may be the main mechanism involved in the

  4. The Use of Affinity Tags to Overcome Obstacles in Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Chinthaka; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Research and industrial demands for recombinant proteins continue to increase over time for their broad applications in structural and functional studies and as therapeutic agents. These applications often require large quantities of recombinant protein at desirable purity, which highlights the importance of developing and improving production approaches that provide high level expression and readily achievable purity of recombinant protein. E. coli is the most widely used host for the expression of a diverse range of proteins at low cost. However, there are common pitfalls that can severely limit the expression of exogenous proteins, such as stability, low solubility and toxicity to the host cell. To overcome these obstacles, one strategy that has found to be promising is the use of affinity tags or carrier peptide to aid in the folding of the target protein, increase solubility, lower toxicity and increase the level of expression. In the meantime, the tags and fusion proteins can be designed to facilitate affinity purification. Since the fusion protein may not exhibit the native conformation of the target protein, various strategies have been developed to remove the tag during or after purification to avoid potential complications in structural and functional studies and to obtain native biological activities. Despite extensive research and rapid development along these lines, there are unsolved problems and imperfect applications. This focused review compares and contrasts various strategies that employ affinity tags to improve bacterial expression and to facilitate purification of recombinant proteins. The pros and cons of the approaches are discussed for more effective applications and new directions of future improvement. PMID:26216265

  5. Enhancing stability and expression of recombinant human hemoglobin in E. coli: Progress in the development of a recombinant HBOC source.

    PubMed

    Graves, Philip E; Henderson, Douglas P; Horstman, Molly J; Solomon, Brian J; Olson, John S

    2008-10-01

    The commercial feasibility of recombinant human Hb (rHb) as an O(2) delivery pharmaceutical is limited by the production yield of holoprotein in E. coli. Currently the production of rHb is not cost effective for use as a source in the development of third and fourth generation Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). The major problems appear to be aggregation and degradation of apoglobin at the nominal expression temperatures, 28-37 degrees C, and the limited amount of free heme that is available for holohemoglobin assembly. One approach to solve the first problem is to inhibit apoglobin precipitation by a comparative mutagenesis strategy to improve apoglobin stability. alpha Gly15 to Ala and beta Gly16 to Ala mutations have been constructed to increase the stability of the alpha helices of both subunits of HbA, based on comparison with the sequences of the more stable sperm whale hemoglobin subunits. Fetal hemoglobin is also known to be more stable than human HbA, and sequence comparisons between human beta and gamma (fetal Hb) chains indicate several substitutions that stabilize the alpha1beta1 interface, one of which, beta His116 to Ile, increases resistance to denaturation and enhances expression in E. coli. These favorable effects of enhanced globin stability can be augmented by co-expression of bacterial membrane heme transport systems to increase the rate and extent of heme uptake through the bacterial cell membranes. The combination of increased apoglobin stability and active heme transport appear to enhance holohemoglobin production to levels that may make rHb a plausible starting material for all extracellular Hb-based oxygen carriers.

  6. Cloning and expression of pig kidney dopa decarboxylase: comparison of the naturally occurring and recombinant enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P S; Dominici, P; Borri Voltattorni, C

    1996-01-01

    L-Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase; DDC) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent homodimeric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of L-dopa and other L-aromatic amino acids. To advance structure-function studies with the enzyme, a cDNA that codes for the protein from pig kidney has been cloned by joining a partial cDNA obtained by library screening with a synthetic portion constructed by the annealing and extension of long oligonucleotides. The hybrid cDNA was then expressed in Escherichia coli to produce recombinant protein. During characterization of the recombinant enzyme it was unexpectedly observed that it possesses certain differences from the enzyme purified from pig kidney. Whereas the later protein binds 1 molecule of PLP per dimer, the recombinant enzyme was found to bind two molecules of coenzyme per dimer. Moreover, the Vmax was twice that of the protein purified from tissue. On addition of substrate, the absorbance changes accompanying transaldimination were likewise 2-fold greater in the recombinant enzyme. Examination of the respective apoenzymes by absorbance, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed distinct differences. The recombinant apoprotein has no significant absorbance at 335 nm, unlike the pig kidney apoenzyme; in the latter case this residual absorbance is associated with a positive dichroic signal. When excited at 335 nm the pig kidney apoenzyme has a pronounced emission maximum at 385 nm, in contrast with its recombinant counterpart, which shows a weak broad emission at about 400 nm. However, the holoenzyme-apoenzyme transition did not markedly alter the respective fluorescence properties of either recombinant or pig kidney DDC when excited at 335 nm. Taken together, these findings indicate that recombinant pig kidney DDC has two active-site PLP molecules and therefore displays structural characteristics typical of PLP-dependent homodimeric enzymes. The natural enzyme contains one active-site PLP molecule

  7. Construction of an Expression System for Bioactive IL-18 and Generation of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing IL-18

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Yuxiu; SATO, Hiroki; HAMANA, Masahiro; MOONAN, Navita Anisia; YONEDA, Misako; XIA, Xianzhu; KAI, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  8. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  9. Immunogenicity of recombinant Bacillus subtilis spores expressing Clonorchis sinensis tegumental protein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenwen; Xia, Huimin; Hu, Xuchu; Huang, Yan; Ma, Changling; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Fengyu; Xu, Jin; Lu, Fangli; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing

    2008-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, which causes clonorchiasis, is of major socioeconomic importance in China. In this study, we report the use of CotC, a major component of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat, as a fusion partner for the expression of C. sinensis TP20.8 (Tegumental Protein 20.8 kDa) on the spore coat. Western blotting was used to identify TP20.8 surface expression on spores. Recombinant spores displaying the TP20.8 antigen were used for oral immunization and were shown to generate mucosal response in rats. TP20.8-specific secretory IgA in feces reached significant levels 2 weeks after oral dosing. This report shows that surface display of recombinant C. sinensis TP20.8 on B. subtilis spores was immunogenic and B. subtilis spores can be used as a mucosal immunization vehicle for parasite prevention and control.

  10. Generation of E3-deleted canine adenoviruses expressing canine parvovirus capsid by homologous recombination in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Mark D; Reid, Dorothy; Onions, David; Spibey, Norman; Nicolson, Lesley

    2002-02-01

    E3-deleted canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) was generated by homologous recombination in bacterial cells, using an antibiotic resistance marker to facilitate the recovery of recombinants. This marker was flanked by unique restriction endonuclease sites, which allowed its subsequent removal and the insertion of cassettes expressing the canine parvovirus capsid at the E3 locus. Infectious virus was recovered following transfection of canine cells and capsid expression was observed by RT-PCR from one of the virus constructs. A second construct, containing a different promoter, showed delayed growth and genome instability which, based on the size difference between these inserts, suggests a maximum packaging size of 106 to 109% wild-type genome size for CAV-1. PMID:11853396

  11. Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors.

    PubMed

    Hart, Bryan E; Asrican, Rose; Lim, So-Yon; Sixsmith, Jaimie D; Lukose, Regy; Souther, Sommer J R; Rayasam, Swati D G; Saelens, Joseph W; Chen, Ching-Ju; Seay, Sarah A; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Magtanong, Leslie; Vermeul, Kim; Pajanirassa, Priyadharshini; Jimenez, Amanda E; Ng, Tony W; Tobin, David M; Porcelli, Steven A; Larsen, Michelle H; Schmitz, Joern E; Haynes, Barton F; Jacobs, William R; Lee, Sunhee; Frothingham, Richard

    2015-07-01

    The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful generation of recombinant BCG strains possessing consistent insert expression has encountered challenges in stability. Here, we describe a method for the development of large recombinant BCG accession lots which stably express the lentiviral antigens, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag, using selectable leucine auxotrophic complementation. Successful establishment of vaccine stability stems from stringent quality control criteria which not only screen for highly stable complemented BCG ΔleuCD transformants but also thoroughly characterize postproduction quality. These parameters include consistent production of correctly sized antigen, retention of sequence-pure plasmid DNA, freeze-thaw recovery, enumeration of CFU, and assessment of cellular aggregates. Importantly, these quality assurance procedures were indicative of overall vaccine stability, were predictive for successful antigen expression in subsequent passaging both in vitro and in vivo, and correlated with induction of immune responses in murine models. This study has yielded a quality-controlled BCG ΔleuCD vaccine expressing HIV gp120 that retained stable full-length expression after 10(24)-fold amplification in vitro and following 60 days of growth in mice. A second vaccine lot expressed full-length SIV Gag for >10(68)-fold amplification in vitro and induced potent antigen-specific T cell populations in vaccinated mice. Production of large, well-defined recombinant BCG ΔleuCD lots can allow confidence that vaccine materials for immunogenicity and protection studies are not negatively affected by instability or differences between freshly grown production batches. PMID:25924766

  12. Recombinant Expression and Characterization of α-Conotoxin LvIA in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaopeng; Bi, Jianpeng; Yu, Jinpeng; Li, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yaning; Zhangsun, Dongting; Luo, Sulan

    2016-01-01

    α-Conotoxin LvIA is derived from Conus lividus, native to Hainan, and is the most selective inhibitor of α3β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) known to date. In this study, an efficient approach for the production of recombinant α-Conotoxin LvIA is described. Tandem repeats of a LvIA gene fragment were constructed and fused with a KSI gene and a His6 tag in a Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression vector pET-31b(+). The recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli and were found to express well. The KSI-(LvIA)n-His6 fusion protein was purified by metal affinity chromatography and then cleaved with CNBr to release recombinant LvIA (rLvIA). High yields of fusion protein ranging from 100 to 500 mg/L culture were obtained. The pharmacological profile of rLvIA was determined by two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rat nAChR subtypes. The rLvIA antagonized the α3β2 nAChR subtype selectively with a nano-molar IC50. The rLvIA was analgesic in a mouse hot-plate test model of pain. Overall, this study provides an effective method to synthesize α-conotoxin LvIA in an E. coli recombinant expression system, and this approach could be useful to obtain active conopeptides in large quantity and at low cost. PMID:26742048

  13. Influence of expression system on chromophore binding and preservation of spectral properties in recombinant phytochrome A.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, W; Hill, C; Worm, K; Braslavsky, S E; Schaffner, K

    1996-03-15

    N-Terminal deletion mutants of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome, additionally truncated at two different positions at their C-terminal ends, were expressed both in Escherichia coli and in yeast (Pichia pastoris) and converted into chromoproteins upon chromophore incorporation. The start and end positions of the cDNA employed (phyA from oat) mimic the positions of tryptic cleavage (deletion of the first 64 amino acids, and stop codons after amino acid positions 425 or 595, generating 39-kDa and 59-kDa peptides, respectively. The absorption properties and photochromicity upon red/far-red irradiation of these mutants were compared with their tryptic counterparts derived from native oat phytochrome and with recombinant products possessing intact N-termini, but C-terminal positions identical to those of the corresponding tryptic fragments (45-kDa and 65-kDa peptides). All recombinant 65-kDa and 59kDa peptides bound the chromophore after expression and showed the appropriate absorption spectra of the Pr and the Pfr forms. The smaller chromopeptides (45-kDa and 39-kDa) behaved differently depending on the expression system employed. E. coli-derived peptides exhibited a phytochrome-like difference spectrum only when the intact N-terminus was present (45-kDa product). The recombinant 39-kDa peptide from E. coli was incapable of chromophore binding whereas the identical peptide sequence expressed by P. pastoris formed a chromoprotein with phycocyanobilin. This recombinant phytochrome fragment exhibited a difference spectrum (Pr-Pfr) with an even larger Pfr absorption band than the comparable tryptic 39-kDa fragment. Selectivity of chromophore incorporation and spectral properties suggest that interactions between protein domains of phytochrome control the protein folding and the Pr/Pfr absorption characteristics. Evidently, trypsin digestion down to the 39-kDa fragment affects protein conformation also in terms of Pfr conservation.

  14. New Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Expression Vectors: Improving Genetic Control over Mycobacterial Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Alex I.; Goulart, Cibelly; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Leite, Luciana C. C.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of many antigens, stimulatory molecules, or even metabolic pathways in mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis BCG or M. smegmatis was made possible through the development of shuttle vectors, and several recombinant vaccines have been constructed. However, gene expression in any of these systems relied mostly on the selection of natural promoters expected to provide the required level of expression by trial and error. To establish a systematic selection of promoters with a range of strengths, we generated a library of mutagenized promoters through error-prone PCR of the strong PL5 promoter, originally from mycobacteriophage L5. These promoters were cloned upstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene, and recombinant M. smegmatis bacteria exhibiting a wide range of fluorescence levels were identified. A set of promoters was selected and identified as having high (pJK-F8), intermediate (pJK-B7, pJK-E6, pJK-D6), or low (pJK-C1) promoter strengths in both M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG. The sequencing of the promoter region demonstrated that it was extensively modified (6 to 11%) in all of the plasmids selected. To test the functionality of the system, two different expression vectors were demonstrated to allow corresponding expression levels of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm29 in BCG. The approach used here can be used to adjust expression levels for synthetic and/or systems biology studies or for vaccine development to maximize the immune response. PMID:26850295

  15. New Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Expression Vectors: Improving Genetic Control over Mycobacterial Promoters.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Alex I; Goulart, Cibelly; Rofatto, Henrique K; Oliveira, Sergio C; Leite, Luciana C C; McFadden, Johnjoe

    2016-04-01

    The expression of many antigens, stimulatory molecules, or even metabolic pathways in mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis BCG or M. smegmatis was made possible through the development of shuttle vectors, and several recombinant vaccines have been constructed. However, gene expression in any of these systems relied mostly on the selection of natural promoters expected to provide the required level of expression by trial and error. To establish a systematic selection of promoters with a range of strengths, we generated a library of mutagenized promoters through error-prone PCR of the strong PL5 promoter, originally from mycobacteriophage L5. These promoters were cloned upstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene, and recombinant M. smegmatis bacteria exhibiting a wide range of fluorescence levels were identified. A set of promoters was selected and identified as having high (pJK-F8), intermediate (pJK-B7, pJK-E6, pJK-D6), or low (pJK-C1) promoter strengths in both M. smegmatis and M. bovisBCG. The sequencing of the promoter region demonstrated that it was extensively modified (6 to 11%) in all of the plasmids selected. To test the functionality of the system, two different expression vectors were demonstrated to allow corresponding expression levels of the Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm29 in BCG. The approach used here can be used to adjust expression levels for synthetic and/or systems biology studies or for vaccine development to maximize the immune response. PMID:26850295

  16. Complement receptor activity of recombinant porcine CR1-like protein expressed in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Wei, Xiaoming; Jiang, Junbing; Fan, Kuohai; Zhao, Junxing; Sun, Na; Wang, Zhiwei; Sun, Yaogui; Ma, Haili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hongquan

    2016-08-01

    Primate complement receptor type 1 (CR1) protein, a single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune adherence and clearing complement-opsonized immune complexes. Here, the mRNA of the porcine primate-like complement receptor (CR1-like) gene was analyzed, and two domain sequences with potential functions were cloned into the pwPICZalpha vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins were purified with both Protein Pure Ni-NTA resin and strong anion exchange resin. The activities of the purified recombinant proteins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and complement receptor assays. The results indicated that two domains of the CR1-like protein, CCP36 and CCP811 with molecular weights of 29.8 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, were successfully expressed in P. pastoris. These two recombinant proteins possess some of the functions of the primate CR1 protein. Using these two proteins coupled with an antibody blocking technique, we also showed that CR1-like is expressed on natural porcine erythrocytes. PMID:26903010

  17. Expression, purification and characterization of Solanum tuberosum recombinant cytosolic pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Auslender, Evgenia L; Dorion, Sonia; Dumont, Sébastien; Rivoal, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The cDNA encoding for a Solanum tuberosum cytosolic pyruvate kinase 1 (PKc1) highly expressed in tuber tissue was cloned in the bacterial expression vector pProEX HTc. The construct carried a hexahistidine tag in N-terminal position to facilitate purification of the recombinant protein. Production of high levels of soluble recombinant PKc1 in Escherichia coli was only possible when using a co-expression strategy with the chaperones GroES-GroEL. Purification of the protein by Ni(2 +) chelation chromatography yielded a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 58kDa and a specific activity of 34unitsmg(-1) protein. The recombinant enzyme had an optimum pH between 6 and 7. It was relatively heat stable as it retained 80% of its activity after 2min at 75°C. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with ADP and UDP whereas sigmoidal saturation was observed during analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate binding. Among possible effectors tested, aspartate and glutamate had no effect on enzyme activity, whereas α-ketoglutarate and citrate were the most potent inhibitors. When tested on phosphoenolpyruvate saturation kinetics, these latter compounds increased S0.5. These findings suggest that S. tuberosum PKc1 is subject to a strong control by respiratory metabolism exerted via citrate and other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates.

  18. Expression of functional recombinant human growth hormone in transgenic soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Nicolau B; Murad, André M; Cipriano, Thaís M; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Aragão, Francisco J L; Leite, Adilson; Vianna, Giovanni R; McPhee, Timothy R; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Waters, Michael J; Rech, Elíbio L

    2011-08-01

    We produced human growth hormone (hGH), a protein that stimulates growth and cell reproduction, in genetically engineered soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds. Utilising the alpha prime (α') subunit of β-conglycinin tissue-specific promoter from soybean and the α-Coixin signal peptide from Coix lacryma-jobi, we obtained transgenic soybean lines that expressed the mature form of hGH in their seeds. Expression levels of bioactive hGH up to 2.9% of the total soluble seed protein content (corresponding to approximately 9 g kg(-1)) were measured in mature dry soybean seeds. The results of ultrastructural immunocytochemistry assays indicated that the recombinant hGH in seed cotyledonary cells was efficiently directed to protein storage vacuoles. Specific bioassays demonstrated that the hGH expressed in the soybean seeds was fully active. The recombinant hGH protein sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry characterisation. These results demonstrate that the utilisation of tissue-specific regulatory sequences is an attractive and viable option for achieving high-yield production of recombinant proteins in stable transgenic soybean seeds.

  19. Expression, purification and characterization of Solanum tuberosum recombinant cytosolic pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Auslender, Evgenia L; Dorion, Sonia; Dumont, Sébastien; Rivoal, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The cDNA encoding for a Solanum tuberosum cytosolic pyruvate kinase 1 (PKc1) highly expressed in tuber tissue was cloned in the bacterial expression vector pProEX HTc. The construct carried a hexahistidine tag in N-terminal position to facilitate purification of the recombinant protein. Production of high levels of soluble recombinant PKc1 in Escherichia coli was only possible when using a co-expression strategy with the chaperones GroES-GroEL. Purification of the protein by Ni(2 +) chelation chromatography yielded a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 58kDa and a specific activity of 34unitsmg(-1) protein. The recombinant enzyme had an optimum pH between 6 and 7. It was relatively heat stable as it retained 80% of its activity after 2min at 75°C. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with ADP and UDP whereas sigmoidal saturation was observed during analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate binding. Among possible effectors tested, aspartate and glutamate had no effect on enzyme activity, whereas α-ketoglutarate and citrate were the most potent inhibitors. When tested on phosphoenolpyruvate saturation kinetics, these latter compounds increased S0.5. These findings suggest that S. tuberosum PKc1 is subject to a strong control by respiratory metabolism exerted via citrate and other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. PMID:25573389

  20. Control of apple blue mold by Pichia pastoris recombinant strains expressing cecropin A.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueyan; Kong, Qingjun; Wang, Huili; Yu, Ting; Tang, Ya-Jie; Zhou, Wen-Wen; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2012-06-01

    Recombinant Pichia pastoris yeasts expressing cecropin A (GS115/CEC), was evaluated for the control of the blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum due to cecropin A peptide's effective antimicrobial effects on P. expansum spores by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. Then, the protein concentration was determined and it was expressed at high levels up to 14.2 mg/L in the culture medium. Meanwhile, the population growth was assayed in vivo. The population growth of recombinant strain GS115/CEC was higher than that of non-transformed strain GS115 in red Fuji apples wounds. Recombinant yeast strains GS115/CEC significantly inhibited growth of germinated P. expansum spores in vitro and inhibited decay development caused by P. expansum in apple fruits in vivo when compared with apple fruits inoculated with sterile water or the yeast strain GS115/pPIC (plasmid pPIC9k transformed in GS115). This study demonstrated the potential of expression of the antifungal peptide in yeast for the control of postharvest blue mold infections on pome fruits.

  1. Expression of GPI anchored human recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells is devoid of glycosylation heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Devasahayam, Mercy; Devi, Sobita

    2015-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy. PMID:26011979

  2. A Novel and Simple Method for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Porcine Adenoviral Vectors for Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K.; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620±49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes. PMID:26011074

  3. Expression of recombinant small hydrophobic protein for serospecific detection of avian pneumovirus subgroup C.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lizhong; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus (APV) Colorado isolate (CO), which belongs to subgroup C (APV/C), was expressed with a baculovirus vector. The recombinant SH protein was evaluated as a potential subgroup-specific diagnostic reagent in order to differentiate infections resulting from APV/C from those induced by APV/A, APV/B, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV. Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies. This result was consistent with sequence analysis of the APV/C SH protein, which had very low (24%) amino acid identity with the corresponding protein of hMPV and no discernible identity with the SH protein of APV/A or APV/B. A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen. This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections.

  4. Expression of Recombinant Small Hydrophobic Protein for Serospecific Detection of Avian Pneumovirus Subgroup C

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lizhong; Sabara, Marta I.; Li, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus (APV) Colorado isolate (CO), which belongs to subgroup C (APV/C), was expressed with a baculovirus vector. The recombinant SH protein was evaluated as a potential subgroup-specific diagnostic reagent in order to differentiate infections resulting from APV/C from those induced by APV/A, APV/B, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV. Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies. This result was consistent with sequence analysis of the APV/C SH protein, which had very low (24%) amino acid identity with the corresponding protein of hMPV and no discernible identity with the SH protein of APV/A or APV/B. A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen. This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections. PMID:15643005

  5. A novel and simple method for rapid generation of recombinant porcine adenoviral vectors for transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Du, Enqi; Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620 ± 49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes.

  6. Protection against Marek's disease by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the glycoprotein B of Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nazerian, K; Lee, L F; Yanagida, N; Ogawa, R

    1992-03-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV) recombinants expressing the glycoprotein B and the phosphorylated protein (pp38) of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) were assayed for their ability to protect chickens against challenge with virulent MDV. The recombinant FPV expressing the glycoprotein B gene elicited neutralizing antibodies against MDV, significantly reduced the level of cell-associated viremia, and, similar to the conventional herpesvirus of turkeys, protected chickens against challenge with the GA strain and the highly virulent RB1B and Md5 strains of MDV. The recombinant FPV expressing the pp38 gene failed to either elicit neutralizing antibodies against MDV or protect the vaccinated chickens against challenge with MDV.

  7. Recombinant interleukin-16 selectively modulates surface receptor expression and cytokine release in macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, E; Darcissac, E; Idziorek, T; Capron, A; Bahr, G M

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-16 (IL-16), a natural ligand for the CD4 receptor, has been found to modulate T-lymphocyte function and to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Antigen-presenting cells (APC), including macrophages and dendritic cells, are known to express functional surface CD4 molecules, to be susceptible to HIV-1 infection and to play a critical role in different immune processes. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of recombinant IL-16 (rIL-16) to regulate receptor expression and cytokine release in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). Recombinant IL-16 was found to up-regulate CD25 and CD80 but to down-regulate CD4 and CD86 surface expression in MDM cultures. However, no change could be observed on the level of CD4, CD80 and CD86 expression in IL-16-stimulated MDDC, although a significant up-regulation of CD25 and CD83 was consistently detected. Furthermore, the level of gene expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 was significantly reduced in rIL-16-treated MDM and costimulation with IL-2 did not modify the activity of the recombinant cytokine. The effects on chemokine receptor gene expression were less evident in MDDC and only a transient down-regulation of weak intensity could be detected following stimulation with rIL-16. Analysis of supernatants from rIL-16-stimulatedcultures revealed a different profile of released cytokines/chemokines among the two cell populations studied. These findings establish an important role for IL-16 in modulating the activity of APC and may have relevance regarding the protection of reservoir cells against HIV-1 infection. PMID:10447738

  8. Expression and Purification of Recombinant CDKs: CDK7, CDK8, and CDK9.

    PubMed

    Pinhero, Reena; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases have established roles in the regulation of cell cycle, in gene expression and in cell differentiation. Many of these kinases have been considered as drug targets and numerous efforts have been made to develop specific and potent inhibitors against them. The first step in all of these attempts and in many other biochemical analyses is the production of highly purified and reliable kinase, most frequently in a recombinant form. In this chapter we describe our experience in the cloning, expression, and purification of CDKs using CDK7/CycH, CDK8/CycC, and CDK9/CycT1 as an example.

  9. Expression of Functional Recombinant Mussel Adhesive Protein Mgfp-5 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dong Soo; Yoo, Hyo Jin; Jun, Jong Hyub; Moon, Won Kyu; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins have been suggested as a basis for environmentally friendly adhesives for use in aqueous conditions and in medicine. However, attempts to produce functional and economical recombinant mussel adhesive proteins (mainly foot protein type 1) in several systems have failed. Here, the cDNA coding for Mytilus galloprovincialis foot protein type 5 (Mgfp-5) was isolated for the first time. Using this cDNA, we produced a recombinant Mgfp-5 fused with a hexahistidine affinity ligand, which was expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli and was highly purified using affinity chromatography. The adhesive properties of purified recombinant Mgfp-5 were compared with the commercial extracted mussel adhesive Cell-Tak by investigating adhesion force using atomic force microscopy, material surface coating, and quartz crystal microbalance. Even though further macroscale assays are needed, these microscale assays showed that recombinant Mgfp-5 has significant adhesive ability and may be useful as a bioadhesive in medical or underwater environments. PMID:15184131

  10. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant toxins consisting of truncated gastrin 17 and pseudomonas exotoxin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Li; Liu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Shi-Ying; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Wang, Quan; Tong, Weihua; Yan, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Song; Jin, Wen; Liu, Zeng-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity around world. However the effectiveness of the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer is limited. Recombinant targeted toxins may represent a novel direction of cancer therapy. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant toxins fused with the truncated forms of G17 could target to kill cancer cells by recognizing CCK2R. Four recombinant Pseudomonas toxins PE38 fused with the forward or reverse truncated forms of G17 (G14 and G13) were successfully constructed, expressed, and purified. Their characteristics were further analyzed by SDS-PAGE, western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that only reversely fused recombinant toxins rG14PE38 and rG13PE38 exhibited certain toxicity on several cancer cell lines, and a competition assay indicated that the binding of the reverse gastrin-endotoxin to CCK2R (+) cells may be mediated by interaction between gastrin/gastrin-like and CCK2R.

  11. Cloning, heterologous expression and properties of a recombinant active turnip peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cabrera, Norma A; Regalado, C; Garcia-Almendarez, Blanca E

    2011-07-13

    Turnip (Brassica napus) roots peroxidase isoforms have been used in diagnostic kits and can also efficiently polymerize phenolic compounds from wastewaters. Heterologous expression of a turnip acidic peroxidase (BnPA) was investigated to increase availability of this widely used enzyme. The mature BnPA was ligated into the pET28a(+) vector and used to transform Escherichia coli Rosetta 2. Recombinant BnPA peroxidase was overexpressed and accumulated in inclusion bodies from which it was purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. Peroxidase activity was observed after a refolding process under oxidative conditions. The yield of pure recombinant BnPA was 29 mg L(-1) of culture with a specific activity of 981 ± 20 ABTS units mg(-1) at optimal conditions (pH 6, 45 °C). Recombinant BnPA showed similar kinetic properties compared to native turnip peroxidase, and its secondary structure evaluated by circular dichroism comprised 20% α-helix, 32% β-sheet and 48% random structure. Recombinant BnPA showed high yield and good kinetic properties which are key steps for future structure-function studies and biotechnological applications. PMID:21591783

  12. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-01-01

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27545214

  13. Lactation performance of transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyryl-cholinesterase in the milk.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Hernan; Hockley, Duncan K; Doré, Monique; Brochu, Eric; Hakier, Bernard; Zhao, Xin; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2008-02-01

    The production of recombinant proteins in the milk of transgenic animals has attracted significant interest in the last decade, as a valuable alternative for the production of recombinant proteins that cannot be or are inefficiently produced using conventional systems based on microorganisms or animal cells. Several recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical and biomedical interest have been successfully expressed in high quantities (g/l) in the milk of transgenic animals. However, this productivity may be associated with a compromised mammary physiology resulting, among other things, from the extraordinary demand placed on the mammary secretory cells. In this study we evaluated the lactation performance of a herd of 50 transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyryl-cholinesterase (rBChE) in the milk. Our findings indicate that high expression levels of rBChE (range 1-5 g/l) are produced in these animals at the expense of an impaired lactation performance. The key features characterizing these transgenic performances were the decreased milk production, the reduced milk fat content which was associated with an apparent disruption in the lipid secretory mechanism at the mammary epithelium level, and a highly increased presence of leukocytes in milk which is not associated with mammary infection. Despite of having a compromised lactation performance, the amount of rBChE produced per transgenic goat represents several orders of magnitude more than the amount of rBChE present in the blood of hundreds of human donors, the only other available source of rBChE for pharmaceutical and biodefense applications. As a result, this development constitutes another successful example in the application of transgenic animal technology.

  14. Expression and secretion of a recombinant ricin immunotoxin from murine myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Krek, C E; Ladino, C A; Goldmacher, V S; Blättler, W A; Guild, B C

    1995-05-01

    Expression plasmids carrying a humanized N901 immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (hN901HC) fused to a gene encoding the native B chain of ricin toxin (RTB), hN901HC-RTB, or a sugar binding mutant of RTB, hN901HC-RTB delta gly, were constructed. In each case, the fused gene constructions were co-expressed in murine myeloma cells (Sp2/0) with the gene for humanized N901 immunoglobulin light chain to produce the secreted recombinant products hN901-RTB and hN901-RTB delta gly, respectively. When purified by affinity chromatography, both the hN901-RTB and hN901-RTB delta gly products were found to have an apparent molecular mass of M(r) = 210,000 and to be composed of two hN901 antibody heavy chains each fused to a full-length copy of RTB and two hN901 antibody light chains. In each of the recombinant fusions the hN901 antibody moiety retained the full binding affinity and specificity for its cognate antigen, CD56. Moreover, when mixtures of hN901-RTB and native ricin A chain were incubated in the presence of the antigen-positive target cell line SW-2, antigen-specific potentiation of ricin A chain cytotoxicity was observed. It has been demonstrated previously that lectin activity of the B chain is essential for A chain cytotoxicity, and we conclude that the fused wild-type B chain was properly folded and maintained lectin activity. These data demonstrate that feasibility of using recombinant ricin B chain in an immunotoxin and of using mammalian cell culture for its expression. The use of recombinant hN901-RTB fusion protein to evaluate the contribution of the lectin activity of ricin B chain in the penetration of cell membranes by ricin A chain is proposed.

  15. Expression of Drosophila melanogaster xanthine dehydrogenase in Aspergillus nidulans and some properties of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Benjamin; Lowe, David J; Smith, Andrew T; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Demais, Stephane; Bray, Robert C

    2002-01-01

    Recent crystal structures of xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidase and related enzymes have paved the way for a detailed structural and functional analysis of these enzymes. One problem encountered when working with these proteins, especially with recombinant protein, is that the preparations tend to be heterogeneous, with only a fraction of the enzyme molecules being active. This is due to the incompleteness of post-translational modification, which for this protein is a complex, and incompletely understood, process involving incorporation of the Mo and Fe/S centres. The enzyme has been expressed previously in both Drosophila and insect cells using baculovirus. The insect cell system has been exploited by Iwasaki et al. [Iwasaki, Okamoto, Nishino, Mizushima and Hori (2000) J. Biochem (Tokyo) 127, 771-778], but, for the rat enzyme, yields a complex mixture of enzyme forms, containing around 10% of functional enzyme. The expression of Drosophila melanogaster xanthine dehydrogenase in Aspergillus nidulans is described. The purified protein has been analysed both functionally and spectroscopically. Its specific activity is indistinguishable from that of the enzyme purified from fruit flies [Doyle, Burke, Chovnick, Dutton, Whittle and Bray (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 239, 782-795], and it appears to be more active than recombinant xanthine dehydrogenase produced with the baculovirus system. EPR spectra of the recombinant Drosophila enzyme are reported, including parameters for the Fe/S centres. Only a very weak "Fe/SIII" signal (g(1,2,3), 2.057, 1.930, 1.858) was observed, in contrast to the strong analogous signal reported for the enzyme from baculovirus. Since this signal appears to be associated with incomplete post-translational modification, this is consistent with relatively more complete cofactor incorporation in the Aspergillus-produced enzyme. Thus we have developed a recombinant expression system for D. melanogaster xanthine dehydrogenase, which can be used

  16. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges. PMID:8764013

  17. Construction and Characterization of Recombinant HSV-1 Expressing Early Growth Response-1.

    PubMed

    Bedadala, Gautam; Chen, Feng; Figliozzi, Robert; Balish, Matthew; Hsia, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Early Growth response-1 (Egr-1) is a transcription factor that possesses a variety of biological functions. It has been shown to regulate HSV-1 gene expression and replication in different cellular environments through the recruitment of distinct cofactor complexes. Previous studies demonstrated that Egr-1 can be induced by HSV-1 infection in corneal cells but the level was lower compared to other cell types. The primary goal of this report is to generate a recombinant HSV-1 constitutively expressing Egr-1 and to investigate the regulation of viral replication in different cell types or in animals with Egr-1 overexpression. The approach utilized was to introduce Egr-1 into the BAC system containing complete HSV-1 (F) genome. To assist in the insertion of Egr-1, a gene cassette was constructed that contains the Egr-1 gene flanked byloxP sites. In this clone Egr-1 is expressed under control of CMV immediate-early promoter followed by another gene cassette expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the elongation factor 1α (EF-1 α) promoter. The constructed recombinant viruses were completed containing the Egr-1 gene within the viral genome and the expression was characterized by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Our results showed that Egr-1 transcript and protein can be generated and accumulated upon infection of recombinant virus in Vero and rabbit corneal cells SIRC. This unique virus therefore is useful for studying the effects of Egr-1 during HSV-1 replication and gene regulation in epithelial cells and neurons. PMID:25346859

  18. Recombinant Human Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Promoter Drives Selective AAV-Mediated Transgene Expression in Oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    von Jonquieres, Georg; Fröhlich, Dominik; Klugmann, Claudia B.; Wen, Xin; Harasta, Anne E.; Ramkumar, Roshini; Spencer, Ziggy H. T.; Housley, Gary D.; Klugmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Leukodystrophies are hereditary central white matter disorders caused by oligodendrocyte dysfunction. Recent clinical trials for some of these devastating neurological conditions have employed an ex vivo gene therapy approach that showed improved endpoints because cross-correction of affected myelin-forming cells occurred following secretion of therapeutic proteins by transduced autologous grafts. However, direct gene transfer to oligodendrocytes is required for the majority of leukodystrophies with underlying mutations in genes encoding non-secreted oligodendroglial proteins. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are versatile tools for gene transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) and proof-of-concept studies in rodents have shown that the use of cellular promoters is sufficient to target AAV-mediated transgene expression to glia. The potential of this strategy has not been exploited. The major caveat of the AAV system is its limited packaging capacity of ~5 kb, providing the rationale for identifying small yet selective recombinant promoters. Here, we characterize the human myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) promoter for reliable targeting of AAV-mediated transgene expression to oligodendrocytes in vivo. A homology screen revealed highly conserved genomic regions among mammalian species upstream of the transcription start site. Recombinant AAV expression cassettes carrying the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by truncated versions of the recombinant MAG promoter (2.2, 1.5 and 0.3 kb in size) were packaged as cy5 vectors and delivered into the dorsal striatum of mice. At 3 weeks post-injection, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes expressing the reporter were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. Our results revealed that both 2.2 and 1.5 kb MAG promoters targeted more than 95% of transgene expression to oligodendrocytes. Even the short 0.3 kb fragment conveyed high oligodendroglial specific transgene

  19. High-throughput recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jia, Baolei; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-08-01

    The ease of genetic manipulation, low cost, rapid growth and number of previous studies have made Escherichia coli one of the most widely used microorganism species for producing recombinant proteins. In this post-genomic era, challenges remain to rapidly express and purify large numbers of proteins for academic and commercial purposes in a high-throughput manner. In this review, we describe several state-of-the-art approaches that are suitable for the cloning, expression and purification, conducted in parallel, of numerous molecules, and we discuss recent progress related to soluble protein expression, mRNA folding, fusion tags, post-translational modification and production of membrane proteins. Moreover, we address the ongoing efforts to overcome various challenges faced in protein expression in E. coli, which could lead to an improvement of the current system from trial and error to a predictable and rational design. PMID:27581654

  20. High-throughput recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ease of genetic manipulation, low cost, rapid growth and number of previous studies have made Escherichia coli one of the most widely used microorganism species for producing recombinant proteins. In this post-genomic era, challenges remain to rapidly express and purify large numbers of proteins for academic and commercial purposes in a high-throughput manner. In this review, we describe several state-of-the-art approaches that are suitable for the cloning, expression and purification, conducted in parallel, of numerous molecules, and we discuss recent progress related to soluble protein expression, mRNA folding, fusion tags, post-translational modification and production of membrane proteins. Moreover, we address the ongoing efforts to overcome various challenges faced in protein expression in E. coli, which could lead to an improvement of the current system from trial and error to a predictable and rational design. PMID:27581654

  1. Rapid two-step purification of a recombinant mouse Fab fragment expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wlad, H; Ballagi, A; Bouakaz, L; Gu, Z; Janson, J C

    2001-07-01

    We report a rapid, large-scale process for the purification of a recombinant Fab fragment specific for the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (Fab57P). The fragment is expressed periplasmically in Escherichia coli. The expression level was optimized in 0.3-L fermentors. The highest levels were obtained using the following conditions: (1) low postinduction temperature (21 degrees C), (2) combined use of two beta-lactam antibiotics (carbenicillin and ampicillin), (3) IPTG concentration 0.1 mM, (4) regulated pH 7.2, (5) 17-h induction time, and (6) conditions that reduce mechanical stress. Optimized large-scale fermentations were done in 15- and 300-L capacity fermentors. The recombinant Fab fragment was purified by two chromatographic steps. After disruption of the bacteria using an APV Gaulin homogenizer, the crude E. coli homogenate was directly applied, without centrifugation, to an SP Sepharose Big Beads column. The recombinant Fab fragment was eluted as a single peak in a sodium chloride gradient. The fragment was further purified by affinity adsorption to a column packed with Epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B to which the antigen peptide NH(2)-CGS YNR GSF SQS SGLV-CONH(2) had been coupled through its N-terminal cysteine. The purified Fab57P fragment showed one band in SDS-PAGE. The overall purification yield was 35%.

  2. Improved insecticidal activity of a recombinant baculovirus expressing spider venom cyto-insectotoxin.

    PubMed

    Ali, M P; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-12-01

    Baculoviruses have a long history of safe use as specific, environmentally friendly insecticides that provide alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling insect pests. However, their use has been limited by several factors, particularly their slow pathogenicity. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and an Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) that expressed an insect-specific cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) from the venom of the central Asian spider Lachesana tarabaevi. Cit1a is a comparatively long linear cytolytic molecule that contains a predicted α-helix structure composed of two short membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) that are joined together in a "head-to-tail" shape. Cit1a fused to polyhedrin gene (polh) (polh-cit1a) was expressed in the nuclei as polyhedra in silkworm larvae, Bm5 and Sf9 cells. An early death of Bm5 and Sf9 cells by recombinant BmNPV/Polh-Cit1a and AcMNPV/Polh-Cit1a was observed compared with control viruses that lacked the toxin gene. The infected cells showed a loss of cytoplasm, membrane integrity, and structural changes, suggesting that recombinant baculovirus-infected cells were killed by the necrosis caused by Cit1a. In addition, the BmNPV/Polh-Cit1a showed a significant reduction in the median lethal time (LT50) against silkworm larvae compared with those of control BmNPV that lacked the cit1a gene.

  3. Non-replicating recombinant vaccinia virus expressing CD80 to enhance T-cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The following method describes the generation of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a costimulatory molecule (human CD80 or B7.1).The procedure first requires the cloning, by classical methods not described here, of the gene of interest, e.g. CD80, into a vaccinia shuttle plasmid under the control of a virus-specific promoter enabling a transcription during the early phase of infection. Flanking the insert, the plasmid contains viral sequences and a selection maker needed for the insertion into the viral genome. The successive plaque isolation of recombinant virus on cell monolayer described here is based on the transient "gpt" selection system which enables other insertions in different loci of the same virus. Finally, after verification amplification and titration of the recombinant vector, replication will be impaired by a psoralen-UV treatment in order to produce a non-replicating virus. Expression and function of inserts, following infection of cells, are verified by specific phenotypic and functional assays.

  4. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: the role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli.

  5. High-yield recombinant expression of the extremophile enzyme, bee hyaluronidase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Reitinger, Stephan; Boroviak, Thorsten; Laschober, Gerhard Thomas; Fehrer, Christine; Müllegger, Johannes; Lindner, Herbert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2008-02-01

    Hyaluronidase from honey bee was recombinantly expressed as a secreted glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris. The active enzyme was produced in milligram quantities per liter of primary culture. When changing the codons of the original transcript to triplet sequences preferred by P. pastoris, no further increase of protein product could be achieved. After expression of a fusion protein by linking hyaluronidase and human serum albumin together with the recognition sequence for the protease, factorXa, fragmented protein products were obtained in the culture supernatant. Only after replacement of the hinge region with a serine-glycine-rich linker, stable full-length fusion protein could be generated. The protein products were purified by cation exchange chromatography at pH 5.0 and pure enzyme fractions were further characterized in detail. The biochemical properties of the product matched those of crude hyaluronidase within bee venom: the native and the recombinant enzyme exhibited activity over a pH range from 3 to 8 (maximum: 3.8), at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C and up to 90 degrees C (maximum 62 degrees C), and at ionic strength as high as 2 M salt. Recombinant bee hyaluronidase efficiently degrades 6-S-chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin sulfate C) as well as 4-S-chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin sulfate A), the latter to a lesser extent. Only very little hydrolase activity towards chondroitin sulfate B (dermatan sulfate) was detectable. PMID:18024155

  6. Recombinant expression and purification of a tumor-targeted toxin in Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Bachran, Christopher; Abdelazim, Suzanne; Fattah, Rasem J.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-infectious and protease-deficient Bacillus anthracis protein expression system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful expression and purification of a tumor-targeted fusion protein drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low endotoxin contamination of purified protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient protein secretion simplifies purification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional anti-tumor fusion protein purified. -- Abstract: Many recombinant therapeutic proteins are purified from Escherichia coli. While expression in E. coli is easily achieved, some disadvantages such as protein aggregation, formation of inclusion bodies, and contamination of purified proteins with the lipopolysaccharides arise. Lipopolysaccharides have to be removed to prevent inflammatory responses in patients. Use of the Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis as an expression host offers a solution to circumvent these problems. Using the multiple protease-deficient strain BH460, we expressed a fusion of the N-terminal 254 amino acids of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), the N-terminal 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT389) and human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF{alpha}). The resulting fusion protein was constitutively expressed and successfully secreted by B. anthracis into the culture supernatant. Purification was achieved by anion exchange chromatography and proteolytic cleavage removed LFn from the desired fusion protein (DT389 fused to TGF{alpha}). The fusion protein showed the intended specific cytotoxicity to epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing human head and neck cancer cells. Final analyses showed low levels of lipopolysaccharides, originating most likely from contamination during the purification process. Thus, the fusion to LFn for protein secretion and expression in B. anthracis BH460 provides an elegant tool to obtain high levels of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant protein.

  7. Rat thimet oligopeptidase: large-scale expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    McKie, N; Dando, P M; Brown, M A; Barrett, A J

    1995-01-01

    The coding sequence for rat testis thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) (EC 3.4.24.15) was placed under the control of the T7 polymerase/promoter system. Cultures of Escherichia coli transfected with the resulting plasmid expressed the enzyme as a soluble cytoplasmic protein. Medium-scale cultures allowed isolation of the enzyme in quantities of tens of milligrams. The availability of the recombinant enzyme permitted the determination of such chemical properties as epsilon 280 (48,960), zinc content (2 atom/molecule) and available thiol content (8-10/molecule) for TOP. The recombinant enzyme showed the catalytic activities previously reported for the naturally occurring enzyme, so that we can now conclude with confidence that these are all due to TOP and there is no need to postulate the existence of separate 'Pz-peptidase' or 'endo-oligopeptidase A' enzymes. Images Figure 2 PMID:7619057

  8. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    PubMed Central

    Hehle, Verena K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Roberts, Victoria A.; van Dolleweerd, Craig J.; Ma, Julian K.-C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degradation pattern of a murine IgG1κ monoclonal antibody expressed in and extracted from transformed Nicotiana tabacum. Gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts revealed a consistent pattern of recombinant immunoglobulin bands, including intact and full-length antibody, as well as smaller antibody fragments. N-terminal sequencing revealed these smaller fragments to be proteolytic cleavage products and identified a limited number of protease-sensitive sites in the antibody light and heavy chain sequences. No strictly conserved target sequence was evident, although the peptide bonds that were susceptible to proteolysis were predominantly and consistently located within or near to the interdomain or solvent-exposed regions in the antibody structure. Amino acids surrounding identified cleavage sites were mutated in an attempt to increase resistance. Different Guy’s 13 antibody heavy and light chain mutant combinations were expressed transiently in N. tabacum and demonstrated intensity shifts in the fragmentation pattern, resulting in alterations to the full-length antibody-to-fragment ratio. The work strengthens the understanding of proteolytic cleavage of antibodies expressed in plants and presents a novel approach to stabilize full-length antibody by site-directed mutagenesis.—Hehle, V. K., Paul, M. J., Roberts, V. A., van Dolleweerd, C. J., Ma, J. K.-C. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. PMID:26712217

  9. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena K; Paul, Matthew J; Roberts, Victoria A; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Ma, Julian K-C

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the degradation pattern of a murine IgG1κ monoclonal antibody expressed in and extracted from transformedNicotiana tabacum Gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts revealed a consistent pattern of recombinant immunoglobulin bands, including intact and full-length antibody, as well as smaller antibody fragments. N-terminal sequencing revealed these smaller fragments to be proteolytic cleavage products and identified a limited number of protease-sensitive sites in the antibody light and heavy chain sequences. No strictly conserved target sequence was evident, although the peptide bonds that were susceptible to proteolysis were predominantly and consistently located within or near to the interdomain or solvent-exposed regions in the antibody structure. Amino acids surrounding identified cleavage sites were mutated in an attempt to increase resistance. Different Guy's 13 antibody heavy and light chain mutant combinations were expressed transiently inN. tabacumand demonstrated intensity shifts in the fragmentation pattern, resulting in alterations to the full-length antibody-to-fragment ratio. The work strengthens the understanding of proteolytic cleavage of antibodies expressed in plants and presents a novel approach to stabilize full-length antibody by site-directed mutagenesis.-Hehle, V. K., Paul, M. J., Roberts, V. A., van Dolleweerd, C. J., Ma, J. K.-C. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. PMID:26712217

  10. Biophysical characterization of highly active recombinant Gaussia luciferase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rathnayaka, Tharangani; Tawa, Minako; Sohya, Shihori; Yohda, Masafumi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the smallest bioluminescent protein (MW: 19.9 kDa), Gaussia luciferase (GLuc), has been isolated from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps and has attracted much attention as a reporter protein. However, preparation of large quantities of homogeneous natively folded recombinant GLuc appears to be difficult due to its ten cysteines. Here, we report the biophysical characterization of recombinant GLuc expressed using a novel Escherichia coli expression system based on a cold induced expression vector (pCold). Using this system, a large fraction of the protein was expressed in the soluble fraction. GLuc, purified exclusively from the supernatant using nickel affinity chromatography, yielded a large amount of pure GLuc with a native disulfide bond pattern (Soluble-GLuc). Soluble-GLuc had a strong bioluminescence activity and it retained 65% of its activity after 30 min incubation at 95 degrees C. Soluble-GLuc remained fully folded until 40 degrees C, as assessed by circular dichroism; and the thermal denaturation curve was S-shaped, indicating a cooperative transition, with a midpoint temperature of 56 degrees C. These results indicate that both the structure and bioluminescence activity of GLuc remain stable at high temperatures, and they strongly suggest GLuc's potential as a reporter protein. PMID:20452471

  11. Gene expression analysis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with recombinant bromelain.

    PubMed

    Fouz, Nour; Amid, Azura; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun

    2014-08-01

    The contributing molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of breast cancer need to be better characterized. The principle of our study was to better understand the genetic mechanism of oncogenesis for human breast cancer and to discover new possible tumor markers for use in clinical practice. We used complimentary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of treated Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) with recombinant bromelain and untreated MCF-7. SpringGene analysis was carried out of differential expression followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), to understand the underlying consequence in developing disease and disorders. We identified 1,102 known genes differentially expressed to a significant degree (p<0.001) changed between the treatment. Within this gene set, 20 genes were significantly changed between treated cells and the control cells with cutoff fold change of more than 1.5. These genes are RNA-binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 1 (RBMS1), ribosomal protein L29 (RPL29), glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2), C15orf32, Akt3, B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1), C6orf62, C7orf60, kinesin-associated protein 3 (KIFAP3), FBXO11, AT-rich interactive domain 4A (ARID4A), COPS2, TBPL1|SLC2A12, TMEM59, SNORD46, glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 (GLTSCR2), and LRRFIP. Our observation on gene expression indicated that recombinant bromelain produces a unique signature affecting different pathways, specific for each congener. The microarray results give a molecular mechanistic insight and functional effects, following recombinant bromelain treatment. The extent of changes in genes is related to and involved significantly in gap junction signaling, amyloid processing, cell cycle regulation by BTG family proteins, and breast cancer regulation by stathmin1 that play major roles.

  12. Effect of periplasmic expression of recombinant mouse interleukin-4 on hydrogen peroxide concentration and catalase activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh Aghdam, Elnaz; Mahmoudi Azar, Lena; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Karimi, Farrokh; Mesbahfar, Majid; Samadi, Naser; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2012-12-15

    Oxidative stress occurs as a result of imbalance between generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This kind of stress was rarely discussed in connection with foreign protein production in Escherichia coli. Relation between cytoplasmic recombinant protein expression with H(2)O(2) concentration and catalase activity variation was already reported. The periplasmic space of E. coli has different oxidative environment in relative to cytoplasm and there are some benefits in periplasmic expression of recombinant proteins. In this study, hydrogen peroxide concentration and catalase activity following periplasmic expression of mouse IL-4 were measured in E. coli. After construction of pET2mIL4 plasmid, the expression of recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (mIL-4) was confirmed. Then, the H(2)O(2) concentration and catalase activity variation in the cells were studied in exponential and stationary phases at various ODs and were compared to those of wild type cells and empty vector transformed cells. It was revealed that empty vector introduction and periplasmic recombinant protein expression increased significantly the H(2)O(2) concentration of the cells. However, the H(2)O(2) concentration in mIL-4 expressing cells was significantly higher than its concentration in empty vector transformed cells, demonstrating more effects of recombinant mIL-4 expression on H(2)O(2) elevation. Likewise, although catalase activity was reduced in foreign DNA introduced cells, it was more lowered following expression of recombinant proteins. Correlation between H(2)O(2) concentration elevation and catalase activity reduction with cell growth depletion is also demonstrated. It was also found that recombinant protein expression results in cell size increase.

  13. Methods for efficient high-throughput screening of protein expression in recombinant Pichia pastoris strains.

    PubMed

    Camattari, Andrea; Weinhandl, Katrin; Gudiminchi, Rama K

    2014-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is becoming one of the favorite industrial workhorses for protein expression. Due to the widespread use of integration vectors, which generates significant clonal variability, screening methods allowing assaying hundreds of individual clones are of particular importance. Here we describe methods to detect and analyze protein expression, developed in a 96-well format for high-throughput screening of recombinant P. pastoris strains. The chapter covers essentially three common scenarios: (1) an enzymatic assay for proteins expressed in the cell cytoplasm, requiring cell lysis; (2) a whole-cell assay for a fungal cytochrome P450; and (3) a nonenzymatic assay for detection and quantification of tagged protein secreted into the supernatant. PMID:24744029

  14. Recombinant adeno-associated virus targets passenger gene expression to cones in primate retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hendrickson, Anita E.; Connor, Thomas B., Jr.; Mauck, Matthew C.; Kinsella, James J.; Hauswirth, William W.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2007-05-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a promising vector for gene therapy of photoreceptor-based diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that rAAV serotypes 2 and 5 can transduce both rod and cone photoreceptors in rodents and dogs, and it can target rods, but not cones in primates. Here we report that using a human cone-specific enhancer and promoter to regulate expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in an rAAV-5 vector successfully targeted expression of the reporter gene to primate cones, and the time course of GFP expression was able to be monitored in a living animal using the RetCam II digital imaging system.

  15. N-Lauroylation during the Expression of Recombinant N-Myristoylated Proteins: Implications and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Andrea Gabriele; Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Mateos, Borja; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Storch, Barbara; Breuker, Kathrin; Konrat, Robert; Pons, Miquel; Coudevylle, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of myristic acid onto the N terminus of a protein is a crucial modification that promotes membrane binding and correct localization of important components of signaling pathways. Recombinant expression of N-myristoylated proteins in Escherichia coli can be achieved by co-expressing yeast N-myristoyltransferase and supplementing the growth medium with myristic acid. However, undesired incorporation of the 12-carbon fatty acid lauric acid can also occur (leading to heterogeneous samples), especially when the available carbon sources are scarce, as it is the case in minimal medium for the expression of isotopically enriched samples. By applying this method to the brain acid soluble protein 1 and the 1-185 N-terminal region of c-Src, we show the significant, and protein-specific, differences in the membrane binding properties of lauroylated and myristoylated forms. We also present a robust strategy for obtaining lauryl-free samples of myristoylated proteins in both rich and minimal media.

  16. Fluorescent Calcium Indicator Protein Expression in the Mouse Brain Using Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viruses.

    PubMed

    Heindorf, Matthias; Hasan, Mazahir T

    2015-07-01

    One method for gene delivery and long-term fluorescent calcium indicator protein (FCIP) expression in mammalian neurons in vivo involves the introduction of FCIPs via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors using constitutive and cell type-specific promoters. This protocol describes the use of rAAVs to express FCIPs in the brain for imaging. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells are first transfected using calcium phosphate. rAAV is then prepared using either an iodixanol gradient or a heparin column. After the virus is purified, its quality is assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, estimation of genomic and functional virus titers by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and expression in dissociated neurons. Mice are injected with rAAV using a stereotactic instrument and can be imaged ∼3 wk later. PMID:26134910

  17. Nonreplicating viral vectors as potential vaccines: recombinant canarypox virus expressing measles virus fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Weinberg, R; Tartaglia, J; Richardson, C; Alkhatib, G; Briedis, D; Appel, M; Norton, E; Paoletti, E

    1992-03-01

    The development of canarypox virus (CPV) recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and fusion (F) glycoproteins of measles virus (MV) is described. Inoculation of the CPV-MV recombinants into avian or nonavian tissue culture substrates led to the expression of authentic MVF and MVHA as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation and surface immunofluorescence. In contrast to avian-derived tissue culture, no productive replication of the CPV recombinant was evident in tissue culture cells derived from nonavian origin. On inoculation of dogs, a species restricted for avipoxvirus replication, the recombinants elicited a protective immune response against a lethal canine distemper virus (CDV) challenge. The level of MV neutralizing antibodies and the level of protection induced against CDV challenge achieved by the host-restricted CPV vector were equivalent to that obtained by vaccinia virus vectors expressing the same MV antigens. PMID:1736535

  18. Efficient expression and purification of recombinant therapeutic protein candidates, human midkine and pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Murasugi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor that promotes cell growth, survival, and migration. Externally added midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction in the mouse. Preclinical testing of this protein is in progress. Externally added pleiotrophin, a member of the midkine protein family, promotes functional recovery after neural transplantation in rats. Thus, pleiotrophin is also a candidate therapeutic protein. Large amounts of these proteins were obtained by using the heterologous protein expression system of Pichia pastoris, and the recombinant P. pastoris clones were cultured in a controlled fermentor. Intracellular expression yielded about 300 mg/L recombinant human (rh)-midkine, which was extracted, renatured, and purified. From 1 L of the culture, 64 mg of rh-midkine was purified. Secretory expression induced by the midkine secretion signal resulted in about 100 mg of rhmidkine in 1 L of the culture supernatant, but over 70% of the rh-midkine had yeast-specific glycosylation. Three threonyl residues that are targets for glycosylation were substituted with alanyl residues, and nonglycosylated, active rh-midkine was obtained. In secretory expression using α-mating factor prepro-sequence, about 640 mg/L rh-midkine was obtained, but it was partially truncated. Therefore, a protease-deficient host was used, and about 360 mg/L intact rh-midkine was then obtained. The rh-midkine was recovered and purified, with 70% final yield. All purified rh-midkine, regardless of expression method, was able to promote mammalian cell proliferation. In secretory expression of rh-pleiotrophin using α- mating factor prepro-sequence, 260 mg/L rh-pleiotrophin could be secreted. The rh-pleiotrophin was recovered and efficiently purified with 72% final yield. PMID:24372230

  19. Efficient expression and purification of recombinant therapeutic protein candidates, human midkine and pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Murasugi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor that promotes cell growth, survival, and migration. Externally added midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction in the mouse. Preclinical testing of this protein is in progress. Externally added pleiotrophin, a member of the midkine protein family, promotes functional recovery after neural transplantation in rats. Thus, pleiotrophin is also a candidate therapeutic protein. Large amounts of these proteins were obtained by using the heterologous protein expression system of Pichia pastoris, and the recombinant P. pastoris clones were cultured in a controlled fermentor. Intracellular expression yielded about 300 mg/L recombinant human (rh)-midkine, which was extracted, renatured, and purified. From 1 L of the culture, 64 mg of rh-midkine was purified. Secretory expression induced by the midkine secretion signal resulted in about 100 mg of rhmidkine in 1 L of the culture supernatant, but over 70% of the rh-midkine had yeast-specific glycosylation. Three threonyl residues that are targets for glycosylation were substituted with alanyl residues, and nonglycosylated, active rh-midkine was obtained. In secretory expression using α-mating factor prepro-sequence, about 640 mg/L rh-midkine was obtained, but it was partially truncated. Therefore, a protease-deficient host was used, and about 360 mg/L intact rh-midkine was then obtained. The rh-midkine was recovered and purified, with 70% final yield. All purified rh-midkine, regardless of expression method, was able to promote mammalian cell proliferation. In secretory expression of rh-pleiotrophin using α- mating factor prepro-sequence, 260 mg/L rh-pleiotrophin could be secreted. The rh-pleiotrophin was recovered and efficiently purified with 72% final yield.

  20. Recombinant expression and affinity purification of snake venom gland parvalbumin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ying; Pérez, John C

    2009-07-01

    Parvalbumins (PV) are small, acidic, water soluble and calcium-binding proteins generally present in muscular and nervous tissues. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA clone encoding PV, named AplPV, from a snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) venom gland cDNA library. AplPV belongs to EF-hand proteins with six alpha-helices constituting three EF-hand domains. The deduced amino acid sequence of AplPV is 91% and 68% identical to the previously characterized PVs of Boa constrictor and Cyprinus carpio, respectively. The full-length cDNA was subcloned into the expression vector pGEX and transformed into Escherichia coli (E.coli) to produce recombinant protein. The bacterially expressed GST-AplPV fusion protein was highly expressed, and effectively purified by Glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography. A high concentration of thrombin protease specifically cleaved and removed the GST tag from fusion protein, and further purified by Benzamidine column for removal of thrombin protease. As a result, the 12 kDa AplPV recombinant protein alone was purified. To investigate the tissue-specific biological occurrence of AplPV, a polyclonal antibody (anti-AplPV-antibody) was raised against GST-AplPV fusion protein in rabbit. Western blot analysis revealed that immunoreactive bands were exhibited in both recombinant protein and samples of venom glands, but not in any crude venom. This specific occurrence indicates a specialized function of AplPV in snake venom glands.

  1. High Expression of Water-Soluble Recombinant Antigenic Domains of Toxoplasma gondii Secretory Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1. PMID:25246715

  2. Expression of Recombinant Human Amelogenin in Iranian Lizard Leishmania and Its Biological Function Assay

    PubMed Central

    YADEGARI, Zahra; BANDEHPOUR, Mojgan; KAZEMI, Bahram; SHARIFI-SARASIABI, Khojasteh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amelogenins are the major components of enamel matrix proteins. Enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) can be used in periodontal diseases to regenerate periodontal tissues. The main aim of this study was to evaluate expression of full-length functional recombinant human amelogenin (rhAm) in Iranian lizard Leishmania (I.L.L.) as an alternative eukaryotic expression system. Methods: Human cDNA encoding a 175-amino acid amelogenin expression cassette was sub cloned into a pLEXSY vector. The construct was transferred into Leishmania cells by electroporation. The protein production was surveyed in the transcription and the translation levels. The expressed protein was purified and some of its biological properties were investigated in comparison to EMD and negative control. Results: Expression of rhAm was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot test in Leishmania cells. Purified rhAm significantly inhibited the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive (TRAP+) multinuclear cells in calcitriol stimulated mouse marrow cultures. Moreover, it significantly promoted proliferation and DNA synthesis in L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Conclusion: Functional rhAm was successfully expressed in I.L.L. Easy handling and post translation modification were the main advantages of this expression system. It is suggested to investigate molecular properties of this rhAm in the future. PMID:26576377

  3. Inhibition of apoptosis by expression of antiapoptotic proteins in recombinant human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Claudia Y U; Reimers, Kerstin; Allmeling, Christina; Kall, Susanne; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Vogt, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    The Fas ligand/Fas interaction plays an important role in the regulation of immune responses. Allografted cells undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis induced by CD8+ T cells. Our objective was to prevent human keratinocytes from immunologically induced apoptosis. We focused on three proteins with inhibitory function on Fas-mediated apoptosis. Human keratinocytes were transfected with either Flip, Faim, or Lifeguard (LFG). The treatment proved to be practicable and efficient. The recombinant keratinocytes with expression of our target proteins were cocultured with CD8+ T cells and the apoptotic activity was then evaluated. Activation of caspase-8 was detectable in control but not in the recombinant cells. Quantitative analysis revealed significant induction of T-cell-induced apoptosis in nontransfected keratinocytes (p = 0.04, n = 12) but not in Flip (p = 0.66), Faim (p = 0.42), or LFG (p = 0.44) expressing cells. Our results suggest that heterotopic expression of antiapoptotic proteins can induce the resistance of keratinocytes to a major mechanism of rejection.

  4. Optimization of recombinant expression enables discovery of novel cytochrome P450 activity in rice diterpenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Wu, Yisheng; Xu, Meimei; Peters, Reuben J.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygenation reactions catalyzed by cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play critical roles in plant natural products biosynthesis. At the same time, CYPs are one of most challenging enzymes to functionally characterize due to the difficulty of recombinantly expressing these membrane-associated monooxygenases. In the course of investigating rice diterpenoid biosynthesis we have developed a synthetic biology approach for functional expression of relevant CYPs in Escherichia coli. In certain cases activity was observed for only one of two closely related paralogs although it seems clear that related reactions are required for production of the known diterpenoids. Here we report that optimization of the recombinant expression system enabled characterization of not only these previously recalcitrant CYPs, but also discovery of additional activity relevant to rice diterpenoid biosynthesis. Of particular interest, CYP701A8 was found to catalyze 3β-hydroxylation of syn-pimaradiene, which is presumably relevant to momilactone biosynthesis, while CYP71Z6 & 7 were found to catalyze multiple reactions, with CYP71Z6 catalyzing the production of 2α,3α-dihydroxy-ent-isokaurene via 2α-hydroxy- ent-isokaurene, and CYP71Z7 catalyzing the production of 3α-hydroxy-ent-cassadien-2- one via 2α-hydroxy-ent-cassadiene and ent-cassadien-2-one, which may be relevant to oryzadione and phytocassane biosynthesis, respectively. PMID:25758958

  5. rhEPO (recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase): expression in Pichia pastoris and biochemical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Chiara; Gambacurta, Alessandra; Sanctis, Giampiero DE; Spagnolo, Domenico; Sakarikou, Christina; Petrella, Giovanni; Coletta, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    A Pichia pastoris expression system has for the first time been successfully developed to produce rhEPO (recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase). The full-length rhEPO coding sequence was cloned into the pPIC9 vector in frame with the yeast α-Factor secretion signal under the transcriptional control of the AOX (acyl-CoA oxidase) promoter, and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. Evidence for the production of rhEPO by P. pastoris as a glycosylated dimer precursor of approx. 80 kDa was determined by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. Recombinant hEPO undergoes proteolytic processing, similar to that in the native host, to generate two chains of approx. 50 and 20 kDa. A preliminary biochemical characterization of purified rhEPO demonstrated that the spectral and kinetic properties of the recombinant wild-type EPO are comparable with those of the native enzyme and are accompanied by oxidizing activity towards several physiological anionic substrates such as SCN−, Br− and Cl−. On the basis of the estimated Km and kcat values it is evident that the pseudohalide SCN− is the most specific substrate for rhEPO, consistent with the catalytic properties of other mammalian EPOs purified from blood. PMID:16396635

  6. Comparison of recombinant human haptocorrin expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and native haptocorrin.

    PubMed

    Furger, Evelyne; Fedosov, Sergey N; Lildballe, Dorte Launholt; Waibel, Robert; Schibli, Roger; Nexo, Ebba; Fischer, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    Haptocorrin (HC) is a circulating corrinoid binding protein with unclear function. In contrast to transcobalamin, the other transport protein in blood, HC is heavily glycosylated and binds a variety of cobalamin (Cbl) analogues. HC is present not only in blood but also in various secretions like milk, tears and saliva. No recombinant form of HC has been described so far. We report the expression of recombinant human HC (rhHC) in human embryonic kidney cells. We purified the protein with a yield of 6 mg (90 nmol) per litre of cell culture supernatant. The isolated rhHC behaved as native HC concerning its spectral properties and ability to recognize both Cbl and its baseless analogue cobinamide. Similar to native HC isolated from blood, rhHC bound to the asialoglycoprotein receptor only after removal of terminal sialic acid residues by treatment with neuraminidase. Interestingly, rhHC, that compared to native HC contains four excessive amino acids (…LVPR) at the C-terminus, showed subtle changes in the binding kinetics of Cbl, cobinamide and the fluorescent Cbl conjugate CBC. The recombinant protein has properties very similar to native HC and although showing slightly different ligand binding kinetics, rhHC is valuable for further biochemical and structural studies.

  7. Immunogenicity of recombinant F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG expressed in tobacco chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huifeng; Qian, Bingjun; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenhua; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi

    2010-08-01

    To test the possibility of producing the novel vaccine in plants against diarrhea normally found in neonatal and newly weaned piglets, the faeG gene, encoding a major F4ac fimbrial subunit protein, was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome. After two rounds of selection under spectinomycin, we obtained the transgenic plants nearly homoplasmic. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that faeG and the antibiotic selective gene aminoglycoside 3' adenylyltransferase (aadA) were highly transcribed as a dicistron, while the translational level of recombinant FaeG in transplastomic tobacco was about 0.15% of total soluble protein. The immunogenicity of recombinant FaeG produced in tobacco chloroplasts was confirmed by the observation that FaeG-specific antibodies were elicited in mice immunized with total soluble protein of transgenic plants, as well as the result that mouse sera stimulated by chloroplast-derived recombinant FaeG could neutralize F4ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in vivo. This study provides a new alternative for producing the ETEC vaccine using the chloroplast expression system.

  8. PhoN-expressing, lyophilized, recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans cells for uranium bioprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, Deepti; Seetharam, Chitra; Padma, N; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2011-07-20

    Employment of genetically engineered radiation resistant organisms to recover radionuclides/heavy metals from radioactive wastes is an attractive proposition. Cells of recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans strain expressing, a non-specific acid phosphatase encoding phoN gene, were lyophilized. Lyophilized recombinant Deinococcus cells retained viability and PhoN activity and could efficiently precipitate uranium from aqueous solutions for up to six months of storage at room temperature. Batch process for uranium removal using lyophilized cells was more efficient compared to a flow through system, in terms of percent uranium removed, substrate conservation and time taken. Lyophilized recombinant Deinococcus cells exhibited high loading of up to 5.7 g uranium/g dry weight of cells in a batch process at 20 mM input uranium concentration. Lyophilization deflated the cells but did not alter gross cell morphology or surface nucleation capability of cells for uranium precipitation. The precipitated uranyl phosphate remained tightly associated with the cell surface, thus facilitating easy recovery.

  9. Expression and purification of recombinant human alpha-defensins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pazgier, Marzena; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2006-09-01

    Different strategies have been developed to produce small antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) using recombinant techniques. Up to now, all efforts to obtain larger quantities of active recombinant human alpha-defensins have been only moderately successful. Here we report an effective method of biosynthesis of human alpha-defensins (hNP-1 to hNP-3 and hD-5 and hD-6) in the Escherichia coli. All the peptides, expressed as insoluble fusions with the peptide encoded by a portion of E. coli tryptophan operon (trp DeltaLE 1413 polypeptide), were isolated from the inclusion bodies by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and separated from the fusion leader by chemical cleavage. Fully reduced peptides that were purified according to a straightforward protocol were subsequently folded, oxidized, and subjected to functional and structural analyses. With the exception of hD-6, all recombinant alpha-defensins exhibit expected anti-E. coli activity, as measured by the colony counting method. The method described in this report is a low-cost, efficient way of generating alpha-defensins in quantities ranging from milligrams to grams. PMID:16839776

  10. Immunogenicity of recombinant F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG expressed in tobacco chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huifeng; Qian, Bingjun; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenhua; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi

    2010-08-01

    To test the possibility of producing the novel vaccine in plants against diarrhea normally found in neonatal and newly weaned piglets, the faeG gene, encoding a major F4ac fimbrial subunit protein, was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome. After two rounds of selection under spectinomycin, we obtained the transgenic plants nearly homoplasmic. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that faeG and the antibiotic selective gene aminoglycoside 3' adenylyltransferase (aadA) were highly transcribed as a dicistron, while the translational level of recombinant FaeG in transplastomic tobacco was about 0.15% of total soluble protein. The immunogenicity of recombinant FaeG produced in tobacco chloroplasts was confirmed by the observation that FaeG-specific antibodies were elicited in mice immunized with total soluble protein of transgenic plants, as well as the result that mouse sera stimulated by chloroplast-derived recombinant FaeG could neutralize F4ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in vivo. This study provides a new alternative for producing the ETEC vaccine using the chloroplast expression system. PMID:20705597

  11. Active gamma-carboxylated human factor IX expressed using recombinant DNA techniques.

    PubMed

    de la Salle, H; Altenburger, W; Elkaim, R; Dott, K; Dieterlé, A; Drillien, R; Cazenave, J P; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P

    Factor IX (Christmas factor), a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein made in the liver, functions in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. A functional deficiency of factor IX underlies haemophilia B, a chromosome X-linked recessive disease for which the major therapeutic approach is replacement treatment using factor IX concentrates. The cloning and characterization of the gene for human factor IX would mean that human factor IX could be produced in greater yield and purity through using recombinant DNA techniques. We have now used a human factor IX cDNA clone, inserted into a vaccinia virus-derived vector, to infect human hepatoma cells which normally produce no factor IX, and mouse fibroblasts. Fully active factor IX was produced by the hepatoma cells, whereas the fibroblasts produced a protein less active than natural factor IX, even in the presence of high levels of vitamin K. Human factor IX is extensively post-translationally modified, and thus represents probably the most complex protein produced in active form by recombinant DNA techniques to date. Our study also illustrates the potential of vaccinia virus-based vectors for expressing significant amounts of complex, clinically useful proteins in eukaryotic cells, in addition to its already demonstrated usefulness for producing live recombinant vaccines.

  12. Enhanced expression of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J P; Hampson, I N; Heinrich, H W; Mackett, M; Arrand, J R

    1989-05-01

    The complete coding sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus strain B95-8 latent membrane protein (LMP) was cloned using a Raji cell cDNA library and genomic B95-8 DNA. The clone was characterized by sequencing and then used to make a recombinant vaccinia virus. This virus (VLMP) was shown to express a relatively high level of LMP in an authentic fashion. Antisera raised in rabbits against VLMP were shown to react with B95-8 LMP as well as cross-reacting with a 50K cellular protein.

  13. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  14. Environment Control to Improve Recombinant Protein Yields in Plants Based on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fujiuchi, Naomichi; Matoba, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: (1) recombinant protein content per unit biomass and (2) recombinant protein productivity per unit area–time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on these parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and postinoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Preinoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality, and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics, such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, postinoculation environmental factors, such as temperature, light intensity, and humidity, have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the postinoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain high recombinant

  15. Meiotic Recombination Hotspots of Fission Yeast Are Directed to Loci that Express Non-Coding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Siegel, Eric R.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyadenylated, mRNA-like transcripts with no coding potential are abundant in eukaryotes, but the functions of these long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are enigmatic. In meiosis, Rec12 (Spo11) catalyzes the formation of dsDNA breaks (DSBs) that initiate homologous recombination. Most meiotic recombination is positioned at hotspots, but knowledge of the mechanisms is nebulous. In the fission yeast genome DSBs are located within 194 prominent peaks separated on average by 65-kbp intervals of DNA that are largely free of DSBs. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genome-wide distribution of DSB peaks to that of polyadenylated ncRNA molecules of the prl class. DSB peaks map to ncRNA loci that may be situated within ORFs, near the boundaries of ORFs and intergenic regions, or most often within intergenic regions. Unconditional statistical tests revealed that this colocalization is non-random and robust (P≤5.5×10−8). Furthermore, we tested and rejected the hypothesis that the ncRNA loci and DSB peaks localize preferentially, but independently, to a third entity on the chromosomes. Conclusions/Significance Meiotic DSB hotspots are directed to loci that express polyadenylated ncRNAs. This reveals an unexpected, possibly unitary mechanism for what directs meiotic recombination to hotspots. It also reveals a likely biological function for enigmatic ncRNAs. We propose specific mechanisms by which ncRNA molecules, or some aspect of RNA metabolism associated with ncRNA loci, help to position recombination protein complexes at DSB hotspots within chromosomes. PMID:18682829

  16. IL-18 Expression Results in a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus That Is Highly Attenuated and Immunogenic

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Paulo H.; Legrand, Fatema A.; Chan, Kenneth S.; Peng, Yue; Jones, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is an attenuating factor for vaccinia virus (VACV), decreasing its virulence in vivo by more than a million fold. It is also a highly effective adjuvant when administered at the time of immunization with protein antigens. However, recombinant VACV (rVACV) vaccines expressing IFN-γ do not induce enhanced immune responses. It is possible that the IFN-γ expressed by rVACVs induces both an antiviral state and increased immunological clearance, thus resulting in decreased levels of antigen expression due to reduced viral replication and spread. We conjectured that delaying expression of IFN-γ would result in enhanced production of antigens by rVACVs thus resulting in increased immune responses to foreign antigens. Interleukin (IL)-18, also known as IFN-γ inducing factor, is a cytokine that induces T and NK cells to produce IFN-γ. In this study, we demonstrated that an rVACV expressing bioactive murine IL-18 replicated to low but detectable levels in vivo, unlike an rVACV expressing IFN-γ. Moreover, the rVACV expressing IL-18 was significantly attenuated in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice. This attenuation was dependent on IFN-γ, as IL-18 expression failed to attenuate VACV in IFN-γ knock-out mice. Cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) and anamnestic antibody responses were slightly increased in animals vaccinated with the rVACV expressing IL-18. Thus, induction of IFN-γ because of IL-18 expression resulted in an rVACV that replicated to low but detectable levels in vivo, yet elicited slightly better CTL and anamnestic humoral immune responses. PMID:24168450

  17. Genetic selection system for improving recombinant membrane protein expression in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Massey-Gendel, Elizabeth; Zhao, Anni; Boulting, Gabriella; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Balamotis, Michael A; Seligman, Len M; Nakamoto, Robert K; Bowie, James U

    2009-01-01

    A major barrier to the physical characterization and structure determination of membrane proteins is low yield in recombinant expression. To address this problem, we have designed a selection strategy to isolate mutant strains of Escherichia coli that improve the expression of a targeted membrane protein. In this method, the coding sequence of the membrane protein of interest is fused to a C-terminal selectable marker, so that the production of the selectable marker and survival on selective media is linked to expression of the targeted membrane protein. Thus, mutant strains with improved expression properties can be directly selected. We also introduce a rapid method for curing isolated strains of the plasmids used during the selection process, in which the plasmids are removed by in vivo digestion with the homing endonuclease I-CreI. We tested this selection system on a rhomboid family protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv1337) and were able to isolate mutants, which we call EXP strains, with up to 75-fold increased expression. The EXP strains also improve the expression of other membrane proteins that were not the target of selection, in one case roughly 90-fold. PMID:19165721

  18. Immune responses elicited in mice with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing F4 fimbrial adhesin FaeG by oral immunization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujie; Li, Yongming; Xu, Ziwei; Wang, Yicheng

    2010-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major pathogenic agent causing piglet diarrhea. The major subunit and adhesin FaeG of F4(+) ETEC is an important virulence factor with strong immunogenicity. To determine whether Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) could effectively deliver FaeG to the mucosal immune system, recombinant L. lactis expressing FaeG was constructed, and immune responses in mice following oral route delivery of recombinant L. lactis were explored. The production of FaeG expressed in L. lactis was up to approximately 10% of soluble whole-cell proteins, and recombinant FaeG (rFaeG) possessed good immunoreactivity by Western blot analysis. Oral immunization with recombinant L. lactis expressing FaeG induced F4-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in the mice. In addition, high dose recombinant L. lactis or co-administration of high dose recombinant L. lactis with CTB enhanced the immune responses. These results suggested that L. lactis expressing FaeG was a promising candidate vaccine against ETEC. PMID:20532816

  19. Recombinant Probiotic Expressing Listeria Adhesion Protein Attenuates Listeria monocytogenes Virulence In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ok Kyung; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular foodborne pathogen, infects immunocompromised hosts. The primary route of transmission is through contaminated food. In the gastrointestinal tract, it traverses the epithelial barrier through intracellular or paracellular routes. Strategies to prevent L. monocytogenes entry can potentially minimize infection in high-risk populations. Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) aids L. monocytogenes in crossing epithelial barriers via the paracellular route. The use of recombinant probiotic bacteria expressing LAP would aid targeted clearance of Listeria from the gut and protect high-risk populations from infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to investigate the ability of probiotic bacteria or LAP-expressing recombinant probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei (LbpLAP) to prevent L. monocytogenes adhesion, invasion, and transwell-based transepithelial translocation in a Caco-2 cell culture model. Several wild type probiotic bacteria showed strong adhesion to Caco-2 cells but none effectively prevented L. monocytogenes infection. Pre-exposure to LbpLAP for 1, 4, 15, or 24 h significantly (P<0.05) reduced adhesion, invasion, and transepithelial translocation of L. monocytogenes in Caco-2 cells, whereas pre-exposure to parental Lb. paracasei had no significant effect. Similarly, LbpLAP pre-exposure reduced L. monocytogenes translocation by as much as 46% after 24 h. LbpLAP also prevented L. monocytogenes-mediated cell damage and compromise of tight junction integrity. Furthermore, LbpLAP cells reduced L. monocytogenes-mediated cell cytotoxicity by 99.8% after 1 h and 79% after 24 h. Conclusions/Significance Wild type probiotic bacteria were unable to prevent L. monocytogenes infection in vitro. In contrast, LbpLAP blocked adhesion, invasion, and translocation of L. monocytogenes by interacting with host cell receptor Hsp60, thereby protecting cells from infection. These data show promise for the use of recombinant

  20. Cloning, expression, and immunological characterization of recombinant Lolium perenne allergen Lol p II.

    PubMed

    Sidoli, A; Tamborini, E; Giuntini, I; Levi, S; Volonté, G; Paini, C; De Lalla, C; Siccardi, A G; Baralle, F E; Galliani, S

    1993-10-15

    The molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding for an isoallergenic form of Lol p II, a major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification on mRNA extracted from pollen. The amino acid sequence derived from the cDNA was truncated by 4 and 5 residues at the NH2- and COOH-terminal ends, respectively, and differed only in one position from that previously reported. This cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion to the carboxyl terminus of the human ferritin H-chain. The molecule was produced in high yields as a soluble protein and was easily purified. The protein retains the multimeric quaternary structure of ferritin, and it exposes on the surface the allergenic moiety, which can be recognized in Western blotting and in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments by specific IgE from allergic patients. The recombinant allergen was used to analyze the sera of 26 patients allergic to L. perenne compared with control sera. The results were in good agreement with the values obtained with the radioallergosorbent test assay. In addition, histamine release experiments in whole blood from an allergic patient and skin prick tests showed that the recombinant allergen retains some of the biological properties of the natural compound. These findings indicate that the availability of homogeneous recombinant allergens may be useful for the development of more specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Moreover, this expression system may be of more general interest for producing large amounts of soluble protein domains in E. coli.

  1. Expression and Characterization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 Recombinant α-Amylase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sivasangkary; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Chor Leow, Thean; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus SR74 is a locally isolated thermophilic bacteria producing thermostable and thermoactive α-amylase. Increased production and commercialization of thermostable α-amylase strongly warrant the need of a suitable expression system. In this study, the gene encoding the thermostable α-amylase in G. stearothermophilus SR74 was amplified, sequenced, and subcloned into P. pastoris GS115 strain under the control of a methanol inducible promoter, alcohol oxidase (AOX). Methanol induced recombinant expression and secretion of the protein resulted in high levels of extracellular amylase production. YPTM medium supplemented with methanol (1% v/v) was the best medium and once optimized, the maximum recombinant α-amylase SR74 achieved in shake flask was 28.6 U mL(-1) at 120 h after induction. The recombinant 59 kDa α-amylase SR74 was purified 1.9-fold using affinity chromatography with a product yield of 52.6% and a specific activity of 151.8 U mg(-1). The optimum pH of α-amylase SR74 was 7.0 and the enzyme was stable between pH 6.0-8.0. The purified enzyme was thermostable and thermoactive, exhibiting maximum activity at 65°C with a half-life (t₁/₂) of 88 min at 60°C. In conclusion, thermostable α-amylase SR74 from G. stearothermophilus SR74 would be beneficial for industrial applications, especially in liquefying saccrification. PMID:26090417

  2. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of recombinant Clostridium perfringens β2-toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Gurjar, Abhijit A.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Yennawar, Hemant P.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Hegde, Narasimha V.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.

    2007-06-01

    The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant Clostridium perfringens β2-toxin is described. The crystals diffracted to 2.9 Å resolution. Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive sporulating anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases in animals, birds and humans. The virulence of C. perfringens is associated with the production of several enterotoxins and exotoxins. β2-toxin is a 28 kDa exotoxin produced by C. perfringens. It is implicated in necrotic enteritis in animals and humans, a disease characterized by a sudden acute onset with lethal hemorrhagic mucosal ulceration. The recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of β2-toxin using the batch-under-oil technique are reported here. Native X-ray diffraction data were obtained to 2.9 Å resolution on a synchrotron beamline at the F2 station at Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) using an ADSC Quantum-210 CCD detector. The crystals belong to space group R3, with a dimer in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters are a = b = 103.71, c = 193.48 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120° using the hexagonal axis setting. A self-rotation function shows that the two molecules are related by a noncrystallographic twofold axis with polar angles ω = 90.0, ϕ = 210.3°.

  3. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs.

  4. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Recombinant, NADH Oxidase from Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Méndez, Sara Teresa; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    The NADH oxidase family of enzymes catalyzes the oxidation of NADH by reducing molecular O2 to H2O2, H2O or both. In the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia, the NADH oxidase enzyme (GlNOX) produces H2O as end product without production of H2O2. GlNOX has been implicated in the parasite metabolism, the intracellular redox regulation and the resistance to drugs currently used against giardiasis; therefore, it is an interesting protein from diverse perspectives. In this work, the GlNOX gene was amplified from genomic G. lamblia DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-Tagged protein; then, the enzyme was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, characterized, and its properties compared with those of the endogenous enzyme previously isolated from trophozoites (Brown et al. in Eur J Biochem 241(1):155-161, 1996). In comparison with the trophozoite-extracted enzyme, which was scarce and unstable, the recombinant heterologous expression system and one-step purification method produce a stable protein preparation with high yield and purity. The recombinant enzyme mostly resembles the endogenous protein; where differences were found, these were attributable to methodological discrepancies or artifacts. This homogenous, pure and functional protein preparation can be used for detailed structural or functional studies of GlNOX, which will provide a deeper understanding of the biology and pathogeny of G. lamblia.

  5. Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Human Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) Protein from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguo; Moy, Allison; Sohal, Kirti; Dam, Carolyn; Kuo, Peter; Ulrich, Beau; Whittaker, James; Whittaker, Mei; Düzgünes, Nejat; Konopka, Kryatyna; Franz, Andreas H.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P.

    2009-01-01

    The human secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to possess anti-protease, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Its presence in saliva is believed to be a major deterrent to oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The 11.7 kD peptide is a secreted, nonglycosylated protein rich in disulfide bonds. Currently, recombinant SLPI is only available as an expensive bacterial expression product. We have investigated the utility of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to produce and secrete SLPI with C-terminal c-myc and polyhistidine tags. The posttransformational vector amplification protocol was used to isolate strains with increased copy number, and culturing parameters were varied to optimize SLPI expression. Modification of the purification procedure allowed the secreted, recombinant protein to be isolated from the cell-free fermentation medium with cobalt affinity chromatography. This yeast-derived SLPI was shown to have an anti-protease activity comparable to the commercially available bacterial product. Thus, P. pastoris provides an efficient, cost-effective system for producing SLPI for structure function analysis studies as well as a wide array of potential therapeutic applications. PMID:19505578

  6. Functional characterization of recombinant bromelain of Ananas comosus expressed in a prokaryotic system.

    PubMed

    George, Susan; Bhasker, Salini; Madhav, Harish; Nair, Archana; Chinnamma, Mohankumar

    2014-02-01

    Bromelain (BRM) is a defense protein present in the fruit and stem of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and it is grouped as a cysteine protease enzyme with diversified medicinal uses. Based on its therapeutic applications, bromelain has got sufficient attention in pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, the full coding gene of bromelain in pineapple stem (1,093 bp) was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR product was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The sequence analysis of the gene revealed the single nucleotide polymorphism and its phylogenetic relatedness. The peptide sequence deduced from the gene showed the amino acid variations, physicochemical properties and secondary and tertiary structural features of the protein. The full BRM gene was transformed to prokaryotic vector pET32b and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3pLysS host cells successfully. The identity of the recombinant bromelain (rBRM) protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using anti-BRM-rabbit IgG antibody. The activity of recombinant bromelain compared with purified native bromelain was determined by protease assay. The inhibitory effect of rBRM compared with native BRM in the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli O111 was evident from the antibacterial sensitivity test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the bactericidal property of rBRM expressed in a prokaryotic system.

  7. De novo generation of infectious prions with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Huaiyi; Yu, Guohua; Yuan, Chonggang; Ma, Jiyan

    2013-12-01

    The prion hypothesis is strongly supported by the fact that prion infectivity and the pathogenic conformer of prion protein (PrP) are simultaneously propagated in vitro by the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, due to sPMCA's enormous amplification power, whether an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed recombinant PrP (rPrP) remains to be satisfactorily resolved. To address this question, we performed unseeded sPMCA with rPrP in a laboratory that has never been exposed to any native prions. Two types of proteinase K (PK)-resistant and self-perpetuating recombinant PrP conformers (rPrP-res) with PK-resistant cores of 17 or 14 kDa were generated. A bioassay revealed that rPrP-res(17kDa) was highly infectious, causing prion disease in wild-type mice with an average survival time of about 172 d. In contrast, rPrP-res(14kDa) completely failed to induce any disease. Our findings reveal that sPMCA is sufficient to initiate various self-perpetuating PK-resistant rPrP conformers, but not all of them possess in vivo infectivity. Moreover, generating an infectious prion in a prion-free environment establishes that an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed rPrP.

  8. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  9. Expression and purification of bioactive high-purity recombinant mouse SPP1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yunsheng; Zhang, Xiyuan; Weng, Shunyan; Guan, Wen; Xiang, Di; Gao, Jin; Li, Jingjing; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is a phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein. It is broadly expressed in a variety of tissues, and it is involved in a number of physiological and pathological events, including cancer metastasis, tissues remodeling, pro-inflammation regulation, and cell survival. SPP1 has shown its function of protecting tissues and organs against injury and wound, giving itself potentials to become a therapy target or giving its antibodies of other counter-acting reagents potentials to become drug candidates. Non-tagged (native) recombinant SPP1 would be valuable in therapeutic and pharmaceutical researches. In our study, mouse Spp1 DNA fragment without signal peptide was built in pET28a(+) vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant mouse SPP1 (rmSPP1) was then expressed in bacteria upon induction by isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The abundance of rmSPP1 was increased using isoelectric precipitation and ammonium sulfate fractionation methods, and anion and cation exchange chromatography was employed to further purify rmSPP1. Finally, we got rmSPP1 product with 12.8 % productivity, 97 % purity, satisfactory bioactivity, and low endotoxin content. PMID:24664233

  10. Codon optimization, expression, purification, and functional characterization of recombinant human IL-25 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yushan; Wu, Chengsheng; Wang, Jinyu; Mo, Wei; Yu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-25 (also known as IL-17E) is a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family which induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression and promotes pathogenic T helper (Th)-2 cell responses in various organs. IL-25 has been shown to have crucial role between innate and adaptive immunity and also a key component of the protection of gastrointestinal helminthes. In this study, to produce bioactive recombinant human IL-25 (rhIL-25), the cDNA of mature IL-25 was performed codon optimization based on methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris codon bias and cloned into the expression vector pPICZαA. The recombinant vector was transformed into P. pichia strain X-33 and selected by zeocin resistance. Benchtop fermentation and simple purification strategy were established to purify the rhIL-25 with about 17 kDa molecular mass. Functional analysis showed that purified rhIL-25 specifically bond to receptor IL-17BR and induce G-CSF production in vitro. Further annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that rhIL-25 induced apoptosis in two breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100. This study provides a new strategy for the large-scale production of bioactive IL-25 for biological and therapeutic applications. PMID:24100683

  11. Recombinants proteins for industrial uses: utilization of Pichia pastoris expression system

    PubMed Central

    Rabert, Claudia; Weinacker, Daniel; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G.

    2013-01-01

    The innovation in industrial process with impact in the efficient production is the major challenge for actual industry. A high numerous of enzymes are utilized in at different level of process; the search for new alternatives with better characteristic has become a field of study of great interest, the recombinant protein achievement in a different host system is an alternative widely assessed for production of this. The microorganism Pichia pastoris has been used like a successful expression system in diverse areas, improved the yield and extraction-recovery of the product expressed. The reported of diverse authors in the production of enzymes with different application in industry is varied, in this review the different industry areas and the characteristic of the enzymes produced are detailed. PMID:24294221

  12. Thermostable tag (TST) protein expression system: engineering thermotolerant recombinant proteins and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jeremy M; Carnes, Aaron E; Sun, Ping; Hodgson, Clague P; Waugh, David S; Williams, James A

    2011-02-10

    Methods to increase temperature stability of vaccines and adjuvants are needed to reduce dependence on cold chain storage. We report herein creation and application of pVEX expression vectors to improve vaccine and adjuvant manufacture and thermostability. Defined media fermentation yields of 6g/L thermostable toll-like receptor 5 agonist flagellin were obtained using an IPTG inducible pVEX-flagellin expression vector. Alternative pVEX vectors encoding Pyrococcus furiosus maltodextrin-binding protein (pfMBP) as a fusion partner improved Influenza hemagglutinin antigen vaccine solubility and thermostability. A pfMBP hemagglutinin HA2 domain fusion protein was a potent immunogen. Manufacturing processes that combined up to 5 g/L defined media fermentation yields with rapid, selective, thermostable pfMBP fusion protein purification were developed. The pVEX pfMBP-based thermostable tag (TST) platform is a generic protein engineering approach to enable high yield manufacture of thermostable recombinant protein vaccine components.

  13. Recombinants proteins for industrial uses: utilization of Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Rabert, Claudia; Weinacker, Daniel; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G

    2013-01-01

    The innovation in industrial process with impact in the efficient production is the major challenge for actual industry. A high numerous of enzymes are utilized in at different level of process; the search for new alternatives with better characteristic has become a field of study of great interest, the recombinant protein achievement in a different host system is an alternative widely assessed for production of this. The microorganism Pichia pastoris has been used like a successful expression system in diverse areas, improved the yield and extraction-recovery of the product expressed. The reported of diverse authors in the production of enzymes with different application in industry is varied, in this review the different industry areas and the characteristic of the enzymes produced are detailed.

  14. Biological Activity of Recombinant Bovine Interferon τ Produced by a Silkworm-Baculovirus Gene Expression System

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hitomi; TSUNAZAKI, Makoto; HAMANO, Takashi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; INUMARU, Shigeki; OKANO, Akira; GESHI, Masaya; HIRAKO, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine interferon (bIFN) τ plays a crucial role in maternal-fetal recognition and was expressed using a Bombyx mori (Bm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (silkworm baculovirus) gene expression system. The biological effects of Bm-recombinant bIFNτ (rbIFNτ) on prostaglandin (PG) F2α synthesis were investigated in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells with oxytocin (OT, 100 nM) and on the in vitro development of bovine embryos. Bm-rbIFNτ and OT were shown to suppress PGF2α production in a dose-dependent manner. When in vitro produced morula stage embryos were cultured for 72 hr in modified CR1aa medium supplemented with or without rbIFNτ, Bm-rbIFNτ (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted development to the expanded blastocyst stage. In conclusion, Bm-rbIFNτ was suggested to have the same bioactivity as native IFNτ. PMID:24212505

  15. Recombinants proteins for industrial uses: utilization of Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Rabert, Claudia; Weinacker, Daniel; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G

    2013-01-01

    The innovation in industrial process with impact in the efficient production is the major challenge for actual industry. A high numerous of enzymes are utilized in at different level of process; the search for new alternatives with better characteristic has become a field of study of great interest, the recombinant protein achievement in a different host system is an alternative widely assessed for production of this. The microorganism Pichia pastoris has been used like a successful expression system in diverse areas, improved the yield and extraction-recovery of the product expressed. The reported of diverse authors in the production of enzymes with different application in industry is varied, in this review the different industry areas and the characteristic of the enzymes produced are detailed. PMID:24294221

  16. BacMam production of active recombinant lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase: Expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Romanow, William G; Piper, Derek E; Fordstrom, Preston; Thibault, Stephen; Zhou, Mingyue; Walker, Nigel P C

    2016-09-01

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme in the esterification of cholesterol and its subsequent incorporation into the core of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. It is also involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the mechanism by which cholesterol is removed from peripheral cells and transported to the liver for excretion. These processes are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) and may have therapeutic implications. This work describes the use of baculovirus as a transducing vector to express LCAT in mammalian cells, expression of the recombinant protein as a high-mannose glycoform suitable for deglycosylation by Endo H and its purification to homogeneity and characterization. The importance of producing underglycosylated forms of secreted glycoproteins to obtain high-resolution crystal structures is discussed. PMID:26363122

  17. Expression of the structural proteins of dengue 2 virus and yellow fever virus by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Y S; Lenches, E M; Galler, R; Rice, C M; Dalrymple, J; Strauss, J H

    1990-01-01

    Vaccinia virus recombinants were constructed which contained cDNA sequences encoding the structural region of dengue 2 virus (PR159/S1 strain) or yellow fever virus (17D strain). The flavivirus cDNA sequences were expressed under the control of the vaccinia 7.5k early/late promotor. Cultured cells infected with these recombinants expressed immunologically reactive flavivirus structural proteins, precursor prM and E. These proteins appeared to be cleaved and glycosylated properly since they comigrated with the authentic proteins from dengue 2 virus- and yellow fever virus-infected cells. Mice immunized with the dengue/vaccinia recombinant showed a dengue-specific immune response that included low levels of neutralizing antibodies. Immunization of mice with the yellow fever/vaccinia recombinant was less effective at inducing an immune response to yellow fever virus and in only some of the mice were low titers of neutralizing antibodies produced.

  18. Expression and in Silico analysis of the recombinant bovine papillomavirus E6 protein as a model for viral oncoproteins studies.

    PubMed

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Carvalho, R F; Ruiz, R M; Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Carvalho, E; Thompson, C E; Sircili, M P; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins.

  19. Recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris strains with an engineered methanol utilization pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Βackground The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become an important host organism for recombinant protein production and is able to use methanol as a sole carbon source. The methanol utilization pathway describes all the catalytic reactions, which happen during methanol metabolism. Despite the importance of certain key enzymes in this pathway, so far very little is known about possible effects of overexpressing either of these key enzymes on the overall energetic behavior, the productivity and the substrate uptake rate in P. pastoris strains. Results A fast and easy-to-do approach based on batch cultivations with methanol pulses was used to characterize different P. pastoris strains. A strain with MutS phenotype was found to be superior over a strain with Mut+ phenotype in both the volumetric productivity and the efficiency in expressing recombinant horseradish peroxidase C1A. Consequently, either of the enzymes dihydroxyacetone synthase, transketolase or formaldehyde dehydrogenase, which play key roles in the methanol utilization pathway, was co-overexpressed in MutS strains harboring either of the reporter enzymes horseradish peroxidase or Candida antarctica lipase B. Although the co-overexpression of these enzymes did not change the stoichiometric yields of the recombinant MutS strains, significant changes in the specific growth rate, the specific substrate uptake rate and the specific productivity were observed. Co-overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase yielded a 2- to 3-fold more efficient conversion of the substrate methanol into product, but also resulted in a reduced volumetric productivity. Co-overexpression of formaldehyde dehydrogenase resulted in a 2-fold more efficient conversion of the substrate into product and at least similar volumetric productivities compared to strains without an engineered methanol utilization pathway, and thus turned out to be a valuable strategy to improve recombinant protein production. Conclusions Co

  20. Expression of recombinant cellulase Cel5A from Trichoderma reesei in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Megan; Klinger, Johannes; Klose, Holger; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes, cellulases, are targets of both research and industrial interests. The preponderance of these enzymes in difficult-to-culture organisms, such as hyphae-building fungi and anaerobic bacteria, has hastened the use of recombinant technologies in this field. Plant expression methods are a desirable system for large-scale production of enzymes and other industrially useful proteins. Herein, methods for the transient expression of a fungal endoglucanase, Trichoderma reesei Cel5A, in Nicotiana tabacum are demonstrated. Successful protein expression is shown, monitored by fluorescence using an mCherry-enzyme fusion protein. Additionally, a set of basic tests are used to examine the activity of transiently expressed T. reesei Cel5A, including SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, zymography, as well as fluorescence and dye-based substrate degradation assays. The system described here can be used to produce an active cellulase in a short time period, so as to assess the potential for further production in plants through constitutive or inducible expression systems. PMID:24962636

  1. Expression of the superantigen Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen in Escherichia coli and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed Central

    Knudtson, K L; Manohar, M; Joyner, D E; Ahmed, E A; Cole, B C

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM), is a soluble protein with classical superantigenic properties and is produced by an organism that causes an acute and chronic proliferative arthritis. Unfortunately, the process of obtaining purified MAM from M. arthritidis culture supernatants is extremely time-consuming and costly, and very little material is recovered. Thus, our laboratory has expressed MAM in Escherichia coli by using a protein fusion expression system. The construction and expression of recombinant MAM (rMAM), as well as a comparison of the biological properties of rMAM to those of native MAM, are discussed. Briefly, conversion of the three UGA codons to UGG codons was required to obtain full-length expression and mitogenic activity of rMAM. Antisera to native MAM recognized both rMAM and the fusion protein. The T-cell receptor Vbeta and major histocompatibility complex class II receptor usages by rMAM and the fusion protein were identical to that of native MAM. In addition, the ability to induce suppression and form the superantigen bridge could also be demonstrated with rMAM. Importantly, dose-response experiments indicated that homogeneous native MAM and rMAM were of equal potency. Thus, MAM has been successfully expressed in E. coli, thereby creating a viable alternative to native MAM. PMID:9393783

  2. Inhibition of corneal neovascularization by recombinant adenovirus-mediated sFlk-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hui; Wu Jihong; Li Huiming; Wang Zhanli; Chen Xiafang; Tian Yuhua; Yi Miaoying; Ji Xunda; Ma Jialie; Huang Qian

    2007-10-05

    The interaction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (Flt-1, Flk-1/KDR) is correlated with neovascularization in the eyes. Therefore, blocking the binding of VEGF and the corresponding receptor has become critical for inhibiting corneal neovascularization. In this study, we have expressed the cDNA for sFlk-1 under the control of cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (CMV) from an E1/partial E3 deleted replication defective recombinant adenovirus, and Ad.sflk-1 expression was determined by Western blotting. We have shown that conditioned media from Ad.sflk-1-infected ARPE-19 cells significantly reduced VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine endothelial cells (SVEC) proliferation in vitro compared with the control vector. In vivo, adenoviral vectors expressing green fluorescent protein alone (Ad.GFP) were utilized to monitor gene transfer to the cornea. Moreover, in the models of corneal neovascularization, the injection of Ad.sflk-1 (10{sup 8} PFU) into the anterior chamber could significantly inhibit angiogenic changes compared with Ad.null-injected and vehicle-injected models. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that corneal endothelial cells and corneal stroma of cauterized rat eyes were efficiently transduced and expressed sFlk-1. These results not only support that adenoviral vectors are capable of high-level transgene expression but also demonstrate that Ad.sflk-1 gene therapy might be a feasible approach for inhibiting the development of corneal neovascularization.

  3. Expression of Recombinant Cellulase Cel5A from Trichoderma reesei in Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Megan; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes, cellulases, are targets of both research and industrial interests. The preponderance of these enzymes in difficult-to-culture organisms, such as hyphae-building fungi and anaerobic bacteria, has hastened the use of recombinant technologies in this field. Plant expression methods are a desirable system for large-scale production of enzymes and other industrially useful proteins. Herein, methods for the transient expression of a fungal endoglucanase, Trichoderma reesei Cel5A, in Nicotiana tabacum are demonstrated. Successful protein expression is shown, monitored by fluorescence using an mCherry-enzyme fusion protein. Additionally, a set of basic tests are used to examine the activity of transiently expressed T. reesei Cel5A, including SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, zymography, as well as fluorescence and dye-based substrate degradation assays. The system described here can be used to produce an active cellulase in a short time period, so as to assess the potential for further production in plants through constitutive or inducible expression systems. PMID:24962636

  4. Pharmacological properties of rat alpha 7 nicotinic receptors expressed in native and recombinant cell systems.

    PubMed

    Virginio, Caterina; Giacometti, Angelo; Aldegheri, Laura; Rimland, Joseph M; Terstappen, Georg C

    2002-06-12

    The pharmacological properties of the rat alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor endogenously expressed in PC12 cells and recombinantly expressed in GH4C1 cells (alpha7-GH4C1 cells) were characterized and compared. Patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that activation by choline and block by methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine were similar, but block by mecamylamine was different. Whereas in alpha7-GH4C1 cells the inhibition curve for mecamylamine was monophasic (IC(50) of 1.6 microM), it was biphasic in PC12 cells (IC(50) values of 341 nM and 9.6 microM). The same rank order of potency was obtained for various nicotinic agonists, while acetylcholine was 3.7-fold less potent and 1.5-fold more effective in PC12 cells. Dihydro-beta-erythroidine differentially blocked acetylcholine-evoked currents in both systems. Since reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments revealed expression of alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha7 and beta4 subunits in PC12 cells, whereas GH4C1 cells express only the beta4 subunit, our results suggest that more than one form of alpha7 containing heteromeric nicotinic receptors might be functionally expressed in PC12 cells.

  5. Large-scale production and purification of recombinant Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Philippe; Harper, Karen; Raemaekers, Romaan J M; Durieux, Alain; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Davies, Howard V; Taylor, Mark A

    2003-08-01

    The gene coding for agglutinin from Galanthus nivalis (GNA) was expressed in, and secreted by, the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Transformants of P. pastoris were selected and a process to produce and purify gram quantities of recombinant GNA was developed. GNA was secreted at approximately 80 mg l(-1) at the 200 1 scale and was purified to 95% homogeneity using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The recombinant protein was similar to the protein synthesised in plant with respect to structure and biological activity.

  6. Enhanced expression of recombinant beta toxin of Clostridium perfringens type B using a commercially available Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Fatemah; Pilehchian Langroudi, Reza; Eimani, Bahram Golestani

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta toxin is only produced by types B and C and plays an important role in many human and animal diseases, causing fatal conditions that originate in the intestines. We compared the expression of C. perfringens type B vaccine strain recombinant beta toxin gene in the Escherichia coli strains Rosetta(DE3) and BL21(DE3). The beta toxin gene was extracted from pJETβ and ligated with pET22b(+). pET22β was transformed into E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and Rosetta(DE3). Recombinant protein was expressed as a soluble protein after isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction in strain Rosetta(DE3) but not in BL21(DE3). Expression was optimised by growing recombinant cells at 37 °C and at an induction of 0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM IPTG. Expression was evaluated using sodium dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The recombinant protein was purified via Ni-NTA and was analysed using western blot. We concluded that E. coli strain RosettaTM(DE3) can enhance the expression of C. perfringens recombinant beta toxin. PMID:27380656

  7. Recombinant Escherichia coli strains with inducible Campylobacter jejuni single domain hemoglobin CHb expression exhibited improved cell growth in bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Jiang-Ke; Li, Jia; Tao, Xing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate concentration of dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution is critical for efficient operation of a bioreactor, requiring sophisticated engineering design and a system of regulation to maximize oxygen transfer from the injected air bubbles to the cells. Bacterial hemoglobins are oxygen-binding proteins that transfer oxygen from the environment to metabolic processes and allow bacteria to grow even under microaerophilic conditions. To improve the oxygen utilization efficiency of cells and overcome the oxygen shortage in bioreactors, the gene coding for the Campylobacter jejuni single domain hemoglobin (CHb) gene was artificially synthesized and functionally expressed under the control of inducible expression promoters PT7 and Pvgh in Escherichia coli. The effects of the recombinants PT7-CHb and Pvgh-CHb on cell growth were evaluated in aerobic shake flasks, anaerobic capped bottles and a 5-L bioreactor, and a pronounced improvement in cell biomass was observed for CHb-expressing cells. To determine the growth curves, CHb gene expression, and CHb oxygen-binding capacity of specific recombinants with different promoters, we determined the time course of CHb gene expression in the two recombinants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and CO differential spectrum assays. Based on the growth patterns of the two recombinants in the bioreactor, we proposed different recombinant types with optimal performance under specific culture conditions.

  8. Construction of a mouse hepatitis virus recombinant expressing a foreign gene.

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Stegen, C F; Koetzner, C A; Masters, P S

    1998-01-01

    The genome of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) contains genes which have been shown to be nonessential for viral replication and which could, in principle, be used as sites for the introduction of foreign sequences. We have inserted heterologous genetic material into gene 4 of MHV in order (i) to test the applicability of targeted RNA recombination for site-directed mutagenesis of the MHV genome upstream of the N gene; (ii) to develop further genetic tools for mutagenesis of structural genes other than N; and (iii) to examine the feasibility of using MHV as an expression vector. A DI-like donor RNA vector containing the MHV S gene and all genes distal to S was constructed. Initially, a derivative of this was used to insert a 19-nucleotide tag into the start of ORF 4a of MHV-A59 using the N gene deletion mutant A1b4 as the recipient virus. Subsequently, the entire gene for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inserted in place of gene 4. This heterologous gene was shown to be expressed by recombinant viruses but not at levels sufficient to allow detection of fluorescence of viral plaques. Northern blot analysis of transcripts of GFP recombinants showed the expected displacement of the mobility, relative to those of wild-type, of all subgenomic mRNAs larger than mRNA5. An unexpected result of the Northern analysis was the observation that GFP recombinants also produced an RNA species the same size as that of wild-type mRNA4. RT-PCR analysis of the 5' end of this species revealed that it was actually a collection of mRNAs originating from a cluster of 10 different sites, none of which possessed a canonical intergenic sequence. The finding of these aberrant mRNAs, all of nearly the same size as wild-type mRNA4, suggests that long range structure of the MHV genome can sometimes be the sole determinant of the site of initiation of transcription.

  9. Construction of recombinant baculoviruses expressing hemagglutinin of H5N1 avian influenza and research on the immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jingping; An, Qi; Gao, Dongni; Liu, Ying; Ping, Wenxiang

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses with different promoter and regulatory elements were constructed to enhance the expression of target protein and boost the efficacies of avian influenza vaccine. Hemagglutinin gene was cloned into the baculovirus transfer vectors driven by cytomegaloviru (CMV) and White spot syndrome virus immediate-early promoter one (WSSV ie1) promoter respectively, with different regulatory elements. The recombinant baculoviruses were directly used as vaccines to immunize specific pathogen-free chickens. The protein expression levels of recombinant baculoviruses BV-S-HA and BV-S-ITRs-HA were respectively 2.43 and 2.67 times than that of BV-S-con-HA, while the protein expression levels of BV-A-HA and BV-A-ITRs-HA were respectively 2.44 and 2.69 times than that of BV-S-con-HA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels induced by BV-A and BV-S series recombinant baculovirus were significantly higher than the commercialized vaccine group (P < 0.05). Among the groups with same promoter, the IgG antibody levels induced by the baculovirus containing regulatory elements were significantly higher than control group. Additionally, the immune effects induced by BV-A series recombinant baculoviruses with WSSV ie1 promoter were significantly stronger than the BV-S series recombinant baculoviruses with CMV promoter. The avian influenza vaccine prepared based on baculovirus vector can simultaneously stimulate the humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:27063566

  10. Expression, purification, and C-terminal amidation of recombinant human glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Zhen; Yang, Sheng-Sheng; Dou, Hong; Mao, Ji-Fang; Li, Kang-Sheng

    2004-08-01

    Human glucagon-like peptide-1 (hGLP-1) (7-36) amide, a gastrointestinal hormone with a pharmaceutical potential in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, is composed of 30 amino acid residues as a mature protein. We report here the development of a method for high-level expression and purification of recombinant hGLP-1 (7-36) amide (rhGLP-1) through glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion expression system. The cDNA of hGLP-1-Leu, the 31st-residue leucine-extended precursor peptide, was prepared by annealing and ligating of artificially synthetic oligonucleotide fragments, inserted into pBluescript SK (+/-) plasmid, and then cloned into pGEX-4T-3 GST fusion vector. The fusion protein GST-hGLP-1-Leu, expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), was purified by affinity chromatography after high-level culture and sonication of bacteria. Following cleavage of GST-hGLP-1-Leu by cyanogen bromide, the recombinant hGLP-1-Leu was released from fusion protein, and purified using QAE Sepharose ion exchange and RP C(18) chromatography. After purification, the precursor hGLP-1-Leu was transacylated by carboxypeptidase Y, Arg-NH(2) as a nucleophile, to produce rhGLP-1. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed the molecular weight was as expected. The biological activity of rhGLP-1 in a rat model demonstrated that plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower and insulin concentrations higher after intraperitoneal injection of rhGLP-1 together with glucose compared with glucose alone (P < 0.001). PMID:15249052

  11. Expression of biologically active recombinant rat IgE-binding protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, L G; Robertson, M W; Liu, F T

    1990-12-01

    IgE-binding protein (epsilon BP) is a protein which has affinity for IgE and was originally identified in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. Subsequently, it was found to be the rat homolog of CBP35, a murine beta-galactoside-specific lectin. This protein is also designated as L-34 and RL-29 and studied independently by several laboratories. More recently, CBP35 (epsilon BP) was found to be equivalent to Mac-2, a surface marker on activated macrophages. Using rat epsilon BP cDNA, we have succeeded in expressing recombinant epsilon BP in Escherichia coli. Milligram quantities of homogeneous epsilon BP could be obtained from bacterial lysate in a one-step affinity purification procedure utilizing lactosyl-Sepharose 4B and elution with a lactose gradient. The recombinant epsilon BP (r epsilon BP) binds mouse IgE and retains reactivity to anti-peptide antibodies specific for a sequence within rat epsilon BP. The purified r epsilon BP exhibits binding activity to various saccharides, with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine greater than thiodigalactoside greater than lactose much greater than D-galactose greater than L-arabinose, an order identical to that exhibited by native epsilon BP isolated from RBL cells. The recombinant lectin displayed hemagglutination activity when tested with rabbit erythrocytes. Although epsilon BP shares sequence homology to other lectins containing S-type (thiol-dependent) carbohydrate-recognition domains, r epsilon BP is resistant to air oxidation and does not require reducing agents for maintaining its activity. Furthermore, the single cysteine residue appears to be unexposed and can be alkylated only when the protein is denatured in 5.6 M guanidinium hydrochloride. The availability of a source for a large quantity of epsilon BP should facilitate the analysis of biological function(s) and structure-activity relationships of this lectin.

  12. Half-life measurements of chemical inducers for recombinant gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inducible promoters are widely spread genetic tools for triggering, tuning and optimizing the expression of recombinant genes in engineered biological systems. Most of them are controlled by the addition of a specific exogenous chemical inducer that indirectly regulates the promoter transcription rate in a concentration-dependent fashion. In order to have a robust and predictable degree of control on promoter activity, the degradation rate of such chemicals should be considered in many applications like recombinant protein production. Results In this work, we use whole-cell biosensors to assess the half-life of three commonly used chemical inducers for recombinant Escherichia coli: Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), anhydrotetracycline (ATc) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HSL). A factorial study was conducted to investigate the conditions that significantly contribute to the decay rate of these inducers. Temperature has been found to be the major factor affecting ATc, while medium and pH have been found to highly affect HSL. Finally, no significant degradation was observed for IPTG among the tested conditions. Conclusions We have quantified the decay rate of IPTG, ATc and HSL in many conditions, some of which were not previously tested in the literature, and the main effects affecting their degradation were identified via a statistics-based framework. Whole-cell biosensors were successfully used to conduct this study, yielding reproducible measurements via simple multiwell-compatible assays. The knowledge of inducer degradation rate in several contexts has to be considered in the rational design of synthetic biological systems for improving the predictability of induction effects, especially for prolonged experiments. PMID:24485151

  13. Expression, characterization, and purification of recombinant porcine lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sue-Hong; Yang, Tien-Shuh; Lin, Shiang-Ming; Tsai, Ming-Shiun; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Mao, Simon J T

    2002-06-01

    Recombinant porcine lactoferrin (rPLF) was synthesized in Pichia pastoris using a constitutive promoter from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. Strains expressing rPLF with its own signal sequence or with that from the yeast alpha-mating factor (alpha-MF) were able to produce and secrete rPLF, but levels were consistently higher using alpha-MF constructs. In contrast, P. pastoris strains that expressed rPLF without a signal sequence produced the protein in an insoluble intracellular form. Increasing the initial pH of shake-flask culture medium from 6.0 to 7.0 or adding ferric ions to the medium (to 100 microM) resulted in significant improvements in expression of rPLF from P. pastoris. Expression levels (approximately 12 mg/L) were much higher than those observed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (1-2 mg/L). P. pastoris-secreted rPLF was isolated and purified via a one-step simple procedure using a heparin column. The molecular size (78 kDa), isoelectric point (8.8-9.0), N-terminal amino acid sequence, and iron-binding capability of rPLF were each similar to that of native milk PLF. PMID:12071697

  14. Rapid and efficient purification of native histidine-tagged protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Janknecht, R; de Martynoff, G; Lou, J; Hipskind, R A; Nordheim, A; Stunnenberg, H G

    1991-01-01

    Vaccinia virus has been used as a vector to express foreign genes for the production of functional and posttranslationally modified proteins. A procedure is described here that allows the rapid native purification of vaccinia-expressed proteins fused to an amino-terminal tag of six histidines. Extracts from cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus are loaded onto Ni2+.nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+.NTA)-agarose and histidine-tagged proteins are selectively eluted with imidazole-containing buffers. In the case of the human serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of the c-fos protooncogene, the vaccinia-expressed histidine-tagged SRF (SRF-6His) could be purified solely by this step to greater than 95% purity. SRF-6His was shown to resemble authentic SRF by functional criteria: it was transported to the nucleus, bound specifically the c-fos serum response element, interacted with the p62TCF protein to form a ternary complex, and stimulated in vitro transcription from the serum response element. Thus, the combination of vaccinia virus expression and affinity purification by Ni2+.NTA chromatography promises to be useful for the production of proteins in a functional and posttranslationally modified form. Images PMID:1924358

  15. Expression of a foreign gene by recombinant canine distemper virus recovered from cloned DNAs.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christopher L; Wang, Hai-Ping; Kovacs, Gerald R; Vasilakis, Nikos; Kowalski, Jacek; Nowak, Rebecca M; Lerch, Robert A; Walpita, Pramila; Sidhu, Mohinderjit S; Udem, Stephen A

    2002-02-26

    A canine distemper virus (CDV) genomic cDNA clone and expression plasmids required to establish a CDV rescue system were generated from a laboratory-adapted strain of the Onderstepoort vaccine virus. In addition, a CDV minireplicon was prepared and used in transient expression studies performed to identify optimal virus rescue conditions. Results from the transient expression experiments indicated that minireplicon-encoded reporter gene activity was increased when transfected cell cultures were maintained at 32 rather than 37 degrees C, and when the cellular stress response was induced by heat shock. Applying these findings to rescue of recombinant CDV (rCDV) resulted in efficient recovery of virus after transfected HEp2 or A549 cells were co-cultured with Vero cell monolayers. Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of restriction site polymorphisms confirmed that rescued virus was rCDV. A rCDV strain also was engineered that contained the luciferase gene inserted between the P and M genes; this virus directed high levels of luciferase expression in infected cells. PMID:11864746

  16. Expression and in vitro functional analyses of recombinant Gam1 protein.

    PubMed

    Avila, Gustavo A; Ramirez, Daniel H; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Jacquez, Pedro; Chiocca, Susanna; Sun, Jianjun; Rosas-Acosta, German; Xiao, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Gam1, an early gene product of an avian adenovirus, is essential for viral replication. Gam1 is the first viral protein found to globally inhibit cellular SUMOylation, a critical posttranslational modification that alters the function and cellular localization of proteins. The interaction details at the interface between Gam1 and its cellular targets remain unclear due to the lack of structural information. Although Gam1 has been previously characterized, the purity of the protein was not suitable for structural investigations. In the present study, the gene of Gam1 was cloned and expressed in various bacterial expression systems to obtain pure and soluble recombinant Gam1 protein for in vitro functional and structural studies. While Gam1 was insoluble in most expression systems tested, it became soluble when it was expressed as a fusion protein with trigger factor (TF), a ribosome associated bacterial chaperone, under the control of a cold shock promoter. Careful optimization indicates that both low temperature induction and the chaperone function of TF play critical roles in increasing Gam1 solubility. Soluble Gam1 was purified to homogeneity through sequential chromatography techniques. Monomeric Gam1 was obtained via size exclusion chromatography and analyzed by dynamic light scattering. The SUMOylation inhibitory function of the purified Gam1 was confirmed in an in vitro assay. These results have built the foundation for further structural investigations that will broaden our understanding of Gam1's roles in viral replication.

  17. Genetic engineering and heterologous expression of the disorazol biosynthetic gene cluster via Red/ET recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Qiang; Herrmann, Jennifer; Hu, Shengbiao; Raju, Ritesh; Bian, Xiaoying; Zhang, Youming; Müller, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Disorazol, a macrocyclic polykitide produced by the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce12 and it is reported to have potential cytotoxic activity towards several cancer cell lines, including multi-drug resistant cells. The disorazol biosynthetic gene cluster (dis) from Sorangium cellulosum (So ce12) was identified by transposon mutagenesis and cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The 58-kb dis core gene cluster was reconstituted from BACs via Red/ET recombineering and expressed in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622. For the first time ever, a myxobacterial trans-AT polyketide synthase has been expressed heterologously in this study. Expression in M. xanthus allowed us to optimize the yield of several biosynthetic products using promoter engineering. The insertion of an artificial synthetic promoter upstream of the disD gene encoding a discrete acyl transferase (AT), together with an oxidoreductase (Or), resulted in 7-fold increase in disorazol production. The successful reconstitution and expression of the genetic sequences encoding for these promising cytotoxic compounds will allow combinatorial biosynthesis to generate novel disorazol derivatives for further bioactivity evaluation. PMID:26875499

  18. Production of cocktail of polyclonal antibodies using bacterial expressed recombinant protein for multiple virus detection.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Reetika; Mandal, Bikash; Paul, Prabir Kumar; Chigurupati, Phaneendra; Jain, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Cocktail of polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were produced that will help in multiple virus detection and overcome the limitation of individual virus purification, protein expression and purification as well as immunization in multiple rabbits. A dual fusion construct was developed using conserved coat protein (CP) sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in an expression vector, pET-28a(+). The fusion protein (∼40kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Likewise, a triple fusion construct was developed by fusing conserved CP sequences of CMV and PRSV with conserved nucleocapsid protein (N) sequence of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) and expressed as a fusion protein (∼50kDa) in pET-28a(+). PAb made separately to each of these three viruses recognized the double and triple fusion proteins in Western blot indicating retention of desired epitopes for binding with target antibodies. The fusion proteins (∼40kDa and ∼50kDa) were used to produce cocktail of PAb by immunizing rabbits, which simultaneously detected natural infection of CMV and PRSV or CMV, PRSV and GBNV in Cucurbitaceous, Solanaceous and other hosts in DAC-ELISA. This is the first report on production of a cocktail of PAb to recombinant fusion protein of two or three distinct viruses.

  19. Induction of protective immune response against both PPRV and FMDV by a novel recombinant PPRV expressing FMDV VP1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are both highly contagious diseases of small domestic and wild ruminants caused by the PPR virus (PPRV) and the FMD virus (FMDV). In this study, a recombinant PPRV expressing the FMDV VP1 gene (rPPRV/VP1) was generated and FMDV VP1 expression did not impair replication of the recombinant virus in vitro and immunogenicity in inducing neutralizing antibody against PPR in goats. Vaccination with one dose of rPPRV/VP1 induced FMDV neutralizing antibody in goats and protected them from challenge with virulent FMDV. Our results suggest that the recombinant PPRV expressing the FMDV VP1 protein is a potential dual live vectored vaccine against PPRV and FMDV. PMID:24898430

  20. Improvement of ethanol production by recombinant expression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiao; Hirabayashi, Sho; Mori, Toshio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    To improve ethanol production by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, the pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene was cloned from and reintroduced into this hyper lignin-degrading fungus; the gene encodes a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation. We screened 16 transformant P. sordida YK-624 strains that each expressed a second, recombinant PDC gene (pdc) and then identified the transformant strain (designated GP7) with the highest ethanol production. Direct ethanol production from hardwood was 1.41 higher with GP7 than with wild-type P. sordida YK-624. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased PDC activity was caused by elevated recombinant pdc expression. Taken together, these results suggested that ethanol production by P. sordida YK-624 can be improved by the stable expression of an additional, recombinant pdc.

  1. Expression and purification of soluble bio-active rice plant catalase-A from recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ray, Mamata; Mishra, Panchanand; Das, Priyanka; Sabat, Surendra Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Catalase in plants is a heme-coordinated tetrameric protein that primarily disproportionates hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It plays an important role in maintaining cellular concentration of hydrogen peroxide to a level, necessary for all aspects of normal plant growth and development. Except for its recombinant expression in transgenic plants and insect cell line, the protein is yet to be synthesized in its bio-active form in prokaryotic expression system. Attempts made in past for recombinant expression of plant catalase in Escherichia coli consistently resulted in formation of insoluble and inactive aggregates of inclusion body. Here we have shown the specific requirement of a thioredoxin fusion partner, the involvement of trigger factor protein and the low temperature treatment during induction period for synthesis of completely solubilized rice plant catalase-A in recombinant E. coli. Furthermore, the bacteria required the supplementation of δ-aminolevulinic acid to produce bio-active recombinant rice catalase-A. The molecular and biochemical properties of the purified recombinant protein showed the characteristic features of a typical mono-functional plant catalase. These results attest to the usefulness of the present protocol for production of plant catalase using E. coli as heterologous expression system.

  2. Expression of Recombinant Human Mast Cell Chymase with Asn-linked Glycans in Glycoengineered Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eliot T.; Perry, Evan T.; Sears, Megan B.; Johnson, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human mast cell chymase (rhChymase) was expressed in secreted form as an active enzyme in the SuperMan5 strain of GlycoSwitch® Pichia pastoris, which is engineered to produce proteins with (Man)5(GlcNAc)2 Asn-linked glycans. Cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography yielded 5 mg of active rhChymase per liter of fermentation medium. Purified rhChymase migrated on SDSPAGE as a single band of 30 kDa and treatment with peptide N-glycosidase F decreased this to 25 kDa, consistent with the established properties of native human chymase (hChymase). Polyclonal antibodies against hChymase detected rhChymase by Western blot. Active site titration with Eglin C, a potent chymase inhibitor, quantified the concentration of purified active enzyme. Kinetic analyses with succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe (suc-AAPF) p-nitroanilide and thiobenzyl ester synthetic substrates showed that heparin significantly reduced Km, whereas heparin effects on kcat were minor. Pure rhChymase with Asn-linked glycans closely resembles hChymase. This bioengineering approach avoided hyperglycosylation and provides a source of active rhChymase for other studies as well as a foundation for production of recombinant enzyme with human glycosylation patterns. PMID:25131858

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant active prostate-specific antigen from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sujin; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2007-05-01

    Human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a 33 kDa serine protease with comprehensive homology to glandular kallikrein, is secreted from prostatic tissue into the seminal fluid and enters into the circulation. The level of PSA increases in the serum of patients with prostatic cancer and hence is widely employed as a marker of the disease status. In particular, an enzymatically active PSA that is a form cleaved at the N-terminal seven-amino-acids prosequence, APLILSR, of proPSA may play an important roll in the progression of prostate cancer. Thus, the presence of the active form would selectively discriminate the cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we developed a convenient purification method for the acquisition of active PSA and proPSA. Recombinant proPSA and active PSA were expressed directly in Escherichia coli, easily and efficiently isolated from inclusion bodies, refolded, and purified. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of the recombinant active PSA was confirmed as serine protease using chromogenic chymotrypsin substrate. This purified active PSA could be further applied to scrutinize the biological or conformational characteristics of the protein and to develop specific diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  4. Flavoprotein monooxygenases for oxidative biocatalysis: recombinant expression in microbial hosts and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ceccoli, Romina D.; Bianchi, Dario A.; Rial, Daniela V.

    2014-01-01

    External flavoprotein monooxygenases comprise a group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the insertion of one atom of molecular oxygen into an organic substrate and the second atom is reduced to water. These enzymes are involved in a great number of metabolic pathways both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Flavoprotein monooxygenases have attracted the attention of researchers for several decades and the advent of recombinant DNA technology caused a great progress in the field. These enzymes are subjected to detailed biochemical and structural characterization and some of them are also regarded as appealing oxidative biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals and valuable intermediates toward active pharmaceutical ingredients due to their high chemo-, stereo-, and regioselectivity. Here, we review the most representative reactions catalyzed both in vivo and in vitro by prototype flavoprotein monooxygenases, highlighting the strategies employed to produce them recombinantly, to enhance the yield of soluble proteins, and to improve cofactor regeneration in order to obtain versatile biocatalysts. Although we describe the most outstanding features of flavoprotein monooxygenases, we mainly focus on enzymes that were cloned, expressed and used for biocatalysis during the last years. PMID:24567729

  5. Design and construction of an in-plant activation cassette for transgene expression and recombinant protein production in plants.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2014-05-01

    Virus-based transgene expression systems have become particularly valuable for recombinant protein production in plants. The dual-module in-plant activation (INPACT) expression platform consists of a uniquely designed split-gene cassette incorporating the cis replication elements of Tobacco yellow dwarf geminivirus (TYDV) and an ethanol-inducible activation cassette encoding the TYDV Rep and RepA replication-associated proteins. The INPACT system is essentially tailored for recombinant protein production in stably transformed plants and provides both inducible and high-level transient transgene expression with the potential to be adapted to diverse crop species. The construction of a novel split-gene cassette, the inducible nature of the system and the ability to amplify transgene expression via rolling-circle replication differentiates this system from other DNA- and RNA-based virus vector systems used for stable or transient recombinant protein production in plants. Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the design and construction of a split-gene INPACT cassette, and we highlight factors that may influence optimal activation and amplification of gene expression in transgenic plants. By using Nicotiana tabacum, the protocol takes 6-9 months to complete, and recombinant proteins expressed using INPACT can accumulate to up to 10% of the leaf total soluble protein.

  6. Expression and functional characterization of a recombinant targeted toxin with an uPA cleavable linker in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen he; Sun, Miao nan; Wang, Yong sheng; Sun, De Jun; Zhang, Shao xuan

    2011-04-01

    A recombinant targeted toxin (Disintegrin-Conj-Mel) was developed that contained a disintegrin connected to cytotoxic melittin by a urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-cleavable linker. This recombinant targeted toxin was designed to target tumor cells expressing integrin αvβ3. The fusion gene was expressed under the control of the promoter AOX1 in Pichia pastoris. Electrophoresis by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting assays of culture broth from a methanol-induced expression strain, demonstrated that an approximately 13 kDa fusion protein was secreted into the culture medium. The molecular weight was that calculated from the predicted amino acid sequence. After optimizing the growth and expression conditions of the transformant strain, about 160 mg/L of the recombinant protein was achieved. The recombinant protein was purified to more than 95% purity by SP Sepharose ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The hemolysis bioactivity test revealed that the fusion had no hemolytic activity or cytotoxicity against uPA non-expressing 293 cells, but exerted dose-dependent inhibition on uPA-expressing A549 cell proliferation. PMID:21144903

  7. HIGH YIELD SOLUBLE BACTERIAL EXPRESSION AND STREAMLINED PURIFICATION OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON α-2A

    PubMed Central

    Bis, Regina L.; Stauffer, Tara M.; Singh, Surinder M.; Lavoie, Thomas B.; Mallela, Krishna M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Interferon α-2a (IFNA2) is a member of the Type I interferon cytokine family, known for its antiviral and anti-proliferative functions. The role of this family in the innate immune response makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of many viral and chronic immune-compromised diseases. Recombinant IFNA2 is clinically used to modulate hairy cell leukemia as well as hepatitis c. Historically, IFNA2 has been purified from human leukocytes as well as bacterial expression systems. In most cases, bacterial expression of IFNA2 resulted in inclusion body formation, or required numerous purification steps that decreased the protein yield. Here, we describe an expression and purification scheme for IFNA2 using a pET-SUMO bacterial expression system and a single purification step. Using SUMO protein as the fusion tag achieved high soluble protein expression. The SUMO tag was cleaved with the Ulp1 protease leaving no additional amino acids on the fusion terminus following the cleavage. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism, 2D heteronuclear NMR, and analytical ultracentrifugation confirmed the amino acid sequence identity, secondary and tertiary protein structures, and the solution behavior of the purified IFNA2. The purified protein also has antiviral and anti-proliferative activities comparable to the WHO International Standard, NIBSC 95/650, and the IFNA2 standard available from PBL Assay Science. Combining the expression and purification protocols developed here to produce IFNA2 on a laboratory scale with the commercial fermenter technology commonly used in pharmaceutical industry may further enhance IFNA2 yields, which will promote the development of interferon-based protein drugs to treat various disorders. PMID:24794500

  8. [Rescue of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the green fluorescent protein].

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-ying; Wen, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Yong; Bao, En-dong; Bu, Zhi-gao

    2006-08-01

    A recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated by applying reverse genetics techniques. The GFP open reading frame flanked by NDV transcription start and stop sequences was inserted between the phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) in a full-length cDNA clone of NDV Lasota vaccine strain. This plasmid transcribing antigenome RNA was cotransfected with helper plasmids expressing viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and large protein into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase. The rescued virus was first propagated in 10-day-old embryonated eggs and the allantoic fluid was used to infect primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) cells. The appearance of GFP in live infected cells confirmed further the recovery of a recombinant NDV (rNDV-GFP) expressing this reporter gene. Nine successive passages in embryonated chicken eggs were performed. Allantoic fluid samples were then titrated by a microtiter plate HA test. HA positive ailantoic fluid were used for further egg passages. All the allantoic fluid samples were titrated by end point dilutions and infected cells were examined for the presence of GFP expression. To analyze virus growth, 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs were inoculated with 1 x 10(4) EID50 rNDV or rNDV-GFP. At 24,48,72 and 96 h p.i. the allantoic fluid of inoculated eggs containing live embryos was harvested and clarified by centrifugation. Supernatants were used for titration of EID50 in 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs. rNDV and rNDV-GFP grew to similar titers (10(9) EID50/mL). In order to test the virulence of rNDV-GFP, infectious allantoic fluid of rNDV-GFP were inoculated into embryonated SPF chicken eggs at 1 x 10(6) EID50. No dead embryonated egg was found within 96 hours. The replication kinetics and pathogenicity in SPF embryonated eggs of rNDV-GFP did not differ significantly from that of the parent virus. LaSota is a widely used NDV live vaccine strain. The reverse

  9. Characterization and recombinant expression of a divergent ice nucleation protein from 'Pseudomonas borealis'.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongqin; Qin, Lei; Walker, Virginia K

    2009-04-01

    Isolates of 'Pseudomonas borealis' were recovered after ice-affinity selection of summer-collected soils. 'P. borealis' DL7 was further characterized and shown to have ice nucleation activity (INA), a property that allows the crystallization of ice at temperatures close to the melting point, effectively preventing the supercooling of water. INA was optimally detected after culturing at temperatures consistent with psychrophilic growth. The sequence encoding the 'P. borealis' ice nucleation protein (INP) was obtained using both PCR and chromosome walking. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the resulting inaPb recombinants had INA. The 'P. borealis' sequence, dubbed inaPb, is clearly related to previously cloned INP genes, but it shows greater divergence. Sequence analysis suggests that there are two opposite flat surfaces, one relatively hydrophobic that likely serves as an ice template, and the other that could function as a complementary face to facilitate interprotein interaction for ice-step formation. PMID:19332818

  10. Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Artois, M; Charlton, K M; Tolson, N D; Casey, G A; Knowles, M K; Campbell, J B

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (Marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. Each of ten coyotes (Canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. Several voles and most of the gulls died from diseases unrelated to vaccination during the observation period, but all other animals remained healthy and survived. These deaths from causes other than vaccination and the absence of any lesions suggestive of vaccinia infection indicate that it is unlikely that any animal suffered or died as a result of V-RG administration. In addition several animals showed an unexpected high level of rabies neutralizing antibodies. PMID:2249183

  11. Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Artois, M; Charlton, K M; Tolson, N D; Casey, G A; Knowles, M K; Campbell, J B

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-six meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (Marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. Each of ten coyotes (Canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. Several voles and most of the gulls died from diseases unrelated to vaccination during the observation period, but all other animals remained healthy and survived. These deaths from causes other than vaccination and the absence of any lesions suggestive of vaccinia infection indicate that it is unlikely that any animal suffered or died as a result of V-RG administration. In addition several animals showed an unexpected high level of rabies neutralizing antibodies. PMID:2249183

  12. Recombinant expression and inhibition mechanism analysis of pectin methylesterase from Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiuping; Jia, Qiulei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qi; Yang, Qing

    2014-06-01

    Phytopathogenic microorganisms can produce pectin methylesterase (PME) to degrade plant cell walls during plant invasion. This enzyme is thought to be a virulence factor of phytopathogens. In this work, PME from Aspergillus flavus (AFPME) was expressed in Pichia pastoris and an in vitro inhibitor study was performed. The purified AFPME with a yield of 52.2% was resolved as one band with a molecular mass of c. 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Optimal activity of the enzyme occurred at a temperature of 55 °C and a pH of 4.8. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) strongly inhibited the activity of recombinant AFPME. The molecular docking analysis indicated that EGCG could form hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions with some amino acid residues in the active site of AFPME. Our studies provide a novel strategy for the control of the plant invasion of A. flavus. PMID:24766423

  13. Design, recombinant expression, and antibacterial activity of the cecropins-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Yu, Rong Qing; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Huo Xiang; Song, Ling Ling; Cao, Yi; Qiao, Dai Rong

    2010-09-01

    In order to evaluate their antibacterial activities and toxicities, the cecropins-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptide, CA(1-7)-M(4-11) (CAM) and CB(1-7)-M(4-11) (CBM), were designed by APD2 database. The recombinant hybrid antimicrobial peptides were successfully expressed and purified in Pichia pastoris. Antimicrobial activity assay showed that both of the two hybrid antimicrobial peptides had strong antibacterial abilities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Salmonella derby. The potency of CAM and CBM to E. coli 25922 were 0.862 and 0.849, respectively, slightly lower than Amp's 0.957. The hemolytic assays indicated CAM and CBM had no hemolytic in vivo and in vitro, and so they had a good application prospect. PMID:20111863

  14. A robust method for the rapid generation of recombinant Zika virus expressing the GFP reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Gadea, Gilles; Bos, Sandra; Krejbich-Trotot, Pascale; Clain, Elodie; Viranaicken, Wildriss; El-Kalamouni, Chaker; Mavingui, Patrick; Desprès, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a major public health problem with severe human congenital and neurological anomalies. The screening of anti-ZIKV compounds and neutralizing antibodies needs reliable and rapid virus-based assays. Here, we described a convenient method leading to the rapid production of molecular clones of ZIKV. To generate a molecular clone of ZIKV strain MR766(NIID), the viral genome was directly assembled into Vero cells after introduction of four overlapping synthetic fragments that cover the full-length genomic RNA sequence. Such strategy has allowed the production of a recombinant ZIKV expressing the GFP reporter gene that is stable over two culturing rounds on Vero cells. Our data demonstrate that the ZIKV reporter virus is a very reliable GFP-based tool for analyzing viral growth and measuring the neutralizing antibody as well as rapid screening of antiviral effect of different classes of inhibitors.

  15. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant Jerdonitin, a P-II class snake venom metalloproteinase comprising metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lili; Yuan, Cai; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Wanyu; Huang, Mingdong

    2010-01-01

    Jerdonitin is a P-II class snake venom metalloproteinase comprising metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains. In this study, we established a high-level expression system in Pichia pastoris and developed a purification strategy for the recombinant Jerdonitin. This recombinant Jerdonitin degraded fibrinogen at a level of activity comparable with its wild type. The effects of recombinant Jerdonitin on inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation were in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 248nM. In addition, we reported here that Jerdonitin can significantly inhibit the growth of several cell lines, including human liver cancer cells (Bel7402), human leukemia cells (K562) and human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC823). This study offers recombinant Jerdonitin that will be valuable for further functional and structural studies of Jerdonitin. PMID:19732785

  16. Recombinant BCG Expressing Mycobacterium ulcerans Ag85A Imparts Enhanced Protection against Experimental Buruli ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Bryan E.; Hale, Laura P.; Lee, Sunhee

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer, an emerging tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is characterized by disfiguring skin necrosis and high morbidity. Relatively little is understood about the mode of transmission, pathogenesis, or host immune responses to MU infection. Due to significant reduction in quality of life for patients with extensive tissue scarring, and that a disproportionately high percentage of those affected are disadvantaged children, a Buruli ulcer vaccine would be greatly beneficial to the worldwide community. Previous studies have shown that mice inoculated with either M. bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) or a DNA vaccine encoding the M. ulcerans mycolyl transferase, Ag85A (MU-Ag85A), are transiently protected against pathology caused by intradermal challenge with MU. Building upon this principle, we have generated quality-controlled, live-recombinant strains of BCG and M. smegmatis which express the immunodominant MU Ag85A. Priming with rBCG MU-Ag85A followed by an M. smegmatis MU-Ag85A boost strongly induced murine antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and elicited functional IFNγ-producing splenocytes which recognized MU-Ag85A peptide and whole M. ulcerans better than a BCG prime-boost vaccination. Strikingly, mice vaccinated with a single subcutaneous dose of BCG MU-Ag85A or prime-boost displayed significantly enhanced survival, reduced tissue pathology, and lower bacterial load compared to mice vaccinated with BCG. Importantly, this level of superior protection against experimental Buruli ulcer compared to BCG has not previously been achieved. These results suggest that use of BCG as a recombinant vehicle expressing MU antigens represents an effective Buruli ulcer vaccine strategy and warrants further antigen discovery to improve vaccine efficacy. PMID:26393347

  17. Temperature influences β-carotene production in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing carotenogenic genes from Phaffia rhodozyma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Zhan, Wubing; Li, Yongfu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma is a prominent microorganism able to synthesize carotenoid. Here, three carotenogenic cDNAs of P. rhodozyma CGMCC 2.1557, crtE, crtYB and crtI, were cloned and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1. The recombinant Sc-EYBI cells could synthesize 258.8 ± 43.8 μg g(-1) dry cell weight (DCW) of β-carotene when growing at 20 °C, about 59-fold higher than in those growing at 30 °C. Additional expression of the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase from S. cerevisiae (Sc-EYBIH) increased the β-carotene level to 528.8 ± 13.3 μg g(-1) DCW as cells growing at 20 °C, 27-fold higher than cells growing at 30 °C, although cells grew faster at 30 °C than at 20 °C. Consistent with the much higher β-carotene level in cells growing at 20 °C, transcription level of three crt genes and cHMG1 gene in cells growing at 20 °C was a little higher than in those growing at 30 °C. Meanwhile, expression of three carotenogenic genes and accumulation of β-carotene promoted cell growth. These results reveal the influence of temperature on β-carotene biosynthesis and may be helpful for improving β-carotene production in recombinant S. cerevisiae. PMID:23861041

  18. Expression and functional characterization of the plant antimicrobial snakin-1 and defensin recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2009-01-01

    In this study, for the first time, functionally active, recombinant, cysteine-rich plant proteins snakin-1 (SN1) and defensin (PTH1) were expressed and purified using a prokaryotic expression system. The overall level of antimicrobial activities of SN1 and PTH1 produced in Escherichia coli was commensurate with that of the same proteins previously obtained from plant tissues. Both proteins exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) 1.5-8 microM) and antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum coccoides and Botrytis cinerea (IC(50) 5-14 microM). Significantly weaker activity was observed against Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. A pronounced synergistic antimicrobial effect against P. syringae pv. syringae and an additive effect against P. syringae pv. tabaci occurred with a combination of SN1 and PTH1. Aggregation of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus bacterial cells at all protein concentrations tested was observed with the combination of SN1 and PTH1 and with SN1 alone. Our results demonstrate the use of a cost effective prokaryotic expression system for generation and in vitro characterization of plant cysteine-rich proteins with potential antimicrobial activities against a wide range of phytopathogenic microorganisms in order to select the most effective agents for future in vivo studies. PMID:18824107

  19. N‐Lauroylation during the Expression of Recombinant N‐Myristoylated Proteins: Implications and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Flamm, Andrea Gabriele; Le Roux, Anabel‐Lise; Mateos, Borja; Díaz‐Lobo, Mireia; Storch, Barbara; Breuker, Kathrin; Konrat, Robert; Pons, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Incorporation of myristic acid onto the N terminus of a protein is a crucial modification that promotes membrane binding and correct localization of important components of signaling pathways. Recombinant expression of N‐myristoylated proteins in Escherichia coli can be achieved by co‐expressing yeast N‐myristoyltransferase and supplementing the growth medium with myristic acid. However, undesired incorporation of the 12‐carbon fatty acid lauric acid can also occur (leading to heterogeneous samples), especially when the available carbon sources are scarce, as it is the case in minimal medium for the expression of isotopically enriched samples. By applying this method to the brain acid soluble protein 1 and the 1–185 N‐terminal region of c‐Src, we show the significant, and protein‐specific, differences in the membrane binding properties of lauroylated and myristoylated forms. We also present a robust strategy for obtaining lauryl‐free samples of myristoylated proteins in both rich and minimal media. PMID:26522884

  20. N-Lauroylation during the Expression of Recombinant N-Myristoylated Proteins: Implications and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Andrea Gabriele; Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Mateos, Borja; Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Storch, Barbara; Breuker, Kathrin; Konrat, Robert; Pons, Miquel; Coudevylle, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of myristic acid onto the N terminus of a protein is a crucial modification that promotes membrane binding and correct localization of important components of signaling pathways. Recombinant expression of N-myristoylated proteins in Escherichia coli can be achieved by co-expressing yeast N-myristoyltransferase and supplementing the growth medium with myristic acid. However, undesired incorporation of the 12-carbon fatty acid lauric acid can also occur (leading to heterogeneous samples), especially when the available carbon sources are scarce, as it is the case in minimal medium for the expression of isotopically enriched samples. By applying this method to the brain acid soluble protein 1 and the 1-185 N-terminal region of c-Src, we show the significant, and protein-specific, differences in the membrane binding properties of lauroylated and myristoylated forms. We also present a robust strategy for obtaining lauryl-free samples of myristoylated proteins in both rich and minimal media. PMID:26522884

  1. Recombinant expression library of Pyrococcus furiosus constructed by high-throughput cloning: a useful tool for functional and structural genomics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Peng, Li; Han, Zhong; Xie, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally near 100°C and is an important resource of many industrial and molecular biological enzymes. To study the structure and function of P. furiosus proteins at whole genome level, we constructed expression plasmids of each P. furiosus gene using a ligase-independent cloning method, which was based on amplifying target gene and vector by PCR using phosphorothioate-modified primers and digesting PCR products by λ exonuclease. Our cloning method had a positive clone percentage of ≥ 80% in 96-well plate cloning format. Small-scale expression experiment showed that 55 out of 80 genes were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli Strain Rosetta 2(DE3)pLysS. In summary, this recombinant expression library of P. furiosus provides a platform for functional and structural studies, as well as developing novel industrial enzymes. Our cloning scheme is adaptable to constructing recombinant expression library of other sequenced organisms. PMID:26441878

  2. Characterization of the N-glycans of recombinant bee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Lyudmila N; Tsai, Chaoming; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Marković-Housley, Zora; Slater, Jay E

    2007-01-01

    Honeybee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) is a major glycoprotein allergen. Previous studies have indicated that recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzyme activity and IgE binding comparable with that of native Api m 2. In contrast, Api m 2 expressed in Escherichia coli does not. In this study, we characterized the carbohydrate side chains of Api m 2 expressed in insect cells, and compared our data with the established carbohydrate structure of native Api m 2. We assessed both the monosaccharide and the oligosaccharide content of recombinant Api m 2 using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis and HPLC. To identify the amino acid residues at which glycosylation occurs, we digested recombinant Api m 2 with endoproteinase Glu-C and identified the fragments that contained carbohydrate by specific staining. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells contains N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and fucose, as well as trace amounts of glucose and galactose, and the oligosaccharide analysis is consistent with heterogeneous oligosaccharide chains consisting of two to seven monosaccharides. No sialic acid or N-acetylgalactosamine were detected. These results are similar to published data for native Api m 2, although some monosaccharide components appear to be absent in the recombinant protein. Analysis of proteolytic digests indicates that of the four candidate N-glycosylation sites, carbohydrate chains are attached at asparagines 115 and 263. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzymic activity and IgE binding comparable with the native protein, and its carbohydrate composition is very similar. PMID:17479607

  3. HEK293 cell line: a vehicle for the expression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-01-01

    The HEK cell line has been extensively used as an expression tool for recombinant proteins since it was generated over 25 years ago. Although of epithelial origin, its biochemical machinery is capable of carrying out most of the post-translational folding and processing required to generate functional, mature protein from a wide spectrum of both mammalian and non-mammalian nucleic acids. Though popular as a transient expression system, this cell type has also seen wide use in stably transfected forms (i.e. transformed cells) to study a variety of cell-biological questions in neurobiology. The principal attributes which have made the HEK cell a popular choice among electrophysiologists to study isolated receptor channels include; its quick and easy reproduction and maintenance; amenability to transfection using a wide variety of methods; high efficiency of transfection and protein production; faithful translation and processing of proteins; and small cell size with minimal processes appropriate for voltage-clamp experimentation. These, and other attributes, also mean that complementary biochemical/cell biological evaluations of expressed proteins can be performed in concert with functional analyses to establish detailed pharmacological and biophysical profiles for the action of new drugs and their targets. The increased amount of sequence information available from the human genome has placed greater emphasis upon heterologous cell expression systems as targets for high throughput structure-function evaluation of novel drug targets and disease markers. Here we have highlighted some of the innate characteristics of the HEK cell in order that its suitability as a vehicle for the expression of a gene product can be assessed for particular needs. We have also detailed some of the standard methods used for transfection and obtaining functional data from electrophysiological recording techniques.

  4. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Pande, Abhay H

    2015-11-01

    Human PON1 (h-PON1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent serum enzyme and can hydrolyze (and inactivate) a wide range of substrates. It is a multifaceted enzyme and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, and organophosphate (OP)-detoxifying properties. Thus, h-PON1 is a strong candidate for the development of therapeutic intervention against these conditions in humans. Insufficient hydrolyzing activity of native h-PON1 against desirable substrate affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) of h-PON1 having enhanced activity. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop such variant(s). However, generation of rh-PON1 using E. coli expression system has been elusive until now because of the aggregation of over-expressed rh-PON1 protein in inactive form as inclusion bodies (IBs) in the bacterial cells. In this study, we have over-expressed rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) proteins as IBs in E. coli, and refolded the inactive enzymes present in the IBs to their active form using in vitro refolding. The active enzymes were isolated from the refolding mixture by ion-exchange chromatography. The catalytic properties of the refolded enzymes were similar to their soluble counterparts. Our results show that the pure and the active variant of rh-PON1 enzyme having enhanced hydrolyzing activity can be produced in large quantities using E. coli expression system. This method can be used for the industrial scale production of rh-PON1 enzymes and will aid in developing h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate.

  5. Efficient in vitro refolding and functional characterization of recombinant human liver carboxylesterase (CES1) expressed in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Boonyuen, Usa; Promnares, Kamoltip; Junkree, Suwapat; Day, Nichloas P.J.; Imwong, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    Human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) plays a critical role in the hydrolysis of various ester- and amide-containing molecules, including active metabolites, drugs and prodrugs. However, it has been problematic to express recombinant CES1 in bacterial expression systems due to low solubility, with the CES1 protein being mainly expressed in inclusion bodies, accompanied by insufficient purity issues. In this study, we report an efficient in vitro method for refolding recombinant CES1 from inclusion bodies. A one-step purification with an immobilized-metal affinity column was utilized to purify His-tagged recombinant CES1. Conveniently, both denaturant and imidazole can be removed while the enzyme is refolded via buffer exchange, a dilution method. We show that the refolding of recombinant CES1 was successful in Tris–HCl at pH 7.5 containing a combination of 1% glycerol and 2 mM β-mercaptoethanol, whereas a mixture of other additives (trehalose, sorbitol and sucrose) and β-mercaptoethanol failed to recover a functional protein. His-tagged recombinant CES1 retains its biological activity after refolding and can be used directly without removing the fusion tag. Altogether, our results provide an alternative method for obtaining a substantial amount of functionally active protein, which is advantageous for further investigations such as structural and functional studies. PMID:25462813

  6. Production of recombinant human factor VIII in different cell lines and the effect of human XBP1 co-expression.

    PubMed

    Campos-da-Paz, Mariana; Costa, Christiane Silva; Quilici, Luana Salgado; de Carmo Simões, Isabella; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant factor VIII is one of the most complex mammalian proteins and a biotechnology venture required for the treatment of hemophilia A. The complexity of the protein, post-translational modifications and limitations of expression elements make the production of active recombinant FVIII a challenge. Here we report the production of biologically active Factor VIII in two different cell lines, CHO and HepG2, by transient transfection. Two expression vectors based on the CMV promoter were used: one harboring CMV Intron A (InA) and the other without it. To bypass difficulties in secretion, we also studied the influence of co-expression of the human splice isoform of the XBP1 gene. We report the production of recombinant FVIII possessing bioengineered FVIII heavy and light chains, linked by a minimal B domain. In our study, HepG2, a human hepatocyte cell line, expressed Factor VIII ten-fold more than a CHO cell line, and in HepG2 cells, the expression of XBP1 improved Factor VIII activity. For CHO cells, expression was improved by the presence of InA, but no further improvement was noted with XBP1 co-expression. These data suggest that the minimal B domain rFVIII preserves Factor VIII biological activity and that different expression elements can be used to improve its production.

  7. New strategy for expression of recombinant hydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chains in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Fenglong; Li, Linbo; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao; Zhu, Chenhui; Fan, Daidi

    2015-01-01

    Type III collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in the human body, which forms collagen fibrils and provides the stiff, resilient characteristics of many tissues. In this paper, a new method for secretory expression of recombinant hydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chain in Pichia pastoris GS115 was applied. The gene encoding for full-length human collagen α1(III) chain (COL3A1) without N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal propeptide was cloned in the pPIC9K expression vector. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H, EC 1.14.11.2) α-subunit (P4Hα) and β-subunit (P4Hβ) genes were cloned in the same expression vector, pPICZB. Fluorogenic quantitative PCR indicates that COL3A1 and P4H genes have been expressed in mRNA level. SDS-PAGE shows that secretory expression of recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain was successfully achieved in P. pastoris GS115. In addition, the result of amino acids composition analysis shows that the recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain contains hydroxyproline by coexpression with the P4H. Furthermore, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that proline residues of the recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain were hydroxylated in the X or Y positions of Gly-X-Y triplets. PMID:24953863

  8. Identification of Essential Genetic Baculoviral Elements for Recombinant Protein Expression by Transactivation in Sf21 Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Maren; Schürig, Margitta; Chen, Fang-Fang; Yen, Zen-Zen; Lindemann, Nils; Meyer, Steffen; Spehr, Johannes; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) is widely used to produce high amounts of recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, generating recombinant baculovirus in high quality is rather time-consuming and labor-intensive. Alternatively, virus-free expression in insect cells did not achieve similar expression levels for most proteins so far. The transactivation method is a promising approach for protein expression in Sf21 cells. It combines advantages of BEVS and plasmid-based expression by activating strong virus-dependent promoters on a transfected plasmid by baculoviral coinfection. Here, we identified expression elements required for transactivation. Therefore, we designed several vectors comprising different viral promoters or promoter combinations and tested them for eGFP expression using the automated BioLector microcultivation system. Remarkably, only the combination of the very late promoter p10 together with the homologous region 5 (hr5) could boost expression during transactivation. Other elements, like p10 alone or the late viral promoter polH, did not respond to transactivation. A new combination of hr5 and p10 with the strongest immediate early OpMNPV viral promoter OpIE2 improved the yield of eGFP by ~25% in comparison to the previous applied hr5-IE1-p10 expression cassette. Furthermore, we observed a strong influence of the transcription termination sequence and vector backbone on the level of expression. Finally, the expression levels for transactivation, BEVS and solely plasmid-based expression were compared for the marker protein eGFP, underlining the potential of transactivation for fast recombinant protein expression in Sf21 cells. In conclusion, essential elements for transactivation could be identified. The optimal elements were applied to generate an improved vector applicable in virus-free plasmid-based expression, transactivation and BEVS. PMID:26934632

  9. Expression of a codon-optimised recombinant Ara h 2.02 peanut allergen in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lew, Min Han; Lim, Renee Lay Hong

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tools for peanut allergy using crude peanut extract showed low predictive value and reduced specificity for detection of peanut allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). The Ara h 2.02, an isoform of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2, contains three IgE epitope recognition sequence of 'DPYSPS' and may be a better reagent for component resolve diagnosis. This research aimed to generate a codon-optimised Ara h 2.02 gene for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and allergenicity study of this recombinant protein. The codon-optimised gene was generated by PCR using overlapping primers and cloned into the pET-28a (+) expression vector. Moderate expression of a 22.5 kDa 6xhistidine-tagged recombinant Ara h 2.02 protein (6xHis-rAra h 2.02) in BL21 (DE3) host cells was observed upon induction with 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The insoluble recombinant protein was purified under denaturing condition using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography and refolded by dialysis in decreasing urea concentration, amounting to a yield of 74 mg/l of expression culture. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunoblot analysis confirmed the production of the recombinant 6xHis-rAra h 2.02. The refolded recombinant 6xHis-rAra h 2.02, with or without adjuvant, was able to elicit comparable level of allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 in sensitised Balb/c mice. In addition, the specific IgE antibodies raised against the recombinant protein were able to recognise the native Ara h 2 protein, demonstrating its allergenicity and potential as a reagent for diagnosis and therapeutic study.

  10. Refolding and purification of recombinant human PDE7A expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wito; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Kronbach, Thomas; Dettmer, Dietrich

    2002-06-01

    We have investigated the refolding and purification of the catalytic domain of human 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 7A1 (PDE7A1) expressed in Escherichia coli. A cDNA encoding an N-terminal-truncated PDE7A1(147-482-His) was amplified by RT-PCR from human peripheral blood cells and inserted into the vector pET21-C for bacterial expression of the enzyme fused to a C-terminal His-tag. The PDE was found to be expressed in the form of inclusion bodies which could be refolded to an active enzyme in buffer containing high concentrations of arginine hydrochloride, ethylene glycol, and magnesium chloride at pH 8.5. The PDE7A1(147-482-His) construct could be purified after dialysis and concentration steps by either Zn2+-IDA-Sepharose chromatography or ResourceQ ion-exchange chromatography to homogeneity. In comparison to the metal-chelate column, the ResourceQ purification resulted in a distinctly better yield and enrichment of the protein. Both the Vmax (0.46 micromol. min(-1). mg(-1) ) and the K(m) (0.1 microM) of the purified enzyme were found to be comparable with published data for native or recombinant catalytically active expressed PDE7A1. Using SDS/PAGE, a molecular mass of 39 kDa was determined (theoretical value 38.783 kDa). As known from several other mammalian PDEs, size-exclusion chromatography using refolded PDE7A1(147-482-His) indicated the formation of dimers. The purified enzyme was soluble at concentrations up to 100 microg/ml. A further increase of protein concentration resulted, however, in precipitation of the enzyme.

  11. Novel recombinant human lactoferrin: Differential activation of oxidative stress related gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kruzel, Marian L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; MichałZimecki; Wise, Jasen; Płoszaj, Paulina; Mirza, Shaper; Kruzel, Mark; Hwang, Shen-An; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however, none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200 mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications. PMID:24070904

  12. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism. PMID:24101203

  13. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-cheng

    2013-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism.

  14. Native recombinant kisspeptin can induce gnrh1 and kissr2 expression in Paralichthys olivaceus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Huayu; Wang, Mengxun; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2016-10-01

    Kisspeptins have been described as one of the most potent activators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Kisspeptins control the onset of reproductive functions during puberty by directly stimulating the neuronal activity and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The function of kisspeptins has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. In our study, three kinds of recombinant kisspeptin proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Kisspeptin fragments Kp54, Kp44, and Kp10 translated from Paralichthys olivaceus kiss2 gene were then obtained. Kp44 contained 44 amide acids (aa) which are the same as the N-terminal of Kp54; Kp10 shares the same 10 aa with the C-terminal of Kp54 but Kp10 also contains some other amide acids. In the dose course of treatments with prokaryotically expressed peptides, Kp54 and Kp10 could induce the expression of kissr2 and gnrh1; by contrast, Kp44 could not induce a similar expression. These results provided direct evidence that the core decapeptide of kisspeptin is necessary to ensure its biological functions. In the time course of the Kp54 treatments on two kinds of cultured brain cells, different patterns of kissr2 and gnrh1 mRNA suggested that the responses of these cells to kisspeptins depends on cell type and treatment duration. Thus, our research provided alternative methods to investigate the functions of kisspeptin in vitro and to detect biological activities; this research also established basis for kisspeptin applications in production processes.

  15. Native recombinant kisspeptin can induce gnrh1 and kissr2 expression in Paralichthys olivaceus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Huayu; Wang, Mengxun; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2016-10-01

    Kisspeptins have been described as one of the most potent activators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Kisspeptins control the onset of reproductive functions during puberty by directly stimulating the neuronal activity and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The function of kisspeptins has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. In our study, three kinds of recombinant kisspeptin proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Kisspeptin fragments Kp54, Kp44, and Kp10 translated from Paralichthys olivaceus kiss2 gene were then obtained. Kp44 contained 44 amide acids (aa) which are the same as the N-terminal of Kp54; Kp10 shares the same 10 aa with the C-terminal of Kp54 but Kp10 also contains some other amide acids. In the dose course of treatments with prokaryotically expressed peptides, Kp54 and Kp10 could induce the expression of kissr2 and gnrh1; by contrast, Kp44 could not induce a similar expression. These results provided direct evidence that the core decapeptide of kisspeptin is necessary to ensure its biological functions. In the time course of the Kp54 treatments on two kinds of cultured brain cells, different patterns of kissr2 and gnrh1 mRNA suggested that the responses of these cells to kisspeptins depends on cell type and treatment duration. Thus, our research provided alternative methods to investigate the functions of kisspeptin in vitro and to detect biological activities; this research also established basis for kisspeptin applications in production processes. PMID:27260091

  16. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease. PMID:27496728

  17. Novel recombinant human lactoferrin: differential activation of oxidative stress related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Zimecki, Michał; Wise, Jasen; Płoszaj, Paulina; Mirza, Shaper; Kruzel, Mark; Hwang, Shen-An; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however, none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications.

  18. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  19. The effect of IL-2 expression by recombinant Newcastle disease virus on host immune response, viral replication and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a soluble cytokine that stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. Virus constructs, such as recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing chicken IL-2 have been shown to improve viral clearance by natural killer cells in mice. We have inserted the open-reading frame of the chi...

  20. Large-Scale Recombinant Expression and Purification of Human Tyrosinase Suitable for Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xuelei; Soler-Lopez, Montserrat; Wichers, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Human tyrosinase (TYR) is a glycoprotein that initiates the first two reactions in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in its encoding gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism type I (OCA1), the most severe form of albinism, which is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by reduced or absent production of melanin in skin, hair and eyes. Despite extensive structural and characterization studies of its homologues in lower eukaryotic organisms, the catalytic mechanism of human TYR and the molecular basis of OCA1 are largely unknown. In this work, we have carried out a large-scale recombinant expression of TYR that has enabled us to obtain high yields of pure and active protein, required for crystallization trials and screening of skin whitening agents, which is highly demanded in the cosmetic industry. Addition of an N-terminal honeybee melittin signal peptide for secretion of the produced protein into the (protein-free) medium, as well as a cleavable His-tag at the C-terminus, was crucial for increasing the yield of pure protein. We have successfully crystallized two TYR variants, in both glycosylated and deglycosylated forms, showing preliminary X-ray diffraction patterns at 3.5 Å resolution. Hence, we have established an expression and purification protocol suitable for the crystal structure determination of human TYR, which will give unique atomic insight into the nature and conformation of the residues that shape the substrate binding pocket that will ultimately lead to efficient compound design. PMID:27551823

  1. Generation of recombinant destabilase-lysozyme from medicinal leeches in three different expression systems.

    PubMed

    Manuvera, Valentin A; Kurdyumov, Alexey S; Filonova, Kseniya A; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-12-01

    Destabilase-lysozyme (mlDL) is an enzyme secreted by the salivary gland cells of medicinal leeches. Destabilase-lysozyme possesses lysozyme and isopeptidase activities. We generated recombinant destabilase-lysozyme isoform 2 in three expression systems, i.e., in the bacteria Escherichia coli, in the yeast Pichia pastoris, and in the human cell line Expi293F. In E. coli, we generated both polypeptide in inclusion bodies that was later undergone to the refolding and soluble protein that had been fused with the chaperone SlyD. The chaperone was later cleaved by a specific TEV-protease. In cultures of the yeast P. pastoris and the human cell line Expi293F, the soluble form of destabilase-lysozyme was accumulated in the culture media. For the generated enzymes, we determined the lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities and tested their general antimicrobial effects. The comparisons of the enzymes generated in the different expression systems revealed that all of the destabilase-lysozymes obtained in the soluble forms possessed equal levels of lysozyme, isopeptidase and fibrinolytic activities that exceeded several to ten times the levels of the same activities of the destabilase-lysozyme renaturated from the inclusion bodies. A similar pattern of the differences in the levels of the general antimicrobial effects was observed for the destabilase-lysozymes generated in the soluble form and as inclusion bodies.

  2. Molecular Cloning, Recombinant Expression, and Funtional Characterization of APRIL (TNFSF13) in Cat (felis catus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Zhen; Song, Ren; Zhang, Jia-Xin; Li, Jian-Feng; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) is a critical member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, which is involved in immune regulation. In the present study, the cDNA of cat APRIL (cAPRIL) was successfully amplified. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of cAPRIL contains a putative furin protease cleavage site (R-R-K-R), a conserved putative N-glycosylation site (Asn(124)), and two conservative cysteine residues (Cys(196) and Cys(211)). Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that cAPRIL could be detected in various tissues. The phylogenetic analysis and predicted three dimensional (3D) structure revealed that it is similar to its counterparts. The extracellular soluble domain of the cAPRIL (csAPRIL) fragment was cloned into the expression vector pET43.1a. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis indicated a high-level expression of csAPRIL protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). MTT assays revealed that purified recombinant csAPRIL protein was able to stimulate proliferation of mouse B-cells. These findings indicate that cAPRIL plays an important role in proliferation of B-cells and provide the basis for investigation on the roles of APRIL in this important domestic species. PMID:26485397

  3. Exogenous recombinant bovine growth hormone stimulates growth and hepatic IGF expression in shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Carlin M; Small, Brian C

    2015-02-01

    Sturgeon are a unique fish for physiological research as they are long-lived, slow-growing, and late-maturing. Furthermore, sturgeon growth hormones appear to share greater structural and molecular similarity with mammalian somatotropins than teleostean somatotropins. In this study, changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II mRNA expression and corresponding whole-body growth and composition following 6 weeks of bi-weekly recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) administration in shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus were evaluated. Fish were injected intraperitoneally with 240 μg rbGH/g body weight or a sesame oil sham. Hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA abundance was significantly higher (P≤0.02) in rbGH-treated fish, as were length (P<0.001) and weight gain (P<0.001). In addition, proximate whole-body analysis demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) increase in protein composition of rbGH-treated fish versus sham-treated fish. There were no significant differences in whole-body moisture, lipid, or ash between the two treatments. These results demonstrate functional roles for GH and IGFs in the promotion of lean growth within this ancient fish species and support the view that the functional effects of GH on hepatic IGF-I expression and somatic growth are conserved from chondostrean to teleostean fishes.

  4. Expression, purification and characterization of a full-length recombinant HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Njengele, Zikhona; Kleynhans, Ronel; Sayed, Yasien; Mosebi, Salerwe

    2016-12-01

    Vpu is one of four accessory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Vpu modulates the expression of several cellular restriction factors within the HIV-1 infected cell including CD4, CD74, the bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) and NK-T-and-B antigen. The interaction of HIV-1 Vpu with these proteins interferes with the innate immune response directed against HIV-1; thereby promoting viral persistence. The involvement of HIV-1 Vpu in manipulating the cellular environment in ways that favor viral replication makes it an attractive target for anti-HIV drug intervention. This paper describes the over-expression and purification of a soluble HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies by ion-exchange chromatography, allowing production of 6 mg of highly purified protein (>95% purity) per 10 mg of pelleted cells obtained from 1 L of bacterial culture. Far-UV circular dichroism showed that the recombinant protein is folded and retained its secondary structure. Moreover, using ELISA, known HIV-1 Vpu binding partners, BST-2 and CD74, showed that the refolded purified protein is functional or at least assumes a conformation that is capable of binding these putative binding partners. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and successful solubilization of full-length, wild-type HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

  5. Expression, purification and functional characterization of recombinant Zucchini yellow mosaic virus HC-Pro.

    PubMed

    Fuellgrabe, Marc W; Boonrod, Kajohn; Jamous, Rana; Moser, Mirko; Shiboleth, Yoel; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    HC-Pro is a helper component-proteinase which acts as a multifunctional protein in the potyviral life cycle. Apart from its proteolytic activity, HC-Pro has the capacity to bind duplex small RNAs (sRNAs). To investigate HC-Pro-mediated sRNA binding in vitro, high amounts of purified protein are required. For this purpose, the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro was expressed as a fusion with hexa-histidine (6xHis) or maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatography. 6xHis:HC-Pro and MBP:HC-Pro were partially soluble. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that only MBP:HC-Pro exhibits the sRNA binding activity. The recombinant HC-Pro bound 21 bp siRNAs as well as 19 bp and 24 bp siRNAs. A point mutation in the highly conserved FRNK box produced the HC-Pro(FINK) protein, previously shown to be associated with reduced viral symptoms and weak sRNA binding. In this study, sRNA binding of the MBP:HA-HC-Pro(FINK) was not detectable. The high yield of purified HC-Pro offers the possibility to study the biochemistry of the protein in detail.

  6. Large-Scale Recombinant Expression and Purification of Human Tyrosinase Suitable for Structural Studies.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xuelei; Soler-Lopez, Montserrat; Wichers, Harry J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2016-01-01

    Human tyrosinase (TYR) is a glycoprotein that initiates the first two reactions in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in its encoding gene cause Oculocutaneous Albinism type I (OCA1), the most severe form of albinism, which is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by reduced or absent production of melanin in skin, hair and eyes. Despite extensive structural and characterization studies of its homologues in lower eukaryotic organisms, the catalytic mechanism of human TYR and the molecular basis of OCA1 are largely unknown. In this work, we have carried out a large-scale recombinant expression of TYR that has enabled us to obtain high yields of pure and active protein, required for crystallization trials and screening of skin whitening agents, which is highly demanded in the cosmetic industry. Addition of an N-terminal honeybee melittin signal peptide for secretion of the produced protein into the (protein-free) medium, as well as a cleavable His-tag at the C-terminus, was crucial for increasing the yield of pure protein. We have successfully crystallized two TYR variants, in both glycosylated and deglycosylated forms, showing preliminary X-ray diffraction patterns at 3.5 Å resolution. Hence, we have established an expression and purification protocol suitable for the crystal structure determination of human TYR, which will give unique atomic insight into the nature and conformation of the residues that shape the substrate binding pocket that will ultimately lead to efficient compound design. PMID:27551823

  7. Complementation of a gl-deficient feline herpesvirus recombinant by allotopic expression of truncated gl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mijnes, J D; Vlot, C; Buntjer, J B; van den Broek, J; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J; de Groot, R J

    1999-07-01

    The alphaherpesvirus glycoproteins gE and gI form a hetero-oligomeric complex involved in cell-to-cell transmission. The gI-deficient recombinant feline herpesvirus (FHV), FHVdeltagI-LZ, produces plaques that are only 15% the size of those of wild-type FHV. Here, we have complemented FHV(delta)gI-LZ allotopically by expressing intact gI and C-terminally truncated gI derivatives from the thymidine kinase locus. The effect on gE-gI-mediated cell-to-cell spread was assessed by plaque assay employing computer-assisted image analysis (software available at http://www.androclus.vet.uu.nl/spotter/spotter.htm+ ++). Allotopic complementation with intact gI fully restored plaque size. Deletion of the C-terminal 11 residues of gI did not affect cell-to-cell spread, whereas deletion of the complete cytoplasmic tail reduced plaque size by only 35%. Mutants expressing gI166, roughly corresponding to the N-terminal half of the ectodomain, displayed a small-plaque phenotype. Nevertheless, their plaques were reproducibly larger than those of matched gI-deficient controls, indicating that the gE-gI166 hetero-oligomer, though crippled, is still able to mediate cell-to-cell spread. Our data demonstrate that plaque analysis provides a reliable and convenient tool to measure and quantitate gE-gI function in vitro.

  8. Expression, purification and characterization of a full-length recombinant HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Njengele, Zikhona; Kleynhans, Ronel; Sayed, Yasien; Mosebi, Salerwe

    2016-12-01

    Vpu is one of four accessory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Vpu modulates the expression of several cellular restriction factors within the HIV-1 infected cell including CD4, CD74, the bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) and NK-T-and-B antigen. The interaction of HIV-1 Vpu with these proteins interferes with the innate immune response directed against HIV-1; thereby promoting viral persistence. The involvement of HIV-1 Vpu in manipulating the cellular environment in ways that favor viral replication makes it an attractive target for anti-HIV drug intervention. This paper describes the over-expression and purification of a soluble HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies by ion-exchange chromatography, allowing production of 6 mg of highly purified protein (>95% purity) per 10 mg of pelleted cells obtained from 1 L of bacterial culture. Far-UV circular dichroism showed that the recombinant protein is folded and retained its secondary structure. Moreover, using ELISA, known HIV-1 Vpu binding partners, BST-2 and CD74, showed that the refolded purified protein is functional or at least assumes a conformation that is capable of binding these putative binding partners. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and successful solubilization of full-length, wild-type HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. PMID:27590917

  9. Mengo virus 3C proteinase: recombinant expression, intergenus substrate cleavage and localization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hall, D J; Palmenberg, A C

    1996-01-01

    Mengo virus 3C proteinase was cloned and expressed to high levels in a bacterial vector system. The protein was solubilized from inclusion bodies then purified to homogeneity (> 95%) by ion exchange chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was proteolytically active in cell-free processing assays with a Mengo capsid precursor substrate, L-P1-2A, correctly and proficiently cleaving it into L, 1AB, 1C, 1D and 2A protein products. Further analyses with synthetic peptide substrates encompassing the Mengo or rhinovirus-14 2C/3A cleavage sequences, showed the Mengo 3C could recognize and process specific glutamine-glycine sites within these peptides. The reactivity with the rhinovirus peptide was unexpected, because cross-reactivity between a picornavirus 3C enzyme and a protein substrate from different genus of this family has otherwise never been observed. In reciprocal reactions, a rhinovirus-14 3C preparation was unable to cleave the Mengo-derived synthetic peptide substrate. The recombinant Mengo 3C reactions were also characterized with regard to substrate Km, optimum pH and temperature. The protein was additionally used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice, which in turn localized natural 3C, 3ABC, 3CD and P3 in immunoblots, immunoprecipitations and indirect immunofluorescence assays of Mengo-infected HeLa cells. The monoclonals showed cross-reactivity with 3C and 3C-containing precursors from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), but did not react with 3C proteins from rhinovirus-14 or poliovirus-1M. PMID:8972564

  10. Prokaryotic High-Level Expression System in Producing Adhesin Recombinant Protein E of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Minoo; Bouzari, Saeed; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jafari, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adhesion protein E (PE) of Haemophilus influenzae is a 16 - 18 kDa protein with 160 amino acids which causes adhesion to epithelial cells and acts as a major factor in pathogenesis. Objectives: In this study, we performed cloning, expression and purification of PE as a candidate antigen for vaccine design upon further study. Materials and Methods: At first, the pe gene of NTHi ATCC 49766 strain (483 bp) was amplified by PCR. Then, to sequence the resulted amplicon, it was cloned into TA vector (pTZ57R/T). In the next step, the sequenced gene was sub-cloned in pBAD/gIII A vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli TOP10. For overexpression, the recombinant bacteria were grown in broth medium containing arabinose and the recombinant protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography (Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid) (Ni-NTA agarose). Finally, the protein was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophores (SDS-PAG) and confirmed by western blotting. Results: The cloned gene was confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The sequenced gene was searched for homology in GenBank and 99% similarity was found to the already deposited genes in GenBank. Then we obtained PE using Ni-NTA agarose with up to 7 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The pe gene was successfully cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Finally, PE was obtained with high concentration. Due to high homology and similarity among the pe gene from NTHi ATCC 49766 and other NTHi strains in GenBank, we believe that the protein is a universal antigen to be used as a vaccine design candidate and further studies to evaluate its immunogenicity is underway. PMID:26034537

  11. Balancing the Expression and Production of a Heterodimeric Protein: Recombinant Agkisacutacin as a Novel Antithrombotic Drug Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yugang; Wu, Jing; Jia, Hao; Chen, Wei; Shao, Changsheng; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Jiajia; Li, Rui; Zhong, Yongjun; Fang, Fang; Wang, Dong; Sun, Jie; Qian, Fang; Dai, Xiangrong; Zhang, Guohui; Tian, Zhigang; Xiaoyi Li, Benjamin; Xiao, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Agkisacucetin extracted from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus has been demonstrated to be a promising antithrombotic drug candidate in clinical studies due to its function as a novel platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib inhibitor. Agkisacucetin is a heterodimeric protein composed of α- and β-subunits with seven disulphide bonds. Both subunits form inactive homodimeric products, which cause difficulties for recombinant production. In this study, Agkisacucetin α- and β-subunits were inserted sequentially into the chromosome of Pichia pastoris at the mutant histidinol dehydrogenase gene and ribosomal DNA repeat sites, respectively. By optimizing the gene copies and productivity of each subunit by drug screening, we successfully obtained a recombinant strain with balanced expression of the two subunits. Using this strain, a yield greater than 100 mg/L recombinant Agkisacucetin in fed-batch fermentation was reached. The recombinant Agkisacucetin possessed extremely similar binding affinity to recombinant GPIb and human platelets in in vitro assays, and its ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation activity ex vivo was identical to that of the extracted native Agkisacucetin, demonstrating that the yeast-derived Agkisacucetin could be an effective alternative to native Agkisacucetin. Moreover, this study provides an effective strategy for balancing the expression and production of heterodimeric proteins in P. pastoris. PMID:26144864

  12. Balancing the Expression and Production of a Heterodimeric Protein: Recombinant Agkisacutacin as a Novel Antithrombotic Drug Candidate.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yugang; Wu, Jing; Jia, Hao; Chen, Wei; Shao, Changsheng; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Jiajia; Li, Rui; Zhong, Yongjun; Fang, Fang; Wang, Dong; Sun, Jie; Qian, Fang; Dai, Xiangrong; Zhang, Guohui; Tian, Zhigang; Xiaoyi Li, Benjamin; Xiao, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Agkisacucetin extracted from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus has been demonstrated to be a promising antithrombotic drug candidate in clinical studies due to its function as a novel platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib inhibitor. Agkisacucetin is a heterodimeric protein composed of α- and β-subunits with seven disulphide bonds. Both subunits form inactive homodimeric products, which cause difficulties for recombinant production. In this study, Agkisacucetin α- and β-subunits were inserted sequentially into the chromosome of Pichia pastoris at the mutant histidinol dehydrogenase gene and ribosomal DNA repeat sites, respectively. By optimizing the gene copies and productivity of each subunit by drug screening, we successfully obtained a recombinant strain with balanced expression of the two subunits. Using this strain, a yield greater than 100 mg/L recombinant Agkisacucetin in fed-batch fermentation was reached. The recombinant Agkisacucetin possessed extremely similar binding affinity to recombinant GPIb and human platelets in in vitro assays, and its ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation activity ex vivo was identical to that of the extracted native Agkisacucetin, demonstrating that the yeast-derived Agkisacucetin could be an effective alternative to native Agkisacucetin. Moreover, this study provides an effective strategy for balancing the expression and production of heterodimeric proteins in P. pastoris. PMID:26144864

  13. Co-expression of a heat shock transcription factor to improve conformational quality of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Yen; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shu-Jyuan; Lee, Wen-Chien

    2014-09-01

    A co-expression system was established in Escherichia coli for enhancing the cellular expression of heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32 (σ(32)). A Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the rpoH gene of E. coli, which encodes σ(32), were cloned into a bacterial plasmid containing a gene fusion encoding a doubly tagged N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid aldolase (GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R). After the IPTG induction, a substantially higher level of sigma 32 was observed up to 3 h in the co-expression cells, but an enhancement in the solubility of target protein was manifest only in the first hour. Nevertheless, the co-expression of sigma 32 led to higher level of Neu5Ac aldolase enzymatic activity in both the soluble and insoluble (inclusion body) fractions. The Neu5Ac aldolase activity of the supernatant from the lysate of cells co-expressing GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R and recombinant σ(32) was 3.4-fold higher at 3 h postinduction than that in cells overexpressing GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R in the absence of recombinantly expressed σ(32). The results of acrylamide quenching indicated that the conformational quality of the fusion protein was improved by the co-expression of recombinant σ(32). Thus, the increased level of intracellular σ(32) might have created favorable conditions for the proper folding of recombinant proteins through the cooperative effects of chaperones/heat shock proteins expressed by the E. coli host, which resulted in smaller inclusion bodies, improved conformational quality and a higher specific activity of the overexpressed GST-Neu5Ac aldolase-5R protein.

  14. Vaccinia virus recombinant expressing an 87-kilodalton polyprotein that is sufficient to form astrovirus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rosa M; Pastrana, Esperanza P; Sánchez-Fauquier, Alicia

    2003-08-01

    Human astrovirus is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis. We have generated, for the first time, a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the astrovirus 87-kDa structural polyprotein. The results demonstrate that this expression results in the formation of virus-like particles in the absence of other astrovirus proteins and genomic RNA. The purified trypsin-activated virus-like particles strongly resemble the complete astrovirus particles.

  15. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing either the measles virus fusion or hemagglutinin glycoprotein protect dogs against canine distemper virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Pincus, S; Tartaglia, J; Richardson, C; Alkhatib, G; Briedis, D; Appel, M; Norton, E; Paoletti, E

    1991-08-01

    cDNA clones of the genes encoding either the hemagglutinin (HA) or fusion (F) proteins of the Edmonston strain of measles virus (MV) were expressed in vaccinia virus recombinants. Immunofluorescence analysis detected both proteins on the plasma membranes of unfixed cells as well as internally in fixed cells. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically radiolabeled infected-cell extracts by using specific sera demonstrated a 76-kDa HA polypeptide and gene products of 60, 44, and 23 kDa which correspond to a MV F precursor and cleavage products F0, F1, and F2, respectively. Neither recombinant induced cell fusion of Vero cells when inoculated individually, but efficient cell fusion was readily observed upon coinfection of cells with both recombinants. Inoculation of dogs with the vaccinia virus-MV F recombinant (VV-MVF) did not give rise to detectable MV-neutralizing antibody. Inoculation of dogs with the vaccinia virus-MV HA recombinant (VV-MVHA) or coinoculation with both recombinants (VV-MVF and VV-MVHA) induced significant MV-neutralizing titers that were increased following a booster inoculation. Inoculation of dogs with the vaccinia virus recombinants or with MV failed to induce canine distemper virus (CDV)-neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of virulent CDV, signs of infection were observed in dogs inoculated with (VV-MVF). No symptoms of disease were observed in dogs that had been vaccinated with VV-MVHA or with VV-MVHA and VV-MVF and then challenged with CDV. All dogs vaccinated with the recombinant viruses as well as those inoculated with MV or a vaccine strain of CDV survived CDV challenge. PMID:1830113

  16. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing either the measles virus fusion or hemagglutinin glycoprotein protect dogs against canine distemper virus challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J; Pincus, S; Tartaglia, J; Richardson, C; Alkhatib, G; Briedis, D; Appel, M; Norton, E; Paoletti, E

    1991-01-01

    cDNA clones of the genes encoding either the hemagglutinin (HA) or fusion (F) proteins of the Edmonston strain of measles virus (MV) were expressed in vaccinia virus recombinants. Immunofluorescence analysis detected both proteins on the plasma membranes of unfixed cells as well as internally in fixed cells. Immunoprecipitation of metabolically radiolabeled infected-cell extracts by using specific sera demonstrated a 76-kDa HA polypeptide and gene products of 60, 44, and 23 kDa which correspond to a MV F precursor and cleavage products F0, F1, and F2, respectively. Neither recombinant induced cell fusion of Vero cells when inoculated individually, but efficient cell fusion was readily observed upon coinfection of cells with both recombinants. Inoculation of dogs with the vaccinia virus-MV F recombinant (VV-MVF) did not give rise to detectable MV-neutralizing antibody. Inoculation of dogs with the vaccinia virus-MV HA recombinant (VV-MVHA) or coinoculation with both recombinants (VV-MVF and VV-MVHA) induced significant MV-neutralizing titers that were increased following a booster inoculation. Inoculation of dogs with the vaccinia virus recombinants or with MV failed to induce canine distemper virus (CDV)-neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with a lethal dose of virulent CDV, signs of infection were observed in dogs inoculated with (VV-MVF). No symptoms of disease were observed in dogs that had been vaccinated with VV-MVHA or with VV-MVHA and VV-MVF and then challenged with CDV. All dogs vaccinated with the recombinant viruses as well as those inoculated with MV or a vaccine strain of CDV survived CDV challenge. Images PMID:1830113

  17. Production and immunological analysis of IgE reactive recombinant egg white allergens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Doran, Tim; Tang, Mimi L K; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance. Use of recombinant proteins for immunotherapy has been beneficial due to the purity of the recombinant proteins compared to natural proteins. In this study, we produced IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins that can be used for future immunotherapy. Using E. coli as an expression system, we successfully produced recombinant versions of Gal d 1, 2 and 3, that were IgE reactive when tested against a pool of egg allergic patients' sera. The IgE reactivity indicates that these recombinant proteins are capable of eliciting an immune response, thus being potential candidates for immunotherapy. We have, for the first time, attempted to produce recombinant versions of all 4 major egg white allergens in E. coli, and successfully produced 3, with only Gal d 4 showing loss of IgE reactivity in the recombinant version. The results suggest that egg allergy in Australian populations may mainly be due to IgE reactivity to Gal d 3 and 4, while Gal d 1 shows higher IgE reactivity. This is the first report of a collective and comparative immunological analysis of all 4 egg white allergens. The significance of this study is the potential use of the IgE reactive recombinant egg white proteins in immunotherapy to treat egg allergic patients. PMID:25656803

  18. Construction and characterization of recombinant fowlpox viruses expressing human papilloma virus E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Eleana; Basavecchia, Valeria; Zanotto, Carlo; Pacchioni, Sole; Morghen, Carlo De Giuli; Radaelli, Antonia

    2009-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 is the most prevalent high-risk mucosal genotype and the expression of the E6 and E7 proteins, which can bind to the p53 and p105Rb host cell-cycle regulatory proteins, is related to its tumorigenicity. Virus-like-particle (VLP)-based immunogens developed recently are successful as prophylactic HPV vaccines. However, given the high number of individuals infected already with HPV and the absence of expression of the L1 structural protein in HPV-infected or HPV-transformed cells, an efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting the non-structural E6 and E7 oncoproteins is required. In this study, two new fowlpox virus (FPV) recombinants encoding the HPV-16 E6 and E7 proteins were engineered and evaluated for their correct expression in vitro, with the final aim of developing a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-related cervical tumors. Although vaccinia viruses expressing the HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have already been studied, due to their natural host-range restriction to avian species and their ability to elicit a complete immune response, FPV recombinants may represent efficient and safer vectors also for immunocompromised hosts. The results indicate that FPV recombinants can express correctly the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and they should represent appropriate vectors for the expression of these oncoproteins in human cells.

  19. [Plasmid construction, expression, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant protein candidate vaccine of respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui-Hong; Gong, Wei; Fang, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Zhen-Ya; Mei, Xing-Guo

    2005-07-01

    To construct plasmid of recombinant protein candidate vaccine of respiratory syncytial virus, express it in E. coli, and to investigate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. A CD8+ T cell epitope from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M2 protein F/M2:81 - 95 and the G:125-225 (G1) gene fragments from RSV-G protein containing B cell epitopes were amplified by PCR method and then inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-DsbA after bonding to a linker. The fusion protein DsbA-G1-Linker-F/M2:81-95 (D-G1LF/M2) was expressed successfully in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The product was proved to be RSV-specific by Western-blot. After purified by affinity chromatography on Ni+ Sepharose and renatured by gradient dialysis. D-G1LF/M2 was used to immune BALB/c mice. D-G1LF/M2 induced high anti-D-G1LF/M2 IgG, anti-RSV IgG and neutralizing antibody titers in serum and lung of BALB/c mice, and elicied RSV-specific CTL responses. The IgG subclass distribution revealed that IgG1/IgG2a ratio was 2.66. Viral titration indicated that D-G1LF/M2 could protect BALB/c mice against RSV challenge in lung.

  20. An improved single-chain Fab platform for efficient display and recombinant expression.

    PubMed

    Koerber, James T; Hornsby, Michael J; Wells, James A

    2015-01-30

    Antibody phage display libraries combined with high-throughput selections have recently demonstrated tremendous promise to create the next generation of renewable, recombinant antibodies to study proteins and their many post-translational modification states; however, many challenges still remain, such as optimized antibody scaffolds. Recently, a single-chain fragment antigen binding (Fab) (scFab) format, in which the carboxy-terminus of the light chain is linked to the amino-terminus of the heavy chain, was described to potentially combine the high display levels of a single-chain fragment variable with the high stability of purified Fabs. However, this format required removal of the interchain disulfide bond to achieve modest display levels and subsequent bacterial expression resulted in high levels of aggregated scFab, hindering further use of scFabs. Here, we developed an improved scFab format that retains the interchain disulfide bond by increasing the linker length between the light and heavy chains to improve display and bacterial expression levels to 1-3 mg/L. Furthermore, rerouting of the scFab to the co-translational signal recognition particle pathway combined with reengineering of the signal peptide sequence results in display levels 24-fold above the original scFab format and 3-fold above parent Fab levels. This optimized scFab scaffold can be easily reformatted in a single step for expression in a bacterial or mammalian host to produce stable (Tm of 81 °C), predominantly monomeric (>90%) antibodies at a high yield. Ultimately, this new scFab format will advance high-throughput antibody generation platforms to discover the next generation of research and therapeutic antibodies.

  1. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants. PMID:26456648

  2. Cloning and Recombinant Expression of a Structurally Novel Human Secreted Phospholipase A2*

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Michael H.; Valentin, Emmanuel; Ghomashchi, Farideh; Lazdunski, Michel; Lambeau, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Mammals contain a diverse set of secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) that liberate arachidonic acid from phospholipids for the production of eicosanoids and exert a variety of physiological and pathological effects. We report the cloning, recombinant expression, and kinetic properties of a novel human sPLA2 that defines a new structural class of sPLA2s called group XII. The human group XII (hGXII) cDNA contains a putative signal peptide of 22 residues followed by a mature protein of 167 amino acids that displays homology to all known sPLA2s only over a short stretch of amino acids in the active site region. Northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses show that the tissue distribution of hGXII is distinct from the other human sPLA2s with strong expression in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas and weaker expression in brain, liver, small intestine, lung, placenta, ovaries, testis, and prostate. Catalytically active hGXII was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to be Ca2+-dependent despite the fact that it is predicted to have an unusual Ca2+-binding loop. Similar to the previously characterized mouse group IIE sPLA2s, the specific activity of hGXII is low in comparison to that of other mammalian sPLA2, suggesting that hGXII could have novel functions that are independent of its phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:11031251

  3. An improved single-chain Fab platform for efficient display and recombinant expression.

    PubMed

    Koerber, James T; Hornsby, Michael J; Wells, James A

    2015-01-30

    Antibody phage display libraries combined with high-throughput selections have recently demonstrated tremendous promise to create the next generation of renewable, recombinant antibodies to study proteins and their many post-translational modification states; however, many challenges still remain, such as optimized antibody scaffolds. Recently, a single-chain fragment antigen binding (Fab) (scFab) format, in which the carboxy-terminus of the light chain is linked to the amino-terminus of the heavy chain, was described to potentially combine the high display levels of a single-chain fragment variable with the high stability of purified Fabs. However, this format required removal of the interchain disulfide bond to achieve modest display levels and subsequent bacterial expression resulted in high levels of aggregated scFab, hindering further use of scFabs. Here, we developed an improved scFab format that retains the interchain disulfide bond by increasing the linker length between the light and heavy chains to improve display and bacterial expression levels to 1-3 mg/L. Furthermore, rerouting of the scFab to the co-translational signal recognition particle pathway combined with reengineering of the signal peptide sequence results in display levels 24-fold above the original scFab format and 3-fold above parent Fab levels. This optimized scFab scaffold can be easily reformatted in a single step for expression in a bacterial or mammalian host to produce stable (Tm of 81 °C), predominantly monomeric (>90%) antibodies at a high yield. Ultimately, this new scFab format will advance high-throughput antibody generation platforms to discover the next generation of research and therapeutic antibodies. PMID:25481745

  4. Gene structure, recombinant expression and functional characterization of grass carp leptin.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Gui; Liang, Xu-Fang; Xie, Qiuling; Li, Guangzhao; Yu, Ying; Lai, Kaaseng

    2010-03-01

    Leptin is an important hormone for the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts remains scant. In the present study, the gene structures of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) leptins were characterized. Recombinant grass carp leptin (rgc-LEP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and identified by mass spectrometric analysis. A strong anorexic effect on food intake was observed in grass carp on the first day after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of rgc-LEP, but not during the following days. Body weight of the leptin group (LEP group) and the pair-fed group (PF group) showed no difference throughout the experimental period. The acute and chronic effects on the expression of key genes correlating to food intake, energy expenditure, lipid metabolism and digestion were further characterized by real-time PCR. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were significantly reduced whereas the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), bile salt-activated lipase (BSAL) and fatty acid elongase (ELO) were significantly elevated on the first day after injection. No effect on the expression of these genes (except LPL) was observed on day 13. In contrast to the down-regulation by exogenous leptin in mammals, the mRNA level of grass carp leptin was elevated 5.76-fold on the first day after rgc-LEP treatment. Our results suggest that leptin has an acute effect on the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in grass carp, but the effect can be rapidly counteracted through mechanisms that are currently unknown.

  5. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac) from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX)1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac) was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac). Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was successfully produced extra

  6. Expressions of recombinant venom allergen, antigen 5 of yellowjacket (Vespula vulgaris) and paper wasp (Polistes annularis), in bacteria or yeast.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, R I; Lu, G; King, T P

    1999-08-01

    Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venom. It has partial sequence identity with proteins from diverse sources. The biologic function of Ag 5 and its related proteins is not known. We are interested in the expression of Ag 5 with the native conformation of the natural protein since its B cell epitopes are mainly of the discontinuous type. When expressed in bacteria, recombinant Ag 5 formed an insoluble intracellular product, and it did not translocate from cytoplasm to periplasm by the addition of a pelB leader sequence to the cloned protein. When expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris, Ag 5 was secreted because the cloned protein contained a yeast alpha signal leader sequence. Recombinant Ag 5 from yeast was shown to have the native structure of the natural protein and the recombinant Ag 5 from bacteria did not. This was shown by comparison of their solubility, electrophoretic behavior, disulfide bond content, CD spectrum, and binding of IgE antibodies from allergic patients and IgG antibodies from mice immunized with natural Ag 5 or recombinant Ag 5s from yeast or bacteria. These studies were made with Ag 5s from yellowjacket (Vespula vulgaris) and paper wasp (Polistes annularis). PMID:10425162

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:26805756

  8. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  9. Refolding and functional assembly of the Vibrio cholerae porin OmpU recombinantly expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Khan, Junaid; Gupta, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2012-10-01

    OmpU is one of the major outer membrane porins of Vibrio cholerae. OmpU has been biochemically characterized previously for its 'porin'-property. However, previous studies have used the OmpU protein extracted from the bacterial outer membrane envelope fractions. Such method of isolation imposes limitations on the availability of the protein reagent, and also enhances the possibility of the OmpU preparation being contaminated with lipid molecules of bacterial outer membrane origin, especially lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Here we report a strategy of purifying the V. cholerae OmpU protein recombinantly overexpressed in heterologous protein expression system in Escherichia coli, without its being incorporated into the bacterial membrane fraction. In our strategy, the majority of the protein was expressed as insoluble inclusion body in the E. coli cytoplasm, the protein was dissolved by denaturation in 8M urea, refolded, and purified to homogeneity in presence of detergent. Our strategy allowed isolation of the recombinant OmpU protein with significantly enhanced yield as compared to that of the wild type protein extracted from the V. cholerae membrane fraction. The recombinant V. cholerae OmpU protein generated in our study displayed functional channel-forming property in the synthetic liposome membrane, thus confirming its 'porin'-property. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing an efficient refolding and functional assembly of the V. cholerae OmpU porin recombinantly expressed as inclusion body in the cytoplasm of a heterologous host E. coli.

  10. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by varicella-zoster virus gpII glycoprotein expressed from recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Massaer, M; Haumont, M; Place, M; Bollen, A; Jacobs, P

    1993-03-01

    The gpII glycoprotein of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was produced in CV1 cells via vaccinia virus recombinants. Two different DNA constructs were expressed: the first one encodes the complete gpII protein (gpII s+a+) and the second a truncated species lacking the membrane anchorage domain (gpII s+a-). To achieve expression both coding sequences had to be engineered at the 5' end by substituting the unusually short (24 bp) natural signal sequence by a more conventional one encoding 29 amino acids. Recombinant gpII proteins were detected in vaccinia virus-infected cells by ELISA and immunoprecipitation. Both forms of recombinant gpII proteins were produced as glycosylated single-chain molecules of respectively 110K and 90K. Upon reduction these were only partially converted into subunits. A rabbit infected with the vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the complete gpII produced antibodies which recognized VZV antigens and neutralized VZV infectivity in vitro, independent of complement.

  11. Cloning, expression analysis and recombinant expression of a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengsheng; Feng, Chao; Wang, Jing; Kong, Fanyu; Sun, Wenxiu; Wang, Fenglong

    2016-05-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are major defensive proteins produced by plant cell walls that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance by reducing polygalacturonase (PG) activity. In the present study, a novel PGIP gene was isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), hereafter referred as NtPGIP. A full-length NtPGIP cDNA of 1,412 bp with a 186 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and 209 bp 3'-UTR was cloned from tobacco, NtPGIP is predicted to encode a protein of 338 amino acids. The NtPGIP sequence from genomic DNA showed no introns and sequence alignments of NtPGIP's deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology with known PGIPs from other plant species. Moreover, the putative NtPGIP protein was closely clustered with several Solanaceae PGIPs. Further, the expression profile of NtPGIP was examined in tobacco leaves following stimulation with the oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae and other stressors, including salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), salt, and cold treatment. The results showed that all of the treatments up-regulated the expression of NtPGIP at different times. To understand the biochemical activity of NtPGIP gene, a full-length NtPGIP cDNA sequence was subcloned into a pET28a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Recombinant proteins were successfully induced by 1.0 nmol/L IPTG and the purified proteins effectively inhibited Phytophthora capsici PG activity. The results of this study suggest that NtPGIP may be a new candidate gene with properties that could be exploited in plant breeding. PMID:27441281

  12. Enhanced production of ε-caprolactone by coexpression of bacterial hemoglobin gene in recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2014-12-28

    Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone in a microbial system expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) can be influenced by not only the efficient regeneration of NADPH but also a sufficient supply of oxygen. In this study, the bacterial hemoglobin gene from Vitreoscilla stercoraria (vhb) was introduced into the recombinant Escherichia coli expressing CHMO to investigate the effects of an oxygen-carrying protein on microbial BV oxidation of cyclohexanone. Coexpression of Vhb allowed the recombinant E. coli strain to produce a maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration of 15.7 g/l in a fed-batch BV oxidation of cyclohexanone, which corresponded to a 43% improvement compared with the control strain expressing CHMO only under the same conditions.

  13. Use of FabV-Triclosan Plasmid Selection System for Efficient Expression and Production of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed A.; Chew, Yik Wei; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Azman, Nizuwan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in host bacteria relies on the presence of selection antibiotics in the growth media to suppress plasmid -free segregants. However, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics themselves is not acceptable in several applications of biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that FabV-Triclosan selection system can be used to select high and medium copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli. Here, we have extended our previous work and demonstrated that expression vectors containing FabV can be used efficiently to express heterologous recombinant proteins in similar or better amounts in E. coli host when compared with expression vectors containing β-lactamase. Use of small amount of non-antibiotic Triclosan as selection agent in growth medium, enhanced plasmid stability, applicability in various culture media, and compatibility with other selection systems for multiple plasmid maintenance are noteworthy features of FabV-Triclosan selection system. PMID:26642325

  14. Use of FabV-Triclosan Plasmid Selection System for Efficient Expression and Production of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed A; Chew, Yik Wei; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Azman, Nizuwan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in host bacteria relies on the presence of selection antibiotics in the growth media to suppress plasmid -free segregants. However, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics themselves is not acceptable in several applications of biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that FabV-Triclosan selection system can be used to select high and medium copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli. Here, we have extended our previous work and demonstrated that expression vectors containing FabV can be used efficiently to express heterologous recombinant proteins in similar or better amounts in E. coli host when compared with expression vectors containing β-lactamase. Use of small amount of non-antibiotic Triclosan as selection agent in growth medium, enhanced plasmid stability, applicability in various culture media, and compatibility with other selection systems for multiple plasmid maintenance are noteworthy features of FabV-Triclosan selection system.

  15. Expression of a functional recombinant oleosin-human hyaluronidase hPH-20 fusion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongrui; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yubin; Guan, Lili; Du, LinNa; Guo, YongXin; Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Lihao; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-11-01

    The use of plants as expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins has distinct advantages, such as safety, ease, low cost and high yields. A plant binary expression vector, pOTBar-hPH20, containing an oleosin-hPH20 fusion gene and a Basta selection marker gene was constructed and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana via the floral dip method. Transformed A. thaliana seed lines were obtained and analyzed by PCR. The PCR results indicated that oleosin-hPH20 fusion gene was integrated into the A. thaliana genome. The oleosin-hPH20 fusion protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The oleosin-hPH20 fusion protein was expressed and had good antigenicity in the transgenic A. thaliana seeds. An enzyme assay suggested that the recombinant oleosin-hPH20 fusion protein had hyaluronidase activity.

  16. High yield expression of biologically active recombinant full length human tuftelin protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Shay, B; Gruenbaum-Cohen, Y; Tucker, A S; Taylor, A L; Rosenfeld, E; Haze, A; Dafni, L; Leiser, Y; Fermon, E; Danieli, T; Blumenfeld, A; Deutsch, D

    2009-11-01

    Tuftelin is an acidic protein expressed at very early stages of mouse odontogenesis. It was suggested to play a role during epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and later, when enamel formation commences, to be involved in enamel mineralization. Tuftelin was also detected in several normal soft tissues of different origins and some of their corresponding cancerous tissues. Tuftelin is expressed in low quantities, and undergoes degradation in the enamel extracellular matrix. To investigate the structure and function of tuftelin, the full length recombinant human tuftelin protein was produced. The full length human tuftelin cDNA was cloned using Gateway recombination into the Bac-to-Bac system compatible transfer vector pDest10. This vector adds a hexahistidine tag to the N-terminus of the expressed protein, enabling one-step affinity purification on nickel column. The recombinant human tuftelin protein was transposed into the bacmid and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. The yield of the purified, his-tagged recombinant full length human Tuftelin (rHTuft+) was 5-8 mg/L culture. rHTuft+ was characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ESI-TOF spectrometry, restriction mapping and MS/MS sequencing. The availability of the purified, full length recombinant human tuftelin protein opened up the possibility to investigate novel functions of tuftelin. Application of rHTuft+ agarose beads onto embryonic mouse mandibular explants caused changes in the surrounding epithelial cells, including morphology, orientation and spatial organization. Further studies using DiI labeling, revealed that rHTuft+, placed on the tooth germ region, brought about recruitment of adjacent embryonic mesenchymal cells. These findings support the hypothesis that tuftelin plays an important role during embryogenesis.

  17. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV.

  18. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV. PMID:27449079

  19. Recombinant rabies virus expressing the H protein of canine distemper virus protects dogs from the lethal distemper challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Tan, Bin; Li, Zhen-Guang; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Fu, Zhen F; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The rabies virus (RV) vector LBNSE expressing foreign antigens have shown considerable promise as vaccines against viral and bacteria diseases, which is effective and safe. We produced a new RV-based vaccine vehicle expressing 1.824 kb hemagglutinin (H) gene of the canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus LBNSE-CDV-H retained growth properties similar to those of vector LBNSE both in BSR and mNA cell culture. The H gene of CDV was expressed and detected by immunostaining. To compare the immunogenicity of LBNSE-CDV-H, dogs were immunized with each of these recombinant viruses by intramuscular (i.m.). The dogs were bled at third weeks after the immunization for the measurement of virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) and then challenged with virulent virus (ZJ 7) at fourth weeks. The parent virus (LBNSE) without expression of any foreign molecules was included for comparison. Dogs inoculated with LBNSE-CDV-H showed no any signs of disease and exhibited seroconversion against both RV and CDV H protein. The LBNSE-CDV-H did not cause disease in dogs and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal wild type CDV strain, demonstrating its potential value for wildlife conservation efforts. Together, these studies suggest that recombinant RV expressing H protein from CDV stimulated high levels of adaptive immune responses (VNA), and protected all dogs challenge infection. PMID:25465178

  20. Large-scale production of soluble recombinant amyloid-β peptide 1-42 using cold-inducible expression system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Jeong Chan; Lee, Jeong Mi; Jeong, Min Seop; Oh, Choongseob; Ahn, Sung-Min; Yoo, Yung Joon; Jang, Ho Hee

    2012-11-01

    Amyloid-β peptide 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)), the predominant form in senile plaques, plays important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Because Aβ(1-42) has aggregation-prone nature, it has been difficult to produce in a soluble state in bacterial expression systems. In this study, we modified our expression system to increase the soluble fraction of Aβ(1-42) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. The expression level and solubility of recombinant Aβ(1-42) induced at the low temperature (16°C) is highly increased compared to that induced at 37°C. To optimize expression temperature, the coding region of Aβ(1-42) was constructed in a pCold vector, pCold-TF, which has a hexahistidine-tagged trigger factor (TF). Recombinant Aβ(1-42) was expressed primarily as a soluble protein using pCold vector system and purified with a nickel-chelating resin. When the toxic effect of recombinant Aβ(1-42) examined on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, the purified Aβ(1-42) induced cell toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the system developed in this study will provide a useful method for the production of aggregation prone-peptide such as Aβ(1-42).

  1. MAC-T cells as a tool to evaluate lentiviral vector construction targeting recombinant protein expression in milk.

    PubMed

    Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel; Adona, Paulo R; Ohashi, Otavio M; Meirelles, Flávio V; Wheeler, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Prior to generating transgenic animals for bioreactors, it is important to evaluate the vector constructed to avoid poor protein expression. Mammary epithelial cells cultured in vitro have been proposed as a model to reproduce the biology of the mammary gland. In the present work, three lentiviral vectors were constructed for the human growth hormone (GH), interleukin 2 (IL2), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF3) genes driven by the bovine β-casein promoter. The lentiviruses were used to transduce mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), and the transformed cells were cultured on polystyrene in culture medium with and without prolactin. The gene expression of transgenes was evaluated by PCR using cDNA, and recombinant protein expression was evaluated by Western-blotting using concentrated medium and cellular extracts. The gene expression, of the three introduced genes, was detected in both induced and non induced MAC-T cells. The human GH protein was detected in the concentrated medium, whereas CSF3 was detected in the cellular extract. Apparently, the cellular extract is more appropriate than the concentrated medium to detect recombinant protein, principally because concentrated medium has a high concentration of bovine serum albumin. The results suggest that MAC-T cells may be a good system to evaluate vector construction targeting recombinant protein expression in milk. PMID:25380466

  2. The cloning, expression and purification of recombinant human neuritin from Escherichia coli and the partial analysis of its neurobiological activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Tang, Juan; Zhang, Yunhua; Wang, Haiyan; Yuan, Wumei; Yu, Na; Luo, Xing; Xu, Xiaoling; Huang, Jin; Yang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Neuritin (Nrn1) is a neurotrophic factor that plays various roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, the NRN1 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and then recombinant neuritin protein was purified so that its neurobiological activity could be evaluated. The protein, which was obtained at a concentration of 0.45 mg/ml and > 90% purity, had the predicted molecular weight of 30 kDa, as determined via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western blot analysis confirmed that an anti-neuritin antibody could recognize the fusion protein. Subsequent functional analyses revealed that recombinant neuritin promoted neurite outgrowth in embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglia and PC12 cells. These results suggest that recombinant neuritin protein could be a valuable tool for inducing neurite regeneration, for instance in cases of spinal cord injury or neurological diseases. PMID:26751893

  3. Prevention of gastrointestinal lead poisoning using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing human metallothionein-I fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Changbin; Liu, Dajun; Bai, Weibin; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Low-level lead poisoning is an insidious disease that affects millions of children worldwide, leading to biochemical and neurological dysfunctions. Blocking lead uptake via the gastrointestinal tract is an important prevention strategy. With this in mind, we constructed the recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain pGSMT/MG1363, which constitutively expressed the fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)-small molecule ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO)-metallothionein-I (GST-SUMO-MT). The thermodynamic data indicated that the average number of lead bound to a GST-SUMO-MT molecule was 3.655 and this binding reaction was a spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-increasing process. The total lead-binding capacity of pGSMT/MG1363 was 4.11 ± 0.15 mg/g dry mass. Oral administration of pGSMT/MG1363 (1 × 10(10) Colony-Forming Units) to pubertal male rats that were also treated with 5 mg/kg of lead acetate daily significantly inhibited the increase of blood lead levels, the impairment of hepatic function and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the serum, which were all impaired in rats treated by lead acetate alone. Moreover, the administration of pGSMT/MG1363 for 6 weeks did not affect the serum concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium ions. This study provides a convenient and economical biomaterial for preventing lead poisoning via the digestive tract. PMID:27045906

  4. Characterization of mechanical properties of transgenic tobacco roots expressing a recombinant monoclonal antibody against tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sally; Liu, Wei; Ma, Julian K-C; Thomas, Colin R; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we describe a new approach that allows the determination of the magnitude of force required to break single plant roots. Roots were taken from transgenic tobacco plants, expressing a secreted monoclonal antibody. They were divided into four key developmental stages. A novel micromanipulation technique was used to pull to breakage, single tobacco roots in buffer in order to determine their breaking force. A characteristic uniform step-wise increase in the force up to a peak force for breakage was observed. The mean breaking force and mean work done were 101mN and 97microJ per root respectively. However, there was a significant increase in breaking force from the youngest white roots to the oldest, dark red-brown roots. We speculate that this was due to increasing lignin deposition with root stage of development (shown by phloroglucinol staining). No significant differences between fresh root mass, original root length, or mean root diameter for any of the root categories were found, displaying their uniformity, which would be beneficial for bioprocessing. In addition, no significant difference in antibody yield from the different root categories was found. These data show that it is possible to characterise the force requirements for root breakage and should assist in the optimisation of recombinant protein extraction from these roots.

  5. Prevention of gastrointestinal lead poisoning using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing human metallothionein-I fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Changbin; Liu, Dajun; Bai, Weibin; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian

    2016-04-05

    Low-level lead poisoning is an insidious disease that affects millions of children worldwide, leading to biochemical and neurological dysfunctions. Blocking lead uptake via the gastrointestinal tract is an important prevention strategy. With this in mind, we constructed the recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain pGSMT/MG1363, which constitutively expressed the fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)-small molecule ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO)-metallothionein-I (GST-SUMO-MT). The thermodynamic data indicated that the average number of lead bound to a GST-SUMO-MT molecule was 3.655 and this binding reaction was a spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-increasing process. The total lead-binding capacity of pGSMT/MG1363 was 4.11 ± 0.15 mg/g dry mass. Oral administration of pGSMT/MG1363 (1 × 10(10) Colony-Forming Units) to pubertal male rats that were also treated with 5 mg/kg of lead acetate daily significantly inhibited the increase of blood lead levels, the impairment of hepatic function and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the serum, which were all impaired in rats treated by lead acetate alone. Moreover, the administration of pGSMT/MG1363 for 6 weeks did not affect the serum concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium ions. This study provides a convenient and economical biomaterial for preventing lead poisoning via the digestive tract.

  6. Extended Protection against Phlebovirus Infection Conferred by Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Consensus Interferon (DEF201)

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Jane; Sefing, Eric J.; Wong, Min-Hui; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Turner, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Punta Toro virus (PTV; Bunyaviridae, Phlebovirus) is related to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a pathogenic agent which causes severe disease in humans and livestock primarily in the sub-Saharan region of Africa. The recent range expansion of RVFV and the potential for its intentional release into naïve populations pose a significant threat to public health and agriculture. Studies modeling disease in rodents and nonhuman primates have shown that PTV and RVFV are highly sensitive to the antiviral effects of alpha interferon (IFN-α), an important component of the innate antiviral host response. While recombinant IFN-α has high therapeutic value, its utility for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases is hindered by its short in vivo half-life and costly production of longer-lasting pegylated IFNs. Here, we demonstrate extended preexposure protection against lethal PTV challenge following a single intranasal administration of DEF201, which is a replication-deficient human adenovirus type 5 vector engineered to constitutively express consensus IFN-α (cIFN-α) from transduced host cells. DEF201 was also efficacious when administered within 24 h as a postexposure countermeasure. Serum concentrations of cIFN-α could be detected as early as 8 h following treatment and persisted for more than 1 week. The prolonged antiphlebovirus prophylactic effect, low production costs, and ease of administration make DEF201 a promising agent for intervention during natural disease outbreaks and for countering possible bioterrorist acts. PMID:22615273

  7. Recombinant expression and downstream processing of the disulfide-rich tumor-targeting peptide chlorotoxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Min; Luo, Xiao; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2013-10-01

    Chlorotoxin (CTX) is a scorpion-derived disulfide-rich peptide that targets malignant tumors by binding the cell surface matrix metalloproteinase-2 and annexin A2. Various CTXs labeled with functional moieties have shown great potential for tumor diagnosis and treatment. In the present study, we established an efficient approach for preparing mature CTX that may be used for experimental and therapeutic purposes. The designed CTX precursors carried either a 6xHis-tag or a 6xHis-tag and a glutathione transferase (GST)-tag and were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Following S-sulfonation, the precursors were purified using immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. Subsequent to the removal of the tag by enterokinase cleavage and in vitro oxidative refolding, mature CTX was obtained with a considerable yield. The yield of mature CTX whose precursors carried a 6xHis-tag and a GST-tag (2 mg per liter of culture) was ∼10-fold that of the mature CTX whose precursors carried a 6xHis-tag (150-200 μg per liter of culture). The folded CTX inhibited the migration of glioma cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it was biologically active.

  8. Prevention of gastrointestinal lead poisoning using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing human metallothionein-I fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Changbin; Liu, Dajun; Bai, Weibin; Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Low-level lead poisoning is an insidious disease that affects millions of children worldwide, leading to biochemical and neurological dysfunctions. Blocking lead uptake via the gastrointestinal tract is an important prevention strategy. With this in mind, we constructed the recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain pGSMT/MG1363, which constitutively expressed the fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)–small molecule ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO)–metallothionein-I (GST-SUMO-MT). The thermodynamic data indicated that the average number of lead bound to a GST-SUMO-MT molecule was 3.655 and this binding reaction was a spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-increasing process. The total lead-binding capacity of pGSMT/MG1363 was 4.11 ± 0.15 mg/g dry mass. Oral administration of pGSMT/MG1363 (1 × 1010 Colony-Forming Units) to pubertal male rats that were also treated with 5 mg/kg of lead acetate daily significantly inhibited the increase of blood lead levels, the impairment of hepatic function and the decrease of testosterone concentration in the serum, which were all impaired in rats treated by lead acetate alone. Moreover, the administration of pGSMT/MG1363 for 6 weeks did not affect the serum concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium ions. This study provides a convenient and economical biomaterial for preventing lead poisoning via the digestive tract. PMID:27045906

  9. Recombinant rabies virus expressing IFNα1 enhanced immune responses resulting in its attenuation and stronger immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifei; Tian, Qin; Xu, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xianfeng; Luo, Jun; Mo, Weiyu; Peng, Jiaojiao; Niu, Xuefeng; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that type 1 interferons (IFNs) exert multiple biological effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we investigated the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing canine interferon α1 (rHEP-CaIFNα1). It was shown that Kun Ming (KM) mice that received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-CaIFNα1 had an earlier increase and a higher level of virus-neutralizing antibody titers compared with immunization of the parent HEP-Flury. A challenge experiment further confirmed that more mice that were immunized with rHEP-CaIFNα1 survived compared with mice immunized with the parent virus. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that rHEP-CaIFNα1 induced a stronger innate immune response, especially the type 1 IFN response. Flow cytometry was conducted to show that rHEP-CaIFNα1 recruited more activated B cells in lymph nodes and CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood, which is beneficial to achieve virus clearance in the early infective stage. PMID:25310498

  10. From Recombinant Expression to Crystals: A Step-by-Step Guide to GPCR Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Arun K; Kumari, Punita; Ghosh, Eshan; Nidhi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary targets of drugs prescribed for many human pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension, allergies, schizophrenia, asthma, and various types of cancer. High-resolution structure determination of GPCRs has been a key focus area in GPCR biology to understand the basic mechanism of their activation and signaling and to materialize the long-standing dream of structure-based drug design on these versatile receptors. There has been tremendous effort at this front in the past two decades and it has culminated into crystal structures of 27 different receptors so far. The recent progress in crystallization and structure determination of GPCRs has been driven by innovation and cutting-edge developments at every step involved in the process of crystallization. Here, we present a step-by-step description of various steps involved in GPCR crystallization starting from recombinant expression to obtaining diffracting crystals. We also discuss the next frontiers in GPCR biology that are likely to be a primary focus for crystallography efforts in the next decade or so.

  11. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of Recombinant Pfu DNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Qingsong; Bi, Qun

    2016-04-01

    Pfu DNA polymerase (Pfu) is a DNA polymerase isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. With its excellent thermostability and high fidelity, Pfu is well known as one of the enzymes widely used in the polymerase chain reaction. In this study, the recombinant plasmid pLysS His6-tagged Pfu-pET28a was constructed. His-tagged Pfu was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells and then successfully purified with the ÄKTAprime plus compact one-step purification system by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography after optimization of the purification conditions. The authenticity of the purified Pfu was further confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting. A bio-assay indicated that its activity in the polymerase chain reaction was equivalent to that of commercial Pfu and its isoelectric point was found to be between 6.85 and 7.35. These results will be useful for further studies on Pfu and its wide application in the future. PMID:26920159

  12. Fermentation of biomass-derived glucuronic acid by pet expressing recombinants of E. coli B

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    The economics of large-scale production of fuel ethanol from biomass and wastes requires the efficient utilization of all the sugars derived from the hydrolysis of the heteropolymeric hemicellulose component of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Glucuronic and 4-0-methyl-glucuronic acids are major side chains in xylans of the grasses and hardwoods that have been targeted as potential feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The amount of these acids is similar to that of arabinose, which is now being viewed as another potential substrate in the production of biomass-derived ethanol. This study compared the end-product distribution associated with the fermentation of D-glucose (Glc) and D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) (as sole carbon and energy sources) by Escherichia coli B (ATCC 11303) and two different ethanologenic recombinants--a strain in which pet expression was via a multicopy plasmid (pLOI297) and a chromosomally integrated construct, strain KO11. pH-stat batch fermentations were conducted using a modified LB medium with 2% (w/v) Glc or GlcUA with the set-point for pH control at either 6.3 or 7.0. The nontransformed host culture produced only lactic acid from glucose, but fermentation of GlcUA yielded a mixture of ethanol, acetic, and lactic acids, with acetic acid being the predominant end-product. 73 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Functional expression and characterization of recombinant NADPH-P450 reductase from Malassezia globosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwayoun; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lim, Young-Ran; Lee, Im-Soon; Kim, Beom Joon; Seong, Cheul-Hun; Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2012-01-01

    Malassezia globosa is a common pathogenic fungus that causes skin diseases including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis in humans. Analysis of its genome identified a gene (MGL_1677) coding for a putative NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) to support the fungal cytochrome P450 enzymes. The heterologously expressed recombinant M. globosa NPR protein was purified, and its functional features were characterized. The purified protein generated a single band on SDS-PAGE at 80.74 kDa and had an absorption maximum at 452 nm, indicating its possible function as an oxidized flavin cofactor. It evidenced NADPH-dependent reducing activity for cytochrome c or nitroblue tetrazolium. Human P450 1A2 and 2A6 were able to successfully catalyze the O-deethylation of 7- ethoxyresorufin and the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin, respectively, with the support of the purified NPR. These results demonstrate that purified NPR is an orthologous reductase protein that supports cytochrome P450 enzymes in M. globosa. PMID:22297231

  14. Expression and Characterization of Truncated Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 2J2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Songhee

    2014-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 2J2 catalyzes an epoxygenase reaction to oxidize various fatty acids including arachidonic acid. In this study, three recombinant enzyme constructs of P450 2J2 were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and their P450 proteins were successfully purified using a Ni2+-NTA affinity column. Deletion of 34 amino acid residues in N-terminus of P450 2J2 enzyme (2J2-D) produced the soluble enzyme located in the cytosolic fraction. The enzymatic analysis of this truncated protein indicated the typical spectral characteristics and functional properties of P450 2J2 enzyme. P450 2J2-D enzymes from soluble fraction catalyzed the oxidation reaction of terfenadine to the hydroxylated product. However, P450 2J2-D enzymes from membrane fraction did not support the P450 oxidation reaction although it displayed the characteristic CO-binding spectrum of P450. Our finding of these features in the N-terminal modified P450 2J2 enzyme could help understand the biological functions and the metabolic roles of P450 2J2 enzyme and make the crystallographic analysis of the P450 2J2 structure feasible for future studies. PMID:24795797

  15. Expression, purification, and breast cancer cell inhibiting effect of recombinant human lactoferrin C-lobe.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lulu; Gao, Chen-Hui; Hong, Chao; Zhong, Qiao; Dong, Hong-Liang; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LTF), a multifunctional glycoprotein of the transferrin family mainly found in exotic secretions in mammals, is an important defense molecule against not only microbial invasion but also tumors. It folds into two globular domains (N- and C-lobes) each containing an iron-binding site. The cationic antimicrobial peptide in N-lobe is known to exert anti-tumor effect via a non-receptor-mediated pathway. However, whether LTF C-lobe also contributes to its anti-tumor activity remains to be investigated. In this study, a human LTF fragment (amino acid residues 343-682) covering the C-lobe was expressed with a histidine tag in E. coli and the purified polypeptide refolded through a series of buffer changing procedure. The resultant recombinant protein caused significant growth arrest of breast carcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, evidently via induction of apoptosis of the cell. Our data suggest a positive role for the C-lobe of human LTF in controlling tumors in vitro.

  16. Production of Transgenic-Cloned Pigs Expressing Large Quantities of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection. PMID:25955256

  17. Identification, Recombinant Expression, and Biochemical Analysis of Putative Secondary Product Glucosyltransferases from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Owens, Daniel K; Sibhatu, Mebrahtu B; Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Strong, Christy L; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Asiago, Josephat; Cooke, Jennifer; Kiser, Starla; Lin, Zhangfan; Wamucho, Anye; Hayford, Deborah; Williams, Bruce E; Loftis, Peri; Berhow, Mark; Pike, Lee M; McIntosh, Cecilia A

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoid and limonoid glycosides influence taste properties as well as marketability of Citrus fruit and products, particularly grapefruit. In this work, nine grapefruit putative natural product glucosyltransferases (PGTs) were resolved by either using degenerate primers against the semiconserved PSPG box motif, SMART-RACE RT-PCR, and primer walking to full-length coding regions; screening a directionally cloned young grapefruit leaf EST library; designing primers against sequences from other Citrus species; or identifying PGTs from Citrus contigs in the harvEST database. The PGT proteins associated with the identified full-length coding regions were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and/or Pichia pastoris and then tested for activity with a suite of substrates including flavonoid, simple phenolic, coumarin, and/or limonoid compounds. A number of these compounds were eliminated from the predicted and/or potential substrate pool for the identified PGTs. Enzyme activity was detected in some instances with quercetin and catechol glucosyltransferase activities having been identified. PMID:26888166

  18. Development of Genetically Modified Chinese Hamster Ovary Host Cells for the Enhancement of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rahimpour, Azam; Ahani, Roshanak; Najaei, Azita; Adeli, Ahmad; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used host system for the expression of high quality recombinant proteins. However, the development of stable, high-yielding CHO cell lines is a major bottleneck in the industrial manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Therefore, different strategies such as the generation of more efficient expression vectors and establishment of genetically engineered host cells have been employed to increase the efficiency of cell line development. In order to examine the possibility of generating improved CHO host cells, cell line engineering approaches were developed based on ceramide transfer protein (CERT), and X-box binding protein 1s (XBP1s). Methods CHO cells were transfected with CERT S132A, a mutant variant of CERT which is resistant to phosphorylation, or XBP1s expression plasmids, and then stable cell pools were generated. Transient expression of t-PA was examined in engineered cell pools in comparison to un-modified CHO host cells. Results Overexpression of CERT S132A led to the enhancement of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression in transient expression by 50%. On the other hand, it was observed that the ectopic expression of the XBP1s, did not improve the t-PA expression level. Conclusion The results obtained in this study indicate successful development of the improved CHO host cells through CERT S132A overexpression. PMID:27547109

  19. Development of an enzyme immunoassay using recombinant expressed antigen to detect hepatitis delta virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Puig, J; Fields, H A

    1989-10-01

    Two generic enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed for detection of anti-hepatitis delta virus antibodies (anti-HD) and compared with a commercially available radioimmunoassay. Both generic assays were configured as blocking assays and used hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) derived from infected chimpanzee liver (EIA-1) or from Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing an insert from within an open reading frame encoding HDAg (EIA-2). Absolute sensitivity was ascertained by endpoint titration, which demonstrated essentially identical endpoints for EIA-1 and EIA-2. The absolute sensitivities of the EIAs were approximately four times greater than that of the radioimmunoassay. Specificity and sensitivity were ascertained by testing a panel of 176 serum specimens by each assay. The specimens were selected to represent a panel composed of sera from individuals with or without markers of viral hepatitis as follows: (i) serologically confirmed by exclusion as posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis; (ii) acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection, positive for hepatitis B surface antigen; (iii) resolved hepatitis B virus infection, positive for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen; (iv) acute hepatitis A virus infection, positive for anti-hepatitis A virus immunoglobulin M; and (v) normal human sera. All three assays for anti-HD gave similar specificity and sensitivity values. In conclusion, the recombinant expressed HDAg can replace antigen derived from infected liver tissue as a diagnostic reagent used to configure an EIA for detection of anti-HD. Furthermore, the results suggest that the expressed antigen contains the important immunodominant epitope(s).

  20. Expression, purification and immunochemical characterization of recombinant OMP28 protein of Brucella species

    PubMed Central

    Manat, Y.; Shustov, A.V.; Evtehova, E.; Eskendirova, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the lion’s share of infectious disease of animals and it has a particular socio-economic importance for the Republic of Kazakhstan. Sixty percent of epizootic outbreaks of brucellosis identified in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) originated from Kazakhstan in recent years. Definitive diagnosis of brucellosis remains a difficult task. Precisely for this reason, we evaluated a purified recombinant out membrane protein 28 (rOMP28) of Brucella species (Brucella spp.) produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a diagnostic antigen in an Indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) for bovine brucellosis. The gene encoding OMP28 was synthesized using a two-round PCR procedure. In order to produce the rOMP28, the de novo synthesized DNA was cloned into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Then, the rOMP28 was expressed in E. coli system and characterized in the present study. We further estimated the diagnostic potential of purified rOMP28 of Brucella spp. for screening bovine sera. To determine if rOMP28 has a valuable benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rOMP28-based I-ELISA was performed. Brucella spp. positive (n=62) and Brucella spp. negative (n=28) samples from tube agglutination test (TAT) were positive (n=59) and negative (n=27) by I-ELISA, respectively. These findings show that the rOMP28 of Brucella spp. could be a good candidate for improving serological diagnostic methods for bovine brucellosis. PMID:27303654

  1. Recombinant Expression and Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Rice β-Glucosidase Os1BGlu4

    PubMed Central

    Rouyi, Chen; Baiya, Supaporn; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Mahong, Bancha; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ketudat-Cairns, James R.; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2014-01-01

    The Os1BGlu4 β-glucosidase is the only glycoside hydrolase family 1 member in rice that is predicted to be localized in the cytoplasm. To characterize the biochemical function of rice Os1BGlu4, the Os1bglu4 cDNA was cloned and used to express a thioredoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. After removal of the tag, the purified recombinant Os1BGlu4 (rOs1BGlu4) exhibited an optimum pH of 6.5, which is consistent with Os1BGlu4's cytoplasmic localization. Fluorescence microscopy of maize protoplasts and tobacco leaf cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged Os1BGlu4 confirmed the cytoplasmic localization. Purified rOs1BGlu4 can hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-β-d-glucoside (pNPGlc) efficiently (kcat/Km  =  17.9 mM−1·s−1), and hydrolyzes pNP-β-d-fucopyranoside with about 50% the efficiency of the pNPGlc. Among natural substrates tested, rOs1BGlu4 efficiently hydrolyzed β-(1,3)-linked oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization (DP) 2–3, and β-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharide of DP 3–4, and hydrolysis of salicin, esculin and p-coumaryl alcohol was also detected. Analysis of the hydrolysis of pNP-β-cellobioside showed that the initial hydrolysis was between the two glucose molecules, and suggested rOs1BGlu4 transglucosylates this substrate. At 10 mM pNPGlc concentration, rOs1BGlu4 can transfer the glucosyl group of pNPGlc to ethanol and pNPGlc. This transglycosylation activity suggests the potential use of Os1BGlu4 for pNP-oligosaccharide and alkyl glycosides synthesis. PMID:24802508

  2. Recombinant expression, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of tritrpticin analogs containing fluoro-tryptophan residues.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio; Hoffarth, Elesha R; Ishida, Hiroaki; Aramini, James M; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-05-01

    The increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has prompted significant academic research into new therapeutic agents targeted against these pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) appear as promising candidates, due their potent antimicrobial activity and their ubiquitous presence in almost all organisms. Tritrpticin is a member of this family of peptides and has been shown to exert a strong antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains. Tritrpticin's main structural characteristic is the presence of three consecutive Trp residues at the center of the peptide. These residues play an important role in the activity of tritrpticin against Escherichia coli. In this work, a recombinant version of tritrpticin was produced in E. coli using calmodulin as a fusion protein expression tag to overcome the toxicity of the peptide. When used in combination with glyphosate, an inhibitor of the endogenous synthesis of aromatic amino acids, this expression system allowed for the incorporation of fluorinated Trp analogs at very high levels (>90%). The antimicrobial activity of the 4-, 5- and 6-fluoro-Trp-containing tritrpticins against E. coli was as strong as the activity of the native peptide. Similarly, the tritrpticin analogs exhibited comparable abilities to perturb and permeabilize synthetic lipid bilayers as well as the outer and inner membrane of E. coli. Furthermore, the use of 19F NMR spectroscopy established that each individual fluoro-Trp residue interacts differently with SDS micelles, supporting the idea that each Trp in the original tritrpticin plays a different role in the perturbing/permeabilizing activity of the peptide. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the use of fluoro-Trp in solvent perturbation 19F NMR experiments provides detailed site-specific information on the insertion of the Trp residues in biological membrane mimetics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai

  3. Cloning, expression of a peroxiredoxin gene from Acinetobacter sp. SM04 and characterization of its recombinant protein for zearalenone detoxification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Wu, Hui; Tang, Yuqian; Qiu, Liping

    2012-03-20

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a Fusarium mycotoxin, which has been associated with hyperestrogenism and other reproductive disorders in farm animals. ZEN-contaminated grains as well as its by-products had engendered numerous economic losses to farm animals' production, so the detoxification of ZEN-contaminated grains and its by-products would be necessary and beneficial. In this study, a peroxiredoxin (Prx) gene from Acinetobacter sp. SM04 was cloned, and over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The Prx gene of Acinetobacter sp. SM04 encodes a protein of 187 amino acids residues and NCBI BLAST program analysis of deduced amino acids shows high identity with 2-Cys Prx family. Interestingly, recombinant Prx show efficient ability to degrade ZEN using H(2)O(2). Results of MCF-7 cell proliferation assay also found ZEN were oxidized into little estrogenic metabolites by purified recombinant Prx plus H(2)O(2). Further, model experiments on decontamination of ZEN-contaminated corn using recombinant Prx were performed, and results found nearly 90% of ZEN was degraded when crushed ZEN-contaminated corn samples (nearly 1,000 μg ZEN per kg grain) were treated with purified recombinant Prx plus 0.09% (m/m) H(2)O(2) for 6h at 30°C. In addition, the optimum pH and temperature of purified recombinant Prx for ZEN degradation were 9.0 and 70°C respectively.

  4. Recombinant measles viruses expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins induced virus-specific CTL responses in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-07-31

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of serious lower respiratory tract illnesses in infants. Natural infections with RSV provide limited protection against reinfection because of inefficient immunological responses that do not induce long-term memory. RSV natural infection has been shown to induce unbalanced immune response. The effective clearance of RSV is known to require the induction of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response, which involves the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In our previous study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/F and MVAIK/RSV/G were developed, which expressed the RSV fusion (F) protein or glycoprotein (G). These recombinant viruses elicited antibody responses against RSV in cotton rats, and no infectious virus was recovered, but small amounts of infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the lungs following RSV challenge. In the present study, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine strains MVAIK/RSV/M2-1 and MVAIK/RSV/NP were developed, expressing RSV M2-1 or Nucleoprotein (NP), respectively. These viruses exhibited temperature-sensitivity (ts), which was derived from AIK-C, and expressed respective RSV antigens. The intramuscular inoculation of cotton rats with the recombinant measles virus led to the induction of CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) cells. No infectious virus was recovered from a lung homogenate following the challenge. A Histological examination of the lungs revealed a significant reduction in inflammatory reactions without alveolar damage. These results support the recombinant measles viruses being effective vaccine candidates against RSV that induce RSV-specific CTL responses with or without the development of an antibody response.

  5. Characterization and immunological activity of different forms of recombinant secreted Hc of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B products expressed in yeast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Shi, DanYang; Chang, ShaoHong; Gong, Xin; Yu, YunZhou; Sun, ZhiWei; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant Hc proteins of botulinum neurotoxins and tetanus toxin are exclusively produced by intracellular heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris for use in subunit vaccines; the same Hc proteins produced by secreted heterologous expression are hyper-glycosylated and immunologically inert. Here, several different recombinant secreted Hc proteins of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B (BHc) were expressed in yeast and we characterized and assessed their immunological activity in detail. Recombinant low-glycosylated secreted BHc products (BSK) were also immunologically inert, similar to hyper-glycosylated BHc products (BSG), although deglycosylation restored their immunological activities. Unexpectedly, deglycosylated proBHc contained an unexpected pro-peptide of an α-factor signal and fortuitous N-linked glycosylation sites in the non-cleaved pro-peptide sequences, but not in the BHc sequences. Notably, a non-glycosylated secreted homogeneous BHc isoform (mBHc), which we successfully prepared after deleting the pro-peptide and removing its single potential glycosylation site, was immunologically active and could confer effective protective immunity, similarly to non-glycosylated rBHc. In summary, we conclude that a non-glycosylated secreted BHc isoform can be prepared in yeast by deleting the pro-peptide of the α-factor signal and mutating its single potential glycosylation site. This approach provides a rational and feasible strategy for the secretory expression of botulism or other toxin antigens. PMID:25567004

  6. [Construction of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rh-β-NGF) eukaryotic vector and its expression in HEK293 cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchuan; Xue, Bofu; Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Mo; Zhu, Lin; Milburn, Rebecca; Le, Li; Hu, Peizhen; Ye, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Human nerve growth factor (NGF) is a nerve cell growth regulation factor, which can provide nutrition for the neurons and promote the neurites outgrowth. In order to produce large-scale recombinant human nerve growth factor (rh-beta-NGF), we constructed a plasmid vector, which can stably express the rh-beta-NGF in the HEK293 cell lines. First, the plasmid of pCMV-beta-NGF-IRES-dhfr was constructed and transformed into HEK293 cells. Then MTX pressurized filter and limiting dilution methods were used to obtain monoclonal HEK293 cell lines. After stepwise reducing serum in culture media, the cells eventually adapted to serum-free medium and secreted rh-beta-NGF. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the expression product owned a molecular weight of about 13 kDa and a purity of more than 50%. The peptide mapping sequencing analysis demonstrated the sequences of rh-beta-NGF matched with the theoretical ones. Later we purified this protein by ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatograph. Finally, our experimental results exhibited that the recombinant cell lines can stably express rh-beta-NGF with a high efficiency of more than 20 pg/cell x day. In addition, this protein could successfully induce differentiation of PC12 cells. In summary, our recombinant HEK293 cells can express bio-active rh-beta-NGF with great efficiency and stability, which supply a valid basis to large-scale production of rh-beta-NGF.

  7. Recombinant expressions of sweet plant protein mabinlin II in Escherichia coli and food-grade Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenliang; Xia, Qiyu; Yao, Jing; Fu, Shaoping; Guo, Jianchun; Hu, Xinwen

    2015-04-01

    Sweet plant proteins, which are safe, natural, low-calorie sweeteners, may be suitable replacements for sugars in the food and beverage industries. Mabinlin II, a sweet plant protein, shows the most pronounced heat stability and acid resistance of any of the six known types of plant sweet proteins. However, mabinlin II is difficult to extract from the Capparis masaikai plant, which is itself becoming increasingly scarce. This limits the use of naturally acquired mabinlin II. In this study, recombinant mabinlin II proteins were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli and in food-grade Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant mabinlin II proteins MBL-BH (containing the B-chains of mabinlin II downstream fused with His-tag) and MBL-ABH (containing the A- and B-chains of mabinlin II downstream fused with His-tag) were expressed in E. coli in the form of inclusion bodies. They were then purified and renatured. The refolded MBL-BH was found to be 100 times sweeter than sucrose by weight, but it was not heat-stable. Refolded MBL-ABH was neither sweet nor heat-stable. Recombinant mabinlin II proteins were secreted and expressed intracellularly in food-grade L. lactis, in which the concentrated cell samples and culture medium samples were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis with anti-mabinlin II polyclonal antibody. This study demonstrated that the single B chain of mabinlin II has a sweet taste. The recombinant mabinlin II proteins have been successfully expressed in food-grade L. lactis, which is a crucial step in the production of mabinlin II through microorganism expression systems.

  8. New insights into the organization, recombination, expression and functional mechanism of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lingli; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Fan, Huajie; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Qin, Huanju; Li, Bin; Hao, Shanting; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The bread-making quality of wheat is strongly influenced by multiple low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) proteins expressed in the seeds. However, the organization, recombination and expression of LMW-GS genes and their functional mechanism in bread-making are not well understood. Here we report a systematic molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, B3 and D3) of bread wheat using complementary approaches (genome wide characterization of gene members, expression profiling, proteomic analysis). Fourteen unique LMW-GS genes were identified for Xiaoyan 54 (with superior bread-making quality). Molecular mapping and recombination analyses revealed that the three Glu-3 loci of Xiaoyan 54 harbored dissimilar numbers of LMW-GS genes and covered different genetic distances. The number of expressed LMW-GS in the seeds was higher in Xiaoyan 54 than in Jing 411 (with relatively poor bread-making quality). This correlated with the finding of higher numbers of active LMW-GS genes at the A3 and D3 loci in Xiaoyan 54. Association analysis using recombinant inbred lines suggested that positive interactions, conferred by genetic combinations of the Glu-3 locus alleles with more numerous active LMW-GS genes, were generally important for the recombinant progenies to attain high Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV), an important indicator of bread-making quality. A higher number of active LMW-GS genes tended to lead to a more elevated ZSV, although this tendency was influenced by genetic background. This work provides substantial new insights into the genomic organization and expression of LMW-GS genes, and molecular genetic evidence suggesting that these genes contribute quantitatively to bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Our analysis also indicates that selection for high numbers of active LMW-GS genes can be used for improvement of bread-making quality in wheat breeding. PMID:20975830

  9. New Insights into the Organization, Recombination, Expression and Functional Mechanism of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huajie; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Qin, Huanju; Li, Bin; Hao, Shanting; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The bread-making quality of wheat is strongly influenced by multiple low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) proteins expressed in the seeds. However, the organization, recombination and expression of LMW-GS genes and their functional mechanism in bread-making are not well understood. Here we report a systematic molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, B3 and D3) of bread wheat using complementary approaches (genome wide characterization of gene members, expression profiling, proteomic analysis). Fourteen unique LMW-GS genes were identified for Xiaoyan 54 (with superior bread-making quality). Molecular mapping and recombination analyses revealed that the three Glu-3 loci of Xiaoyan 54 harbored dissimilar numbers of LMW-GS genes and covered different genetic distances. The number of expressed LMW-GS in the seeds was higher in Xiaoyan 54 than in Jing 411 (with relatively poor bread-making quality). This correlated with the finding of higher numbers of active LMW-GS genes at the A3 and D3 loci in Xiaoyan 54. Association analysis using recombinant inbred lines suggested that positive interactions, conferred by genetic combinations of the Glu-3 locus alleles with more numerous active LMW-GS genes, were generally important for the recombinant progenies to attain high Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV), an important indicator of bread-making quality. A higher number of active LMW-GS genes tended to lead to a more elevated ZSV, although this tendency was influenced by genetic background. This work provides substantial new insights into the genomic organization and expression of LMW-GS genes, and molecular genetic evidence suggesting that these genes contribute quantitatively to bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Our analysis also indicates that selection for high numbers of active LMW-GS genes can be used for improvement of bread-making quality in wheat breeding. PMID:20975830

  10. Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinant thymidine kinase and its application to a rapid antiviral sensitivity assay.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Lixin, Wang; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Iizuka, Itoe; Ogata, Momoko; Tsuji, Masanori; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    Antiviral-resistant herpesvirus infection has become a great concern for immunocompromised patients. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are treated with viral thymidine kinase (vTK)-associated drugs such as acyclovir (ACV), and most ACV-resistance (ACV(r)) is due to mutations in the vTK. The standard drug sensitivity test is usually carried out by the plaque reduction assay-based method, which requires over 10 days. To shorten the time required, a novel system was developed by the concept, in which 293T cells transiently expressing recombinant vTK derived from the test sample by transfection of the cells with an expression vector were infected with vTK-deficient and ACV(r) HSV-1 (TAR), and then cultured in a maintenance medium with or without designated concentrations of ACV, ganciclovir (GCV) and brivudine (BVdU). The replication of TAR was strongly inhibited by ACV, GCV and BVdU in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the ACV-sensitive HSV-1, whereas replication was not or slightly inhibited in cells expressing the recombinant vTK of highly resistant or intermediately resistant HSV-1, respectively. An inverse correlation was demonstrated in the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) and inhibitory effects of these compounds on the replication of TAR among ACV(s) and ACV(r) HSV-1 clones. These results indicate that the EC(50)s of the vTK-associated drugs including ACV can be assumed by measuring the inhibitory effect of drugs in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the target virus. The newly developed antiviral sensitivity assay system for HSV-1 makes it possible to estimate EC(50) for vTK-associated drugs, when whole vTK gene is available for use by gene amplification directly from lesion's samples or from virus isolates.

  11. Antibacterial efficacy of recombinant Siganus oramin L-amino acid oxidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijun; Li, Anxing

    2014-12-01

    Siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named SR-LAAO) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (S. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites Cryptocaryon irritans, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. In order to test whether recombinant SR-LAAO (rSR-LAAO) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast Pichia pastoris was used as the expression host to obtain rSR-LAAO in vitro. Crude rSR-LAAO produced by P. pastoris integrated with the SR-LAAO gene had antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as shown by inhibition zone assay of the antibacterial spectrum on agar plates. The average diameter of the inhibition zone of crude rSR-LAAO against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1.040 ± 0.045 cm and 1.209 ± 0.085 cm, respectively. For the Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas sobria, Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the average diameter of inhibition zone was 1.291 ± 0.089 cm, 0.943 ± 0.061 cm, 0.756 ± 0.057 cm, 0.834 ± 0.023 cm and 1.211 ± 0.026 cm, respectively. These results were obtained at the logarithmic growth phase of S. agalactiae and A. sobria cell suspensions after incubation with 0.5 mg/mL crude rSR-LAAO for 24 h. The final bacterial growth rate was decreased significantly. The relative inhibition rate can reach 50% compared to crude products from P. pastoris integrated with an empty vector at the same concentration of protein. The antimicrobial activity of crude rSR-LAAO was likely associated with H2O2 formation, because its inhibition zones were disturbed significantly by catalase. Scanning electron microscopy results showed crude rSR-LAAO-treated bacterial surfaces became rough and particles were attached, cell walls were

  12. Antibacterial efficacy of recombinant Siganus oramin L-amino acid oxidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijun; Li, Anxing

    2014-12-01

    Siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named SR-LAAO) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (S. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites Cryptocaryon irritans, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. In order to test whether recombinant SR-LAAO (rSR-LAAO) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast Pichia pastoris was used as the expression host to obtain rSR-LAAO in vitro. Crude rSR-LAAO produced by P. pastoris integrated with the SR-LAAO gene had antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as shown by inhibition zone assay of the antibacterial spectrum on agar plates. The average diameter of the inhibition zone of crude rSR-LAAO against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1.040 ± 0.045 cm and 1.209 ± 0.085 cm, respectively. For the Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas sobria, Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the average diameter of inhibition zone was 1.291 ± 0.089 cm, 0.943 ± 0.061 cm, 0.756 ± 0.057 cm, 0.834 ± 0.023 cm and 1.211 ± 0.026 cm, respectively. These results were obtained at the logarithmic growth phase of S. agalactiae and A. sobria cell suspensions after incubation with 0.5 mg/mL crude rSR-LAAO for 24 h. The final bacterial growth rate was decreased significantly. The relative inhibition rate can reach 50% compared to crude products from P. pastoris integrated with an empty vector at the same concentration of protein. The antimicrobial activity of crude rSR-LAAO was likely associated with H2O2 formation, because its inhibition zones were disturbed significantly by catalase. Scanning electron microscopy results showed crude rSR-LAAO-treated bacterial surfaces became rough and particles were attached, cell walls were

  13. Efficient expression of truncated recombinant cadmium-metallothionein gene of a ciliate, Tetrahymena tropicalis lahorensis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shuja, Rukhsana Nighat; Taimuri, Shuja Uddin Ahmad; Shakoori, Farah Rauf; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2013-12-01

    Truncated recombinant metallothionein GST-fusion protein has been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The previously identified novel Cd-inducible metallothionein (TMCd1) gene from the locally isolated ciliate, Tetrahymena tropicalis lahorensis, was inserted into a pET-41a vector, in frame with a sequence encoding an N-terminal glutathione-S-transferase (GST) tail. Truncated recombinant GST fusion protein has been purified by affinity column chromatography using glutathione sepharose. After enzymatic cleavage of GST tail with enterokinase, the truncated TMCd1 MT shows molecular weight of 11.5 kDa, corresponding to the expected value. This is the first successful report of expression of cadmium metallothionein gene of a ciliate, T. t. lahorensis, reported from this part of the world, in E. coli. This study will further help in characterization of metallothionein protein of this ciliate.

  14. Construction and immunogenicity of a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein and interleukin 18.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-lan; Guo, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Qian-lei; Chao, An-jun; Fu, Peng-fei; Wei, Zhan-yong; Wang, Shu-juan; Chen, Hong-ying; Cui, Bao-an

    2015-04-01

    A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV) expressing porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein and IL-18 was constructed. The PCV2 open reading frame 2 (ORF2) and porcine IL-18 genes were amplified by PCR and then inserted into the PRV transfer vector (pG) to produce a recombinant plasmid (pGO18). Plasmid pGO18 was transfected into porcine kidney cell (PK15) pre-infected with PRV HB98 vaccine strain to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus PRV-ORF2-IL18 was purified by green fluorescent plaque purification and the inserts were confirmed by PCR, enzyme digestion, sequencing, and Western blot. The humoral and cellular responses induced by the recombinant virus were assessed in mice. Mice (n=10) were immunized with PRV-ORF2-IL18, PRV-ORF2, PRV HB98, or inactivated PCV2. PRV-ORF2-IL18 elicited high titers of ELISA and serum neutralizing antibodies and strong cell-mediated immune responses in mice as indicated by anti-PCV2 ELISA, PRV-neutralizing assay, PCV2 specific lymphocyte proliferation assay, CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes analysis, respectively. And PRV-ORF2-IL18 immunization protected mice against a lethal challenge of a virulent PRV Fa strain and significantly reduced the amount of PCV2 viremia. These results suggest an adjuvant effect of IL-18 on cellular immune responses. The recombinant virus might be an attractive candidate vaccine for preventing PCV2 and PRV infections in pigs.

  15. High-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus production utilizing a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I vector expressing AAV-2 Rep and Cap.

    PubMed

    Conway, J E; Rhys, C M; Zolotukhin, I; Zolotukhin, S; Muzyczka, N; Hayward, G S; Byrne, B J

    1999-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV) vectors have recently been used to achieve long-term, high level transduction in vivo. Further development of rAAV vectors for clinical use requires significant technological improvements in large-scale vector production. In order to facilitate the production of rAAV vectors, a recombinant herpes simplex virus type I vector (rHSV-1) which does not produce ICP27, has been engineered to express the AAV-2 rep and cap genes. The optimal dose of this vector, d27.1-rc, for AAV production has been determined and results in a yield of 380 expression units (EU) of AAV-GFP produced from 293 cells following transfection with AAV-GFP plasmid DNA. In addition, d27.1-rc was also efficient at producing rAAV from cell lines that have an integrated AAV-GFP provirus. Up to 480 EU/cell of AAV-GFP could be produced from the cell line GFP-92, a proviral, 293 derived cell line. Effective amplification of rAAV vectors introduced into 293 cells by infection was also demonstrated. Passage of rAAV with d27. 1-rc results in up to 200-fold amplification of AAV-GFP with each passage after coinfection of the vectors. Efficient, large-scale production (>109 cells) of AAV-GFP from a proviral cell line was also achieved and these stocks were free of replication-competent AAV. The described rHSV-1 vector provides a novel, simple and flexible way to introduce the AAV-2 rep and cap genes and helper virus functions required to produce high-titer rAAV preparations from any rAAV proviral construct. The efficiency and potential for scalable delivery of d27.1-rc to producer cell cultures should facilitate the production of sufficient quantities of rAAV vectors for clinical application.

  16. Soluble expression and partial purification of recombinant human erythropoietin from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Taeck-Hyun; Son, Young-Jin; Ryu, Han-Bong; Koo, Bon-Kyung; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Hoang, Phuong; Do, Bich Hang; Song, Jung-A; Chong, Seon-Ha; Robinson, Robert Charles; Choe, Han

    2014-03-01

    Human erythropoietin (hEpo) is an essential regulator of erythrocyte production that induces the division and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow into mature erythrocytes. It is widely used for the treatment of anemia resulting from chronic kidney disease, chemotherapy, and cancer-related therapies. Active hEpo, and hEpo analogs, have been purified primarily from mammalian cells, which has several disadvantages, including low yields and high production costs. Although an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system may provide economic production of therapeutic proteins, it has not been used for the production of recombinant hEpo (rhEpo) because it aggregates in inclusion bodies in the E. coli cytoplasm and is not modified post-translationally. We investigated the soluble overexpression of active rhEpo with various protein tags in E. coli, and found out that several tags increased the solubility of rhEpo. Among them maltose binding protein (MBP)-tagged rhEpo was purified using affinity and gel filtration columns. Non-denaturing electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS analysis demonstrated that the purified rhEpo had two intra-disulfide bonds identical to those of the native hEpo. An in vitro proliferation assay showed that rhEpo purified from E. coli had similar biological activity as rhEpo derived from CHO cells. Therefore, we report for the first time that active rhEpo was overexpressed as a soluble form in the cytoplasm of E. coli and purified it in simple purification steps. We hope that our results offer opportunities for progress in rhEpo therapeutics. PMID:24412408

  17. Purification by reflux electrophoresis of whey proteins and of a recombinant protein expressed in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Corthals, G L; Collins, B M; Mabbutt, B C; Williams, K L; Gooley, A A

    1997-06-27

    Protein purification that combines the use of molecular mass exclusion membranes with electrophoresis is particularly powerful as it uses properties inherent to both techniques. The use of membranes allows efficient processing and is easily scaled up, while electrophoresis permits high resolution separation under mild conditions. The Gradiflow apparatus combines these two technologies as it uses polyacrylamide membranes to influence electrokinetic separations. The reflux electrophoresis process consists of a series of cycles incorporating a forward phase and a reverse phase. The forward phase involves collection of a target protein that passes through a separation membrane before trailing proteins in the same solution. The forward phase is repeated following clearance of the membrane in the reverse phase by reversing the current. We have devised a strategy to establish optimal reflux separation parameters, where membranes are chosen for a particular operating range and protein transfer is monitored at different pH values. In addition, forward and reverse phase times are determined during this process. Two examples of the reflux method are described. In the first case, we described the purification strategy for proteins from a complex mixture which contains proteins of higher electrophoretic mobility than the target protein. This is a two-step procedure, where first proteins of higher mobility than the target protein are removed from the solution by a series of reflux cycles, so that the target protein remains as the leading fraction. In the second step the target protein is collected, as it has become the leading fraction of the remaining proteins. In the second example we report the development of a reflux strategy which allowed a rapid one-step preparative purification of a recombinant protein, expressed in Dictyostelium discoideum. These strategies demonstrate that the Gradiflow is amenable to a wide range of applications, as the protein of interest is not

  18. Recombinant Expression, Biophysical Characterization, and Cardiolipin-Induced Changes of Two Caenorhabditis elegans Cytochrome c Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vincelli, Amber J.; Pottinger, Danielle S.; Zhong, Fangfang; Hanske, Jonas; Rolland, Stéphane G.; Conradt, Barbara; Pletneva, Ekaterina V.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) is one of the most widely studied biomolecules, but not much is known about this protein from nematodes. Recombinant expression of C. elegans CYC-2.1 and CYC-2.2 allowed for detailed characterization of their structural features, redox properties, stabilities, and interactions with cardiolipin (CL)-containing liposomes. Using a variety of spectroscopic tools, we show that CYC-2.1 and CYC-2.2 adopt a globular α-helical fold with His/Met heme ligation. The longer CYC-2.2 has a lower thermodynamic stability than CYC-2.1 and lacks His residues to misligate to the heme in the protein’s denatured state. Both C. elegans proteins bind to CL-containing liposomes and these interactions promote the proteins’ peroxidase activity but to a much greater degree for CYC-2.2. Dye-to-heme distance distributions from time-resolved FRET in bimane-labeled CYC-2.1 and CYC-2.2 revealed similar populations of extended and compact conformers for CL-bound proteins, suggesting that their distinct peroxidase activities in the presence of CL arise from differences in the local heme environments for the two polypeptide ensembles. Without inhibition from His misligation, a less stable and more prone to unfolding CYC-2.2 allows for better access of substrates to the heme and thus exhibits higher peroxidase activity. Similar features of the conformational ensembles of CYC-2.1 and CYC-2.2 to those of mammalian cyt c suggest that C. elegans proteins, particularly the former, could serve as useful models for examining the mechanism of cyt c-CL interactions in live organisms. PMID:23282202

  19. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  20. Analysis of the L1 gene product of human papillomavirus type 16 by expression in a vaccinia virus recombinant.

    PubMed

    Browne, H M; Churcher, M J; Stanley, M A; Smith, G L; Minson, A C

    1988-06-01

    The L1 open reading frame of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) has been expressed in vaccinia virus under the control of both the 7.5K early and late promoter, and the 4b major late promoter. Antibodies to a beta-galactosidase fusion protein containing a C-terminal portion of the HPV16 L1 gene product were used to compare the levels of L1 expression in the two recombinants, and showed that greater levels of expression were obtained when the gene was placed under the control of the 4b late promoter. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a nuclear location of the L1 gene product when expressed in vaccinia virus. Antibodies to the beta-galactosidase fusion protein detected a major polypeptide species of 57K and a minor species of 64K in Western blots of recombinant-infected cell lysates. The 64K species was not detected when cells were infected in the presence of tunicamycin, indicating that the primary translation product of the HPV16 L1 open reading frame is modified by N-linked glycosylation when expressed in vaccinia virus. Whereas antibodies to HPV16 L1 fusion proteins and to a peptide containing amino acids from the C terminus of HPV16 L1 reacted well in Western blots with the HPV16 L1 target expressed in vaccinia virus, no reactivity was observed with antibodies to bovine papillomavirus type 1 particles or to a HPV6b fusion protein.

  1. Expression of cytokine and apoptosis-related genes in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Brucella abortus recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Im, Young Bin; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Suk; Yoo, Han Sang

    2016-02-11

    Brucellosis is a clinically and economically important disease. Therefore, eradication programs of the disease have been implemented in several countries. One hurdle in these programs is the detection of infected animals at the early stage. Although the protein antigens as diagnostic antigens have recently received attention, the exact mechanisms at the beginning of immune responses are not yet known. Therefore, genes encoding five B. abortus cellular proteins were cloned and the expressed recombinant proteins were purified. The expression of several cytokine genes (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and iNOS) was analyzed in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (bPBMC) after stimulation with the recombinant proteins. Three apoptosis-related genes, Bax, Bcl-2, and TLR4, were also included in the analysis to find out the adverse effects of the proteins to the cells. Each protein induced different patterns of cytokine expression depending on the stimulation time and antigen dose. Expression of IL-6, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ was induced with all of the proteins while IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α, and iNOS gene expression was not. Expression of apoptosis-related genes was not altered except TLR4. These results suggest that the cellular antigens of B. abortus induce both humoral and cellular immunity via the production of IL-6, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ in bPBMC without exerting any adverse effects on the cells.

  2. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    SciTech Connect

    Albariño, César G. Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  3. Efficient system of artificial oil bodies for functional expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chen, Hong-Chen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Tzen, Jason T C

    2005-06-15

    Nattokinase, a serine protease, and pronattokinase, when expressed in Escherichia coli, formed insoluble aggregates without enzymatic activity. For functional expression and purification, nattokinase or pronattokinase was first overexpressed in E. coli as an insoluble recombinant protein linked to the C terminus of oleosin, a structural protein of seed oil bodies, by an intein fragment. Artificial oil bodies were reconstituted with triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and the insoluble recombinant protein thus formed. Soluble nattokinase was subsequently released through self-splicing of intein induced by temperature alteration, with the remaining oleosin-intein residing in oil bodies and the leading propeptide of pronattokinase, when present, spontaneously cleaved in the process. Active nattokinase with fibrinolytic activity was harvested by concentrating the supernatant. Nattokinase released from oleosin-intein-pronattokinase exhibited 5 times higher activity than that released from oleosin-intein-nattokinase, although the production yields were similar in both cases. Furthermore, active nattokinase could be harvested in the same system by fusing pronattokinase to the N terminus of oleosin via a different intein linker, with self-splicing induced by 1,4-dithiothreitol. These results have shown a great potential of this system for bacterial expression and purification of functional recombinant proteins.

  4. Pilot-scale cultivation of wall-deficient transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains expressing recombinant proteins in the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Zedler, Julie A Z; Gangl, Doris; Guerra, Tiago; Santos, Edgar; Verdelho, Vitor V; Robinson, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Microalgae have emerged as potentially powerful platforms for the production of recombinant proteins and high-value products. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a potentially important host species due to the range of genetic tools that have been developed for this unicellular green alga. Transformation of the chloroplast genome offers important advantages over nuclear transformation, and a wide range of recombinant proteins have now been expressed in the chloroplasts of C. reinhardtii strains. This is often done in cell wall-deficient mutants that are easier to transform. However, only a single study has reported growth data for C. reinhardtii grown at pilot scale, and the growth of cell wall-deficient strains has not been reported at all. Here, we report the first pilot-scale growth study for transgenic, cell wall-deficient C. reinhardtii strains. Strains expressing a cytochrome P450 (CYP79A1) or bifunctional diterpene synthase (cis-abienol synthase, TPS4) were grown for 7 days under mixotrophic conditions in a Tris-acetate-phosphate medium. The strains reached dry cell weights of 0.3 g/L within 3-4 days with stable expression levels of the recombinant proteins during the whole upscaling process. The strains proved to be generally robust, despite the cell wall-deficient phenotype, but grew poorly under phototrophic conditions. The data indicate that cell wall-deficient strains may be highly amenable for transformation and suitable for commercial-scale operations under mixotrophic growth regimes. PMID:26969037

  5. Vaccination with a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a tumor antigen breaks immune tolerance and elicits therapeutic antitumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Wansley, Elizabeth K.; Chakraborty, Mala; Hance, Kenneth W.; Bernstein, Michael B.; Boehm, Amanda L.; Guo, Zhimin; Quick, Deborah; Franzusoff, Alex; Greiner, John W.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a nonpathogenic yeast, has previously been used as a vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens, and tumor-associated antigens, and has been shown to reduce tumorburden in mice. Studies were designed to determine if vaccination of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic mice (where CEA is a self-antigen) with a recombinant S. cerevisiae construct expressing human CEA (yeast-CEA) elicits CEA-specific T-cell responses and antitumor activity. Experimental Design CEA-transgenic mice were vaccinated with yeast-CEA, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were assessed after one and multiple administrations or vaccinations at multiple sites per administration. Antitumor activity was determined by tumor growth and overall survival in both pulmonary metastasis and subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models. Results These studies demonstrate that recombinant yeast can break tolerance and that a) yeast-CEA constructs elicit both CEA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses; b) repeated yeast-CEA administration causes increased antigen-specific T-cell responses after each vaccination; c) vaccination with yeast-CEA at multiple sites induces a greater T-cell response than the same dose given at a single site; d) tumor-bearing mice vaccinated with yeast-CEA show a reduction in tumor burden and increased overall survival compared to mock-treated or control yeast-vaccinated mice in both pulmonary metastasis and subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models. Conclusions Vaccination with a heat-killed recombinant yeast expressing the tumor-associated antigen CEA induces CEA-specific immune responses, reduces tumor burden, and extends overall survival in CEA-transgenic mice. These studies thus form the rationale for the incorporation of recombinant yeast-CEA and other recombinant yeast constructs in cancer immunotherapy protocols. PMID:18594015

  6. Recombinant expression of a GH12 β-glucanase carrying its own signal peptide from Stachybotrys atra in yeast and filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Picart, Pere; Orejas, Margarita; Pastor, F I Javier

    2016-08-01

    The β-glucanase Cel12A gene from Stachybotrys atra has been cloned and heterologously expressed in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant strains constructed, contained the exonic sequence of cel12A including its own signal peptide coding sequence. SDS-PAGE and zymography revealed that recombinant Cel12A has a molecular mass of 24 kDa which agrees with that deduced from its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is expressed in the non-glycosylated active form. Recombinant A. nidulans showed about eightfold greater activity yield than S. cerevisiae recombinant strain, namely 0.71 and 0.09 β-glucanase Units/ml of culture, respectively. In both host strains most of the activity was secreted to the extracellular media, evidencing the functionality of Cel12A signal peptide in yeast and fungi. This novel signal peptide might facilitate the expression and efficient secretion of other recombinant proteins difficult to secrete. PMID:27339304

  7. Agar gel immunodiffusion analysis using baculovirus-expressed recombinant bovine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein (gp51/gp30(T-)).

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong In; Jeong, Wooseog; Tark, Dong Seob; Yang, Dong Kun; Kweon, Chang Hee

    2009-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) envelope glycoprotein (gp51/ gp30(T-)), consisting of BLV gp51 and BLV gp30 that lacked its C-terminal transmembrane domain, was expressed in insect cells under the control of the baculovirus polyhedron promoter. Recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) secreted from insect cells was determined by immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent and western blot assays using a BLV-specific monoclonal antibody and BLV-positive bovine antibodies. An agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test using gp51/gp30(T-) as the antigen for the detection of BLV antibodies in serum was developed and compared to traditional AGID, which uses wild type BLV antigen derived from fetal lamb kidney cells. AGID with the recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) was relatively more sensitive than traditional AGID. When the two methods were tested with bovine sera from the field, the recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) and traditional antigen had a relative sensitivity of 69.8% and 67.4%, respectively, and a relative specificity of 93.3% and 92.3%. These results indicated that the recombinant BLV gp51/gp30(T-) is an effective alternative antigen for the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  8. pUNISHER: a high-level expression cassette for use with recombinant viral vectors for rapid and long term in vivo neuronal expression in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Monica S; Chen, Zuxin; Young, Samuel M

    2011-12-01

    Fast onset and high-level neurospecific transgene expression in vivo is of importance for many areas in neuroscience, from basic to translational, and can significantly reduce the amount of vector load required to maintain transgene expression in vivo. In this study, we tested various cis elements to optimize transgene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels and combined them together to create the high-level neuronal transgene expression cassette pUNISHER. Using a second-generation adenoviral vector system in combination with the pUNISHER cassette, we characterized its rate of onset of detectable expression and levels of expression compared with a neurospecific expression cassette driven by the 470-bp human synapsin promoter in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate in primary neurons that the pUNISHER cassette, in a recombinant adenovirus type 5 background, led to a faster rate of onset of detectable transgene expression and higher level of transgene expression. More importantly, this cassette led to highly correlated neuronal expression in vivo and to stable transgene expression up to 30 days in the auditory brain stem with no toxicity on the characteristics of synaptic transmission and plasticity at the calyx of Held synapse. Thus the pUNISHER cassette is an ideal high-level neuronal expression cassette for use in vivo for neuroscience applications. PMID:21957229

  9. High-level stable expression of recombinant 5-HT1A 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Wootton, R; Strange, P G

    1992-01-01

    The human 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1A receptor gene was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells. A series of recombinant monoclonal cell lines expressing the receptor were isolated and the properties of one cell line that expressed receptors at a high level (2.8 pmol/mg) were studied in detail. In ligand binding assays with the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 2-(NN-di[3H]propylamino)-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene ([3H]8-OH-DPAT) only a single class of saturable high-affinity binding sites was detected, with a pharmacological profile in competition experiments essentially identical to that of the 5-HT1A receptor of bovine hippocampus. [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding to the recombinant cell membranes was inhibited by GTP, showing that the receptors in the transfected cells couple to G-proteins. A series of 5-hydroxytryptamine agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the cells and, despite the high level of receptor expression, their apparent efficacies were similar to those observed for inhibition of adenylate cyclase in brain. This recombinant cell line provides a complete model system for studying the 5-HT1A receptor and its transmembrane signalling system. The recombinant cells can also be grown in suspension culture for long periods but, whereas 5-HT1A receptor numbers and receptor regulation by guanine nucleotides are maintained in suspension-grown cells, the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by the 5-HT1A receptor is gradually lost. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1386736

  10. [Production of recombinant human interleukin-38 and its inhibitory effect on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells].

    PubMed

    Yuan, X L; Li, Y; Pan, X H; Zhou, M; Gao, Q Y; Li, M C

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38 is the latest member of the IL-1 cytokine family. However, as a result of lacking efficient method to generate relatively large quantity of IL-38, its precise functions are poorly understood. In the present study, the cloning, expression, purification, and activity analysis of recombinant human IL-38 was described. Human IL-38 cDNA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-44. The recombinant IL-38 containing a C-hexahistidine tag was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. IL-38 protein was largely found in the soluble fraction. The purified IL-38 appeared a single band on SDS-PAGE, the yield of IL-38 was 4 mg from 1 L of bacterial culture, and the purity was more than 98% with low endotoxin level (<0.1 EU/μg). Western blotting confirmed the identity of the purified protein. Activity analysis showed that IL-38 can inhibit effectively the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 cells. The production and characterization of biologically active IL-38 will be beneficial for its potential role in clinical applications. PMID:27414784

  11. Bacterial expression and antibiotic activities of recombinant variants of human β-defensins on pathogenic bacteria and M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Garcia, Ligia; Ortiz, Ernesto; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Corzo, Gerardo

    2013-05-01

    Five variants of human β-defensins (HBDs) were expressed in Escherichia coli using two vector systems (pET28a(+) and pQE30) with inducible expression by IPTG. The last vector has not been previously reported as an expression system for HBDs. The recombinant peptides were different in their lengths and overall charge. The HBDs were expressed as soluble or insoluble proteins depending on the expression system used, and the final protein yields ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 mg of peptide/g of wet weight cells, with purities higher than 90%. The recombinant HBDs demonstrated a direct correlation between antimicrobial activity and the number of basic charged residues; that is, their antimicrobial activity was as follows: HBD3-M-HBD2 > HBD3 = HBD3-M = HB2-KLK > HBD2 when assayed against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, HBD2 had the best antimicrobial activity against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (1.5 μM) and the heterologous tandem peptide, HBD3-M-HBD2, had the best minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (2.7 μM) against a multidrug resistance strain (MDR) of M. tuberculosis, demonstrating the feasibility of the use of HBDs against pathogenic M. tuberculosis reported to be resistant to commercial antibiotics.

  12. Cloning, secretory expression and characterization of recombinant β-mannanase from Bacillus circulans NT 6.7.

    PubMed

    Piwpankaew, Yotthachai; Sakulsirirat, Supa; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Haltrich, Dietmar; Keawsompong, Suttipun

    2014-01-01

    The mannanase gene of B. circulans NT 6.7 was cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The B. circulans NT 6.7 mannanase gene consists of 1,083 nucleotides encoding a 360-amino acid residue long polypeptide, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 26. The full-length mannanase gene including its native signal sequence was cloned into the vector pET21d and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). β-Mannanase activities in the culture supernatant and crude cell extract were 37.10 and 515 U per ml, respectively, with most of the activity in the cell extract attributed to the periplasmic fraction. In contrast, expression of mannanase was much lower when using the B. circulans NT 6.7 mannanase gene without its signal sequence. The optimum temperature of recombinant β-mannanase activity was 50°C and the optimum pH was 6.0. The enzyme was very specific for β-mannan substrates with a preference for galactomannan. Hydrolysis products of locust bean gum were various mannooligosaccharides including mannohexaose, mannopentaose, mannotetraose, mannotriose and mannobiose, while mannose could not be detected. In conclusion, this expression system is efficient for the secretory production of recombinant β-mannanase from B. circulans NT 6.7, which shows good characteristics for various applications. PMID:25157333

  13. High-Level Expression of Bacillus naganoensis Pullulanase from Recombinant Escherichia coli with Auto-Induction: Effect of lac Operator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Chen, Wen Bo; Mu, Xiao Qing; Wang, Xinye; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The successful

  14. Characterization of the highly active fragment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter for recombinant protein expression in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chaomin; Zheng, Liesheng; Zhu, Jihong; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Developing efficient native promoters is important for improving recombinant protein expression by fungal genetic engineering. The promoter region of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in Pleurotus ostreatus (Pogpd) was isolated and optimized by upstream truncation. The activities of these promoters with different lengths were further confirmed by fluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. A truncated Pogpd-P2 fragment (795 bp) drove enhanced green fluorescence protein (egfp) gene expression in P. ostreatus much more efficiently than full-length Pogpd-P1. Further truncating Pogpd-P2 to 603, 403 and 231 bp reduced the eGFP expression significantly. However, the 403-bp fragment between -356 bp and the start codon was the minimal but sufficient promoter element for eGFP expression. Compact native promoters for genetic engineering of P. ostreatus were successfully developed and validated in this study. This will broaden the preexisting repertoire of fungal promoters for biotechnology application. PMID:25743073

  15. In vivo modification of tyrosine residues in recombinant mussel adhesive protein by tyrosinase co-expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In nature, mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) show remarkable adhesive properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, they have been considered promising adhesive biomaterials for various biomedical and industrial applications. However, limited production of natural MAPs has hampered their practical applications. Recombinant production in bacterial cells could be one alternative to obtain useable amounts of MAPs, although additional post-translational modification of tyrosine residues into 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (Dopa) and Dopaquinone is required. The superior properties of MAPs are mainly attributed to the introduction of quinone-derived intermolecular cross-links. To solve this problem, we utilized a co-expression strategy of recombinant MAP and tyrosinase in Escherichia coli to successfully modify tyrosine residues in vivo. Results A recombinant hybrid MAP, fp-151, was used as a target for in vivo modification, and a dual vector system of pET and pACYC-Duet provided co-expression of fp-151 and tyrosinase. As a result, fp-151 was over-expressed and mainly obtained from the soluble fraction in the co-expression system. Without tyrosinase co-expression, fp-151 was over-expressed in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies. The modification of tyrosine residues in the soluble-expressed fp-151 was clearly observed from nitroblue tetrazolium staining and liquid-chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry analyses. The purified, in vivo modified, fp-151 from the co-expression system showed approximately 4-fold higher bulk-scale adhesive strength compared to in vitro tyrosinase-treated fp-151. Conclusion Here, we reported a co-expression system to obtain in vivo modified MAP; additional in vitro tyrosinase modification was not needed to obtain adhesive properties and the in vivo modified MAP showed superior adhesive strength compared to in vitro modified protein. It is expected that this co-expression strategy will accelerate the use of functional MAPs in

  16. Purification and Refolding to Amyloid Fibrils of (His)6-tagged Recombinant Shadoo Protein Expressed as Inclusion Bodies in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaojing; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Moudjou, Mohammed; Vidic, Jasmina

    2015-12-19

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a powerful tool for the production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. We use it to produce Shadoo, a protein belonging to the prion family. A chromatographic method for the purification of (His)6-tagged recombinant Shadoo expressed as inclusion bodies is described. The inclusion bodies are solubilized in 8 M urea and bound to a Ni(2+)-charged column to perform ion affinity chromatography. Bound proteins are eluted by a gradient of imidazole. Fractions containing Shadoo protein are subjected to size exclusion chromatography to obtain a highly purified protein. In the final step purified Shadoo is desalted to remove salts, urea and imidazole. Recombinant Shadoo protein is an important reagent for biophysical and biochemical studies of protein conformation disorders occurring in prion diseases. Many reports demonstrated that prion neurodegenerative diseases originate from the deposition of stable, ordered amyloid fibrils. Sample protocols describing how to fibrillate Shadoo into amyloid fibrils at acidic and neutral/basic pHs are presented. The methods on how to produce and fibrillate Shadoo can facilitate research in laboratories working on prion diseases, since it allows for production of large amounts of protein in a rapid and low cost manner.

  17. Production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde by recombinant Escherichia coli co-expressing Lactobacillus reuteri propanediol utilization enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sabet-Azad, Ramin; Sardari, Roya R R; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical for the biobased chemical industry. Lactobacillus reuteri produces 3-HP from glycerol via 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) through a CoA-dependent propanediol utilization (Pdu) pathway. This study was performed to verify and evaluate the pathway comprising propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP), phosphotransacylase (PduL), and propionate kinase (PduW) for formation of 3-HP from 3-HPA. The pathway was confirmed using recombinant Escherichia coli co-expressing PduP, PduL and PduW of L. reuteri DSM 20016 and mutants lacking expression of either enzyme. Growing and resting cells of the recombinant strain produced 3-HP with a yield of 0.3mol/mol and 1mol/mol, respectively, from 3-HPA. 3-HP was the sole product with resting cells, while growing cells produced 1,3-propanediol as co-product. 3-HP production from glycerol was achieved with a yield of 0.68mol/mol by feeding recombinant E. coli with 3-HPA produced by L. reuteri and recovered using bisulfite-functionalized resin. PMID:25614245

  18. Biocatalytic properties of a recombinant Fusarium proliferatum lactonase with significantly enhanced production by optimal expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Fan, Li-Qiang; Xu, Jian-He; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Xian; Ouyang, Li-Ming

    2010-10-01

    The levo-lactonase gene of Fusarium proliferatum ECU2002 (EC3.1.1.25) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3) for biocatalytic resolution of industrially important chiral lactones, including DL-pantoyl lactone which was a key precursor to calcium D-pantothenate. By increasing the biomass concentration and lowering the inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside) concentration and induction temperature, the lactonase production was significantly enhanced up to 20 kU/L, which was 20 times higher than that of wild-type strain F. proliferatum ECU2002. The recombinant Fusarium lactonase was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and its SDS-PAGE revealed a molecular mass of 50 kDa for the recombinant protein, suggesting that the enzyme was a simplex protein. Furthermore, biocatalytic properties of the recombinant lactonase were investigated, including kinetic parameters, additive's effect, and substrate specificity. The results reported in this paper provide a feasible method to make the whole cells of E. coli JM109 (DE3) expressing lactonase gene to be a highly efficient and easy-to-make biocatalyst for asymmetric synthesis of chiral compounds. PMID:19876606

  19. Visualization of feline calicivirus replication in real-time with recombinant viruses engineered to express fluorescent reporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Abente, Eugenio J; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Green, Kim Y

    2010-04-25

    Caliciviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis was used to insert a transprimer sequence into random sites of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome. A site in the LC gene (encoding the capsid leader protein) of the FCV genome was identified that could tolerate foreign insertions, and two viable recombinant FCV variants expressing LC fused either to AcGFP, or DsRedFP were recovered. The effects of the insertions on LC processing, RNA replication, and stability of the viral genome were analyzed, and the progression of a calicivirus single infection and co-infection were captured by real-time imaging fluorescent microscopy. The ability to engineer viable recombinant caliciviruses expressing foreign markers enables new approaches to investigate virus and host cell interactions, as well as studies of viral recombination, one of the driving forces of calicivirus evolution. PMID:20137802

  20. [Recombinant cephalosporin-acid synthesase: optimisation of expression in E.coli cells, immobilisation and application for biocatalytic cefazolin synthesis].

    PubMed

    Eldarov, M A; Sklyarenko, A V; Dumina, M V; Medvedeva, N V; Jgoun, A A; Satarova, J E; Sidorenko, A I; Emperian, A S; Yarotsky, S V

    2015-01-01

    Cephalosporin acid synthetase (CASA) is responsible for specific to synthesis of cephalosporin-acids, its expression in Escherichia coli cells is accompanied by accumulation of unprocessed insoluble precursor. In order to optimize conditions of recombinant CASA production we have studied the effects of several parameters of strain cultivation, including growth media composition, temperature, and inoculation dose. Also plasmids for production of CASA variants with the signal sequence of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ansCASA) and "leaderless" CASA were created in search of more efficient expression constructs. Removal of the N-terminal secretion signal sequence reduced the production of functionally active CASA more than 10-fold and inhibited strain growth. Insertion of the L-asparaginase signal sequence increased the specific enzyme activity in the resultant recombinant strain. The ansCASA producing strain was used to develop the method of immobilization of the recombinant enzyme on an epoxy-activated macroporous acrylic support. The resultant biocatalyst performed effective synthesis of cefazolin from 3-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-il)-thiomethyl]-7- aminocephalosporanic acid (MMTD-7-ACA) and methyl ester of 1(H)-tetrazolilacetic acid (МETzAA), under mild conditions a transformation level of MMTD-7-ACA to cefazolin of 95% is reached. PMID:26539875

  1. [Recombinant cephalosporin-acid synthesase: optimisation of expression in E.coli cells, immobilisation and application for biocatalytic cefazolin synthesis].

    PubMed

    Eldarov, M A; Sklyarenko, A V; Dumina, M V; Medvedeva, N V; Jgoun, A A; Satarova, J E; Sidorenko, A I; Emperian, A S; Yarotsky, S V

    2015-01-01

    Cephalosporin acid synthetase (CASA) is responsible for specific to synthesis of cephalosporin-acids, its expression in Escherichia coli cells is accompanied by accumulation of unprocessed insoluble precursor. In order to optimize conditions of recombinant CASA production we have studied the effects of several parameters of strain cultivation, including growth media composition, temperature, and inoculation dose. Also plasmids for production of CASA variants with the signal sequence of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ansCASA) and "leaderless" CASA were created in search of more efficient expression constructs. Removal of the N-terminal secretion signal sequence reduced the production of functionally active CASA more than 10-fold and inhibited strain growth. Insertion of the L-asparaginase signal sequence increased the specific enzyme activity in the resultant recombinant strain. The ansCASA producing strain was used to develop the method of immobilization of the recombinant enzyme on an epoxy-activated macroporous acrylic support. The resultant biocatalyst performed effective synthesis of cefazolin from 3-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-il)-thiomethyl]-7- aminocephalosporanic acid (MMTD-7-ACA) and methyl ester of 1(H)-tetrazolilacetic acid (МETzAA), under mild conditions a transformation level of MMTD-7-ACA to cefazolin of 95% is reached.

  2. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing multiple genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy E; Witter, R L; Reddy, S M; Wu, P; Yanagida, N; Yoshida, S

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPVs) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B, E, I, H, and UL32 (gB1, gE, gI, gH, and UL32). An additional rFPV was constructed to contain four MDV genes (gB1, gE, gI, and UL32). These rFPVs were evaluated for their ability to protect maternal antibody-positive chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protection induced by a single rFPV/gB1 (42%) confirmed our previous finding. The protection induced by rFPV/gI (43%), rFPV/gB1UL32 (46%), rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%), and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32 (70%) contributed to additional knowledge on MDV genes involved in protective immunity. In contrast, the rFPV containing gE, gH, or UL32 did not induce significant protection compared with turkey herpesvirus (HVT). Levels of protection by rFPV/gB1 and rFPV/gl were comparable with that of HVT. Only gB1 and gI conferred synergism in rFPV containing these two genes. Protection by both rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%) and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32(70%) against Marek's disease was significantly enhanced compared with a single gB1 or gI gene (40%). This protective synergism between gB1 and gI in rFPVs may be the basis for better protection when bivalent vaccines between serotypes 2 and 3 were used. When rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 + HVT were used as vaccine against Md5 challenge, the protection was significantly enhanced (94%). This synergism between rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 and HVT indicates additional genes yet to be discovered in HVT may be responsible for the enhancement.

  3. Recombinant Adeno-Vaccine Expressing Enterovirus 71-Like Particles against Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-ɣ, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune

  4. Recombinant adeno-vaccine expressing enterovirus 71-like particles against hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Yu, Shu-Ling; Wu, Shang-Rung; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Huang, Chieh; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses (CV) are the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). There is not currently a vaccine available against HFMD, even though a newly developed formalin-inactivated EV71 (FI-EV71) vaccine has been tested in clinical trial and has shown efficacy against EV71. We have designed and genetically engineered a recombinant adenovirus Ad-EVVLP with the EV71 P1 and 3CD genes inserted into the E1/E3-deleted adenoviral genome. Ad-EVVLP were produced in HEK-293A cells. In addition to Ad-EVVLP particles, virus-like particles (VLPs) formed from the physical association of EV71 capsid proteins, VP0, VP1, and VP3 expressed from P1 gene products. They were digested by 3CD protease and confirmed to be produced by Ad-EVVLP-producing cells, as determined using transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Mouse immunogenicity studies showed that Ad-EVVLP-immunized antisera neutralized the EV71 B4 and C2 genotypes. Activation of VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells associated with Th1/Th2-balanced IFN-ɣ, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13 was induced; in contrast, FI-EV71 induced only Th2-mediated neutralizing antibody against EV71 and low VLP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The antiviral immunity against EV71 was clearly demonstrated in mice vaccinated with Ad-EVVLP in a hSCARB2 transgenic (hSCARB2-Tg) mouse challenge model. Ad-EVVLP-vaccinated mice were 100% protected and demonstrated reduced viral load in both the CNS and muscle tissues. Ad-EVVLP successfully induced anti-CVA16 immunities. Although antisera had no neutralizing activity against CVA16, the 3C-specific CD4+ and CD8+/IFN-γ T cells were identified, which could mediate protection against CVA16 challenge. FI-EV71 did not induce 3C-mediated immunity and had no efficacy against the CVA16 challenge. These results suggest that Ad-EVVLP can enhance neutralizing antibody and protective cellular immune responses to prevent EV71 infection and cellular immune

  5. Recombinant Expression of a Novel Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein with Human Tumor Cell Antiproliferative Activity from Nectria haematococca

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuying; Nie, Ying; Ding, Yang; Shi, Lijun; Tang, Xuanming

    2014-01-01

    To our best knowledge, all of the fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) have been successfully extracted and identified in Basidomycetes, with only the exception of FIP from ascomycete Nectria haematococca (FIP-nha) discovered through homology alignment most recently. In this work, a gene encoding FIP-nha was synthesized and recombinantly expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-MS analyses of recombinant FIP-nha (rFIP-nha) indicated that the gene was successfully expressed. The yield of the bioactive FIP-nha protein was 42.7 mg/L. In vitro assays of biological activity indicated that the rFIP-nha caused hemagglutination of human and rabbit red blood cells, significantly stimulated mouse spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and enhanced expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) released from mouse splenocytes, revealing a strong antitumor effect against HL60, HepG2 and MGC823. Through this work, we constructed a rapid and efficient method of FIP production, and suggested that FIP-nha is a valuable candidate for use in future medical care and pharmaceutical products. PMID:25272229

  6. Recombinant expression of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein with human tumor cell antiproliferative activity from Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuying; Nie, Ying; Ding, Yang; Shi, Lijun; Tang, Xuanming

    2014-09-30

    To our best knowledge, all of the fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) have been successfully extracted and identified in Basidomycetes, with only the exception of FIP from ascomycete Nectria haematococca (FIP-nha) discovered through homology alignment most recently. In this work, a gene encoding FIP-nha was synthesized and recombinantly expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-MS analyses of recombinant FIP-nha (rFIP-nha) indicated that the gene was successfully expressed. The yield of the bioactive FIP-nha protein was 42.7 mg/L. In vitro assays of biological activity indicated that the rFIP-nha caused hemagglutination of human and rabbit red blood cells, significantly stimulated mouse spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and enhanced expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) released from mouse splenocytes, revealing a strong antitumor effect against HL60, HepG2 and MGC823. Through this work, we constructed a rapid and efficient method of FIP production, and suggested that FIP-nha is a valuable candidate for use in future medical care and pharmaceutical products.

  7. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; An, Qi; Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  8. Expression and characterization of biologically active human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by insect cells infected with HGF-recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Yee, C J; DeFrances, M C; Bell, A; Bowen, W; Petersen, B; Michalopoulos, G K; Zarnegar, R

    1993-08-10

    A cDNA containing the entire coding sequence of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) [also known as scatter factor (SF)] was inserted into the genome of Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (baculovirus) adjacent to the polyhedrin promoter by homologous recombination. Insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda) infected with the recombinant virus secrete relatively high levels (3-8 mg/L) of biologically active HGF into the culture medium. The recombinant HGF induces pronounced morphological changes and scattering of primary cultures of rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes within 24 h after plating and stimulates DNA synthesis in these cells with the same magnitude as native HGF derived from human placenta or rabbit serum. The human recombinant HGF produced by the insect cells is N-glycosylated, binds to heparin like native HGF, and is recognized by polyclonal antiserums raised against human or rabbit HGF as assessed by immunoblot, ELISA, and immunoneutralization experiments. Metabolic radiolabeling with L-[35S]methionine (pulse-chase experiments) as well as Western blot analysis indicates that the recombinant HGF is synthesized and secreted by the infected insect cells as the unprocessed single-chain form (pro-HGF) when the cells are cultured in serum-free medium. However, when the infected insect cells are cultured in insect culture medium (Grace's medium) containing fetal bovine serum, the secreted HGF is present mainly in the mature heterodimeric form. Addition of serum to the baculovirus-expressed single-chain [125I]HGF in a cell-free system results in conversion to the heterodimeric two-chain form, and the activation is prevented by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF. Incubation of 125I-labeled pro-HGF with rat liver or spleen extracts resulted in conversion of pro-HGF to the heterodimeric two-chain form. A truncated form of HGF containing the N-terminal portion of HGF (kringles 1-3) was also produced in the same expression system. This deleted HGF, by

  9. Induction of robust immunity response in mice by dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an emerging swine disease that causes progressive weight loss, dyspnea, tachypnea, anemia, jaundice, and diarrhea in piglets. Although baculovirus is an enveloped virus that infects insects in nature, it has emerged as a vaccine vector, and we used it to develop a novel candidate vaccine for a preventive or therapeutic strategy to control PCV2 infections. Methods Immunoblotting analysis of recombinant baculovirus and immunofluorescent staining of baculovirus-infected cells were followed using anti-ORF2 monoclonal antibodies. The BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with this baculovirus. The titers of antibodies were mensurated with a Cap-protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization assay. The IFN-γ response in splenocytes harvested from immunized mice was measured by ELISA. Student's t-test was used to compare immune responses of different groups. Results In this study, we successfully constructed a dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2, which can display the PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein and VSV-G protein on the viral envelope and also expressing Cap protein on transduced mammalian cells, thereby functioning as both a subunit and a DNA vaccine. After infection, the Cap protein was expressed and displayed on the viral surface, as demonstrated with an indirect fluorescence assay and immunoblotting. The vaccination of mice with recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 successfully induced robust Cap-protein-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Conclusions Our findings collectively demonstrate that the recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 is a potential vaccine against PCV2 infections. PMID:24161107

  10. A New theraphosid Spider Toxin Causes Early Insect Cell Death by Necrosis When Expressed In Vitro during Recombinant Baculovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Morgado, Fabrício Da Silva; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Corzo, Gerardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3) has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1) the full-length sequence, (2) the pro-peptide and mature region, (3) only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4) insect or a (5) virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect cells. PMID

  11. Kinetics of the inhibition of neutrophil proteinases by recombinant elafin and pre-elafin (trappin-2) expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zani, Marie-Louise; Nobar, Shila M; Lacour, Sandrine A; Lemoine, Soazig; Boudier, Christian; Bieth, Joseph G; Moreau, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    Elafin and its precursor, trappin-2 or pre-elafin, are specific endogenous inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 but not of cathepsin G. Both inhibitors belong, together with secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, to the chelonianin family of canonical protease inhibitors of serine proteases. A cDNA coding either elafin or its precursor, trappin-2, was fused in frame with yeast alpha-factor cDNA and expressed in the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. Full-length elafin or full-length trappin-2 were secreted into the culture medium with high yield, indicating correct processing of the fusion proteins by the yeast KEX2 signal peptidase. Both recombinant inhibitors were purified to homogeneity from concentrated culture medium by one-step cationic exchange chromatography and characterized by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, Western blot and kinetic studies. Both recombinant elafin and trappin-2 were found to be fast-acting inhibitors of pancreatic elastase, neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 with k(ass) values of 2-4 x 10(6) m(-1).s(-1), while dissociation rate constants k(diss) were found to be in the 10(-4) s(-1) range, indicating low reversibility of the complexes. The equilibrium dissociation constant K(i) for the interaction of both recombinant inhibitors with their target enzymes was either directly measured for pancreatic elastase or calculated from k(ass) and k(diss) values for neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3. K(i) values were found to be in the 10(-10) molar range and virtually identical for both inhibitors. Based on the kinetic parameters determined here, it may be concluded that both recombinant elafin and trappin-2 may act as potent anti-inflammatory molecules and may be of therapeutic potential in the treatment of various inflammatory lung diseases.

  12. A new theraphosid spider toxin causes early insect cell death by necrosis when expressed in vitro during recombinant baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Morgado, Fabrício Da Silva; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Corzo, Gerardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3) has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1) the full-length sequence, (2) the pro-peptide and mature region, (3) only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4) insect or a (5) virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect cells. PMID

  13. Production of pharmaceutical-grade recombinant aprotinin and a monoclonal antibody product using plant-based transient expression systems.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Gregory P; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; Palmer, Kenneth E; Hiatt, Ernie; Hume, Steve; Phelps, Jim; Long, Lori; Bohorova, Natasha; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin; Zeitlin, Larry; Garger, Stephen J; White, Earl; Bai, Yun; Haydon, Hugh; Bratcher, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Plants have been proposed as an attractive alternative for pharmaceutical protein production to current mammalian or microbial cell-based systems. Eukaryotic protein processing coupled with reduced production costs and low risk for mammalian pathogen contamination and other impurities have led many to predict that agricultural systems may offer the next wave for pharmaceutical product production. However, for this to become a reality, the quality of products produced at a relevant scale must equal or exceed the predetermined release criteria of identity, purity, potency and safety as required by pharmaceutical regulatory agencies. In this article, the ability of transient plant virus expression systems to produce a wide range of products at high purity and activity is reviewed. The production of different recombinant proteins is described along with comparisons with established standards, including high purity, specific activity and promising preclinical outcomes. Adaptation of transient plant virus systems to large-scale manufacturing formats required development of virus particle and Agrobacterium inoculation methods. One transient plant system case study illustrates the properties of greenhouse and field-produced recombinant aprotinin compared with an US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmaceutical product and found them to be highly comparable in all properties evaluated. A second transient plant system case study demonstrates a fully functional monoclonal antibody conforming to release specifications. In conclusion, the production capacity of large quantities of recombinant protein offered by transient plant expression systems, coupled with robust downstream purification approaches, offers a promising solution to recombinant protein production that compares favourably to cell-based systems in scale, cost and quality.

  14. Chloroplast-targeted expression of recombinant crystal-protein gene in cotton: an unconventional combat with resistant pests.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Sarfraz; Mohamed, Bahaeldeen Babiker; Shehzad, Kamran; Jamal, Adil; Shahid, Muhammad Naveed; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2013-07-10

    Plants transformed with single Bt gene are liable to develop insect resistance and this has already been reported in a number of studies carried out around the world where Bt cotton was cultivated on commercial scale. Later, it was envisaged to transform plants with more than one Bt genes in order to combat with resistant larvae. This approach seems valid as various Bt genes possess different binding domains which could delay the likely hazards of insect resistance against a particular Bt toxin. But it is difficult under field conditions to develop homozygous plants expressing all Bt genes equally after many generations without undergoing recombination effects. A number of researches claiming to transform plants from three to seven transgenes in a single plant were reported during the last decade but none has yet applied for patent of homozygous transgenic lines. A better strategy might be to use hybrid-Bt gene(s) modified for improved lectin-binding domains to boost Bt receptor sites in insect midgut. These recombinant-Bt gene(s) would express different lectin domains in a single polypeptide and it is relatively easy to develop homozygous transgenic lines under field conditions. Enhanced chloroplast-localized expression of hybrid-Bt gene would leave no room for insects to develop resistance. We devised and successfully applied this strategy in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and data up to T3 generation showed that our transgenic cotton plants were displaying enhanced chloroplast-targeted Cry1Ac-RB expression. Laboratory and field bioassays gave promising results against American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), pink bollworm (Pictinophora scutigera) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) that otherwise, were reported to have evolved resistance against Cry1Ac toxin. Elevated levels of hybrid-Bt toxin were confirmed by ELISA of chloroplast-enriched protein samples extracted from leaves of transgenic cotton lines. While, localization of recombinant Cry1Ac-RB protein in

  15. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  16. Expression of secreted platelet-derived growth factor-B by recombinant nonreplicating and noncytopathic vaccina virus.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, A; Peplinski, G R; Tsung, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a noncytopathic vector for transient delivery of biologically active platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to wounds. BACKGROUND: Topical application of the protein PDGF-B has improved wound healing in experimental studies of healing-impaired wounds. However, use of PDGF-B has been limited by availability of recombinant protein, short half-life, and inability to reliably apply to the wounded area. One approach to supply local PDGF-B is through transient gene transfer and expression. METHODS: Treatment of vaccinia virus with psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet irradiation makes it noncytopathic and nonreplicative. The authors inserted various transgenes encoding different forms of PDGF into recombinant vaccinia virus at the hemaglutinin locus by homologous recombination. Because the PDGF-B expressed from full length cDNA is not secreted because of the membrane retention sequence at the C-terminal end of the polypeptide, the authors inserted a 3'-truncated form of human PDGF-B cDNA in recombinant vaccinia virus to achieve secretion. To avoid interference in bioassays by a virally encoded epidermal growth factor homologue called vaccinia growth factor (VGF) in wild type vaccinia virus (CR-19), we used a VGF-negative strain to express PDGF-B (vSC20PDGF-B). Biologic activity of PDGF was tested by measuring proliferation of a 3T3 fibroblast cell line. RESULTS: Supernatant from CR-19-infected cells (VGF+) and from truncated vSC20PDGF infected cells caused mild and marked proliferation of 3T3 cells, respectively, whereas supernatant from full-length vSC20PDGF virally infected cells did not. Furthermore, in vitro infection of a confluent 3T3 monolayer with noncytopathic and nonreplicative vaccinia encoding either VGF or truncated PDGF also caused similar proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide important preliminary evidence for the ability to treat nonhealing wounds with nonreplicating and noncytopathic

  17. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Host Cell Engineering to Increase Sialylation of Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins by Modulating Sialyltransferase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Nan; Mascarenhas, Joaquina; Sealover, Natalie R.; George, Henry J.; Brooks, Jeanne; Kayser, Kevin J.; Gau, Brian; Yasa, Isil; Azadi, Parastoo; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycans of human proteins possess both α2,6- and α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA). Recombinant glycoproteins produced in Chinese hamster overy (CHO) only have α2,3-linkage due to the absence of α2,6-sialyltransferase (St6gal1) expression. The Chinese hamster ST6GAL1 was successfully overexpressed using a plasmid expression vector in three recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing CHO cell lines. The stably transfected cell lines were enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression using FITC-Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin that preferentially binds α2,6-linked SA. The presence of α2,6-linked SA was confirmed using a novel LTQ Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LTQ MS) method including MSn fragmentation in the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27. Furthermore, the total SA (mol/mol) in IgG produced by the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27 increased by 2-fold compared to the control. For host cell engineering, the CHOZN® GS host cell line was transfected and enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression. Single-cell clones were derived from the enriched population and selected based on FITC-SNA staining and St6gal1 expression. Two clones (“ST6GAL1 OE Clone 31 and 32”) were confirmed for the presence of α2,6-linked SA in total host cell protein extracts. ST6GAL1 OE Clone 32 was subsequently used to express SAFC human IgG1. The recombinant IgG expressed in this host cell line was confirmed to have α2,6-linked SA and increased total SA content. In conclusion, overexpression of St6gal1 is sufficient to produce recombinant proteins with increased sialylation and more human-like glycoprofiles without combinatorial engineering of other sialylation pathway genes. This work represents our ongoing effort of glycoengineering in CHO host cell lines for the development of “bio-better” protein therapeutics and cell culture vaccine production. PMID:25641927

  18. S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that overexposing the IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) S2 to the chicken immune system by means of a vectored vaccine, followed by boost with whole virus, protects chickens against IBV showing dissimilar S1. We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (...

  19. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  20. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  1. Co-expression of ferrochelatase allows for complete heme incorporation into recombinant proteins produced in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Kabir, Mariam; Airola, Michael V.; Patel, Bhumit A.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Rousseau, Dennis L.; Crane, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Over-expression of heme binding proteins in E. coli often results in sub-optimal heme incorporation and the amount of heme-bound protein produced usually varies with the protein of interest. Complete heme incorporation is important for biochemical characterization, spectroscopy, structural studies, and for the production of homogeneous commercial proteins with high activity. We have determined that recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli often contain less than a full complement of heme because they rather are partially incorporated with free-base porphyrin. Porphyrin-incorporated proteins have similar spectral characteristics as the desired heme-loaded targets, and thus are difficult to detect, even in purified samples. We present a straightforward and inexpensive solution to this problem that involves the co-expression of native ferrochelatase with the protein of interest. The method is shown to be effective for proteins that contain either Cys- or His- ligated hemes. PMID:20303407

  2. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing GP5 and M protein of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Reginaldo G; Dellagostin, Odir A; Barletta, Raúl G; Doster, Allan R; Nelson, Eric; Osorio, Fernando A

    2002-11-22

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG was used to express a truncated form of GP5 (lacking the first 30 NH(2)-terminal residues) and M protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The PRRSV proteins were expressed in BCG under control of the mycobacterial hsp60 gene promoter either in the mycobacterial cytoplasm (BCGGP5cyt and BCGMcyt) or as MT19-fusion proteins on the mycobacterial surface (BCGGP5surf and BCGMsurf). Mice inoculated with BCGGP5surf and BCGMsurf developed antibodies against the viral proteins at 30 days post-inoculation (dpi) as detected by ELISA and Western blot. By 60 dpi, the animals developed titer of neutralizing antibodies of 8. A PRRSV-specific gamma interferon response was also detected in splenocytes of recombinant BCG-inoculated mice at 60 and 90 dpi. These results indicate that BCG was able to express antigens of PRRSV and elicit an immune response against the viral proteins in mice.

  3. High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Natalie J.; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive

  4. Highly efficient immunodiagnosis of Large cardamom chirke virus using the polyclonal antiserum against Escherichia coli expressed recombinant coat protein.

    PubMed

    Vijayanandraj, S; Yogita, M; Das, Amrita; Ghosh, Amalendu; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-09-01

    Large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV), genus Macluravirus, family Potyviridae is an important constrain in large cardamom production in India. Purification of LCCV from large cardamom tissues is difficult and therefore immunodiagnostic reagents are not available. In the present study, we have successfully expressed coat protein (CP) gene of LCCV in Escherichia coli. The purification of expressed protein by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was inefficient due to precipitation of protein during renaturation. We have optimized a simple, inexpensive and efficient method for purification of the expressed CP through gel extraction with 5 % SDS followed by renaturation in Milli-Q water, which resulted in high yield (4.7 mg/ml) and good quality of the protein. A higher titer (1:256,000) polyclonal antibody (PAb) to the recombinant CP was produced, which strongly recognized LCCV in crude leaf extract and showed minimal background reaction with the healthy leaf extract in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA). The sensitivities of the ELISA and DIBA were 5 and 0.1 ng of expressed protein, respectively. Both the ELISA and DIBA were validated with 100 % accuracy in detecting LCCV in field samples. The PAb differentiated Cardamom mosaic virus, another close relative of LCCV. Our study is first to report highly efficient immunodiagnosis with PAb to E. coli expressed recombinant CP of a virus under the genus Macluravirus. The antigen expression construct and PAb developed in the present study will be useful in production of virus free planting materials of large cardamom. PMID:24426280

  5. High throughput quantitative expression screening and purification applied to recombinant disulfide-rich venom proteins produced in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Saez, Natalie J; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2014-07-30

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive

  6. Highly efficient immunodiagnosis of Large cardamom chirke virus using the polyclonal antiserum against Escherichia coli expressed recombinant coat protein.

    PubMed

    Vijayanandraj, S; Yogita, M; Das, Amrita; Ghosh, Amalendu; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-09-01

    Large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV), genus Macluravirus, family Potyviridae is an important constrain in large cardamom production in India. Purification of LCCV from large cardamom tissues is difficult and therefore immunodiagnostic reagents are not available. In the present study, we have successfully expressed coat protein (CP) gene of LCCV in Escherichia coli. The purification of expressed protein by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was inefficient due to precipitation of protein during renaturation. We have optimized a simple, inexpensive and efficient method for purification of the expressed CP through gel extraction with 5 % SDS followed by renaturation in Milli-Q water, which resulted in high yield (4.7 mg/ml) and good quality of the protein. A higher titer (1:256,000) polyclonal antibody (PAb) to the recombinant CP was produced, which strongly recognized LCCV in crude leaf extract and showed minimal background reaction with the healthy leaf extract in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA). The sensitivities of the ELISA and DIBA were 5 and 0.1 ng of expressed protein, respectively. Both the ELISA and DIBA were validated with 100 % accuracy in detecting LCCV in field samples. The PAb differentiated Cardamom mosaic virus, another close relative of LCCV. Our study is first to report highly efficient immunodiagnosis with PAb to E. coli expressed recombinant CP of a virus under the genus Macluravirus. The antigen expression construct and PAb developed in the present study will be useful in production of virus free planting materials of large cardamom.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  8. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein: mRNA sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Amann, V L; Lerch, R A; Anderson, K; Wertz, G W

    1992-04-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the nucleocapsid (N) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus, strain 391-2, was determined. Recombinant vectors containing a cDNA of the complete N gene were constructed, and expression of the N protein in eukaryotic cells was demonstrated using two different vector systems. The BRS virus N mRNA was 1197 nucleotides in length, exclusive of poly(A), and had a single major open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 391 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 42.6K. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the BRS virus N gene were compared to those of human respiratory syncytial (HRS) virus strains A2 and 18537, and to BRS virus strain A51908. The level of nucleic acid identity between the N mRNA of BRS virus 391-2 and both HRS virus subtypes was 80 to 81%, whereas the identity between the two BRS virus strains was 97%. A 93 to 94% level of identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of the N protein of BRS virus 391-2 and the corresponding sequences of the two HRS virus strains. The two BRS virus N proteins differed in amino acid sequence at only three positions. Recombinant BRS virus N protein was expressed using two different vector systems: in cells from a plasmid using the vaccinia virus/T7 polymerase expression system or from a recombinant vaccinia virus. N proteins synthesized by the two vector systems migrated with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of authentic BRS virus N protein, and were precipitated by anti-BRS virus antibodies.

  9. Efficiency of Membrane Protein Expression Following Infection with Recombinant Adenovirus of Polarized Non-Transformed Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia; Blenkinsop, Timothy A; Stern, Jeffrey H; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of exogenous proteins facilitates studies of molecular mechanisms and utility for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture. Here, we compared expression of the membrane protein β5 integrin-GFP (β5-GFP) in two recently established models of differentiated human RPE, adult RPE stem cell-derived RPE and primary fetal RPE, upon infection with recombinant adenovirus or transfection with DNA in liposomes. We varied viral titer and duration of virus incubation and examined β5-GFP and the tight junction marker ZO-1 in manipulated cells by confocal microscopy. Fewer than 5 % of cells expressed β5-GFP after liposome-mediated transfection. The percentage of cells with detectable β5-GFP exceeded 90 % after adenovirus infection for as little as 1 h. Decreasing virus titer two-fold did not alter the fraction of cells expressing β5-GFP but increased variability of β5-GFP level among cells. In cells with low expression levels, β5-GFP localized mostly to the apical plasma membrane like endogenous αvβ5 integrin. In cells with high expression levels, β5-GFP localized to the cytoplasm in addition to the apical surface suggesting accumulation in trafficking compartments. Altogether, adenovirus delivery yields efficient exogenous membrane protein expression of correct polarity in differentiated human RPE cells in culture. PMID:26427482

  10. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary biophysical and structural studies of C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from human galectin-4.

    PubMed

    Rustiguel, Joane K; Kumagai, Patricia S; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Nonato, Maria Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Galectin-4 (Gal4), a tandem-repeat type galectin, is expressed in healthy epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. Altered levels of Gal4 expression are associated with different types of cancer, suggesting its usage as a diagnostic marker as well as target for drug development. The functional data available for this class of proteins suggest that the wide spectrum of cellular activities reported for Gal4 relies on distinct glycan specificity and structural characteristics of its two carbohydrate recognition domains. In the present work, two independent constructs for recombinant expression of the C-terminal domain of human galectin-4 (hGal4-CRD2) were developed. His6-tagged and untagged recombinant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. Correct folding and activity of hGal4-CRD2 were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. Diffraction quality crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion sitting drop setup and the crystal structure of CRD2 was solved by molecular replacement techniques at 1.78 Å resolution. Our work describes the development of important experimental tools that will allow further studies in order to correlate structure and binding properties of hGal4-CRD2 and human galectin-4 functional activities. PMID:26432949

  11. Recombinant VP1 protein of duck hepatitis virus 1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its immunogenicity in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Li, X K; Wu, T C; Wang, Y; Zhang, C J; Cheng, X C; Chen, P Y

    2014-01-01

    The VP1 gene of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) strain VJ09 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR from the liver of a duckling with clinical symptoms of viral hepatitis. The resulting VP1 cDNA was 720 bp in length and encoded a 240-amino-acid protein. In VP1 gene-based phylogenetic analysis, the VJ09 strain grouped with DHV-1 genotype C. The VP1 gene was inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The expressed VP1 protein was purified and identified by western blot analysis. To evaluate the recombinant VP1's immunogenic potential in ducklings, the antibodies raised in the immunized ducklings were titrated by ELISA, and lymphocyte proliferation and virus neutralization assays were performed. The results show that the recombinant VP1 protein induced a significant immune response in ducklings and this could be a candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against DHV-1 genotype C.

  12. Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain χ4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium χ4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain χ4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (p<0.01). After oral administration, S. typhimurium χ4558 was first colonized mainly in the Peyer's patches and then predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens in the vaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium χ4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium.

  13. Expression of biologically recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Guan, Lili; Guo, Yongxin; Du, Linna; Wang, Fawei; Wang, Yanfang; Zhen, Lu; Wang, Qingman; Zou, Deyi; Chen, Wei; Yu, Lei; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2015-07-15

    The potential of oleosins to act as carriers for recombinant foreign proteins in plant cells has been established. Using the oleosin fusion technology, the protein can be targeted to oil bodies in oilseeds by fusing it to the N- or C-terminus of oleosin. In this study, aFGF was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds via oleosin fusion technology. A plant-preferred aFGF gene was synthesized by optimizing codon usage and was fused to the C-terminus of the A. thaliana 18.5kDa oleosin gene. The fusion gene was driven by the phaseolin promoter to confer seed-specific expression of the human acidic fibroblast growth factor in A. thaliana. The T-DNA region of the recombinant plasmid pKO-aFGF was introduced into the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. The aFGF protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The biological activity showed that oil bodies fused to aFGF stimulated NIH/3T3 cell proliferation activity.

  14. A recombinant measles vaccine virus expressing wild-type glycoproteins: consequences for viral spread and cell tropism.

    PubMed

    Johnston, I C; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, J; Schneider-Schaulies, S

    1999-08-01

    Wild-type, lymphotropic strains of measles virus (MV) and tissue culture-adapted MV vaccine strains possess different cell tropisms. This observation has led to attempts to identify the viral receptors and to characterize the functions of the MV glycoproteins. We have functionally analyzed the interactions of MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of vaccine (Edmonston) and wild-type (WTF) strains in different combinations in transfected cells. Cell-cell fusion occurs when both Edmonston F and H proteins are expressed in HeLa or Vero cells. The expression of WTF glycoproteins in HeLa cells did not result in syncytia, yet they fused efficiently with cells of lymphocytic origin. To further investigate the role of the MV glycoproteins in virus cell entry and also the role of other viral proteins in cell tropism, we generated recombinant vaccine MVs containing one or both glycoproteins from WTF. These viruses were viable and grew similarly in lymphocytic cells. Recombinant viruses expressing the WTFH protein showed a restricted spread in HeLa cells but spread efficiently in Vero cells. Parental WTF remained restricted in both cell types. Therefore, not only differential receptor usage but also other cell-specific factors are important in determining MV cell tropism. PMID:10400788

  15. Functional expression of a fragment of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase by means of the baculovirus expression vector system, and kinetic investigation of the purified recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Knecht, W; Bergjohann, U; Gonski, S; Kirschbaum, B; Löffler, M

    1996-08-15

    Human mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (the fourth enzyme of pyrimidine de novo synthesis) has been overproduced by means of a recombinant baculovirus that contained the human cDNA fragment for this protein. After virus infection and protein expression in Trichoplusia ni cells (BTI-Tn-5B1-4), the subcellular distribution of the recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was determined by two distinct enzyme-activity assays and by Western blot analysis with anti-(dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) Ig. The targeting of the recombinant protein to the mitochondria of the insect cells was verified. The activity of the recombinant enzyme in the mitochondria of infected cells was about 740-fold above the level of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in human liver mitochondria. In a three-step procedure, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was purified to a specific activity of greater than 50 U/mg. Size-exclusion chromatography showed a molecular mass of 42 kDa and confirmed the existence of the fully active enzyme as a monomeric species. Fluorimetric cofactor analysis revealed the presence of FMN in recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. By kinetics analysis, Km values for dihydroorotate and ubiquinone-50 were found to be 4 microM and 9.9 microM, respectively, while Km values for dihydroorotate and decylubiquinone were 9.4 microM and 13.7 microM, respectively. The applied expression system will allow preparation of large quantities of the enzyme for structure and function studies. Purified recombinant human dihytdroorotate dehydrogenase was tested for its sensitivity to a reported inhibitor A77 1726 (2-hydroxyethyliden-cyanoacetic acid 4-trifluoromethyl anilide), which is the active metabolite of the isoxazole derivative leflunomide [5-methyl-N-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-4-isoxazole carboximide]. An IC50 value of 1 microM was determined for A77 1726. Detailed kinetics experiments revealed uncompetitive inhibition with respect to dihydroorotate (Kiu = 0.94 microM) and non

  16. Hepatitis B virus large surface protein is not secreted but is immunogenic when selectively expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K C; Smith, G L; Moss, B

    1986-01-01

    The envelope region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome contains an open reading frame that begins upstream of the major surface protein gene. The two minor proteins that are initiated within this pre-s segment are immunogenic and may be involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes. We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus that contains the predicted coding segment for the large surface protein (LS) under control of a vaccinia virus that contains the predicted coding segment for the large surface protein (LS) under control of a vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized HBV polypeptides of 39 and 42 kilodaltons, corresponding to the unglycosylated and glycosylated forms of LS, respectively. The presence of pre-s epitopes in the 39- and 42-kilodalton polypeptides was demonstrated by binding of antibody prepared against a synthetic peptide. Synthesis of the 42-kilodalton species was specifically inhibited by tunicamycin, suggesting that it is N-glycosylated. Despite apparent glycosylation, LS was not secreted into the medium of infected cells. Nevertheless, rabbits vaccinated with the purified recombinant virus made antibodies that recognized s and pre-s epitopes. Antibody to the NH2 terminus of LS appeared before or simultaneously with antibody that bound to the major surface protein. The additional immunogenicity provided by expression of LS may be advantageous for the development of an HBV vaccine. Images PMID:2430108

  17. Immune responses induced by recombinant Bacillus subtilis expressing the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mou, Chunxiao; Zhu, Liqi; Xing, Xianping; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets, results in enormous economic loss in swine-producing areas of the world. To develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of TGE, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B. subtilis CotGSG) displaying the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) protein and discussed its immune function to intestinal submucosal dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that the recombinant B. subtilis had the ability to recruit more DCs to sample B. subtilis CotGSG, migrate to MLNs, and induce immune responses. Immunized piglets with B. subtilis CotGSG could significantly elevate the specific SIgA titers in feces, IgG titers and neutralizing antibodies in serum. Collectively, our results suggested that recombinant B. subtilis CotGSG expressing the TGEV S protein could effectively induce immune responses via DCs, and provided a perspective on potential novel strategy and approach that may be applicable to the development of the next generation of TGEV vaccines. PMID:26988122

  18. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Expression and Evaluation of Recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi Merozoite Surface Protein-3 (MSP-3) for Detection of Human Malaria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health threat in many parts of the globe and causes high mortality and morbidity with 214 million cases of malaria occurring globally in 2015. Recent studies have outlined potential diagnostic markers and vaccine candidates one of which is the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3. In this study, novel recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi MSP-3 was cloned, expressed and purified in an Escherichia coli system. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity. The recombinant pkMSP-3 protein reacted with sera from patients with P. knowlesi infection in both Western blot (61%) and ELISA (100%). Specificity-wise, pkMSP-3 did not react with healthy donor sera in either assay and only reacted with a few non-malarial parasitic patient sera in the ELISA assay (3 of 49). In conclusion, sensitivity and specificity of pkMSP-3 was found to be high in the ELISA and Western Blot assay and thus utilising both assays in tandem would provide the best sero-diagnostic result for P. knowlesi infection. PMID:27391270

  20. Recombinant expression and purification of a MAP30-cell penetrating peptide fusion protein with higher anti-tumor bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiang; Yang, Xu-Zhong; Fu, Long-Yun; Lu, Yv-Ting; Lu, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Fu-Jun

    2015-07-01

    MAP30 (Momordica Antiviral Protein 30 Kd), a single-stranded type-I ribosome inactivating protein, possesses versatile biological activities including anti-tumor abilities. However, the low efficiency penetrating into tumor cells hampers the tumoricidal effect of MAP30. This paper describes MAP30 fused with a human-derived cell penetrating peptide HBD which overcome the low uptake efficiency by tumor cells and exhibits higher anti-tumor bioactivity. MAP30 gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of Momordica charantia and the recombinant plasmid pET28b-MAP30-HBD was established and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MAP30-HBD protein (rMAP30-HBD) was expressed in a soluble form after being induced by 0.5mM IPTG for 14h at 15°C. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The rMAP30-HBD protein not only has topological inactivation and protein translation inhibition activity but also showed significant improvements in cytotoxic activity compared to that of the rMAP30 protein without HBD in the tested tumor cell lines, and induced higher apoptosis rates in HeLa cells analyzed by Annexin V-FITC with FACS. This paper demonstrated a new method for improving MAP30 protein anti-tumor activity and might have potential applications in cancer therapy area.

  1. Expression and Evaluation of Recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi Merozoite Surface Protein-3 (MSP-3) for Detection of Human Malaria.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Jeremy Ryan; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health threat in many parts of the globe and causes high mortality and morbidity with 214 million cases of malaria occurring globally in 2015. Recent studies have outlined potential diagnostic markers and vaccine candidates one of which is the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3. In this study, novel recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi MSP-3 was cloned, expressed and purified in an Escherichia coli system. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity. The recombinant pkMSP-3 protein reacted with sera from patients with P. knowlesi infection in both Western blot (61%) and ELISA (100%). Specificity-wise, pkMSP-3 did not react with healthy donor sera in either assay and only reacted with a few non-malarial parasitic patient sera in the ELISA assay (3 of 49). In conclusion, sensitivity and specificity of pkMSP-3 was found to be high in the ELISA and Western Blot assay and thus utilising both assays in tandem would provide the best sero-diagnostic result for P. knowlesi infection. PMID:27391270

  2. High-level expression of recombinant 3AB1 non-structural protein from FMDV in insect larvae.

    PubMed

    López, María Gabriela; Peralta, Andrea; Berinstein, Analía; Fondevila, Norberto; Carrillo, Elisa; Taboga, Oscar

    2005-03-01

    For its potential usefulness in diagnosis, the non-structural protein 3AB1 from foot-and-mouth disease virus was expressed as a soluble protein by using Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a vector. The 3AB1 coding sequence was introduced into AcNPV genome via pBAcPAK3AB1 transfer vector to originate Ac3AB1 recombinant baculovirus of phenotype occ-. Rachiplusia nu larvae were injected with supernatants of Sf9 cells infected with Ac3AB1 and 5 days post-infection total protein extracts were obtained. An intense band of approximately 21.5 kDa was observed when total larvae extracts were SDS-PAGE resolved and the recombinant protein detected by an FMDV-infected guinea pig serum. ELISA tests and Western blot experiments were carried out using sera both from FMDV-infected cattle and from vaccinated animals. The recombinant protein was only recognized by sera from infected animals, suggesting that this method of production in insect larvae could be applied to an efficient mass production of proteins of diagnostic interest. PMID:15664073

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with a small metal-binding protein from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is still the preferred organism for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The use of fusion proteins has helped considerably in enhancing the solubility of heterologous proteins and their purification with affinity chromatography. Here, the use of a small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea is described as a new fusion protein for protein expression and purification in E. coli. Fluorescent proteins tagged at the N-terminal with SmbP showed high levels of solubility, compared with those of maltose-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase, and low formation of inclusion bodies. Using commercially available IMAC resins charged with Ni(II), highly pure recombinant proteins were obtained after just one chromatography step. Proteins may be purified from the periplasm of E. coli if SmbP contains the signal sequence at the N-terminal. After removal of the SmbP tag from the protein of interest, high-yields are obtained since SmbP is a protein of just 9.9 kDa. The results here obtained suggest that SmbP is a good alternative as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  4. Recombinant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein expressed in baculovirus self-assembles into viruslike particles and induces protection.

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, S; Vautherot, J F; Madelaine, M F; Le Gall, G; Rasschaert, D

    1994-01-01

    VP60, the unique component of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid, was expressed in the baculovirus system. The recombinant VP60, released in the supernatant of infected insect cells, assembled without the need of any other viral component to form viruslike particles (VLPs), structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virion. Intramuscular vaccination of rabbits with the VLPs conferred complete protection in 15 days; this protection was found to be effective from the fifth day after VLP injection and was accompanied by a strong humoral response. Images PMID:8084017

  5. A recombinant vaccine expressing a mammalian Mycobacterium sp. antigen is immunostimulatory but not protective in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Pasnik, David J; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Smith, Stephen A; Schurig, Gerhardt G

    2003-09-15

    A recombinant vaccine was constructed for piscine mycobacteriosis utilizing a Brucella abortus strain RB51 vector expressing a mammalian Mycobacterium sp. 85A antigen. Juvenile striped bass were inoculated with the resulting construct at doses equivalent to 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9), and 10(10) colony-forming units/fish. Blood and tissue samples from these fish demonstrated significant specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses towards the 85A antigen in a dose-dependent manner. However, survival studies determined that inoculated fish failed to demonstrate cross-protective responses after live Mycobacterium marinum challenge 70 days post-inoculation.

  6. Recombinant expression and antigenic properties of a 32-kilodalton extracellular alkaline protease, representing a possible virulence factor from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Menz, G; Blaser, K; Crameri, R

    1994-01-01

    A 32-kDa nonglycosylated alkaline protease (EC 3.4.1.14) with elastolytic activity, secreted by the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 42202, is suggested to be a virulence factor of this fungus. The enzyme is a serine protease of the subtilisin family, and its cDNA nucleotide sequence has recently been reported. We have cloned the cDNA encoding the mature protease into a high-level Escherichia coli expression plasmid and produced the recombinant protease as a fusion protein with a six-adjacent-histidine affinity tag at the carboxy terminus. Subsequently, the recombinant protease was purified to homogeneity, with affinity chromatography yielding 30 to 40 mg of recombinant protease per liter of E. coli culture. Refolded recombinant protease, in comparison with native protease, demonstrated weak enzymatic activity but similar immunochemical characteristics as analyzed by antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), competition ELISA, and immunoblotting assays. To assess the allergenic potential of the protease, sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sera from healthy control individuals were analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis did not have protease-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and, remarkably, did not show significantly elevated protease-specific IgG antibody levels compared with those in sera from healthy control individuals. This suggests that the alkaline protease from A. fumigatus does not elicit IgE antibodies and has weak immunogenicity, a property which may explain fungus persistence in allergic individuals. Images PMID:8112866

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant antibody formats and antibody fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Siegemund, Martin; Richter, Fabian; Seifert, Oliver; Unverdorben, Felix; Kontermann, Roland E

    2014-01-01

    In the laboratory-scale production of antibody fragments or antibody fusion proteins, it is often difficult to keep track on the most suitable affinity tags for protein purification from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic host systems. Here, we describe how such recombinant proteins derived from Escherichia coli lysates as well as HEK293 cell culture supernatants are purified by IMAC and by different affinity chromatography methods based on fusions to FLAG-tag, Strep-tag, and Fc domains. PMID:24515473

  8. Molecular characterization, recombinant expression and bioactivity analysis of the interleukin-1 beta from the yellowfin sea bream, Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shigui; Zhang, Dianchang; Li, Jianzhu; Liu, Zhenxing

    2008-03-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is an important inflammatory mediator and has also the potential as an immunoadjuvant. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of yellowfin sea bream IL-1 beta (sbIL-1 beta) cDNA and gene. The sbIL-1 beta cDNA contains a 121-bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a single open reading frame (ORF) of 762bp that translated into a 253 amino acid protein, a 342-bp 3' UTR with six cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA), and a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) at 13 nucleotides upstream of the poly (A) tail. The organization of the genomic IL-1 beta appears to be five exons and four introns, the intron and exon boundaries all follow the GT-AG consensus. The analysis of the expression pattern showed that sbIL-1 beta was expressed weakly in the kidney, spleen, gill and intestine, but not in the liver, heart and muscle. After injection with 150 microg LPS, the expression analysis in vivo showed that sbIL-1 beta was induced in the kidney and spleen and expression level was maximal after 4h. The predicted 253 amino acid sequence shares 23.5-88.5% identity and 43.9-93.3% similarity to known IL-1 beta. Thus, IL-1 beta is very conserved in fish of the same family. No interleukin-converting enzyme (ICE) cut site is found in sbIL-1 beta, but the alignment of the amino acid sequence with other species showed a possible cut site between Tyr87 and Thr88 that would give rise to a 166-amino-acid mature peptide. The putative mature peptide was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant sbIL-1 beta could induce the transcription of sbIL-1 beta in a dose-dependent manner and the expression levels were almost equal in the samples treated with 50 ng/ml recombinant sbIL-1 beta and 5 microg/ml LPS, which showed recombinant sbIL-1 beta was biologically active and had the potential as an immunoadjuvant.

  9. Site-specific recombination-based genetic system for reporting transient or low-level gene expression.

    PubMed

    Casavant, N Carol; Beattie, Gwyn A; Phillips, Gregory J; Halverson, Larry J

    2002-07-01

    We report here the construction, characterization, and application of a plasmid-based genetic system that reports the expression of a target promoter by effecting an irreversible, heritable change in a bacterial cell. This system confers strong repression of the reporter gene gfp in the absence of target promoter expression and utilizes the site-specific recombination machinery of bacteriophage P22 to trigger high-level reporter gene expression in the original cell and its progeny after target gene induction. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this genetic system by tailoring it to indicate the availability of arabinose to the biological control agent Enterobacter cloacae JL1157 in culture and in the barley rhizosphere. The presence of bioavailable arabinose triggered the production of P22 excisionase and integrase from the reporter plasmid pAraLHB in JL1157, and this led to excision of the cI repressor gene, which is flanked by att sites, and the subsequent irreversible expression of gfp in the original cell and in its progeny. In culture, nearly 100% of an E. cloacae JL1157(pAraLHB) population expressed gfp after exposure to 6.5 to 65 microM arabinose for 3 h. We used this biosensor to demonstrate that arabinose was released from the seeds of several legumes and grass species during germination and from roots of barley seedlings grown hydroponically or in soil. When introduced into microcosms containing barley, the biosensor permitted the localization of arabinose along the roots. Arabinose was present near the root-seed junction and on the seminal roots but was not detected at the root tips. This recombination-based reporter system should be useful for monitoring bacterial exposure to transient or low levels of specific molecules directly in the environment.

  10. Simulated microgravity affects semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase expression in recombinant Escherichia coli by HPLC-ESI-QQQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqian; Lai, Chengjun; Duan, Jinyan; Guan, Ningxin; Ullah, Kaleem; Deng, Yulin

    2012-05-01

    Simulated microgravity has been reported to affect the gene, protein expression, and its function in the cells. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO; E.C.1.4.3.6.) is widely distributed in vascular cells, smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes. It is noteworthy whether the expression of SSAO is affected under simulated microgravity or not. In this study, an SSAO-transformed Escherichia coli BL21 was constructed firstly. Then, a sensitive, selective, and accurate method based on high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization triple quadrupole (HPLC-ESI-QQQ) was developed to determine the amount of SSAO in the E. coli BL21. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 5.0 and 10 fmol, respectively. Finally, SSAO expression in the recombinant E. coli BL21 was evaluated with various gravity and temperature conditions by HPLC-ESI-QQQ analysis. It is interesting that the tendency in the alteration of SSAO under simulated microgravity showed temperature difference. At 18 °C, the amount of SSAO in the inclusion bodies and soluble fractions under the simulated microgravity increased by 83% and 116%, respectively, compared with normal gravity. However, the decrease by 38% and 49% in the inclusion bodies and soluble fractions under the simulated microgravity was observed at 37 °C. Results obtained here indicate that the SSAO expression under simulated microgravity is dramatically sensitive to the temperature. On the other hand, a novel bioreactor from this study may also be useful for the recombinant protein expression in the field of gene engineering.

  11. Enhancing Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV8 Vectors in Different Tissues Using Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Post-Transcriptional Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lizheng; Wang, Zixuan; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhu, Rui; Bi, Jinpeng; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Hui; Kong, Wei; Yu, Bin; Yu, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been utilized extensively in gene therapy and gene function studies, as strong transgene expression is a prerequisite for positive outcomes. AAV8 was reported as the most efficient AAV serotype for transduction of the liver, brain and muscle compared with other serotypes. However, AAV8-mediated transduction of human hepatocytes is rather poor with approximately 20-fold lower efficiency compared with that of mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, we applied the woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) to enhance AAV8-mediated transgene expression driven by a combination promoter (CAG promoter) with a CMV-IE enhancer and chicken beta-actin promoter for a more efficient viral vector. Transgene expression from recombinant AAV8 (rAAV8) vectors harboring a red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter gene with or without WPRE were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that WPRE improved AAV8-mediated RFP expression in different cell lines with clear increases of transgene expression in the liver, brain or muscle of animals. The findings of this study will help to substantially reduce the quantity of viral particles that must be injected in order to reach a therapeutic level of transgene expression in gene therapy. Consequently, such dose reductions may lessen the potential risks associated with high doses of viral vectors. PMID:27076785

  12. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G reactive with a recombinant protein expressed from the gene encoding the 116-kilodalton protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M F; Whithear, K G; Noormohammadi, A H; Markham, P F; Catton, M; Leydon, J; Browning, G F

    1999-04-01

    Serology remains the method of choice for laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Currently available serological tests employ complex cellular fractions of M. pneumoniae as antigen. To improve the specificity of M. pneumoniae diagnosis, a recombinant protein was assessed as a serodiagnostic reagent. A panel of recombinant proteins were expressed from a cloned M. pneumoniae gene that encodes a 116-kDa surface protein antigen. The recombinant proteins were assessed for reactivity with patient sera and the most antigenic was further assessed for its serodiagnostic potential by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA based on the recombinant protein was equivalent in sensitivity to the commercial test (Serodia Myco II; Fujirebio Inc.) to which it was compared. Southern and Western blotting data suggested that the recombinant protein derived from the 116-kDa protein of M. pneumoniae could provide a species-specific diagnostic tool, although further assessment is required.

  13. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( P<0.02), and the scavenging rates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still

  14. Development of Useful Recombinant Promoter and Its Expression Analysis in Different Plant Cells Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2011-01-01

    Background Designing functionally efficient recombinant promoters having reduced sequence homology and enhanced promoter activity will be an important step toward successful stacking or pyramiding of genes in a plant cell for developing transgenic plants expressing desired traits(s). Also basic knowledge regarding plant cell specific expression of a transgene under control of a promoter is crucial to assess the promoter's efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings We have constructed a set of 10 recombinant promoters incorporating different up-stream activation sequences (UAS) of Mirabilis mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript (MS8, -306 to +27) and TATA containing core domains of Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FS3, −271 to +31). Efficacies of recombinant promoters coupled to GUS and GFP reporter genes were tested in tobacco protoplasts. Among these, a 369-bp long hybrid sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt-FSgt) showed the highest activity in both transient and transgenic systems. In a transient system, MSgt-FSgt was 10.31, 2.86 and 2.18 times more active compared to the CaMV35S, MS8 and FS3 promoters, respectively. In transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum, var. Samsun NN) and Arabidopsis plants, the MSgt-FSgt hybrid promoter showed 14.22 and 7.16 times stronger activity compared to CaMV35S promoter respectively. The correlation between GUS activity and uidA-mRNA levels in transgenic tobacco plants were identified by qRT-PCR. Both CaMV35S and MSgt-FSgt promoters caused gene silencing but the degree of silencing are less in the case of the MSgt-FSgt promoter compared to CaMV35S. Quantification of GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by the MSgt-FSgt and the CaMV35S promoter were estimated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and compared. Conclusion and Significance We propose strong recombinant promoter MSgt-FSgt, developed in this study, could be very useful for high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in a wide variety

  15. Functional analysis of recombinant human and Yarrowia lipolytica O-GlcNAc transferases expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hye Ji; Moon, Hye Yun; Cheon, Seon Ah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2016-10-01

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is an important post-translational modification in many cellular processes. It is mediated by O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs), which catalyze the addition of O-GlcNAc to serine or threonine residues of the target proteins. In this study, we expressed a putative Yarrowia lipolytica OGT (YlOGT), the only homolog identified in the subphylum Saccharomycotina through bioinformatics analysis, and the human OGT (hOGT) as recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and performed their functional characterization. Immunoblotting assays using antibody against O-GlcNAc revealed that recombinant hOGT (rhOGT), but not the recombinant YlOGT (rYlOGT), undergoes auto-O-GlcNAcylation in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. Moreover, the rhOGT expressed in S. cerevisiae showed a catalytic activity during in vitro assays using casein kinase II substrates, whereas no such activity was obtained in rYlOGT. However, the chimeric human-Y. lipolytica OGT, carrying the human tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain along with the Y. lipolytica catalytic domain (CTD), mediated the transfer of O-GlcNAc moiety during the in vitro assays. Although the overexpression of full-length OGTs inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae, no such inhibition was obtained upon overexpression of only the CTD fragment, indicating the role of TPR domain in growth inhibition. This is the first report on the functional analysis of the fungal OGT, indicating that the Y. lipolytica OGT retains its catalytic activity, although the physiological role and substrates of YlOGT remain to be elucidated. PMID:27687229

  16. Functional analysis of recombinant human and Yarrowia lipolytica O-GlcNAc transferases expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hye Ji; Moon, Hye Yun; Cheon, Seon Ah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2016-10-01

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is an important post-translational modification in many cellular processes. It is mediated by O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs), which catalyze the addition of O-GlcNAc to serine or threonine residues of the target proteins. In this study, we expressed a putative Yarrowia lipolytica OGT (YlOGT), the only homolog identified in the subphylum Saccharomycotina through bioinformatics analysis, and the human OGT (hOGT) as recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and performed their functional characterization. Immunoblotting assays using antibody against O-GlcNAc revealed that recombinant hOGT (rhOGT), but not the recombinant YlOGT (rYlOGT), undergoes auto-O-GlcNAcylation in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. Moreover, the rhOGT expressed in S. cerevisiae showed a catalytic activity during in vitro assays using casein kinase II substrates, whereas no such activity was obtained in rYlOGT. However, the chimeric human-Y. lipolytica OGT, carrying the human tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain along with the Y. lipolytica catalytic domain (CTD), mediated the transfer of O-GlcNAc moiety during the in vitro assays. Although the overexpression of full-length OGTs inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae, no such inhibition was obtained upon overexpression of only the CTD fragment, indicating the role of TPR domain in growth inhibition. This is the first report on the functional analysis of the fungal OGT, indicating that the Y. lipolytica OGT retains its catalytic activity, although the physiological role and substrates of YlOGT remain to be elucidated.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P212121 and P1211 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3121. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P1211 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI). PMID:26057806

  18. Recombinant VP1 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris induces protective immune responses against EV71 in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Yefu

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological diseases in children. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. VP1, one of the major immunogenic capsid proteins of EV71, is widely considered to be the candidate antigen for an EV71 vaccine. In this study, VP1 of EV71 was expressed as a secretory protein with an N-terminal histidine tag in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of the recombinant VP1 were assessed in mouse models. The results showed that the recombinant VP1 could efficiently induce anti-VP1 antibodies in BALB/c mice, which were able to neutralize EV71 viruses in an in vitro neutralization assay. Passive protection of neonatal mice further confirmed the prophylactic efficacy of the antisera from VP1 vaccinated mice. Furthermore, VP1 vaccination induced strong lymphoproliferative and Th1 cytokine responses. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the yeast-expressed VP1 protein retained good immunogenicity and was a potent EV71 vaccine candidate.

  19. Studies to Prevent Degradation of Recombinant Fc-Fusion Protein Expressed in Mammalian Cell Line and Protein Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Barrow, Colin J.; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Ramana, Venkata; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2016-01-01

    Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1–D3)-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied. Lowering of culture temperature from 37 to 30 °C alone appears to be the best solution for reducing protein degradation from the quality, cost and regulatory points of view. The obtained Fc protein was characterized and found to be in its stable folded state, exhibiting a high affinity for its ligand and also biological and functional activities. PMID:27294920

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2015-06-01

    Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) and P12(1)1 and diffracted to ∼ 1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3(1)21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12(1)1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] within the liquid-liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI).

  1. Studies to Prevent Degradation of Recombinant Fc-Fusion Protein Expressed in Mammalian Cell Line and Protein Characterization.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Barrow, Colin J; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Ramana, Venkata; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2016-06-09

    Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied. Lowering of culture temperature from 37 to 30 °C alone appears to be the best solution for reducing protein degradation from the quality, cost and regulatory points of view. The obtained Fc protein was characterized and found to be in its stable folded state, exhibiting a high affinity for its ligand and also biological and functional activities.

  2. Immunogenicity of a recombinant Sendai virus expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Ging; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Qian, Ping; Chen, Huan-Chun; Li, Xiang-Min

    2016-02-01

    In this study, SeV was used as a vector to express capsid precursor polypeptide (P1) of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by using reverse genetics. The rescue recombinant SeV (rSeV-P1) can efficiently propagate and express P1 protein by Western blot and IFA analysis. To evaluate the immunogenicity of rSeV-P1, BALB/c mice were divided into several groups and immunized intramuscularly with various doses of rSeV-P1, rSeV-eGFP, PBS and commercial FMD vaccine, respectively, and then challenged with an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) TCID50 of virulent serotype O FMDV O/ES/2001 strain 4 weeks after booster immunization. Mice vaccinated with rSeV-P1 acquired FMDV-specific ELISA antibodies, neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular immune response. Meantime, mice immunized with rSeV-P1 (dose-dependent) had the ability to inhibit the replication of FMDV in the sera after FMDV challenge. Our results indicated that the recombinant SeV-P1 virus could be utilized as an alternative strategy to develop a new generation of safety and efficacious vaccine against FMDV infection. PMID:26850558

  3. A pH-induced, intein-mediated expression and purification of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuejuan; Zhang, Kun; Wan, Yi; Zi, Jing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Lili; Xue, Xiaochang

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a cellular factor that promotes cell proliferation and has been widely used for the treatment of wounds, corneal injuries, and gastric ulcers. Recombinant hEGF (rhEGF) has previously been expressed using the pTWIN1 system with pH-induced intein and a chitin-binding domain. The rhEGF protein can be purified by chitin affinity chromatography because of the high affinity between the chitin-binding domain fusion-tag and the column. However, uncontrolled cleavage presents a major problem with this method. To overcome this problem, a novel purification method has been developed for a pH-induced intein tag rhEGF that is expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification by denaturation of inclusion bodies, the fusion protein is renatured and simultaneously induced to self-cleave by dialysis. Further purification of rhEGF is achieved by heat treatment and ion-exchange chromatography. Our results show that the purity of rhEGF obtained through this method is over 98% and the quantity of purified rhEGF is 248 mg from a 1 L culture or 2,967 mg from a 12 L culture. Therefore, we conclude that we have developed an efficient purification method of rhEGF, which may be used for the purification of other heat-resistant and acid-resistant recombinant proteins.

  4. BacMam System for High-Level Expression of Recombinant Soluble and Membrane Glycoproteins for Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dukkipati, Abhiram; Park, Hyun Ho; Waghray, Deepa; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Baculovirus mediated gene transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam) is an emerging technique for rapid recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells. Towards this, we constructed two baculovirus transfer vectors that incorporate several mammalian transcriptional regulatory elements necessary for high level protein expression in mammalian cells. Using these vectors, we show that the BacMam system in combination with the 293 GnTI− cell line can be used for production of milligram quantities of soluble glycoproteins. Moreover, for crystallization trials, the purified glycoproteins are sensitive to EndoH treatment resulting in a loss of the bulk of the attached N-linked glycosylation. In addition, we also show that a combination of the BacMam system and 293GnTI− cell line can be used for producing milligram quantities of a GPCR-protein ligand complex suitable for crystallization trials. PMID:18782620

  5. Affinity Purification of a Recombinant Protein Expressed as a Fusion with the Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) Tag

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Gabelli, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of fusion proteins such as MBP fusions can be used as a way to improve the solubility of the expressed protein in E. coli (Fox and Waugh, 2003; Nallamsetty et al., 2005; Nallamsetty and Waugh, 2006) and as a way to introduce an affinity purification tag. The protocol that follows was designed by the authors as a first step in the purification of a recombinant protein fused with MBP, using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Cells should have been thawed, resuspended in binding buffer, and lysed by sonication or microfluidization before mixing with the amylose resin or loading on the column. Slight modifications to this protocol may be made to accommodate both the protein of interest and the availability of equipment. PMID:26096500

  6. The Effect of α-Mating Factor Secretion Signal Mutations on Recombinant Protein Expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P.; Stark, Carolyn M.; Kim, Daniel; Chang, Jennifer; Shaheen, Nadia; Poerwanto, Hansel; Agari, Kimiko; Moua, Pachai; Low, Lauren K.; Tran, Namphuong; Huang, Amy D.; Nattestad, Maria; Oshiro, Kristin T.; Chang, John William; Chavan, Archana; Tsai, Jerry W.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan

    2013-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has been genetically engineered to produce many heterologous proteins for industrial and research purposes. In order to secrete proteins for easier purification from the extracellular medium, the coding sequence of recombinant proteins are initially fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor secretion signal leader. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis of the prepro region of the α-mating factor secretion signal sequence was performed in order to determine the effects of various deletions and substitutions on expression. Though some mutations clearly dampened protein expression, deletion of amino acids 57-70, corresponding to the predicted 3rd alpha helix of α-mating factor secretion signal, increased secretion of reporter proteins horseradish peroxidase and lipase at least 50% in small-scale cultures. These findings raise the possibility that the secretory efficiency of the leader can be further enhanced in the future. PMID:23454485

  7. Protein profile and alpha-lactalbumin concentration in the milk of standard and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase.