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Sample records for recombinant viral protein

  1. Construction of green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant iridovirus to assess viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Ye, Fuzhou; Guan, Liya; Liu, Hong; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant virus has been successfully applied to observing the infective dynamics and evaluating viral replication. Here, we identified soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) ORF55 as an envelope protein (VP55), and developed a recombinant STIV expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to VP55 (EGFP-STIV). Recombinant EGFP-STIV shared similar single-step growth curves and ultrastructural morphology with wild type STIV (wt-STIV). The green fluorescence distribution during EGFP-STIV infection was consistent with the intracellular distribution of VP55 which was mostly co-localized with virus assembly sites. Furthermore, EGFP-STIV could be used to evaluate viral replication conveniently under drug treatment, and the result showed that STIV replication was significantly inhibited after the addition of antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Thus, the EGFP-tagged recombinant iridovirus will not only be useful for further investigations on the viral replicative dynamics, but also provide an alternative simple strategy to screen for antiviral substances.

  2. Production of recombinant snakehead rhabdovirus: the NV protein is not required for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M C; Simon, B E; Kim, C H; Leong, J A

    2000-03-01

    Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) affects warm water fish in Southeast Asia and belongs to the genus Novirhabdovirus by virtue of its nonvirion gene (NV). Because SHRV grows best at temperatures between 28 and 31 degrees C, we were able to use the T7 expression system to produce viable recombinant SHRV from a cloned cDNA copy of the viral genome. Expression of a positive-strand RNA copy of the 11, 550-nucleotide SHRV genome along with the viral nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), and polymerase (L) proteins resulted in the generation of infectious SHRV in cells preinfected with a vaccinia virus vector for T7 polymerase expression. Recombinant virus production was verified by detection of a unique restriction site engineered into the SHRV genome between the NV and L genes. Since we were now able to begin examining the function of the NV gene, we constructed a recombinant virus containing a nonsense mutation located 22 codons into the coding sequence of the NV protein. The NV knockout virus was produced at a concentration as high as that of wild-type virus in cultured fish cells, and the resulting virions appeared to be identical to the wild-type virions in electron micrographs. These initial studies suggest that NV has no critical function in SHRV replication in cultured fish cells.

  3. Recombinant measles virus incorporating heterologous viral membrane proteins for use as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Bogaert, Lies; de Jong, Pascal; van Hoek, Vladimir; Schouten, Theo; Damen, Irma; Spek, Dirk; Wanningen, Patrick; Radošević, Katarina; Widjojoatmodjo, Myra N; Zahn, Roland; Custers, Jerome; Roy, Soumitra

    2016-09-01

    Recombinant measles virus (rMV) vectors expressing heterologous viral membrane protein antigens are potentially useful as vaccines. Genes encoding the mumps virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuV-HN), the influenza virus haemagglutinin (Flu-HA) or the respiratory syncytial virus fusion (RSV-F) proteins were inserted into the genome of a live attenuated vaccine strain of measles virus. Additionally, in this case rMV with the MuV-HN or the influenza HA inserts, chimeric constructs were created that harboured the measles virus native haemagglutinin or fusion protein cytoplasmic domains. In all three cases, sucrose-gradient purified preparations of rMV were found to have incorporated the heterologous viral membrane protein on the viral membrane. The possible utility of rMV expressing RSV-F (rMV.RSV-F) as a vaccine was tested in a cotton rat challenge model. Vaccination with rMV.RSV-F efficiently induced neutralizing antibodies against RSV and protected animals from infection with RSV in the lungs. PMID:27311834

  4. Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Licitra, Beth N.; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) is an alphacoronavirus infecting dogs that is closely related to enteric coronaviruses of cats and pigs. While CCoV has traditionally caused mild gastro-intestinal clinical signs, there are increasing reports of lethal CCoV infections in dogs, with evidence of both gastrointestinal and systemic viral dissemination. Consequently, CCoV is now considered to be an emerging infectious disease of dogs. In addition to the two known serotypes of CCoV, novel recombinant variants of CCoV have been found containing spike protein N-terminal domains (NTDs) that are closely related to those of feline and porcine strains. The increase in disease severity in dogs and the emergence of novel CCoVs can be attributed to the high level of recombination within the spike gene that can occur during infection by more than one CCoV type in the same host. PMID:25153347

  5. An ELISA for detection of trout antibodies to viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus using recombinant fragments of their viral G protein.

    PubMed

    Encinas, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2011-09-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to study serum antibodies to viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was designed by using recombinant fragments of their G protein. By using this fragment-ELISA, we describe the binding of antibodies against recombinant G fragments of 45-445 amino acids present in VHSV-hyperimmunized trout sera. Fragments were designed by taking into account their tridimensional pH-dependent structure and functional domains. Sera were obtained from hyperimmunized trout following 4-5 intraperitoneal injections of VHSV antigens by using Freund's or saponin adjuvants. Sera from different hyperimmunized trout differed quantitatively rather than qualitatively in their recognition of solid-phase frg11 (56-110), frg12 (65-109), frg13 (97-167), frg14 (141-214), frg15 (65-250), frg16 (252-450) and G (G21-465) by Western blot and ELISA. However, titres were higher when using frg11, frg15 or frg16, rather than G21-465, suggesting higher accessibility to G epitopes. Further knowledge of the antigenicity of the G protein of rhabdoviruses by using fragments might be used to improve current vaccines. On the other hand, they might be used to dissect the trout antibody response to VHSV infections, to complement in vitro neutralizing assays, and/or to quantitate anti-VHSV antibodies in VHSV-infected/vaccinated trout, other fish and/or other body fluids such as mucus.

  6. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges. PMID:8764013

  7. Serological assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Shuetsu; Tani, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2012-10-12

    The family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. The Lassa and Lujo viruses in the OW complex and the Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Chapare viruses in the NW complex cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, leading to serious public health concerns. These viruses are also considered potential bioterrorism agents. Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for these virus infections in institutes without BSL-4 facilities. To overcome these difficulties, antibody detection systems in the form of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect immunofluorescence assay were developed using recombinant nucleoproteins (rNPs) derived from these viruses. Furthermore, several antigen-detection assays were developed. For example, novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the rNPs of Lassa and Junin viruses were generated. Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture) ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. These rNP-based assays were proposed to be useful not only for an etiological diagnosis of VHFs, but also for seroepidemiological studies on VHFs. We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses.

  8. Expression and in Silico analysis of the recombinant bovine papillomavirus E6 protein as a model for viral oncoproteins studies.

    PubMed

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Carvalho, R F; Ruiz, R M; Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Carvalho, E; Thompson, C E; Sircili, M P; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins.

  9. Transcriptional analysis for oral vaccination of recombinant viral proteins against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Ran; Kim, Yeong Jin; Jang, Ji-Suk; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out for the molecular level identification of recombinant protein vaccine efficacy, by oral feeding against white spot syndrome virus infection, with the comparison of viral mRNA transcriptional levels in shrimp cells. For the determination of WSSV dilution ratio for the vaccination experiment by oral feeding, in vivo virus titration was carried out using different virus dilutions of virus stock (1×10(2), 2×10(2), and 1×10(3)). Among the dilution ratios, 2×10(2) diluted WSSV stock was chosen as the optimal condition because this dilution showed 90% mortality at 10 days after virus injection. Recombinant viral proteins, rVP19 and rVP28, produced as protein vaccines were delivered in shrimps by oral feeding. The cumulative mortalities of the shrimps vaccinated with rVP19 and rVP28 at 21 days after the challenge with WSSV were 66.7% and 41.7%, respectively. This indicates that rVP28 showed a better protective effect against WSSV in shrimp than rVP19. Through the comparison of mRNA transcriptional levels of viral genes from collected shrimp organ samples, it was confirmed that viral gene transcriptions of vaccinated shrimps were delayed for 4~10 days compared with those of unvaccinated shrimps. Protection from WSSV infection in shrimp by the vaccination with recombinant viral proteins could be accomplished by the prevention of entry of WSSV due to the shrimp immune system activated by recombinant protein vaccines.

  10. The Recombinant Maize Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Transiently Reduces Viral Load in SHIV89.6 Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Rui; Au, Ka-Yee; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Gao, Liang-Min; Zhang, Xuan; Luo, Rong-Hua; Law, Sue Ka-Yee; Mak, Amanda Nga-Sze; Wong, Kam-Bo; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating the large ribosomal RNA and some are found to possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. Maize ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) has an internal inactivation loop which is proteolytically removed for full catalytic activity. Here, we showed that the recombinant active maize RIP protected chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6-infected macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells from lysis ex vivo and transiently reduced plasma viral load in SHIV89.6-infected rhesus macaque model. No evidence of immune dysregulation and other obvious side-effects was found in the treated macaques. Our work demonstrates the potential development of maize RIP as an anti-HIV agent without impeding systemic immune functions. PMID:25606813

  11. Characterization and purification of recombinant bovine viral diarrhea virus particles with epitope-tagged envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Wegelt, Anne; Reimann, Ilona; Granzow, Harald; Beer, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. The lipid membrane of the virions is supposed to contain the three glycosylated envelope proteins E(rns), E1 and E2, but detailed studies of virus assembly are complicated because no efficient purification method for pestiviruses has been described so far. In this study, we generated infectious BVDV with N-terminally FLAG-tagged E(rns) or E2 proteins, respectively. The expression of the epitope-tagged E(rns) and E2 proteins could be shown by immunofluorescence and Western blot experiments. Furthermore, an affinity tag purification protocol for the isolation and concentration of infectious BVDV was established. In the preparation with a titre of 10(8.75) TCID(50) ml(-1), spherical particles with a diameter of 43-58 nm (mean diameter: 48 nm) could be detected by negative staining electron microscopy, and immunogold labelling located both E(rns) and E2 proteins at the virus membrane.

  12. Induction of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity to a Recombinant Simian Immunodeficiency Viral Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, T.; Bergmeier, L. A.; Panagiotidi, C.; Tao, L.; Brookes, R.; Klavinskis, L. S.; Walker, P.; Walker, J.; Ward, R. G.; Hussain, L.; Gearing, A. J. H.; Adams, S. E.

    1992-11-01

    Heterosexual transmission through the cervico-vaginal mucosa is the principal route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa and is increasing in the United States and Europe. Vaginal immunization with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) had not yet been studied in nonhuman primates. Immune responses in macaques were investigated by stimulation of the genital and gut-associated lymphoid tissue with a recombinant, particulate SIV antigen. Vaginal, followed by oral, administration of the vaccine elicited three types of immunity: (i) gag protein p27-specific, secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the vaginal fluid, (ii) specific CD4^+ T cell proliferation and helper function in B cell p27-specific IgA synthesis in the genital lymph nodes, and (iii) specific serum IgA and IgG, with CD4^+ T cell proliferative and helper functions in the circulating blood.

  13. Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies to five Simian Viruses in Nonhuman Primates using Recombinant Viral Protein Based Multiplex Microbead ImmunoAssays

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Qi; Guo, Huishan; Tang, Min; Touzjian, Neal; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Lu, Yichen; Yee, JoAnn L.

    2011-01-01

    Routine screening for infectious agents is critical in establishing and maintaining specific pathogen free (SPF) nonhuman primate (NHP) colonies. More efficient, higher throughput, less costly reagent, and reduced sample consumption multiplex microbead immunoassays (MMIAs) using purified viral lysates have been developed previously to address some disadvantages of the traditional individual enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. To overcome some of the technical and biosafety difficulties in preparing antigens from live viruses for viral lysate protein based MMIAs, novel MMIAs using recombinant glycoprotein D precursor (gD) protein of herpesvirus B and four viral gag proteins of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), Simian T Cell Lymphotropic Virus (STLV), Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) and Simian Betaretrovirus (SRV) as antigens have been developed in the current study. The data showed that the recombinant viral protein based MMIAs detected simultaneously antibodies to each of these five viruses with high sensitivity and specificity, and correlated well with viral lysate based MMIAs. Therefore, recombinant viral protein based MMIA is an effective and efficient routine screening method to determine the infection status of nonhuman primates. PMID:21945221

  14. Successful Interference with Cellular Immune Responses to Immunogenic Proteins Encoded by Recombinant Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Sarukhan, Adelaida; Camugli, Sabine; Gjata, Bernard; von Boehmer, Harald; Danos, Olivier; Jooss, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Vectors derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been successfully used for the long-term expression of therapeutic genes in animal models and patients. One of the major advantages of these vectors is the absence of deleterious immune responses following gene transfer. However, AAV vectors, when used in vaccination studies, can result in efficient humoral and cellular responses against the transgene product. It is therefore important to understand the factors which influence the establishment of these immune responses in order to design safe and efficient procedures for AAV-based gene therapies. We have compared T-cell activation against a strongly immunogenic protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is synthesized in skeletal muscle following gene transfer with an adenovirus (Ad) or an AAV vector. In both cases, cellular immune responses resulted in the elimination of transduced muscle fibers within 4 weeks. However, the kinetics of CD4+ T-cell activation were markedly delayed when AAV vectors were used. Upon recombinant Ad (rAd) gene transfer, T cells were activated both by direct transduction of dendritic cells and by cross-presentation of the transgene product, while upon rAAV gene transfer T cells were only activated by the latter mechanism. These results suggested that activation of the immune system by the transgene product following rAAV-mediated gene transfer might be easier to control than that following rAd-mediated gene transfer. Therefore, we tested protocols aimed at interfering with either antigen presentation by blocking the CD40/CD40L pathway or with the T-cell response by inducing transgene-specific tolerance. Long-term expression of the AAV-HA was achieved in both cases, whereas immune responses against Ad-HA could not be prevented. These data clearly underline the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which vector-encoded proteins are recognized by the immune system in order to specifically interfere with them and

  15. Rainbow trout surviving infections of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) show lasting antibodies to recombinant G protein fragments.

    PubMed

    Encinas, P; Gomez-Casado, E; Fregeneda-Grandes; Olesen, N J; Lorenzen, N; Estepa, A; Coll, J M

    2011-03-01

    Rainbow trout antibodies (Abs) binding to recombinant fragments (frgs) derived from the protein G of the viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)-07.71 strain, could be detected by ELISA (frg-ELISA) in sera from trout surviving laboratory-controlled infections. Abs were detected not only by using sera from trout infected with the homologous VHSV isolate but also with the VHSV-DK-201433 heterologous isolate, which had 13 amino acid changes. Sera from healthy trout and/or from trout surviving infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infection, were used to calculate cut-off absorbances to differentiate negative from positive sera. Specific anti-VHSV Abs could then be detected by using any of the following frgs: frg11 (56-110), frg15 (65-250), frg16 (252-450) or G21-465. While high correlations were found among the ELISA values obtained with the different frgs, no correlations between any frg-ELISA and complement-dependent 50% plaque neutralization test (PNT) titres could be demonstrated. Between 4 and 10 weeks after VHSV infection, more trout sera were detected as positives by using heterologous frg-ELISA rather than homologous PNT. Furthermore, the percentage of positive sera detected by frg11-ELISA increased with time after infection to reach 100%, while those detected by complement-dependent PNT decreased to 29.4%, thus confirming that the lack of neutralizing Abs does not mean the lack of any anti-VHSV Abs in survivor trout sera. Preliminary results with sera from field samples suggest that further refinements of the frg-ELISA could allow detection of anti-VHSV trout Abs in natural outbreaks caused by different heterologous VHSV isolates. The homologous frg-ELISA method could be useful to follow G immunization attempts during vaccine development and/or to best understand the fish Ab response during VHSV infections. The viral frgs approach might also be used with other fish species and/or viruses.

  16. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  17. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  18. Viral complement regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosengard, A M; Ahearn, J M

    1999-05-01

    The inactivation of complement provides cells and tissues critical protection from complement-mediated attack and decreases the associated recruitment of other inflammatory mediators. In an attempt to evade the host immune response, viruses have evolved two mechanisms to acquire complement regulatory proteins. They can directly seize the host cell complement regulators onto their outer envelope and/or they can produce their own proteins which are either secreted into the neighboring intercellular space or expressed as membrane-bound proteins on the infected host cell. The following review will concentrate on the viral homologues of the mammalian complement regulatory proteins, specifically those containing complement control protein (CCP) repeats. PMID:10408371

  19. Simple Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Detect Antibodies Against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Based on Prokaryotically Expressed Recombinant MBP-NS3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Pezhman; Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masoud Reza; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad Rahim; Lotfi, Mohsen; Pourmahdi Boroujeni, Mahdi; Daghari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease of cattle distributed worldwide. Diagnosis of BVD relies on laboratory-based detection of its viral causing agent or virus specific antibodies and the most common laboratory method for this purpose is Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Objectives: The current study was aimed to develop a simple indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in the sera of infected cattle. Materials and Methods: A new simple indirect ELISA method was developed to detect BVDV infection by prokaryotically (Escherichia coli, BL21 strain) expressed recombinant whole nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of BVDV (NADL strain). Four hundred bovine serum samples were evaluated by the newly developed NS3-ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) as the gold standard method to diagnose BVD. Among these samples, 289 sera had been previously tested by a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Statistical analyses showed a very high correlation between the results of the developed NS3-ELISA and VNT (kappa coefficient = 0.935, P < 0.001), with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 98.8%, respectively. There was also a high correlation between the results of NS3-ELISA and the commercial ELISA kit (kappa coefficient = 0.802, P < 0.001) with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 90.72% and 91.15%, respectively. Conclusions: The newly developed simple indirect ELISA showed high sensitivity and specificity with respect to VNT. Developing such a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA which is much less expensive than the available commercial ELISA kits can improve the detection of BVDV infections, help to eliminate the disease from herds, and decrease economic losses caused by this disease. PMID:25964844

  20. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  1. Transient Expression of Viral Proteins in Plants Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hitzeroth, Inga I; van Zyl, Albertha R

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of viral proteins in plants is a novel alternative to other expression platforms. The viral proteins can be used as potential vaccines or in diagnostics. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or whole plants are infiltrated with recombinant Agrobacterium that harbor the gene of interest. Protein expression in the plants is rapid and results are obtained within 2-7 days. Here we describe how to make electrocompetent Agrobacterium, how to transform Agrobacterium, how to infiltrate leaves or plants with the recombinant Agrobacterium, and lastly how to extract the protein for analysis by gel electrophoresis. PMID:27076324

  2. An efficient approach for recombinant expression and purification of the viral capsid protein from beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Swarbrick, Crystall M D; Khandokar, Yogesh B; Himiari, Zainab; Forwood, Jade K; Raidal, Shane R

    2015-04-01

    Structural insights into the biology of viruses such as beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) which do not replicate in cell cultures are increasingly reliant on recombinant methods for protein production and purification. Development of efficient methods for homogenous production of BFDV capsid protein is also essential for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. In this study, two different plasmids (pMCSG21 and pMCSG24), three homologous BFDV capsid proteins, and two unique expression media (auto-induction and IPTG-induced expression) were trialled for over-expression of the BFDV in Escherichia coli. Over-expression was observed for all three recombinant targets of BFDV capsid protein using E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta 2 cell lines under IPTG induction. These proteins could be purified using an optimized, two-step purification process using a buffer containing 20mM N-cyclohexyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (CAPS), 500 mM NaCl and supplemented with 200 mM L-arginine at pH 10.5, to yield a soluble and stable protein of greater than 95% purity. The final concentration of purified protein was approximately fourteen-to-eighteen fold greater than that reported previously. Initial crystallization and X-ray diffraction confirm that the protein is structured in a manner consistent with icosahedral symmetry. Antigenicity of recombinant Cap was confirmed by immunoassay, verifying its validity for use in continued experimentation as a potential DNA vaccine, a reagent in diagnostic assays, and purified concentrated protein for structural and functional biology.

  3. Vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing the peste des petits ruminants virus F or H proteins overcomes viral immunosuppression and induces protective immunity against PPRV challenge in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rojas, José M; Moreno, Héctor; Valcárcel, Félix; Peña, Lourdes; Sevilla, Noemí; Martín, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants caused by the Morbillivirus peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Two recombinant replication-defective human adenoviruses serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either the highly immunogenic fusion protein (F) or hemagglutinin protein (H) from PPRV were used to vaccinate sheep by intramuscular inoculation. Both recombinant adenovirus vaccines elicited PPRV-specific B- and T-cell responses. Thus, neutralizing antibodies were detected in sera from immunized sheep. In addition, we detected a significant antigen specific T-cell response in vaccinated sheep against two different PPRV strains, indicating that the vaccine induced heterologous T cell responses. Importantly, no clinical signs and undetectable virus shedding were observed after virulent PPRV challenge in vaccinated sheep. These vaccines also overcame the T cell immunosuppression induced by PPRV in control animals. The results indicate that these adenovirus constructs could be a promising alternative to current vaccine strategies for the development of PPRV DIVA vaccines.

  4. Retroviral Vectors for Analysis of Viral Mutagenesis and Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Jonathan M.O.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine mutation and recombination in retroviruses. Retroviral vectors for these purposes can broadly be divided into two categories: those that utilize reporter genes as mutation or recombination targets and those that utilize viral genes as targets of mutation or recombination. Reporter gene vectors greatly facilitate the detection, quantification, and characterization of mutants and/or recombinants, but may not fully recapitulate the patterns of mutagenesis or recombination observed in native viral gene sequences. In contrast, the detection of mutations or recombination events directly in viral genes is more biologically relevant but also typically more challenging and inefficient. We will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various vectors and approaches used as well as propose ways in which they could be improved. PMID:25254386

  5. Retroviral vectors for analysis of viral mutagenesis and recombination.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Jonathan M O; Mansky, Louis M

    2014-09-24

    Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine mutation and recombination in retroviruses. Retroviral vectors for these purposes can broadly be divided into two categories: those that utilize reporter genes as mutation or recombination targets and those that utilize viral genes as targets of mutation or recombination. Reporter gene vectors greatly facilitate the detection, quantification, and characterization of mutants and/or recombinants, but may not fully recapitulate the patterns of mutagenesis or recombination observed in native viral gene sequences. In contrast, the detection of mutations or recombination events directly in viral genes is more biologically relevant but also typically more challenging and inefficient. We will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various vectors and approaches used as well as propose ways in which they could be improved.

  6. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines. PMID:8270269

  7. Replication of a recombinant hepatitis E virus genome tagged with reporter genes and generation of a short-term cell line producing viral RNA and proteins.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Deepshi; Nayak, Baibaswata; Rehman, Shagufta; Durgapal, Hemlata; Panda, Subrat Kumar

    2005-04-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) replication has been demonstrated in HepG2 cells transfected with full-length in vitro transcripts of an infectious cDNA clone. This cDNA clone was modified to generate several subgenomic HEV replicons with fused reporter genes. In vitro-transcribed capped RNAs generated from these were transfected into HepG2 cells. Negative-strand RNA was detected, indicating the occurrence of replication. The replicon containing an in-frame fusion of HEV ORF2 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was positive for fluorescence, whereas no signal was observed when the replicase domain was deleted. An HEV ORF3-EGFP in-frame fusion did not yield fluorescence. Deletions introduced into ORF2 did not affect the replication competency of the viral RNA. To explore the possibility of using a reporter-gene assay to monitor the synthesis of plus- and minus-strand RNA, the EGFP gene fused to the encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) was inserted into partially deleted ORF2 of HEV, in both the sense [HEV-IRES-EGFP(+)] and antisense [HEV-IRES-EGFP(-)] orientations. HepG2 cells transfected with HEV-IRES-EGFP(+) and HEV-IRES-EGFP(-) vectors were positive for EGFP fluorescence. To quantify HEV replication, EGFP was replaced with Renilla luciferase (RLuc). HEV-IRES-RLuc(+) showed approximately 10-fold higher luminescence than HEV-IRES-RLuc(-). There was complete loss of activity when the helicase-replicase domain in HEV-IRES-RLuc(-) was deleted. A short-term HepG2 cell line containing the full-length viral genome in the pcDNA3 vector was established. Viral RNA and proteins (RdRp, pORF2 and pORF3) could be detected in the geneticin-resistant cells, even after the seventh passage. In the absence of a reliable cell-culture system to study HEV biology, these reporter replicons, as well as the cell line, bestow immense utility.

  8. A single amino acid change resulting in loss of fluorescence of eGFP in a viral fusion protein confers fitness and growth advantage to the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Phat X.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Phani B.; Das, Subash C.; Das, Anshuman; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2012-10-25

    Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding eGFP fused in-frame with an essential viral replication protein, the phosphoprotein P, we show that during passage in culture, the virus mutates the nucleotide C289 within eGFP of the fusion protein PeGFP to A or T, resulting in R97S/C amino acid substitution and loss of fluorescence. The resultant non-fluorescent virus exhibits increased fitness and growth advantage over its fluorescent counterpart. The growth advantage of the non-fluorescent virus appears to be due to increased transcription and replication activities of the PeGFP protein carrying the R97S/C substitution. Further, our results show that the R97S/C mutation occurs prior to accumulation of mutations that can result in loss of expression of the gene inserted at the G-L gene junction. These results suggest that fitness gain is more important for the recombinant virus than elimination of expression of the heterologous gene.

  9. Recombinant viral capsid protein VP1 suppresses migration and invasion of human cervical cancer by modulating phosphorylated prohibitin in lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ching-Feng; Peng, Jei-Ming; Hung, Shao-Wen; Liang, Chi-Ming; Liang, Shu-Mei

    2012-07-28

    Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus inhibits invasion/metastasis of cancer cells. Here we studied its mechanism of action on human cervical cancer cells. The inhibition of cell invasion by rVP1 was accompanied with reduction in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3), phospho-Akt S473, phosphorylated prohibitin (phospho-PHB) T258 in lipid rafts, dissociation of phospho-PHB T258 with Raf-1 and the inactivation of Raf-1/ERK. Addition of PIP3 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt and raft-anchored PHB T258 but not PHB T258I mutant protein reversed the inhibitory effects of rVP1. rVP1 inhibited cervical tumor growth and metastasis, and prolonged survival in xenograft mouse models. These results suggest that rVP1 inhibits cancer metastasis via de-phosphorylation of Akt and PHB T258 in lipid rafts to downregulate Raf/ERK signaling.

  10. [Cell analogs of viral proteins].

    PubMed

    Blinov, V M; Gaĭsler, V; Krasnov, G S; Shargunov, A V; Shurdov, M A; Zverev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of genes between viruses and their hosts played an important role in the evolution of various eukaryotes including contemporary mammals as well as the pathogens themselves. Elements of viruses of various types can be found in the genome of animals. Endogenous retroviral elements composing up to 8% of human genome length not only determine its high flexibility and rapid adaptation potential. Many of virus genes such as Fv1, Lv1, Lv2 being analogues of capsid and other proteins determine effective suppression of viral replication after cell penetration by the causative agent. Introduction of these elements into genome of a wide variety of animals from fish to primates could have taken place against the background of global natural cataclysms of viral origin. Integration of retrovirus genes coding surface glycoproteins with immunosuppressing domains into genetic apparatus of animals served as an impetus to the development of viviparity and spread ofplacental mammals. Their cell analogs syncytins perform a dual function: take direct part in the formation of syncytiotrophoblast layer of placenta and ensure tolerance of immune system of mother to embryo. The acquisition of cell genes by viruses also played an important role in their evolution: various interleukins and other modulators of immune response introduced into viral genome from cell genetic apparatus became one of the most important factors of pathogenicity of a wide variety of causative agents including poxviruses, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and many others. Evolutionary pathways of the virus and host are thus inseparable from each other, and character of one of these directions is largely dictated by the vector of another. PMID:25051706

  11. Recombinant protein polymers in biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wookhyun

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring protein-based materials have been found that function as critical components in biomechanical response, fibers and adhesives. A relatively small but growing number of recombinant protein-based materials that mimic the desired features of their natural sources, such as collagens, elastins and silks, are considered as an alternative to conventional synthetic polymers. Advances in genetic engineering have facilitated the synthesis of repetitive protein polymers with precise control of molecular weights which are designed by using synthetic genes encoding tandem repeats of oligopeptide originating from a modular domain of natural proteins. Many repeat sequences as protein polymer building blocks adopt a well-defined secondary structure and undergo self-assembly to result in physically cross-linked networks or with chemical cross-linking so that further form three-dimensional architectures similar to natural counterparts. In this review, recombinant protein polymers currently developed will be presented that have emerged as promising class of next generation biomaterials. PMID:23276922

  12. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for the recombinant viral coat protein of Apple stem grooving virus-citrus isolate and their application for a simple, rapid diagnosis by an immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Nario; Iwanami, Toru; Narahara, Kenji; Tanaka, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the diagnosis of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) in citrus was developed. Nine lines of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced by immunizing with a recombinant viral coat protein of ASGV as the antigen. According to the competitive-binding ELISA results, the 9 mAbs comprised 2 paratope groups, A and B. After screening for the most effective combination of mAbs, the two lines from different paratope groups (4A12 from group A and 6N31 from group B) were used to create a colloidal gold conjugate and for the test line, respectively, in ICA test plate preparation. The ICA detection using this test plate was accurate for positive and negative samples, and ASGV was detectable to a dilution of 1:2430 for the infected citrus sample. Furthermore, ICA was more sensitive than ELISA for the detection of ASGV isolates in citrus. The simple and sensitive ICA for ASGV provides a straightforward method for diagnosis by non-experts, including nursery workers and growers.

  13. The effect of the unfolded protein response on the production of recombinant proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are currently produced through a wide variety of host systems, including yeast, E. coli, insect and mammalian cells. One of the most recent systems developed uses plant cells. While considerable advances have been made in the yields and fidelity of plant-made recombinant proteins, many of these gains have arisen from the development of recombinant factors. This includes elements such as highly effective promoters and untranslated regions, deconstructed viral vectors, silencing inhibitors, and improved DNA delivery techniques. However, unlike other host systems, much of the work on recombinant protein production in plants uses wild-type hosts that have not been modified to facilitate recombinant protein expression. As such, there are still endogenous mechanisms functioning to maintain the health of the cell. The result is that these pathways, such as the unfolded protein response, can actively work to reduce recombinant protein production to maintain the integrity of the cell. This review examines how issues arising from the unfolded protein response have been addressed in other systems, and how these methods may be transferable to plant systems. We further identify several areas of host plant biology that present attractive targets for modification to facilitate recombinant protein production.

  14. [Recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Nuc, Przemysław; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Growing needs for efficient recombinant production pose new challenges; starting from cell growth optimization under overexpression conditions, improving vectors, gene and protein sequence to suit them to protein biosynthesis machinery of the host, through extending the knowledge of protein folding, fusion protein construction, and coexpression systems, to improvements in protein purification and renaturation technologies. Hitherto Escherichia coli is the most defined and the cheapest protein biosynthesis system. With its wealth of available mutants tested is the best suited to economically test new gene constructs and to scale up the recombinant protein production.

  15. Recombinant DNA production of spider silk proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tokareva, Olena; Michalczechen-Lacerda, Valquíria A; Rech, Elíbio L; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is considered to be the toughest biopolymer on Earth due to an extraordinary combination of strength and elasticity. Moreover, silks are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based materials. Recent advances in genetic engineering make it possible to produce recombinant silks in heterologous hosts, opening up opportunities for large-scale production of recombinant silks for various biomedical and material science applications. We review the current strategies to produce recombinant spider silks. PMID:24119078

  16. Influenza B virus non-structural protein 1 counteracts ISG15 antiviral activity by sequestering ISGylated viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Sridharan, Haripriya; Chen, Ran; Baker, Darren P; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and its conjugation to proteins (ISGylation) are strongly induced by type I interferon. Influenza B virus encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1B) that binds human ISG15 and provides an appropriate model for determining how ISGylation affects virus replication in human cells. Here using a recombinant virus encoding a NS1B protein defective in ISG15 binding, we show that NS1B counteracts ISGylation-mediated antiviral activity by binding and sequestering ISGylated viral proteins, primarily ISGylated viral nucleoprotein (NP), in infected cells. ISGylated NP that is not sequestered by mutant NS1B acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of oligomerization of the more abundant unconjugated NP. Consequently formation of viral ribonucleoproteins that catalyse viral RNA synthesis is inhibited, causing decreased viral protein synthesis and virus replication. We verify that ISGylated NP is largely responsible for inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by generating recombinant viruses that lack known ISGylation sites in NP. PMID:27587337

  17. Influenza B virus non-structural protein 1 counteracts ISG15 antiviral activity by sequestering ISGylated viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Sridharan, Haripriya; Chen, Ran; Baker, Darren P; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and its conjugation to proteins (ISGylation) are strongly induced by type I interferon. Influenza B virus encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1B) that binds human ISG15 and provides an appropriate model for determining how ISGylation affects virus replication in human cells. Here using a recombinant virus encoding a NS1B protein defective in ISG15 binding, we show that NS1B counteracts ISGylation-mediated antiviral activity by binding and sequestering ISGylated viral proteins, primarily ISGylated viral nucleoprotein (NP), in infected cells. ISGylated NP that is not sequestered by mutant NS1B acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of oligomerization of the more abundant unconjugated NP. Consequently formation of viral ribonucleoproteins that catalyse viral RNA synthesis is inhibited, causing decreased viral protein synthesis and virus replication. We verify that ISGylated NP is largely responsible for inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by generating recombinant viruses that lack known ISGylation sites in NP.

  18. Influenza B virus non-structural protein 1 counteracts ISG15 antiviral activity by sequestering ISGylated viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Sridharan, Haripriya; Chen, Ran; Baker, Darren P.; Wang, Shanshan; Krug, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and its conjugation to proteins (ISGylation) are strongly induced by type I interferon. Influenza B virus encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1B) that binds human ISG15 and provides an appropriate model for determining how ISGylation affects virus replication in human cells. Here using a recombinant virus encoding a NS1B protein defective in ISG15 binding, we show that NS1B counteracts ISGylation-mediated antiviral activity by binding and sequestering ISGylated viral proteins, primarily ISGylated viral nucleoprotein (NP), in infected cells. ISGylated NP that is not sequestered by mutant NS1B acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of oligomerization of the more abundant unconjugated NP. Consequently formation of viral ribonucleoproteins that catalyse viral RNA synthesis is inhibited, causing decreased viral protein synthesis and virus replication. We verify that ISGylated NP is largely responsible for inhibition of viral RNA synthesis by generating recombinant viruses that lack known ISGylation sites in NP. PMID:27587337

  19. MosaicSolver: a tool for determining recombinants of viral genomes from pileup data

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Graham R.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Fannon, Jessica M.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Evans, David J.; Burroughs, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Viral recombination is a key evolutionary mechanism, aiding escape from host immunity, contributing to changes in tropism and possibly assisting transmission across species barriers. The ability to determine whether recombination has occurred and to locate associated specific recombination junctions is thus of major importance in understanding emerging diseases and pathogenesis. This paper describes a method for determining recombinant mosaics (and their proportions) originating from two parent genomes, using high-throughput sequence data. The method involves setting the problem geometrically and the use of appropriately constrained quadratic programming. Recombinants of the honeybee deformed wing virus and the Varroa destructor virus-1 are inferred to illustrate the method from both siRNAs and reads sampling the viral genome population (cDNA library); our results are confirmed experimentally. Matlab software (MosaicSolver) is available. PMID:25120266

  20. Protein building blocks preserved by recombination.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christopher A; Martinez, Carlos; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Mayo, Stephen L; Arnold, Frances H

    2002-07-01

    Borrowing concepts from the schema theory of genetic algorithms, we have developed a computational algorithm to identify the fragments of proteins, or schemas, that can be recombined without disturbing the integrity of the three-dimensional structure. When recombination leaves these schemas undisturbed, the hybrid proteins are more likely to be folded and functional. Crossovers found by screening libraries of several randomly shuffled proteins for functional hybrids strongly correlate with those predicted by this approach. Experimental results from the construction of hybrids of two beta-lactamases that share 40% amino acid identity demonstrate a threshold in the amount of schema disruption that the hybrid protein can tolerate. To the extent that introns function to promote recombination within proteins, natural selection would serve to bias their locations to schema boundaries. PMID:12042875

  1. APOBEC3 Proteins in Viral Immunity.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Spyridon; Ross, Susan R

    2015-11-15

    Apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 family members are cytidine deaminases that play important roles in intrinsic responses to infection by retroviruses and have been implicated in the control of other viruses, such as parvoviruses, herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, and retrotransposons. Although their direct effect on modification of viral DNA has been clearly demonstrated, whether they play additional roles in innate and adaptive immunity to viruses is less clear. We review the data regarding the various steps in the innate and adaptive immune response to virus infection in which apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 proteins have been implicated. PMID:26546688

  2. Superresolution imaging of viral protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Salka, Kyle; Bhuvanendran, Shivaprasad; Yang, David

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is closely apposed to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), which facilitates communication between these organelles. These contacts, known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), facilitate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, as well as antiviral and stress responses. How cellular proteins traffic to the MAM, are distributed therein, and interact with ER and mitochondrial proteins are subject of great interest. The human cytomegalovirus UL37 exon 1 protein or viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) is crucial for viral growth. Upon synthesis at the ER, vMIA traffics to the MAM and OMM, where it reprograms the organization and function of these compartments. vMIA significantly changes the abundance of cellular proteins at the MAM and OMM, including proteins that regulate calcium homeostasis and cell death. Through the use of superresolution imaging, we have shown that vMIA is distributed at the OMM in nanometer scale clusters. This is similar to the clusters reported for the mitochondrial calcium channel, VDAC, as well as electron transport chain, translocase of the OMM complex, and mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system components. Thus, aside from addressing how vMIA targets the MAM and regulates survival of infected cells, biochemical studies and superresolution imaging of vMIA offer insights into the formation, organization, and functioning of MAM. Here, we discuss these insights into trafficking, function, and organization of vMIA at the MAM and OMM and discuss how the use of superresolution imaging is contributing to the study of the formation and trafficking of viruses. PMID:25724304

  3. Construction of a recombinant herpesvirus expressing the jellyfish green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Boldogköi, Z; Erdélyi, F; Sik, A; Freund, T F; Fodor, I

    1999-01-01

    Here we report the insertion of a synthetic version of the cDNA encoding the jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) green fluorescent protein (gfph ) into the genome of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus (PrV). A putative latency promoter (PLAT) located at the inverted repeat region of the PrV genome was chosen as the target site for the insertion. Recombinant viral DNA designated as vLAT-gfp was generated as a result of homologous recombination between the transfected viral DNA and a plasmid containing the GFP-expression cassette flanked by viral sequences homologous to the target region. Plaques containing recombinant virus were selected visually using a fluorescent microscope. We demonstrated a GFP-expression in infected neurons of rat brain which showed normal morphology at early stage of viral infection by monitoring fluorescent light emission. PMID:10398563

  4. Recombinant protein blends: silk beyond natural design.

    PubMed

    Dinjaski, Nina; Kaplan, David L

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant DNA technology and new material concepts are shaping future directions in biomaterial science for the design and production of the next-generation biomaterial platforms. Aside from conventionally used synthetic polymers, numerous natural biopolymers (e.g., silk, elastin, collagen, gelatin, alginate, cellulose, keratin, chitin, polyhydroxyalkanoates) have been investigated for properties and manipulation via bioengineering. Genetic engineering provides a path to increase structural and functional complexity of these biopolymers, and thereby expand the catalog of available biomaterials beyond that which exists in nature. In addition, the integration of experimental approaches with computational modeling to analyze sequence-structure-function relationships is starting to have an impact in the field by establishing predictive frameworks for determining material properties. Herein, we review advances in recombinant DNA-mediated protein production and functionalization approaches, with a focus on hybrids or combinations of proteins; recombinant protein blends or 'recombinamers'. We highlight the potential biomedical applications of fibrous protein recombinamers, such as Silk-Elastin Like Polypeptides (SELPs) and Silk-Bacterial Collagens (SBCs). We also discuss the possibility for the rationale design of fibrous proteins to build smart, stimuli-responsive biomaterials for diverse applications. We underline current limitations with production systems for these proteins and discuss the main trends in systems/synthetic biology that may improve recombinant fibrous protein design and production. PMID:26686863

  5. Recombinant viral vectored vaccines for the control of avian influenza: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry has been at the forefront of developing recombinant viral vectored vaccines in an attempt to improve the immune response to vaccination. With AIV, the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein is the key antigen for protection against infection. This allows a single gene to be transf...

  6. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  7. A recombinant measles vaccine virus expressing wild-type glycoproteins: consequences for viral spread and cell tropism.

    PubMed

    Johnston, I C; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, J; Schneider-Schaulies, S

    1999-08-01

    Wild-type, lymphotropic strains of measles virus (MV) and tissue culture-adapted MV vaccine strains possess different cell tropisms. This observation has led to attempts to identify the viral receptors and to characterize the functions of the MV glycoproteins. We have functionally analyzed the interactions of MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of vaccine (Edmonston) and wild-type (WTF) strains in different combinations in transfected cells. Cell-cell fusion occurs when both Edmonston F and H proteins are expressed in HeLa or Vero cells. The expression of WTF glycoproteins in HeLa cells did not result in syncytia, yet they fused efficiently with cells of lymphocytic origin. To further investigate the role of the MV glycoproteins in virus cell entry and also the role of other viral proteins in cell tropism, we generated recombinant vaccine MVs containing one or both glycoproteins from WTF. These viruses were viable and grew similarly in lymphocytic cells. Recombinant viruses expressing the WTFH protein showed a restricted spread in HeLa cells but spread efficiently in Vero cells. Parental WTF remained restricted in both cell types. Therefore, not only differential receptor usage but also other cell-specific factors are important in determining MV cell tropism. PMID:10400788

  8. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  9. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Degradation of cellular and viral Fos proteins.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, C; Ferrara, P; Bossis, G; Brockly, F; Salvat, C; Jariel-Encontre, I; Piechaczyk, M

    2001-01-01

    c-Fos proto-oncoprotein is a short-lived transcription factor with oncogenic potential. We have shown that it is massively degraded by the proteasome in vivo under various experimental conditions. Other proteolytic systems including lysosomes and calpains, might, however, also marginally operate on it. Although there is evidence that c-Fos can be ubiquitinylated in vitro, the unambiguous demonstration that ubiquitinylation is necessary for its addressing to the proteasome in vivo is still lacking. c-Jun, one of the main dimerization partners of c-Fos within the AP-1 transcription complex, is also an unstable protein. Its degradation is clearly proteasome- and ubiquitin-dependent in vivo. Interestingly, several lines of evidence indicate that the addressing of c-Fos and c-Jun to the proteasome is, at least in part, governed by different mechanisms. c-Fos has been transduced by two murine osteosarcomatogenic retroviruses under mutated forms which are more stable and more oncogenic. The stabilization is not simply accounted for by simple deletion of c-Fos main destabilizer but, rather, by a complex balance between opposing destabilizing and stabilizing mutations. Though mutations in viral Fos proteins confer full resistance to proteasomal degradation, stabilization is limited because mutations also entail sensitivity to an unidentified proteolytic system. This observation is consistent with the idea that Fos-expressing viruses have evolved to ensure control protein levels to avoid high protein accumulation-linked apoptosis. In conclusion, the unveiling of the complex mechanism network responsible for the degradation of AP-1 family members is still at its beginning and a number of issues regarding the regulation of this process and the addressing to the proteasome are still unresolved.

  11. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vector reference standards.

    PubMed

    Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O

    2012-01-01

    Reference standard materials (RSMs) exist for a variety of biologics including vaccines but are not readily available for gene therapy vectors. To date, a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 RSM (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized and was made available to the scientific community in 2010. In addition, a rAAV8 RSM has been produced and will be characterized in the coming months. The use of these reference materials by members of the gene therapy field facilitates the calibration of individual laboratory vector-specific internal standards and the eventual comparison of preclinical and clinical data based on common dosage units. Normalization of data to determine therapeutic dose ranges of rAAV vectors for each particular tissue target and disease indication is important information that can enhance the safety and protection of patients.

  12. Current Good Manufacturing Practice Production of an Oncolytic Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Viral Vector for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, M.; Derecho, I.; Lopez, P.; Knoblauch, C.; McMahon, R.; Anderson, J.; Dunphy, N.; Quezada, V.; Khan, R.; Huang, P.; Dang, W.; Luo, M.; Hsu, D.; Woo, S.L.C.; Couture, L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 109 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 1010 PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 1013 PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:21083425

  13. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  14. Heavy labeling of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Because of the cost of isotopic chemicals and heterologous proteins to produce, an economical 15N/13C isotopic labeling method is critically needed. Four protocols have been tested for the expression of Ovine interferon-tau in Pichia pastoris. 13C-glucose in place of 13C-glycerol as well as the need for 15N/13C-sources were evaluated during the growth phase. Sequential addition of 15NH4Cl and 13C-methanol were also evaluated at different ratio. Our results demonstrate that 15N/13C isotopes are not required throughout the initial growth period but are necessary at low concentration a few hours prior to the methanol induction period. We have evaluated the cost of the use of isotopes 15NH4Cl, 13C-glucose and 13C-methanol in our optimised P4 protocol conditions. The cost was one-third that of the standard method using 15NH4Cl and 13C-glucose throughout the entire growth period and was even lower using 13C-glycerol.

  15. VirusMINT: a viral protein interaction database

    PubMed Central

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Ceol, Arnaud; Peluso, Daniele; Nardozza, Aurelio; Panni, Simona; Sacco, Francesca; Tinti, Michele; Smolyar, Alex; Castagnoli, Luisa; Vidal, Marc; Cusick, Michael E.; Cesareni, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the consequences on host physiology induced by viral infection requires complete understanding of the perturbations caused by virus proteins on the cellular protein interaction network. The VirusMINT database (http://mint.bio.uniroma2.it/virusmint/) aims at collecting all protein interactions between viral and human proteins reported in the literature. VirusMINT currently stores over 5000 interactions involving more than 490 unique viral proteins from more than 110 different viral strains. The whole data set can be easily queried through the search pages and the results can be displayed with a graphical viewer. The curation effort has focused on manuscripts reporting interactions between human proteins and proteins encoded by some of the most medically relevant viruses: papilloma viruses, human immunodeficiency virus 1, Epstein–Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes viruses and Simian virus 40. PMID:18974184

  16. Recombinant protein scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M

    2012-02-01

    New biological materials for tissue engineering are now being developed using common genetic engineering capabilities to clone and express a variety of genetic elements that allow cost-effective purification and scaffold fabrication from these recombinant proteins, peptides or from chimeric combinations of these. The field is limitless as long as the gene sequences are known. The utility is dependent on the ease, product yield and adaptability of these protein products to the biomedical field. The development of recombinant proteins as scaffolds, while still an emerging technology with respect to commercial products, is scientifically superior to current use of natural materials or synthetic polymer scaffolds, in terms of designing specific structures with desired degrees of biological complexities and motifs. In the field of tissue engineering, next generation scaffolds will be the key to directing appropriate tissue regeneration. The initial period of biodegradable synthetic scaffolds that provided shape and mechanical integrity, but no biological information, is phasing out. The era of protein scaffolds offers distinct advantages, particularly with the combination of powerful tools of molecular biology. These include, for example, the production of human proteins of uniform quality that are free of infectious agents and the ability to make suitable quantities of proteins that are found in low quantity or are hard to isolate from tissue. For the particular needs of tissue engineering scaffolds, fibrous proteins like collagens, elastin, silks and combinations of these offer further advantages of natural well-defined structural scaffolds as well as endless possibilities of controlling functionality by genetic manipulation.

  17. Rapid, Simple, and Versatile Manufacturing of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors at Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Samanta, Arabinda; Toelen, Jaan; Debyser, Zeger

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated viral (AAV) manufacturing at scale continues to hinder the application of AAV technology to gene therapy studies. Although scalable systems based on AAV–adenovirus, AAV–herpesvirus, and AAV–baculovirus hybrids hold promise for clinical applications, they require time-consuming generation of reagents and are not highly suited to intermediate-scale preclinical studies in large animals, in which several combinations of serotype and genome may need to be tested. We observed that during production of many AAV serotypes, large amounts of vector are found in the culture supernatant, a relatively pure source of vector in comparison with cell-derived material. Here we describe a high-yielding, recombinant AAV production process based on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection of HEK293 cells and iodixanol gradient centrifugation of concentrated culture supernatant. The entire process can be completed in 1 week and the steps involved are universal for a number of different AAV serotypes. Process conditions have been optimized such that final purified yields are routinely greater than 1 × 1014 genome copies per run, with capsid protein purity exceeding 90%. Initial experiments with vectors produced by the new process demonstrate equivalent or better transduction both in vitro and in vivo when compared with small-scale, CsCl gradient-purified vectors. In addition, the iodixanol gradient purification process described effectively separates infectious particles from empty capsids, a desirable property for reducing toxicity and unwanted immune responses during preclinical studies. PMID:20497038

  18. Recombinant protein materials for bioengineering and nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Corchero, José Luis; Vázquez, Esther; García-Fruitós, Elena; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Villaverde, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Proteins are essential macromolecules supporting life. Being efficient catalyzers and offering specific cross-molecular contacts, proteins are largely exploited in biotechnology and biomedicine as therapeutics, in industrial catalysis or as molecular reagents. Recombinant enzymes, hormones, immunogens and antibodies are produced aiming to different applications, on the basis of their ability to interact with or modify substrates or biological targets. In nature, proteins also perform task-specific architectonic roles, and they can organize in supramolecular complexes with intriguing physical properties such as elasticity and adhesiveness, and with regulatable stiffness, flexibility and mechanical strength. Proteins have recently gained interest as materials for bioengineering and nanomedicine as they can combine these features with functionality, biocompatibility and degradability in unusually versatile composites. We revise here the fundamental properties of the diverse categories of emerging protein materials resulting from biological synthesis and how they can be genetically re-designed to engineer the interplay between mechanical and biological properties in a medically oriented exploitable way.

  19. Green biofactories: recombinant protein production in plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Adil; Pereira, Eridan O; Conley, Andrew J; Richman, Alex S; Menassa, Rima

    2010-11-01

    Until recently, low accumulation levels have been the major bottleneck for plant-made recombinant protein production. However, several breakthroughs have been described in the past few years allowing for very high accumulation levels, mainly through chloroplast transformation and transient expression, coupled with subcellular targeting and protein fusions. Another important factor influencing our ability to use plants for the production of recombinant proteins is the availability of quick and simple purification strategies. Recent developments using oleosin, zein, ELP and hydrophobin fusion tags have shown promise as efficient and cost-effective methods for non-chromatographic separation. Furthermore, plant glycosylation is a major barrier to the parenteral administration of plant-made biopharmaceuticals because of potential immunogenicity concerns. A major effort has been invested in humanizing plant glycosylation, and several groups have been able to reduce or eliminate immunogenic glycans while introducing mammalian-specific glycans. Finally, biosafety issues and public perception are essential for the acceptance of plants as bioreactors for the production of proteins. Over recent years, it has become clear that food and feed plants carry an inherent risk of contaminating our food supply, and thus much effort has focused on the use of non-food plants. Presently, Nicotiana benthamiana has emerged as the preferred host for transient expression, while tobacco is most frequently used for chloroplast transformation. In this review, we focus on the main issues hindering the economical production of recombinant proteins in plants, describing the current efforts for addressing these limitations, and we include an extensive list of recent patents generated with the intention of solving these limitations. PMID:21171961

  20. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the role of the viral polymerase in enterovirus recombination.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Andrew; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Evans, David J

    2016-08-19

    Genetic recombination in single-strand, positive-sense RNA viruses is a poorly understand mechanism responsible for generating extensive genetic change and novel phenotypes. By moving a critical cis-acting replication element (CRE) from the polyprotein coding region to the 3' non-coding region we have further developed a cell-based assay (the 3'CRE-REP assay) to yield recombinants throughout the non-structural coding region of poliovirus from dually transfected cells. We have additionally developed a defined biochemical assay in which the only protein present is the poliovirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which recapitulates the strand transfer events of the recombination process. We have used both assays to investigate the role of the polymerase fidelity and nucleotide turnover rates in recombination. Our results, of both poliovirus intertypic and intratypic recombination in the CRE-REP assay and using a range of polymerase variants in the biochemical assay, demonstrate that RdRp fidelity is a fundamental determinant of recombination frequency. High fidelity polymerases exhibit reduced recombination and low fidelity polymerases exhibit increased recombination in both assays. These studies provide the basis for the analysis of poliovirus recombination throughout the non-structural region of the virus genome and provide a defined biochemical assay to further dissect this important evolutionary process.

  1. Overview of the Purification of Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995 protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches many of which were described and mentioned in this unit and elsewhere in the book. In the interim there has been a shift towards an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein and whether to engineer a self cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification from the other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and apart from cell breakage methods, the protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. PMID:25829302

  2. Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes as a Live Vaccine Vehicle for the Induction of Protective Anti-Viral Cell-Mediated Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hao; Slifka, Mark K.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Jensen, Eric R.; Ahmed, Rafi; Miller, Jeff F.

    1995-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a Gram-positive bacterium that is able to enter host cells, escape from the endocytic vesicle, multiply within the cytoplasm, and spread directly from cell to cell without encountering the extracellular milieu. The ability of LM to gain access to the host cell cytosol allows proteins secreted by the bacterium to efficiently enter the pathway for major histocompatibility complex class I antigen processing and presentation. We have established a genetic system for expression and secretion of foreign antigens by recombinant strains, based on stable site-specific integration of expression cassettes into the LM genome. The ability of LM recombinants to induce protective immunity against a heterologous pathogen was demonstrated with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). LM strains expressing the entire LCMV nucleoprotein or an H-2L^d-restricted nucleoprotein epitope (aa 118-126) were constructed. Immunization of mice with LM vaccine strains conferred protection against challenge with virulent strains of LCMV that otherwise establish chronic infection in naive adult mice. In vivo depletion of CD8^+ T cells from vaccinated mice abrogated their ability to clear viral infection, showing that protective anti-viral immunity was due to CD8^+ T cells.

  3. Patents in therapeutic recombinant protein production using mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Picanco-Castro, Virginia; de Freitas, Marcela Cristina Correa; Bomfim, Aline de Sousa; de Sousa Russo, Elisa Maria

    2014-01-01

    The industrial production of recombinant proteins preferentially requires the generation of stable cell lines expressing proteins in a quick, relatively facile, and a reproducible manner. Different methods are used to insert exogenous DNA into the host cell, and choosing the appropriate producing cell is of paramount importance for the efficient production and quality of the recombinant protein. This review addresses the advances in recombinant protein production in mammalian cell lines, according to key patents from the last 30 years.

  4. Widespread Recombination, Reassortment, and Transmission of Unbalanced Compound Viral Genotypes in Natural Arenavirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stenglein, Mark D.; Jacobson, Elliott R.; Chang, Li-Wen; Sanders, Chris; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Guzman, David S-M.; Drazenovich, Tracy; Dunker, Freeland; Kamaka, Elizabeth K.; Fisher, Debbie; Reavill, Drury R.; Meola, Linda F.; Levens, Gregory; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses are one of the largest families of human hemorrhagic fever viruses and are known to infect both mammals and snakes. Arenaviruses package a large (L) and small (S) genome segment in their virions. For segmented RNA viruses like these, novel genotypes can be generated through mutation, recombination, and reassortment. Although it is believed that an ancient recombination event led to the emergence of a new lineage of mammalian arenaviruses, neither recombination nor reassortment has been definitively documented in natural arenavirus infections. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to survey the viral diversity present in captive arenavirus-infected snakes. From 48 infected animals, we determined the complete or near complete sequence of 210 genome segments that grouped into 23 L and 11 S genotypes. The majority of snakes were multiply infected, with up to 4 distinct S and 11 distinct L segment genotypes in individual animals. This S/L imbalance was typical: in all cases intrahost L segment genotypes outnumbered S genotypes, and a particular S segment genotype dominated in individual animals and at a population level. We corroborated sequencing results by qRT-PCR and virus isolation, and isolates replicated as ensembles in culture. Numerous instances of recombination and reassortment were detected, including recombinant segments with unusual organizations featuring 2 intergenic regions and superfluous content, which were capable of stable replication and transmission despite their atypical structures. Overall, this represents intrahost diversity of an extent and form that goes well beyond what has been observed for arenaviruses or for viruses in general. This diversity can be plausibly attributed to the captive intermingling of sub-clinically infected wild-caught snakes. Thus, beyond providing a unique opportunity to study arenavirus evolution and adaptation, these findings allow the investigation of unintended anthropogenic impacts on viral ecology

  5. Production of recombinant proteins by yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Celik, Eda; Calık, Pınar

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts are widely used in production of recombinant proteins of medical or industrial interest. For each individual product, the most suitable expression system has to be identified and optimized, both on the genetic and fermentative level, by taking into account the properties of the product, the organism and the expression cassette. There is a wide range of important yeast expression hosts including the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Yarrowia lipolytica and Arxula adeninivorans, with various characteristics such as being thermo-tolerant or halo-tolerant, rapidly reaching high cell densities or utilizing unusual carbon sources. Several strains were also engineered to have further advantages, such as humanized glycosylation pathways or lack of proteases. Additionally, with a large variety of vectors, promoters and selection markers to choose from, combined with the accumulated knowledge on industrial-scale fermentation techniques and the current advances in the post-genomic technology, it is possible to design more cost-effective expression systems in order to meet the increasing demand for recombinant proteins and glycoproteins. In this review, the present status of the main and most promising yeast expression systems is discussed. PMID:21964262

  6. Recombinant production of spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Heidebrecht, Aniela; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Natural spider silk fibers combine extraordinary properties such as stability and flexibility which results in a toughness superseding that of all other fiber materials. As the spider's aggressive territorial behavior renders their farming not feasible, the biotechnological production of spider silk proteins (spidroins) is essential in order to investigate and employ them for applications. In order to accomplish this task, two approaches have been tested: firstly, the expression of partial cDNAs, and secondly, the expression of synthetic genes in several host organisms, including bacteria, yeast, plants, insect cells, mammalian cells, and transgenic animals. The experienced problems include genetic instability, limitations of the translational and transcriptional machinery, and low solubility of the produced proteins. Here, an overview of attempts to recombinantly produce spidroins will be given, and advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches and host organisms will be discussed. PMID:23415154

  7. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Rich, Virginia I; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter.

  8. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics

    DOE PAGES

    Brum, Jennifer R.; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Kim, Eun -Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M.; Roux, Simon; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Rich, Virginia I.; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2016-02-16

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional darkmatter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore,more » four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Altogether, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter.« less

  9. Illuminating structural proteins in viral "dark matter" with metaproteomics.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Rich, Virginia I; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional "viral dark matter." Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world's oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter. PMID:26884177

  10. Murine cytomegalovirus protein pM79 is a key regulator for viral late transcription.

    PubMed

    Chapa, Travis J; Johnson, L Steven; Affolter, Christopher; Valentine, Mark C; Fehr, Anthony R; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Yu, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Herpesvirus genes are temporally expressed during permissive infections, but how their expression is regulated at late times is poorly understood. Previous studies indicate that the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) gene, UL79, is required for late gene expression. However, the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated, and UL79 homologues in other CMVs have not been studied. Here, we characterized the role of the conserved murine CMV (MCMV) gene M79. We showed that M79 encoded a protein (pM79) which was expressed with early-late kinetics and localized to nuclear viral replication compartments. M79 transcription was significantly decreased in the absence of viral DNA synthesis but markedly stimulated by pM79. To investigate its role, we created the recombinant virus SMin79, in which pM79 expression was disrupted. While marker-rescued virus grew efficiently in fibroblasts, SMin79 failed to produce infectious progeny but was rescued by pM79 expression in trans. During SMin79 infection, representative viral immediate-early and early gene products as well as viral DNA accumulated sufficiently. Formation of viral replication compartments also appeared normal. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the overall structure of replicating viral DNA was indistinguishable between wild-type and SMin79 infection. Viral tiled array and quantitative PCR analysis revealed that many late transcripts sensitive to a viral DNA synthesis inhibitor (phosphonoacetic acid) were markedly reduced by pM79 mutation. This study indicates that cytomegaloviruses use a conserved mechanism to promote transcription at late stages of infection and that pM79 is a critical regulator for at least a subset of viral DNA synthesis-dependent transcripts. PMID:23760242

  11. Recombinant HT.sub.m4 gene, protein and assays

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Bing; Adra, Chaker N.; Lelias, Jean-Michel

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT.sub.m4 protein and a recombinant HT.sub.m4 protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy.

  12. Streptomyces as host for recombinant production of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins.

    PubMed

    Vallin, Carlos; Ramos, Astrid; Pimienta, Elsa; Rodríguez, Caridad; Hernández, Tairí; Hernández, Ivones; Del Sol, Ricardo; Rosabal, Grisel; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Anné, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    The 45/47 kDa APA protein (Rv1860) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was produced by Streptomyces lividans. The recombinant protein could be recovered from the culture medium of an S. lividans clone containing the apa gene under control of the promoter and signal sequence of the Streptomyces coelicolor agarase gene. The recombinant protein production was further scaled-up using fermentation conditions. The APA protein was subsequently purified from the culture supernatant by means of immunochromatography. About 80 mg of recombinant protein were obtained per liter of culture media. In vivo tests with the APA protein purified from S. lividans TK24/pRGAPA1 revealed that the recombinant protein was antigenic and could induce high titers of specific antibodies in the mouse biological model. Results obtained concerning heterologous production of APA, its immunogenic and antigenic capacity, demonstrated the potential of S. lividans as a valuable host for the production of recombinant proteins from M. tuberculosis.

  13. Recombinant protein production and insect cell culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas (Inventor); Francis, Karen (Inventor); Andrews, Angela (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using the cultured insect cells as host for a virus encoding the described polypeptide such as baculovirus. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  14. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  15. Viral Capsid Proteins Are Segregated in Structural Fold Space

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shanshan; Brooks, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Viral capsid proteins assemble into large, symmetrical architectures that are not found in complexes formed by their cellular counterparts. Given the prevalence of the signature jelly-roll topology in viral capsid proteins, we are interested in whether these functionally unique capsid proteins are also structurally unique in terms of folds. To explore this question, we applied a structure-alignment based clustering of all protein chains in VIPERdb filtered at 40% sequence identity to identify distinct capsid folds, and compared the cluster medoids with a non-redundant subset of protein domains in the SCOP database, not including the viral capsid entries. This comparison, using Template Modeling (TM)-score, identified 2078 structural “relatives” of capsid proteins from the non-capsid set, covering altogether 210 folds following the definition in SCOP. The statistical significance of the 210 folds shared by two sets of the same sizes, estimated from 10,000 permutation tests, is less than 0.0001, which is an upper bound on the p-value. We thus conclude that viral capsid proteins are segregated in structural fold space. Our result provides novel insight on how structural folds of capsid proteins, as opposed to their surface chemistry, might be constrained during evolution by requirement of the assembled cage-like architecture. Also importantly, our work highlights a guiding principle for virus-based nanoplatform design in a wide range of biomedical applications and materials science. PMID:23408879

  16. Expression of the surface glycoprotein E2 of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Köhl, Wiebke; Gröne, Andrea; Moennig, Volker; Herrler, Georg

    2007-01-01

    This study analysed the transport behaviour of the glycoprotein E2 of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressed from recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV). E2 protein was found to be retained at an intracellular compartment. A chimeric protein containing the membrane anchor and cytoplasmic tail of the VSV G protein, E2-G(MT), was transported to the cell surface. Only the latter protein was incorporated into rVSV particles in significant amounts. A soluble form of E2 lacking the membrane anchor, E2(MTdel), appeared to be affected in conformational stability. In contrast to both membrane-anchored forms of E2, expression of the soluble form was detectable only by immunofluorescence microscopy but not by Western blotting. These results are in agreement with reports of intracellular retention of the E2 protein due to a retention signal in the membrane anchor. However, in another analysis of E2 expressed from rVSV, E2 protein was reported to be transported to the cell surface and incorporated into VSV particles [Grigera, P. R., Marzocca, M. P., Capozzo, A. V. E., Buonocore, L., Donis, R. O. & Rose, J. K. (2000). Virus Res 69, 3-15]. Reasons for these contradictory results are discussed. PMID:17170448

  17. Aquareovirus NS80 Initiates Efficient Viral Replication by Retaining Core Proteins within Replication-Associated Viral Inclusion Bodies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liming; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Yan, Shicui; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) are specific intracellular compartments for reoviruses replication and assembly. Aquareovirus nonstructural protein NS80 has been identified to be the major constituent for forming globular VIBs in our previous study. In this study, we investigated the role of NS80 in viral structural proteins expression and viral replication. Immunofluorescence assays showed that NS80 could retain five core proteins or inner-capsid proteins (VP1-VP4 and VP6), but not outer-capsid proteins (VP5 and VP7), within VIBs in co-transfected or infected cells. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that NS80 could interact with each core protein respectively. In addition, we found that newly synthesized viral RNAs co-localized with VIBs. Furthermore, time-course analysis of viral structural proteins expression showed that the expression of NS80 was detected first, followed by the detection of inner shell protein VP3, and then of other inner-capsid proteins, suggesting that VIBs were essential for the formation of viral core frame or progeny virion. Moreover, knockdown of NS80 by shRNA not only inhibited the expression of aquareovirus structural proteins, but also inhibited viral infection. These results indicated that NS80-based VIBs were formed at earlier stage of infection, and NS80 was able to coordinate the expression of viral structural proteins and viral replication.

  18. Elastomeric Recombinant Protein-based Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Mithieux, Suzanne M.; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Weiss, Anthony S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Elastomeric protein-based biomaterials, produced from elastin derivatives, are widely investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds due to their remarkable properties including substantial extensibility, long-term stability, self-assembly, high resilience upon stretching, low energy loss, and excellent biological activity. These elastomers are processed from different sources of soluble elastin such as animal-derived soluble elastin, recombinant human tropoelastin, and elastin-like polypeptides into various forms including three dimensional (3D) porous hydrogels, elastomeric films, and fibrous electrospun scaffolds. Elastin-based biomaterials have shown great potential for the engineering of elastic tissues such as skin, lung and vasculature. In this review, the synthesis and properties of various elastin-based elastomers with their applications in tissue engineering are described. PMID:23935392

  19. Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Manon M J

    2012-02-27

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well known tool for the production of complex proteins. The technology is also used for commercial manufacture of various veterinary and human vaccines. This review paper provides an overview of how this technology can be applied to produce a multitude of vaccine candidates. The key advantage of this recombinant protein manufacturing platform is that a universal "plug and play" process may be used for producing a broad range of protein-based prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for both human and veterinary use while offering the potential for low manufacturing costs. Large scale mammalian cell culture facilities previously established for the manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies that have now become obsolete due to yield improvement could be deployed for the manufacturing of these vaccines. Alternatively, manufacturing capacity could be established in geographic regions that do not have any vaccine production capability. Dependent on health care priorities, different vaccines could be manufactured while maintaining the ability to rapidly convert to producing pandemic influenza vaccine when the need arises. PMID:22265860

  20. Anti-Viral Antibody Profiling by High Density Protein Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xiaofang; Wiktor, Peter; Kahn, Peter; Brunner, Al; Khela, Amritpal; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Barker, Kristi; Yu, Xiaobo; Magee, Mitch; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Gibson, David; Rooney, Madeleine E; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections elicit anti-viral antibodies and have been associated with various chronic diseases. Detection of these antibodies can facilitate diagnosis, treatment of infection and understanding of the mechanisms of virus associated diseases. In this work, we assayed anti-viral antibodies using a novel high density-nucleic acid programmable protein array (HD-NAPPA) platform. Individual viral proteins were expressed in situ directly from plasmids encoding proteins in an array of microscopic reaction chambers. Quality of protein display and serum response was assured by comparing intra- and inter- array correlation within or between printing batches with average correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. HD-NAPPA showed higher signal to background (S/B) ratio compared with standard NAPPA on planar glass slides and ELISA. Antibody responses to 761 antigens from 25 different viruses were profiled among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Common as well as unique antibody reactivity patterns were detected between patients and healthy controls. We believe HD-viral-NAPPA will enable the study of host-pathogen interactions at unprecedented dimensions and elucidate the role of pathogen infections in disease development. PMID:25758251

  1. Discovery of host-viral protein complexes during infection

    PubMed Central

    Rowles, Daniell L.; Terhune, Scott S.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Viruses have co-evolved with their hosts, developing effective approaches for hijacking and manipulating host cellular processes. Therefore, for their efficient replication and spread, viruses depend on dynamic and temporally-regulated interactions with host proteins. The rapid identification of host proteins targeted by viral proteins during infection provides significant insights into mechanisms of viral protein function. The resulting discoveries often lead to unique and innovative hypotheses on viral protein function. Here, we describe a robust method for identifying virus-host protein interactions and protein complexes, which we have successfully utilized to characterize spatial-temporal protein interactions during infections with either DNA or RNA viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), pseudorabies virus (PRV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), Sindbis, and West Nile virus (WNV). This approach involves cryogenic cell lysis, rapid immunoaffinity purification targeting a virus or host protein, followed by identification of associated proteins using mass spectrometry. Like most proteomic approaches, this methodology has evolved over the past few years and continues to evolve. We are presenting here the updated approaches for each step, and discuss alternative strategies allowing for the protocol to be optimized for different biological systems. PMID:23996249

  2. Construction and characterization of a recombinant reticuloendotheliosis virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyun; Hu, Feng; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Yongqiang; Shen, Nan; Hua, Yuping; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-09-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an immunosuppressive and oncogenic disease in chickens and other birds. In this study, based on an infectious clone of REV, named HLJR0901, a recombinant virus containing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene was constructed by inserting the EGFP expression cassette downstream of the 3' terminus of the viral env gene. An EGFP-tagged REV that stably expresses EGFP was rescued. This visible recombinant REV could contribute to the further understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in the replication and pathogenicity of REV.

  3. A Versatile Viral System for Expression and Depletion of Proteins in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Eric; Ruhl, Victoria E.; Rodier, Francis; Smith, Corey L.; Rahmberg, Brittany L.; Fuss, Jill O.; Campisi, Judith; Yaswen, Paul; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Kaufman, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to express or deplete proteins in living cells is crucial for the study of biological processes. Viral vectors are often useful to deliver DNA constructs to cells that are difficult to transfect by other methods. Lentiviruses have the additional advantage of being able to integrate into the genomes of non-dividing mammalian cells. However, existing viral expression systems generally require different vector backbones for expression of cDNA, small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) and provide limited drug selection markers. Furthermore, viral backbones are often recombinogenic in bacteria, complicating the generation and maintenance of desired clones. Here, we describe a collection of 59 vectors that comprise an integrated system for constitutive or inducible expression of cDNAs, shRNAs or miRNAs, and use a wide variety of drug selection markers. These vectors are based on the Gateway technology (Invitrogen) whereby the cDNA, shRNA or miRNA of interest is cloned into an Entry vector and then recombined into a Destination vector that carries the chosen viral backbone and drug selection marker. This recombination reaction generates the desired product with >95% efficiency and greatly reduces the frequency of unwanted recombination in bacteria. We generated Destination vectors for the production of both retroviruses and lentiviruses. Further, we characterized each vector for its viral titer production as well as its efficiency in expressing or depleting proteins of interest. We also generated multiple types of vectors for the production of fusion proteins and confirmed expression of each. We demonstrated the utility of these vectors in a variety of functional studies. First, we show that the FKBP12 Destabilization Domain system can be used to either express or deplete the protein of interest in mitotically-arrested cells. Also, we generate primary fibroblasts that can be induced to senesce in the presence or absence of DNA damage. Finally, we

  4. Intercompartmental recombination of HIV-1 contributes to env intrahost diversity and modulates viral tropism and sensitivity to entry inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard J P; Peters, Paul J; Caron, Catherine; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria Paz; Stones, Leanne; Ankghuambom, Chiambah; Pondei, Kemebradikumo; McClure, C Patrick; Alemnji, George; Taylor, Stephen; Sharp, Paul M; Clapham, Paul R; Ball, Jonathan K

    2011-06-01

    HIV-1 circulates within an infected host as a genetically heterogeneous viral population. Viral intrahost diversity is shaped by substitutional evolution and recombination. Although many studies have speculated that recombination could have a significant impact on viral phenotype, this has never been definitively demonstrated. We report here phylogenetic and subsequent phenotypic analyses of envelope genes obtained from HIV-1 populations present in different anatomical compartments. Assessment of env compartmentalization from immunologically discrete tissues was assessed utilizing a single genome amplification approach, minimizing in vitro-generated artifacts. Genetic compartmentalization of variants was frequently observed. In addition, multiple incidences of intercompartment recombination, presumably facilitated by low-level migration of virus or infected cells between different anatomic sites and coinfection of susceptible cells by genetically divergent strains, were identified. These analyses demonstrate that intercompartment recombination is a fundamental evolutionary mechanism that helps to shape HIV-1 env intrahost diversity in natural infection. Analysis of the phenotypic consequences of these recombination events showed that genetic compartmentalization often correlates with phenotypic compartmentalization and that intercompartment recombination results in phenotype modulation. This represents definitive proof that recombination can generate novel combinations of phenotypic traits which differ subtly from those of parental strains, an important phenomenon that may have an impact on antiviral therapy and contribute to HIV-1 persistence in vivo.

  5. Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3); Construction and rescue of an infectious, recombinant virus expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this protocol, the process of inserting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene into the human parainfluenza vi...

  6. Recombinant Protein Production by In Vivo Polymer Inclusion Display ▿

    PubMed Central

    Grage, Katrin; Peters, Verena; Rehm, Bernd H. A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to produce purified recombinant proteins was established. The target protein is produced as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase fusion protein, which mediates intracellular formation of PHA inclusions displaying the target protein. After isolation of the PHA inclusions, the pure target protein was released by simple enterokinase digestion. PMID:21803888

  7. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  8. Serotype-dependent transduction efficiencies of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in monkey neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Gerits, Annelies; Vancraeyenest, Pascaline; Vreysen, Samme; Laramée, Marie-Eve; Michiels, Annelies; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Moons, Lieve; Debyser, Zeger; Baekelandt, Veerle; Arckens, Lutgarde; Vanduffel, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Viral vector-mediated expression of genes (e.g., coding for opsins and designer receptors) has grown increasingly popular. Cell-type specific expression is achieved by altering viral vector tropism through crosspackaging or by cell-specific promoters driving gene expression. Detailed information about transduction properties of most recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) serotypes in macaque cortex is gradually becoming available. Here, we compare transduction efficiencies and expression patterns of reporter genes in two macaque neocortical areas employing different rAAV serotypes and promoters. A short version of the calmodulin-kinase-II (CaMKIIα0.4) promoter resulted in reporter gene expression in cortical neurons for all tested rAAVs, albeit with different efficiencies for spread: rAAV2/5>>rAAV2/7>rAAV2/8>rAAV2/9>>rAAV2/1 and proportion of transduced cells: rAAV2/1>rAAV2/5>rAAV2/7=rAAV2/9>rAAV2/8. In contrast to rodent studies, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter appeared least efficient in macaque cortex. The human synapsin-1 promoter preceded by the CMV enhancer (enhSyn1) produced homogeneous reporter gene expression across all layers, while two variants of the CaMKIIα promoter resulted in different laminar transduction patterns and cell specificities. Finally, differences in expression patterns were observed when the same viral vector was injected in two neocortical areas. Our results corroborate previous findings that reporter-gene expression patterns and efficiency of rAAV transduction depend on serotype, promoter, cortical layer, and area. PMID:26839901

  9. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    PubMed

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells.

  10. Theoretical studies of viral capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Phelps, D K; Speelman, B; Post, C B

    2000-04-01

    Recent results in structural biology and increases in computer power have prompted initial theoretical studies on capsids of nonenveloped icosahedral viruses. The macromolecular assembly of 60 to 180 protein copies into a protein shell results in a structure of considerable size for molecular dynamics simulations. Nonetheless, progress has been made in examining these capsid assemblies from molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic models. The goals of these studies are to understand capsid function and structural properties, including quarternary structural stability, effects of antiviral compounds that bind the capsid and the self-assembly process. The insight that can be gained from the detailed information provided by simulations is demonstrated in studies of human rhinovirus; an entropic basis for the antiviral activity of hydrophobic compounds, predicted from calculated compressibility values, has been corroborated by experimental measurements on poliovirus. PMID:10753813

  11. Viral potassium channels as a robust model system for studies of membrane-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian J; Lachnit, Christine; Becker, Patrick; Henkes, Leonhard M; Arrigoni, Cristina; Kast, Stefan M; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard; Schroeder, Indra

    2014-04-01

    The viral channel KcvNTS belongs to the smallest K(+) channels known so far. A monomer of a functional homotetramer contains only 82 amino acids. As a consequence of the small size the protein is almost fully submerged into the membrane. This suggests that the channel is presumably sensitive to its lipid environment. Here we perform a comparative analysis for the function of the channel protein embedded in three different membrane environments. 1. Single-channel currents of KcvNTS were recorded with the patch clamp method on the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells. 2. They were also measured after reconstitution of recombinant channel protein into classical planar lipid bilayers and 3. into horizontal bilayers derived from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). The recombinant channel protein was either expressed and purified from Pichia pastoris or from a cell-free expression system; for the latter a new approach with nanolipoprotein particles was used. The data show that single-channel activity can be recorded under all experimental conditions. The main functional features of the channel like a large single-channel conductance (80pS), high open-probability (>50%) and the approximate duration of open and closed dwell times are maintained in all experimental systems. An apparent difference between the approaches was only observed with respect to the unitary conductance, which was ca. 35% lower in HEK293 cells than in the other systems. The reason for this might be explained by the fact that the channel is tagged by GFP when expressed in HEK293 cells. Collectively the data demonstrate that the small viral channel exhibits a robust function in different experimental systems. This justifies an extrapolation of functional data from these systems to the potential performance of the channel in the virus/host interaction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Viral Membrane Proteins-Channels for Cellular Networking. PMID:23791706

  12. Scaffolding proteins and their role in viral assembly.

    PubMed

    Dokland, T

    1999-11-15

    Scaffolding proteins are proteins that are required to catalyse, regulate or modulate some step in the assembly of a macromolecular complex. They associate specifically with the nascent protein complex during assembly, but are subsequently removed, and are absent from the mature structure. Scaffolding proteins have been described primarily from viral systems, in particular from the double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, but most likely play a more general role in macromolecular assembly, a fundamental process in all biological systems. Scaffolding proteins may act in a specific fashion, by actively encouraging the formation of correct protein-protein interactions, or more generally by nucleating and promoting assembly. They may also work to ensure the fidelity of the assembly process by preventing the formation of improper interactions, in many ways similar to the role of molecular chaperones in protein folding. In viruses, scaffolding proteins are found both in the form of internal cores and external bracing, and may form elaborate and complex structures. This review will focus on the viral scaffolding proteins, for which an increasing amount of structural and functional information has recently become available. PMID:11212308

  13. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  14. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  15. Recombinant HT{sub m4} gene, protein and assays

    DOEpatents

    Lim, B.; Adra, C.N.; Lelias, J.M.

    1996-09-03

    The invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein, a transformed host cell which has been stably transfected with a DNA molecule which encodes a HT{sub m4} protein and a recombinant HT{sub m4} protein. The invention also relates to a method for detecting the presence of a hereditary atopy. 2 figs.

  16. Rescuing Recombinant Proteins by Sequestration Into the P22 VLP

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dustin P.; LaFrance, Benjamin; Douglas, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the use of a self-assembling protein cage to sequester and solubilize recombinant proteins which are usually trafficked to insoluble inclusion bodies. Our results suggest that protein cages can be used as novel vehicles to rescue and produce soluble proteins that are otherwise difficult to obtain using conventional methods. PMID:24079011

  17. Production and secretion of recombinant proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, W; Williams, K L; Slade, M B

    1994-06-01

    We have expressed useful amounts of three recombinant proteins in a new eukaryotic host/vector system. The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum efficiently secreted two recombinant products, a soluble form of the normally cell surface associated D. discoideum glycoprotein (PsA) and the heterologous protein glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, while the enzyme beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli was cell associated. Up to 20mg/l of recombinant PsA and 1mg/l of GST were obtained after purification from a standard, peptone based growth medium. The secretion signal peptide was correctly cleaved from the recombinant GST- and PsA-proteins and the expression of recombinant PsA was shown to be stable for at least one hundred generations in the absence of selection. PMID:7764951

  18. Analytical Ultracentrifugation as an Approach to Characterize Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Brenda; Nass, Shelley; Kong, Elton; Mattingly, MaryEllen; Woodcock, Denise; Song, Antonius; Wadsworth, Samuel; Cheng, Seng H; Scaria, Abraham; O'Riordan, Catherine R

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors represent a novel class of biopharmaceutical drugs. The production of clinical-grade rAAV vectors for gene therapy would benefit from analytical methods that are able to monitor drug product quality with regard to homogeneity, purity, and manufacturing consistency. Here, we demonstrate the novel application of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) to characterize the homogeneity of preparations of rAAV vectors. We show that a single sedimentation velocity run of rAAV vectors detected and quantified a number of different viral species, such as vectors harboring an intact genome, lacking a vector genome (empty particles), and containing fragmented or incomplete vector genomes. This information is obtained by direct boundary modeling of the AUC data generated from refractometric or UV detection systems using the computer program SEDFIT. Using AUC, we show that multiple parameters contributed to vector quality, including the AAV genome form (i.e., self-complementary vs. single-stranded), vector genome size, and the production and purification methods. Hence, AUC is a critical tool for identifying optimal production and purification processes and for monitoring the physical attributes of rAAV vectors to ensure their quality.

  19. Protein modification during anti-viral heat-treatment bioprocessing of factor VIII concentrates, factor IX concentrates, and model proteins in the presence of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Smales, C Mark; Pepper, Duncan S; James, David C

    2002-01-01

    To ensure the optimal safety of plasma derived and new generation recombinant proteins, heat treatment is customarily applied in the manufacturing of such biopharmaceuticals as a means of viral inactivation. In subjecting proteins to anti-viral heat-treatment it is necessary to use high concentrations of thermostabilizing excipients to prevent protein damage, and it is therefore imperative that the correct balance between bioprocessing conditions, maintenance of protein integrity and virus kill is found. In this study we have utilized model proteins (lysozyme, fetuin, and human serum albumin) and plasma-derived therapeutic proteins (factor VIII and factor IX) to investigate the protein modifications that occur during anti-viral heat treatment. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between bioprocessing conditions and the type and extent of protein modification under a variety of industrially relevant wet and lyophilized heat treatments using sucrose as a thermostabilizing agent. Heat treatment led to the formation of disulfide crosslinks and aggregates in proteins containing free cysteine residues. Terminal oligosaccharide sialic acid residues were hydrolyzed from the glycan moieties of glycoproteins during anti-viral heat treatment. Heat treatment promoted sucrose hydrolysis to yield glucose and fructose, leading, in turn, to the glycation of lysine amino groups in those proteins containing di-lysine motifs. During extended hear treatments, 1,2-dicarbonyl type advanced glycation end-products were also formed. Glycation-type modifications were more prevalent in wet heat-treated protein formulations.

  20. The effect of IL-2 expression by recombinant Newcastle disease virus on host immune response, viral replication and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a soluble cytokine that stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. Virus constructs, such as recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing chicken IL-2 have been shown to improve viral clearance by natural killer cells in mice. We have inserted the open-reading frame of the chi...

  1. The N-Terminal of Aquareovirus NS80 Is Required for Interacting with Viral Proteins and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qingxiu; Zhang, Fuxian; Fang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Reovirus replication and assembly occurs within viral inclusion bodies that formed in specific intracellular compartments of cytoplasm in infected cells. Previous study indicated that aquareovirus NS80 is able to form inclusion bodies, and also can retain viral proteins within its inclusions. To better understand how NS80 performed in viral replication and assembly, the functional regions of NS80 associated with other viral proteins in aquareovirus replication were investigated in this study. Deletion mutational analysis and rotavirus NSP5-based protein association platform were used to detect association regions. Immunofluorescence images indicated that different N-terminal regions of NS80 could associate with viral proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 and NS38. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the interaction between VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 with different regions covering the N-terminal amino acid (aa, 1–471) of NS80, respectively. Moreover, removal of NS80 N-terminal sequences required for interaction with proteins VP1, VP4, VP6 or NS38 not only prevented the capacity of NS80 to support viral replication in NS80 shRNA-based replication complementation assays, but also inhibited the expression of aquareovirus proteins, suggesting that N-terminal regions of NS80 are necessary for viral replication. These results provided a foundational basis for further understanding the role of NS80 in viral replication and assembly during aquareovirus infection. PMID:26871941

  2. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, Christian A. W.; Nielsen, Sandra C. Abel; Samaniego, Jose Alfredo; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions remain, including the full biological ancestry of the virus, and its geographical and temporal origin. Methodology: We sequenced near-complete genomes of 27 SVDV and 13 coxsackievirus B5 samples, all originally isolated between 1966 and 2006, and analysed these in conjunction with existing sequences and historical information. Results: While analyses incorporating 24 additional near-complete SVDV genomic sequences indicate clear signs of within-SVDV recombination, all 51 SVDV isolates remain monophyletic. This supports a hypothesis of a single anthroponotic transfer origin. Analysis of individual coding and non-coding regions supports that SVDV has a recombinant origin between coxsackievirus B5 and another Enterovirus B serotype, most likely coxsackievirus A9. Extensive Bayesian sequence-based analysis of the time of the most recent common ancestor of all analysed sequences places this within a few years around 1961. Epidemiological evidence points to China as an origin, but there are no available samples to test this conclusively. Conclusions and implications: Historical investigation and the clinical aspects of the involved Enterovirus B serotypes, makes the current results consistent with a hypothesis stating that SVDV originated through co-infection, recombination, and a single anthroponotic event, during large viral meningitis epidemics around 1960/1961 involving the ancestral serotypes. The exact geographical origin of SVDV may remain untestable due to historical aspects. PMID:26508717

  3. Challenges and opportunities in the purification of recombinant tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Pina, Ana Sofia; Lowe, Christopher R; Roque, Ana Cecília A

    2014-01-01

    The purification of recombinant proteins by affinity chromatography is one of the most efficient strategies due to the high recovery yields and purity achieved. However, this is dependent on the availability of specific affinity adsorbents for each particular target protein. The diversity of proteins to be purified augments the complexity and number of specific affinity adsorbents needed, and therefore generic platforms for the purification of recombinant proteins are appealing strategies. This justifies why genetically encoded affinity tags became so popular for recombinant protein purification, as these systems only require specific ligands for the capture of the fusion protein through a pre-defined affinity tag tail. There is a wide range of available affinity pairs "tag-ligand" combining biological or structural affinity ligands with the respective binding tags. This review gives a general overview of the well-established "tag-ligand" systems available for fusion protein purification and also explores current unconventional strategies under development. PMID:24334194

  4. Evidence of recombination in quasispecies populations of a Hepatitis C Virus patient undergoing anti-viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, María P; Casane, Didier; López, Lilia; Cristina, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. HCV circulates in vivo as a complex population of different but closely related viral variants, commonly referred to as a quasispecies. The extent to which recombination plays a role in the evolution of HCV quasispecies when patients are undergoing anti-viral therapy is currently unknown. In order to gain insight into these matters, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis of HCV quasispecies populations from six patients undergoing anti-viral therapy. Methods Putative recombinant sequences were identified with the use of SimPlot program. Recombination events were confirmed by bootscaning, using putative recombinant sequence as a query. Statistical support for the presence of a recombination event was done by the use of LARD program. Results A crossing-over event in the NS5A gene in a HCV strain recovered after four weeks of treatment was identified in quasispecies from a patient with sustained response. Putative parental-like strains were identified as strains circulating in previous weeks on the same patient. Conclusion Only one recombinant strain was detected in all patient quasispecies populations studied. The recombination break-point is situated on the PKR-binding region of NS5A. Although recombination may not appeared to be extensive in NS5A genes of HCV quasispecies populations of patients undergoing antiviral therapy, this possibility should be taken into account as a mechanism of genetic variation for HCV. PMID:17062150

  5. Limited Interference at the Early Stage of Infection between Two Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses: Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Lamoureux, Annie; Mérour, Emilie; Bernard, Julie; Brémont, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The genome sequence of a hypervirulent novirhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) French strain 23-75, was determined. Compared to the genome of the prototype Fil3 strain, a number of substitutions, deletions, and insertions were observed. Following the establishment of a plasmid-based minigenome replication assay, recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was successfully recovered. rVHSV exhibits wild-type-like growth properties in vitro as well as in vivo in rainbow trout. The dispensable role of NV for the novirhabdovirus replication was confirmed by generating rVHSV-ΔNV, in which the NV gene was deleted. This deletion mutant was shown to be as debilitated as that previously described for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a distantly related novirhabdovirus (S. Biacchesi, M. I. Thoulouze, M. Bearzotti, Y. X. Yu, and M. Bremont, J. Virol. 74:11247-11253, 2000). Recombinant VHSV and IHNV expressing tdTomato and GFPmax reporter genes, respectively, were generated, demonstrating the potential of these rhabdoviruses to serve as viral vectors. Interestingly, rIHNV-GFPmax could be recovered using the replicative complex proteins of either virus, whereas rVHSV-Tomato could be recovered only by using its own replicative complex, reflecting that the genome signal sequences of VHSV are relatively distant from those of IHNV and do not allow their cross-recognition. Moreover, the use of heterologous protein combinations underlined the importance of strong protein-protein interactions for the formation of a functional ribonucleoprotein complex. The rIHNV-GFPmax and rVHSV-Tomato viruses were used to simultaneously coinfect cell monolayers. It was observed that up to 74% of the cell monolayer was coinfected by both viruses, demonstrating that a limited interference phenomenon exists during the early stage of primary infection, and it was not mediated by a cellular antiviral protein or by some of the viral proteins. PMID:20631140

  6. Recombination between poliovirus and coxsackie A viruses of species C: a model of viral genetic plasticity and emergence.

    PubMed

    Combelas, Nicolas; Holmblat, Barbara; Joffret, Marie-Line; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2011-08-01

    Genetic recombination in RNA viruses was discovered many years ago for poliovirus (PV), an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family, and studied using PV or other picornaviruses as models. Recently, recombination was shown to be a general phenomenon between different types of enteroviruses of the same species. In particular, the interest for this mechanism of genetic plasticity was renewed with the emergence of pathogenic recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which were implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in several regions of the world with insufficient vaccination coverage. Most of these cVDPVs had mosaic genomes constituted of mutated poliovaccine capsid sequences and part or all of the non-structural sequences from other human enteroviruses of species C (HEV-C), in particular coxsackie A viruses. A study in Madagascar showed that recombinant cVDPVs had been co-circulating in a small population of children with many different HEV-C types. This viral ecosystem showed a surprising and extensive biodiversity associated to several types and recombinant genotypes, indicating that intertypic genetic recombination was not only a mechanism of evolution for HEV-C, but an usual mode of genetic plasticity shaping viral diversity. Results suggested that recombination may be, in conjunction with mutations, implicated in the phenotypic diversity of enterovirus strains and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. Nevertheless, little is known about the rules and mechanisms which govern genetic exchanges between HEV-C types, as well as about the importance of intertypic recombination in generating phenotypic variation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms of evolution of PV, in particular recombination events leading to the emergence of recombinant cVDPVs.

  7. Uncovering viral protein-protein interactions and their role in arenavirus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M; López, Nora

    2012-09-01

    The Arenaviridae family includes widely distributed pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Replication and packaging of their single-stranded RNA genome involve RNA recognition by viral proteins and a number of key protein-protein interactions. Viral RNA synthesis is directed by the virus-encoded RNA dependent-RNA polymerase (L protein) and requires viral RNA encapsidation by the Nucleoprotein. In addition to the role that the interaction between L and the Nucleoprotein may have in the replication process, polymerase activity appears to be modulated by the association between L and the small multifunctional Z protein. Z is also a structural component of the virions that plays an essential role in viral morphogenesis. Indeed, interaction of the Z protein with the Nucleoprotein is critical for genome packaging. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that binding between Z and the viral envelope glycoprotein complex is required for virion infectivity, and that Z homo-oligomerization is an essential step for particle assembly and budding. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of arenavirus life cycle have revealed important details on these viral protein-protein interactions that will be reviewed in this article. PMID:23170177

  8. Uncovering Viral Protein-Protein Interactions and their Role in Arenavirus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; D’Antuono, Alejandra; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M.; López, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The Arenaviridae family includes widely distributed pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Replication and packaging of their single-stranded RNA genome involve RNA recognition by viral proteins and a number of key protein-protein interactions. Viral RNA synthesis is directed by the virus-encoded RNA dependent-RNA polymerase (L protein) and requires viral RNA encapsidation by the Nucleoprotein. In addition to the role that the interaction between L and the Nucleoprotein may have in the replication process, polymerase activity appears to be modulated by the association between L and the small multifunctional Z protein. Z is also a structural component of the virions that plays an essential role in viral morphogenesis. Indeed, interaction of the Z protein with the Nucleoprotein is critical for genome packaging. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that binding between Z and the viral envelope glycoprotein complex is required for virion infectivity, and that Z homo-oligomerization is an essential step for particle assembly and budding. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of arenavirus life cycle have revealed important details on these viral protein-protein interactions that will be reviewed in this article. PMID:23170177

  9. Uncovering viral protein-protein interactions and their role in arenavirus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Maria Eugenia; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M; López, Nora

    2012-09-01

    The Arenaviridae family includes widely distributed pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Replication and packaging of their single-stranded RNA genome involve RNA recognition by viral proteins and a number of key protein-protein interactions. Viral RNA synthesis is directed by the virus-encoded RNA dependent-RNA polymerase (L protein) and requires viral RNA encapsidation by the Nucleoprotein. In addition to the role that the interaction between L and the Nucleoprotein may have in the replication process, polymerase activity appears to be modulated by the association between L and the small multifunctional Z protein. Z is also a structural component of the virions that plays an essential role in viral morphogenesis. Indeed, interaction of the Z protein with the Nucleoprotein is critical for genome packaging. Furthermore, current evidence suggests that binding between Z and the viral envelope glycoprotein complex is required for virion infectivity, and that Z homo-oligomerization is an essential step for particle assembly and budding. Efforts to understand the molecular basis of arenavirus life cycle have revealed important details on these viral protein-protein interactions that will be reviewed in this article.

  10. Utilizing Protein-lean Co-products from Corn Containing Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were used to produce fuel ethanol and residual r-proteins in the co-product, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein ...

  11. Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

  12. Controlled Assembly of Viral Surface Proteins into Biological Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani-Webster, Eri

    In recent years, therapeutic use of engineered particles on the 1-1,000 nm scale has gained popularity; these nanoparticles have been developed for use in drug delivery, gene therapy, vaccine preparation, and diagnostics. Often, viral proteins are utilized in the design of such species, and outlined here are completed studies on the in vitro assembly of nanoparticles derived from two very different viral systems. The incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein precursor gp160 into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs is discussed as a potential platform for vaccine design; efforts were successful, however yield currently limits the practical application of this approach. The utility of bacteriophage lambda procapsids and virus-like particles in therapeutic nanoparticle design is also outlined, as are efforts toward the structural and thermodynamic characterization of a urea-triggered capsid maturation event. It is demonstrated that lambda virus-like particles can be assembled from purified capsid and scaffolding proteins, and that these particles undergo urea-triggered maturation and in vitro decoration protein addition similar to that seen in lambda procapsids. The studies on lambda provided materials for the further development of nanoparticles potentially useful in a clinical setting, as well as shedding light on critical viral assembly and maturation events as they may take place in vivo.

  13. QA-RecombineIt: a server for quality assessment and recombination of protein models

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Marcin; Bogdanowicz, Albert; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2013-01-01

    QA-RecombineIt provides a web interface to assess the quality of protein 3D structure models and to improve the accuracy of models by merging fragments of multiple input models. QA-RecombineIt has been developed for protein modelers who are working on difficult problems, have a set of different homology models and/or de novo models (from methods such as I-TASSER or ROSETTA) and would like to obtain one consensus model that incorporates the best parts into one structure that is internally coherent. An advanced mode is also available, in which one can modify the operation of the fragment recombination algorithm by manually identifying individual fragments or entire models to recombine. Our method produces up to 100 models that are expected to be on the average more accurate than the starting models. Therefore, our server may be useful for crystallographic protein structure determination, where protein models are used for Molecular Replacement to solve the phase problem. To address the latter possibility, a special feature was added to the QA-RecombineIt server. The QA-RecombineIt server can be freely accessed at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/qarecombineit/. PMID:23700309

  14. Cementing proteins provide extra mechanical stabilization to viral cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando-Pérez, M.; Lambert, S.; Nakatani-Webster, E.; Catalano, C. E.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2014-07-01

    The study of virus shell stability is key not only for gaining insights into viral biological cycles but also for using viral capsids in materials science. The strength of viral particles depends profoundly on their structural changes occurring during maturation, whose final step often requires the specific binding of ‘decoration’ proteins (such as gpD in bacteriophage lambda) to the viral shell. Here we characterize the mechanical stability of gpD-free and gpD-decorated bacteriophage lambda capsids. The incorporation of gpD into the lambda shell imparts a major mechanical reinforcement that resists punctual deformations. We further interrogate lambda particle stability with molecular fatigue experiments that resemble the sub-lethal Brownian collisions of virus shells with macromolecules in crowded environments. Decorated particles are especially robust against collisions of a few kBT (where kB is the Boltzmann’s constant and T is the temperature ~300 K), which approximate those anticipated from molecular insults in the environment.

  15. Differential targeting of feline photoreceptors by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors: implications for preclinical gene therapy trials.

    PubMed

    Minella, A L; Mowat, F M; Willett, K L; Sledge, D; Bartoe, J T; Bennett, J; Petersen-Jones, S M

    2014-10-01

    The cat is emerging as a promising large animal model for preclinical testing of retinal dystrophy therapies, for example, by gene therapy. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating viral vector gene transfer to the feline retina. We therefore sought to study the tropism of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors for the feline outer retina. We delivered four rAAV serotypes: rAAV2/2, rAAV2/5, rAAV2/8 and rAAV2/9, each expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter, to the subretinal space in cats and, for comparison, mice. Cats were monitored for gene expression by in vivo imaging and cellular tropism was determined using immunohistochemistry. In cats, rAAV2/2, rAAV2/8 and rAAV2/9 vectors induced faster and stronger GFP expression than rAAV2/5 and all vectors transduced the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors. Unlike in mice, cone photoreceptors in the cat retina were more efficiently transduced than rod photoreceptors. In mice, rAAV2/2 only transduced the RPE whereas the other vectors also transduced rods and cones. These results highlight species differences in cellular tropism of rAAV vectors in the outer retina. We conclude that rAAV serotypes are suitable for use for retinal gene therapy in feline models, particularly when cone photoreceptors are the target cell.

  16. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks. PMID:27016654

  17. Liposomes containing recombinant E protein vaccine against duck Tembusu virus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Liu, Yongxia; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Yanhan; Fan, Wentao; Cheng, Ziqiang; Niu, Xudong; Liu, Jianzhu

    2016-04-27

    To obtain an effective vaccine candidate against duck Tembusu viral (DTMUV) disease which causes egg-drop and great economical loss in the Chinese duck industry, liposome vaccines containing recombinant E protein were prepared and assessed in this study. The recombinant plasmid (PET28a-E) was constructed and transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells to produce E proteins. The recombinant E proteins were purified and entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. Eighty-four cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into seven groups and inoculated intramuscularly at one- or seven-day-old with liposomes-E protein or Freund's adjuvant-E protein vaccine. Blood samples were collected from the first week to the tenth week for serum antibody, plasma for viremia, as well as oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs for virus shedding analyses after being challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of duck Tembusu virus. Results showed that serum antibody level of the liposomes vaccine was higher than the Freund's adjuvant vaccine, and inoculating twice was superior to once; furthermore, the viremia and virus shedding tests also proved that the liposomes vaccine can provide complete protection against DTMUV challenge. These results demonstrated that the liposomes-E protein vaccine could be used as a potential candidate vaccine to prevent DTMUV infection in ducks.

  18. Structural characterization of recombinant therapeutic proteins by circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Carlo; Pistolozzi, Marco; De Simone, Angela

    2011-10-01

    Most of the protein therapeutics are now produced by recombinant DNA technology. The advantages of recombinant proteins are related to their higher specificity and to their safety as exposure to animal or human diseases. However, several problems are still present in development of recombinant proteins as therapeutics, such as low bioavailability, short serum half-life, and immune response. Their successful application hinges on the protein stereochemical stability, and on the folding and the tendency to aggregate induced by purification steps and storage. All these aspects determine the failure of many potential protein therapies, and limitations in the development of the formulation. The application of multiple analytical techniques is important in order to obtain a detailed product profile and to understand how manufacturing can influence product structure and activity. Surely the protein conformation is a key aspect to be assessed, because a specific conformation is often essential for the biological function of the protein. Thus, there is a growing need to perform structural studies under the conditions in which the proteins operate, and to monitor the structural changes of the protein. Circular dichroism has been increasingly recognised as a valuable and reliable technique to get this information. In particular, examples will be here reported on the use of circular dichroism spectroscopy in the structural characterization of free and formulated recombinant proteins, looking at the prediction of the secondary structure, propensity to conformational changes, stability, and tendency to aggregate.

  19. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors mediate efficient gene transduction in cultured neonatal and adult microglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei; Kang, John; Sopher, Bryce; Gillespie, James; Aloi, Macarena S; Odom, Guy L; Hopkins, Stephanie; Case, Amanda; Wang, David B; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Garden, Gwenn A

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are a specialized population of myeloid cells that mediate CNS innate immune responses. Efforts to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate microglia behaviors have been hampered by the lack of effective tools for manipulating gene expression. Cultured microglia are refractory to most chemical and electrical transfection methods, yielding little or no gene delivery and causing toxicity and/or inflammatory activation. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAVs) vectors are non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA vectors commonly used to transduce many primary cell types and tissues. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing rAAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia. rAAV2 yields high transduction and causes minimal toxicity or inflammatory response in both neonatal and adult microglia. To demonstrate that rAAV transduction can induce functional protein expression, we used rAAV2 expressing Cre recombinase to successfully excise a LoxP-flanked miR155 gene in cultured microglia. We further evaluated rAAV serotypes 5, 6, 8, and 9, and observed that all efficiently transduced cultured microglia to varying degrees of success and caused little or no alteration in inflammatory gene expression. These results provide strong encouragement for the application of rAAV-mediated gene expression in microglia for mechanistic and therapeutic purposes. Neonatal microglia are functionally distinct from adult microglia, although the majority of in vitro studies utilize rodent neonatal microglia cultures because of difficulties of culturing adult cells. In addition, cultured microglia are refractory to most methods for modifying gene expression. Here, we developed a novel protocol for culturing adult microglia and evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia.

  20. Expression and in vitro functional analyses of recombinant Gam1 protein.

    PubMed

    Avila, Gustavo A; Ramirez, Daniel H; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Jacquez, Pedro; Chiocca, Susanna; Sun, Jianjun; Rosas-Acosta, German; Xiao, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Gam1, an early gene product of an avian adenovirus, is essential for viral replication. Gam1 is the first viral protein found to globally inhibit cellular SUMOylation, a critical posttranslational modification that alters the function and cellular localization of proteins. The interaction details at the interface between Gam1 and its cellular targets remain unclear due to the lack of structural information. Although Gam1 has been previously characterized, the purity of the protein was not suitable for structural investigations. In the present study, the gene of Gam1 was cloned and expressed in various bacterial expression systems to obtain pure and soluble recombinant Gam1 protein for in vitro functional and structural studies. While Gam1 was insoluble in most expression systems tested, it became soluble when it was expressed as a fusion protein with trigger factor (TF), a ribosome associated bacterial chaperone, under the control of a cold shock promoter. Careful optimization indicates that both low temperature induction and the chaperone function of TF play critical roles in increasing Gam1 solubility. Soluble Gam1 was purified to homogeneity through sequential chromatography techniques. Monomeric Gam1 was obtained via size exclusion chromatography and analyzed by dynamic light scattering. The SUMOylation inhibitory function of the purified Gam1 was confirmed in an in vitro assay. These results have built the foundation for further structural investigations that will broaden our understanding of Gam1's roles in viral replication.

  1. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  2. Making recombinant proteins in animals--different systems, different applications.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Michael K; Lacroix, Dan; Pothier, François; Sirard, Marc-André

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors represent a powerful tool to address the growing need for therapeutic recombinant proteins. The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active recombinant proteins in an efficient and economic manner has stimulated a great deal of interest in this area. As a result, genetically modified animals of several species, expressing foreign proteins in various tissues, are currently being developed. However, the generation of transgenic animals is a cumbersome process and remains problematic in the application of this technology. The advantages and disadvantages of different transgenic systems in relation to other bioreactor systems are discussed.

  3. Optimizing transient recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ralph F; Wall, Vanessa E; Esposito, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Transient gene expression (TGE) in mammalian cells has become a routine process for expressing recombinant proteins in cell lines such as human embryonic kidney 293 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rapidly increasing need for recombinant proteins requires further improvements in TGE technology. While a great deal of focus has been directed toward optimizing the secretion of antibodies and other naturally secreted targets, much less work has been done on ways to improve cytoplasmic expression in mammalian cells. The benefits to protein production in mammalian cells, particularly for eukaryotic proteins, should be very significant - glycosylation and other posttranslational modifications will likely be native or near-native, solubility and protein folding would likely improve overexpression in heterologous hosts, and expression of proteins in their proper intracellular compartments is much more likely to occur. Improvements in this area have been slow, however, due to limited development of the cell culture processes needed for low-cost, higher-throughput expression in mammalian cells, and the relatively low diversity of DNA vectors for protein production in these systems. Here, we describe how the use of recombinational cloning, coupled with improvements in transfection protocols which increase speed and lower cost, can be combined to make mammalian cells much more amenable for routine recombinant protein expression. PMID:21987258

  4. Green factory: plants as bioproduction platforms for recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Dolan, Maureen C; Medrano, Giuliana; Cramer, Carole L; Weathers, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Molecular farming, long considered a promising strategy to produce valuable recombinant proteins not only for human and veterinary medicine, but also for agriculture and industry, now has some commercially available products. Various plant-based production platforms including whole-plants, aquatic plants, plant cell suspensions, and plant tissues (hairy roots) have been compared in terms of their advantages and limits. Effective recombinant strategies are summarized along with descriptions of scalable culture systems and examples of commercial progress and success. PMID:21924345

  5. Green factory: plants as bioproduction platforms for recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfeng; Dolan, Maureen C; Medrano, Giuliana; Cramer, Carole L; Weathers, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Molecular farming, long considered a promising strategy to produce valuable recombinant proteins not only for human and veterinary medicine, but also for agriculture and industry, now has some commercially available products. Various plant-based production platforms including whole-plants, aquatic plants, plant cell suspensions, and plant tissues (hairy roots) have been compared in terms of their advantages and limits. Effective recombinant strategies are summarized along with descriptions of scalable culture systems and examples of commercial progress and success.

  6. Production of recombinant proteins in microalgae at pilot greenhouse scale.

    PubMed

    Gimpel, Javier A; Hyun, James S; Schoepp, Nathan G; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant protein production in microalgae chloroplasts can provide correctly folded proteins in significant quantities and potentially inexpensive costs compared to other heterologous protein production platforms. The best results have been achieved by using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) to drive the expression of heterologous genes in a psbA-deficient, non-photosynthetic, algal host. Unfortunately, using such a strategy makes the system unviable for large scale cultivation using natural sunlight for photosynthetic growth. In this study we characterized eight different combinations of 5' regulatory regions and psbA coding sequences for their ability to restore photosynthesis in a psbA-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while maintaining robust accumulation of a commercially viable recombinant protein driven by the psbA promoter/5'UTR. The recombinant protein corresponded to bovine Milk Amyloid A (MAA), which is present in milk colostrum and could be used to prevent infectious diarrhea in mammals. This approach allowed us to identify photosynthetic strains that achieved constitutive production of MAA when grown photosynthetically in 100 L bags in a greenhouse. Under these conditions, the maximum MAA expression achieved was 1.86% of total protein, which corresponded to 3.28 mg/L of culture medium. Within our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant protein being produced this way in microalgae. PMID:25116083

  7. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

  8. Local production of tumor necrosis factor encoded by recombinant vaccinia virus is effective in controlling viral replication in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sambhi, S K; Kohonen-Corish, M R; Ramshaw, I A

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-alpha. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-alpha during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo. Images PMID:2023951

  9. Local Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor Encoded by Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is Effective in Controlling Viral Replication in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambhi, Sharan K.; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Ramshaw, Ian A.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-α. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-α during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo.

  10. Expression, purification, and immobilization of recombinant tamavidin 2 fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Tsunashima, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Tamavidin 2 is a fungal avidin-like protein that binds biotin with high affinity. Unlike avidin or streptavidin, tamavidin 2 in soluble form is produced at high levels in Escherichia coli. In this chapter, we describe a method for immobilization and purification of recombinant proteins with the use of tamavidin 2 as an affinity tag. The protein fused to tamavidin 2 is tightly immobilized and simultaneously purified on biotinylated magnetic microbeads without loss of activity. PMID:24943317

  11. Recombinant GDNF: Tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein produced from insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianhong; Chian, Ru-Ju; Ay, Ilknur; Celia, Samuel A.; Kashi, Brenda B.; Tamrazian, Eric; Matthews, Jonathan C.; Remington, Mary P.; Pepinsky, R. Blake; Fishman, Paul S.; Brown, Robert H.; Francis, Jonathan W.

    2009-07-31

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival-promoting effects on CNS motor neurons in experimental animals. Its therapeutic efficacy in humans, however, may have been limited by poor bioavailability to the brain and spinal cord. With a view toward improving delivery of GDNF to CNS motor neurons in vivo, we generated a recombinant fusion protein comprised of rat GDNF linked to the non-toxic, neuron-binding fragment of tetanus toxin. Recombinant GDNF:TTC produced from insect cells was a soluble homodimer like wild-type GDNF and was bi-functional with respect to GDNF and TTC activity. Like recombinant rat GDNF, the fusion protein increased levels of immunoreactive phosphoAkt in treated NB41A3-hGFR{alpha}-1 neuroblastoma cells. Like TTC, GDNF:TTC bound to immobilized ganglioside GT1b in vitro with high affinity and selectivity. These results support further testing of recombinant GDNF:TTC as a non-viral vector to improve delivery of GDNF to brain and spinal cord in vivo.

  12. Efficient production of dual recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors for factor VIII delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qizhao; Dong, Biao; Firrman, Jenni; Roberts, Sean; Moore, Andrea Rossi; Cao, Wenjing; Diao, Yong; Kapranov, Philipp; Xu, Ruian; Xiao, Weidong

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have gained attention for human gene therapy because of their high safety and clinical efficacy profile. For factor VIII gene delivery, splitting the coding region between two AAV vectors remains a viable strategy to avoid the packaging capacity limitation (∼5.0 kb). However, it is time-consuming and labor-intensive to produce two rAAV vectors in separate batches. Here we demonstrated successful production of dual rAAV vectors for hemophilia A gene therapy in a single preparation. When the AAV vector plasmids carrying the human factor VIII heavy chain (hHC) and the light chain (hLC) expression cassettes were cotransfected into 293 cells along with the AAV rep&cap and mini-adenovirus helper plasmids, both rAAV-hHC and rAAV-hLC were produced at the desired ratio and in high titer. Interestingly, the rAAV-hHC vectors always yielded higher titers than rAAV-hLC vectors as a result of more efficient replication of rAAV-hHC genomes. The resulting vectors were effective in transducing the tissue culture cells in vitro. When these vectors were administered to hemophilia A mice, factor VIII was detected in the mouse plasma by both the activated partial thromboplastin time assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The functional activity as well as the antigen levels of secreted factor VIII were similar to those of vectors produced by the traditional method. The dual-vector production method has been successfully extended to both AAV2 and AAV8 serotypes. In conclusion, cotransfection of vector plasmids presents an efficient method for producing dual or multiple AAV vectors at significantly reduced cost and labor.

  13. Triatoma Virus Recombinant VP4 Protein Induces Membrane Permeability through Dynamic Pores

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Eugenia, Rubén; Goikolea, Julen; Gil-Cartón, David; Sánchez-Magraner, Lissete

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In naked viruses, membrane breaching is a key step that must be performed for genome transfer into the target cells. Despite its importance, the mechanisms behind this process remain poorly understood. The small protein VP4, encoded by the genomes of most viruses of the order Picornavirales, has been shown to be involved in membrane alterations. Here we analyzed the permeabilization activity of the natively nonmyristoylated VP4 protein from triatoma virus (TrV), a virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family within the Picornavirales order. The VP4 protein was produced as a C-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion to achieve its successful expression. This recombinant VP4 protein is able to produce membrane permeabilization in model membranes in a membrane composition-dependent manner. The induced permeability was also influenced by the pH, being greater at higher pH values. We demonstrate that the permeabilization activity elicited by the protein occurs through discrete pores that are inserted on the membrane. Sizing experiments using fluorescent dextrans, cryo-electron microscopy imaging, and other, additional techniques showed that recombinant VP4 forms heterogeneous proteolipidic pores rather than common proteinaceous channels. These results suggest that the VP4 protein may be involved in the membrane alterations required for genome transfer or cell entry steps during dicistrovirus infection. IMPORTANCE During viral infection, viruses need to overcome the membrane barrier in order to enter the cell and replicate their genome. In nonenveloped viruses membrane fusion is not possible, and hence, other mechanisms are implemented. Among other proteins, like the capsid-forming proteins and the proteins required for viral replication, several viruses of the order Picornaviridae contain a small protein called VP4 that has been shown to be involved in membrane alterations. Here we show that the triatoma virus VP4 protein is able to produce membrane

  14. Chimeragenesis of distantly-related proteins by noncontiguous recombination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew A; Romero, Philip A; Wu, Timothy; Brustad, Eric M; Arnold, Frances H

    2013-02-01

    We introduce a method for identifying elements of a protein structure that can be shuffled to make chimeric proteins from two or more homologous parents. Formulating recombination as a graph-partitioning problem allows us to identify noncontiguous segments of the sequence that should be inherited together in the progeny proteins. We demonstrate this noncontiguous recombination approach by constructing a chimera of β-glucosidases from two different kingdoms of life. Although the protein's alpha-beta barrel fold has no obvious subdomains for recombination, noncontiguous SCHEMA recombination generated a functional chimera that takes approximately half its structure from each parent. The X-ray crystal structure shows that the structural blocks that make up the chimera maintain the backbone conformations found in their respective parental structures. Although the chimera has lower β-glucosidase activity than the parent enzymes, the activity was easily recovered by directed evolution. This simple method, which does not rely on detailed atomic models, can be used to design chimeras that take structural, and functional, elements from distantly-related proteins. PMID:23225662

  15. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  16. Gene delivery into plant cells for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Lai, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. PMID:26075275

  17. EBV noncoding RNA EBER2 interacts with host RNA-binding proteins to regulate viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nara; Yario, Therese A; Gao, Jessica S; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-03-22

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces a highly abundant noncoding RNA called EBV-encoded RNA 2 (EBER2) that interacts indirectly with the host transcription factor paired box protein 5 (PAX5) to regulate viral latent membrane protein 1/2 (LMP1/2) gene expression as well as EBV lytic replication. To identify intermediary proteins, we isolated EBER2-PAX5-containing complexes and analyzed the protein components by mass spectrometry. The top candidates include three host proteins splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ), non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO), and RNA binding motif protein 14 (RBM14), all reported to be components of nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. In vivo RNA-protein crosslinking indicates that SFPQ and RBM14 contact EBER2 directly. Binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrate that SFPQ and NONO associate with PAX5, potentially bridging its interaction with EBER2. Similar to EBER2 or PAX5 depletion, knockdown of any of the three host RNA-binding proteins results in the up-regulation of viral LMP2A mRNA levels, supporting a physiologically relevant interaction of these newly identified factors with EBER2 and PAX5. Identification of these EBER2-interacting proteins enables the search for cellular noncoding RNAs that regulate host gene expression in a manner similar to EBER2. PMID:26951683

  18. EBV noncoding RNA EBER2 interacts with host RNA-binding proteins to regulate viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nara; Yario, Therese A; Gao, Jessica S; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-03-22

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces a highly abundant noncoding RNA called EBV-encoded RNA 2 (EBER2) that interacts indirectly with the host transcription factor paired box protein 5 (PAX5) to regulate viral latent membrane protein 1/2 (LMP1/2) gene expression as well as EBV lytic replication. To identify intermediary proteins, we isolated EBER2-PAX5-containing complexes and analyzed the protein components by mass spectrometry. The top candidates include three host proteins splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ), non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO), and RNA binding motif protein 14 (RBM14), all reported to be components of nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. In vivo RNA-protein crosslinking indicates that SFPQ and RBM14 contact EBER2 directly. Binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrate that SFPQ and NONO associate with PAX5, potentially bridging its interaction with EBER2. Similar to EBER2 or PAX5 depletion, knockdown of any of the three host RNA-binding proteins results in the up-regulation of viral LMP2A mRNA levels, supporting a physiologically relevant interaction of these newly identified factors with EBER2 and PAX5. Identification of these EBER2-interacting proteins enables the search for cellular noncoding RNAs that regulate host gene expression in a manner similar to EBER2.

  19. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing GP5 and M protein of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Reginaldo G; Dellagostin, Odir A; Barletta, Raúl G; Doster, Allan R; Nelson, Eric; Osorio, Fernando A

    2002-11-22

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG was used to express a truncated form of GP5 (lacking the first 30 NH(2)-terminal residues) and M protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The PRRSV proteins were expressed in BCG under control of the mycobacterial hsp60 gene promoter either in the mycobacterial cytoplasm (BCGGP5cyt and BCGMcyt) or as MT19-fusion proteins on the mycobacterial surface (BCGGP5surf and BCGMsurf). Mice inoculated with BCGGP5surf and BCGMsurf developed antibodies against the viral proteins at 30 days post-inoculation (dpi) as detected by ELISA and Western blot. By 60 dpi, the animals developed titer of neutralizing antibodies of 8. A PRRSV-specific gamma interferon response was also detected in splenocytes of recombinant BCG-inoculated mice at 60 and 90 dpi. These results indicate that BCG was able to express antigens of PRRSV and elicit an immune response against the viral proteins in mice.

  20. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

  1. Presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2 glycoprotein in VSV recombinant particles and induction of neutralizing BVDV antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Grigera, P R; Marzocca, M P; Capozzo, A V; Buonocore, L; Donis, R O; Rose, J K

    2000-08-01

    We generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-E2) encoding the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) E2 glycoprotein with the VSV-G protein signal peptide. Infection of BHK21 cells with VSV-E2 induced the synthesis of a recombinant E2 (rE2) that comigrated with authentic BVDV-E2 in PAGE-SDS gels. Non-reducing immunoblots showed that rE2 is a disulfide bond-linked homodimer with at least 10-fold higher avidity for conformation-dependent anti-BVDV-E2 antibodies than its reduced monomeric counterpart. Immunofluorescence microscopy also showed that rE2 was transported to the plasma membrane of infected cells and analysis of purified particles demonstrated that dimeric rE2 was incorporated into VSV-E2 virions in approximately 1:10 ratio with respect to the G glycoprotein. BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally with VSV-E2 doses of up to 10(7) plaque forming units (pfu) showed no symptoms of viral-induced disease and developed a specific BVDV neutralizing response that lasted for at least 180 days post inoculation. PMID:10989181

  2. Tailoring recombinant protein quality by rational media design.

    PubMed

    Brühlmann, David; Jordan, Martin; Hemberger, Jürgen; Sauer, Markus; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant proteins are closely associated with their structural characteristics. The major quality attributes comprise glycosylation, charge variants (oxidation, deamidation, and C- & N-terminal modifications), aggregates, low-molecular-weight species (LMW), and misincorporation of amino acids in the protein backbone. Cell culture media design has a great potential to modulate these quality attributes due to the vital role of medium in mammalian cell culture. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the way both classical cell culture medium components and novel supplements affect the quality attributes of recombinant therapeutic proteins expressed in mammalian hosts, allowing rational and high-throughput optimization of mammalian cell culture media. A selection of specific and/or potent inhibitors and activators of oligosaccharide processing as well as components affecting multiple quality attributes are presented. Extensive research efforts in this field show the feasibility of quality engineering through media design, allowing to significantly modulate the protein function.

  3. A site on the influenza A virus NS1 protein mediates both inhibition of PKR activation and temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Young; Li, Shoudong; Sen, Ganes C; Krug, Robert M

    2007-06-20

    It is not known how influenza A viruses, important human pathogens, counter PKR activation, a crucial host antiviral response. Here we elucidate this mechanism. We show that the direct binding of PKR to the NS1 protein in vitro that results in inhibition of PKR activation requires the NS1 123-127 amino acid sequence. To establish whether such direct binding of PKR to the NS1 protein is responsible for inhibiting PKR activation in infected cells, we generated recombinant influenza A/Udorn/72 viruses expressing NS1 proteins in which amino acids 123/124 or 126/127 are changed to alanines. In cells infected with these mutant viruses, PKR is activated, eIF-2alpha is phosphorylated and viral protein synthesis is inhibited, indicating that direct binding of PKR to the 123-127 sequence of the NS1 protein is necessary and sufficient to block PKR activation in influenza A virus-infected cells. Unexpectedly, the 123/124 mutant virus is not attenuated because reduced viral protein synthesis is offset by enhanced viral RNA synthesis at very early times of infection. These early viral RNAs include those synthesized predominantly at later times during wild-type virus infection, demonstrating that wild-type temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis is absent in 123/124 virus-infected cells. Enhanced early viral RNA synthesis after 123/124 virus infection also occurs in mouse PKR-/- cells, demonstrating that PKR activation and deregulation of the time course of viral RNA synthesis are not coupled. These results indicate that the 123/124 site of the NS1A protein most likely functionally interacts with the viral polymerase to mediate temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis. This interaction would occur in the nucleus, whereas PKR would bind to NS1A proteins in the cytoplasm prior to their import into the nucleus.

  4. Rodent models of HAND and drug abuse: exogenous administration of viral protein(s) and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Yao, Honghong; Buch, Shilpa

    2012-06-01

    Humans and chimpanzees are the natural hosts for HIV. Non-human primate models of SIV/SHIV infection in rhesus, cynomologus and pigtail macaques have been used extensively as excellent model systems for pathogenesis and vaccine studies. However, owing to the variability of disease progression in infected macaques, a phenomenon identical to humans, coupled with their prohibitive costs, there exists a critical need for the development of small-animal models in which to study the untoward effects of HIV-1 infection. Owing to the fact that rodents are not the natural permissive hosts for lentiviral infection, development of small animal models for studying virus infection has used strategies that circumvent the steps of viral entry and infection. Such strategies involve overexpression of toxic viral proteins, SCID mice engrafted with the human PBLs or macrophages, and EcoHIV chimeric virus wherein the gp120 of HIV-1 was replaced with the gp80 of the ecotropic murine leukemia virus. Additional strategy that is often used by investigators to study the toxic effect of viral proteins involves direct stereotactic injection of the viral protein(s) into specific brain regions. The present report is a compilation of the applications of direct administration of Tat into the striatum to mimic the effects of the viral neurotoxin in the CNS. Added advantage of this model is that it is also amenable to repeated intraperitoneal cocaine injections, thereby allowing the study of the additive/synergistic effects of both the viral protein and cocaine. Such a model system recapitulates aspects of HAND in the context of drug abuse. PMID:22447295

  5. Functional and Structural Mimicry of Cellular Protein Kinase A Anchoring Proteins by a Viral Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    King, Cason R.; Cohen, Michael J.; Fonseca, Gregory J.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2016-01-01

    The oncoproteins of the small DNA tumor viruses interact with a plethora of cellular regulators to commandeer control of the infected cell. During infection, adenovirus E1A deregulates cAMP signalling and repurposes it for activation of viral gene expression. We show that E1A structurally and functionally mimics a cellular A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). E1A interacts with and relocalizes protein kinase A (PKA) to the nucleus, likely to virus replication centres, via an interaction with the regulatory subunits of PKA. Binding to PKA requires the N-terminus of E1A, which bears striking similarity to the amphipathic α-helical domain present in cellular AKAPs. E1A also targets the same docking-dimerization domain of PKA normally bound by cellular AKAPs. In addition, the AKAP like motif within E1A could restore PKA interaction to a cellular AKAP in which its normal interaction motif was deleted. During infection, E1A successfully competes with endogenous cellular AKAPs for PKA interaction. E1A’s role as a viral AKAP contributes to viral transcription, protein expression and progeny production. These data establish HAdV E1A as the first known viral AKAP. This represents a unique example of viral subversion of a crucial cellular regulatory pathway via structural mimicry of the PKA interaction domain of cellular AKAPs. PMID:27137912

  6. Recovery and purification of plant-made recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Lisa R; Nikolov, Zivko L

    2012-01-01

    Plants are becoming commercially acceptable for recombinant protein production for human therapeutics, vaccine antigens, industrial enzymes, and nutraceuticals. Recently, significant advances in expression, protein glycosylation, and gene-to-product development time have been achieved. Safety and regulatory concerns for open-field production systems have also been addressed by using contained systems to grow transgenic plants. However, using contained systems eliminates several advantages of open-field production, such as inexpensive upstream production and scale-up costs. Upstream technological achievements have not been matched by downstream processing advancements. In the past 10 years, the most research progress was achieved in the areas of extraction and pretreatment. Extraction conditions have been optimized for numerous proteins on a case-by-case basis leading to the development of platform-dependent approaches. Pretreatment advances were made after realizing that plant extracts and homogenates have unique compositions that require distinct conditioning prior to purification. However, scientists have relied on purification methods developed for other protein production hosts with modest investments in developing novel plant purification tools. Recently, non-chromatographic purification methods, such as aqueous two-phase partitioning and membrane filtration, have been evaluated as low-cost purification alternatives to packed-bed adsorption. This paper reviews seed, leafy, and bioreactor-based platforms, highlights strategies for the primary recovery and purification of recombinant proteins, and compares process economics between systems. Lastly, the future direction and research needs for developing economically competitive recombinant proteins with commercial potential are discussed.

  7. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    PubMed

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  8. Using double-stranded RNA to prevent in vitro and in vivo viral infections by recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Victor Julian; Sampieri, Alicia; Sepulveda, Jorge; Vaca, Luis

    2003-05-23

    Introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into a wide variety of cells and organisms results in post-transcriptional depletion of the homologue endogenous mRNA. This well-preserved phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi) is present in evolutionarily diverse organisms such as plants, fungi, insects, metazoans, and mammals. Because the identification of the targeted mRNA by the RNAi machinery depends upon Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions, RNAi can be exquisitely specific. We took advantage of this powerful and flexible technique to demonstrate that selective silencing of genes essential for viral propagation prevents in vitro and in vivo viral infection. Using the baculovirus Autographa californica, a rapidly replicating and highly cytolytic double-stranded DNA virus that infects many different insect species, we show for the first time that introduction of dsRNA from gp64 and ie1, two genes essential for baculovirus propagation, results in prevention of viral infection in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report demonstrating the use of RNAi to inhibit a viral infection in animals. This inhibition was specific, because dsRNA from the polyhedrin promoter (used as control) or unrelated dsRNAs did not affect the time course of viral infection. The most relevant consequences from the present study are: 1) RNAi offers a rapid and efficient way to interfere with viral genes to assess the role of specific proteins in viral function and 2) using RNAi to interfere with viral genes essential for cell infection may provide a powerful therapeutic tool for the treatment of viral infections.

  9. Processing of the intracellular form of the west Nile virus capsid protein by the viral NS2B-NS3 protease: an in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Yamshchikov, V F; Compans, R W

    1994-01-01

    According to the existing model of flavivirus polyprotein processing, one of the cleavages in the amino-terminal part of the flavivirus polyprotein by host cell signalases results in formation of prM (precursor to one of the structural proteins, M) and the membrane-bound intracellular form of the viral capsid protein (Cint) retaining the prM signal sequence at its carboxy terminus. This hydrophobic anchor is subsequently removed by the viral protease, resulting in formation of the mature viral capsid protein found in virions (Cvir). We have prepared in vitro expression cassettes coding for both forms of the capsid protein, for the prM protein, for the C-prM precursor, and for the viral protease components of West Nile flavivirus and characterized their translation products. Using Cint and Cvir translation products as molecular markers, we have observed processing of the intracellular form of the West Nile capsid protein by the viral protease in vitro both upon cotranslation of the C-prM precursor and the viral protease-encoding cassette and by incubation of C-prM translation products with a detergent-solubilized extract of cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the active viral protease. The cleavage of Cint by the viral protease at the predicted dibasic site was verified by introduction of point mutations into the cleavage site and an adjacent region. These studies provide the first direct demonstration of processing of the intracellular form of the flavivirus capsid protein by the viral protease. Images PMID:8057458

  10. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced.

  11. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    PubMed

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced. PMID:27322762

  12. Destabilase-lysozyme of medicinal leech. Multifunctionality of recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Zavalova, L L; Lazarev, V N; Levitsky, S A; Yudina, T G; Baskova, I P

    2010-09-01

    Preparation and purification of a recombinant protein are described along with characteristics of its specific (for ε-(γ-Glu)-Lys and D-dimer substrates) and nonspecific (for L-γ-Glu-pNA) isopeptidase activities; the absence of peptidase function for α-(α-Glu)-Lys substrate is noted. It is shown that the protein exhibits muramidase (cell walls of Micrococcus lysodeikticus) and specific glycosidase activities. The latter was determined towards the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-tetra-N-acetyl-β-chitotetraoxide. Antimicrobial activity of recombinant destabilase-lysozyme protein (recDest-Lys) and its 11-membered amphipathic peptide was revealed towards cells of the strict anaerobic Archaean Methanosarcina barkeri, whose cell walls contain no murein. Possible mechanisms of the effect of recDest-Lys on these cells are discussed.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to improve recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Feng, Xinjun; Ding, Yamei; Zhao, Guang; Liu, Huizhou; Xian, Mo

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most widely used strains for recombinant protein production. However, obstacles also exist in both academic researches and industrial applications, such as the metabolic burden, the carbon source waste, and the cells' physiological deterioration. This article reviews recent approaches for improving recombinant protein production in metabolic engineering, including workhorse selection, stress factor application, and carbon flux regulation. Selecting a suitable host is the first key point for recombinant protein production. In general, it all depends on characteristics of the strains and the target proteins. It will be triggered cells physiological deterioration when the medium is significantly different from the cell's natural environment. Coexpression of stress factors can help proteins to fold into their native conformation. Carbon flux regulation is a direct approach for redirecting more carbon flux toward the desirable pathways and products. However, some undesirable consequences are usually found in metabolic engineering, such as glucose transport inhibition, cell growth retardation, and useless metabolite accumulation. More efficient regulators and platform cell factories should be explored to meet a variety of production demands.

  14. Development of a reverse genetics system to generate a recombinant Ebola virus Makona expressing a green fluorescent protein

    SciTech Connect

    Albariño, César G. Wiggleton Guerrero, Lisa; Lo, Michael K.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of reverse genetics technology in studying a broad range of aspects of viral biology, including gene regulation, protein function, cell entry, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe a highly efficient reverse genetics system used to generate recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a recent isolate from a human patient infected during the 2014–2015 outbreak in Western Africa. We also rescued a recombinant EBOV expressing a fluorescent reporter protein from a cleaved VP40 protein fusion. Using this virus and an inexpensive method to quantitate the expression of the foreign gene, we demonstrate its potential usefulness as a tool for screening antiviral compounds and measuring neutralizing antibodies. - Highlights: • Recombinant Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from Makona variant was rescued. • New protocol for viral rescue allows 100% efficiency. • Modified EBOV expresses a green fluorescent protein from a VP40-fused protein. • Modified EBOV was tested as tool to screen antiviral compounds and measure neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Force-induced globule-coil transition in laminin binding protein and its role for viral-cell membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Boris N; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Mikhaylov, Andrey G; Korneev, Denis V; Sekatskii, Sergey K; Karakouz, Tanya; Belavin, Pavel A; Netesova, Nina A; Protopopova, Elena V; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Dietler, Giovanni; Loktev, Valery B

    2014-12-01

    The specific interactions of the pairs laminin binding protein (LBP)-purified tick-borne encephalitis viral surface protein E and certain recombinant fragments of this protein, as well as West Nile viral surface protein E and certain recombinant fragments of that protein, are studied by combined methods of single-molecule dynamic force spectroscopy (SMDFS), enzyme immunoassay and optical surface waves-based biosensor measurements. The experiments were performed at neutral pH (7.4) and acid pH (5.3) conditions. The data obtained confirm the role of LBP as a cell receptor for two typical viral species of the Flavivirus genus. A comparison of these data with similar data obtained for another cell receptor of this family, namely human αVβ3 integrin, reveals that both these receptors are very important. Studying the specific interaction between the cell receptors in question and specially prepared monoclonal antibodies against them, we could show that both interaction sites involved in the process of virus-cell interaction remain intact at pH 5.3. At the same time, for these acid conditions characteristic for an endosome during flavivirus-cell membrane fusion, SMDFS data reveal the existence of a force-induced (effective already for forces as small as 30-70 pN) sharp globule-coil transition for LBP and LBP-fragments of protein E complexes. We argue that this conformational transformation, being an analog of abrupt first-order phase transition and having similarity with the famous Rayleigh hydrodynamic instability, might be indispensable for the flavivirus-cell membrane fusion process. PMID:25319621

  16. SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 mediates viral immediate-early protein SUMOylation in crayfish to facilitate reproduction of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Jing; Gao, Lu; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Successful viruses have evolved superior strategies to escape host defenses or exploit host biological pathways. Most of the viral immediate-early (ie) genes are essential for viral infection and depend solely on host proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the modification of viral IE proteins by the crayfish small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and investigated the role of SUMOylation during the viral life cycle. SUMO and SUMO ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) involved in SUMOylation were identified in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Both SUMO and UBC9 were upregulated in crayfish challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Replication of WSSV genes increased in crayfish injected with recombinant SUMO or UBC9, but injection of mutant SUMO or UBC9 protein had no effect. Subsequently, we analyzed the mechanism by which crayfish SUMOylation facilitates WSSV replication. Crayfish UBC9 bound to all three WSSV IE proteins tested, and one of these IE proteins (WSV051) was covalently modified by SUMO in vitro. The expression of viral ie genes was affected and that of late genes was significantly inhibited in UBC9-silenced or SUMO-silenced crayfish, and the inhibition effect was rescued by injection of recombinant SUMO or UBC9. The results of this study demonstrate that viral IE proteins can be modified by crayfish SUMOylation, prompt the expression of viral genes, and ultimately benefit WSSV replication. Understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses exploit host components will greatly improve our knowledge of the virus-host "arms race" and contribute to the development of novel methods against virulent viruses.

  17. Endolysosomal trafficking of viral G protein-coupled receptor functions in innate immunity and control of viral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaonan; Cheng, Adam; Zou, Zhongju; Yang, Yih-Sheng; Sumpter, Rhea M; Huang, Chou-Long; Bhagat, Govind; Virgin, Herbert W; Lira, Sergio A; Levine, Beth

    2016-03-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades viral oncoproteins and other microbial virulence factors; however, the role of endolysosomal degradation pathways in these processes is unclear. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, and a constitutively active viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced tumors. We report that a recently discovered autophagy-related protein, Beclin 2, interacts with KSHV GPCR, facilitates its endolysosomal degradation, and inhibits vGPCR-driven oncogenic signaling. Furthermore, monoallelic loss of Becn2 in mice accelerates the progression of vGPCR-induced lesions that resemble human Kaposi's sarcoma. Taken together, these findings indicate that Beclin 2 is a host antiviral molecule that protects against the pathogenic effects of KSHV GPCR by facilitating its endolysosomal degradation. More broadly, our data suggest a role for host endolysosomal trafficking pathways in regulating viral pathogenesis and oncogenic signaling.

  18. Endolysosomal trafficking of viral G protein-coupled receptor functions in innate immunity and control of viral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaonan; Cheng, Adam; Zou, Zhongju; Yang, Yih-Sheng; Sumpter, Rhea M; Huang, Chou-Long; Bhagat, Govind; Virgin, Herbert W; Lira, Sergio A; Levine, Beth

    2016-03-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system degrades viral oncoproteins and other microbial virulence factors; however, the role of endolysosomal degradation pathways in these processes is unclear. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, and a constitutively active viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced tumors. We report that a recently discovered autophagy-related protein, Beclin 2, interacts with KSHV GPCR, facilitates its endolysosomal degradation, and inhibits vGPCR-driven oncogenic signaling. Furthermore, monoallelic loss of Becn2 in mice accelerates the progression of vGPCR-induced lesions that resemble human Kaposi's sarcoma. Taken together, these findings indicate that Beclin 2 is a host antiviral molecule that protects against the pathogenic effects of KSHV GPCR by facilitating its endolysosomal degradation. More broadly, our data suggest a role for host endolysosomal trafficking pathways in regulating viral pathogenesis and oncogenic signaling. PMID:26929373

  19. HIV-1 Tat transactivator recruits p300 and CREB-binding protein histone acetyltransferases to the viral promoter

    PubMed Central

    Marzio, Giuseppe; Tyagi, Mudit; Gutierrez, Maria Ines; Giacca, Mauro

    1998-01-01

    In cells infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), the integrated viral promoter is present in a chromatin-bound conformation and is transcriptionally silent in the absence of stimulation. The HIV-1 Tat protein binds to a stem-loop structure at the 5′ end of viral mRNA and relieves this inhibition by inducing a remodeling of the nucleosome arrangement downstream of the transcription-initiation site. Here we show that Tat performs this activity by recruiting to the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) the transcriptional coactivator p300 and the closely related CREB-binding protein (CBP), having histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Tat associates with HAT activity in human nuclear extracts and binds to p300 and CBP both in vitro and in vivo. Integrity of the basic domain of Tat is essential for this interaction. By a quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay we show that the delivery of recombinant Tat induces the association of p300 and CBP with the chromosomally integrated LTR promoter. Expression of human p300 in both human and rodent cells increases the levels of Tat transactivation of the integrated LTR. These results reinforce the evidence that p300 and CBP have a pivotal function at both cellular and viral promoters and demonstrate that they also can be recruited by an RNA-targeted activator. Additionally, these findings have important implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 latency and reactivation. PMID:9811832

  20. The Sendai virus V protein interacts with the NP protein to regulate viral genome RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Horikami, S M; Smallwood, S; Moyer, S A

    1996-08-15

    The interactions of Sendai virus proteins required for viral RNA synthesis have been characterized both by the yeast two-hybrid system and through the use of glutathione S-transferase (gst)-viral fusion proteins synthesized in mammalian cells. Using the two-hybrid system we have confirmed the previously identified P-L (RNA polymerase), NPo-P (encapsidation substrate), and P-P complexes and now demonstrate NP-NP and NPo-V protein interactions. Expression of gstP and P proteins and binding to glutathione-Sepharose beads as a measure of complex formation confirmed the P-P interaction. The P-gstP binding occurred only on expression of the proteins in the same cell and was mapped to amino acids 345-411. We also show that full-length and deletion gstV and gstW proteins bound NPo protein when these sets of proteins were coexpressed and have identified one required region from amino acids 78-316. Neither gstV nor gstW bound NP assembled into nucleocapsids. Furthermore, both V and W proteins lacking the N-terminal 77 amino acids inhibited DI-H genome replication in vitro, showing the biological relevance of the remaining region. We propose that the specific inhibition of genome replication by V and W proteins occurs through interference with either the formation or the use of the NPo-P encapsidation substrate.

  1. Advantage of recombinant borrelial proteins for serodiagnosis of neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R; Rauer, S

    1999-01-01

    Two enzyme immunoassay (EIA) systems were compared for their ability to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato specific IgG and IgM antibodies and to differentiate between symptomatic (83 patients with neuroborreliosis) and asymptomatic seropositive subjects (80 healthy controls). Antibody concentrations were determined by EIA; the antigens used were either a sonicate of B. burgdorferi or three recombinant borrelial proteins: the 14-kDa flagellin fragment, the outer surface protein C (22 kDa) and the high molecular mass protein p83 (83 kDa). In the sonicate, EIA, IgG or IgM antibodies to B. burgdorferi, or both, were detected in all patients with neuroborreliosis and in all controls. Pre-absorption of sera with Treponema phagedenis sonicate diminished the sensitivity of detection of borrelial specific IgG (IgG or IgM or both) antibodies in patients with neuroborreliosis from 80 to 57% (100 to 82%) and in the controls from 100 to 32% (100 to 37%). While being specific for B. burgdorferi, the recombinant EIAs proved to be significantly more sensitive than the sonicate EIA: IgG or IgM, or both antibodies against any of the recombinant antigens were detected in 92% of patients with neuroborreliosis and in 24% of controls. The increase in sensitivity in patients with neuroborreliosis was mostly due to the higher detection rate of IgM antibodies in the recombinant EIA (77% versus 48% in the sonicate EIA), while IgG antibodies were demonstrated with similar frequencies in both EIA systems (57% versus 60%). It was concluded that the recombinant EIAs are superior to the sonicate EIA with pre-absorption of cross-reactive antibodies in the confirmation of an acute borrelial infection and in the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections.

  2. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data. PMID:27165321

  3. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  4. A general method of protein purification for recombinant unstructured non-acidic proteins.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco; Guillén, Gabriel; Reyes, José L; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2011-11-01

    Typical late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate in response to water deficit imposed by the environment or by plant developmental programs. Because of their physicochemical properties, they can be considered as hydrophilins and as a paradigm of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) in plants. To study their biophysical and biochemical characteristics large quantities of highly purified protein are required. In this work, we report a fast and simple purification method for non-acidic recombinant LEA proteins that does not need the addition of tags and that preserves their in vitro protective activity. The method is based on the enrichment of the protein of interest by boiling the bacterial protein extract, followed by a differential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Using this procedure we have obtained highly pure recombinant LEA proteins of groups 1, 3, and 4 and one recombinant bacterial hydrophilin. This protocol will facilitate the purification of this type of IUPs, and could be particularly useful in proteomic projects/analyses.

  5. Evolution of Viral Proteins Originated De Novo by Overprinting

    PubMed Central

    Sabath, Niv; Wagner, Andreas; Karlin, David

    2012-01-01

    New protein-coding genes can originate either through modification of existing genes or de novo. Recently, the importance of de novo origination has been recognized in eukaryotes, although eukaryotic genes originated de novo are relatively rare and difficult to identify. In contrast, viruses contain many de novo genes, namely those in which an existing gene has been “overprinted” by a new open reading frame, a process that generates a new protein-coding gene overlapping the ancestral gene. We analyzed the evolution of 12 experimentally validated viral genes that originated de novo and estimated their relative ages. We found that young de novo genes have a different codon usage from the rest of the genome. They evolve rapidly and are under positive or weak purifying selection. Thus, young de novo genes might have strain-specific functions, or no function, and would be difficult to detect using current genome annotation methods that rely on the sequence signature of purifying selection. In contrast to young de novo genes, older de novo genes have a codon usage that is similar to the rest of the genome. They evolve slowly and are under stronger purifying selection. Some of the oldest de novo genes evolve under stronger selection pressure than the ancestral gene they overlap, suggesting an evolutionary tug of war between the ancestral and the de novo gene. PMID:22821011

  6. Soluble recombinant protein production in Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Maria; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Sannino, Filomena; Apuzzo, Gennaro; Marino, Gennaro; Tutino, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Solubility/activity issues are often experienced when immunoglobulin fragments are produced in conventional microbial cell factories. Although several experimental approaches have been followed to solve, or at least minimize, the accumulation of the recombinant proteins into insoluble aggregates, sometimes the only alternative strategy is changing the protein production platform. In this chapter we describe the use of Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 as host of choice for the production of the heavy-chain antibody fragment VHHD6.1. Combining the use of a regulated psychrophilic gene expression system with an optimized fermentation process in defined growth medium, we obtained the recombinant VHHD6.1 in fully soluble form and correctly translocated into host periplasmic space.

  7. Manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein.

    PubMed

    McCue, Justin; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Selvitelli, Keith; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Mingxuan; Mei, Baisong; Peters, Robert; Pierce, Glenn F; Dumont, Jennifer; Raso, Stephen; Reichert, Heidi

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) is a long-acting coagulation factor approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. Here, the rFVIIIFc manufacturing process and results of studies evaluating product quality and the capacity of the process to remove potential impurities and viruses are described. This manufacturing process utilized readily transferable and scalable unit operations and employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including a novel affinity chromatography adsorbent and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. A cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells was used to produce rFVIIIFc. Validation studies evaluated identity, purity, activity, and safety. Process-related impurity clearance and viral clearance spiking studies demonstrate robust and reproducible removal of impurities and viruses, with total viral clearance >8-15 log10 for four model viruses (xenotropic murine leukemia virus, mice minute virus, reovirus type 3, and suid herpes virus 1). Terminal galactose-α-1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, two non-human glycans, were undetectable in rFVIIIFc. Biochemical and in vitro biological analyses confirmed the purity, activity, and consistency of rFVIIIFc. In conclusion, this manufacturing process produces a highly pure product free of viruses, impurities, and non-human glycan structures, with scale capabilities to ensure a consistent and adequate supply of rFVIIIFc.

  8. Systems Biology of Recombinant Protein Production in Bacillus megaterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Bunk, Boyke; Fürch, Tobias; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter

    Over the last two decades the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was systematically developed to a useful alternative protein production host. Multiple vector systems for high yield intra- and extracellular protein production were constructed. Strong inducible promoters were combined with DNA sequences for optimised ribosome binding sites, various leader peptides for protein export and N- as well as C-terminal affinity tags for affinity chromatographic purification of the desired protein. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production were successfully tested. For further system biology based control and optimisation of the production process the genomes of two B. megaterium strains were completely elucidated, DNA arrays designed, proteome, fluxome and metabolome analyses performed and all data integrated using the bioinformatics platform MEGABAC. Now, solid theoretical and experimental bases for primary modeling attempts of the production process are available.

  9. Preclinical Assessment of Viral Vectored and Protein Vaccines Targeting the Duffy-Binding Protein Region II of Plasmodium Vivax.

    PubMed

    de Cassan, Simone C; Shakri, A Rushdi; Llewellyn, David; Elias, Sean C; Cho, Jee Sun; Goodman, Anna L; Jin, Jing; Douglas, Alexander D; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, François H; Rénia, Laurent; Russell, Bruce; Chitnis, Chetan E; Draper, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vaccine development has largely focused on Plasmodium falciparum; however, a reawakening to the importance of Plasmodium vivax has spurred efforts to develop vaccines against this difficult to treat and at times severe form of relapsing malaria, which constitutes a significant proportion of human malaria cases worldwide. The almost complete dependence of P. vivax red blood cell invasion on the interaction of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein region II (PvDBP_RII) with the human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) makes this antigen an attractive vaccine candidate against blood-stage P. vivax. Here, we generated both preclinical and clinically compatible adenoviral and poxviral vectored vaccine candidates expressing the Salvador I allele of PvDBP_RII - including human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5), chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63), and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors. We report on the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice or rabbits, either used alone in a viral vectored prime-boost regime or in "mixed-modality" adenovirus prime - protein-in--adjuvant boost regimes (using a recombinant PvDBP_RII protein antigen formulated in Montanide(®)ISA720 or Abisco(®)100 adjuvants). Antibodies induced by these regimes were found to bind to native parasite antigen from P. vivax infected Thai patients and were capable of inhibiting the binding of PvDBP_RII to its receptor DARC using an in vitro binding inhibition assay. In recent years, recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors have been quickly translated into human clinical trials for numerous antigens from P. falciparum as well as a growing number of other pathogens. The vectors reported here are immunogenic in small animals, elicit antibodies against PvDBP_RII, and have recently entered clinical trials, which will provide the first assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of the PvDBP_RII antigen in humans. PMID:26217340

  10. A standardized framework for accurate, high-throughput genotyping of recombinant and non-recombinant viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Cassol, Sharon; Libin, Pieter; Deforche, Koen; Pybus, Oliver G; Van Ranst, Marc; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2009-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B and C and other rapidly evolving viruses are characterized by extremely high levels of genetic diversity. To facilitate diagnosis and the development of prevention and treatment strategies that efficiently target the diversity of these viruses, and other pathogens such as human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), human herpes virus type-8 (HHV8) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we developed a rapid high-throughput-genotyping system. The method involves the alignment of a query sequence with a carefully selected set of pre-defined reference strains, followed by phylogenetic analysis of multiple overlapping segments of the alignment using a sliding window. Each segment of the query sequence is assigned the genotype and sub-genotype of the reference strain with the highest bootstrap (>70%) and bootscanning (>90%) scores. Results from all windows are combined and displayed graphically using color-coded genotypes. The new Virus-Genotyping Tools provide accurate classification of recombinant and non-recombinant viruses and are currently being assessed for their diagnostic utility. They have incorporated into several HIV drug resistance algorithms including the Stanford (http://hivdb.stanford.edu) and two European databases (http://www.umcutrecht.nl/subsite/spread-programme/ and http://www.hivrdb.org.uk/) and have been successfully used to genotype a large number of sequences in these and other databases. The tools are a PHP/JAVA web application and are freely accessible on a number of servers including: http://bioafrica.mrc.ac.za/rega-genotype/html/, http://lasp.cpqgm.fiocruz.br/virus-genotype/html/, http://jose.med.kuleuven.be/genotypetool/html/.

  11. Recombinant VSV G proteins reveal a novel raft-dependent endocytic pathway in resorbing osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mulari, Mika T.K. Nars, Martin; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Kaisto, Tuula; Metsikkoe, Kalervo; Sun Yi; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo

    2008-05-01

    Transcytotic membrane flow delivers degraded bone fragments from the ruffled border to the functional secretory domain, FSD, in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Here we show that there is also a FSD-to-ruffled border trafficking pathway that compensates for the membrane loss during the matrix uptake process and that rafts are essential for this ruffled border-targeted endosomal pathway. Replacing the cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein with that of CD4 resulted in partial insolubility in Triton X-100 and retargeting from the peripheral non-bone facing plasma membrane to the FSD. Recombinant G proteins were subsequently endosytosed and delivered from the FSD to the peripheral fusion zone of the ruffled border, which were both rich in lipid rafts as suggested by viral protein transport analysis and visualizing the rafts with fluorescent recombinant cholera toxin. Cholesterol depletion by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin impaired the ruffled border-targeted vesicle trafficking pathway and inhibited bone resorption dose-dependently as quantified by measuring the CTX and TRACP 5b secreted to the culture medium and by measuring the resorbed area visualized with a bi-phasic labeling method using sulpho-NHS-biotin and WGA-lectin. Thus, rafts are vital for membrane recycling from the FSD to the late endosomal/lysosomal ruffled border and bone resorption.

  12. A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Herrmann, Christin; Kulej, Katarzyna; Pancholi, Neha J; Sekulic, Nikolina; Petrescu, Joana; Molden, Rosalynn C; Blumenthal, Daniel; Paris, Andrew J; Reyes, Emigdio D; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Hearing, Patrick; Seeholzer, Steven H; Worthen, G Scott; Black, Ben E; Garcia, Benjamin A; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Viral proteins mimic host protein structure and function to redirect cellular processes and subvert innate defenses. Small basic proteins compact and regulate both viral and cellular DNA genomes. Nucleosomes are the repeating units of cellular chromatin and play an important part in innate immune responses. Viral-encoded core basic proteins compact viral genomes, but their impact on host chromatin structure and function remains unexplored. Adenoviruses encode a highly basic protein called protein VII that resembles cellular histones. Although protein VII binds viral DNA and is incorporated with viral genomes into virus particles, it is unknown whether protein VII affects cellular chromatin. Here we show that protein VII alters cellular chromatin, leading us to hypothesize that this has an impact on antiviral responses during adenovirus infection in human cells. We find that protein VII forms complexes with nucleosomes and limits DNA accessibility. We identified post-translational modifications on protein VII that are responsible for chromatin localization. Furthermore, proteomic analysis demonstrated that protein VII is sufficient to alter the protein composition of host chromatin. We found that protein VII is necessary and sufficient for retention in the chromatin of members of the high-mobility-group protein B family (HMGB1, HMGB2 and HMGB3). HMGB1 is actively released in response to inflammatory stimuli and functions as a danger signal to activate immune responses. We showed that protein VII can directly bind HMGB1 in vitro and further demonstrated that protein VII expression in mouse lungs is sufficient to decrease inflammation-induced HMGB1 content and neutrophil recruitment in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Together, our in vitro and in vivo results show that protein VII sequesters HMGB1 and can prevent its release. This study uncovers a viral strategy in which nucleosome binding is exploited to control extracellular immune signaling.

  13. A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Herrmann, Christin; Kulej, Katarzyna; Pancholi, Neha J; Sekulic, Nikolina; Petrescu, Joana; Molden, Rosalynn C; Blumenthal, Daniel; Paris, Andrew J; Reyes, Emigdio D; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Hearing, Patrick; Seeholzer, Steven H; Worthen, G Scott; Black, Ben E; Garcia, Benjamin A; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Viral proteins mimic host protein structure and function to redirect cellular processes and subvert innate defenses. Small basic proteins compact and regulate both viral and cellular DNA genomes. Nucleosomes are the repeating units of cellular chromatin and play an important part in innate immune responses. Viral-encoded core basic proteins compact viral genomes, but their impact on host chromatin structure and function remains unexplored. Adenoviruses encode a highly basic protein called protein VII that resembles cellular histones. Although protein VII binds viral DNA and is incorporated with viral genomes into virus particles, it is unknown whether protein VII affects cellular chromatin. Here we show that protein VII alters cellular chromatin, leading us to hypothesize that this has an impact on antiviral responses during adenovirus infection in human cells. We find that protein VII forms complexes with nucleosomes and limits DNA accessibility. We identified post-translational modifications on protein VII that are responsible for chromatin localization. Furthermore, proteomic analysis demonstrated that protein VII is sufficient to alter the protein composition of host chromatin. We found that protein VII is necessary and sufficient for retention in the chromatin of members of the high-mobility-group protein B family (HMGB1, HMGB2 and HMGB3). HMGB1 is actively released in response to inflammatory stimuli and functions as a danger signal to activate immune responses. We showed that protein VII can directly bind HMGB1 in vitro and further demonstrated that protein VII expression in mouse lungs is sufficient to decrease inflammation-induced HMGB1 content and neutrophil recruitment in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Together, our in vitro and in vivo results show that protein VII sequesters HMGB1 and can prevent its release. This study uncovers a viral strategy in which nucleosome binding is exploited to control extracellular immune signaling. PMID:27362237

  14. Codon Optimization, Expression in Escherichia coli, and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Chinese Sacbrood Virus (CSBV) Structural Proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haochun; Jiang, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Yi; Fan, Zhaobin; Ma, Mingxiao

    2015-01-01

    Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a small RNA virus family belonging to the genus Iflavirus that causes larval death, and even the collapse of entire bee colonies. The virus particle is spherical, non-enveloped, and its viral capsid is composed of four proteins, although the functions of the structural proteins are unclear. In this study, we used codon recoding to express the recombinant proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE analysis and Western blotting revealed that the target genes were expressed at high levels. Mice were then immunized with the purified, recombinant proteins, and antibody levels and lymphocyte proliferation were analyzed by ELISA and the MTT assay, respectively. The results show that the recombinant proteins induced high antibody levels and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Polyclonal antibodies directed against these proteins will aid future studies of the molecular pathogenesis of CSBV. PMID:26067659

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease. PMID:27496728

  16. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  17. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Barajas, Daniel; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses exploit host cells by co-opting host factors and lipids and escaping host antiviral responses. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the model host yeast have identified 18 cellular genes that are part of the actin network. In this paper, we show that the p33 viral replication factor interacts with the cellular cofilin (Cof1p), which is an actin depolymerization factor. Using temperature-sensitive (ts) Cof1p or actin (Act1p) mutants at a semi-permissive temperature, we find an increased level of TBSV RNA accumulation in yeast cells and elevated in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase. We show that the large p33 containing replication organelle-like structures are located in the close vicinity of actin patches in yeast cells or around actin cable hubs in infected plant cells. Therefore, the actin filaments could be involved in VRC assembly and the formation of large viral replication compartments containing many individual VRCs. Moreover, we show that the actin network affects the recruitment of viral and cellular components, including oxysterol binding proteins and VAP proteins to form membrane contact sites for efficient transfer of sterols to the sites of replication. Altogether, the emerging picture is that TBSV, via direct interaction between the p33 replication protein and Cof1p, controls cofilin activities to obstruct the dynamic actin network that leads to efficient subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. In summary, the discovery that TBSV interacts with cellular cofilin and blocks the severing of existing filaments and the formation of new actin filaments in infected cells opens a new window to unravel the way by which viruses could subvert/co-opt cellular proteins and lipids. By regulating the functions of cofilin and the actin network, which are central nodes in cellular pathways, viruses could gain supremacy in subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. PMID:26863541

  18. Systems biology of recombinant protein production using Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Borgmeier, Claudia; Bunk, Boyke; Stammen, Simon; Scherling, Christian; Meinhardt, Friedhelm; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used production host for recombinant proteins in both academia and industry. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium represents an increasingly used alternative for high yield intra- and extracellular protein synthesis. During the past two decades, multiple tools including gene expression plasmids and production strains have been developed. Introduction of free replicating and integrative plasmids into B. megaterium is possible via protoplasts transformation or transconjugation. Using His(6)- and StrepII affinity tags, the intra- or extracellular produced proteins can easily be purified in one-step procedures. Different gene expression systems based on the xylose controlled promoter P(xylA) and various phage RNA polymerase (T7, SP6, K1E) driven systems enable B. megaterium to produce up to 1.25g of recombinant protein per liter. Biomass concentrations of up to 80g/l can be achieved by high cell density cultivations in bioreactors. Gene knockouts and gene replacements in B. megaterium are possible via an optimized gene disruption system. For a safe application in industry, sporulation and protease-deficient as well as UV-sensitive mutants are available. With the help of the recently published B. megaterium genome sequence, it is possible to characterize bottle necks in the protein production process via systems biology approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome data. The bioinformatical platform (Megabac, http://www.megabac.tu-bs.de) integrates obtained theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21943898

  19. Functional insights into recombinant TROSPA protein from Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Figlerowicz, Marek; Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Sadowski, Czeslaw

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease (also called borreliosis) is a prevalent chronic disease transmitted by ticks and caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. spirochete. At least one tick protein, namely TROSPA from I. scapularis, commonly occurring in the USA, was shown to be required for colonization of the vector by bacteria. Located in the tick gut, TROSPA interacts with the spirochete outer surface protein A (OspA) and initiates the tick colonization. Ixodes ricinus is a primary vector involved in B. burgdorferi s. l. transmission in most European countries. In this study, we characterized the capacities of recombinant TROSPA protein from I. ricinus to interact with OspA from different Borrelia species and to induce an immune response in animals. We also showed that the N-terminal part of TROSPA (a putative transmembrane domain) is not involved in the interaction with OspA and that reduction of the total negative charge on the TROSPA protein impaired TROSPA-OspA binding. In general, the data presented in this paper indicate that recombinant TROSPA protein retains the capacity to form a complex with OspA and induces a significant level of IgG in orally immunized rats. Thus, I. ricinus TROSPA may be considered a good candidate component for an animal vaccine against Borrelia. PMID:24204685

  20. Staphylokinase as a Plasminogen Activator Component in Recombinant Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Szarka, S. J.; Sihota, E. G.; Habibi, H. R.; Wong, S.-L.

    1999-01-01

    The plasminogen activator staphylokinase (SAK) is a promising thrombolytic agent for treatment of myocardial infarction. It can specifically stimulate the thrombolysis of both erythrocyte-rich and platelet-rich clots. However, SAK lacks fibrin-binding and thrombin inhibitor activities, two functions which would supplement and potentially improve its thrombolytic potency. Creating a recombinant fusion protein is one approach for combining protein domains with complementary functions. To evaluate SAK for use in a translational fusion protein, both N- and C-terminal fusions to SAK were constructed by using hirudin as a fusion partner. Recombinant fusion proteins were secreted from Bacillus subtilis and purified from culture supernatants. The rate of plasminogen activation by SAK was not altered by the presence of an additional N- or C-terminal protein sequence. However, cleavage at N-terminal lysines within SAK rendered the N-terminal fusion unstable in the presence of plasmin. The results of site-directed mutagenesis of lysine 10 and lysine 11 in SAK suggested that a plasmin-resistant variant cannot be created without interfering with the plasmin processing necessary for activation of SAK. Although putative plasmin cleavage sites are located at the C-terminal end of SAK at lysine 135 and lysine 136, these sites were resistant to plasmin cleavage in vitro. Therefore, C-terminal fusions represent stable configurations for developing improved thrombolytic agents based on SAK as the plasminogen activator component. PMID:9925575

  1. Efficient recovery of recombinant proteins from cereal endosperm is affected by interaction with endogenous storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jenny; Sabalza, Maite; Ramessar, Koreen; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa; Stöger, Eva; Arcalís, Elsa

    2013-10-01

    Cereal seeds are versatile platforms for the production of recombinant proteins because they provide a stable environment for protein accumulation. Endogenous seed storage proteins, however, include several prolamin-type polypeptides that aggregate and crosslink via intermolecular disulfide bridges, which could potentially interact with multimeric recombinant proteins such as antibodies, which assemble in the same manner. We investigated this possibility by sequentially extracting a human antibody expressed in maize endosperm, followed by precipitation in vitro with zein. We provide evidence that a significant proportion of the antibody pool interacts with zein and therefore cannot be extracted using non-reducing buffers. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrated that antibodies targeted for secretion were instead retained within zein bodies because of such covalent interactions. Our findings suggest that the production of soluble recombinant antibodies in maize could be enhanced by eliminating or minimizing interactions with endogenous storage proteins.

  2. Expression and export: recombinant protein production systems for Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, André; Dersch, Petra

    2010-07-01

    Several Aspergillus species, in particular Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, are widely used as protein production hosts in various biotechnological applications. In order to improve the expression and secretion of recombinant proteins in these filamentous fungi, several novel genetic engineering strategies have been developed in recent years. This review describes state-of-the-art genetic manipulation technologies used for strain improvement, as well as recent advances in designing the most appropriate engineering strategy for a particular protein production process. Furthermore, current developments in identifying bottlenecks in the protein production and secretion pathways are described and novel approaches to overcome these limitations are introduced. An appropriate combination of expression vectors and optimized host strains will provide cell factories customized for each production process and expand the great potential of Aspergilli as biotechnology workhorses to more complex multi-step industrial applications.

  3. Identification of Essential Genetic Baculoviral Elements for Recombinant Protein Expression by Transactivation in Sf21 Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Maren; Schürig, Margitta; Chen, Fang-Fang; Yen, Zen-Zen; Lindemann, Nils; Meyer, Steffen; Spehr, Johannes; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) is widely used to produce high amounts of recombinant proteins. Nevertheless, generating recombinant baculovirus in high quality is rather time-consuming and labor-intensive. Alternatively, virus-free expression in insect cells did not achieve similar expression levels for most proteins so far. The transactivation method is a promising approach for protein expression in Sf21 cells. It combines advantages of BEVS and plasmid-based expression by activating strong virus-dependent promoters on a transfected plasmid by baculoviral coinfection. Here, we identified expression elements required for transactivation. Therefore, we designed several vectors comprising different viral promoters or promoter combinations and tested them for eGFP expression using the automated BioLector microcultivation system. Remarkably, only the combination of the very late promoter p10 together with the homologous region 5 (hr5) could boost expression during transactivation. Other elements, like p10 alone or the late viral promoter polH, did not respond to transactivation. A new combination of hr5 and p10 with the strongest immediate early OpMNPV viral promoter OpIE2 improved the yield of eGFP by ~25% in comparison to the previous applied hr5-IE1-p10 expression cassette. Furthermore, we observed a strong influence of the transcription termination sequence and vector backbone on the level of expression. Finally, the expression levels for transactivation, BEVS and solely plasmid-based expression were compared for the marker protein eGFP, underlining the potential of transactivation for fast recombinant protein expression in Sf21 cells. In conclusion, essential elements for transactivation could be identified. The optimal elements were applied to generate an improved vector applicable in virus-free plasmid-based expression, transactivation and BEVS. PMID:26934632

  4. Nonstructural Protein NP1 of Human Bocavirus 1 Plays a Critical Role in the Expression of Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Cheng, Fang; Shen, Weiran; Engelhardt, John F.; Yan, Ziying

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel chimeric parvoviral vector, rAAV2/HBoV1, in which the recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) genome is pseudopackaged by the human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) capsid, has been shown to be highly efficient in gene delivery to human airway epithelia (Z. Yan et al., Mol Ther 21:2181–2194, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2013.92). In this vector production system, we used an HBoV1 packaging plasmid, pHBoV1NSCap, that harbors HBoV1 nonstructural protein (NS) and capsid protein (Cap) genes. In order to simplify this packaging plasmid, we investigated the involvement of the HBoV1 NS proteins in capsid protein expression. We found that NP1, a small NS protein encoded by the middle open reading frame, is required for the expression of the viral capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, and VP3). We also found that the other NS proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3, and NS4) are not required for the expression of VP proteins. We performed systematic analyses of the HBoV1 mRNAs transcribed from the pHBoV1NSCap packaging plasmid and its derivatives in HEK 293 cells. Mechanistically, we found that NP1 is required for both the splicing and the read-through of the proximal polyadenylation site of the HBoV1 precursor mRNA, essential functions for the maturation of capsid protein-encoding mRNA. Thus, our study provides a unique example of how a small viral nonstructural protein facilitates the multifaceted regulation of capsid gene expression. IMPORTANCE A novel chimeric parvoviral vector, rAAV2/HBoV1, expressing a full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, is capable of correcting CFTR-dependent chloride transport in cystic fibrosis human airway epithelium. Previously, an HBoV1 nonstructural and capsid protein-expressing plasmid, pHBoV1NSCap, was used to package the rAAV2/HBoV1 vector, but yields remained low. In this study, we demonstrated that the nonstructural protein NP1 is required for the expression of capsid proteins. However, we found that the

  5. Canine distemper virus persistence in demyelinating encephalitis by swift intracellular cell-to-cell spread in astrocytes is controlled by the viral attachment protein.

    PubMed

    Wyss-Fluehmann, Gaby; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Vandevelde, Marc; Plattet, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The mechanism of viral persistence, the driving force behind the chronic progression of inflammatory demyelination in canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, is associated with non-cytolytic viral cell-to-cell spread. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms of viral spread of a recombinant fluorescent protein-expressing virulent CDV in primary canine astrocyte cultures. Time-lapse video microscopy documented that CDV spread was very efficient using cell processes contacting remote target cells. Strikingly, CDV transmission to remote cells could occur in less than 6 h, suggesting that a complete viral cycle with production of extracellular free particles was not essential in enabling CDV to spread in glial cells. Titration experiments and electron microscopy confirmed a very low CDV particle production despite higher titers of membrane-associated viruses. Interestingly, confocal laser microscopy and lentivirus transduction indicated expression and functionality of the viral fusion machinery, consisting of the viral fusion (F) and attachment (H) glycoproteins, at the cell surface. Importantly, using a single-cycle infectious recombinant H-knockout, H-complemented virus, we demonstrated that H, and thus potentially the viral fusion complex, was necessary to enable CDV spread. Furthermore, since we could not detect CD150/SLAM expression in brain cells, the presence of a yet non-identified glial receptor for CDV was suggested. Altogether, our findings indicate that persistence in CDV infection results from intracellular cell-to-cell transmission requiring the CDV-H protein. Viral transfer, happening selectively at the tip of astrocytic processes, may help the virus to cover long distances in the astroglial network, "outrunning" the host's immune response in demyelinating plaques, thus continuously eliciting new lesions.

  6. A DNA Binding Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Transcription in Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Bin; Shi, Yanghui; Quan, Yanping; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A DNA-binding protein (DBP) [GenBank accession number: M63416] of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has been reported to be a regulatory factor in BmNPV, but its detailed functions remain unknown. In order to study the regulatory mechanism of DBP on viral proliferation, genome replication, and gene transcription, a BmNPV dbp gene knockout virus dbp-ko-Bacmid was generated by the means of Red recombination system. In addition, dbp-repaired virus dbp-re-Bacmid was constructed by the means of the Bac to Bac system. Then, the Bacmids were transfected into BmN cells. The results of this viral titer experiment revealed that the TCID50 of the dbp-ko-Bacmid was 0; however, the dbp-re-Bacmid was similar to the wtBacmid (p>0.05), indicating that the dbp-deficient would lead to failure in the assembly of virus particles. In the next step, Real-Time PCR was used to analyze the transcriptional phases of dbp gene in BmN cells, which had been infected with BmNPV. The results of the latter experiment revealed that the transcript of dbp gene was first detected at 3 h post-infection. Furthermore, the replication level of virus genome and the transcriptional level of virus early, late, and very late genes in BmN cells, which had been transfected with 3 kinds of Bacmids, were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. The demonstrating that the replication level of genome was lower than that of wtBacmid and dbp-re-Bacmid (p<0.01). The transcriptional level of dbp-ko-Bacmid early gene lef-3, ie-1, dnapol, late gene vp39 and very late gene p10 were statistically significantly lower than dbp-re-Bacmid and wtBacmid (p<0.01). The results presented are based on Western blot analysis, which indicated that the lack of dbp gene would lead to low expressions of lef3, vp39, and p10. In conclusion, dbp was not only essential for early viral replication, but also a viral gene that has a significant impact on transcription and expression during all periods of baculovirus life cycle. PMID:27414795

  7. A DNA Binding Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Transcription in Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Shi, Yanghui; Quan, Yanping; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Yu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A DNA-binding protein (DBP) [GenBank accession number: M63416] of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) has been reported to be a regulatory factor in BmNPV, but its detailed functions remain unknown. In order to study the regulatory mechanism of DBP on viral proliferation, genome replication, and gene transcription, a BmNPV dbp gene knockout virus dbp-ko-Bacmid was generated by the means of Red recombination system. In addition, dbp-repaired virus dbp-re-Bacmid was constructed by the means of the Bac to Bac system. Then, the Bacmids were transfected into BmN cells. The results of this viral titer experiment revealed that the TCID50 of the dbp-ko-Bacmid was 0; however, the dbp-re-Bacmid was similar to the wtBacmid (p>0.05), indicating that the dbp-deficient would lead to failure in the assembly of virus particles. In the next step, Real-Time PCR was used to analyze the transcriptional phases of dbp gene in BmN cells, which had been infected with BmNPV. The results of the latter experiment revealed that the transcript of dbp gene was first detected at 3 h post-infection. Furthermore, the replication level of virus genome and the transcriptional level of virus early, late, and very late genes in BmN cells, which had been transfected with 3 kinds of Bacmids, were analyzed by Real-Time PCR. The demonstrating that the replication level of genome was lower than that of wtBacmid and dbp-re-Bacmid (p<0.01). The transcriptional level of dbp-ko-Bacmid early gene lef-3, ie-1, dnapol, late gene vp39 and very late gene p10 were statistically significantly lower than dbp-re-Bacmid and wtBacmid (p<0.01). The results presented are based on Western blot analysis, which indicated that the lack of dbp gene would lead to low expressions of lef3, vp39, and p10. In conclusion, dbp was not only essential for early viral replication, but also a viral gene that has a significant impact on transcription and expression during all periods of baculovirus life cycle. PMID:27414795

  8. Recombinant proteins in newly developed foods: identification of allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Reese, G

    1997-01-01

    A number of agricultural crops are being modified for various purposes using recombinant DNA technology. Since transferred genes may code for proteins that are ordinarily not present, there is concern about the potential allergenicity of these new varieties. The safety evaluation of transgenic foods is relatively easy when the allergenicity of the gene source is known. Recombinant allergens in genetically engineered or altered foods can be identified using traditional immunological assays such as RAST or ELISA inhibition or immunoblotting procedures. Our recent studies of two corn proteins (10 kD and HSZ) used to alter grain amino acid composition and of transgenic soybeans with an altered fatty acid profile are examples of this approach. Both 10 kD and HSZ did not bind IgE antibodies from sera of corn-reactive subjects by immunoblotting. Studies of wild-type and transgenic soybeans with high oleic acidic content by RAST inhibition and immunoblotting with pooled sera of soy-allergic individuals demonstrated no difference in the allergen content of both extracts. In contrast to these studies, a recent investigation by Nordlee et al. (1996) of transgenic soybeans which expressed a methionine/cysteine-rich protein from Brazil nuts identified this protein as a major Brazil nut allergen. These studies indicate that, when the gene source is from a known allergen or if the recipient contains allergens, it is possible to determine whether the allergen content of the transgenic line is altered relative to the nontransgenic varieties.

  9. The presence of tomato leaf curl Kerala virus AC3 protein enhances viral DNA replication and modulates virus induced gene-silencing mechanism in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses encode few viral proteins. Most of the geminiviral proteins are multifunctional and influence various host cellular processes for the successful viral infection. Though few viral proteins like AC1 and AC2 are well characterized for their multiple functions, role of AC3 in the successful viral infection has not been investigated in detail. Results We performed phage display analysis with the purified recombinant AC3 protein with Maltose Binding Protein as fusion tag (MBP-AC3). Putative AC3 interacting peptides identified through phage display were observed to be homologous to peptides of proteins from various metabolisms. We grouped these putative AC3 interacting peptides according to the known metabolic function of the homologous peptide containing proteins. In order to check if AC3 influences any of these particular metabolic pathways, we designed vectors for assaying DNA replication and virus induced gene-silencing of host gene PCNA. Investigation with these vectors indicated that AC3 enhances viral replication in the host plant tomato. In the PCNA gene-silencing experiment, we observed that the presence of functional AC3 ORF strongly manifested the stunted phenotype associated with the virus induced gene-silencing of PCNA in tomato plants. Conclusions Through the phage display analysis proteins from various metabolic pathways were identified as putative AC3 interacting proteins. By utilizing the vectors developed, we could analyze the role of AC3 in viral DNA replication and host gene-silencing. Our studies indicate that AC3 is also a multifunctional protein. PMID:21496351

  10. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. Recombinant hepatitis C virus-envelope protein 2 interactions with low-density lipoprotein/CD81 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Afonso, Ana; Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Nogueira, Camila Tita; Tansini, Aline; Cappelini, Luciana Teresa Dias; Malagó, Wilson; da Silva, Flávio Henrique; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; da Costa, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 2 (E2) is involved in viral binding to host cells. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant E2B and E2Y HCV proteins in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively, and to study their interactions with low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and CD81 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the ECV304 bladder carcinoma cell line. To investigate the effects of human LDL and differences in protein structure (glycosylated or not) on binding efficiency, the recombinant proteins were either associated or not associated with lipoproteins before being assayed. The immunoreactivity of the recombinant proteins was analysed using pooled serum samples that were either positive or negative for hepatitis C. The cells were immunophenotyped by LDLr and CD81 using flow cytometry. Binding and binding inhibition assays were performed in the presence of LDL, foetal bovine serum (FCS) and specific antibodies. The results revealed that binding was reduced in the absence of FCS, but that the addition of human LDL rescued and increased binding capacity. In HUVEC cells, the use of antibodies to block LDLr led to a significant reduction in the binding of E2B and E2Y. CD81 antibodies did not affect E2B and E2Y binding. In ECV304 cells, blocking LDLr and CD81 produced similar effects, but they were not as marked as those that were observed in HUVEC cells. In conclusion, recombinant HCV E2 is dependent on LDL for its ability to bind to LDLr in HUVEC and ECV304 cells. These findings are relevant because E2 acts to anchor HCV to host cells; therefore, high blood levels of LDL could enhance viral infectivity in chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID:26018451

  12. Adenoviral protein VII packages intracellular viral DNA throughout the early phase of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Vayda, M E; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The proteins associated with parental, adenoviral DNA in productively-infected HeLa cells have been examined both directly and indirectly. HeLa cells infected with 32P-labelled Ad2 were irradiated with u.v. light at various points in the infectious cycle. Following degradation of the DNA, nuclear proteins carrying cross-linked nucleotides, or oligonucleotides, were distinguished from virion phosphoproteins by the resistance of their 32P radioactivity to 1 M NaOH. The major core protein of the virion, protein VII, was found to be associated with viral DNA throughout infection, even when cells were infected at a multiplicity of 0.14. Micrococcal nuclease digestion of intranuclear viral DNA 4 h after infection liberated two nucleoprotein particles containing viral DNA, neither of which co-migrated with HeLa cell mononucleosomes. These results indicate that core protein VII remains associated with parental adenoviral DNA during productive infections. The observation that protein VII can be cross-linked to DNA in cells infected at very low multiplicity, together with the results of a comparison of proteins cross-linkable to viral DNA in cells infected by wild-type virus and a non-infectious mutant containing the precursor to protein VII, suggest that nucleoproteins comprising viral DNA and protein VII must be the templates for expression of pre-early and early viral genes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3743550

  13. Characterizing the Roles of Cryphonectria parasitica RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase-Like Genes in Antiviral Defense, Viral Recombination and Transposon Transcript Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Spiering, Martin J.; Nuss, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    An inducible RNA-silencing pathway, involving a single Dicer protein, DCL2, and a single Argonaute protein, AGL2, was recently shown to serve as an effective antiviral defense response in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Eukaryotic RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) are frequently involved in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing and antiviral defense. We report here the identification and characterization of four RdRP genes (rdr1–4) in the C. parasitica genome. Sequence relationships with other eukaryotic RdRPs indicated that RDR1 and RDR2 were closely related to QDE-1, an RdRP involved in RNA silencing (“quelling”) in Neurospora crassa, whereas RDR3 was more closely related to the meiotic silencing gene SAD-1 in N. crassa. The RdRP domain of RDR4, related to N. crassa RRP-3 of unknown function, was truncated and showed evidence of alternative splicing. Similar to reports for dcl2 and agl2, the expression levels for rdr3 and rdr4 increased after hypovirus CHV-1/EP713 infection, while expression levels of rdr1 and rdr2 were unchanged. The virus-responsive induction patterns for rdr3 and rdr4 were altered in the Δdcl2 and Δagl2 strains, suggesting some level of interaction between rdr3 and rdr4 and the dcl2/agl2 silencing pathway. Single rdr gene knockouts Δrdr1–4, double knockouts Δrdr1/2, Δrdr2/3, Δrdr1/3, and a triple knockout, Δrdr1/2/3, were generated and evaluated for effects on fungal phenotype, the antiviral defense response, viral RNA recombination activity and transposon expression. None of the single or multiple rdr knockout strains displayed any phenotypic differences from the parental strains with or without viral infection or any significant changes in viral RNA accumulation or recombination activity or transposon RNA accumulation, indicating no detectable contribution by the C. parasitica rdr genes to these processes. PMID:25268858

  14. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane-associated, uronide binding phosphoprotein with physical properties similar to viral movement proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, P; Kunz, B; Paul-Pletzer, K; Grimm, R; Eckerskorn, C; Farmer, E E

    1996-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are structural and regulatory homopolymers from the extracellular pectic matrix of plants. In vitro micromolar concentrations of oligogalacturonates and polygalacturonates were shown previously to stimulate the phosphorylation of a small plasma membrane-associated protein in potato. Immunologically cross-reactive proteins were detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions from all angiosperm subclasses in the Cronquist system. Polygalacturonate-enhanced phosphorylation of the protein was observed in four of the six dicotyledon subclasses but not in any of the five monocotyledon subclasses. A cDNA for the protein was cloned from potato. The deduced protein is extremely hydrophilic and has a proline-rich N terminus. The C-terminal half of the protein was predicted to be a coiled coil, suggesting that the protein interacts with other macromolecules. The recombinant protein was found to bind both simple and complex galacturonides. The behavior of the protein suggests several parallels with viral proteins involved in intercellular communication. PMID:8989883

  15. Recent advances in production of recombinant spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hannah; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-12-01

    Spider silk has been drawing much attention as a great biomaterial having many applications in biotechnology and biomedicine owing to its several desired material characteristics such as outstanding strength, toughness, and elasticity as well as biodegradability and biocompatibility. With various applications foreseeable in industry, there has been much effort to produce recombinant spider silk protein in large amounts. However, owing to the difficulties in its production using spiders, alternative host systems and engineering methods have been investigated to develop suitable production systems that can efficiently produce spider silk protein. Here, we review recent advances in production of spider silk proteins in various heterologous host systems with focus given on the development of metabolic and cellular engineering strategies. PMID:22521455

  16. Generation of recombinant antibody fragments for membrane protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Mir, Syed H; Escher, Claudia; Kao, Wei-Chun; Birth, Dominic; Wirth, Christophe; Hunte, Carola

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are challenging targets for crystallization and structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Hurdles can be overcome by antibody-mediated crystallization. More than 25 unique structures of membrane protein:antibody complexes have already been determined. In the majority of cases, hybridoma-derived antibody fragments either in Fab or Fv fragment format were employed for these complexes. We will briefly introduce the background and current status of the strategy and describe in detail the current protocols of well-established methods for the immunization, the selection, and the characterization of antibodies, as well as the cloning, the production, and the purification of recombinant antibodies useful for structural analysis of membrane proteins.

  17. Multivalent display of proteins on viral nanoparticles using molecular recognition and chemical ligation strategies.

    PubMed

    Venter, P Arno; Dirksen, Anouk; Thomas, Diane; Manchester, Marianne; Dawson, Philip E; Schneemann, Anette

    2011-06-13

    Multivalent display of heterologous proteins on viral nanoparticles forms a basis for numerous applications in nanotechnology, including vaccine development, targeted therapeutic delivery, and tissue-specific bioimaging. In many instances, precise placement of proteins is required for optimal functioning of the supramolecular assemblies, but orientation- and site-specific coupling of proteins to viral scaffolds remains a significant technical challenge. We have developed two strategies that allow for controlled attachment of a variety of proteins on viral particles using covalent and noncovalent principles. In one strategy, an interaction between domain 4 of anthrax protective antigen and its receptor was used to display multiple copies of a target protein on virus-like particles. In the other, expressed protein ligation and aniline-catalyzed oximation was used to display covalently a model protein. The latter strategy, in particular, yielded nanoparticles that induced potent immune responses to the coupled protein, suggesting potential applications in vaccine development. PMID:21545187

  18. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  19. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development. PMID:27278133

  20. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development. PMID:27278133

  1. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  2. Identification of a Novel Viral Protein Expressed from the PB2 Segment of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mariko; Goto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past 2 decades, several novel influenza virus proteins have been identified that modulate viral infections in vitro and/or in vivo. The PB2 segment, which is one of the longest influenza A virus segments, is known to encode only one viral protein, PB2. In the present study, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) targeting viral mRNAs transcribed from the PB2 segment to look for novel viral proteins encoded by spliced mRNAs. We identified a new viral protein, PB2-S1, encoded by a novel spliced mRNA in which the region corresponding to nucleotides 1513 to 1894 of the PB2 mRNA is deleted. PB2-S1 was detected in virus-infected cells and in cells transfected with a protein expression plasmid encoding PB2. PB2-S1 localized to mitochondria, inhibited the RIG-I-dependent interferon signaling pathway, and interfered with viral polymerase activity (dependent on its PB1-binding capability). The nucleotide sequences around the splicing donor and acceptor sites for PB2-S1 were highly conserved among pre-2009 human H1N1 viruses but not among human H1N1pdm and H3N2 viruses. PB2-S1-deficient viruses, however, showed growth kinetics in MDCK cells and virulence in mice similar to those of wild-type virus. The biological significance of PB2-S1 to the replication and pathogenicity of seasonal H1N1 influenza A viruses warrants further investigation. IMPORTANCE Transcriptome analysis of cells infected with influenza A virus has improved our understanding of the host response to viral infection, because such analysis yields considerable information about both in vitro and in vivo viral infections. However, little attention has been paid to transcriptomes derived from the viral genome. Here we focused on the splicing of mRNA expressed from the PB2 segment and identified a spliced viral mRNA encoding a novel viral protein. This result suggests that other, as yet unidentified viral proteins encoded by spliced mRNAs could be expressed in virus-infected cells. A viral

  3. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in lateral ridge augmentation.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Robert; Koo, Samuel; Kim, David M

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the augmentation of severe lateral ridge defects in the maxilla and mandible using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS). The surgical technique used tenting screws and a membrane to maintain space for the ACS. After 7 months of healing, the ridge width increased from 1 to 2 mm to 6 to 9 mm, thus allowing successful placement of dental implants. De novo bone formation through use of the surgical technique for space maintenance of rhBMP-2/ACS was demonstrated without the need for additional particulate bone grafting. PMID:23342352

  4. Identification of viral membrane proteins required for cell fusion and viral dissemination that are modified during vaccinia virus persistence.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M A; Paez, E

    1994-01-01

    Wild-type vaccinia virus WR strain forms non-fusogenic (F-) large plaques and is hemagglutinin positive (HA+) under normal conditions of virus infection. We have analyzed a collection of spontaneous, highly attenuated mutants of vaccinia virus isolated from persistently infected Friend erythroleukemia cells (E. Paez, S. Dallo, and M. Esteban, J. Virol. 61, 2642-2647, 1987) for the ability to express HA during virus infection. After 14 cell passages, all the mutants isolated were hemadsorption negative (HAD-) and did not synthesize a HA that could be recognized by anti-HA monoclonal antibodies. All these HA- mutants induced extensive cell-cell fusion (F+), with the exception of two mutants (65-16 and 101-14) isolated from late cell passages. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA gene in these two mutants confirmed the HA- phenotype. A frameshift mutation very close to the initiation codon resulted in premature translational termination. The truncated gene now only encodes the first 25 amino acids. Analysis of progeny from "wild-type," like early serial passage virus (5-3) X mutant back crosses, shows that for one late passage non-fusogenic small-plaque mutant (101-14) among large plaque progeny there is good correspondence between the ability to fuse and the absence of a viral HA and that each large plaque mutant contains a normal 14 kDa membrane protein. However, with a second serial passage mutant 65-16, which, like 101-14, is a nonfusogenic small-plaque variant, there is again an excellent correlation between the inability to synthesize HA and the ability to fuse, but there is no correlation of plaque size with a normal 14 kDa viral membrane protein, as most large plaque mutants encode a larger, i.e., 17 kDa protein. Rescue experiments of 65-16 with bona fide cloned 14 kDa protein gene confirm that the ability to regulate plaque size and cell fusion in this mutant is due to a protein other than the 14 kDa protein. Marker rescue experiments indicated that the map

  5. Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Robert Y.L.; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Ma, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Hsing-I; Yu, Jau-Song; Yen, Sih-Min; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2013-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90β), but not alpha form (Hsp90α), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90β protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90β protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90β protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90β protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone. - Highlights: • Hsp90β is associated with EV71 virion and is secreted with the release virus. • Hsp90β effects on the correct assembly of viral particles. • Viral titer of cultured medium was reduced in the presence of geldanamycin. • Viral titer was also reduced when Hsp90β was suppressed by siRNA treatment. • The extracellular Hsp90β was also observed in other RNA viruses-infected cells.

  6. Expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein in Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Nilasari, Dewi; Dover, Nir; Rech, Sabine; Komives, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biocatalysts are used in a wide range of industries to produce large scale quantities of proteins, amino acids, and commodity chemicals. While the majority of these processes use glucose or other low-cost sugars as the substrate, Bacillus methanolicus is one example of a biocatalyst that has shown sustained growth on methanol as a carbon source at elevated temperature (50-53°C optimum) resulting in reduced feed and utility costs. Specifically, the complete chemical process enabled by this approach takes methane from natural gas, and following a low-cost conversion to methanol, can be used for the production of high value products. In this study, production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) by B. methanolicus is explored. A plasmid was constructed that incorporates the methanol dehydrogenase (mdh) promoter of B. methanolicus MGA3 together with the GFPuv gene. The plasmid, pNW33N, was shown to be effective for expression in other Bacillus strains, although not previously in B. methanolicus. A published electroporation protocol for transformation of B. methanolicus was modified to result in expression of GFP using plasmid pNW33N-mdh-GFPuv (pNmG). Transformation was confirmed by both agarose gel electrophoresis and by observation of green fluorescence under UV light exposure. The mass yield of cells and protein were measured in shake flask experiments. The optimum concentration of methanol for protein production was found to be at 200 mM. Higher concentrations than 200 mM resulted in slightly higher biomass production but lower amounts of recombinant protein. PMID:22275315

  7. Thermal adaptability of Kluyveromyces marxianus in recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kluyveromyces marxianus combines the ease of genetic manipulation and fermentation with the ability to efficiently secrete high molecular weight proteins, performing eukaryotic post-translational modifications. It is able to grow efficiently in a wide range of temperatures. The secretion performances were analyzed in the host K. marxianus L3 in the range between 5°C and 40°C by means of 3 different reporter proteins, since temperature appears a key parameter for production and secretion of recombinant proteins. Results The recombinant strains were able to grow up to 40°C and, along the tested temperature interval (5-40°C), the specific growth rates (μ) were generally lower as compared to those of the untransformed strain. Biomass yields were slightly affected by temperature, with the highest values reached at 15°C and 30°C. The secretion of the endogenous β-fructofuranosidase, used as an internal control, was efficient in the range of the tested temperature, as evaluated by assaying the enzyme activity in the culture supernatants. The endogenous β-fructofuranosidase production was temperature dependent, with the highest yield at 30°C. The heterologous proteins HSA, GAA and Sod1p were all successfully produced and secreted between 5°C and 40°C, albeit each one presented a different optimal production temperature (15, 40, 5-30°C for HSA, GAA and Sod1p, respectively). Conclusions K. marxianus L3 has been identified as a promising and flexible cell factory. In a sole host, the optimization of growth temperatures for the efficient secretion of each individual protein can be carried out over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:23587421

  8. Accelerated protein engineering for chemical biotechnology via homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Nordwald, Erik M; Garst, Andrew; Gill, Ryan T; Kaar, Joel L

    2013-12-01

    Protein engineering has traditionally relied on random mutagenesis strategies to generate diverse libraries, which require high-throughput screening or selection methods to identify rare variants. Alternatively, approaches to semi-rational library construction can be used to minimize the screening load and enhance the efficiency by which improved mutants may be identified. Such methods are typically limited to characterization of relatively few variants due to the difficulties in generating large rational libraries. New tools from synthetic biology, namely multiplexed DNA synthesis and homologous recombination, provide a promising avenue to rapidly construct large, rational libraries. These technologies also enable incorporation of synthetically encoded features that permit efficient characterization of the fitness of each mutant. Extension of these tools to protein library design could complement rational protein design cycles in an effort to more systematically search complex fitness landscapes. The highly parallelized nature with which such libraries can be generated also has the potential to expand directed protein evolution from single protein targets to protein networks whose concerted activities are required for the biological function of interest. PMID:23540421

  9. Accelerated protein engineering for chemical biotechnology via homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Nordwald, Erik M; Garst, Andrew; Gill, Ryan T; Kaar, Joel L

    2013-12-01

    Protein engineering has traditionally relied on random mutagenesis strategies to generate diverse libraries, which require high-throughput screening or selection methods to identify rare variants. Alternatively, approaches to semi-rational library construction can be used to minimize the screening load and enhance the efficiency by which improved mutants may be identified. Such methods are typically limited to characterization of relatively few variants due to the difficulties in generating large rational libraries. New tools from synthetic biology, namely multiplexed DNA synthesis and homologous recombination, provide a promising avenue to rapidly construct large, rational libraries. These technologies also enable incorporation of synthetically encoded features that permit efficient characterization of the fitness of each mutant. Extension of these tools to protein library design could complement rational protein design cycles in an effort to more systematically search complex fitness landscapes. The highly parallelized nature with which such libraries can be generated also has the potential to expand directed protein evolution from single protein targets to protein networks whose concerted activities are required for the biological function of interest.

  10. Utilizing protein-lean coproducts from corn containing recombinant pharmaceutical proteins for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Moeller, Lorena; Scott, M Paul; Wang, Kan; Glatz, Charles E; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2010-10-13

    Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) and r-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich fractions prior to grinding for fermentation. The finished beers of whole ground kernels and r-protein-spent endosperm solids contained 127-139 and 138-155 g/L ethanol concentrations, respectively. The ethanol levels did not differ among transgenic and normal corn feedstocks, indicating the residual r-proteins did not negatively affect ethanol production. r-Protein extraction and germ removal also did not negatively affect fermentation of the remaining mass. Most r-proteins were inactivated during the mashing process used to prepare corn for fermentation. No functionally active r-GFP or r-LTB proteins were found after fermentation of the r-protein-spent solids; however, a small quantity of residual r-CIα1 was detected in DDGS, indicating that the safety of DDGS produced from transgenic grain for r-protein production needs to be evaluated for each event. Protease treatment during fermentation completely hydrolyzed the residual r-CIα1, and no residual r-proteins were detectable in DDGS.

  11. [Eukaryotic Expression and Immunogenic Research of Recombination Ebola Virus Membrane Protein Gp-Fc].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Ren; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Xuan; Hou, Mieling; An, Lina; Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yuxi; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We used 293 cells to express the recombinant membrane protein of the Ebola virus. Then, the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein was studied by immunized BALB/c mice. According to the codon use frequency of humans, the gene encoding the extracellular domain of the Ebola virus membrane protein was optimized, synthesized, and inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pXG-Fc to construct the human IgG Fc and Ebola GP fusion protein expression plasmid pXG-modGP-Fc. To achieve expression, the fusion protein expression vector was transfected into high-density 293 cells using transient transfection technology. The recombinant protein was purified by protein A affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified fusion protein, and serum antibody titers evaluated by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purification and analyses of the protein revealed that the eukaryotic expression vector could express the recombinant protein GP-Fc effectively, and that the recombinant protein in the supernatant of the cell culture was present as a dimer. After immunization with the purified recombinant protein, a high titer of antigen-specific IgG could be detected in the serum of immunized mice by indirect ELISA, showing that the recombinant protein had good immunogenicity. These data suggest that we obtained a recombinant protein with good immunogenicity. Our study is the basis for development of a vaccine against the Ebola virus and for screening of monoclonal antibodies.

  12. Biological roles and functional mechanisms of arenavirus Z protein in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialong; Danzy, Shamika; Kumar, Naveen; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2012-09-01

    Arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever diseases in humans, with limited prophylactic or therapeutic measures. A small RING-domain viral protein Z has been shown to mediate the formation of virus-like particles and to inhibit viral RNA synthesis, although its biological roles in an infectious viral life cycle have not been directly addressed. By taking advantage of the available reverse genetics system for a model arenavirus, Pichinde virus (PICV), we provide the direct evidence for the essential biological roles of the Z protein's conserved residues, including the G2 myristylation site, the conserved C and H residues of RING domain, and the poorly characterized C-terminal L79 and P80 residues. Dicodon substitutions within the late (L) domain (PSAPPYEP) of the PICV Z protein, although producing viable mutant viruses, have significantly reduced virus growth, a finding suggestive of an important role for the intact L domain in viral replication. Further structure-function analyses of both PICV and Lassa fever virus Z proteins suggest that arenavirus Z proteins have similar molecular mechanisms in mediating their multiple functions, with some interesting variations, such as the role of the G2 residue in blocking viral RNA synthesis. In summary, our studies have characterized the biological roles of the Z protein in an infectious arenavirus system and have shed important light on the distinct functions of its domains in virus budding and viral RNA regulation, the knowledge of which may lead to the development of novel antiviral drugs.

  13. Viral Proteins Acquired from a Host Converge to Simplified Domain Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The infection cycle of viruses creates many opportunities for the exchange of genetic material with the host. Many viruses integrate their sequences into the genome of their host for replication. These processes may lead to the virus acquisition of host sequences. Such sequences are prone to accumulation of mutations and deletions. However, in rare instances, sequences acquired from a host become beneficial for the virus. We searched for unexpected sequence similarity among the 900,000 viral proteins and all proteins from cellular organisms. Here, we focus on viruses that infect metazoa. The high-conservation analysis yielded 187 instances of highly similar viral-host sequences. Only a small number of them represent viruses that hijacked host sequences. The low-conservation sequence analysis utilizes the Pfam family collection. About 5% of the 12,000 statistical models archived in Pfam are composed of viral-metazoan proteins. In about half of Pfam families, we provide indirect support for the directionality from the host to the virus. The other families are either wrongly annotated or reflect an extensive sequence exchange between the viruses and their hosts. In about 75% of cross-taxa Pfam families, the viral proteins are significantly shorter than their metazoan counterparts. The tendency for shorter viral proteins relative to their related host proteins accounts for the acquisition of only a fragment of the host gene, the elimination of an internal domain and shortening of the linkers between domains. We conclude that, along viral evolution, the host-originated sequences accommodate simplified domain compositions. We postulate that the trimmed proteins act by interfering with the fundamental function of the host including intracellular signaling, post-translational modification, protein-protein interaction networks and cellular trafficking. We compiled a collection of hijacked protein sequences. These sequences are attractive targets for manipulation of viral

  14. Rinderpest Viruses Lacking the C and V Proteins Show Specific Defects in Growth and Transcription of Viral RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Michael D.; Barrett, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Rinderpest virus is a morbillivirus and the causative agent of an important disease of cattle and wild bovids. The P genes of all morbilliviruses give rise to two proteins in addition to the P protein itself: use of an alternate start translation site, in a second open reading frame, gives rise to the C protein, while cotranscriptional insertion of an extra base gives rise to the V protein, a fusion of the amino-terminal half of P to a short, highly conserved, cysteine-rich zinc binding domain. Little is known about the function of either of these two proteins in the rinderpest virus life cycle. We have constructed recombinant rinderpest viruses in which the expression of these proteins has been suppressed, individually and together, and studied the replication of these viruses in tissue culture. We show that the absence of the V protein has little effect on the replication rate of the virus but does lead to an increase in synthesis of genome and antigenome RNAs and a change in cytopathic effect to a more syncytium-forming phenotype. Virus that does not express the C protein, on the other hand, is clearly defective in growth in all cell lines tested, and this defect appears to be related to a decreased transcription of mRNA from viral genes. The phenotypes of both individual mutant virus types are both expressed in the double mutant expressing neither V nor C. PMID:10684274

  15. Production of Recombinant Proteins in the Chloroplast of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Zapata, Daniel; Macedo-Osorio, Karla Soledad; Almaraz-Delgado, Alma Lorena; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Badillo-Corona, Jesus Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be used for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. Here, we describe chloroplast transformation of C. reinhardtii followed by protein detection. Genes of interest integrate stably by homologous recombination into the chloroplast genome following introduction by particle bombardment. Genes are inherited and expressed in lines recovered after selection in the presence of an antibiotic. Recombinant proteins can be detected by conventional techniques like immunoblotting and purified from liquid cultures.

  16. Production of Recombinant Proteins in the Chloroplast of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Zapata, Daniel; Macedo-Osorio, Karla Soledad; Almaraz-Delgado, Alma Lorena; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Badillo-Corona, Jesus Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be used for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. Here, we describe chloroplast transformation of C. reinhardtii followed by protein detection. Genes of interest integrate stably by homologous recombination into the chloroplast genome following introduction by particle bombardment. Genes are inherited and expressed in lines recovered after selection in the presence of an antibiotic. Recombinant proteins can be detected by conventional techniques like immunoblotting and purified from liquid cultures. PMID:26614282

  17. Expansion of Viral Host Range through Complementation and Recombination in Transgenic Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Schoelz, JE; Wintermantel, WM

    1993-01-01

    We have shown previously that gene VI of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) strain D4 governs systemic infection of Nicotiana bigelovii and that transgenic N. bigelovii expressing the D4 gene VI product can complement at least one CaMV isolate for long-distance transport. We have now found that DNA of two other isolates of CaMV recombine with the gene VI coding sequence present in the transgenic plants. The formation of recombinant viruses occurs as a consequence of CaMV replication, involving two template switches during reverse transcription of the CaMV RNA to DNA. The first template switch occurs at the 5[prime] end of the 35S RNA to the gene VI mRNA produced by the transgenic plants. A second switch occurs at the 5[prime] end of the gene VI mRNA back to the 35S RNA. We also demonstrate that CaMV can acquire sequences from transgenic plants that alter the symptomatology and host range of the virus, an observation that may have important risk assessment implications for strategies using pathogen-derived resistance to protect plants against virus diseases. PMID:12271051

  18. Virion-associated viral proteins of a Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) iridovirus (genus Ranavirus) and functional study of the major capsid protein (MCP).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Weng, Shaoping; Zhao, Gaoxiang; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2014-08-01

    Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (CGSIV) is the emerging causative agent to farmed Chinese giant salamanders in nationwide China. CGSIV is a member of the common midwife toad ranavirus (CMTV) subset of the amphibian-like ranavirus (ALRV) in the genus Ranavirus of Iridoviridae family. However, viral protein information on ALRV is lacking. In this first proteomic analysis of ALRV, 40 CGSIV viral proteins were detected from purified virus particles by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The transcription products of all 40 identified virion proteins were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Temporal expression pattern analysis combined with drug inhibition assay indicated that 37 transcripts of the 40 virion protein genes could be classified into three temporal kinetic classes, namely, 5 immediate early, 12 delayed early, and 20 late genes. The presence of major capsid proteins (MCP, ORF019L) and a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (ORF025L) was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. The functions of MCP were also determined by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown assay and anti-recombinant MCP serum-based neutralization testing. At low dosages of CGSIV, siRNA-based knockdown of the MCP gene effectively inhibited CGSIV replication in fathead minnow cells. The antiviral effect observed in the anti-MCP serum-based neutralization test confirms the crucial function of the MCP gene in CGSIV replication. Taken together, detailed information on the virion-associated viral proteins of ALRV is presented for the first time. Our results also provide evidence that MCP is essential for CGSIV replication in vitro.

  19. Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

    2008-06-01

    The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities.

  20. Marked variability in the extent of protein disorder within and between viral families.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Ravindra; Mooney, Catherine; Davey, Norman E; Jacqué, Jean-Marc; Shields, Denis C

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions in eukaryotic proteomes contain key signaling and regulatory modules and mediate interactions with many proteins. Many viral proteomes encode disordered proteins and modulate host factors through the use of short linear motifs (SLiMs) embedded within disordered regions. However, the degree of viral protein disorder across different viruses is not well understood, so we set out to establish the constraints acting on viruses, in terms of their use of disordered protein regions. We surveyed predicted disorder across 2,278 available viral genomes in 41 families, and correlated the extent of disorder with genome size and other factors. Protein disorder varies strikingly between viral families (from 2.9% to 23.1% of residues), and also within families. However, this substantial variation did not follow the established trend among their hosts, with increasing disorder seen across eubacterial, archaebacterial, protists, and multicellular eukaryotes. For example, among large mammalian viruses, poxviruses and herpesviruses showed markedly differing disorder (5.6% and 17.9%, respectively). Viral families with smaller genome sizes have more disorder within each of five main viral types (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA+, dsRNA, retroviruses), except for negative single-stranded RNA viruses, where disorder increased with genome size. However, surveying over all viruses, which compares tiny and enormous viruses over a much bigger range of genome sizes, there is no strong association of genome size with protein disorder. We conclude that there is extensive variation in the disorder content of viral proteomes. While a proportion of this may relate to base composition, to extent of gene overlap, and to genome size within viral types, there remain important additional family and virus-specific effects. Differing disorder strategies are likely to impact on how different viruses modulate host factors, and on how rapidly viruses can evolve novel instances of SLi

  1. Tacaribe virus Z protein interacts with the L polymerase protein to inhibit viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jácamo, Rodrigo; López, Nora; Wilda, Maximiliano; Franze-Fernández, María T

    2003-10-01

    Tacaribe virus (TV) is the prototype of the New World group of arenaviruses. The TV genome encodes four proteins, the nucleoprotein (N), the glycoprotein precursor, the polymerase (L), and a small RING finger protein (Z). Using a reverse genetic system, we recently demonstrated that TV N and L are sufficient to drive transcription and full-cycle RNA replication mediated by TV-like RNAs and that Z is a powerful inhibitor of these processes (N. López, R. Jácamo, and M. T. Franze-Fernández, J. Virol. 65:12241-12251, 2001). In the present study we investigated whether Z might interact with either of the proteins, N and L, required for RNA synthesis. To that end, we used coimmunoprecipitation with monospecific antibodies against the viral proteins and coimmunoprecipitation with serum against glutathione S-transferase (GST) and binding to glutathione-Sepharose beads when Z was expressed as a fusion protein with GST. We demonstrated that Z interacted with L but not with N and that Z inhibitory activity was dependent on its ability to bind to L. We also evaluated the contribution of different Z regions to its binding ability and functional activity. We found that integrity of the RING structure is essential for Z binding to L and for Z inhibitory activity. Mutants with deletions at the N and C termini of Z showed that amino acids within the C-terminal region and immediately adjacent to the RING domain N terminus contribute to efficient Z-L interaction and are required for inhibitory activity. The data presented here provide the first evidence of an interaction between Z and L, suggesting that Z interferes with viral RNA synthesis by direct interaction with L. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed a previously unreported interaction between N and L.

  2. Determination of enamel protein synthesized by recombined mouse molar tooth germs in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Terashima, T; Oida, S; Sasaki, S

    1996-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interaction is a prerequisite for tooth morphogenesis. To study this interaction, inner enamel epithelium and dental papilla mesenchyme of molar tooth germs from a 16.5-day mouse embryo were dissociated enzymatically and cultured alone or after recombination. Characteristic matrix protein synthesized and secreted by recombined tooth germ was determined quantitatively by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein was detected in the culture of recombined tooth germ but not of dissociated enamel epithelium alone. The amount of enamel protein increased until 8 days in culture. Morphological differentiation of the recombined epithelial rudiment into ameloblasts and enamel protein production were confirmed.

  3. Adeno-associated-virus-mediated transduction of the mammary gland enables sustained production of recombinant proteins in milk

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Stefan; Thresher, Rosemary; Bland, Ross; Laible, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Biopharming for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals is an attractive but laborious alternative compared to mammalian cell fermentation. The disadvantage of the lengthy process of genetically modifying an entire animal could be circumvented with somatic transduction of only the mammary epithelium with recombinant, replication-defective viruses. While other viral vectors offer very limited scope for this approach, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear to be ideal candidates because AAV is helper-dependent, does not induce a strong immune response and has no association with disease. Here, we sought to test the suitability of recombinant AAV (rAAV) for biopharming. Using reporter genes, we showed that injected rAAV efficiently transduced mouse mammary cells. When rAAV encoding human myelin basic protein (hMBP) was injected into the mammary glands of mice and rabbits, this resulted in the expression of readily detectable protein levels of up to 0.5 g/L in the milk. Furthermore we demonstrated that production of hMBP persisted over extended periods and that protein expression could be renewed in a subsequent lactation by re-injection of rAAV into a previously injected mouse gland. PMID:26463440

  4. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-11-25

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: > We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. > Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. > A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. > Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  5. Adeno-associated-virus-mediated transduction of the mammary gland enables sustained production of recombinant proteins in milk.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefan; Thresher, Rosemary; Bland, Ross; Laible, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Biopharming for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals is an attractive but laborious alternative compared to mammalian cell fermentation. The disadvantage of the lengthy process of genetically modifying an entire animal could be circumvented with somatic transduction of only the mammary epithelium with recombinant, replication-defective viruses. While other viral vectors offer very limited scope for this approach, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear to be ideal candidates because AAV is helper-dependent, does not induce a strong immune response and has no association with disease. Here, we sought to test the suitability of recombinant AAV (rAAV) for biopharming. Using reporter genes, we showed that injected rAAV efficiently transduced mouse mammary cells. When rAAV encoding human myelin basic protein (hMBP) was injected into the mammary glands of mice and rabbits, this resulted in the expression of readily detectable protein levels of up to 0.5 g/L in the milk. Furthermore we demonstrated that production of hMBP persisted over extended periods and that protein expression could be renewed in a subsequent lactation by re-injection of rAAV into a previously injected mouse gland. PMID:26463440

  6. Adeno-associated-virus-mediated transduction of the mammary gland enables sustained production of recombinant proteins in milk.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefan; Thresher, Rosemary; Bland, Ross; Laible, Götz

    2015-10-14

    Biopharming for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary gland of transgenic animals is an attractive but laborious alternative compared to mammalian cell fermentation. The disadvantage of the lengthy process of genetically modifying an entire animal could be circumvented with somatic transduction of only the mammary epithelium with recombinant, replication-defective viruses. While other viral vectors offer very limited scope for this approach, vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear to be ideal candidates because AAV is helper-dependent, does not induce a strong immune response and has no association with disease. Here, we sought to test the suitability of recombinant AAV (rAAV) for biopharming. Using reporter genes, we showed that injected rAAV efficiently transduced mouse mammary cells. When rAAV encoding human myelin basic protein (hMBP) was injected into the mammary glands of mice and rabbits, this resulted in the expression of readily detectable protein levels of up to 0.5 g/L in the milk. Furthermore we demonstrated that production of hMBP persisted over extended periods and that protein expression could be renewed in a subsequent lactation by re-injection of rAAV into a previously injected mouse gland.

  7. Visualization of feline calicivirus replication in real-time with recombinant viruses engineered to express fluorescent reporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Abente, Eugenio J; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Green, Kim Y

    2010-04-25

    Caliciviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis was used to insert a transprimer sequence into random sites of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome. A site in the LC gene (encoding the capsid leader protein) of the FCV genome was identified that could tolerate foreign insertions, and two viable recombinant FCV variants expressing LC fused either to AcGFP, or DsRedFP were recovered. The effects of the insertions on LC processing, RNA replication, and stability of the viral genome were analyzed, and the progression of a calicivirus single infection and co-infection were captured by real-time imaging fluorescent microscopy. The ability to engineer viable recombinant caliciviruses expressing foreign markers enables new approaches to investigate virus and host cell interactions, as well as studies of viral recombination, one of the driving forces of calicivirus evolution. PMID:20137802

  8. Illuminating structural proteins in viral “dark matter” with metaproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Jennifer R.; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Kim, Eun-Hae; Trubl, Gareth; Jones, Robert M.; Roux, Simon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Rich, Virginia I.; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are ecologically important, yet environmental virology is limited by dominance of unannotated genomic sequences representing taxonomic and functional “viral dark matter.” Although recent analytical advances are rapidly improving taxonomic annotations, identifying functional dark matter remains problematic. Here, we apply paired metaproteomics and dsDNA-targeted metagenomics to identify 1,875 virion-associated proteins from the ocean. Over one-half of these proteins were newly functionally annotated and represent abundant and widespread viral metagenome-derived protein clusters (PCs). One primarily unannotated PC dominated the dataset, but structural modeling and genomic context identified this PC as a previously unidentified capsid protein from multiple uncultivated tailed virus families. Furthermore, four of the five most abundant PCs in the metaproteome represent capsid proteins containing the HK97-like protein fold previously found in many viruses that infect all three domains of life. The dominance of these proteins within our dataset, as well as their global distribution throughout the world’s oceans and seas, supports prior hypotheses that this HK97-like protein fold is the most abundant biological structure on Earth. Together, these culture-independent analyses improve virion-associated protein annotations, facilitate the investigation of proteins within natural viral communities, and offer a high-throughput means of illuminating functional viral dark matter. PMID:26884177

  9. Manufacturing of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Nathalie; Grieger, Joshua C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to elicit robust and long-term transgene expression in vivo together with minimal immunogenicity and little to no toxicity are only a few features that make recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors ideally suited for many gene therapy applications. Successful preclinical studies have encouraged the use of rAAV for therapeutic gene transfer to patients in the clinical setting. Nevertheless, the use of rAAV in clinical trials has underscored the need for production and purification systems capable of generating large amounts of highly pure rAAV particles. To date, generating vector quantities sufficient to meet the expanding clinical demand is still a hurdle when using current production systems. In this chapter, we will provide a description of the current methods to produce clinical grade of rAAV under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) settings. PMID:27014711

  10. Manufacturing of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Clément, Nathalie; Grieger, Joshua C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to elicit robust and long-term transgene expression in vivo together with minimal immunogenicity and little to no toxicity are only a few features that make recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors ideally suited for many gene therapy applications. Successful preclinical studies have encouraged the use of rAAV for therapeutic gene transfer to patients in the clinical setting. Nevertheless, the use of rAAV in clinical trials has underscored the need for production and purification systems capable of generating large amounts of highly pure rAAV particles. To date, generating vector quantities sufficient to meet the expanding clinical demand is still a hurdle when using current production systems. In this chapter, we will provide a description of the current methods to produce clinical grade of rAAV under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) settings.

  11. Molecular beacon aptamers for direct and universal quantitation of recombinant proteins from cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaohong; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Shun; Zhu, Zhi; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Guizhi; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

    2012-10-01

    Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and fluorescent fusion proteins are currently the most common methods for detecting recombinant proteins. However, the former two are cumbersome and time-consuming, and the latter method may interfere with the trafficking and function of the fused recombinant proteins. We report here a rapid, inexpensive, and simple approach to detect and quantify recombinant proteins using an anti-His-tag molecular beacon aptamer (HMBA). We demonstrated the technique by detection and quantitation of expressed recombinant proteins directly from E. coli cell lysate. The amount of expressed P78-His was determined to be 1.49 μg from the 20 μg cell lysate proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example directly measuring the concentration and expression yield of recombinant proteins from cell lysate, and the entire procedure required only 5 min.

  12. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes.

    PubMed

    Poggianella, Monica; Slon Campos, José L; Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Bestagno, Marco; Ooi, Eng Eong; Burrone, Oscar R

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII) of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well.

  13. Immune responses elicited against rotavirus middle layer protein VP6 inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Tamminen, Kirsi; López-Guerrero, Vanessa; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Palomares, Laura A; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines protect against severe RVGE, but the immune correlates of protection are not yet clearly defined. Inner capsid VP6 protein is a highly conserved, abundant, and immunogenic RV protein, and VP6-specific mucosal antibodies, especially IgA, have been implicated to protect against viral challenge in mice. In the present study systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were induced by immunizing BALB/c mice intranasally with a combination of recombinant RV VP6 protein (subgroup II [SGII]) and norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) used in a candidate vaccine. Following immunization mice were challenged orally with murine RV strain EDIMwt (SG non-I-non-II, G3P10[16]). In order to determine neutralizing activity of fecal samples, sera, and vaginal washes (VW) against human Wa RV (SGII, G1P1A[8]) and rhesus RV (SGI, G3P5B[3]), the RV antigen production was measured with an ELISA-based antigen reduction neutralization assay. Only VWs of immunized mice inhibited replication of both RVs, indicating heterotypic protection of induced antibodies. IgA antibody depletion and blocking experiments using recombinant VP6 confirmed that neutralization was mediated by anti-VP6 IgA antibodies. Most importantly, after the RV challenge significant reduction in viral shedding was observed in feces of immunized mice. These results suggest a significant role for mucosal RV VP6-specific IgA for the inhibition of RV replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results underline the importance of non-serotype-specific immunity induced by the conserved subgroup-specific RV antigen VP6 in clearance of RV infection. PMID:25424814

  14. Immune responses elicited against rotavirus middle layer protein VP6 inhibit viral replication in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Tamminen, Kirsi; López-Guerrero, Vanessa; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Palomares, Laura A; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is a common cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines protect against severe RVGE, but the immune correlates of protection are not yet clearly defined. Inner capsid VP6 protein is a highly conserved, abundant, and immunogenic RV protein, and VP6-specific mucosal antibodies, especially IgA, have been implicated to protect against viral challenge in mice. In the present study systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were induced by immunizing BALB/c mice intranasally with a combination of recombinant RV VP6 protein (subgroup II [SGII]) and norovirus (NoV) virus-like particles (VLPs) used in a candidate vaccine. Following immunization mice were challenged orally with murine RV strain EDIMwt (SG non-I-non-II, G3P10[16]). In order to determine neutralizing activity of fecal samples, sera, and vaginal washes (VW) against human Wa RV (SGII, G1P1A[8]) and rhesus RV (SGI, G3P5B[3]), the RV antigen production was measured with an ELISA-based antigen reduction neutralization assay. Only VWs of immunized mice inhibited replication of both RVs, indicating heterotypic protection of induced antibodies. IgA antibody depletion and blocking experiments using recombinant VP6 confirmed that neutralization was mediated by anti-VP6 IgA antibodies. Most importantly, after the RV challenge significant reduction in viral shedding was observed in feces of immunized mice. These results suggest a significant role for mucosal RV VP6-specific IgA for the inhibition of RV replication in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these results underline the importance of non-serotype-specific immunity induced by the conserved subgroup-specific RV antigen VP6 in clearance of RV infection. PMID:25424814

  15. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Bestagno, Marco; Ooi, Eng Eong; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII) of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well. PMID:26218926

  16. Genetic Economy of Polyoma Virus: Capsid Proteins Are Cleavage Products of Same Viral Gene

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Theodore

    1974-01-01

    Two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps of the nonhistone proteins of purified polyoma virus show marked similarities. Protein P1 is a nondisaggregated, possibly covalent, dimer of the major capsid protein P2, whereas P3 and P4 share several new peptides as well as many of the peptides derived from P2. Extensive use of this kind of processing of viral proteins during the biosynthesis of DNA-containing animal viruses has not been reported previously. Images PMID:4360936

  17. The Unfolded Protein Response Is Triggered by a Plant Viral Movement Protein1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Changming; Dickman, Martin B.; Whitham, Steven A.; Payton, Mark; Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants leads to increased transcript levels of several stress-related host genes, including basic-region leucine zipper 60 (bZIP60), SKP1, ER luminal binding protein (BiP), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), calreticulin (CRT), and calmodulin (CAM). bZIP60 is a key transcription factor that responds to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces the expression of ER-resident chaperones (BiP, PDI, CRT, and CAM). SKP1 is a component of SCF (for SKP1-Cullin-F box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes that target proteins for proteasomal degradation. Expression of PVX TGBp3 from a heterologous vector induces the same set of genes in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing was employed to knock down the expression of bZIP60 and SKP1, and the number of infection foci on inoculated leaves was reduced and systemic PVX accumulation was altered. Silencing bZIP60 led to the suppression of BiP and SKP1 transcript levels, suggesting that bZIP60 might be an upstream signal transducer. Overexpression of TGBp3 led to localized necrosis, but coexpression of TGBp3 with BiP abrogated necrosis, demonstrating that the unfolded protein response alleviates ER stress-related cell death. Steady-state levels of PVX replicase and TGBp2 (which reside in the ER) proteins were unaltered by the presence of TGBp3, suggesting that TGBp3 does not contribute to their turnover. Taken together, PVX TGBp3-induced ER stress leads to up-regulation of bZIP60 and unfolded protein response-related gene expression, which may be important to regulate cellular cytotoxicity that could otherwise lead to cell death if viral proteins reach high levels in the ER. PMID:21474436

  18. [Rescue of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the green fluorescent protein].

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-ying; Wen, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Yong; Bao, En-dong; Bu, Zhi-gao

    2006-08-01

    A recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was generated by applying reverse genetics techniques. The GFP open reading frame flanked by NDV transcription start and stop sequences was inserted between the phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) in a full-length cDNA clone of NDV Lasota vaccine strain. This plasmid transcribing antigenome RNA was cotransfected with helper plasmids expressing viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein and large protein into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase. The rescued virus was first propagated in 10-day-old embryonated eggs and the allantoic fluid was used to infect primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) cells. The appearance of GFP in live infected cells confirmed further the recovery of a recombinant NDV (rNDV-GFP) expressing this reporter gene. Nine successive passages in embryonated chicken eggs were performed. Allantoic fluid samples were then titrated by a microtiter plate HA test. HA positive ailantoic fluid were used for further egg passages. All the allantoic fluid samples were titrated by end point dilutions and infected cells were examined for the presence of GFP expression. To analyze virus growth, 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs were inoculated with 1 x 10(4) EID50 rNDV or rNDV-GFP. At 24,48,72 and 96 h p.i. the allantoic fluid of inoculated eggs containing live embryos was harvested and clarified by centrifugation. Supernatants were used for titration of EID50 in 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs. rNDV and rNDV-GFP grew to similar titers (10(9) EID50/mL). In order to test the virulence of rNDV-GFP, infectious allantoic fluid of rNDV-GFP were inoculated into embryonated SPF chicken eggs at 1 x 10(6) EID50. No dead embryonated egg was found within 96 hours. The replication kinetics and pathogenicity in SPF embryonated eggs of rNDV-GFP did not differ significantly from that of the parent virus. LaSota is a widely used NDV live vaccine strain. The reverse

  19. Recombinant UL30 antigen-based single serum dilution ELISA for detection of duck viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Patil, B R; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2012-11-01

    A recombinant UL30 antigen-based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure specific antibody in the sera of ducks against duck enteritis virus (DEV). The partial UL30 gene of DEV was cloned, expressed, purified and tested for its diagnostic use by designing a single serum dilution enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 226 duck sera samples were tested using the assay. A linear relationship was found between the predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding serum titres observed as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to determine a standard curve from which an equation was derived which demonstrated this correlation. The equation was then used to convert the corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution directly into the predicted ELISA antibody titres. The assay proved to be specific, sensitive and accurate as compared to the virus neutralization test with a specificity, sensitivity and accuracy being 96%, 95% and 95% respectively.

  20. At the crossroads of autophagy and infection: Noncanonical roles for ATG proteins in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Solvik, Tina; Debnath, Jayanta

    2016-08-29

    Autophagy-related (ATG) proteins have increasingly demonstrated functions other than cellular self-eating. In this issue, Mauthe et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201602046) conduct an unbiased RNA interference screen of the ATG proteome to reveal numerous noncanonical roles for ATG proteins during viral infection. PMID:27573461

  1. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant fusion proteins containing spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus and hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Zeng, Yuyao; Wang, Wei; Wei, Ying; Xue, Chunyi; Cao, Yongchang

    2016-09-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chickens and vaccination is the main method for disease control. The S1 protein, which contains several virus neutralization epitopes, is considered to be a target site of vaccine development. However, although protective immune responses could be induced by recombinant S1 protein, the protection rate in chickens was still low (<50%). Here, we generated fused S1 proteins with HA2 protein (rS1-HA2) or transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail (rS1-H3(TM)) from hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus. After immunization, animals vaccinated with fusion proteins rS1-HA2 and rS1-H3(TM) demonstrated stronger robust humoral and cellular immune responses than that of rS1 and inactivated M41 vaccine. The protection rates of groups immunized with rS1-HA2 (87%) were significantly higher than the groups inoculated with rS1 (47%) and inactivated M41 vaccine (53%). And chickens injected with rS1-H3(TM) had similar level of protection (73%) comparing to chickens vaccinated with rS1 (47%) (P=0.07). Our data suggest that S1 protein fused to the HA2 or TM proteins from hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza virus may provide a new strategy for high efficacy recombinant vaccine development against IBV. PMID:27497621

  2. Detection of Viral Proteins in Human Cells Lines by Xeno-Proteomics: Elimination of the Last Valid Excuse for Not Testing Every Cellular Proteome Dataset for Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chernobrovkin, Alexey L.; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures used routinely in proteomic experiments may contain proteins from other species because of infection, transfection or just contamination. Since infection or contamination may affect the results of a biological experiment, it is important to test the samples for the presence of “alien” proteins. Usually cells are tested only for the most common infections, and most of the existing tests are targeting specific contaminations. Here we describe a three-step procedure for reliable untargeted detection of viral proteins using proteomics data, and recommend this or similar procedure to be applied to every proteomics dataset submitted for publication. PMID:24618588

  3. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating

    SciTech Connect

    Asenjo, Ana; Gonzalez-Armas, Juan C.; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-10-10

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase. The phosphorylation of S54 is controlled by the coordinated action of two cellular enzymes: a lithium-sensitive kinase, probably glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3) {beta} and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of lithium-sensitive kinase, soon after infection, blocks the viral growth cycle by inhibiting synthesis and/or accumulation of viral RNAs, proteins and extracellular particles. P protein phosphorylation at S54 is required to liberate viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) from M protein, during the uncoating process. Kinase inhibition, late in infection, produces a decrease in genomic RNA and infectious viral particles. LiCl, intranasally applied to mice infected with HRSV A2 strain, reduces the number of mice with virus in their lungs and the virus titre. Administration of LiCl to humans via aerosol should prevent HRSV infection, without secondary effects.

  4. Immunogenicity of recombinant feline infectious peritonitis virus spike protein in mice and kittens.

    PubMed

    Vennema, H; de Groot, R J; Harbour, D A; Dalderup, M; Gruffydd-Jones, T; Horzinek, M C; Spaan, W J

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding the fusogenic spike protein of the coronavirus causing feline infectious peritonitis (FIPV) was recombined into the genome of vaccinia virus, strain WR. The recombinant induced spike protein specific, in vitro neutralizing antibodies in mice. When kittens were immunized with the recombinant, low titers of neutralizing antibodies were obtained. After challenge with FIPV, these animals succumbed earlier than the vWR-immunized control group ("early death syndrome").

  5. Cereal seed storage protein synthesis: fundamental processes for recombinant protein production in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2010-12-01

    Cereal seeds provide an ideal production platform for high-value products such as pharmaceuticals and industrial materials because seeds have ample and stable space for the deposition of recombinant products without loss of activity at room. Seed storage proteins (SSPs) are predominantly synthesized and stably accumulated in maturing endosperm tissue. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating SSP expression and accumulation is expected to provide valuable information for producing higher amounts of recombinant products. SSP levels are regulated by several steps at the transcriptional (promoters, transcription factors), translational and post-translational levels (modification, processing trafficking, and deposition). Our objective is to develop a seed production platform capable of producing very high yields of recombinant product. Towards this goal, we review here the individual regulatory steps controlling SSP synthesis and accumulation.

  6. Annexin proteins PP4 and PP4-X. Comparative characterization of biological activities of placental and recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Römisch, J; Grote, M; Weithmann, K U; Heimburger, N; Amann, E

    1990-01-01

    The human placental proteins PP4 and PP4-X, belonging to the annexin protein family, were expressed in Escherichia coli at high yield. The proteins were purified to homogeneity. The physicochemical parameters of the recombinant proteins were determined and compared with those of their natural placental counterparts. Except for a minor change in the pI, the proteins appeared to be indistinguishable by several criteria. Both recombinant PP4 and recombinant PP4-X were biologically active in a thromboplastin inhibition test and in a phospholipase A2 inhibition test. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2148260

  7. Strain engineering to prevent norleucine incorporation during recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Veeravalli, Karthik; Laird, Michael W; Fedesco, Mark; Zhang, Yu; Yu, X Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of norleucine in place of methionine residues during recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli is well known. Continuous feeding of methionine is commonly used in E. coli recombinant protein production processes to prevent norleucine incorporation. Although this strategy is effective in preventing norleucine incorporation, there are several disadvantages associated with continuous feeding. Continuous feeding increases the operational complexity and the overall cost of the fermentation process. In addition, the continuous feed leads to undesirable dilution of the fermentation medium possibly resulting in lower cell densities and recombinant protein yields. In this work, the genomes of three E. coli hosts were engineered by introducing chromosomal mutations that result in methionine overproduction in the cell. The recombinant protein purified from the fermentations using the methionine overproducing hosts had no norleucine incorporation. Furthermore, these studies demonstrated that the fermentations using one of the methionine overproducing hosts exhibited comparable fermentation performance as the control host in three different recombinant protein production processes. PMID:25315437

  8. Self-assembly studies of native and recombinant fibrous proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Donna Lucille

    unmodified silk protein. A sequence block from the native primary structure of collagen IV, as well as sequences of selected collagen-modifying enzymes, were manipulated through recombinant DNA technology. Collagen IV is found primarily in the basement membrane of cells and typically characterized by a loose "chicken-mesh" network of individual molecules assembled via their end regions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Brooks, W Abdullah; Goswami, Doli; Rahman, Mustafizur; Luby, Stephen P; Erdman, Dean D

    2014-09-01

    Serologic diagnosis of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections has been shown to complement virus detection methods in epidemiologic studies. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ≥4-fold rises in antibody titer between acute and convalescent serum pairs. In this study, hRSV and hMPV nucleocapsid (recN) proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system and their performance compared with virus culture lysate antigen in EIAs using paired serum specimens collected from symptomatic children. The recN proteins were also used to develop a duplex assay based on the Luminex microbead-based suspension array technology, where diagnostic rises in antibody levels could be determined simultaneously at a single serum dilution. Antibody levels measured by the recN and viral lysate EIAs correlated moderately (hRSV, r(2)=0.72; hMPV, r(2)=0.76); the recN EIAs identified correctly 35 of 37 (94.6%) and 48 of 50 (96%) serum pairs showing diagnostic antibody rises by viral lysate EIAs. Purified recN proteins were then coupled to microbeads and serum pairs were tested at a single dilution on a Luminex MAGPIX(®) analyzer. The duplex recN assay identified correctly 33 of 39 (85%) and 41 of 47 (86.7%) serum pairs showing diagnostic rises to hRSV and hMPV, respectively. The recN assay permits simultaneous testing for acute hRSV and hMPV infections and offers a platform for expanded multiplexing of other respiratory virus assays.

  10. Vaccinia Virus Telomeres: Interaction with the Viral I1, I6, and K4 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    DeMasi, Joseph; Du, Shan; Lennon, David; Traktman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    The 192-kb linear DNA genome of vaccinia virus has covalently closed hairpin termini that are extremely AT rich and contain 12 extrahelical bases. Vaccinia virus telomeres have previously been implicated in the initiation of viral genome replication; therefore, we sought to determine whether the telomeres form specific protein-DNA complexes. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we found that extracts prepared from virions and from the cytoplasm of infected cells contain telomere binding activity. Four shifted complexes were detected using hairpin probes representing the viral termini, two of which represent an interaction with the “flip” isoform and two with the “flop” isoform. All of the specificity for protein binding lies within the terminal 65-bp hairpin sequence. Viral hairpins lacking extrahelical bases cannot form the shifted complexes, suggesting that DNA structure is crucial for complex formation. Using an affinity purification protocol, we purified the proteins responsible for hairpin-protein complex formation. The vaccinia virus I1 protein was identified as being necessary and sufficient for the formation of the upper doublet of shifted complexes, and the vaccinia virus I6 protein was shown to form the lower doublet of shifted complexes. Competition and challenge experiments confirmed that the previously uncharacterized I6 protein binds tightly and with great specificity to the hairpin form of the viral telomeric sequence. Incubation of viral hairpins with extracts from infected cells also generates a smaller DNA fragment that is likely to reflect specific nicking at the apex of the hairpin; we show that the vaccinia virus K4 protein is necessary and sufficient for this reaction. We hypothesize that these telomere binding proteins may play a role in the initiation of vaccinia virus genome replication and/or genome encapsidation. PMID:11581377

  11. The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Matrix Protein Is Required for Maturation of Viral Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ruchira; Baviskar, Pradyumna; Duncan-Decocq, Rebecca R.; Patel, Darshna

    2012-01-01

    An experimental system was developed to generate infectious human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) lacking matrix (M) protein expression (M-null virus) from cDNA. The role of the M protein in virus assembly was then examined by infecting HEp-2 and Vero cells with the M-null virus and assessing the impact on infectious virus production and viral protein trafficking. In the absence of M, the production of infectious progeny was strongly impaired. Immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy analysis using antibodies against the nucleoprotein (N), attachment protein (G), and fusion protein (F) failed to detect the characteristic virus-induced cell surface filaments, which are believed to represent infectious virions. In addition, a large proportion of the N protein was detected in viral replication factories termed inclusion bodies (IBs). High-resolution analysis of the surface of M-null virus-infected cells by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of large areas with densely packed, uniformly short filaments. Although unusually short, these filaments were otherwise similar to those induced by an M-containing control virus, including the presence of the viral G and F proteins. The abundance of the short, stunted filaments in the absence of M indicates that M is not required for the initial stages of filament formation but plays an important role in the maturation or elongation of these structures. In addition, the absence of mature viral filaments and the simultaneous increase in the level of the N protein within IBs suggest that the M protein is involved in the transport of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes from cytoplasmic IBs to sites of budding. PMID:22318136

  12. A role for homologous recombination proteins in cell cycle regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Bosshard, Sandra; Urban, Zuzanna; Mermod, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA breaks, especially double-stranded breaks (DSBs), by activating the DNA damage response (DDR), which encompasses DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint signaling. The DNA damage signal is transmitted to the checkpoint machinery by a network of specialized DNA damage-recognizing and signal-transducing molecules. However, recent evidence suggests that DNA repair proteins themselves may also directly contribute to the checkpoint control. Here, we investigated the role of homologous recombination (HR) proteins in normal cell cycle regulation in the absence of exogenous DNA damage. For this purpose, we used Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing the Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicators (Fucci). Systematic siRNA-mediated knockdown of HR genes in these cells demonstrated that the lack of several of these factors alters cell cycle distribution, albeit differentially. The knock-down of MDC1, Rad51 and Brca1 caused the cells to arrest in the G2 phase, suggesting that they may be required for the G2/M transition. In contrast, inhibition of the other HR factors, including several Rad51 paralogs and Rad50, led to the arrest in the G1/G0 phase. Moreover, reduced expression of Rad51B, Rad51C, CtIP and Rad50 induced entry into a quiescent G0-like phase. In conclusion, the lack of many HR factors may lead to cell cycle checkpoint activation, even in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, indicating that these proteins may play an essential role both in DNA repair and checkpoint signaling. PMID:26125600

  13. Evaluation of the immune response elicited by vaccination with viral vectors encoding FMDV capsid proteins and boosted with inactivated virus.

    PubMed

    Romanutti, Carina; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Palacios, Carlos; Quattrocchi, Valeria; Zamorano, Patricia; La Torre, Jose; Mattion, Nora

    2013-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of introducing a priming step with replication-defective viral vectors encoding the capsid proteins of FMDV, followed by a boost with killed virus vaccines, using a suitable BALB/c mice model. Additionally, the immune response to other combined vector immunization regimens was studied. For this purpose, we analyzed different prime-boost immunizations with recombinant adenovirus (Ad), herpesvirus amplicons (Hs) and/or killed virus (KV) vaccines. The highest antibody titers were found in the group that received two doses of adjuvanted KV (P<0.002). Antibody titers were higher in those groups receiving a mixed regimen of vectors, compared to immunization with either vector alone (P<0.0001). Priming with any of the viral vectors induced a shift of the cytokine balance toward a Th1 type immune response regardless of the delivery system used for boosting. The highest IgG1 titer was induced by two doses of adjuvanted KV (P=0.0002) and the highest IgG2a titer corresponded to the group primed with Ad and boosted with KV (P=0.01). Re-stimulation of all groups of mice with 0.5 μg of inactivated virus five months later resulted in a fast increase of antibody titers in all the groups tested. After virus stimulation, antibody titers in the groups that received KV alone or Ad prime-KV boost, were indistinguishable (P=0.800). Protection from challenge was similar (75%) in the groups of animals that received Ad prime-Hs boost or Ad prime-KV boost, or two doses of oil-adjuvanted KV. The data presented in this study suggest that sequential immunization with viral vectors-based vaccines combined with protein-based vaccines have the potential to enhance the quality of the immune response against FMDV. PMID:23683999

  14. Evaluation of the immune response elicited by vaccination with viral vectors encoding FMDV capsid proteins and boosted with inactivated virus.

    PubMed

    Romanutti, Carina; D'Antuono, Alejandra; Palacios, Carlos; Quattrocchi, Valeria; Zamorano, Patricia; La Torre, Jose; Mattion, Nora

    2013-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of introducing a priming step with replication-defective viral vectors encoding the capsid proteins of FMDV, followed by a boost with killed virus vaccines, using a suitable BALB/c mice model. Additionally, the immune response to other combined vector immunization regimens was studied. For this purpose, we analyzed different prime-boost immunizations with recombinant adenovirus (Ad), herpesvirus amplicons (Hs) and/or killed virus (KV) vaccines. The highest antibody titers were found in the group that received two doses of adjuvanted KV (P<0.002). Antibody titers were higher in those groups receiving a mixed regimen of vectors, compared to immunization with either vector alone (P<0.0001). Priming with any of the viral vectors induced a shift of the cytokine balance toward a Th1 type immune response regardless of the delivery system used for boosting. The highest IgG1 titer was induced by two doses of adjuvanted KV (P=0.0002) and the highest IgG2a titer corresponded to the group primed with Ad and boosted with KV (P=0.01). Re-stimulation of all groups of mice with 0.5 μg of inactivated virus five months later resulted in a fast increase of antibody titers in all the groups tested. After virus stimulation, antibody titers in the groups that received KV alone or Ad prime-KV boost, were indistinguishable (P=0.800). Protection from challenge was similar (75%) in the groups of animals that received Ad prime-Hs boost or Ad prime-KV boost, or two doses of oil-adjuvanted KV. The data presented in this study suggest that sequential immunization with viral vectors-based vaccines combined with protein-based vaccines have the potential to enhance the quality of the immune response against FMDV.

  15. Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus Tegument Protein ORF75 Is Essential for Viral Lytic Replication and Plays a Critical Role in the Antagonization of ND10-Instituted Intrinsic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Full, Florian; Jungnickl, Doris; Reuter, Nina; Bogner, Elke; Brulois, Kevin; Scholz, Brigitte; Stürzl, Michael; Myoung, Jinjong; Jung, Jae U.; Stamminger, Thomas; Ensser, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components are restriction factors that inhibit herpesviral replication. Effector proteins of different herpesviruses can antagonize this restriction by a variety of strategies, including degradation or relocalization of ND10 proteins. We investigated the interplay of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and cellular defense by nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components. Knock-down experiments in primary human cells show that KSHV-infection is restricted by the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but not by ATRX. After KSHV infection, ATRX is efficiently depleted and Daxx is dispersed from ND10, indicating that these two ND10 components can be antagonized by KSHV. We then identified the ORF75 tegument protein of KSHV as the viral factor that induces the disappearance of ATRX and relocalization of Daxx. ORF75 belongs to a viral protein family (viral FGARATs) that has homologous proteins in all gamma-herpesviruses. Isolated expression of ORF75 in primary cells induces a relocalization of PML and dispersal of Sp100, indicating that this viral effector protein is able to influence multiple ND10 components. Moreover, by constructing a KSHV mutant harboring a stop codon at the beginning of ORF75, we could demonstrate that ORF75 is absolutely essential for viral replication and the initiation of viral immediate-early gene expression. Using recombinant viruses either carrying Flag- or YFP-tagged variants of ORF75, we could further corroborate the role of ORF75 in the antagonization of ND10-mediated intrinsic immunity, and show that it is independent of the PML antagonist vIRF3. Members of the viral FGARAT family target different ND10 components, suggesting that the ND10 targets of viral FGARAT proteins have diversified during evolution. We assume that overcoming ND10 intrinsic defense constitutes a critical event in the replication of all herpesviruses; on the other hand, restriction of herpesviral replication by ND10 components may also

  16. The enzymes LSD1 and Set1A cooperate with the viral protein HBx to establish an active hepatitis B viral chromatin state

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Valentina; Hernández, Sergio; Rubio, Lorena; Alvarez, Francisca; Flores, Yvo; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Kann, Michael; Villanueva, Rodrigo A.; Loyola, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    With about 350 million people chronically infected around the world hepatitis B is a major health problem. Template for progeny HBV synthesis is the viral genome, organized as a minichromosome (cccDNA) inside the hepatocyte nucleus. How viral cccDNA gene expression is regulated by its chromatin structure; more importantly, how the modulation of this structure impacts on viral gene expression remains elusive. Here, we found that the enzyme SetDB1 contributes to setting up a repressed cccDNA chromatin state. This repressive state is activated by the histone lysine demethylase-1 (LSD1). Consistently, inhibiting or reducing LSD1 levels led to repression of viral gene expression. This correlates with the transcriptionally repressive mark H3K9 methylation and reduction on the activating marks H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation on viral promoters. Investigating the importance of viral proteins we found that LSD1 recruitment to viral promoters was dependent on the viral transactivator protein HBx. Moreover, the histone methyltransferase Set1A and HBx are simultaneously bound to the core promoter, and Set1A expression correlates with cccDNA H3K4 methylation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of HBV regulation mediated by the cccDNA chromatin structure, offering new therapeutic targets to develop drugs for the treatment of chronically infected HBV patients. PMID:27174370

  17. Generation of Recombinant Oropouche Viruses Lacking the Nonstructural Protein NSm or NSs

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Richard E.; Elliott, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oropouche virus (OROV) is a midge-borne human pathogen with a geographic distribution in South America. OROV was first isolated in 1955, and since then, it has been known to cause recurring outbreaks of a dengue-like illness in the Amazonian regions of Brazil. OROV, however, remains one of the most poorly understood emerging viral zoonoses. Here we describe the successful recovery of infectious OROV entirely from cDNA copies of its genome and generation of OROV mutant viruses lacking either the NSm or the NSs coding region. Characterization of the recombinant viruses carried out in vitro demonstrated that the NSs protein of OROV is an interferon (IFN) antagonist as in other NSs-encoding bunyaviruses. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of the nine C-terminal amino acids of OROV NSs in IFN antagonistic activity. OROV was also found to be sensitive to IFN-α when cells were pretreated; however, the virus was still capable of replicating at doses as high as 10,000 U/ml of IFN-α, in contrast to the family prototype BUNV. We found that OROV lacking the NSm protein displayed characteristics similar to those of the wild-type virus, suggesting that the NSm protein is dispensable for virus replication in the mammalian and mosquito cell lines that were tested. IMPORTANCE Oropouche virus (OROV) is a public health threat in Central and South America, where it causes periodic outbreaks of dengue-like illness. In Brazil, OROV is the second most frequent cause of arboviral febrile illness after dengue virus, and with the current rates of urban expansion, more cases of this emerging viral zoonosis could occur. To better understand the molecular biology of OROV, we have successfully rescued the virus along with mutants. We have established that the C terminus of the NSs protein is important in interferon antagonism and that the NSm protein is dispensable for virus replication in cell culture. The tools described in this paper are important in terms of

  18. Identification of Proteins Bound to Dengue Viral RNA In Vivo Reveals New Host Proteins Important for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Stacia L.; Soderblom, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus is the most prevalent cause of arthropod-borne infection worldwide. Due to the limited coding capacity of the viral genome and the complexity of the viral life cycle, host cell proteins play essential roles throughout the course of viral infection. Host RNA-binding proteins mediate various aspects of virus replication through their physical interactions with viral RNA. Here we describe a technique designed to identify such interactions in the context of infected cells using UV cross-linking followed by antisense-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry. Using this approach, we identified interactions, several of them novel, between host proteins and dengue viral RNA in infected Huh7 cells. Most of these interactions were subsequently validated using RNA immunoprecipitation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing, we showed that more than half of these host proteins are likely involved in regulating virus replication, demonstrating the utility of this method in identifying biologically relevant interactions that may not be identified using traditional in vitro approaches. PMID:26733069

  19. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Perino; Thielens, Nicole M.; Crouch, Erika; Spehner, Danièle; Crance, Jean-Marc; Favier, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV) (genus Orthopoxvirus), the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/-) resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27. PMID:23518578

  20. Protective effect of surfactant protein d in pulmonary vaccinia virus infection: implication of A27 viral protein.

    PubMed

    Perino, Julien; Thielens, Nicole M; Crouch, Erika; Spehner, Danièle; Crance, Jean-Marc; Favier, Anne-Laure

    2013-03-21

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV) (genus Orthopoxvirus), the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/-) resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  1. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV.

  2. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV. PMID:27449079

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Recombinant Protein Production in Different Biofactories: The Green Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in heterologous systems has increased significantly. Most applications involve complex proteins and glycoproteins that are difficult to produce, thus promoting the development and improvement of a wide range of production platforms. No individual system is optimal for the production of all recombinant proteins, so the diversity of platforms based on plants offers a significant advantage. Here, we discuss the production of four recombinant pharmaceutical proteins using different platforms, highlighting from these examples the unique advantages of plant-based systems over traditional fermenter-based expression platforms. PMID:24745008

  4. Recombinant rabies virus expressing the H protein of canine distemper virus protects dogs from the lethal distemper challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Tan, Bin; Li, Zhen-Guang; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Fu, Zhen F; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The rabies virus (RV) vector LBNSE expressing foreign antigens have shown considerable promise as vaccines against viral and bacteria diseases, which is effective and safe. We produced a new RV-based vaccine vehicle expressing 1.824 kb hemagglutinin (H) gene of the canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus LBNSE-CDV-H retained growth properties similar to those of vector LBNSE both in BSR and mNA cell culture. The H gene of CDV was expressed and detected by immunostaining. To compare the immunogenicity of LBNSE-CDV-H, dogs were immunized with each of these recombinant viruses by intramuscular (i.m.). The dogs were bled at third weeks after the immunization for the measurement of virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) and then challenged with virulent virus (ZJ 7) at fourth weeks. The parent virus (LBNSE) without expression of any foreign molecules was included for comparison. Dogs inoculated with LBNSE-CDV-H showed no any signs of disease and exhibited seroconversion against both RV and CDV H protein. The LBNSE-CDV-H did not cause disease in dogs and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal wild type CDV strain, demonstrating its potential value for wildlife conservation efforts. Together, these studies suggest that recombinant RV expressing H protein from CDV stimulated high levels of adaptive immune responses (VNA), and protected all dogs challenge infection. PMID:25465178

  5. Thermostable tag (TST) protein expression system: engineering thermotolerant recombinant proteins and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jeremy M; Carnes, Aaron E; Sun, Ping; Hodgson, Clague P; Waugh, David S; Williams, James A

    2011-02-10

    Methods to increase temperature stability of vaccines and adjuvants are needed to reduce dependence on cold chain storage. We report herein creation and application of pVEX expression vectors to improve vaccine and adjuvant manufacture and thermostability. Defined media fermentation yields of 6g/L thermostable toll-like receptor 5 agonist flagellin were obtained using an IPTG inducible pVEX-flagellin expression vector. Alternative pVEX vectors encoding Pyrococcus furiosus maltodextrin-binding protein (pfMBP) as a fusion partner improved Influenza hemagglutinin antigen vaccine solubility and thermostability. A pfMBP hemagglutinin HA2 domain fusion protein was a potent immunogen. Manufacturing processes that combined up to 5 g/L defined media fermentation yields with rapid, selective, thermostable pfMBP fusion protein purification were developed. The pVEX pfMBP-based thermostable tag (TST) platform is a generic protein engineering approach to enable high yield manufacture of thermostable recombinant protein vaccine components.

  6. Protein folding and conformational stress in microbial cells producing recombinant proteins: a host comparative overview

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Brigitte; Saloheimo, Markku; Rinas, Ursula; Dragosits, Martin; Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata; Baumann, Kristin; Giuliani, Maria; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Branduardi, Paola; Lang, Christine; Porro, Danilo; Ferrer, Pau; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Mattanovich, Diethard; Villaverde, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Different species of microorganisms including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria have been used in the past 25 years for the controlled production of foreign proteins of scientific, pharmacological or industrial interest. A major obstacle for protein production processes and a limit to overall success has been the abundance of misfolded polypeptides, which fail to reach their native conformation. The presence of misfolded or folding-reluctant protein species causes considerable stress in host cells. The characterization of such adverse conditions and the elicited cell responses have permitted to better understand the physiology and molecular biology of conformational stress. Therefore, microbial cell factories for recombinant protein production are depicted here as a source of knowledge that has considerably helped to picture the extremely rich landscape of in vivo protein folding, and the main cellular players of this complex process are described for the most important cell factories used for biotechnological purposes. PMID:18394160

  7. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage λ to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage λ and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on λ and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  8. [Plasmid construction, expression, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant protein candidate vaccine of respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui-Hong; Gong, Wei; Fang, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Zhen-Ya; Mei, Xing-Guo

    2005-07-01

    To construct plasmid of recombinant protein candidate vaccine of respiratory syncytial virus, express it in E. coli, and to investigate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. A CD8+ T cell epitope from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M2 protein F/M2:81 - 95 and the G:125-225 (G1) gene fragments from RSV-G protein containing B cell epitopes were amplified by PCR method and then inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-DsbA after bonding to a linker. The fusion protein DsbA-G1-Linker-F/M2:81-95 (D-G1LF/M2) was expressed successfully in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The product was proved to be RSV-specific by Western-blot. After purified by affinity chromatography on Ni+ Sepharose and renatured by gradient dialysis. D-G1LF/M2 was used to immune BALB/c mice. D-G1LF/M2 induced high anti-D-G1LF/M2 IgG, anti-RSV IgG and neutralizing antibody titers in serum and lung of BALB/c mice, and elicied RSV-specific CTL responses. The IgG subclass distribution revealed that IgG1/IgG2a ratio was 2.66. Viral titration indicated that D-G1LF/M2 could protect BALB/c mice against RSV challenge in lung.

  9. A Herpesviral Lytic Protein Regulates the Structure of Latent Viral Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Priya; Lee, Jennifer S.; Pan, Dongli; Pesola, Jean M.; Coen, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent infections by viruses usually involve minimizing viral protein expression so that the host immune system cannot recognize the infected cell through the viral peptides presented on its cell surface. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), for example, is thought to express noncoding RNAs such as latency-associated transcripts (LATs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) as the only abundant viral gene products during latent infection. Here we describe analysis of HSV-1 mutant viruses, providing strong genetic evidence that HSV-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is expressed during establishment and/or maintenance of latent infection in murine sensory neurons in vivo. Studies of an ICP0 nonsense mutant virus showed that ICP0 promotes heterochromatin and latent and lytic transcription, arguing that ICP0 is expressed and functional. We propose that ICP0 promotes transcription of LATs during establishment or maintenance of HSV latent infection, much as it promotes lytic gene transcription. This report introduces the new concept that a lytic viral protein can be expressed during latent infection and can serve dual roles to regulate viral chromatin to optimize latent infection in addition to its role in epigenetic regulation during lytic infection. An additional implication of the results is that ICP0 might serve as a target for an antiviral therapeutic acting on lytic and latent infections. PMID:27190217

  10. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K interacts with Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins and viral subgenomic mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Andrew J.; Gong, Lei; Hardy, Richard W.

    2007-10-10

    Alphaviruses are a group of arthropod-borne human and animal pathogens that can cause epidemics of significant public health and economic consequence. Alphavirus RNA synthesis requires four virally encoded nonstructural proteins and probably a number of cellular proteins. Using comparative two-dimensional electrophoresis we were able to identify proteins enriched in cytoplasmic membrane fractions containing viral RNA synthetic complexes following infection with Sindbis virus. Our studies demonstrated the following: (i) the host protein hnRNP K is enriched in cytoplasmic membrane fractions following Sindbis virus infection, (ii) viral nonstructural proteins co-immunoprecipitate with hnRNP K, (iii) nsP2 and hnRNP K co-localize in the cytoplasm of Sindbis virus infected cells, (iv) Sindbis virus subgenomic mRNA, but not genomic RNA co-immunoprecipitates with hnRNP K, (v) viral RNA does not appear to be required for the interaction of hnRNP K with the nonstructural proteins. Potential functions of hnRNP K during virus replication are discussed.

  11. Oligomeric viral proteins: small in size, large in presence

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Bhargavi; Smith, Amber M.; Fernandes, Jason D.; Frankel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites that rely heavily on host cellular processes for replication. The small number of proteins typically encoded by a virus is faced with selection pressures that lead to the evolution of distinctive structural properties, allowing each protein to maintain its function under constraints such as small genome size, high mutation rate, and rapidly changing fitness conditions. One common strategy for this evolution is to utilize small building blocks to generate protein oligomers that assemble in multiple ways, thereby diversifying protein function and regulation. In this review, we discuss specific cases that illustrate how oligomerization is used to generate a single defined functional state, to modulate activity via different oligomeric states, or to generate multiple functional forms via different oligomeric states. PMID:27685368

  12. Sustained release emphasizing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Hollinger; Uludag; Winn

    1998-05-01

    Bone homeostasis is a dynamic process involving a myriad of cells and substrates modulated by regulatory signals such as hormones, growth and differentiating factors. When this environment is damaged, the regenerative sequalae follows a programmed pattern, and the capacity for successful recovery is often dependent on the extent of the injury. Many bony deficits that are excessively traumatic will not result in complete recovery and require therapeutic intervention(s) such as autografting or grafting from banked bone. However, for numerous reasons, an unacceptably high rate of failure is associated with these conventional therapies. Thus, alternative approaches are under investigation. A class of osteogenic regulatory molecules, the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been isolated, cloned and characterized as potent supplements to augment bone regeneration. Optimizing a therapeutic application for BMPs may be dependent upon localized sustained release which in kind relies on a safe and well characterized carrier system. This review will discuss the current status of BMPs in bone regeneration and specifically will present the potential for a clinical therapeutic role of recombinant human BMP-2 sustained release carrier systems. PMID:10837631

  13. Dissecting the role of the ϕ29 terminal protein DNA binding residues in viral DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Holguera, Isabel; Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Salas, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Phage ϕ29 DNA replication takes place by a protein-priming mechanism in which the viral DNA polymerase catalyses the covalent linkage of the initiating nucleotide to a specific serine residue of the terminal protein (TP). The N-terminal domain of the ϕ29 TP has been shown to bind to the host DNA in a sequence-independent manner and this binding is essential for the TP nucleoid localisation and for an efficient viral DNA replication in vivo. In the present work we have studied the involvement of the TP N-terminal domain residues responsible for DNA binding in the different stages of viral DNA replication by assaying the in vitro activity of purified TP N-terminal mutant proteins. The results show that mutation of TP residues involved in DNA binding affects the catalytic activity of the DNA polymerase in initiation, as the Km for the initiating nucleotide is increased when these mutant proteins are used as primers. Importantly, this initiation defect was relieved by using the ϕ29 double-stranded DNA binding protein p6 in the reaction, which decreased the Km of the DNA polymerase for dATP about 130–190 fold. Furthermore, the TP N-terminal domain was shown to be required both for a proper interaction with the DNA polymerase and for an efficient viral DNA amplification. PMID:25722367

  14. HIV1-viral protein R (Vpr) mutations: associated phenotypes and relevance for clinical pathologies.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rui; Rocha, Graça; Meliço-Silvestre, António; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 30 years, research into HIV has advanced the knowledge of virus genetics and the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a specialized and multifunctional protein that plays important roles at multiple stages of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This protein interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins and with multiple activities including nuclear transport of the pre-integration complex (PIC) to the nucleus, transcriptional activation, cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition phase and induction of cell death via apoptosis. Specifically, Vpr has been shown to control many host cell functions through a variety of biological processes and by interaction with several cellular pathways. The different functions of Vpr may enhance viral replication and impair the immune system in HIV-1 infected patients. Importantly, functional defects induced by mutations in the Vpr protein correlate with slow disease progression of HIV-infected patients. Vpr is also associated with other concomitant pathologies developed by these patients, which may lead it to be considered as a potential novel therapeutic target. This review will focus on HIV-1 Vpr, mainly on the importance of its structural mutations on the progression of HIV infection, associated phenotypes and relevance for clinical pathologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. HIV1-viral protein R (Vpr) mutations: associated phenotypes and relevance for clinical pathologies.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rui; Rocha, Graça; Meliço-Silvestre, António; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 30 years, research into HIV has advanced the knowledge of virus genetics and the development of efficient therapeutic strategies. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is a specialized and multifunctional protein that plays important roles at multiple stages of the HIV-1 viral life cycle. This protein interacts with a number of cellular and viral proteins and with multiple activities including nuclear transport of the pre-integration complex (PIC) to the nucleus, transcriptional activation, cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition phase and induction of cell death via apoptosis. Specifically, Vpr has been shown to control many host cell functions through a variety of biological processes and by interaction with several cellular pathways. The different functions of Vpr may enhance viral replication and impair the immune system in HIV-1 infected patients. Importantly, functional defects induced by mutations in the Vpr protein correlate with slow disease progression of HIV-infected patients. Vpr is also associated with other concomitant pathologies developed by these patients, which may lead it to be considered as a potential novel therapeutic target. This review will focus on HIV-1 Vpr, mainly on the importance of its structural mutations on the progression of HIV infection, associated phenotypes and relevance for clinical pathologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27264019

  16. Integration-free reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) without viral vectors, recombinant DNA, and genetic modification.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are envisaged to be integral components of multicellular systems engineered for therapeutic applications. The reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) via recombinant expression of a limited number of transcription factors, which was first achieved by Yamanaka and colleagues in 2007, heralded a major breakthrough in the stem cell field. Since then, there has been rapid progress in the field of iPSC generation, including the identification of various small molecules that can enhance reprogramming efficiency and reduce the number of different transcription factors required for reprogramming. Nevertheless, the major obstacles facing clinical applications of iPSCs are safety concerns associated with the use of viral vectors and recombinant DNA for expressing the appropriate transcription factors during reprogramming. In particular, permanent genetic modifications to newly reprogrammed iPSCs have to be avoided in order to meet stringent safety requirements for clinical therapy. These safety challenges can be overcome by new technology platforms that enable cellular reprogramming to iPSCs without the need to utilize either recombinant DNA or viral vectors. The use of recombinant cell-penetrating peptides and direct transfection of synthetic mRNA encoding appropriate transcription factors have both been shown to successfully reprogram somatic cells to iPSCs. It has also been shown more recently that the direct transfection of certain miRNA species can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency without the need for any of the transcription factors commonly utilized for iPSC generation. This chapter describes protocols for iPSC generation with these new techniques, which would obviate the use of recombinant DNA and viral vectors in cellular reprogramming, thus avoiding permanent genetic modification to the reprogrammed cells.

  17. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests. PMID:26263892

  18. Developing immunological methods for detecting Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus using a recombinant protein preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, C-S; Chang, C-Y; Wen, C-M

    2016-06-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) have been identified as the causative agents for white tail disease (WTD) of M. rosenbergii. In this study, the gene sequences encoding MrNV and XSV capsid proteins were separately ligated into the pGEX-4T-3 expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. After induction, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged MrNV and XSV fusion proteins were obtained with molecular masses of 68 and 43 kDa, respectively. Specific polyclonal antibodies for MrNV and XSV against viral recombinant proteins and infected prawn tissues were verified using Western blotting. According to immunodot blot assay results, the detection sensitivities of antibodies were approximately 5 ng μL(-1) for both recombinant proteins GST-MrNV and GST-XSV. In additional, MrNV and XSV were detected at dilution levels of 1:2560 and 1:640 in the infected prawn tissues, respectively. No cross-reactions with white spot syndrome virus or grouper nervous necrosis virus were observed using immunodot blot assays. MrNV and XSV in infected muscle tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry. Although the detection limit of the immunodot blot assay was lower than that of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, these polyclonal antibodies can be useful for confirming MrNV and XSV infections in field tests.

  19. The critical protein interactions and structures that elicit growth deregulation in cancer and viral replication.

    PubMed

    Ou, Horng D; May, Andrew P; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedicine is to define the critical targets and network interactions that are subverted to elicit growth deregulation in human cells. Understanding and developing rational treatments for cancer requires a definition of the key molecular targets and how they interact to elicit the complex growth deregulation phenotype. Viral proteins provide discerning and powerful probes to understand both how cells work and how they can be manipulated using a minimal number of components. The small DNA viruses have evolved to target inherent weaknesses in cellular protein interaction networks to hijack the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery. In the battle to escape the inevitability of senescence and programmed cell death, cancers have converged on similar mechanisms, through the acquisition and selection of somatic mutations that drive unchecked cellular replication in tumors. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms through which a minimal number of viral proteins promote host cells to undergo unscheduled and pathological replication is a powerful strategy to identify critical targets that are also disrupted in cancer. Viruses can therefore be used as tools to probe the system-wide protein-protein interactions and structures that drive growth deregulation in human cells. Ultimately this can provide a path for developing system context-dependent therapeutics. This review will describe ongoing experimental approaches using viruses to study pathways deregulated in cancer, with a particular focus on viral cellular protein-protein interactions and structures. PMID:21061422

  20. Stimulation of cytolytic T cells by isolated viral peptides and HN protein coupled to agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Guertin, D P; Fan, D P

    1980-01-17

    Sendai virus-infected mouse cells can be lysed by mouse cytolytic thymus-dependent lymphocytes (CTL) directed specifically against the infected cells. The CTL is known to recognise the H-2 antigens on the target cells together with structure(s) including at least the two viral surface glycoproteins also found on purified virus. We report here that anti-Sendai CTL can be stimulated in vitro by detergent-solubilised viral haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), either as the isolated protein or coupled to agarose beads. We further show stimulation by the hydrophilic portion of a protein removed from the virus by the protease subtilisin BPN', and we demonstrate that cyanogen bromide- (CNBr-) cleaved viral peptides also produce such stimulation.

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus structural protein E2 as a complement regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín

    2016-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cattle worldwide. Approximately 60 % of cattle in endemic areas without control measures are infected with BVDV during their lifetime. This wide prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations results in significant economic losses. BVDV is capable of establishing persistent infections in its host due to its ability to infect fetuses, causing immune tolerance. However, this cannot explain how the virus evades the innate immune system. The objective of the present work was to test the potential activity of E2 as a complement regulatory protein. E2 glycoprotein, produced both in soluble and transmembrane forms in stable CHO-K1 cell lines, was able to reduce complement-mediated cell lysis up to 40 % and complement-mediated DNA fragmentation by 50 %, in comparison with cell lines not expressing the glycoprotein. This work provides the first evidence of E2 as a complement regulatory protein and, thus, the finding of a mechanism of immune evasion by BVDV. Furthermore, it is postulated that E2 acts as a self-associated molecular pattern (SAMP), enabling the virus to avoid being targeted by the immune system and to be recognized as self. PMID:27038454

  2. HCMV protein LUNA is required for viral reactivation from latently infected primary CD14⁺ cells.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Lisa R; Hargett, Danna; Soland, Melisa; Bego, Mariana G; Rossetto, Cyprian C; Almeida-Porada, Graca; St Jeor, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family that infects individuals throughout the world. Following an initial lytic stage, HCMV can persist in the individual for life in a non-active (or latent) form. During latency, the virus resides within cells of the myeloid lineage. The mechanisms controlling HCMV latency are not completely understood. A latency associated transcript, UL81-82ast, encoding the protein LUNA (Latency Unique Natural Antigen) was identified from latently infected donors in vivo. To address the role of the UL81-82ast protein product LUNA, in the context of the viral genome, we developed a recombinant HCMV bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that does not express LUNA. This construct, LUNA knockout FIX virus (FIX-ΔLUNA), was used to evaluate LUNA's role in HCMV latency. The FIX-ΔLUNA virus was able to lytically infect Human Fibroblast (HF) cells, showing that LUNA is not required to establish a lytic infection. Interestingly, we observed significantly higher viral copy numbers in HF cells infected with FIX-ΔLUNA when compared to FIX-WT virus. Furthermore, FIX-WT and FIX-ΔLUNA genomic DNA and transcription of UL81-82ast persisted over time in primary monocytes. In contrast, the levels of UL138 transcript expression in FIX-ΔLUNA infected HF and CD14⁺ cells was 100 and 1000 fold lower (respectively) when compared to the levels observed for FIX-WT infection. Moreover, FIX-ΔLUNA virus failed to reactivate from infected CD14⁺ cells following differentiation. This lack of viral reactivation was accompanied by a lack of lytic gene expression, increase in viral copy numbers, and lack of the production of infectious units following differentiation of the cells. Our study suggests that the LUNA protein is involved in regulating HCMV reactivation, and that in the absence of LUNA, HCMV may not be able to enter a proper latent state and therefore cannot be rescued from the established persistent infection in CD14⁺ cells.

  3. Towards protein-based viral mimetics for cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Vázquez, Esther; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Mangues, Ramón; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    High resistance and recurrence rates, together with elevated drug clearance, compel the use of maximum-tolerated drug doses in cancer therapy, resulting in high-grade toxicities and limited clinical applicability. Promoting active drug accumulation in tumor tissues would minimize such issues and improve therapeutic outcomes. A new class of therapeutic drugs suitable for the task has emerged based on the concept of virus-mimetic nanocarriers, or 'artificial viruses'. Among the spectrum of materials under exploration in nanocarrier research, proteins offer unparalleled structural and functional versatility for designing virus-like molecular vehicles. By exhibiting 'smart' functions and biomimetic traits, protein-based nanocarriers will be a step ahead of the conventional drug-protein conjugates already in the clinic in ensuring efficient delivery of passenger antitumor drugs.

  4. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far. PMID:27455310

  5. Viral RNA Silencing Suppression: The Enigma of Bunyavirus NSs Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hedil, Marcio; Kormelink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects. Like tospoviruses, members of the related vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses classified in the genera Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus and Phlebovirus also code for a NSs protein. However, for none of them RNA silencing suppressor activity has been unambiguously demonstrated in neither vertebrate host nor arthropod vector. The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. If so, why this discovery has been hampered so far. PMID:27455310

  6. The virally encoded killer proteins from Ustilago maydis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several strains of Ustilago maydis, a causal agent of corn smut disease, exhibit a 'killer' phenotype that is due to persistent infection by double-stranded RNA Totiviruses. These viruses produce potent killer proteins that are secreted by the host. This is a rare example of virus/host symbiosis in ...

  7. Singapore Grouper Iridovirus ORF75R is a Scaffold Protein Essential for Viral Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Yi; Ngoc Tran, Bich; Wu, Jinlu; Leong Hew, Choy

    2015-01-01

    Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV) is a member of nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). This paper reports the functional analysis of ORF75R, a major structural protein of SGIV. Immuno fluorescence studies showed that the protein was accumulated in the viral assembly site. Immunogold-labelling indicated that it was localized between the viral capsid shell and DNA core. Knockdown of ORF75R by morpholinos resulted in the reduction of coreshell thickness, the failure of DNA encapsidation, and the low yield of infectious particles. Comparative proteomics further identified the structural proteins affected by ORF75R knockdown. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with proteomics demonstrated that ORF75R was phosphorylated at multiple sites in SGIV-infected cell lysate and virions, but the vast majority of ORF75R in virions was the dephosphorylated isoform. A kinase assay showed that ORF75R could be phosphorylated in vitro by the SGIV structural protein ORF39L. Addition of ATP and Mg2+ into purified virions prompted extensive phosphorylation of structural proteins and release of ORF75R from virions. These data suggest that ORF75R is a novel scaffold protein important for viral assembly and DNA encapsidation, but its phosphorylation facilitates virion disassembly. Compared to proteins from other viruses, we found that ORF75R shares common features with herpes simplex virus VP22. PMID:26286371

  8. Cellular or viral protein binding to a cytomegalovirus promoter transcription initiation site: effects on transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Macias, M P; Huang, L; Lashmit, P E; Stinski, M F

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that the IE2 protein of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) represses its own synthesis by binding to the major immediate-early promoter (M. P. Macias and M. F. Stinski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:707-711, 1993). The binding of a viral protein (IE2) and a cellular protein in the region of the transcription start site was investigated by site-specific mutational analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The viral protein and the cellular protein require different but adjacent core DNA sequence elements for binding. In situ chemical footprinting analysis of DNA-protein interactions with purified CMV IE2 protein or HeLa cell nuclear extracts demonstrated binding sites that overlap the transcription start site. The IE2 protein footprint was between bp -15 and +2, relative to the transcription start site, and the cellular protein was between bp -16 and +7. The ability of the unknown human cellular protein of approximately 150 kDa to bind the CMV major immediate-early promoter correlates with an increase in the level of transcription efficiency. Mutations in the core DNA sequence element for cellular protein binding significantly reduced the level of in vitro transcription efficiency. Mutations upstream and downstream of the core sequence moderately reduced the transcription efficiency level. Negative autoregulation of the CMV promoter by the viral IE2 protein may involve both binding to the DNA template and interference with the function of a cellular protein that binds to the transcription start site and enhances transcription efficiency. PMID:8648697

  9. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J.; Neuman, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations. PMID:23864502

  10. Purification by reflux electrophoresis of whey proteins and of a recombinant protein expressed in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Corthals, G L; Collins, B M; Mabbutt, B C; Williams, K L; Gooley, A A

    1997-06-27

    Protein purification that combines the use of molecular mass exclusion membranes with electrophoresis is particularly powerful as it uses properties inherent to both techniques. The use of membranes allows efficient processing and is easily scaled up, while electrophoresis permits high resolution separation under mild conditions. The Gradiflow apparatus combines these two technologies as it uses polyacrylamide membranes to influence electrokinetic separations. The reflux electrophoresis process consists of a series of cycles incorporating a forward phase and a reverse phase. The forward phase involves collection of a target protein that passes through a separation membrane before trailing proteins in the same solution. The forward phase is repeated following clearance of the membrane in the reverse phase by reversing the current. We have devised a strategy to establish optimal reflux separation parameters, where membranes are chosen for a particular operating range and protein transfer is monitored at different pH values. In addition, forward and reverse phase times are determined during this process. Two examples of the reflux method are described. In the first case, we described the purification strategy for proteins from a complex mixture which contains proteins of higher electrophoretic mobility than the target protein. This is a two-step procedure, where first proteins of higher mobility than the target protein are removed from the solution by a series of reflux cycles, so that the target protein remains as the leading fraction. In the second step the target protein is collected, as it has become the leading fraction of the remaining proteins. In the second example we report the development of a reflux strategy which allowed a rapid one-step preparative purification of a recombinant protein, expressed in Dictyostelium discoideum. These strategies demonstrate that the Gradiflow is amenable to a wide range of applications, as the protein of interest is not

  11. Host and viral RNA-binding proteins involved in membrane targeting, replication and intercellular movement of plant RNA virus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Kaido, Masanori; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Many plant viruses have positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] as their genome. Therefore, it is not surprising that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles during (+)RNA virus infection in host plants. Increasing evidence demonstrates that viral and host RBPs play critical roles in multiple steps of the viral life cycle, including translation and replication of viral genomic RNAs, and their intra- and intercellular movement. Although studies focusing on the RNA-binding activities of viral and host proteins, and their associations with membrane targeting, and intercellular movement of viral genomes have been limited to a few viruses, these studies have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the replication and movement of viral genomic RNAs. In this review, we briefly overview the currently defined roles of viral and host RBPs whose RNA-binding activity have been confirmed experimentally in association with their membrane targeting, and intercellular movement of plant RNA virus genomes. PMID:25071804

  12. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%–99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy. PMID:26114473

  13. Caspase cleavage of viral proteins, another way for viruses to make the best of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Richard, A; Tulasne, D

    2012-01-01

    Viral infection constitutes an unwanted intrusion that needs to be eradicated by host cells. On one hand, one of the first protective barriers set up to prevent viral replication, spread or persistence involves the induction of apoptotic cell death that aims to limit the availability of the cellular components for viral amplification. On the other hand, while they completely depend on the host molecular machinery, viruses also need to evade the cellular responses that are meant to destroy them. The existence of numerous antiapoptotic products within the viral kingdom proves that apoptosis constitutes a major threat that should better be bypassed. Among the different strategies developed to deal with apoptosis, one is based on what viruses do best: backfiring the cell on itself. Several unrelated viruses have been described to take advantage of apoptosis induction by expressing proteins targeted by caspases, the key effectors of apoptotic cell death. Caspase cleavage of these proteins results in various consequences, from logical apoptosis inhibition to more surprising enhancement or attenuation of viral replication. The present review aims at discussing the characterization and relevance of this post-translational modification that adds a new complexity in the already intricate host–apoptosis–virus triangle. PMID:22402601

  14. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-06-24

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%-99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy.

  15. Inhibition of chikungunya virus by picolinate that targets viral capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh; Fatma, Benazir; Saha, Amrita; Bajpai, Sailesh; Sistla, Srinivas; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Kumar, Pravindra; Tomar, Shailly

    2016-11-01

    The protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of the transmembrane glycoprotein E2 with the hydrophobic pocket on the surface of capsid protein (CP) plays a critical role in alphavirus life cycle. Dioxane based derivatives targeting PPIs have been reported to possess antiviral activity against Sindbis Virus (SINV), the prototype alphavirus. In this study, the binding of picolinic acid (PCA) to the conserved hydrophobic pocket of capsid protein was analyzed by molecular docking, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding constant KD obtained for PCA was 2.1×10(-7)M. Additionally, PCA significantly inhibited CHIKV replication in infected Vero cells, decreasing viral mRNA and viral load as assessed by qRT-PCR and plaque reduction assay, respectively. This study is suggestive of the potential of pyridine ring compounds as antivirals against alphaviruses and may serve as the basis for the development of PCA based drugs against alphaviral diseases.

  16. Inhibition of chikungunya virus by picolinate that targets viral capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh; Fatma, Benazir; Saha, Amrita; Bajpai, Sailesh; Sistla, Srinivas; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Kumar, Pravindra; Tomar, Shailly

    2016-11-01

    The protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of the transmembrane glycoprotein E2 with the hydrophobic pocket on the surface of capsid protein (CP) plays a critical role in alphavirus life cycle. Dioxane based derivatives targeting PPIs have been reported to possess antiviral activity against Sindbis Virus (SINV), the prototype alphavirus. In this study, the binding of picolinic acid (PCA) to the conserved hydrophobic pocket of capsid protein was analyzed by molecular docking, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding constant KD obtained for PCA was 2.1×10(-7)M. Additionally, PCA significantly inhibited CHIKV replication in infected Vero cells, decreasing viral mRNA and viral load as assessed by qRT-PCR and plaque reduction assay, respectively. This study is suggestive of the potential of pyridine ring compounds as antivirals against alphaviruses and may serve as the basis for the development of PCA based drugs against alphaviral diseases. PMID:27614702

  17. Viral-Host Protein Interaction Studies Using Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening Method.

    PubMed

    Dudha, Namrata; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay is one of the earliest methods developed to study protein-protein interactions. In the proteomics era, Y2H has created a niche of its own by providing protein interaction maps for various organisms. Owing to limited coding capacities of their genomes, viruses are dependent on their host cellular machinery for successful infection. Identification of the key players orchestrating the survival of virus in their host is essential for understanding viral life cycle and devising strategies to prevent interactions resulting in pathogenesis. In this chapter, Y2H assay will be explained in detail for studying viral-host protein interactions of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). PMID:27233270

  18. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  19. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F.; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  20. The advances and perspectives of recombinant protein production in the silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu

    2014-10-01

    The silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori, is one of the most important organs that has been fully studied and utilized so far. It contributes finest silk fibers to humankind. The silk gland has excellent ability of synthesizing silk proteins and is a kind tool to produce some useful recombinant proteins, which can be widely used in the biological, biotechnical and pharmaceutical application fields. It's a very active area to express recombinant proteins using the silk gland as a bioreactor, and great progress has been achieved recently. This review recapitulates the progress of producing recombinant proteins and silk-based biomaterials in the silk gland of silkworm in addition to the construction of expression systems. Current challenges and future trends in the production of valuable recombinant proteins using transgenic silkworms are also discussed.

  1. Production of antigens in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: green microalgae as a novel source of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant small-scale proteins are produced in a number of systems, from bacteria like Escherichia coli, through lower eukaryotes like baker's yeast, up to mammalian cell cultures. However, the need for safe and cheap sources of large amounts of recombinant proteins for different purposes, including material sciences, diagnostics, and, of course, medical therapy, has forced the development of alternative production systems. Green microalgae are cheap and easily grown and offer a high protein content, which would seem to make them ideal hosts for the large-scale sustainable production of recombinant proteins in the future. In selected species, recombinant DNA can be introduced into the genomes of the nucleus, the chloroplast, and even the mitochondria, and thus the system offers both prokaryotic (chloroplast, mitochondria) and eukaryotic translation systems for a tailored expression of virtually any protein.

  2. Recombination every day: abundant recombination in a virus during a single multi-cellular host infection.

    PubMed

    Froissart, Remy; Roze, Denis; Uzest, Marilyne; Galibert, Lionel; Blanc, Stephane; Michalakis, Yannis

    2005-03-01

    Viral recombination can dramatically impact evolution and epidemiology. In viruses, the recombination rate depends on the frequency of genetic exchange between different viral genomes within an infected host cell and on the frequency at which such co-infections occur. While the recombination rate has been recently evaluated in experimentally co-infected cell cultures for several viruses, direct quantification at the most biologically significant level, that of a host infection, is still lacking. This study fills this gap using the cauliflower mosaic virus as a model. We distributed four neutral markers along the viral genome, and co-inoculated host plants with marker-containing and wild-type viruses. The frequency of recombinant genomes was evaluated 21 d post-inoculation. On average, over 50% of viral genomes recovered after a single host infection were recombinants, clearly indicating that recombination is very frequent in this virus. Estimates of the recombination rate show that all regions of the genome are equally affected by this process. Assuming that ten viral replication cycles occurred during our experiment-based on data on the timing of coat protein detection-the per base and replication cycle recombination rate was on the order of 2 x 10(-5) to 4 x 10(-5). This first determination of a virus recombination rate during a single multi-cellular host infection indicates that recombination is very frequent in the everyday life of this virus. PMID:15737066

  3. DNA-templated assembly of viral protein hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Tao, Ailin; Xu, Yun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogels are a promising class of biomaterials that can be easily tailored to produce a native extracellular matrix that exhibits desirable mechanical and chemical properties. Here we report the construction of a hydrogel via the assembly of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) capsid protein and Y-shaped and cross-shaped DNAs.Hydrogels are a promising class of biomaterials that can be easily tailored to produce a native extracellular matrix that exhibits desirable mechanical and chemical properties. Here we report the construction of a hydrogel via the assembly of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) capsid protein and Y-shaped and cross-shaped DNAs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02414a

  4. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal po...

  5. Investigating the dynamics of recombinant protein secretion from a microalgal host.

    PubMed

    Lauersen, Kyle J; Huber, Isabel; Wichmann, Julian; Baier, Thomas; Leiter, Andreas; Gaukel, Volker; Kartushin, Viktor; Rattenholl, Anke; Steinweg, Christian; von Riesen, Lena; Posten, Clemens; Gudermann, Frank; Lütkemeyer, Dirk; Mussgnug, Jan H; Kruse, Olaf

    2015-12-10

    Production of recombinant proteins with microalgae represents an alternative platform over plant- or bacterial-based expression systems for certain target proteins. Secretion of recombinant proteins allows accumulation of the target product physically separate from the valuable algal biomass. To date, there has been little investigation into the dynamics of recombinant protein secretion from microalgal hosts-the culture parameters that encourage secreted product accumulation and stability, while encouraging biomass production. In this work, the efficiency of recombinant protein production was optimized by adjusting cultivation parameters for a strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii previously engineered to secrete a functional recombinant Lolium perenne ice binding protein (LpIBP), which has applications as a frozen food texturing and cryopreservation additive, into its culture medium. Three media and several cultivation styles were investigated for effects on secreted LpIBP titres and culture growth. A combination of acetate and carbon dioxide feeding with illumination resulted in the highest overall biomass and recombinant protein titres up to 10mgL(-1) in the culture medium. Pure photoautotrophic production was possible using two media types, with recombinant protein accumulation in all cultivations correlating to culture cell density. Two different cultivation systems were used for scale-up to 10L cultivations, one of which produced yields of secreted recombinant protein up to 12mgL(-1) within six cultivation days. Functional ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) of the LpIBP from total concentrated extracellular protein extracts was demonstrated in a sucrose solution used as a simplified ice cream model. IRI lasted up to 7 days, demonstrating the potential of secreted products from microalgae for use as food additives. PMID:25975624

  6. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:26805756

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  8. Thermodynamic instability of viral proteins is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern targeted by human defensins.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, Elena; Koneru, Pratibha C; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Strömstedt, Adam A; Lu, Wuyuan; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

    2016-01-01

    Human defensins are innate immune defense peptides with a remarkably broad repertoire of anti-pathogen activities. In addition to modulating immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis, disintegrating bacterial membranes, and inactivating bacterial toxins, defensins are known to intercept various viruses at different stages of their life cycles, while remaining relatively benign towards human cells and proteins. Recently we have found that human defensins inactivate proteinaceous bacterial toxins by taking advantage of their low thermodynamic stability and acting as natural "anti-chaperones", i.e. destabilizing the native conformation of the toxins. In the present study we tested various proteins produced by several viruses (HIV-1, PFV, and TEV) and found them to be susceptible to destabilizing effects of human α-defensins HNP-1 and HD-5 and the synthetic θ-defensin RC-101, but not β-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 or structurally related plant-derived peptides. Defensin-induced unfolding promoted exposure of hydrophobic groups otherwise confined to the core of the viral proteins. This resulted in precipitation, an enhanced susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage, and a loss of viral protein activities. We propose, that defensins recognize and target a common and essential physico-chemical property shared by many bacterial toxins and viral proteins - the intrinsically low thermodynamic protein stability. PMID:27581352

  9. Thermodynamic instability of viral proteins is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern targeted by human defensins

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashova, Elena; Koneru, Pratibha C.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Lu, Wuyuan; Kudryashov, Dmitri S.

    2016-01-01

    Human defensins are innate immune defense peptides with a remarkably broad repertoire of anti-pathogen activities. In addition to modulating immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis, disintegrating bacterial membranes, and inactivating bacterial toxins, defensins are known to intercept various viruses at different stages of their life cycles, while remaining relatively benign towards human cells and proteins. Recently we have found that human defensins inactivate proteinaceous bacterial toxins by taking advantage of their low thermodynamic stability and acting as natural “anti-chaperones”, i.e. destabilizing the native conformation of the toxins. In the present study we tested various proteins produced by several viruses (HIV-1, PFV, and TEV) and found them to be susceptible to destabilizing effects of human α-defensins HNP-1 and HD-5 and the synthetic θ-defensin RC-101, but not β-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 or structurally related plant-derived peptides. Defensin-induced unfolding promoted exposure of hydrophobic groups otherwise confined to the core of the viral proteins. This resulted in precipitation, an enhanced susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage, and a loss of viral protein activities. We propose, that defensins recognize and target a common and essential physico-chemical property shared by many bacterial toxins and viral proteins – the intrinsically low thermodynamic protein stability. PMID:27581352

  10. Recombinant VP1 protein of duck hepatitis virus 1 expressed in Pichia pastoris and its immunogenicity in ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Li, X K; Wu, T C; Wang, Y; Zhang, C J; Cheng, X C; Chen, P Y

    2014-01-01

    The VP1 gene of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) strain VJ09 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR from the liver of a duckling with clinical symptoms of viral hepatitis. The resulting VP1 cDNA was 720 bp in length and encoded a 240-amino-acid protein. In VP1 gene-based phylogenetic analysis, the VJ09 strain grouped with DHV-1 genotype C. The VP1 gene was inserted into the expression vector pPICZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The expressed VP1 protein was purified and identified by western blot analysis. To evaluate the recombinant VP1's immunogenic potential in ducklings, the antibodies raised in the immunized ducklings were titrated by ELISA, and lymphocyte proliferation and virus neutralization assays were performed. The results show that the recombinant VP1 protein induced a significant immune response in ducklings and this could be a candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine against DHV-1 genotype C.

  11. Physical studies of conformational plasticity in a recombinant prion protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Stockel, J; Mehlhorn, I; Groth, D; Baldwin, M A; Prusiner, S B; James, T L; Cohen, F E

    1997-03-25

    PrP(Sc) is known to be the major, if not the only, component of the infectious prion. Limited proteolysis of PrP(Sc) produces an N-terminally truncated polypeptide of about 142 residues, designated PrP 27-30. Recently, a recombinant protein (rPrP) of 142 residues corresponding to the Syrian hamster PrP 27-30 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified (Mehlhorn et al., 1996). rPrP has been refolded into both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures as well as various intermediates in aqueous buffers. The beta-sheet state and two pH-dependent alpha-helical states were characterized by CD and NMR. The alpha-helical conformation occurred only after the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas the beta-sheet form was accessible either with or without the disulfide. Of the different alpha-helical forms studied, only those refolded in the pH range 5-8 were substantially soluble at physiological pH, exhibiting similar conformations and monomeric analytical sedimentation profiles throughout the above pH range. Furthermore, refolded alpha-rPrP showed NMR chemical shift dispersion typical of proteins with native conformations, although 2D NMR indicated large segments of conformational flexibility. It displayed a cooperative thermal denaturation transition; at elevated temperatures, it converted rapidly and irreversibly to the thermodynamically more stable beta-sheet form. Unfolding of alpha-rPrP by GdnHCl revealed a two-phase transition with a relatively stable folding intermediate at 2 M GdnHCl. The deltaG values were estimated to be 1.9 +/- 0.4 kcal/mol for the first phase and 6.5 +/- 1.2 kcal/mol for the second, consistent with a folding core surrounded by significant segments of flexible conformation. By NMR, alpha-rPrP(acid) isolated at pH 2 without refolding exhibited heterogeneous line widths, consistent with an acid-denatured molten globular state. We conclude that to the extent that rPrP constitutes a relevant folding domain of PrP(C), the various

  12. Characterization of Recombinant Human Cytomegaloviruses Encoding IE1 Mutants L174P and 1-382 Reveals that Viral Targeting of PML Bodies Perturbs both Intrinsic and Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Myriam; Otto, Victoria; Stump, Joachim D.; Klingl, Stefan; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Muller, Yves A.; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PML is the organizer of cellular structures termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10) or PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and other viruses. The antiviral function of ND10 is antagonized by viral regulatory proteins such as the immediate early protein IE1 of HCMV. IE1 interacts with PML through its globular core domain (IE1CORE) and induces ND10 disruption in order to initiate lytic HCMV infection. Here, we investigate the consequences of a point mutation (L174P) in IE1CORE, which was shown to abrogate the interaction with PML, for lytic HCMV infection. We found that a recombinant HCMV encoding IE1-L174P displays a severe growth defect similar to that of an IE1 deletion virus. Bioinformatic modeling based on the crystal structure of IE1CORE suggested that insertion of proline into the highly alpha-helical domain severely affects its structural integrity. Consistently, L174P mutation abrogates the functionality of IE1CORE and results in degradation of the IE1 protein during infection. In addition, our data provide evidence that IE1CORE as expressed by a recombinant HCMV encoding IE1 1-382 not only is required to antagonize PML-mediated intrinsic immunity but also affects a recently described function of PML in innate immune signaling. We demonstrate a coregulatory role of PML in type I and type II interferon-induced gene expression and provide evidence that upregulation of interferon-induced genes is inhibited by IE1CORE. In conclusion, our data suggest that targeting PML by viral regulatory proteins represents a strategy to antagonize both intrinsic and innate immune mechanisms. IMPORTANCE PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), which represent nuclear multiprotein complexes consisting of PML and additional proteins, represent important cellular structures that mediate intrinsic resistance against many viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). During HCMV infection, the major immediate

  13. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  14. Role of cellular FKBP52 protein in intracellular trafficking of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Weihong; Wu Jianqing ||; Zhong Li; Chen Linyuan; Weigel-Kelley, Kirsten A. |; Qing Keyun; Larsen, Steven H.; Shou Weinian; Warrington, Kenneth H. |; Srivastava, Arun |. E-mail: asrivastava@gtc.ufl.edu

    2006-09-30

    We have reported that tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of a cellular protein, FKBP52, inhibit the second-strand DNA synthesis of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV), leading to inefficient transgene expression from recombinant AAV vectors. To further explore the role of FKBP52 in AAV-mediated transduction, we established murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) cultures from FKBP52 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HE), and knockout (KO) mice. Conventional AAV vectors failed to transduce WT MEFs efficiently, and the transduction efficiency was not significantly increased in HE or KO MEFs. AAV vectors failed to traffic efficiently to the nucleus in these cells. Treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) increased the transduction efficiency of conventional AAV vectors by {approx}25-fold in WT MEFs, but only by {approx}4-fold in KO MEFs. The use of self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors, which bypass the requirement of viral second-strand DNA synthesis, revealed that HU treatment increased the transduction efficiency {approx}23-fold in WT MEFs, but only {approx}4-fold in KO MEFs, indicating that the lack of HU treatment-mediated increase in KO MEFs was not due to failure of AAV to undergo viral second-strand DNA synthesis. Following HU treatment, {approx}59% of AAV genomes were present in the nuclear fraction from WT MEFs, but only {approx}28% in KO MEFs, indicating that the pathway by which HU treatment mediates nuclear transport of AAV was impaired in KO MEFs. When KO MEFs were stably transfected with an FKBP52 expression plasmid, HU treatment-mediated increase in the transduction efficiency was restored in these cells, which correlated directly with improved intracellular trafficking. Intact AAV particles were also shown to interact with FKBP52 as well as with dynein, a known cellular protein involved in AAV trafficking. These studies suggest that FKBP52, being a cellular chaperone protein, facilitates intracellular trafficking of AAV, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant

  15. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  16. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  17. Induction of robust immunity response in mice by dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an emerging swine disease that causes progressive weight loss, dyspnea, tachypnea, anemia, jaundice, and diarrhea in piglets. Although baculovirus is an enveloped virus that infects insects in nature, it has emerged as a vaccine vector, and we used it to develop a novel candidate vaccine for a preventive or therapeutic strategy to control PCV2 infections. Methods Immunoblotting analysis of recombinant baculovirus and immunofluorescent staining of baculovirus-infected cells were followed using anti-ORF2 monoclonal antibodies. The BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with this baculovirus. The titers of antibodies were mensurated with a Cap-protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization assay. The IFN-γ response in splenocytes harvested from immunized mice was measured by ELISA. Student's t-test was used to compare immune responses of different groups. Results In this study, we successfully constructed a dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2, which can display the PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein and VSV-G protein on the viral envelope and also expressing Cap protein on transduced mammalian cells, thereby functioning as both a subunit and a DNA vaccine. After infection, the Cap protein was expressed and displayed on the viral surface, as demonstrated with an indirect fluorescence assay and immunoblotting. The vaccination of mice with recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 successfully induced robust Cap-protein-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Conclusions Our findings collectively demonstrate that the recombinant baculovirus BV-GD-ORF2 is a potential vaccine against PCV2 infections. PMID:24161107

  18. Recombination hotspot activity of hypervariable minisatellite DNA requires minisatellite DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Moore, P D

    1998-01-01

    Hypervariable minisatellite DNA repeats are found at tens of thousands of loci in the mammalian genome. These sequences stimulate homologous recombination in mammalian cells [Cell 60:95-103]. To test the hypothesis that protein-DNA interaction is required for hotspot function in vivo, we determined whether a second protein binding nearby could abolish hotspot activity. Intermolecular recombination between pairs of plasmid substrates was measured in the presence or absence of the cis-acting recombination hotspot and in the presence or absence of the second trans-acting DNA binding protein. Minisatellite DNA had hotspot activity in two cell lines, but lacked hotspot activity in two closely related cell lines expressing a site-specific helicase that bound to DNA adjacent to the hotspot. Suppression of hotspot function occurred for both replicating and non-replicating recombination substrates. These results indicate that hotspot activity in vivo requires site occupancy by minisatellite DNA binding proteins. PMID:9776980

  19. Essential Role of Dengue Virus Envelope Protein N Glycosylation at Asparagine-67 during Viral Propagation▿

    PubMed Central

    Mondotte, Juan A.; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Amara, Ali; Gamarnik, Andrea V.

    2007-01-01

    Dengue virus envelope protein (E) contains two N-linked glycosylation sites, at Asn-67 and Asn-153. The glycosylation site at position 153 is conserved in most flaviviruses, while the site at position 67 is thought to be unique for dengue viruses. N-linked oligosaccharide side chains on flavivirus E proteins have been associated with viral morphogenesis, infectivity, and tropism. Here, we examined the relevance of each N-linked glycan on dengue virus E protein by removing each site in the context of infectious viral particles. Dengue viruses lacking Asn-67 were able to infect mammalian cells and translate and replicate the viral genome, but production of new infectious particles was abolished. In addition, dengue viruses lacking Asn-153 in the E showed reduced infectivity. In contrast, ablation of one or both glycosylation sites yielded viruses that replicate and propagate in mosquito cells. Furthermore, we found a differential requirement of N-linked glycans for E secretion in mammalian and mosquito cells. While secretion of E lacking Asn-67 was efficient in mosquito cells, secretion of the same protein expressed in mammalian cells was dramatically impaired. Finally, we found that viruses lacking the carbohydrate at position 67 showed reduced infection of immature dendritic cells, suggesting interaction between this glycan and the lectin DC-SIGN. Overall, our data defined different roles for the two glycans present at the E protein during dengue virus infection, highlighting the involvement of distinct host functions from mammalian and mosquito cells during dengue virus propagation. PMID:17459925

  20. Functional Constraint Profiling of a Viral Protein Reveals Discordance of Evolutionary Conservation and Functionality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nicholas C; Olson, C Anders; Du, Yushen; Le, Shuai; Tran, Kevin; Remenyi, Roland; Gong, Danyang; Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q; Qi, Hangfei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2015-07-01

    Viruses often encode proteins with multiple functions due to their compact genomes. Existing approaches to identify functional residues largely rely on sequence conservation analysis. Inferring functional residues from sequence conservation can produce false positives, in which the conserved residues are functionally silent, or false negatives, where functional residues are not identified since they are species-specific and therefore non-conserved. Furthermore, the tedious process of constructing and analyzing individual mutations limits the number of residues that can be examined in a single study. Here, we developed a systematic approach to identify the functional residues of a viral protein by coupling experimental fitness profiling with protein stability prediction using the influenza virus polymerase PA subunit as the target protein. We identified a significant number of functional residues that were influenza type-specific and were evolutionarily non-conserved among different influenza types. Our results indicate that type-specific functional residues are prevalent and may not otherwise be identified by sequence conservation analysis alone. More importantly, this technique can be adapted to any viral (and potentially non-viral) protein where structural information is available.

  1. Five RecA-like proteins of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are involved in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Grishchuk, A L; Kohli, J

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains five genes that code for proteins with sequence similarity to the Escherichia coli recombination protein RecA: rad51+, rhp55+, rhp57+, rlp1+, and dmc1+. We analyzed the effect of deletion of each of these genes on meiotic recombination and viability of spores. Meiotic recombination levels were different from wild type in all recA-related mutants in several genetic intervals, suggesting that all five RecA homologs of S. pombe are required for normal levels of meiotic recombination. Spore viability was reduced in rad51, rhp55, and rhp57 mutants, but not in rlp1 and dmc1. It is argued that reduction of crossover is not the only cause for the observed reduction of spore viability. Analysis of double and triple mutants revealed that Rad51 and Dmc1 play major and partially overlapping roles in meiotic recombination, while Rhp55, Rhp57, and Rlp1 play accessory roles. Remarkably, deletion of Rlp1 decreases the frequency of intergenic recombination (crossovers), but increases intragenic recombination (gene conversion). On the basis of our results, we present a model for the involvement of five RecA-like proteins of S. pombe in meiotic recombination and discuss their respective roles. PMID:14668362

  2. [Preparation and characterization of the recombinant protein containing immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene].

    PubMed

    Apal'ko, S V; Lunin, V G; Filipenko, M L; Matveeva, V A; Liashchuk, A M; Lavrova, N V; Sherina, E A; Aver'ianov, A V; Kostianko, M V; Glushkov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Two recombinant plasmids were constructed. The first plasmid contained the hybrid gene composed of immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene, of the protein pIII of bacteriophage M13 and of cellulose binding domain encoding sequences. The second plasmid contained the hybrid gene composed of the signal peptide of the protein pIII of bacteriophage M13, of immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene, of the protein pill of bacteriophage M13 and of cellulose binding domain sequences. The obtained recombinant plasmids were used in expression of chimeric protein containing immunomimetic peptide ofbenzo[a]pyrene based on strain E. coli M15. The lack of the recombinant protein expression using first plasmid was demonstrated. In the same time, it was shown that accumulation of recombinant protein contained immunomimetic peptide with signal peptide of the protein pIIIl of bacteriophage was present. This chimeric protein was produced in "mature" (without signal peptide) and "unprocessing" (with signal peptide) forms. Using the Western-blot analysis, it was shown that the "mature" form only specifically bound to the B2 monoclonal antibody against benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, we expressed, purified, and characterized the recombinant protein containing immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene.

  3. Application of the primer in situ DNA synthesis (PRINS) technique to titer recombinant virus and evaluation of the efficiency of viral transduction.

    PubMed

    Claudio, P P; Cinti, C; Giordano, A

    2001-04-01

    Titration is an important and critical step in dosing recombinant virus for gene therapy. We present a relatively fast, convenient, and sensitive method that allows for precise quantification of recombinant retrovirus. The method is based on PCR amplification of a foreign gene by the PRINS (primer in situ DNA synthesis) technique. The PRINS technique is based on the sequence-specific annealing of unlabeled oligonucleotide DNA in situ. This oligonucleotide operates as a primer for in situ chain elongation catalyzed by the Taq I polymerase. Using digoxygenin-labeled nucleotides as a substrate for chain elongation, the neo-synthetic DNA is labeled by an FITC-conjugated anti-digoxygenin antibody. To avoid the possibility of false positives, we amplified the puromycin-resistance gene, which is associated with the transgene in the same viral vector and is not normally present in mammalian cells. The retroviral titer was evaluated by counting fluorescein isothiocyanate-positive cells after PRINS labeling, while knowing the number of plated cells that were transduced with different amounts of viral supernatant. A comparable viral concentration of 1 x 10(7) infectious units/mL was found among the retroviruses.

  4. Influenza viral vectors expressing the Brucella OMP16 or L7/L12 proteins as vaccines against B. abortus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We generated novel, effective candidate vaccine against Brucella abortus based on recombinant influenza viruses expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or outer membrane protein (Omp)-16 from the NS1 open reading frame. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and protectiveness of vaccine candidate in laboratory animals. Methods and Results Four recombinant influenza A viral constructs of the subtypes Н5N1 or H1N1 expressing the Brucella proteins L7/L12 or Omp16 were obtained by a reverse genetics method: Flu-NS1-124-L7/L12-H5N1, Flu-NS1-124-Omp16-H5N1, Flu-NS1-124-L7/L12-H1N1 and Flu-NS1-124-Omp16-H1N1. Despite of substantial modification of NS1 gene, all constructs replicated well and were retain their Brucella inserts over five passages in embryonated chicken eggs (CE). Administration of the mono- or bivalent vaccine formulation via prime-boost intranasal (i.n.), conjunctival (c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization was safe in mice; no deaths, body weight loss or pathomorphological changes were observed over 56 days. Moreover, guinea pigs vaccinated i.n. with vaccine vectors did not shed the vaccine viruses through their upper respiratory tract after the prime and booster vaccination. These findings confirmed the replication-deficient phenotype of viral vectors. The highest antibody response to Brucella antigen was obtained with constructs expressing L7/L12 (ELISA, GMT 242.5-735.0); whereas the highest T-cell immune response- with construct expressing Omp16 (ELISPOT, 337 ± 52-651 ± 45 spots/4×105cells), which was comparable (P > 0.05) to the response induced by the commercial vaccine B. abortus 19. Interestingly, c. immunization appeared to be optimal for eliciting T-cell immune response. In guinea pigs, the highest protective efficacy after challenge with B. abortus 544 was achieved with Omp16 expressing constructs in both monovalent or bivalent vaccine formulations; protective efficacy was

  5. Potent stimulation of the innate immune system by a Leishmania brasiliensis recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Borges, M M; Campos-Neto, A; Sleath, P; Grabstein, K H; Morrissey, P J; Skeiky, Y A; Reed, S G

    2001-09-01

    The interaction of the innate immune system with the microbial world involves primarily two sets of molecules generally known as microbial pattern recognition receptors and microbial pattern recognition molecules, respectively. Examples of the former are the Toll receptors present particularly in macrophages and dendritic cells. Conversely, the microbial pattern recognition molecules are conserved protist homopolymers, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acids, peptidoglycans, glucans, mannans, unmethylated bacterial DNA, and double-strand viral RNA. However, for protists that lack most of these molecules, such as protozoans, the innate immune system must have evolved receptors that recognize other groups of microbial molecules. Here we present evidence that a highly purified protein encoded by a Leishmania brasiliensis gene may be one such molecule. This recombinant leishmanial molecule, a homologue of eukaryotic ribosomal elongation and initiation factor 4a (LeIF), strongly stimulates spleen cells from severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice to produce interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, and high levels of gamma interferon. In addition, LeIF potentiates the cytotoxic activity of the NK cells of these animals. Because LeIF is a conserved molecule and because SCID mice lack T and B lymphocytes but have a normal innate immune system (normal reticuloendothelial system and NK cells), these results suggest that proteins may also be included as microbial pattern recognition molecules. The nature of the receptor involved in this innate recognition is unknown. However, it is possible to exclude the Toll receptor Tlr4 as a putative LeIF receptor because the gene encoding this receptor is defective in C3H/HeJ mice, the mouse strain used in the present studies.

  6. Systems and methods for the secretion of recombinant proteins in gram negative bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Withers, III, Sydnor T.; Dominguez, Miguel A; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Haitjema, Charles H.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for producing recombinant proteins utilizing mutant E. coli strains containing expression vectors carrying nucleic acids encoding the proteins, and secretory signal sequences to direct the secretion of the proteins to the culture medium. Host cells transformed with the expression vectors are also provided.

  7. The specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index is solely determined by the viral coat protein.

    PubMed

    Andret-Link, Peggy; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne; Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Fuchs, Marc

    2004-03-01

    The viral determinants involved in the specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) by its nematode vector Xiphinema index are located within the 513 C-terminal residues of the RNA2-encoded polyprotein, that is, the 9 C-terminal amino acids of the movement protein (2BMP) and contiguous 504 amino acids of the coat protein (2CCP) [Virology 291 (2001) 161]. To further delineate the viral determinants responsible for the specific spread, the four amino acids that are different within the 9 C-terminal 2BMP residues between GFLV and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), another nepovirus which is transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum but not by X. index, were subjected to mutational analysis. Of the recombinant viruses derived from transcripts of GFLV RNA1 and RNA2 mutants that systemically infected herbaceous host plants, all with the 2CCP of GFLV were transmitted by X. index unlike none with the 2CCP of ArMV, regardless of the mutations within the 2BMP C-terminus. These results demonstrate that the coat protein is the sole viral determinant for the specific spread of GFLV by X. index.

  8. Unexpected Deposition Patterns of Recombinant Proteins in Post-Endoplasmic Reticulum Compartments of Wheat Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Arcalis, Elsa; Marcel, Sylvain; Altmann, Friedrich; Kolarich, Daniel; Drakakaki, Georgia; Fischer, Rainer; Christou, Paul; Stoger, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Protein transport within cereal endosperm cells is complicated by the abundance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived and vacuolar protein bodies. For wheat storage proteins, two major transport routes run from the ER to the vacuole, one bypassing and one passing through the Golgi. Proteins traveling along each route converge at the vacuole and form aggregates. To determine the impact of this trafficking system on the fate of recombinant proteins expressed in wheat endosperm, we used confocal and electron microscopy to investigate the fate of three recombinant proteins containing different targeting information. KDEL-tagged recombinant human serum albumin, which is retrieved to the ER lumen in leaf cells, was deposited in prolamin aggregates within the vacuole of endosperm cells, most likely following the bulk of endogenous glutenins. Recombinant fungal phytase, a glycoprotein designed for secretion, was delivered to the same compartment, with no trace of the molecule in the apoplast. Glycan analysis revealed that this protein had passed through the Golgi. The localization of human serum albumin and phytase was compared to that of recombinant legumin, which contains structural targeting information directing it to the vacuole. Uniquely, legumin accumulated in the globulin inclusion bodies at the periphery of the prolamin bodies, suggesting a different mode of transport and/or aggregation. Our results demonstrate that recombinant proteins are deposited in an unexpected pattern within wheat endosperm cells, probably because of the unique storage properties of this tissue. Our data also confirm that recombinant proteins are invaluable tools for the analysis of protein trafficking in cereals. PMID:15489278

  9. Phage Phenomics: Physiological Approaches to Characterize Novel Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Savannah E.; Cuevas, Daniel A.; Rostron, Jason E.; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Pivaroff, Cullen G.; Haynes, Matthew R.; Nulton, Jim; Felts, Ben; Bailey, Barbara A.; Salamon, Peter; Edwards, Robert A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Segall, Anca M.; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Current investigations into phage-host interactions are dependent on extrapolating knowledge from (meta)genomes. Interestingly, 60 - 95% of all phage sequences share no homology to current annotated proteins. As a result, a large proportion of phage genes are annotated as hypothetical. This reality heavily affects the annotation of both structural and auxiliary metabolic genes. Here we present phenomic methods designed to capture the physiological response(s) of a selected host during expression of one of these unknown phage genes. Multi-phenotype Assay Plates (MAPs) are used to monitor the diversity of host substrate utilization and subsequent biomass formation, while metabolomics provides bi-product analysis by monitoring metabolite abundance and diversity. Both tools are used simultaneously to provide a phenotypic profile associated with expression of a single putative phage open reading frame (ORF). Representative results for both methods are compared, highlighting the phenotypic profile differences of a host carrying either putative structural or metabolic phage genes. In addition, the visualization techniques and high throughput computational pipelines that facilitated experimental analysis are presented. PMID:26132888

  10. Flavivirus NS1: a multifaceted enigmatic viral protein.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Meghana; Sharma, Nikhil; Singh, Sunit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus tick borne encephalitis virus and Zika Virus. These are endemic in many parts of the world. They are responsible for the illness ranging from mild flu like symptoms to severe hemorrhagic, neurologic and cognitive manifestations leading to death. NS1 is a highly conserved non-structural protein among flaviviruses, which exist in diverse forms. The intracellular dimer form of NS1 plays role in genome replication, whereas, the secreted hexamer plays role in immune evasion. The secreted NS1 has been identified as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of the infections caused by flaviviruses. In addition to the diagnostic marker, the importance of NS1 has been reported in the development of therapeutics. NS1 based subunit vaccines are at various stages of development. The structural details and diverse functions of NS1 have been discussed in detail in this review.

  11. Flavivirus NS1: a multifaceted enigmatic viral protein.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Meghana; Sharma, Nikhil; Singh, Sunit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus tick borne encephalitis virus and Zika Virus. These are endemic in many parts of the world. They are responsible for the illness ranging from mild flu like symptoms to severe hemorrhagic, neurologic and cognitive manifestations leading to death. NS1 is a highly conserved non-structural protein among flaviviruses, which exist in diverse forms. The intracellular dimer form of NS1 plays role in genome replication, whereas, the secreted hexamer plays role in immune evasion. The secreted NS1 has been identified as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of the infections caused by flaviviruses. In addition to the diagnostic marker, the importance of NS1 has been reported in the development of therapeutics. NS1 based subunit vaccines are at various stages of development. The structural details and diverse functions of NS1 have been discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27473856

  12. Phage phenomics: Physiological approaches to characterize novel viral proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Sanchez, Savannah E.; Cuevas, Daniel A.; Rostron, Jason E.; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Pivaroff, Cullen G.; Haynes, Matthew R.; Nulton, Jim; Felts, Ben; Bailey, Barbara A.; Salamon, Peter; et al

    2015-06-11

    Current investigations into phage-host interactions are dependent on extrapolating knowledge from (meta)genomes. Interestingly, 60 - 95% of all phage sequences share no homology to current annotated proteins. As a result, a large proportion of phage genes are annotated as hypothetical. This reality heavily affects the annotation of both structural and auxiliary metabolic genes. Here we present phenomic methods designed to capture the physiological response(s) of a selected host during expression of one of these unknown phage genes. Multi-phenotype Assay Plates (MAPs) are used to monitor the diversity of host substrate utilization and subsequent biomass formation, while metabolomics provides bi-product analysismore » by monitoring metabolite abundance and diversity. Both tools are used simultaneously to provide a phenotypic profile associated with expression of a single putative phage open reading frame (ORF). Thus, representative results for both methods are compared, highlighting the phenotypic profile differences of a host carrying either putative structural or metabolic phage genes. In addition, the visualization techniques and high throughput computational pipelines that facilitated experimental analysis are presented.« less

  13. Phage phenomics: Physiological approaches to characterize novel viral proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Savannah E.; Cuevas, Daniel A.; Rostron, Jason E.; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Pivaroff, Cullen G.; Haynes, Matthew R.; Nulton, Jim; Felts, Ben; Bailey, Barbara A.; Salamon, Peter; Edwards, Robert A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Segall, Anca M.; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-06-11

    Current investigations into phage-host interactions are dependent on extrapolating knowledge from (meta)genomes. Interestingly, 60 - 95% of all phage sequences share no homology to current annotated proteins. As a result, a large proportion of phage genes are annotated as hypothetical. This reality heavily affects the annotation of both structural and auxiliary metabolic genes. Here we present phenomic methods designed to capture the physiological response(s) of a selected host during expression of one of these unknown phage genes. Multi-phenotype Assay Plates (MAPs) are used to monitor the diversity of host substrate utilization and subsequent biomass formation, while metabolomics provides bi-product analysis by monitoring metabolite abundance and diversity. Both tools are used simultaneously to provide a phenotypic profile associated with expression of a single putative phage open reading frame (ORF). Thus, representative results for both methods are compared, highlighting the phenotypic profile differences of a host carrying either putative structural or metabolic phage genes. In addition, the visualization techniques and high throughput computational pipelines that facilitated experimental analysis are presented.

  14. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. PMID:26021569

  15. Disclosing the in vivo organization of a viral histone-like protein in Bacillus subtilis mediated by its capacity to recognize the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Holguera, Isabel; Ballesteros-Plaza, David; Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Salas, Margarita

    2012-04-10

    Organization of replicating prokaryotic genomes requires architectural elements that, similarly to eukaryotic systems, induce topological changes such as DNA supercoiling. Bacteriophage 29 protein p6 has been described as a histone-like protein that compacts the viral genome by forming a nucleoprotein complex and plays a key role in the initiation of protein-primed DNA replication. In this work, we analyze the subcellular localization of protein p6 by immunofluorescence microscopy and show that, at early infection stages, it localizes in a peripheral helix-like configuration. Later, at middle infection stages, protein p6 is recruited to the bacterial nucleoid. This migrating process is shown to depend on the synthesis of components of the 29 DNA replication machinery (i.e., terminal protein and DNA polymerase) needed for the replication of viral DNA, which is required to recruit the bulk of protein p6. Importantly, the double-stranded DNA-binding capacity of protein p6 is essential for its relocalization at the nucleoid. Altogether, the results disclose the in vivo organization of a viral histone-like protein in bacteria.

  16. Brome mosaic virus capsid protein regulates accumulation of viral replication proteins by binding to the replicase assembly RNA element.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guanghui; Letteney, Ester; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kao, C Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Viruses provide valuable insights into the regulation of molecular processes. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is one of the simplest entities with four viral proteins and three genomic RNAs. Here we report that the BMV capsid protein (CP), which functions in RNA encapsidation and virus trafficking, also represses viral RNA replication in a concentration-dependent manner by inhibiting the accumulation of the RNA replication proteins. Expression of the replication protein 2a in trans can partially rescue BMV RNA accumulation. A mutation in the CP can decrease the repression of translation. Translation repression by the CP requires a hairpin RNA motif named the B Box that contains seven loop nucleotides (nt) within the 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of BMV RNA1 and RNA2. Purified CP can bind directly to the B Box RNA with a K (d) of 450 nM. The secondary structure of the B Box RNA was determined to contain a highly flexible 7-nt loop using NMR spectroscopy, native gel analysis, and thermal denaturation studies. The B Box is also recognized by the BMV 1a protein to assemble the BMV replicase, suggesting that the BMV CP can act to regulate several viral infection processes.

  17. Improving recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast using vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Braun-Galleani, Stephanie; Baganz, Frank; Purton, Saul

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae have potential as platforms for the synthesis of high-value recombinant proteins due to their many beneficial attributes including ease of cultivation, lack of pathogenic agents, and low-cost downstream processing. However, current recombinant protein levels are low compared to other microbial platforms and stable insertion of transgenes is available in only a few microalgal species. We have explored different strategies aimed at increasing growth rate and recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast. A novel fluorescent protein (vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein, VFP) was expressed under the control of the native atpA promoter/5'UTR element. VFP levels were detected by western blotting, with increased protein levels observed when co-expressed with a gene encoding the Escherichia coli Spy chaperone. We used these transformant lines to study the effect of temperature, light and media on recombinant protein production and cell growth. VFP levels and fluorescence, assessed by flow cytometry, allowed a determination of improved cultivation conditions as 30°C under mixotrophic mode. These conditions were tested for the accumulation of an antimicrobial endolysin (Cpl-1) of potential commercial interest, observing that the outcome obtained for VFP could not be easily replicated for Cpl-1. This study suggests that recombinant protein expression is product-specific and needs to be optimized individually. PMID:26098300

  18. Improving recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast using vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein as a reporter

    PubMed Central

    Baganz, Frank; Purton, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microalgae have potential as platforms for the synthesis of high‐value recombinant proteins due to their many beneficial attributes including ease of cultivation, lack of pathogenic agents, and low‐cost downstream processing. However, current recombinant protein levels are low compared to other microbial platforms and stable insertion of transgenes is available in only a few microalgal species. We have explored different strategies aimed at increasing growth rate and recombinant protein production in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast. A novel fluorescent protein (vivid Verde Fluorescent Protein, VFP) was expressed under the control of the native atpA promoter/5'UTR element. VFP levels were detected by western blotting, with increased protein levels observed when co‐expressed with a gene encoding the Escherichia coli Spy chaperone. We used these transformant lines to study the effect of temperature, light and media on recombinant protein production and cell growth. VFP levels and fluorescence, assessed by flow cytometry, allowed a determination of improved cultivation conditions as 30°C under mixotrophic mode. These conditions were tested for the accumulation of an antimicrobial endolysin (Cpl‐1) of potential commercial interest, observing that the outcome obtained for VFP could not be easily replicated for Cpl‐1. This study suggests that recombinant protein expression is product‐specific and needs to be optimized individually. PMID:26098300

  19. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) ELISA for equine infectious anemia virus provides comparable results to the agar gel immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jenner K P; Diniz, Rejane S; Haddad, João P A; Ferraz, Isabella B F; Carvalho, Alex F; Kroon, Erna G; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Leite, Rômulo C

    2012-03-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is an important viral infection affecting horses worldwide. The course of infection is accompanied generally by three characteristic stages: acute, chronic and inapparent. There is no effective EIA vaccine or treatment, and the control of the disease is based currently on identification of EIAV inapparent carriers by laboratory tests. Recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) was expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was an excellent agreement (95.42%) between the ELISA results using rgp90 and agar gel immunodiffusion test results. AGID is considered the "gold-standard" serologic test for equine infectious anemia (EIA). After 1160 serum samples were tested, the relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 96.1% and 96.4%, respectively. Moreover, analysis diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA was performed. The ELISA proved robust. Furthermore, good reproducibility was observed for the negative controls and, positive controls for all plates tested.

  20. A robust transfection reagent for the transfection of CHO and HEK293 cells and production of recombinant proteins and lentiviral particles - PTG1.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Cristine; Gross, Fabian; Guégan, Philippe; Cheradame, Hervé; Midou, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Bioproduction of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) and recombinant lentiviral particles (r-lentiviral particles) requires robust transfections consisting of efficient protocols that are easy to implement, with good reproducibility for a maximum production of proteins and lentiviral particles in a short time with low cytotoxicity. This study evaluates the capacity of histidinylated polyethyleneimine I (PTG1) to facilitate robust DNA transfection, with low cytotoxicity, of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells for the production of r-proteins and r-lentiviral particles. We report that PTG1 transfection of cells in suspension with a plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein leads to 72 and 97% of transfected CHO and HEK293T cells respectively, and does not significantly affect cell viability. PTG1 transfection of 100 mL of CHO-S cell culture in suspension at a cell density of 2 × 10(6) cells /mL resulted in a high level of transfected cells and protein expression after transfection with 0.75 μg/mL plasmid DNA. Transfection with PTG1 is more efficient than LipofectAmine2000™, and gene expression is higher than observed with FreeStyle™ and JetPEI®. Tri-transfection of HEK293T packaging cells leads to the production of a higher level of r-lentiviral particles compared to the calcium phosphate method, and permits two harvests of viral particles within three days. These results show that PTG1 is a powerful new transfection reagent for cell lines frequently used for recombinant protein and lentiviral particle production. PTG1 could be used in protocols for bioproduction of therapeutic proteins such as antibodies for cancer treatments and viral vectors for gene therapy applications. PMID:25215936

  1. Endotoxin-free purification for the isolation of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 protein from insoluble inclusion body aggregates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protein expression in Escherichia coli may result in the recombinant protein being expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies. In addition, proteins purified from E. coli contain endotoxins which need to be removed for in vivo applications. The structural protein, E2, from Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a major immunogenic determinant, and is an ideal candidate as a subunit vaccine. The E2 protein contains 17 cysteine residues creating difficulties in E. coli expression. In this report we outline a procedure for successfully producing soluble and endotoxin-free BVDV E2 protein from inclusion bodies (IB). Results The expression of a truncated form of BVDV-E2 protein (E2-T1) in E. coli resulted in predominantly aggregated insoluble IB. Solubilisation of E2-T1 with high purity and stability from IB aggregates was achieved using a strong reducing buffer containing 100 mM Dithiothreitol. Refolding by dialysis into 50 mM Tris (pH 7.0) containing 0.2% Igepal CA630 resulted in a soluble but aggregated protein solution. The novel application of a two-phase extraction of inclusion body preparations with Triton X-114 reduced endotoxin in solubilised E2-T1 to levels suitable for in vivo use without affecting protein yields. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed 37.5% of the protein was monomeric, the remaining comprised of soluble aggregates. Mice immunised with E2-T1 developed a high titre antibody response by ELISA. Western hybridisation analysis showed E2-T1 was recognised by sera from immunised mice and also by several BVDV-E2 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion We have developed a procedure using E. coli to produce soluble E2-T1 protein from IB, and due to their insoluble nature we utilised a novel approach using Triton X-114 to efficiently remove endotoxin. The resultant protein is immunogenic and detectable by BVDV-E2 specific antibodies indicating its usefulness for diagnostic applications and as a subunit vaccine. The optimised E. coli

  2. Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Christian K; Radeke, Monte J; Cattaneo, Roberto; Samuel, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) lacking expression of C protein (C(KO)) is a potent activator of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), whereas the isogenic parental virus expressing C protein is not. Here, we demonstrate that significant amounts of dsRNA accumulate during C(KO) mutant infection but not following parental virus infection. dsRNA accumulated during late stages of infection and localized with virus replication sites containing N and P proteins. PKR autophosphorylation and stress granule formation correlated with the timing of dsRNA appearance. Phospho-PKR localized to dsRNA-containing structures as revealed by immunofluorescence. Production of dsRNA was sensitive to cycloheximide but resistant to actinomycin D, suggesting that dsRNA is a viral product. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed reduced viral RNA synthesis and a steepened transcription gradient in C(KO) virus-infected cells compared to those in parental virus-infected cells. The observed alterations were further reflected in lower viral protein expression levels and reduced C(KO) virus infectious yield. RNA deep sequencing confirmed the viral RNA expression profile differences seen by qPCR between C(KO) mutant and parental viruses. After one subsequent passage of the C(KO) virus, defective interfering RNA (DI-RNA) with a duplex structure was obtained that was not seen with the parental virus. We conclude that in the absence of C protein, the amount of PKR activator RNA, including DI-RNA, is increased, thereby triggering innate immune responses leading to impaired MV growth. PMID:24155404

  3. Coevolution analysis of Hepatitis C virus genome to identify the structural and functional dependency network of viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Champeimont, Raphaël; Laine, Elodie; Hu, Shuang-Wei; Penin, Francois; Carbone, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    A novel computational approach of coevolution analysis allowed us to reconstruct the protein-protein interaction network of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) at the residue resolution. For the first time, coevolution analysis of an entire viral genome was realized, based on a limited set of protein sequences with high sequence identity within genotypes. The identified coevolving residues constitute highly relevant predictions of protein-protein interactions for further experimental identification of HCV protein complexes. The method can be used to analyse other viral genomes and to predict the associated protein interaction networks. PMID:27198619

  4. Coevolution analysis of Hepatitis C virus genome to identify the structural and functional dependency network of viral proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champeimont, Raphaël; Laine, Elodie; Hu, Shuang-Wei; Penin, Francois; Carbone, Alessandra

    2016-05-01

    A novel computational approach of coevolution analysis allowed us to reconstruct the protein-protein interaction network of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) at the residue resolution. For the first time, coevolution analysis of an entire viral genome was realized, based on a limited set of protein sequences with high sequence identity within genotypes. The identified coevolving residues constitute highly relevant predictions of protein-protein interactions for further experimental identification of HCV protein complexes. The method can be used to analyse other viral genomes and to predict the associated protein interaction networks.

  5. Artificial neural networks trained to detect viral and phage structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Seguritan, Victor; Alves, Nelson; Arnoult, Michael; Raymond, Amy; Lorimer, Don; Burgin, Alex B; Salamon, Peter; Segall, Anca M

    2012-01-01

    Phages play critical roles in the survival and pathogenicity of their hosts, via lysogenic conversion factors, and in nutrient redistribution, via cell lysis. Analyses of phage- and viral-encoded genes in environmental samples provide insights into the physiological impact of viruses on microbial communities and human health. However, phage ORFs are extremely diverse of which over 70% of them are dissimilar to any genes with annotated functions in GenBank. Better identification of viruses would also aid in better detection and diagnosis of disease, in vaccine development, and generally in better understanding the physiological potential of any environment. In contrast to enzymes, viral structural protein function can be much more challenging to detect from sequence data because of low sequence conservation, few known conserved catalytic sites or sequence domains, and relatively limited experimental data. We have designed a method of predicting phage structural protein sequences that uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). First, we trained ANNs to classify viral structural proteins using amino acid frequency; these correctly classify a large fraction of test cases with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. Subsequently, we added estimates of protein isoelectric points as a feature to ANNs that classify specialized families of proteins, namely major capsid and tail proteins. As expected, these more specialized ANNs are more accurate than the structural ANNs. To experimentally validate the ANN predictions, several ORFs with no significant similarities to known sequences that are ANN-predicted structural proteins were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Some of these self-assembled into structures strongly resembling virion structures. Thus, our ANNs are new tools for identifying phage and potential prophage structural proteins that are difficult or impossible to detect by other bioinformatic analysis. The networks will be valuable when sequence is

  6. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yugang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine. PMID:24963321

  7. Generation of the bovine viral diarrhea virus e0 protein in transgenic astragalus and its immunogenicity in sika deer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yugang; Zhao, Xueliang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing; Zhang, Lianxue

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine. PMID:24963321

  8. Label Free Inhibitor Screening of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS5B Viral Protein Using RNA Oligonucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun; Kim, Sang Eun; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2011-01-01

    Globally, over 170 million people (ca. 3% of the World’s population) are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which can cause serious liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, evolving into subsequent health problems. Driven by the need to detect the presence of HCV, as an essential factor in diagnostic medicine, the monitoring of viral protein has been of great interest in developing simple and reliable HCV detection methods. Despite considerable advances in viral protein detection as an HCV disease marker, the current enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based detection methods using antibody treatment have several drawbacks. To overcome this bottleneck, an RNA aptamer become to be emerged as an antibody substitute in the application of biosensor for detection of viral protein. In this study, we demonstrated a streptavidin-biotin conjugation method, namely, the RNA aptamer sensor system that can quantify viral protein with detection level of 700 pg mL−1 using a biotinylated RNA oligonucleotide on an Octet optical biosensor. Also, we showed this method can be used to screen inhibitors of viral protein rapidly and simply on a biotinylated RNA oligonucleotide biosensor. Among the inhibitors screened, (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate showed high binding inhibition effect on HCV NS5B viral protein. The proposed method can be considered a real-time monitoring method for inhibitor screening of HCV viral protein and is expected to be applicable to other types of diseases. PMID:22163979

  9. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao; Miao, Ji; Zhao, Qinjian

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulating the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.

  10. Quantitative measurement of bitagged recombinant proteins using an immunometric assay: application to an anti-substance P recombinant antibody.

    PubMed

    Boquet, D; Créminon, C; Clément, G; Frobert, Y; Nevers, M C; Essono, S; Grassi, J

    2000-09-10

    We have developed two different immunometric assays to directly quantify both the total and the active fractions of a recombinant antibody (single chain fragment variable, or ScFv) as obtained in a crude extract from an Escherichia coli expression system. For total determination, the assay is based on the simultaneous recognition of two different peptide Tag sequences (Ha-Tag and Myc-Tag) at each of the N- and C-terminal extremities of the recombinant protein. A monoclonal antibody (mAb 12CA5, directed against Ha-Tag), coated on microtiter plates, is used for capture, and the mAb 9E10 (directed against Myc-Tag), labeled with acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7), acts as tracer. In parallel, for the determination of the active fraction, the capture is performed using microtiter plates coated with the antigen, while solid-phase-immobilized ScFv is measured using the same 9E10 tracer mAb. A synthetic peptide in which the two Tag sequences were joined was used as a standard, thus avoiding the laborious purification of a recombinant protein as reference. The method was applied to the direct measurement, in periplasmic extracts, of the total and active fractions of an ScFv produced at different induction temperatures.

  11. A plant viral coat protein RNA binding consensus sequence contains a crucial arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Ansel-McKinney, P; Scott, S W; Swanson, M; Ge, X; Gehrke, L

    1996-01-01

    A defining feature of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarviruses [type virus: tobacco streak virus (TSV)] is that, in addition to genomic RNAs, viral coat protein is required to establish infection in plants. AMV and TSV coat proteins, which share little primary amino acid sequence identity, are functionally interchangeable in RNA binding and initiation of infection. The lysine-rich amino-terminal RNA binding domain of the AMV coat protein lacks previously identified RNA binding motifs. Here, the AMV coat protein RNA binding domain is shown to contain a single arginine whose specific side chain and position are crucial for RNA binding. In addition, the putative RNA binding domain of two ilarvirus coat proteins, TSV and citrus variegation virus, is identified and also shown to contain a crucial arginine. AMV and ilarvirus coat protein sequence alignment centering on the key arginine revealed a new RNA binding consensus sequence. This consensus may explain in part why heterologous viral RNA-coat protein mixtures are infectious. Images PMID:8890181

  12. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with a small metal-binding protein from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is still the preferred organism for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The use of fusion proteins has helped considerably in enhancing the solubility of heterologous proteins and their purification with affinity chromatography. Here, the use of a small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea is described as a new fusion protein for protein expression and purification in E. coli. Fluorescent proteins tagged at the N-terminal with SmbP showed high levels of solubility, compared with those of maltose-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase, and low formation of inclusion bodies. Using commercially available IMAC resins charged with Ni(II), highly pure recombinant proteins were obtained after just one chromatography step. Proteins may be purified from the periplasm of E. coli if SmbP contains the signal sequence at the N-terminal. After removal of the SmbP tag from the protein of interest, high-yields are obtained since SmbP is a protein of just 9.9 kDa. The results here obtained suggest that SmbP is a good alternative as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  13. Purification of recombinant protein by cold-coacervation of fusion constructs incorporating resilin-inspired polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Russell E; Elvin, Christopher M; Taylor, Karin; Lekieffre, Nicolas; Ramshaw, John A M

    2012-12-01

    Polypeptides containing between 4 and 32 repeats of a resilin-inspired sequence AQTPSSYGAP, derived from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, have been used as tags on recombinant fusion proteins. These repeating polypeptides were inspired by the repeating structures that are found in resilins and sequence-related proteins from various insects. Unexpectedly, an aqueous solution of a recombinant resilin protein displays an upper critical solution temperature (cold-coacervation) when held on ice, leading to a separation into a protein rich phase, typically exceeding 200 mg/mL, and a protein-poor phase. We show that purification of recombinant proteins by cold-coacervation can be performed when engineered as a fusion partner to a resilin-inspired repeat sequence. In this study, we demonstrate the process by the recombinant expression and purification of enhanced Green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in E. coli. This facile purification system can produce high purity, concentrated protein solutions without the need for affinity chromatography or other time-consuming or expensive purification steps, and that it can be used with other bulk purification steps such as low concentration ammonium sulfate precipitation. Protein purification by cold-coacervation also minimizes the exposure of the target protein to enhanced proteolysis at higher temperature.

  14. Assessment of contraceptive vaccines based on recombinant mouse sperm protein PH20.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Christopher M; Clydesdale, Gavin; Mobbs, Karen J; Pekin, Jenny; Lloyd, Megan L; Sweet, Clive; Shellam, Geoffrey R; Lawson, Malcolm A

    2004-03-01

    Mouse PH20 (mPH20), the mouse homologue to guinea pig hyaluronidase protein PH20 (gpPH20), was used to produce contraceptive vaccines that target both sexes of mice. Previously, immunization with a female gamete antigen (the zona pellucida subunit 3 protein) delivered in a recombinant murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), or as a purified recombinant protein, has been shown to induce infertility in female mice. There is evidence, however, that sperm protein antigens could provide broader contraceptive coverage by affecting both males and females, and the most promising has been gpPH20 when tested in a guinea pig model. Mice were therefore either inoculated with a recombinant MCMV expressing mPH20 or immunized directly with purified recombinant mPH20 protein fused to maltose-binding protein. Mice treated with either vaccine formulation developed serum antibodies that cross-reacted to a protein band of 55 kDa corresponding to mPH20 in Western blots of mouse sperm. However, there was no significant reduction in the fertility of males or females compared with control animals with either formulation. We conclude from our data that recombinant mPH20 is not a useful antigen for inclusion in immunocontraceptive vaccines that target mice.

  15. A novel method for the purification of low soluble recombinant C-type lectin proteins.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunhui; Jia, Ying; Garcia, Carlos A

    2012-08-31

    Snake venoms contain a complex mixture of many biological molecules including proteins. The purification of recombinant proteins is a key step in studying their function and structure with affinity chromatography as the common method used in their purification. In bacterial expression systems, hydrophobic recombinant proteins are usually precipitated into inclusion bodies, and contaminants are typically associated with tagged proteins after purification. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure to purify hydrophobic recombinant proteins without an affinity tag. Snake venom mature C-type lectin-like proteins (CLPs) with a tag were cloned, expressed, and purified by repeated sonication and wash steps. The effects of the signal peptide on the expression and solubility of the recombinant protein were investigated. The CLPs in washed inclusion bodies were solubilized and refolded by dialysis. The CLPs without a tag were successfully purified with a yield 38 times higher than the traditional method, and inhibited blood platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 100.57 μM in whole blood. This novel procedure is a rapid, and inexpensive method to purify functional recombinant hydrophobic CLPs from snake venoms useful in the development of drug therapies. PMID:22867876

  16. Molecular design of performance proteins with repetitive sequences: recombinant flagelliform spider silk as basis for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vendrely, Charlotte; Ackerschott, Christian; Römer, Lin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most performance proteins responsible for the mechanical stability of cells and organisms reveal highly repetitive sequences. Mimicking such performance proteins is of high interest for the design of nanostructured biomaterials. In this article, flagelliform silk is exemplary introduced to describe a general principle for designing genes of repetitive performance proteins for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli . In the first step, repeating amino acid sequence motifs are reversely transcripted into DNA cassettes, which can in a second step be seamlessly ligated, yielding a designed gene. Recombinant expression thereof leads to proteins mimicking the natural ones. The recombinant proteins can be assembled into nanostructured materials in a controlled manner, allowing their use in several applications. PMID:19031057

  17. T cell inactivation by poxviral B22 family proteins increases viral virulence.

    PubMed

    Alzhanova, Dina; Hammarlund, Erika; Reed, Jason; Meermeier, Erin; Rawlings, Stephanie; Ray, Caroline A; Edwards, David M; Bimber, Ben; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Sprague, Jerald; Axthelm, Michael K; Pickup, David J; Lewinsohn, David M; Gold, Marielle C; Wong, Scott W; Sacha, Jonah B; Slifka, Mark K; Früh, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Infections with monkeypox, cowpox and weaponized variola virus remain a threat to the increasingly unvaccinated human population, but little is known about their mechanisms of virulence and immune evasion. We now demonstrate that B22 proteins, encoded by the largest genes of these viruses, render human T cells unresponsive to stimulation of the T cell receptor by MHC-dependent antigen presentation or by MHC-independent stimulation. In contrast, stimuli that bypass TCR-signaling are not inhibited. In a non-human primate model of monkeypox, virus lacking the B22R homologue (MPXVΔ197) caused only mild disease with lower viremia and cutaneous pox lesions compared to wild type MPXV which caused high viremia, morbidity and mortality. Since MPXVΔ197-infected animals displayed accelerated T cell responses and less T cell dysregulation than MPXV US2003, we conclude that B22 family proteins cause viral virulence by suppressing T cell control of viral dissemination. PMID:24832205

  18. Influenza virus NS1 protein interacts with viral transcription-replication complexes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marión, R M; Zürcher, T; de la Luna, S; Ortín, J

    1997-10-01

    The interaction of influenza virus NS1 protein with other viral products in the infected cell was analysed by co-immunoprecipitation studies. The three subunits of the polymerase and the nucleoprotein, but not M1 protein, were co-immunoprecipitated by NS1-specific serum but not when control serum was used. Such co-immunoprecipitation was not sensitive to RNase treatment of the immunoprecipitates. Co-immunoprecipitation was also obtained when the viral transcription-replication system was reconstituted in vivo by transfection of cDNAs and model vRNA template into vaccinia virus-T7-infected cells. Analysis of the RNA pulled-down in the NS1-specific precipitates indicated the presence of both vRNA and mRNA. These results are discussed in the context of the phenotype of virus temperature-sensitive mutants affected in the NS1 gene.

  19. Recombinant fusion protein and DNA vaccines against foot and mouth disease virus infection in guinea pig and swine.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Yang, Z; Xu, Q; Sheng, Z; Xie, Y; Yan, W; You, Y; Sun, L; Zheng, Z

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we provide evidence that a recombinant fusion protein containing beta-galactosidase and a tandem repeat peptide of immunogenic dominant epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein elicits high levels of neutralizing antibody and protects both guinea pigs and swine against infection. Vaccination with this fusion protein induced a FMDV-specific proliferative T-cell response and a neutralizing antibody response. The immunized guinea pigs and swine were protected against FMD type O virus infection. Two DNA plasmids expressing genes of foot-and-mouth disease were constructed. Both plasmids pBO1 and pCO1 contain a signal sequence of the swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) gene and fusion protein gene of pXZ84. The signal sequence and fusion protein gene were under the control of a metallothionein promoter in the case of the pBO1 plasmid and under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter in the case of pCO1 plasmid. When pBO1 and pCO1 were inoculated intramuscularly into guinea pigs, both plasmids elicited a neutralizing antibody response and spleen cell proliferation increased following stimulation with FMDV antigen, but animals were not protected from viral challenge. PMID:10333237

  20. A critical evaluation of whether recombination in virus-resistant transgenic plants will lead to the emergence of novel viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, Mark; Jacquemond, Mireille; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    In the evaluation of the potential impacts of first-generation genetically modified (GM) crops, one of the most complex issues has been whether the expression of viral sequences would lead to the emergence of novel viruses, which could occur through recombination between transgene mRNA and that of an infecting non-target virus. Here, we examine this issue, focusing on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), which is a particularly pertinent choice, as it is both a major plant pathogen and also the virus with which this question has been studied in the most detail. Using recent results on recombination in CMV, we employ a novel framework giving particular prominence to the formulation of the risk hypothesis and to hypothesis testing via examination of the potential pathway to harm. This allows us to conclude with greater certainty that the likelihood of this potential harm, the emergence of novel viruses, is low.

  1. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K. . E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu

    2005-07-05

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA.

  2. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Replication: Roles of Viral Proteins and Nucleoporins in Capsid-Nucleus Attachment▿

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Anna Maria; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) involves a step in which a parental capsid docks onto a host nuclear pore complex (NPC). The viral genome then translocates through the nuclear pore into the nucleoplasm, where it is transcribed and replicated to propagate infection. We investigated the roles of viral and cellular proteins in the process of capsid-nucleus attachment. Vero cells were preloaded with antibodies specific for proteins of interest and infected with HSV-1 containing a green fluorescent protein-labeled capsid, and capsids bound to the nuclear surface were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that nuclear capsid attachment was attenuated by antibodies specific for the viral tegument protein VP1/2 (UL36 gene) but not by similar antibodies specific for UL37 (a tegument protein), the major capsid protein (VP5), or VP23 (a minor capsid protein). Similar studies with antibodies specific for nucleoporins demonstrated attenuation by antibodies specific for Nup358 but not Nup214. The role of nucleoporins was further investigated with the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Capsid attachment to the nucleus was attenuated in cells treated with siRNA specific for either Nup214 or Nup358 but not TPR. The results are interpreted to suggest that VP1/2 is involved in specific attachment to the NPC and/or in migration of capsids to the nuclear surface. Capsids are suggested to attach to the NPC by way of the complex of Nup358 and Nup214, with high-resolution immunofluorescence studies favoring binding to Nup358. PMID:19073727

  4. Vaccination Using Recombinants Influenza and Adenoviruses Encoding Amastigote Surface Protein-2 Are Highly Effective on Protection against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Rafael Polidoro Alves; Filho, Bruno Galvão; dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Junior, Policarpo Ademar Sales; Marques, Pedro Elias; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; Cara, Denise Carmona; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Machado, Alexandre Vieira

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the protection raised by immunization with recombinant influenza viruses carrying sequences coding for polypeptides corresponding to medial and carboxi-terminal moieties of Trypanosoma cruzi ´s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP2). Those viruses were used in sequential immunization with recombinant adenovirus (heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol) encoding the complete sequence of ASP2 (Ad-ASP2) in two mouse strains (C57BL/6 and C3H/He). The CD8 effector response elicited by this protocol was comparable to that observed in mice immunized twice with Ad-ASP2 and more robust than that observed in mice that were immunized once with Ad-ASP2. Whereas a single immunization with Ad-ASP2 sufficed to completely protect C57BL/6 mice, a higher survival rate was observed in C3H/He mice that were primed with recombinant influenza virus and boosted with Ad-ASP2 after being challenged with T. cruzi. Analyzing the phenotype of CD8+ T cells obtained from spleen of vaccinated C3H/He mice we observed that heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol elicited more CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant epitope as well as a higher number of CD8+ T cells producing TNF-α and IFN-γ and a higher mobilization of surface marker CD107a. Taken together, our results suggest that immunodominant subpopulations of CD8+ T elicited after immunization could be directly related to degree of protection achieved by different immunization protocols using different viral vectors. Overall, these results demonstrated the usefulness of recombinant influenza viruses in immunization protocols against Chagas Disease. PMID:23637908

  5. The Use of Green Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Recombinant Viruses to Test Lettuce mosaic virus Resistance in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Candresse, T; Le Gall, O; Maisonneuve, B; German-Retana, S; Redondo, E

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Seed certification and the use of cultivars containing one of two, probably allelic, recessive genes, mo1(1) and mo1(2), are the principal control methods for Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) in lettuce. Although for a few LMV isolates, mo1(2) confers resistance with most isolates, the genes mo1(1) or mo1(2) confer a tolerance, and virus accumulation is readily detected in mo1-carrying plants. This phenotype complicates evaluation of the resistance status, in particular for mo1(1), for which there are no viral strains against which a true resistance is expressed. Two green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged viruses were constructed, derived from a non-resistance breaking isolate (LMV-0) and from a resistance-breaking isolate (LMV-E). An evaluation of 101 cultivars of known status was carried out with these recombinant viruses. Using the LMV-0-derived recombinant, identification of mo1-carrying cultivars was simple because, contrary to its wild-type parent, systemic movement of LMV-0-GFP was abolished in resistant plants. This assay detected four cases of misidentification of resistance status. In all these cases, further tests confirmed that the prior resistance status information was incorrect, so that a 100% correlation was observed between LMV-0-GFP behavior and the mo1 resistance status. Similarly, the LMV-E-derived recombinant allowed the identification of mo1(2) lettuce lines because its systemic movement was restricted in mo1(2) lines but not in susceptible or in mo1(1) lines. The tagged viruses were able to systemically invade another host, pea, irrespective of its resistance status against another member of the genus Potyvirus, Pea seed-borne mosaic virus. The use of these recombinant viruses could therefore greatly facilitate LMV resistance evaluation and speed up lettuce breeding programs. PMID:18943090

  6. Development of an HTS assay for the search of anti-influenza agents targeting the interaction of viral RNA with the NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Maroto, Marta; Fernandez, Yolanda; Ortin, Juan; Pelaez, Fernando; Cabello, M Angerles

    2008-08-01

    The NS1 protein is a nonstructural protein encoded by the influenza A virus. It is responsible for many alterations produced in the cellular metabolism upon infection by the virus and for modulation of virus virulence. The NS1 protein is able to perform a large variety of functions due to its ability to bind various types of RNA molecules, from both viral and nonviral origin, and to interact with several cell factors. With the aim of exploring whether the binding of NS1 protein to viral RNA (vRNA) could constitute a novel target for the search of anti-influenza drugs, a filter-binding assay measuring the specific interaction between the recombinant His-NS1 protein from influenza A virus and a radiolabeled model vRNA ( 32P-vNSZ) was adapted to a format suitable for screening and easy automation. Flashplate technology (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA), either in 96- or 384-well plates, was used. The Flashplate wells were precoated with the recombinant His-NS1 protein, and the binding of His-NS1 to a 35S-vNSZ probe was measured. A pilot screening of a collection of 27,520 mixtures of synthetic chemical compounds was run for inhibitors of NS1 binding to vRNA. We found 3 compounds in which the inhibition of NS1 binding to vRNA, observed at submicromolar concentrations, was correlated with a reduction of the cytopathic effect during the infection of cell cultures with influenza virus. These results support the hypothesis that the binding of NS1 to vRNA could be a novel target for the development of anti-influenza drugs. PMID:18594021

  7. Exploiting the Yeast L-A Viral Capsid for the In Vivo Assembly of Chimeric VLPs as Platform in Vaccine Development and Foreign Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Powilleit, Frank; Breinig, Tanja; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel expression system based on engineered variants of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) dsRNA virus L-A was developed allowing the in vivo assembly of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) as a unique platform for a wide range of applications. We show that polypeptides fused to the viral capsid protein Gag self-assemble into isometric VLP chimeras carrying their cargo inside the capsid, thereby not only effectively preventing proteolytic degradation in the host cell cytosol, but also allowing the expression of a per se cytotoxic protein. Carboxyterminal extension of Gag by T cell epitopes from human cytomegalovirus pp65 resulted in the formation of hybrid VLPs that strongly activated antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cells ex vivo. Besides being a carrier for polypeptides inducing antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, VLP chimeras were also shown to be effective in the expression and purification of (i) a heterologous model protein (GFP), (ii) a per se toxic protein (K28 α-subunit), and (iii) a particle-associated and fully recyclable biotechnologically relevant enzyme (esterase A). Thus, yeast viral Gag represents a unique platform for the in vivo assembly of chimeric VLPs, equally attractive and useful in vaccine development and recombinant protein production. PMID:17476337

  8. Small interfering RNAs targeting viral structural envelope protein genes and the 5ʹ-UTR inhibit replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Rajukumar, K; Kalaiyarasu, S; Behera, S P; Nema, R K; Dubey, S C

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) are important pathogens of cattle that occur worldwide, and for which no antiviral therapy is available. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of small interfering (si) RNAs on bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) replication in cultured bovine cells was explored. Four synthetic siRNAs were designed to target structural envelope region genes (Erns, E1, and E2) and one cocktail of siRNA was generated to target the 5ʹ-UTR of the BVDV-1 genome. The inhibitory effects of siRNAs were assessed by determination of infectious viral titer, viral antigen and viral RNA. The siRNA cocktail and three of the synthetic siRNAs produced moderate anti-BVDV-1 effect in vitro as shown by 25%-40% reduction in BVDV-1 antigen production, 7.9-19.9-fold reduction in viral titer and 21-48-fold reduction in BVDV-1 RNA copy number. Our findings suggest that siRNA cocktail targeted at the 5ʹ-UTR is a stronger inhibitor of BVDV-1 replication and the targets for siRNA inhibition can be extended to BVDV-1 structural envelope protein genes.

  9. Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Strain Snyder Hill Expressing Green or Red Fluorescent Proteins Causes Meningoencephalitis in the Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, M.; Nguyen, D. T.; Silin, D.; Lyubomska, O.; de Vries, R. D.; von Messling, V.; McQuaid, S.; De Swart, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    The propensity of canine distemper virus (CDV) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. Therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent Snyder Hill (SH) strain of CDV (CDVSH) and show that this virus rapidly circumvents the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barriers to spread into the subarachnoid space to induce dramatic viral meningoencephalitis. The use of recombinant CDVSH (rCDVSH) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or red fluorescent protein (dTomato) facilitated the sensitive pathological assessment of routes of virus spread in vivo. Infection of ferrets with these viruses led to the full spectrum of clinical signs typically associated with distemper in dogs during a rapid, fatal disease course of approximately 2 weeks. Comparison with the ferret-adapted CDV5804P and the prototypic wild-type CDVR252 showed that hematogenous infection of the choroid plexus is not a significant route of virus spread into the CSF. Instead, viral spread into the subarachnoid space in rCDVSH-infected animals was triggered by infection of vascular endothelial cells and the hematogenous spread of virus-infected leukocytes from meningeal blood vessels into the subarachnoid space. This resulted in widespread infection of cells of the pia and arachnoid mater of the leptomeninges over large areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The ability to sensitively assess the in vivo spread of a neurovirulent strain of CDV provides a novel model system to study the mechanisms of virus spread into the CSF and the pathogenesis of acute viral meningitis. PMID:22553334

  10. Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Near Full-Length HIV-1 Subtypes A, B, G and Unique Recombinant AC and AD Viral Strains Identified in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Holzmayer, Vera; Jacobs, Graeme B.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Brennan, Catherine A.; Hackett, John; van Rensburg, Estrelita Janse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract By the end of 2012, more than 6.1 million people were infected with HIV-1 in South Africa. Subtype C was responsible for the majority of these infections and more than 300 near full-length genomes (NFLGs) have been published. Currently very few non-subtype C isolates have been identified and characterized within the country, particularly full genome non-C isolates. Seven patients from the Tygerberg Virology (TV) cohort were previously identified as possible non-C subtypes and were selected for further analyses. RNA was isolated from five individuals (TV047, TV096, TV101, TV218, and TV546) and DNA from TV016 and TV1057. The NFLGs of these samples were amplified in overlapping fragments and sequenced. Online subtyping tools REGA version 3 and jpHMM were used to screen for subtypes and recombinants. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis (phyML) was used to infer subtypes and SimPlot was used to confirm possible intersubtype recombinants. We identified three subtype B (TV016, TV047, and TV1057) isolates, one subtype A1 (TV096), one subtype G (TV546), one unique AD (TV101), and one unique AC (TV218) recombinant form. This is the first NFLG of subtype G that has been described in South Africa. The subtype B sequences described also increased the NFLG subtype B sequences in Africa from three to six. There is a need for more NFLG sequences, as partial HIV-1 sequences may underrepresent viral recombinant forms. It is also necessary to continue monitoring the evolution and spread of HIV-1 in South Africa, because understanding viral diversity may play an important role in HIV-1 prevention strategies. PMID:25492033

  11. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of near full-length HIV-1 subtypes A, B, G and unique recombinant AC and AD viral strains identified in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Eduan; Holzmayer, Vera; Jacobs, Graeme B; de Oliveira, Tulio; Brennan, Catherine A; Hackett, John; van Rensburg, Estrelita Janse; Engelbrecht, Susan

    2015-04-01

    By the end of 2012, more than 6.1 million people were infected with HIV-1 in South Africa. Subtype C was responsible for the majority of these infections and more than 300 near full-length genomes (NFLGs) have been published. Currently very few non-subtype C isolates have been identified and characterized within the country, particularly full genome non-C isolates. Seven patients from the Tygerberg Virology (TV) cohort were previously identified as possible non-C subtypes and were selected for further analyses. RNA was isolated from five individuals (TV047, TV096, TV101, TV218, and TV546) and DNA from TV016 and TV1057. The NFLGs of these samples were amplified in overlapping fragments and sequenced. Online subtyping tools REGA version 3 and jpHMM were used to screen for subtypes and recombinants. Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis (phyML) was used to infer subtypes and SimPlot was used to confirm possible intersubtype recombinants. We identified three subtype B (TV016, TV047, and TV1057) isolates, one subtype A1 (TV096), one subtype G (TV546), one unique AD (TV101), and one unique AC (TV218) recombinant form. This is the first NFLG of subtype G that has been described in South Africa. The subtype B sequences described also increased the NFLG subtype B sequences in Africa from three to six. There is a need for more NFLG sequences, as partial HIV-1 sequences may underrepresent viral recombinant forms. It is also necessary to continue monitoring the evolution and spread of HIV-1 in South Africa, because understanding viral diversity may play an important role in HIV-1 prevention strategies.

  12. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and immunoreactivity of recombinant Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lesley A; Yu, Meng; Waddington, Lynne J; Barr, Jennifer A; Scoble, Judith A; Crameri, Gary S; McKinstry, William J

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus (family Paramyxoviridae) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus (NSRV) which has been found to cause disease in humans, horses, and experimentally in other animals, e.g. pigs and cats. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been identified as the natural host reservoir. The Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein (HeV N) represents the most abundant viral protein produced by the host cell, and is highly immunogenic with naturally infected humans and horses producing specific antibodies towards this protein. The purpose of this study was to express and purify soluble, functionally active recombinant HeV N, suitable for use as an immunodiagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against HeV. We expressed both full-length HeV N, (HeV NFL), and a C-terminal truncated form, (HeV NCORE), using a bacterial heterologous expression system. Both HeV N constructs were engineered with an N-terminal Hisx6 tag, and purified using a combination of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Purified recombinant HeV N proteins self-assembled into soluble higher order oligomers as determined by SEC and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Both HeV N proteins were highly immuno-reactive with sera from animals and humans infected with either HeV or the closely related Nipah virus (NiV), but displayed no immuno-reactivity towards sera from animals infected with a non-pathogenic paramyxovirus (CedPV), or animals receiving Equivac® (HeV G glycoprotein subunit vaccine), using a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay.

  13. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy and immunoreactivity of recombinant Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lesley A; Yu, Meng; Waddington, Lynne J; Barr, Jennifer A; Scoble, Judith A; Crameri, Gary S; McKinstry, William J

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus (family Paramyxoviridae) is a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus (NSRV) which has been found to cause disease in humans, horses, and experimentally in other animals, e.g. pigs and cats. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been identified as the natural host reservoir. The Hendra virus nucleocapsid protein (HeV N) represents the most abundant viral protein produced by the host cell, and is highly immunogenic with naturally infected humans and horses producing specific antibodies towards this protein. The purpose of this study was to express and purify soluble, functionally active recombinant HeV N, suitable for use as an immunodiagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against HeV. We expressed both full-length HeV N, (HeV NFL), and a C-terminal truncated form, (HeV NCORE), using a bacterial heterologous expression system. Both HeV N constructs were engineered with an N-terminal Hisx6 tag, and purified using a combination of immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Purified recombinant HeV N proteins self-assembled into soluble higher order oligomers as determined by SEC and negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Both HeV N proteins were highly immuno-reactive with sera from animals and humans infected with either HeV or the closely related Nipah virus (NiV), but displayed no immuno-reactivity towards sera from animals infected with a non-pathogenic paramyxovirus (CedPV), or animals receiving Equivac® (HeV G glycoprotein subunit vaccine), using a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay. PMID:26196500

  14. Genetically engineered, biarsenically labeled influenza virus allows visualization of viral NS1 protein in living cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Lu, Xinya; Li, Junwei; Bérubé, Nathalie; Giest, Kerri-Lane; Liu, Qiang; Anderson, Deborah H; Zhou, Yan

    2010-07-01

    Real-time fluorescence imaging of viral proteins in living cells provides a valuable means to study virus-host interactions. The challenge of generating replication-competent fluorescent influenza A virus is that the segmented genome does not allow fusion of a fluorescent protein gene to any viral gene. Here, we introduced the tetracysteine (TC) biarsenical labeling system into influenza virus in order to fluorescently label viral protein in the virus life cycle. We generated infectious influenza A viruses bearing a small TC tag (CCPGCC) in the loop/linker regions of the NS1 proteins. In the background of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8) virus, the TC tag can be inserted into NS1 after amino acid 52 (AA52) (PR8-410), AA79 (PR8-412), or AA102 (PR8-413) or the TC tag can be inserted and replace amino acids 79 to 84 (AA79-84) (PR8-411). Although PR8-410, PR8-411, and PR8-412 viruses are attenuated than the wild-type (WT) virus to some extent in multiple-cycle infection, their growth potential is similar to that of the WT virus during a single cycle of infection, and their NS1 subcellular localization and viral protein synthesis rate are quite similar to those of the WT virus. Furthermore, labeling with membrane-permeable biarsenical dye resulted in fluorescent NS1 protein in the context of virus infection. We could exploit this strategy on NS1 protein of A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1) (Tx91) by successfully rescuing a TC-tagged virus, Tx91-445, which carries the TC tag replacement of AA79-84. The infectivity of Tx91-445 virus was similar to that of WT Tx91 during multiple cycles of replication and a single cycle of replication. The NS1 protein derived from Tx91-445 can be fluorescently labeled in living cells. Finally, with biarsenical labeling, the engineered replication-competent virus allowed us to visualize NS1 protein nuclear import in virus-infected cells in real time.

  15. Photosynthetic biomanufacturing in green algae; production of recombinant proteins for industrial, nutritional, and medical uses.

    PubMed

    Rasala, Beth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant proteins are widely used for industrial, nutritional, and medical applications. Green microalgae have attracted considerable attention recently as a biomanufacturing platform for the production of recombinant proteins for a number of reasons. These photosynthetic eukaryotic microorganisms are safe, scalable, easy to genetically modify through transformation, mutagenesis, or breeding, and inexpensive to grow. Many microalgae species are genetically transformable, but the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most widely used host for recombinant protein expression. An extensive suite of molecular genetic tools has been developed for C. reinhardtii over the last 25 years, including a fully sequenced genome, well-established methods for transformation, mutagenesis and breeding, and transformation vectors for high levels of recombinant protein accumulation and secretion. Here, we review recent successes in the development of C. reinhardtii as a biomanufacturing host for recombinant proteins, including antibodies and immunotoxins, hormones, industrial enzymes, an orally-active colostral protein for gastrointestinal health, and subunit vaccines. In addition, we review the biomanufacturing potential of other green algae from the genera Dunaliella and Chlorella.

  16. Capillary gel electrophoresis for the quantification and purity determination of recombinant proteins in inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de la Garza, Carlos E; Perdomo-Abúndez, Francisco C; Campos-García, Víctor R; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, Emilio

    2013-09-01

    In this work, a high-resolution CGE method for quantification and purity determination of recombinant proteins was developed, involving a single-component inclusion bodies (IBs) solubilization solution. Different recombinant proteins expressed as IBs were used to show method capabilities, using recombinant interferon-β 1b as the model protein for method validation. Method linearity was verified in the range from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/mL and a determination coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.99 was obtained. The LOQs and LODs were 0.018 and 0.006 mg/mL, respectively. RSD for protein content repeatability test was 2.29%. In addition, RSD for protein purity repeatability test was 4.24%. Method accuracy was higher than 90%. Specificity was confirmed, as the method was able to separate recombinant interferon-β 1b monomer from other aggregates and impurities. Sample content and purity was demonstrated to be stable for up to 48 h. Overall, this method is suitable for the analysis of recombinant proteins in IBs according to the attributes established on the International Conference for Harmonization guidelines.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of different immunogenic viral nanoconstructs from rotavirus VP6 inner capsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Bugli, Francesca; Caprettini, Valeria; Cacaci, Margherita; Martini, Cecilia; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Torelli, Riccardo; Della Longa, Stefano; Papi, Massimiliano; Palmieri, Valentina; Giardina, Bruno; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Arcovito, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In order to deliver low-cost viral capsomeres from a large amount of soluble viral VP6 protein from human rotavirus, we developed and optimized a biotechnological platform in Escherichia coli. Specifically, three different expression protocols were compared, differing in their genetic constructs, ie, a simple native histidine-tagged VP6 sequence, VP6 fused to thioredoxin, and VP6 obtained with the newly described small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) fusion system. Our results demonstrate that the histidine-tagged protein does not escape the accumulation in the inclusion bodies, and that SUMO is largely superior to the thioredoxin-fusion tag in enhancing the expression and solubility of VP6 protein. Moreover, the VP6 protein produced according to the SUMO fusion tag displays well-known assembly properties, as observed in both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images, giving rise to either VP6 trimers, 60 nm spherical virus-like particles, or nanotubes a few microns long. This different quaternary organization of VP6 shows a higher level of immunogenicity for the elongated structures with respect to the spheres or the protein trimers. Therefore, the expression and purification strategy presented here – providing a large amount of the viral capsid protein in the native form with relatively simple, rapid, and economical procedures – opens a new route toward large-scale production of a more efficient antigenic compound to be used as a vaccination tool or as an adjuvant, and also represents a top-quality biomaterial to be further modified for biotechnological purposes. PMID:24936129

  18. Cytoskeletal proteins participate in conserved viral strategies across kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Erb, Marcella L; Pogliano, Joe

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of tubulin-like cytoskeletal proteins carried on the genomes of bacteriophages that are actively used for phage propagation during both the lytic and lysogenic cycle have revealed that there at least two ways that viruses can utilize a cytoskeleton; co-opt the host cytoskeleton or bring their own homologues. Either strategy underscores the deep evolutionary relationship between viruses and cytoskeletal proteins and points to a conservation of viral strategies that crosses the kingdoms of life. Here we review some of the most recent discoveries about tubulin cytoskeletal elements encoded by phages and compare them to some of the strategies utilized by the gammaherpesvirues of mammalian cells. PMID:24055040

  19. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein.

    PubMed

    van der Schaar, H M; Melia, C E; van Bruggen, J A C; Strating, J R P M; van Geenen, M E D; Koster, A J; Bárcena, M; van Kuppeveld, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition specialized for

  20. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein

    PubMed Central

    van der Schaar, H. M.; Melia, C. E.; van Bruggen, J. A. C.; Strating, J. R. P. M.; van Geenen, M. E. D.; Koster, A. J.; Bárcena, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition

  1. Illuminating the Sites of Enterovirus Replication in Living Cells by Using a Split-GFP-Tagged Viral Protein.

    PubMed

    van der Schaar, H M; Melia, C E; van Bruggen, J A C; Strating, J R P M; van Geenen, M E D; Koster, A J; Bárcena, M; van Kuppeveld, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses generate new organelles (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition on which they multiply their viral genome. Suitable tools for live-cell imaging of enterovirus ROs are currently unavailable, as recombinant enteroviruses that carry genes that encode RO-anchored viral proteins tagged with fluorescent reporters have not been reported thus far. To overcome this limitation, we used a split green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system, comprising a large fragment [strands 1 to 10; GFP(S1-10)] and a small fragment [strand 11; GFP(S11)] of only 16 residues. The GFP(S11) (GFP with S11 fragment) fragment was inserted into the 3A protein of the enterovirus coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), while the large fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cells. The introduction of GFP(S11) did not affect the known functions of 3A when expressed in isolation. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), we showed that GFP fluorescence was detected at ROs, whose morphologies are essentially identical to those previously observed for wild-type CVB3, indicating that GFP(S11)-tagged 3A proteins assemble with GFP(S1-10) to form GFP for illumination of bona fide ROs. It is well established that enterovirus infection leads to Golgi disintegration. Through live-cell imaging of infected cells expressing an mCherry-tagged Golgi marker, we monitored RO development and revealed the dynamics of Golgi disassembly in real time. Having demonstrated the suitability of this virus for imaging ROs, we constructed a CVB3 encoding GFP(S1-10) and GFP(S11)-tagged 3A to bypass the need to express GFP(S1-10) prior to infection. These tools will have multiple applications in future studies on the origin, location, and function of enterovirus ROs. IMPORTANCE Enteroviruses induce the formation of membranous structures (replication organelles [ROs]) with a unique protein and lipid composition specialized for

  2. Production of recombinant protein in Escherichia coli cultured in extract from waste product alga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Rechtin, Tammy M; Hurst, Matthew; Potts, Tom; Hestekin, Jamie; Beitle, Robert; McLaughlin, John; May, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the potential for waste product alga, Ulva lactuca, to serve as a media component for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. To facilitate this investigation, U. lactuca harvested from Jamaica Bay was dried, and nutrients acid extracted for use as a growth media. The E. coli cell line BL21(DE3) was used to assess the effects on growth and production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP). This study showed that media composed of acid extracts without further nutrient addition maintained E. coli growth and recombinant protein production. Extracts made from dried algae lots less than six-months-old were able to produce two-fold more GFP protein than traditional Lysogeny Broth media. PMID:24799463

  3. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  4. Biomimetic production of silk-like recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dawei; Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Kong, Kiat Whye; Cornvik, Tobias; Nilsson, Martina; Kumar, Akshita; Lescar, Julien; Miserez, Ali

    2014-09-01

    The sucker ring teeth (SRT) of Humboldt squid exhibit mechanical properties that rival those of robust engineered synthetic polymers. Remarkably, these properties are achieved without a mineral phase or covalent cross-links. Instead, SRT are exclusively made of silk-like proteins called "suckerins", which assemble into nanoconfined β-sheet reinforced supramolecular networks. In this study, three streamlined strategies for full-length recombinant suckerin protein production and purification were developed. Recombinant suckerin exhibited high solubility and colloidal stability in aqueous-based solvents. In addition, the colloidal suspensions exhibited a concentration-dependent conformational switch, from random coil to β-sheet enriched structures. Our results demonstrate that recombinant suckerin can be produced in a facile manner in E. coli and processed from mild aqueous solutions into materials enriched in β-sheets. We suggest that recombinant suckerin-based materials offer potential for a range of biomedical and engineering applications.

  5. Overexpression and Enzymatic Assessment of Antigenic Fragments of Hyaluronidase Recombinant Protein From Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sadoogh Abbasian, Shabnam; Ghaznavi Rad, Ehsanollah; Akbari, Neda; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; pakzad, Iraj; Abtahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan polymers to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. This enzyme is a dimer of identical subunits. Hyaluronidase has different pharmaceutical and medical applications. Previously, we produced a recombinant hyaluronidase antigenic fragment of Streptococcus pyogenes. Objectives: This study aimed to improve the protein production and purity of hyaluronidase recombinant protein from S. pyogenes. In addition, the enzymatic activity of this protein was investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of hyaluronidase antigenic fragments was optimized using IPTG concentration, time of induction, temperature, culture, and absorbance of 0.6-0.8-1 at 600 nm. Afterwards, the expressed proteins were purified and the enzymatic activity was assessed by turbid metric method. Results: Data indicated that maximum protein is produced in OD = 0.8, 0.5 mM Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), 37ºC, NB 1.5x, without glucose, incubated for overnight. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein was similar to the commercial form of hyaluronidase. Conclusions: The results showed that an antigenic fragment of the recombinant hyaluronidase protein from S. pyogenes has a considerable enzymatic activity. It can be suggested to use it for medical purposes. In addition, applications of bioinformatics software would facilitate the production of a smaller protein with same antigenic properties and enzymatic activity. PMID:25789122

  6. Impact of Profiling Technologies in the Understanding of Recombinant Protein Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayendran, Chandran; Flaschel, Erwin

    Since expression profiling methods have been available in a high throughput fashion, the implication of these technologies in the field of biotechnology has increased dramatically. Microarray technology is one such unique and efficient methodology for simultaneous exploration of expression levels of numerous genes. Likewise, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or multidimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry are extensively utilised for studying expression levels of numerous proteins. In the field of biotechnology these highly parallel analytical methods have paved the way to study and understand various biological phenomena depending on expression patterns. The next phenomenological level is represented by the metabolome and the (metabolic) fluxome. However, this chapter reviews gene and protein profiling and their impact on understanding recombinant protein production. We focus on the computational methods utilised for the analyses of data obtained from these profiling technologies as well as prominent results focusing on recombinant protein expression with Escherichia coli. Owing to the knowledge accumulated with respect to cellular signals triggered during recombinant protein production, this field is on the way to design strategies for developing improved processes. Both gene and protein profiling have exhibited a handful of functional categories to concentrate on in order to identify target genes and proteins, respectively, involved in the signalling network with major impact on recombinant protein production.

  7. New and Emerging Agents for the Treatment of Hemophilia: Focus on Extended Half-Life Recombinant Clotting Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked disorders caused by deficient or defective clotting factor VIII (FVIII) or IX factor (FIX) proteins, and characterized by spontaneous or traumatic bleeding into joints and muscles. Previous use of plasma and plasma-derived clotting factors that lacked appropriate viral inactivation steps in manufacturing led to significant morbidity associated with transfusion-transmitted HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The development of recombinant proteins revolutionized their treatment, and, with no new HIV or HCV infection via clotting proteins for nearly 30 years, greatly improved their lifespan, which now approaches that of the general population, and with the same risks for aging complications. Novel long-acting factor proteins are being licensed to extend FVIII and FIX half-life, thereby reducing infusion frequency and potentially bleed frequency and associated morbidity. Further, novel therapeutics which take advantage of new technologies, including siRNA, monoclonal antibody, and small peptide inhibition technologies, have the potential to simplify treatment and improve outcomes for those with inhibitors.

  8. Recombinant Dengue 2 Virus NS3 Helicase Protein Enhances Antibody and T-Cell Response of Purified Inactivated Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Monika; Sun, Peifang; Putnak, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus purified inactivated vaccines (PIV) are highly immunogenic and protective over the short term, but may be poor at inducing cell-mediated immune responses and long-term protection. The dengue nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is considered the main target for T-cell responses during viral infection. The amino (N)-terminal protease and the carboxy (C)-terminal helicase domains of DENV-2 NS3 were expressed in E. coli and analyzed for their immune-potentiating capacity. Mice were immunized with DENV-2 PIV with and without recombinant NS3 protease or NS3 helicase proteins, and NS3 proteins alone on days 0, 14 and 28. The NS3 helicase but not the NS3 protease was effective in inducing T-cell responses quantified by IFN-γ ELISPOT. In addition, markedly increased total IgG antibody titer against virus antigen was seen in mice immunized with the PIV/NS3 helicase combination in the ELISA, as well as increased neutralizing antibody titer measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test. These results indicate the potential immunogenic properties of the NS3 helicase protein and its use in a dengue vaccine formulation. PMID:27035715

  9. High-Mannose Specific Lectin and Its Recombinants from a Carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii Represent a Potent Anti-HIV Activity Through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Imamura, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hori, Kanji

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a high-mannose binding lectin KAA-2 from the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, which is an economically important species and widely cultivated as a source of carrageenans, had a potent anti-influenza virus activity. In this study, the full-length sequences of two KAA isoforms, KAA-1 and KAA-2, were elucidated by a combination of peptide mapping and complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning. They consisted of four internal tandem-repeated domains, which are conserved in high-mannose specific lectins from lower organisms, including a cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii and a red alga Eucheuma serra. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, an active recombinant form of KAA-1 (His-tagged rKAA-1) was successfully generated in the yield of 115 mg per liter of culture. In a detailed oligosaccharide binding analysis by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method with 27 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, His-tagged rKAA-1 and rKAA-1 specifically bound to high-mannose N-glycans with an exposed α1-3 mannose in the D2 arm as the native lectin did. Predicted from oligosaccharide binding specificity, a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the recombinants exhibit strong interaction with gp120, a heavily glycosylated envelope glycoprotein of HIV with high association constants (1.48 - 1.61 × 10(9) M(-1)). Native KAAs and the recombinants inhibited the HIV-1 entry at IC50s of low nanomolar levels (7.3-12.9 nM). Thus, the recombinant proteins would be useful as antiviral reagents targeting the viral surface glycoproteins with high-mannose N-glycans, and the cultivated alga K. alvarezii could also be a good source of not only carrageenans but also this functional lectin(s).

  10. High-Mannose Specific Lectin and Its Recombinants from a Carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii Represent a Potent Anti-HIV Activity Through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Imamura, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hori, Kanji

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a high-mannose binding lectin KAA-2 from the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, which is an economically important species and widely cultivated as a source of carrageenans, had a potent anti-influenza virus activity. In this study, the full-length sequences of two KAA isoforms, KAA-1 and KAA-2, were elucidated by a combination of peptide mapping and complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning. They consisted of four internal tandem-repeated domains, which are conserved in high-mannose specific lectins from lower organisms, including a cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii and a red alga Eucheuma serra. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, an active recombinant form of KAA-1 (His-tagged rKAA-1) was successfully generated in the yield of 115 mg per liter of culture. In a detailed oligosaccharide binding analysis by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method with 27 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, His-tagged rKAA-1 and rKAA-1 specifically bound to high-mannose N-glycans with an exposed α1-3 mannose in the D2 arm as the native lectin did. Predicted from oligosaccharide binding specificity, a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the recombinants exhibit strong interaction with gp120, a heavily glycosylated envelope glycoprotein of HIV with high association constants (1.48 - 1.61 × 10(9) M(-1)). Native KAAs and the recombinants inhibited the HIV-1 entry at IC50s of low nanomolar levels (7.3-12.9 nM). Thus, the recombinant proteins would be useful as antiviral reagents targeting the viral surface glycoproteins with high-mannose N-glycans, and the cultivated alga K. alvarezii could also be a good source of not only carrageenans but also this functional lectin(s). PMID:26593063

  11. High-Mannose Specific Lectin and Its Recombinants from a Carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii Represent a Potent Anti-HIV Activity Through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Imamura, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hori, Kanji

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that a high-mannose binding lectin KAA-2 from the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, which is an economically important species and widely cultivated as a source of carrageenans, had a potent anti-influenza virus activity. In this study, the full-length sequences of two KAA isoforms, KAA-1 and KAA-2, were elucidated by a combination of peptide mapping and cDNA cloning. They consisted of four internal tandem-repeated domains, which are conserved in high-mannose specific lectins from lower organisms, including a cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii and a red alga Eucheuma serra. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, an active recombinant form of KAA-1 (His-tagged rKAA-1) was successfully generated in the yield of 115 mg per a litter of culture. In a detailed oligosaccharide binding analysis by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method with 27 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, His-tagged rKAA-1 and rKAA-1 specifically bound to high-mannose N-glycans with an exposed α1-3 mannose in the D2 arm as the native lectin did. Predicted from oligosaccharide-binding specificity, a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the recombinants exhibit strong interaction with gp120, a heavily glycosylated envelope glycoprotein of HIV with high association constants (1.48-1.61 × 10(9) M(-1)). Native KAAs and the recombinants inhibited the HIV-1 entry at IC50s of low nanomolar levels (7.3-12.9 nM). Thus, the recombinant proteins would be useful as antiviral reagents targeting the viral surface glycoproteins with high-mannose N-glycans, and the cultivated alga K. alvarezii could also be a good source of not only carrageenans but also this functional lectin(s). PMID:26661793

  12. Production of a recombinant capsid protein VP1 from a newly described polyomavirus (RacPyV) for downstream use in virus characterization.

    PubMed

    Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Kim, Kevin; Persiani, Michele; Woods, Leslie W; Pesavento, Patricia A; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the methods for production of a recombinant viral capsid protein and subsequent use in an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for use in production of a rabbit polyclonal antibody. These reagents were utilized in development and optimization of an ELISA, which established the extent of exposure of free ranging raccoons to a newly described polyomavirus (RacPyV) [1]. Production of a polyclonal antibody has allowed for further characterization of RacPyV, including immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry techniques, in order to answer questions about pathogenesis of this virus. PMID:26955649

  13. The effects of protein solubility on the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Faraz; Harcum, Sarah W.

    2013-01-01

    High quality, intact messenger RNA (mRNA) is required for DNA microarray and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and is generally obtained from total RNA isolations. The most widely recognized measure of RNA integrity is the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) obtained from the Agilent Bioanalyzer, as it provides sizing, quantification, and quality control measures. This work describes comparisons of the RIN values obtained for recombinant E. coli. Uninduced recombinant E. coli cultures were examined, as well as induced cultures that produced either a soluble or insoluble recombinant protein. The uninduced cultures and the induced cultures producing soluble protein had higher RIN values than the induced cultures producing insoluble protein. These lower RIN values for E. coli producing the insoluble protein indicate that cellular degradation of the ribosomal RNA species is the likely cause of the lower RIN values. As the use of DNA microarrays and other gene expression tools increase in usage in the industrial recombinant protein production community, these results suggest the need for further studies to determine acceptable RIN ranges for gene expression analysis and effects of various culture conditions on RIN values for recombinant E. coli. PMID:24151430

  14. A highly sensitive and selective viral protein detection method based on RNA oligonucleotide nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Sang-Eun; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2010-01-01

    Globally, approximately 170 million people (representing approximately 3% of the population worldwide), are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and at risk of serious liver disease, including chronic hepatitis. We propose a new quantum dots (QDs)-supported RNA oligonucleotide approach for the specific and sensitive detection of viral protein using a biochip. This method was developed by immobilizing a HCV nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) on the surface of a glass chip via the formation of a covalent bond between an amine protein group and a ProLinker™ glass chip. The QDs-supported RNA oligonucleotide was conjugated via an amide formation reaction from coupling of a 5′-end-amine-modified RNA oligonucleotide on the surface of QDs displaying carboxyl groups via standard EDC coupling. The QDs-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide was interacted to immobilized viral protein NS5B on the biochip. The detection is based on the variation of signal of QDs-supported RNA oligonucleotide bound on an immobilized biochip. It was demonstrated that the value of the signal has a linear relationship with concentrations of the HCV NS5B viral protein in the 1 μg mL−1 to 1 ng mL−1 range with a detection limit of 1 ng mL−1. The major advantages of this RNA-oligonucleotide nanoparticle assay are its good specificity, ease of performance, and ability to perform one-spot monitoring. The proposed method could be used as a general method of HCV detection and is expected to be applicable to other types of diseases as well. PMID:20517476

  15. Nonreplicating viral vectors as potential vaccines: recombinant canarypox virus expressing measles virus fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Weinberg, R; Tartaglia, J; Richardson, C; Alkhatib, G; Briedis, D; Appel, M; Norton, E; Paoletti, E

    1992-03-01

    The development of canarypox virus (CPV) recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and fusion (F) glycoproteins of measles virus (MV) is described. Inoculation of the CPV-MV recombinants into avian or nonavian tissue culture substrates led to the expression of authentic MVF and MVHA as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation and surface immunofluorescence. In contrast to avian-derived tissue culture, no productive replication of the CPV recombinant was evident in tissue culture cells derived from nonavian origin. On inoculation of dogs, a species restricted for avipoxvirus replication, the recombinants elicited a protective immune response against a lethal canine distemper virus (CDV) challenge. The level of MV neutralizing antibodies and the level of protection induced against CDV challenge achieved by the host-restricted CPV vector were equivalent to that obtained by vaccinia virus vectors expressing the same MV antigens. PMID:1736535

  16. The Ebola virus matrix protein deeply penetrates the plasma membrane: an important step in viral egress.

    PubMed

    Soni, Smita P; Adu-Gyamfi, Emmanuel; Yong, Sylvia S; Jee, Clara S; Stahelin, Robert V

    2013-05-01

    Ebola virus, from the Filoviridae family has a high fatality rate in humans and nonhuman primates and to date, to the best of our knowledge, has no FDA approved vaccines or therapeutics. Viral protein 40 (VP40) is the major Ebola virus matrix protein that regulates assembly and egress of infectious Ebola virus particles. It is well established that VP40 assembles on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane; however, the mechanistic details of VP40 membrane binding that are important for viral release remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used fluorescence quenching of a tryptophan on the membrane-binding interface with brominated lipids along with mutagenesis of VP40 to understand the depth of membrane penetration into lipid bilayers. Experimental results indicate that VP40 penetrates 8.1 Å into the hydrocarbon core of the plasma membrane bilayer. VP40 also induces substantial changes to membrane curvature as it tubulates liposomes and induces vesiculation into giant unilamellar vesicles, effects that are abrogated by hydrophobic mutations. This is a critical step in viral egress as cellular assays demonstrate that hydrophobic residues that penetrate deeply into the plasma membrane are essential for plasma membrane localization and virus-like particle formation and release from cells.

  17. The phiX174 protein J mediates DNA packaging and viral attachment to host cells.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ricardo A; Hafenstein, Susan; Esmeralda, Raquel; Fane, Bentley A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2004-04-01

    Packaging of viral genomes into their respective capsids requires partial neutralization of the highly negatively charged RNA or DNA. Many viruses, including the Microviridae bacteriophages phiX174, G4, and alpha3, have solved this problem by coding for a highly positively charged nucleic acid-binding protein that is packaged along with the genome. The phiX174 DNA-binding protein, J, is 13 amino acid residues longer than the alpha3 and G4 J proteins by virtue of an additional nucleic acid-binding domain at the amino terminus. Chimeric phiX174 particles containing the smaller DNA-binding protein cannot be generated due to procapsid instability during DNA packaging. However, chimeric alpha3 and G4 phages, containing the phiX174 DNA-binding protein in place of the endogenous J protein, assemble and are infectious, but are less dense than the respective wild-type species. In addition, host cell attachment and native gel migration assays indicate surface variations of these viruses that are controlled by the nature of the J protein. The structure of alpha3 packaged with phiX174 J protein was determined to 3.5A resolution and compared with the previously determined structures of phiX174 and alpha3. The structures of the capsid and spike proteins in the chimeric particle remain unchanged within experimental error when compared to the wild-type alpha3 virion proteins. The amino-terminal region of the phiX174 J protein, which is missing from wild-type alpha3 virions, is mostly disordered in the alpha3 chimera. The differences observed between solution properties of wild-type phiX174, wild-type alpha3, and alpha3 chimera, including their ability to attach to host cells, correlates with the degree of order in the amino-terminal domain of the J protein. When ordered, this domain binds to the interior of the viral capsid and, thus, might control the flexibility of the capsid. In addition, the properties of the phiX174 J protein in the chimera and the results of mutational

  18. Detecting the ability of viral, bacterial and eukaryotic replication proteins to track along DNA.

    PubMed

    Tinker, R L; Kassavetis, G A; Geiduschek, E P

    1994-11-15

    The phage T4 gene 45 protein (gp45), Escherichia coli beta and the eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) function in replication as processivity factors of their corresponding DNA polymerases. The T4 gp45 also functions as the transcriptional activator that connects expression of viral late genes to DNA replication. DNA tracking is an essential component of the replication and transcription regulatory functions of T4 gp45. The ability of gp45, beta and PCNA to track along DNA has been analyzed by photocrosslinking. Each of these proteins must be loaded onto DNA by a species-specific assembly factor. For gp45 and beta, the density of traffic along DNA is determined by a dynamic balance between continuous protein loading and unloading, and is also dependent on interaction with the conjugate single-stranded DNA binding protein.

  19. Proteomic approaches to uncovering virus–host protein interactions during the progression of viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Krystal K; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-01-01

    The integration of proteomic methods to virology has facilitated a significant breadth of biological insight into mechanisms of virus replication, antiviral host responses and viral subversion of host defenses. Throughout the course of infection, these cellular mechanisms rely heavily on the formation of temporally and spatially regulated virus–host protein–protein interactions. Reviewed here are proteomic-based approaches that have been used to characterize this dynamic virus–host interplay. Specifically discussed are the contribution of integrative mass spectrometry, antibody-based affinity purification of protein complexes, cross-linking and protein array techniques for elucidating complex networks of virus–host protein associations during infection with a diverse range of RNA and DNA viruses. The benefits and limitations of applying proteomic methods to virology are explored, and the contribution of these approaches to important biological discoveries and to inspiring new tractable avenues for the design of antiviral therapeutics is highlighted. PMID:26817613

  20. [Site-directed mutagensis of the major antigen E2 gene of CSFV, its high level expression in Escherichia coli and the immunonicity of recombinant E2 protein].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing-Long; Tu, Chang-Chun; Xu, Xing-Ran; Zhang, Mao-Lin; Chen, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Bo-Hua

    2003-07-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is the causative agent of a highly contagious swine disease characterized by symptoms of hemorrhagic fever and immune depression, usually leading to substantial economic losses. The serological methods for detection of CSFV antibody such as ELISA are important means for the diagnosis of CSFV and immune surveillance. It is difficult to obtain CSFV antigen with high quality using traditional method because its titration titer is low in cell culture. CSFV has four structural protein named C, E0, El and E2. The E2 protein contains major antigenic determinants that are conserved between different CSFV strains and involved in neutralization by antibodies. So recombinant E2 protein can be developed as an alternative to the intact viral antigen. So far, CSFV E2 have not been expressed in E. coli with high level. Many factors, such as the secondary structure, the stability of 5' and 3' terminus of gene, the location of SD sequence and the bias of codes, are involved in the expressing level of foreign gene in E. coli . In this study, two sites of the E2 gene sequence were confirmed to be detrimental to its expression efficiency in E. coli through the computer-aided analysis. So they were mutated using recombinant PCR without changing the amino acids sequence of CSFV E2 gene. A plasmid was constructed by inserting the mutated E2 gene into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and named pETE2. The E. coli competent host BL21 (DE3)lysS transformed with pETE2 could express the E2 gene at high level, amounting to 28% of the total protein of the induced recombinant bacteria at the presence of IPTG. Except the hydrophobic transmembrane domain at C terminus, the recombinant E2 protein includes the total aa sequence. So it contains all the potential linear antigen epitopes of E2 protein because hydrophobic aa region can not form epitope. The

  1. Roles of the Putative Integrin-Binding Motif of the Human Metapneumovirus Fusion (F) Protein in Cell-Cell Fusion, Viral Infectivity, and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Hui; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.; Peeples, Mark E.; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a relatively recently identified paramyxovirus that causes acute upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Entry of hMPV is unusual among the paramyxoviruses, in that fusion is accomplished by the fusion (F) protein without the attachment glycoprotein (G protein). It has been suggested that hMPV F protein utilizes integrin αvβ1 as a cellular receptor. Consistent with this, the F proteins of all known hMPV strains possess an integrin-binding motif (329RGD331). The role of this motif in viral entry, infectivity, and pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and hMPV infection. Mutational analysis found that residues R329 and G330 in the 329RGD331 motif are essential for cell-cell fusion, whereas mutations at D331 did not significantly impact fusion activity. Furthermore, fusion-defective RGD mutations were either lethal to the virus or resulted in recombinant hMPVs that had defects in viral replication in cell culture. In cotton rats, recombinant hMPV with the R329K mutation in the F protein (rhMPV-R329K) and rhMPV-D331A exhibited significant defects in viral replication in nasal turbinates and lungs. Importantly, inoculation of cotton rats with these mutants triggered a high level of neutralizing antibodies and protected against hMPV challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that (i) α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and viral replication, (ii) the first two residues in the RGD motif are essential for fusion activity, and (iii) inhibition of the interaction of the integrin-RGD motif may serve as a new target to rationally attenuate hMPV for the development of live attenuated vaccines. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the major causative agents of acute respiratory disease in humans. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral drug for hMPV. hMPV enters host cells via a unique mechanism, in that viral

  2. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.

    2011-02-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  3. A Library of Plasmodium vivax Recombinant Merozoite Proteins Reveals New Vaccine Candidates and Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Wright, Gavin J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Rayner, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    suggesting that the proteins are natively folded and functional. This screen also identified two novel protein-protein interactions, between P12 and PVX_110945, and between MSP3.10 and MSP7.1, the latter of which was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Conclusions/Significance We produced a new library of recombinant full-length P. vivax ectodomains, established that the majority of them contain tertiary structure, and used them to identify predicted and novel protein-protein interactions. As well as identifying new interactions for further biological studies, this library will be useful in identifying P. vivax proteins with vaccine potential, and studying P. vivax malaria pathogenesis and immunity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00663546 PMID:26701602

  4. A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.J.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.

    2011-01-01

    The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

  5. Bicistronic expression plasmid for the rapid production of recombinant fused proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yero, Daniel; Pajón, Rolando; Niebla, Olivia; Sardiñas, Gretel; Vivar, Isbel; Perera, Yasser; García, Darien; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem

    2006-04-01

    In the post-genomic era, every aspect of the production of proteins must be accelerated. In this way, several vectors are currently exploited for rapid production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. N-terminal fusions to the first 47 amino acids of the LpdA (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase A) protein of Neisseria meningitidis have been shown to increase the expression of recombinant proteins. Consequently, we have constructed a modified N-terminal LpdA fusion vector, introducing the blue/white colony selection by exploiting a bicistronic gene organization. In the new vector, the sequence encoding the first 47 amino acids of meningococcal LpdA and the alpha-peptide sequence of beta-galactosidase were connected via a ribosome-binding site, and two MCSs (multiple cloning sites) were located surrounding the latter, allowing efficient cloning by colour selection of recombinants. The vector was also improved with the addition of a C-terminal polyhistidine tag, and an EKS (enterokinase recognition sequence) immediately after the LpdA fusion sequence. The new plasmid was employed in the expression and purification of six different bacterial polypeptides. One of these recombinant proteins, P6 protein from Haemophilus influenzae, was used as a model and its N-terminal fusion sequence was totally removed from the recombinant version after incubation with the enterokinase protease, while the polyhistidine tail successfully allowed the purification of the unfused protein from the protease reaction. Two completely new neisserial vaccine candidates, NMB0088 and NMB1126 proteins, were cloned, expressed and purified using this system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of the cloning and expression of these proteins in E. coli.

  6. Expression of recombinant small hydrophobic protein for serospecific detection of avian pneumovirus subgroup C.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lizhong; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus (APV) Colorado isolate (CO), which belongs to subgroup C (APV/C), was expressed with a baculovirus vector. The recombinant SH protein was evaluated as a potential subgroup-specific diagnostic reagent in order to differentiate infections resulting from APV/C from those induced by APV/A, APV/B, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV. Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies. This result was consistent with sequence analysis of the APV/C SH protein, which had very low (24%) amino acid identity with the corresponding protein of hMPV and no discernible identity with the SH protein of APV/A or APV/B. A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen. This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections.

  7. Expression of Recombinant Small Hydrophobic Protein for Serospecific Detection of Avian Pneumovirus Subgroup C

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lizhong; Sabara, Marta I.; Li, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus (APV) Colorado isolate (CO), which belongs to subgroup C (APV/C), was expressed with a baculovirus vector. The recombinant SH protein was evaluated as a potential subgroup-specific diagnostic reagent in order to differentiate infections resulting from APV/C from those induced by APV/A, APV/B, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV. Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies. This result was consistent with sequence analysis of the APV/C SH protein, which had very low (24%) amino acid identity with the corresponding protein of hMPV and no discernible identity with the SH protein of APV/A or APV/B. A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen. This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections. PMID:15643005

  8. RecO protein initiates DNA recombination and strand annealing through two alternative DNA binding mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael; Korolev, Sergey

    2014-10-17

    Recombination mediator proteins (RMPs) are important for genome stability in all organisms. Several RMPs support two alternative reactions: initiation of homologous recombination and DNA annealing. We examined mechanisms of RMPs in both reactions with Mycobacterium smegmatis RecO (MsRecO) and demonstrated that MsRecO interacts with ssDNA by two distinct mechanisms. Zinc stimulates MsRecO binding to ssDNA during annealing, whereas the recombination function is zinc-independent and is regulated by interaction with MsRecR. Thus, different structural motifs or conformations of MsRecO are responsible for interaction with ssDNA during annealing and recombination. Neither annealing nor recombinase loading depends on MsRecO interaction with the conserved C-terminal tail of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding protein (SSB), which is known to bind Escherichia coli RecO. However, similarly to E. coli proteins, MsRecO and MsRecOR do not dismiss SSB from ssDNA, suggesting that RMPs form a complex with SSB-ssDNA even in the absence of binding to the major protein interaction motif. We propose that alternative conformations of such complexes define the mechanism by which RMPs initiate the repair of stalled replication and support two different functions during recombinational repair of DNA breaks. PMID:25170075

  9. Application of Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Humans and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Mahin; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease caused by leishmania species. Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir of VL. A number of methods and antigen-based assays are used for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. However, currently available methods are mainly based on direct examination of tissues for the presence of parasites, which is highly invasive. A variety of serological tests are commonly applied for VL diagnosis, including indirect fluorescence antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), dot-ELISA, direct agglutination test, Western-blotting, and immunochromatographic test. However, when soluble antigens are used, serological tests are less specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic diseases. Several studies have attempted to replace soluble antigens with recombinant proteins to improve the sensitivity and the specificity of the immunodiagnostic tests. Major technological advances in recombinant antigens as reagents for the serological diagnosis of VL have led to high sensitivity and specificity of these serological tests. A great number of recombinant proteins have been shown to be effective for the diagnosis of leishmania infection in dogs, the major reservoir of L. infantum. Although few recombinant proteins with high efficacy provide reasonable results for the diagnosis of human and canine VL, more optimization is still needed for the appropriate antigens to provide high-throughput performance. This review aims to explore the application of different recombinant proteins for the serodiagnosis of VL in humans and dogs. PMID:26883952

  10. The histone chaperone protein Nucleosome Assembly Protein-1 (hNAP-1) binds HIV-1 Tat and promotes viral transcription

    PubMed Central

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Manganaro, Lara; Lusic, Marina; Marcello, Alessandro; Giacca, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the large amount of data available on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 transcription, crucial information is still lacking about the interplay between chromatin conformation and the events that regulate initiation and elongation of viral transcription. During transcriptional activation, histone acetyltransferases and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes cooperate with histone chaperones in altering chromatin structure. In particular, human Nucleosome Assembly Protein-1 (hNAP-1) is known to act as a histone chaperone that shuttles histones H2A/H2B into the nucleus, assembles nucleosomes and promotes chromatin fluidity, thereby affecting transcription of several cellular genes. Results Using a proteomic screening, we identified hNAP-1 as a novel cellular protein interacting with HIV-1 Tat. We observed that Tat specifically binds hNAP1, but not other members of the same family of factors. Binding between the two proteins required the integrity of the basic domain of Tat and of two separable domains of hNAP-1 (aa 162–290 and 290–391). Overexpression of hNAP-1 significantly enhanced Tat-mediated activation of the LTR. Conversely, silencing of the protein decreased viral promoter activity. To explore the effects of hNAP-1 on viral infection, a reporter HIV-1 virus was used to infect cells in which hNAP-1 had been either overexpressed or knocked-down. Consistent with the gene expression results, these two treatments were found to increase and inhibit viral infection, respectively. Finally, we also observed that the overexpression of p300, a known co-activator of both Tat and hNAP-1, enhanced hNAP-1-mediated transcriptional activation as well as its interaction with Tat. Conclusion Our study reveals that HIV-1 Tat binds the histone chaperone hNAP-1 both in vitro and in vivo and shows that this interaction participates in the regulation of Tat-mediated activation of viral gene expression. PMID:18226242

  11. Recombinant Nonstructural 3 Protein, rNS3, of Hepatitis C Virus Along With Recombinant GP96 Induce IL-12, TNFα and α5integrin Expression in Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Mokarram, Pooneh; Kamali sarvestani, Eskandar; Bolhassani, Azam; Mostafavi Pour, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of chronic liver disease and to date there has been no vaccine development to prevent this infection. Among non-structural HCV proteins, NS3 protein is an excellent goal for a therapeutic vaccine, due to its large size and less variation in conserved regions. The immunogenic properties of heat shock proteins (HSPs) for instance GP96 have prompted investigations into their function as strong adjuvant to improve innate and adaptive immunity. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine additive effects of recombinant GP96 (rGP96) fragments accompanied by rNS3 on expression levels of α5integrin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNFα, in Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs). Materials and Methods Recombinant viral proteins (rNS3 and rRGD-NS3), N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of GP96 were produced and purified from E. coli in order to treat the cells; mouse spleen Dendritic Cells (DCs) and THP-1 macrophages. Results Our results showed that rNT-GP96 alone significantly increases the expression level of IL-12, TNFα and α5integrin in THP-1 macrophages and DCs, while IL-12 and TNFα expression levels were unaffected by either rNS3 or rRGD-NS3. Interestingly, the co-addition of these recombinant proteins with rNT-GP96 increased IL-12, TNFα and α5integrin expression. Pearson Correlation showed a direct association between α5integrin with IL-12 and TNF-α expression. Conclusions we have highlighted the role of rNS3 plus rNT-GP96 mediated by α5integrin in producing IL-12 and TNFα. It can be suggested that rNT-GP96 could enhance immunity characteristic of rNS3 protein via production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24032046

  12. Expression and purification of recombinant antibody formats and antibody fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Siegemund, Martin; Richter, Fabian; Seifert, Oliver; Unverdorben, Felix; Kontermann, Roland E

    2014-01-01

    In the laboratory-scale production of antibody fragments or antibody fusion proteins, it is often difficult to keep track on the most suitable affinity tags for protein purification from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic host systems. Here, we describe how such recombinant proteins derived from Escherichia coli lysates as well as HEK293 cell culture supernatants are purified by IMAC and by different affinity chromatography methods based on fusions to FLAG-tag, Strep-tag, and Fc domains. PMID:24515473

  13. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. IMPORTANCE The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection

  14. Induction of antibodies and T cell responses by a recombinant influenza virus carrying an HIV-1 TatΔ51-59 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Garulli, B; Di Mario, G; Stillitano, M G; Compagnoni, D; Titti, F; Cafaro, A; Ensoli, B; Kawaoka, Y; Castrucci, M R

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant influenza viruses hold promise as vectors for vaccines to prevent transmission of mucosal pathogens. In this study, we generated a recombinant WSN/TatΔ(51-59) virus in which Tat protein lacking residues 51 to 59 of the basic domain was inserted into the N-terminus of the hemagglutinin (HA) of A/WSN/33 virus. The TatΔ(51-59) insertion into the viral HA caused a 2-log reduction in viral titers in cell culture, compared with the parental A/WSN/33 virus, and severely affected virus replication in vivo. Nevertheless, Tat-specific antibodies and T cell responses were elicited upon a single intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice with WSN/TatΔ(51-59) virus. Moreover, Tat-specific immune responses were also detected following vaccine administration via the vaginal route. These data provide further evidence that moderately large HIV antigens can be delivered by chimeric HA constructs and elicit specific immune responses, thus increasing the options for the potential use of recombinant influenza viruses, and their derivatives, for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  15. Evaluation of the recombinant protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis. PMID:23945159

  16. Detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus using recombinant gag proteins.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, E; East, N; DeRock, E; Higgins, J; Pedersen, N C

    1994-01-01

    The coding sequences of the core proteins p17 and p28 of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the plasmid expression vector p-GEX-2T. Both p17 and p28 were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase. The recombinant proteins were affinity purified from induced bacterial lysates using glutathione-agarose beads. The purified proteins were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against CAEV in goat sera and milk samples. Three different ELISA tests were developed based on p17, p28 or the combination of these two recombinant proteins (p17 + p28). A comparison was made to an ELISA based on purified whole virus particles and to agar immunodiffusion test (AGID). Sera with conflicting results in the different ELISA tests were examined by Western blotting. There was a high correlation between the ELISA tests based on p17 + p28 recombinant proteins and whole virus ELISA, with an estimated kappa value of 0.92. Only 72-75% of the sera that tested positive in these two ELISA tests were positive in AGID. Antibodies to CAEV were detected in significantly more animals when serum samples were tested compared to milk samples. Based on the time and materials required to prepare the reagents, the recombinant based ELISA test was less expensive than the whole virus ELISA.

  17. Micro-algae come of age as a platform for recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Elizabeth; Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    A complete set of genetic tools is still being developed for the micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Yet even with this incomplete set, this photosynthetic single-celled plant has demonstrated significant promise as a platform for recombinant protein expression. In recent years, techniques have been developed that allow for robust expression of genes from both the nuclear and plastid genome. With these advances, many research groups have examined the pliability of this and other micro-algae as biological machines capable of producing recombinant peptides and proteins. This review describes recent successes in recombinant protein production in Chlamydomonas, including production of complex mammalian therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies at levels sufficient for production at economic parity with existing production platforms. These advances have also shed light on the details of algal protein production at the molecular level, and provide insight into the next steps for optimizing micro-algae as a useful platform for the production of therapeutic and industrially relevant recombinant proteins. PMID:20556634

  18. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Chervyakova, Olga V.; Zaitsev, Valentin L.; Iskakov, Bulat K.; Tailakova, Elmira T.; Strochkov, Vitaliy M.; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T.; Sandybayev, Nurlan T.; Stanbekova, Gulshan E.; Beisenov, Daniyar K.; Abduraimov, Yergali O.; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R.; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y.; Nemchinov, Lev. G.; Hammond, Rosemarie W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. PMID:27338444

  19. Influenza C virus NS1 protein upregulates the splicing of viral mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Yasushi; Furukawa, Takatoshi; Kohno, Yoshihiko; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Takashita, Emi; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Hongo, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Pre-mRNAs of the influenza A virus M and NS genes are poorly spliced in virus-infected cells. By contrast, in influenza C virus-infected cells, the predominant transcript from the M gene is spliced mRNA. The present study was performed to investigate the mechanism by which influenza C virus M gene-specific mRNA (M mRNA) is readily spliced. The ratio of M1 encoded by a spliced M mRNA to CM2 encoded by an unspliced M mRNA in influenza C virus-infected cells was about 10 times larger than that in M gene-transfected cells, suggesting that a viral protein(s) other than M gene translational products facilitates viral mRNA splicing. RNase protection assays showed that the splicing of M mRNA in infected cells was much higher than that in M gene-transfected cells. The unspliced and spliced mRNAs of the influenza C virus NS gene encode two nonstructural (NS) proteins, NS1(C/NS1) and NS2(C/NS2), respectively. The introduction of premature translational termination into the NS gene, which blocked the synthesis of the C/NS1 and C/NS2 proteins, drastically reduced the splicing of NS mRNA, raising the possibility that C/NS1 or C/NS2 enhances viral mRNA splicing. The splicing of influenza C virus M mRNA was increased by coexpression of C/NS1, whereas it was reduced by coexpression of the influenza A virus NS1 protein (A/NS1). The splicing of influenza A virus M mRNA was also increased by coexpression of C/NS1, though it was inhibited by that of A/NS1. These results suggest that influenza C virus NS1, but not A/NS1, can upregulate viral mRNA splicing.

  20. Application and correlation of nano resolution microscopy techniques to viral protein localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Jeffery Allen

    This dissertation is primarily focused on the application of super-resolution microscopy techniques to localization of viral proteins within envelope viruses. Advances in optical super-resolution microscopy techniques have enabled scientists to observe phenomena much smaller than the Abbe diffraction limit by stochastically limiting the number of molecules excited at a given instance and localizing their positions one at a time. Additionally, methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allow scientists to measure the topological features and material properties of samples through contact with a force probe. This dissertation describes the application of these two techniques to virology in order to localize internal viral proteins of enveloped virions, and measure their effect on the elastic properties of the virion. By utilizing super-resolution microscopy techniques such as Fluorescent Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (fPALM) on virions, which have had their surface glycoproteins labeled with a photo-switchable label, the viral envelope may be accurately recovered. This dissertation describes the development and application of this technique as it applies to envelope recovery of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). By fluorescently labeling proteins, which are internal to each of these viruses, I have been able to localize a variety of viral proteins within their recovered envelopes. This is done without significant damage to the virion, making this method a highly effective in vivo technique. In the case of VSV, an asymmetric localization along the central axis towards the blunt 5' end was found to exist for both the polymerase and phosphoproteins. These have been determined to occupy a region in the central cavity of ˜57 +/- 12 nm on the 5' end. This inhomogeneity of the underlying proteins such an asymmetry would predict that the Young's modulus would vary along the central axis of the virion. This dissertation

  1. Sequence specificity of viral end DNA binding by HIV-1 integrase reveals critical regions for protein-DNA interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, D; Craigie, R

    1998-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase specifically recognizes and cleaves viral end DNA during the initial step of retroviral integration. The protein and DNA determinants of the specificity of viral end DNA binding have not been clearly identified. We have used mutational analysis of the viral end LTR sequence, in vitro selection of optimal viral end sequences, and specific photocrosslinking to identify regions of integrase that interact with specific bases in the LTR termini. The results highlight the involvement of the disordered loop of the integrase core domain, specifically residues Q148 and Y143, in binding to the terminal portion of the viral DNA ends. Additionally, we have identified positions upstream in the LTR termini which interact with the C-terminal domain of integrase, providing evidence for the role of that domain in stabilization of viral DNA binding. Finally, we have located a region centered 12 bases from the viral DNA terminus which appears essential for viral end DNA binding in the presence of magnesium, but not in the presence of manganese, suggesting a differential effect of divalent cations on sequence-specific binding. These results help to define important regions of contact between integrase and viral DNA, and assist in the formulation of a molecular model of this vital interaction. PMID:9755183

  2. Analysis of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice Seeds: Identity, Localization, Tolerance to Digestion, and Plant Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Rice seeds are an ideal production platform for high-value recombinant proteins in terms of economy, scalability, safety, and stability. Strategies for the expression of large amounts of recombinant proteins in rice seeds have been established in the past decade and transgenic rice seeds that accumulate recombinant products such as bioactive peptides and proteins, which promote the health and quality of life of humans, have been generated in many laboratories worldwide. One of the most important advantages is the potential for direct oral delivery of transgenic rice seeds without the need for recombinant protein purification (downstream processing), which has been attributed to the high expression levels of recombinant products. Transgenic rice will be beneficial as a delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals in the future. This chapter introduces the strategy for producing recombinant protein in the edible part (endosperm) of the rice grain and describes methods for the analysis of transgenic rice seeds in detail. PMID:26614293

  3. A protocol for the production of recombinant spider silk-like proteins for artificial fiber spinning

    PubMed Central

    Teulé, Florence; Cooper, Alyssa R; Furin, William A; Bittencourt, Daniela; Rech, Elibio L; Brooks, Amanda; Lewis, Randolph V

    2009-01-01

    The extreme strength and elasticity of spider silks originate from the modular nature of their repetitive proteins. To exploit such materials and mimic spider silks, comprehensive strategies to produce and spin recombinant fibrous proteins are necessary. This protocol describes silk gene design and cloning, protein expression in bacteria, recombinant protein purification and fiber formation. With an improved gene construction and cloning scheme, this technique is adaptable for the production of any repetitive fibrous proteins, and ensures the exact reproduction of native repeat sequences, analogs or chimeric versions. The proteins are solubilized in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) at 25–30% (wt/vol) for extrusion into fibers. This protocol, routinely used to spin single micrometer-size fibers from several recombinant silk-like proteins from different spider species, is a powerful tool to generate protein libraries with corresponding fibers for structure–function relationship investigations in protein-based biomaterials. This protocol may be completed in 40 d. PMID:19229199

  4. Nuclear colocalization of cellular and viral myc proteins with HSP70 in myc-overexpressing cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, P J; Sistonen, L; Evan, G; Morimoto, R; Alitalo, K

    1991-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene and its viral counterpart v-myc encode phosphoproteins which have been located within cell nuclei, excluding nucleoli. We have expressed the c-myc gene under the simian virus 40 early promoter and studied the distribution of its protein product in transient expression assays in COS, HeLa, and 293 cells. We found three distinct patterns of c-myc immunofluorescence in the transfected cells: one-third of the c-myc-positive cells displayed a diffuse nuclear distribution, and in two-thirds of the cells the c-myc fluorescence was accumulated either in small amorphous or in large multilobed phase-dense nuclear structures. Unexpectedly, these structures also stained for the HSP70 heat shock protein in both heat-shocked and untreated cells. Our results indicate that both transient and stable overexpression of either the c-myc or v-myc protein induces translocation of the endogenous HSP70 protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it becomes sequestered in structures containing the myc protein. Interestingly, the closely related N-myc protein does not stimulate substantial nuclear expression of the HSP70 protein. Studies with chimeric myc proteins revealed that polypeptide sequences encoded by the second exon of c-myc are involved in colocalization with HSP70. Images PMID:1846202

  5. Topology of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Cellular and Viral Proteins Determined with Split-GFP.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seong-In; Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Moss, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    The split green fluorescent protein (GFP) system was adapted for investigation of the topology of ER-associated proteins. A 215-amino acid fragment of GFP (S1-10) was expressed in the cytoplasm as a free protein or fused to the N-terminus of calnexin and in the ER as an intraluminal protein or fused to the C-terminus of calnexin. A 16-amino acid fragment of GFP (S11) was fused to the N- or C-terminus of the target protein. Fluorescence occurred when both GFP fragments were in the same intracellular compartment. After validation with the cellular proteins PDI and tapasin, we investigated two vaccinia virus proteins (L2 and A30.5) of unknown topology that localize to the ER and are required for assembly of the viral membrane. Our results indicated that the N- and C-termini of L2 faced the cytoplasmic and luminal sides of the ER, respectively. In contrast both the N- and C-termini of A30.5 faced the cytoplasm. The system offers advantages for quickly determining the topology of intracellular proteins: the S11 tag is similar in length to commonly used epitope tags; multiple options are available for detecting fluorescence in live or fixed cells; transfection protocols are adaptable to numerous expression systems and can enable high throughput applications.

  6. Role of RNA Branchedness in the Competition for Viral Capsid Proteins.

    PubMed

    Singaram, Surendra W; Garmann, Rees F; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    To optimize binding-and packaging-by their capsid proteins (CP), single-stranded (ss) RNA viral genomes often have local secondary/tertiary structures with high CP affinity, with these "packaging signals" serving as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the formation of capsids. Under typical in vitro self-assembly conditions, however, and in particular for the case of many ssRNA viruses whose CP have cationic N-termini, the adsorption of CP by RNA is nonspecific because the CP concentration exceeds the largest dissociation constant for CP-RNA binding. Consequently, the RNA is saturated by bound protein before lateral interactions between CP drive the homogeneous nucleation of capsids. But, before capsids are formed, the binding of protein remains reversible and introduction of another RNA species-with a different length and/or sequence-is found experimentally to result in significant redistribution of protein. Here we argue that, for a given RNA mass, the sequence with the highest affinity for protein is the one with the most compact secondary structure arising from self-complementarity; similarly, a long RNA steals protein from an equal mass of shorter ones. In both cases, it is the lateral attractions between bound proteins that determines the relative CP affinities of the RNA templates, even though the individual binding sites are identical. We demonstrate this with Monte Carlo simulations, generalizing the Rosenbluth method for excluded-volume polymers to include branching of the polymers and their reversible binding by protein.

  7. Efficiency of Membrane Protein Expression Following Infection with Recombinant Adenovirus of Polarized Non-Transformed Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia; Blenkinsop, Timothy A; Stern, Jeffrey H; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of exogenous proteins facilitates studies of molecular mechanisms and utility for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture. Here, we compared expression of the membrane protein β5 integrin-GFP (β5-GFP) in two recently established models of differentiated human RPE, adult RPE stem cell-derived RPE and primary fetal RPE, upon infection with recombinant adenovirus or transfection with DNA in liposomes. We varied viral titer and duration of virus incubation and examined β5-GFP and the tight junction marker ZO-1 in manipulated cells by confocal microscopy. Fewer than 5 % of cells expressed β5-GFP after liposome-mediated transfection. The percentage of cells with detectable β5-GFP exceeded 90 % after adenovirus infection for as little as 1 h. Decreasing virus titer two-fold did not alter the fraction of cells expressing β5-GFP but increased variability of β5-GFP level among cells. In cells with low expression levels, β5-GFP localized mostly to the apical plasma membrane like endogenous αvβ5 integrin. In cells with high expression levels, β5-GFP localized to the cytoplasm in addition to the apical surface suggesting accumulation in trafficking compartments. Altogether, adenovirus delivery yields efficient exogenous membrane protein expression of correct polarity in differentiated human RPE cells in culture. PMID:26427482

  8. Booster immunization with a partially purified citrus tristeza virus (CTV) preparation after priming with recombinant CTV coat protein enhances the binding capacity of capture antibodies by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Bar-Joseph, M; Filatov, V; Gofman, R; Guang, Y; Hadjinicolis, A; Mawassi, M; Gootwine, E; Weisman, Y; Malkinson, M

    1997-08-01

    Groups of rabbits and young lambs were immunized subcutaneously and intramuscularly with a recombinant citrus tristeza virus (CTV) coat protein (rCTV-CP) antigen. Three weeks after primary immunization the animals were divided into two groups that were boosted either with rCTV-CP or with a partially purified preparation of CTV particles (ppCTV). Twelve and 15 days after the last injection, the animals were bled and the binding capacity of the antisera for CTV detection was examined for capture antibodies by the indirect ELISA. Considerably higher ELISA titers were obtained from animals that were boosted with ppCTV than with rCP. Boosting with partially purified native antigens after priming with recombinant antigens is expected to extend the applicability of the antisera for detecting other structural and non-structural viral antigens by trapping ELISA. PMID:9274814

  9. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  10. Cellular DDX21 RNA helicase inhibits influenza A virus replication but is counteracted by the viral NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guifang; Liu, Chien-Hung; Zhou, Ligang; Krug, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    Influenza A virus RNA synthesis is catalyzed by the viral polymerase comprised of the PA, PB1, and PB2 proteins. We show that the host DDX21 RNA helicase restricts influenza A virus by binding PB1 and inhibiting polymerase assembly, resulting in reduced viral RNA and protein synthesis. Later during infection, the viral NS1 protein overcomes this restriction by binding to DDX21 and displacing PB1. DDX21 binds to a region of the NS1 N-terminal domain that also participates in other critical functions. A virus mutant whose NS1 protein is unable to bind DDX21 exhibits reduced viral protein synthesis at both late and early times of infection, a phenotype converted to wild-type upon DDX21 knockdown. As sequential interaction of PB1 and NS1 with DDX21 leads to temporal regulation of viral gene expression, influenza A virus likely uses the DDX21-NS1 interaction not only to overcome restriction, but also to regulate the viral life cycle.

  11. Recombinant methods in protein and whole-cell biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, R. S.; Salins, Lyndon L.; Ramanathan, S.; Daunert, Sylvia

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of fluorescently- labeled binding proteins and genetically engineered bacterial cells for sensing of phosphate, glucose, and L- arabinose. To optimize the performance of the labeled binding proteins for biosensing purposes, a few key considerations were taken into account. A site-selective labeling protocol of the fluorescent reporter to the protein was used to ensure that the probe reported from a specific domain of the protein. The labeling sites chosen were hypothesized to undergo a physicochemical change when the biorecognition element binds the analyte. Cysteine mutations were introduced into the binding proteins by site-directed mutagenesis using the polymerase chain reaction. The residues selected were all in close proximity to the binding cleft, a region that is affected the most by the conformational change that accompanies ligand binding. The cysteine residues were then labeled with environment- sensitive fluorophores and changes in the fluorescence properties of the conjugates were monitored and related to the amount of ligand present. The application of microorganisms in sensing systems represent new advances in the development of novel analytical techniques for the detection of a target analyte. In these systems, a genetically engineered organism generates an analytically useful signal when it encounters a specific target substance due to selective recognition and binding properties towards that particular compound. This concept has been demonstrated using an optical bacteria-based sensing system capable of detecting the monosaccharide L-arabinose that employed the green fluorescent protein as a reporter protein.

  12. The Adenovirus L4-33K Protein Regulates both Late Gene Expression Patterns and Viral DNA Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Guimet, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The adenovirus (Ad) L4-33K protein has been linked to disparate functions during infection. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative RNA splicing factor which activates splicing of viral late gene transcripts that contain weak 3′ splice sites. Additionally, L4-33K has been indicated to play a role in adenovirus assembly. We generated and characterized an Ad5 L4-33K mutant virus to further explore its function(s) during infection. Infectivity, viral genome replication, and most viral gene expression of the L4-33K mutant virus are comparable to those of the wild-type virus, except for a prominent decrease in the levels of the late proteins IIIa and pVI. The L4-33K mutant virus produces only empty capsids, indicating a defect in viral DNA packaging. We demonstrate that L4-33K does not preferentially bind to viral packaging sequences in vivo, and mutation of L4-33K does not interfere with the binding of the known viral packaging proteins IVa2, L4-22K, L1-52/55K, and IIIa to the packaging sequences in vivo. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the phenotype of an Ad5 L4-33K mutant virus is complex. The L4-33K protein regulates the accumulation of selective Ad late gene mRNAs and is involved in the proper transition of gene expression during the late phase of infection. The L4-33K protein also plays a role in adenovirus morphogenesis by promoting the packaging of the viral genome into the empty capsid. These results demonstrate the multifunctional nature of the L4-33K protein and its involvement in several different and critical aspects of viral infection. PMID:23552425

  13. Structural basis for chemokine recognition and activation of a viral G protein-coupled receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Burg, John S.; Ingram, Jessica R.; Venkatakrishnan, A.J.; Jude, Kevin M.; Dukkipati, Abhiram; Feinberg, Evan N.; Angelini, Alessandro; Waghray, Deepa; Dror, Ron O.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2015-03-05

    Chemokines are small proteins that function as immune modulators through activation of chemokine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several viruses also encode chemokines and chemokine receptors to subvert the host immune response. How protein ligands activate GPCRs remains unknown. We report the crystal structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution of the human cytomegalovirus GPCR US28 in complex with the chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 (fractalkine). The globular body of CX3CL1 is perched on top of the US28 extracellular vestibule, whereas its amino terminus projects into the central core of US28. The transmembrane helices of US28 adopt an active-state-like conformation. Atomic-level simulations suggest that the agonist-independent activity of US28 may be due to an amino acid network evolved in the viral GPCR to destabilize the receptor’s inactive state.

  14. Apical Budding of a Recombinant Influenza A Virus Expressing a Hemagglutinin Protein with a Basolateral Localization Signal

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Rosalia; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Influenza virions bud preferentially from the apical plasma membrane of infected epithelial cells, by enveloping viral nucleocapsids located in the cytosol with its viral integral membrane proteins, i.e., hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and M2 proteins, located at the plasma membrane. Because individually expressed HA, NA, and M2 proteins are targeted to the apical surface of the cell, guided by apical sorting signals in their transmembrane or cytoplasmic domains, it has been proposed that the polarized budding of influenza virions depends on the interaction of nucleocapsids and matrix proteins with the cytoplasmic domains of HA, NA, and/or M2 proteins. Since HA is the major protein component of the viral envelope, its polarized surface delivery may be a major force that drives polarized viral budding. We investigated this hypothesis by infecting MDCK cells with a transfectant influenza virus carrying a mutant form of HA (C560Y) with a basolateral sorting signal in its cytoplasmic domain. C560Y HA was expressed nonpolarly on the surface of infected MDCK cells. Interestingly, viral budding remained apical in C560Y virus-infected cells, and so did the location of NP and M1 proteins at late times of infection. These results are consistent with a model in which apical viral budding is a shared function of various viral components rather than a role of the major viral envelope glycoprotein HA. PMID:11884578

  15. Singapore grouper iridovirus protein VP088 is essential for viral infectivity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongming; Wang, Yunzhi; Liu, Qizhi; Zhu, Feng; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection is a great challenge in healthcare and agriculture. The Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is highly infectious to numerous marine fishes and increasingly threatens mariculture and wildlife conservation. SGIV intervention is not available because little is known about key players and their precise roles in SGVI infection. Here we report the precise role of VP088 as a key player in SGIV infection. VP088 was verified as an envelope protein encoded by late gene orf088. We show that SGIV could be neutralized with an antibody against VP088. Depletion or deletion of VP088 significantly suppresses SGIV infection without altering viral gene expression and host responses. By precisely quantifying the genome copy numbers of host cells and virions, we reveal that VP088 deletion dramatically reduces SGIV infectivity through inhibiting virus entry without altering viral pathogenicity, genome stability and replication and progeny virus release. These results pinpoint that VP088 is a key player in SGIV entry and represents an ideal target for SGIV intervention. PMID:27498856

  16. Singapore grouper iridovirus protein VP088 is essential for viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongming; Wang, Yunzhi; Liu, Qizhi; Zhu, Feng; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection is a great challenge in healthcare and agriculture. The Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is highly infectious to numerous marine fishes and increasingly threatens mariculture and wildlife conservation. SGIV intervention is not available because little is known about key players and their precise roles in SGVI infection. Here we report the precise role of VP088 as a key player in SGIV infection. VP088 was verified as an envelope protein encoded by late gene orf088. We show that SGIV could be neutralized with an antibody against VP088. Depletion or deletion of VP088 significantly suppresses SGIV infection without altering viral gene expression and host responses. By precisely quantifying the genome copy numbers of host cells and virions, we reveal that VP088 deletion dramatically reduces SGIV infectivity through inhibiting virus entry without altering viral pathogenicity, genome stability and replication and progeny virus release. These results pinpoint that VP088 is a key player in SGIV entry and represents an ideal target for SGIV intervention. PMID:27498856

  17. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin.

  18. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  19. Protein kinase R reveals an evolutionary model for defeating viral mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Elde, Nels C.; Child, Stephanie J.; Geballe, Adam P.; Malik, Harmit S.

    2008-01-01

    Distinguishing self from non-self is a fundamental biological challenge. Many pathogens exploit the challenge of self discrimination by employing mimicry to subvert key cellular processes including the cell cycle, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal dynamics1-5. Other mimics interfere with immunity6, 7. Poxviruses encode K3L, a mimic of eIF2α, which is the substrate of Protein Kinase R (PKR), an important component of innate immunity in vertebrates8, 9. The PKR-K3L interaction exemplifies the conundrum imposed by viral mimicry. To be effective, PKR must recognize a conserved substrate (eIF2α) while avoiding rapidly evolving substrate mimics like K3L. Using the PKR-K3L system and a combination of phylogenetic and functional analyses, we uncover evolutionary strategies by which host proteins can overcome mimicry. We find that PKR has evolved under dramatic episodes of positive selection in primates. The ability of PKR to evade viral mimics is partly due to positive selection at sites most intimately involved in eIF2α recognition. We also find that adaptive changes on multiple surfaces of PKR produce combinations of substitutions that increase the odds of defeating mimicry. Thus, while it can appear that pathogens gain insurmountable advantages by mimicking cellular components, host factors like PKR can compete in molecular ‘arms races’ with mimics because of remarkable evolutionary flexibility at protein interaction interfaces challenged by mimicry. PMID:19043403

  20. A Novel Function of Human Pumilio Proteins in Cytoplasmic Sensing of Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Ryo; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Murakami, Etsu; Hirano, Emi; Yamamoto, Seiji P.; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Hiroki; Fujita, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) plays a pivotal role in the detection of invading pathogens to initiate type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription. Since aberrant IFN production is harmful, RLR signaling is strictly regulated. However, the regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. By expression cloning, we identified Pumilio proteins, PUM1 and PUM2, as candidate positive regulators of RIG-I signaling. Overexpression of Pumilio proteins and their knockdown augmented and diminished IFN-β promoter activity induced by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Both proteins showed a specific association with LGP2, but not with RIG-I or MDA5. Furthermore, all of these components were recruited to NDV-induced antiviral stress granules. Interestingly, biochemical analyses revealed that Pumilio increased double-stranded (ds) RNA binding affinity of LGP2; however, Pumilio was absent in the dsRNA-LGP2 complex, suggesting that Pumilio facilitates viral RNA recognition by LGP2 through its chaperon-like function. Collectively, our results demonstrate an unknown function of Pumilio in viral recognition by LGP2. PMID:25340845

  1. Importance of SARS-CoV spike protein Trp-rich region in viral infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yanning; Neo, T.L.; Liu, D.Xi.; Tam, James P.

    2008-07-04

    SARS-CoV entry is mediated by spike glycoprotein. During the viral and host cellular membrane fusion, HR1 and HR2 form 6-helix bundle, positioning the fusion peptide closely to the C-terminal region of ectodomain to drive apposition and subsequent membrane fusion. Connecting to the HR2 region is a Trp-rich region which is absolutely conserved in members of coronaviruses. To investigate the importance of Trp-rich region in SARS-CoV entry, we produced different mutated S proteins using Alanine scan strategy. SARS-CoV pseudotyped with mutated S protein was used to measure viral infectivity. To restore the aromaticity of Ala-mutants, we performed rescue experiments using phenylalanine substitutions. Our results show that individually substituted Ala-mutants substantially decrease infectivity by >90%, global Ala-mutants totally abrogated infectivity. In contrast, Phe-substituted mutants are able to restore 10-25% infectivity comparing to the wild-type. The results suggest that the Trp-rich region of S protein is essential for SARS-CoV infectivity.

  2. The EHV-1 UL4 protein that tempers viral gene expression interacts with cellular transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfei; Charvat, Robert A; Kim, Seong K; O'Callaghan, Dennis J

    2014-01-20

    The UL4 gene is conserved within the genome of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) that mediate persistent infection. Here, we show that the UL4 protein inhibits EHV-1 reporter gene expression by decreasing the level of transcribed mRNA. The UL4 protein did not bind any gene class of EHV-1 promoters in electromobility or chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but directly interacted with the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II both in vitro (GST-pulldown assays) and in infected cells (coimmunoprecipitation analyses). Microarray analyses of the expression of the 78 EHV-1 genes revealed that viral late genes important for virion assembly displayed enhanced expression in cells infected with UL4-null virus as compared to wild-type or UL4-restored EHV-1. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that viral DNA replication was not retarded in cells infected with the UL4-null virus as compared to wild-type EHV-1. PMID:24418534

  3. Critical Role of K1685 and K1829 in the Large Protein of Rabies Virus in Viral Pathogenicity and Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dayong; Luo, Zhaochen; Zhou, Ming; Li, Mingming; Yu, Lan; Wang, Chong; Yuan, Jiaolong; Li, Fang; Tian, Bin; Sui, Baokun; Chen, Huanchun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rabies, one of the oldest infectious diseases, still presents a public health threat in most parts of the world today. Its pathogen, rabies virus (RABV), can utilize its viral proteins, such as the nucleoprotein and phosphorylation protein, to subvert the host innate immune system. For a long time, the large (L) protein was believed to be essential for RABV transcription and replication, but its role in viral pathogenicity and immune evasion was not known. Recent studies have found that the conserved K-D-K-E tetrad motif in the L protein is related to the methyltransferase (MTase) activity in the viral mRNA process. In the present study, a series of RABV mutations in this motif was constructed with the recombinant CVS-B2c (rB2c) virus. Two of these mutants, rB2c-K1685A and rB2c-K1829A, were found to be stable and displayed an attenuated phenotype in both in vitro growth and in vivo pathogenicity in adult and suckling mice. Further studies demonstrated that these two mutants were more sensitive to the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene product IFIT2 than the parent virus. Taken together, our results suggest that K1685 and K1829 in the L protein play important roles in pathogenicity and immune evasion during RABV infection. IMPORTANCE Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most areas of the world, especially in the developing countries of Asia and Africa. The pathogenic mechanisms for rabies are not well understood. In the present study, it was found that the recombinant rabies viruses rB2c-K1685A and rB2c-K1829A, carrying mutations at the predicted MTase catalytic sites in the L protein, were highly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies showed that these mutants were more sensitive to the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene product IFIT2 than the parent virus. These findings improve our understanding of rabies pathogenesis, which may help in developing potential therapeutics and an avirulent rabies vaccine

  4. Expanding the proteome of an RNA virus by phosphorylation of an intrinsically disordered viral protein.

    PubMed

    Cordek, Daniel G; Croom-Perez, Tayler J; Hwang, Jungwook; Hargittai, Michele R S; Subba-Reddy, Chennareddy V; Han, Qingxia; Lodeiro, Maria Fernanda; Ning, Gang; McCrory, Thomas S; Arnold, Jamie J; Koc, Hasan; Lindenbach, Brett D; Showalter, Scott A; Cameron, Craig E

    2014-08-29

    The human proteome contains myriad intrinsically disordered proteins. Within intrinsically disordered proteins, polyproline-II motifs are often located near sites of phosphorylation. We have used an unconventional experimental paradigm to discover that phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) occurs in the intrinsically disordered domain of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) on Thr-2332 near one of its polyproline-II motifs. Phosphorylation shifts the conformational ensemble of the NS5A intrinsically disordered domain to a state that permits detection of the polyproline motif by using (15)N-, (13)C-based multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. PKA-dependent proline resonances were lost in the presence of the Src homology 3 domain of c-Src, consistent with formation of a complex. Changing Thr-2332 to alanine in hepatitis C virus genotype 1b reduced the steady-state level of RNA by 10-fold; this change was lethal for genotype 2a. The lethal phenotype could be rescued by changing Thr-2332 to glutamic acid, a phosphomimetic substitution. Immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy showed that the inability to produce Thr(P)-2332-NS5A caused loss of integrity of the virus-induced membranous web/replication organelle. An even more extreme phenotype was observed in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of PKA. We conclude that the PKA-phosphorylated form of NS5A exhibits unique structure and function relative to the unphosphorylated protein. We suggest that post-translational modification of viral proteins containing intrinsic disorder may be a general mechanism to expand the viral proteome without a corresponding expansion of the genome. PMID:25031324

  5. Algorithms for selecting breakpoint locations to optimize diversity in protein engineering by site-directed protein recombination.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Ye, Xiaoduan; Friedman, Alan M; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Protein engineering by site-directed recombination seeks to develop proteins with new or improved function, by accumulating multiple mutations from a set of homologous parent proteins. A library of hybrid proteins is created by recombining the parent proteins at specified breakpoint locations; subsequent screening/selection identifies hybrids with desirable functional characteristics. In order to improve the frequency of generating novel hybrids, this paper develops the first approach to explicitly plan for diversity in site-directed recombination, including metrics for characterizing the diversity of a planned hybrid library and efficient algorithms for optimizing experiments accordingly. The goal is to choose breakpoint locations to sample sequence space as uniformly as possible (which we argue maximizes diversity), under the constraints imposed by the recombination process and the given set of parents. A dynamic programming approach selects optimal breakpoint locations in polynomial time. Application of our method to optimizing breakpoints for an example biosynthetic enzyme, purE, demonstrates the significance of diversity optimization and the effectiveness of our algorithms.

  6. A Trio of Viral Proteins Tunes Aphid-Plant Interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhiyou; Murphy, Alex M.; Anggoro, Damar Tri; Tungadi, Trisna; Luang-In, Vijitra; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Rossiter, John T.; Powell, Glen; Smith, Alison G.; Carr, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Virus-induced deterrence to aphid feeding is believed to promote plant virus transmission by encouraging migration of virus-bearing insects away from infected plants. We investigated the effects of infection by an aphid-transmitted virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), on the interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the natural hosts for CMV, with Myzus persicae (common names: ‘peach-potato aphid’, ‘green peach aphid’). Methodology/Principal Findings Infection of Arabidopsis (ecotype Col-0) with CMV strain Fny (Fny-CMV) induced biosynthesis of the aphid feeding-deterrent 4-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methylglucosinolate (4MI3M). 4MI3M inhibited phloem ingestion by aphids and consequently discouraged aphid settling. The CMV 2b protein is a suppressor of antiviral RNA silencing, which has previously been implicated in altering plant-aphid interactions. Its presence in infected hosts enhances the accumulation of CMV and the other four viral proteins. Another viral gene product, the 2a protein (an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), triggers defensive signaling, leading to increased 4MI3M accumulation. The 2b protein can inhibit ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1), a host factor that both positively-regulates 4MI3M biosynthesis and negatively-regulates accumulation of substance(s) toxic to aphids. However, the 1a replicase protein moderated 2b-mediated inhibition of AGO1, ensuring that aphids were deterred from feeding but not poisoned. The LS strain of CMV did not induce feeding deterrence in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Conclusions/Significance Inhibition of AGO1 by the 2b protein could act as a booby trap since this will trigger antibiosis against aphids. However, for Fny-CMV the interplay of three viral proteins (1a, 2a and 2b) appears to balance the need of the virus to inhibit antiviral silencing, while inducing a mild resistance (antixenosis) that is thought to promote transmission. The strain-specific effects of CMV on Arabidopsis-aphid interactions, and differences between

  7. A Lytic Viral Long Noncoding RNA Modulates the Function of a Latent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Mel; Kim, Kevin Y.; Chang, Pei-Ching; Huerta, Steve; Shevchenko, Bogdan; Wang, Don-Hong; Izumiya, Chie; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2014-01-01

    Latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) episomes are coated with viral latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). In contrast, LANA rapidly disassociates from episomes during reactivation. Lytic KSHV expresses polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN RNA), a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). We report that PAN RNA promotes LANA-episome disassociation through an interaction with LANA which facilitates LANA sequestration away from KSHV episomes during reactivation. These findings suggest that KSHV may have evolved an RNA aptamer to regulate latent protein function. PMID:24257619

  8. Complement receptor activity of recombinant porcine CR1-like protein expressed in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Wei, Xiaoming; Jiang, Junbing; Fan, Kuohai; Zhao, Junxing; Sun, Na; Wang, Zhiwei; Sun, Yaogui; Ma, Haili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hongquan

    2016-08-01

    Primate complement receptor type 1 (CR1) protein, a single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune adherence and clearing complement-opsonized immune complexes. Here, the mRNA of the porcine primate-like complement receptor (CR1-like) gene was analyzed, and two domain sequences with potential functions were cloned into the pwPICZalpha vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins were purified with both Protein Pure Ni-NTA resin and strong anion exchange resin. The activities of the purified recombinant proteins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and complement receptor assays. The results indicated that two domains of the CR1-like protein, CCP36 and CCP811 with molecular weights of 29.8 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, were successfully expressed in P. pastoris. These two recombinant proteins possess some of the functions of the primate CR1 protein. Using these two proteins coupled with an antibody blocking technique, we also showed that CR1-like is expressed on natural porcine erythrocytes. PMID:26903010

  9. Replication protein A is required for meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Soustelle, Christine; Vedel, Michèle; Kolodner, Richard; Nicolas, Alain

    2002-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, meiotic recombination is initiated by transient DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs). These DSBs undergo a 5' --> 3' resection to produce 3' single-stranded DNA ends that serve to channel DSBs into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. In vitro studies strongly suggest that several proteins of this pathway--Rad51, Rad52, Rad54, Rad55, Rad57, and replication protein A (RPA)--play a role in the strand exchange reaction. Here, we report a study of the meiotic phenotypes conferred by two missense mutations affecting the largest subunit of RPA, which are localized in the protein interaction domain (rfa1-t11) and in the DNA-binding domain (rfa1-t48). We find that both mutant diploids exhibit reduced sporulation efficiency, very poor spore viability, and a 10- to 100-fold decrease in meiotic recombination. Physical analyses indicate that both mutants form normal levels of meiosis-specific DSBs and that the broken ends are processed into 3'-OH single-stranded tails, indicating that the RPA complex present in these rfa1 mutants is functional in the initial steps of meiotic recombination. However, the 5' ends of the broken fragments undergo extensive resection, similar to what is observed in rad51, rad52, rad55, and rad57 mutants, indicating that these RPA mutants are defective in the repair of the Spo11-dependent DSBs that initiate homologous recombination during meiosis. PMID:12072452

  10. Several recombinant capsid proteins of equine rhinitis a virus show potential as diagnostic antigens.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Stevenson, Rachel A; Crabb, Brendan S; Studdert, Michael J; Hartley, Carol A

    2005-06-01

    Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a significant pathogen of horses and is also closely related to Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite these facts, knowledge of the prevalence and importance of ERAV infections remains limited, largely due to the absence of a simple, robust diagnostic assay. In this study, we compared the antigenicities of recombinant full-length and fragmented ERAV capsid proteins expressed in Escherichia coli by using sera from experimentally infected and naturally exposed horses. We found that, from the range of antigens tested, recombinant proteins encompassing the C-terminal region of VP1, full-length VP2, and the N-terminal region of VP2 reacted specifically with antibodies present in sera from each of the five experimentally infected horses examined. Antibodies to epitopes on VP2 (both native and recombinant forms) persisted longer postinfection (>105 days) than antibodies specific for epitopes on other fragments. Our data also suggest that B-cell epitopes within the C terminus of VP1 and N terminus of VP2 contribute to a large proportion of the total reactivity of recombinant VP1 and VP2, respectively. Importantly, the reactivity of these VP1 and VP2 recombinant proteins in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) correlated well with the results from a range of native antigen-based serological assays using sera from 12 field horses. This study provides promising candidates for development of a diagnostic ERAV ELISA.

  11. The recombinant expression and activity detection of MAF-1 fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ping; Wu, Jianwei; Gao, Song; Guo, Guo; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study establishes the recombinant expression system of MAF-1 (Musca domestica antifungal peptide-1) and demonstrates the antifungal activity of the expression product and shows the relationship between biological activity and structure. The gene segments on mature peptide part of MAF-1 were cloned, based on the primers designed according to the cDNA sequence of MAF-1. We constructed the recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmid using prokaryotic expression vector (pET-28a(+)) and converted it to the competent cell of BL21(DE3) to gain recombinant MAF-1 fusion protein with His tag sequence through purifying affinity chromatographic column of Ni-NTA. To conduct the Western Blotting test, recombinant MAF-1 fusion protein was used to produce the polyclonal antibody of rat. The antifungal activity of the expression product was detected using Candida albicans (ATCC10231) as the indicator. The MAF-1 recombinant fusion protein was purified to exhibit obvious antifungal activity, which lays the foundation for the further study of MAF-1 biological activity, the relationship between structure and function, as well as control of gene expression. PMID:26423137

  12. Evaluation of recombinant proteins of Burkholderia mallei for serodiagnosis of glanders.

    PubMed

    Pal, Vijai; Kumar, Subodh; Malik, Praveen; Rai, Ganga Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Glanders is a contagious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia mallei. The number of equine glanders outbreaks has increased steadily during the last decade. The disease must be reported to the Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France. Glanders serodiagnosis is hampered by the considerable number of false positives and negatives of the internationally prescribed tests. The major problem leading to the low sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation test (CFT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been linked to the test antigens currently used, i.e., crude preparations of whole cells. False-positive results obtained from other diagnostic tests utilizing crude antigens lead to financial losses to animal owners, and false-negative results can turn a risk into a possible threat. In this study, we report on the identification of diagnostic targets using bioinformatics tools for serodiagnosis of glanders. The identified gene sequences were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. The purified recombinant proteins of B. mallei were used in an indirect ELISA format for serodiagnosis of glanders. Two recombinant proteins, 0375H and 0375TH, exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity for glanders diagnosis. The proteins also did not cross-react with sera from patients with the closely related disease melioidosis. The results of this investigation highlight the potential of recombinant 0375H and 0375TH proteins in specific and sensitive diagnosis of glanders.

  13. The Quaternary Structure of the Recombinant Bovine Odorant-Binding Protein Is Modulated by Chemical Denaturants

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olga V.; Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Staiano, Maria; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Turoverov, Konstantin K.; D’Auria, Sabato

    2014-01-01

    A large group of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) has attracted great scientific interest as promising building blocks in constructing optical biosensors for dangerous substances, such as toxic and explosive molecules. Native tissue-extracted bovine OBP (bOBP) has a unique dimer folding pattern that involves crossing the α-helical domain in each monomer over the other monomer’s β-barrel. In contrast, recombinant bOBP maintaining the high level of stability inherent to native tissue bOBP is produced in a stable native-like state with a decreased tendency for dimerization and is a mixture of monomers and dimers in a buffered solution. This work is focused on the study of the quaternary structure and the folding-unfolding processes of the recombinant bOBP in the absence and in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Our results show that the recombinant bOBP native dimer is only formed at elevated GdnHCl concentrations (1.5 M). This process requires re-organizing the protein structure by progressing through the formation of an intermediate state. The bOBP dimerization process appears to be irreversible and it occurs before the protein unfolds. Though the observed structural changes for recombinant bOBP at pre-denaturing GdnHCl concentrations show a local character and the overall protein structure is maintained, such changes should be considered where the protein is used as a sensitive element in a biosensor system. PMID:24409322

  14. Toward an era of utilizing methionine overproducing hosts for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Veeravalli, Karthik; Laird, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid sequence variants, especially variants containing non-canonical amino acids such as norleucine and norvaline, are a concern during therapeutic protein production in microbial systems. Substitution of methionine residues with norleucine in recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli is well known. Continuous feeding of amino acids such as methionine is commonly used in E. coli fermentation processes to control incorporation of norleucine in the recombinant protein. There are several disadvantages associated with continuous feeding during a fermentation process. For example, a continuous feed increases the operational complexity and cost of a manufacturing process and results in dilution of culture medium which could result in lower cell densities and product yields. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to prevent norleucine incorporation during E. coli fermentations, a new approach using an engineered host was developed that overproduces methionine in the cell to prevent norleucine incorporation without negatively impacting fermentation process performance and product yields. In this commentary, the results on using methionine overproducing hosts for recombinant protein production in E. coli and some "watch outs" when using these hosts for recombinant protein production are discussed.

  15. Toward an era of utilizing methionine overproducing hosts for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Veeravalli, Karthik; Laird, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid sequence variants, especially variants containing non-canonical amino acids such as norleucine and norvaline, are a concern during therapeutic protein production in microbial systems. Substitution of methionine residues with norleucine in recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli is well known. Continuous feeding of amino acids such as methionine is commonly used in E. coli fermentation processes to control incorporation of norleucine in the recombinant protein. There are several disadvantages associated with continuous feeding during a fermentation process. For example, a continuous feed increases the operational complexity and cost of a manufacturing process and results in dilution of culture medium which could result in lower cell densities and product yields. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to prevent norleucine incorporation during E. coli fermentations, a new approach using an engineered host was developed that overproduces methionine in the cell to prevent norleucine incorporation without negatively impacting fermentation process performance and product yields. In this commentary, the results on using methionine overproducing hosts for recombinant protein production in E. coli and some “watch outs” when using these hosts for recombinant protein production are discussed. PMID:25801611

  16. Recombinant Flagellin-Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Cap Fusion Protein Promotes Protective Immune Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhu, Shanshan; Wei, Li; Yan, Xu; Wang, Jing; Quan, Rong; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Liu, Jue

    2015-01-01

    The Cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) that serves as a major host-protective immunogen was used to develop recombinant vaccines for control of PCV2-associated diseases. Growing research data have demonstrated the high effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant for humoral and cellular immune responses. Here, a recombinant protein was designed by fusing a modified version of bacterial flagellin to PCV2 Cap protein and expressed in a baculovirus system. When administered without adjuvant to BALB/c mice, the flagellin-Cap fusion protein elicited stronger PCV2-specific IgG antibody response, higher neutralizing antibody levels, milder histopathological changes and lower viremia, as well as higher secretion of cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ that conferred better protection against virus challenge than those in the recombinant Cap alone-inoculated mice. These results suggest that the recombinant Cap protein when fused to flagellin could elicit better humoral and cellular immune responses against PCV2 infection in a mouse model, thereby acting as an attractive candidate vaccine for control of the PCV2-associated diseases. PMID:26070075

  17. Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Elliott, R M

    1991-08-01

    A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence of the Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae) L genome segment has been constructed and cloned into two recombinant vaccinia virus expression systems. In the first, the L gene is under control of vaccinia virus P7.5 promoter; in the second, the L gene is under control of the bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter, and expression of the L gene requires coinfection with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which synthesizes T7 RNA polymerase. Both systems express a protein which is the same size as the Bunyamwera virus L protein and is recognized by a monospecific L antiserum. The expressed L protein was shown to be functional in synthesizing Bunyamwera virus RNA in a nucleocapsid transfection assay: recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were transfected with purified Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsids, and subsequently, total cellular RNA was analyzed by Northern (RNA) blotting. No Bunyamwera virus RNA was detected in control transfections, but in cells which had previously been infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the L protein, both positive- and negative-sense Bunyamwera virus S segment RNA was detected. The suitability of this system to delineate functional domains within the Bunyamwera virus L protein is discussed.

  18. The Use of Affinity Tags to Overcome Obstacles in Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Chinthaka; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Research and industrial demands for recombinant proteins continue to increase over time for their broad applications in structural and functional studies and as therapeutic agents. These applications often require large quantities of recombinant protein at desirable purity, which highlights the importance of developing and improving production approaches that provide high level expression and readily achievable purity of recombinant protein. E. coli is the most widely used host for the expression of a diverse range of proteins at low cost. However, there are common pitfalls that can severely limit the expression of exogenous proteins, such as stability, low solubility and toxicity to the host cell. To overcome these obstacles, one strategy that has found to be promising is the use of affinity tags or carrier peptide to aid in the folding of the target protein, increase solubility, lower toxicity and increase the level of expression. In the meantime, the tags and fusion proteins can be designed to facilitate affinity purification. Since the fusion protein may not exhibit the native conformation of the target protein, various strategies have been developed to remove the tag during or after purification to avoid potential complications in structural and functional studies and to obtain native biological activities. Despite extensive research and rapid development along these lines, there are unsolved problems and imperfect applications. This focused review compares and contrasts various strategies that employ affinity tags to improve bacterial expression and to facilitate purification of recombinant proteins. The pros and cons of the approaches are discussed for more effective applications and new directions of future improvement. PMID:26216265

  19. A Library of Functional Recombinant Cell-surface and Secreted P. falciparum Merozoite