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Sample records for recommended label dose

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Compliance with Recommendation for Sulfonylurea Dose Co-Administered with DPP-4 Inhibitors in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomomi; Shiosakai, Kazuhito; Takeda, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Shinji; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Motonobu

    2012-01-01

    After the launch of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a new oral hypoglycemic drug (OHD), in December 2009, severe hypoglycemia cases were reported in Japan. Although the definite cause was unknown, co-administration with sulfonylureas (SU) was suspected as one of the potential risk factors. The Japan Association for Diabetes Education and Care (JADEC) released a recommendation in April 2010 to lower the dose of three major SUs (glimepiride, glibenclamide, and gliclazide) when adding a DPP-4 inhibitor. To evaluate the effectiveness of this risk minimization action along with labeling changes, dispensing records for 114,263 patients prescribed OHDs between December 2008 and December 2010 were identified in the Nihon-Chouzai pharmacy claims database. The adherence to the recommended dosing of SU co-prescribed with DPP-4 inhibitors increased from 46.3% before to 63.8% after the JADEC recommendation (p < 0.01 by time-series analysis), while no change was found in those for SU monotherapy and SU with other OHD co-prescriptions. The adherence was significantly worse for those receiving a glibenclamide prescription. The JADEC recommendation, along with labeling changes, appeared to have a favorable effect on the risk minimization action in Japan. In these instances, a pharmacy claims database can be a useful tool to evaluate risk minimization actions. PMID:24300302

  2. [Temporary recommendation for use on off-label baclofen: viewpoint of Prescribers of the CAMTEA system].

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Deheul, Sylvie; Danel, Thierry; Bence, Camille; Blanquart, Marie-Christine; Bonord, Alexandre; Semal, Robin; Briand, Thierry; Sochala, Michel; Dubocage, Christelle; Dupriez, François; Duquesne, Damien; Gibour, Bernard; Loosfeld, Xavier; Henebelle, Dorothée; Henon, Michael; Vernalde, Elodie; Matton, Christian; Bacquet, Jean-Eudes; Molmy, Lucie; Sarasy, François; Simioni, Nicolas; Richez, Cécile; Gentil-Spinosi, Laure; Vosgien, Véronique; Yguel, Jacques; Ledent, Thierry; Auffret, Marine; Wilquin, Maroussia; Ziolkowski, Danièle; Sochala, Michel; Gautier, Sophie; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The use of high dose baclofen for alcohol-dependence emerged in France from 2008 based on empirical findings, and is still off-label. However, due to the rapid increase in this prescribing practice, the French health authorities have decided to frame it using an extraordinary regulatory measure named "temporary recommendation for use" (TRU). Baclofen prescribers from CAMTEA, a regional team-based off-label system for supervising baclofen prescribing, which was developed much prior to the TRU, discuss herein the pros and cons of this measure and the applicability of its different aspects in the daily clinical practice. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. 78 FR 53773 - Select Updates for Non-Clinical Engineering Tests and Recommended Labeling for Intravascular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...] Select Updates for Non-Clinical Engineering Tests and Recommended Labeling for Intravascular Stents and... Engineering Tests and Recommended Labeling for Intravascular Stents and Associated Delivery Systems.'' FDA has developed this guidance to inform the coronary and peripheral stent industry about selected updates to FDA's...

  4. Communicating doses of pediatric liquid medicines to parents/caregivers: a comparison of written dosing directions on prescriptions with labels applied by dispensed pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rita; Blustein, Leona; Kuffner, Ed; Davis, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    To identify and compare volumetric measures used by healthcare providers in communicating dosing instructions for pediatric liquid prescriptions to parents/caregivers. Dosing instructions were retrospectively reviewed for the 10 most frequently prescribed liquid medications dispensed from 4 community pharmacies for patients aged ≤ 12 years during a 3-month period. Volumetric measures on original prescriptions (ie, milliliters, teaspoons) were compared with those utilized by the pharmacist on the pharmacy label dispensed to the parent/caregiver. Of 649 prescriptions and corresponding pharmacy labels evaluated, 68% of prescriptions and 62% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in milliliters, 24% of prescriptions and 29% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in teaspoonfuls, 7% of prescriptions and 0% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in other measures (ie, milligrams, cubic centimeters, "dose"), and 25% of dispensed pharmacy labels did not reflect units as written in the prescription. Volumetric measures utilized by healthcare professionals in dosing instructions for prescription pediatric oral liquid medications are not consistent. Healthcare professionals and parents/caregivers should be educated on safe dosing practices for liquid pediatric medications. Generalizability to the larger pediatric population may vary depending on pharmacy chain, location, and medications evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Dashboard-Recommended Dosing Is Different than Standard of Care Dosing in Infliximab-Treated Pediatric IBD Patients.

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Marla C; Phan, Becky L; Singh, Namita; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Mould, Diane R

    2017-01-01

    Standard of care (SOC; combination of 5-10 mg/kg and an interval every 6-8 weeks) dosing of infliximab (IFX) is associated with significant loss of response. Dashboards using covariates that influence IFX pharmacokinetics (PK) may be a more precise way of optimizing anti-TNF dosing. We tested a prototype dashboard to compare forecasted dosing regimens with actual administered regimens and SOC. Fifty IBD patients completing IFX induction were monitored during maintenance (weeks 14-54). Clinical and laboratory data were collected at each infusion; serum was analyzed for IFX concentrations and anti-drug antibodies (ADA) at weeks 14 and 54 (Prometheus Labs, San Diego). Dosing was blinded to PK data. Dashboard-based assessments were conducted on de-identified clinical, laboratory, and PK data. Bayesian algorithms were used to forecast individualized troughs and determine optimal dosing to maintain target trough concentrations (3 μg/mL). Dashboard forecasted dosing post-week 14 was compared to actual administered dose and frequency and SOC. Using week 14 clinical data only, the dashboard recommended either a dose or an interval change (<0.5 mg/kg or <1 week difference) in 43/50 patients; only 44% recommended to have SOC dosing. When IFX14 concentration and ADA status were added to clinical data, dose and/or interval changes based on actual dosing were recommended in 48/50 (96%) patients; SOC dosing was recommended in only 11/50 (22%). Dashboard recommended SOC IFX dosing in a minority of patients. Dashboards will be an important tool to individualize IFX dosing to improve treatment durability.

  6. Interpretive front-of-pack nutrition labels. Comparing competing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maubach, Ninya; Hoek, Janet; Mather, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Many stakeholders support introducing an interpretive front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label, but disagree over the form it should take. In late 2012, an expert working group established by the New Zealand government recommended the adoption of an untested summary rating system: a Star label. This study used a best-worst scaling choice experiment to estimate how labels featuring the new Star rating, the Multiple Traffic Light (MTL), Daily Intake Guide (DIG), and a no-FOP control affected consumers' choice behaviours and product perceptions. Nutrient-content and health claims were included in the design. We also assessed whether respondents who used more or less information during the choice tasks differed in their selection patterns. Overall, while respondents made broadly similar choices with respect to the MTL and Star labels, the MTL format had a significantly greater impact on depressing preference as a food's nutritional profile became less healthy. Health claims increased rankings of less nutritious options, though this effect was less pronounced when the products featured an MTL. Further, respondents were best able to differentiate products' healthiness with MTL labels. The proposed summary Stars system had less effect on choice patterns than an MTL label and our findings highlight the need for policy makers to ensure that decisions to introduce FOP labels are underpinned by robust research evidence. These results suggest that the proposed summary Stars system will have less effect on shifting food choice patterns than interpretive FOP nutrition label featuring traffic light ratings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new label dosimetry system based on pentacosa-diynoic acid monomer for low dose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Abdel-Rehim, F.; Soliman, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of γ-radiation sensitive labels based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and a conjugated diacetylene monomer, 10,12-pentacosa-diynoic acid (PCDA) have been investigated using reflectance colorimeter. Two types of labels (colourless and yellow) based on PCDA monomer were prepared using an Automatic Film Applicator System. Upon γ-ray exposure, the colourless label turns progressively blue, while the yellow colour label turns to green then to dark blue. The colour intensity of the labels is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose. The useful dose range was 15 Gy-2 kGy depending on PCDA monomer concentration. The expanded uncertainty of dose measurement of the colourless label was 6.06 (2 σ).

  8. Economic Impact of Above-Label Dosing with Etanercept, Adalimumab, or Ustekinumab in Patients with Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Huanxue; Herrera, Vivian; Tian, Haijun; Li, Yunfeng

    2017-05-01

    Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis may be treated with above-label doses of biologics in an attempt to optimize outcomes. Dose escalation will have an effect on the cost of treatment. To examine costs related to above-label use of etanercept, adalimumab, and ustekinumab among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. A retrospective study was performed using a large U.S. claims database. Patients were included in the study if they were aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of psoriasis (excluding psoriatic arthritis) and had at least 1 medication fill for etanercept, adalimumab, or ustekinumab between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012. In addition, patients were required to have continuous enrollment for 12 months before, and 18 months after, the first biologic use (index biologic) during the maintenance period (defined as the period following the induction period in which each agent was titrated to its recommended maintenance dose per label) and at least 1 prescription filled for the index biologic during the 18 months after the maintenance period. Extensive above-label use was defined as taking an above-label dose (at least 10% higher than indicated in the label) for ≥ 180 days over a 12-month period following the maintenance period. Percentages of patients with extensive above-label use, mean number of days of above-label use, and additional costs associated with extensive above-label use (abovelabel cost minus on-label cost) were examined. The study included 3,310 patients who started treatment with etanercept (n = 1,443), adalimumab (n = 1,447), or ustekinumab (n = 420). Extensive above-label use occurred in 20.0% of etanercept patients, 2.6% of adalimumab patients, and 14.8% of ustekinumab patients. The mean duration of extensive above-label use was roughly similar for the 3 biologics (mean days [±SD]: 282 [±55] for etanercept, 279 [±57] for adalimumab, and 305 [±43] for ustekinumab). Additional annual costs per patient because of extensive

  9. SU-C-16A-05: OAR Dose Tolerance Recommendations for Prostate and Cervical HDR Brachytherapy: Dose Versus Volume Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Geneser, S; Cunha, J; Pouliot, J

    Purpose: HDR brachytherapy consensus dose tolerance recommendations for organs at risk (OARs) remain widely debated. Prospective trials reporting metrics must be sufficiently data-dense to assess adverse affects and identify optimally predictive tolerances. We explore the tradeoffs between reporting dose-metrics versus volume-metrics and the potential impact on trial outcome analysis and tolerance recommendations. Methods: We analyzed 26 prostate patients receiving 15 Gy HDR single-fraction brachytherapy boost to 45 Gy external beam radiation therapy and 28 cervical patients receiving 28 Gy HDR brachytherapy monotherapy in 4 fractions using 2 implants. For each OAR structure, a robust linear regression fit was performed formore » the dose-metrics as a function of the volume-metrics. The plan quality information provided by recommended dose-metric and volume-metric values were compared. Results: For prostate rectal dose, D2cc and V75 lie close to the regression line, indicating they are similarly informative. Two outliers for prostate urethral dose are substantially different from the remaining cohort in terms of D0.1cc and V75, but not D1cc, suggesting the choice of reporting dose metric is essential. For prostate bladder and cervical bladder, rectum, and bowel, dose outliers are more apparent via V75 than recommended dose-metrics. This suggests that for prostate bladder dose and all cervical OAR doses, the recommended volume-metrics may be better predictors of clinical outcome than dose-metrics. Conclusion: For plan acceptance criteria, dose and volume-metrics are reciprocally equivalent. However, reporting dosemetrics or volume-metrics alone provides substantially different information. Our results suggest that volume-metrics may be more sensitive to differences in planned dose, and if one metric must be chosen, volumemetrics are preferable. However, reporting discrete DVH points severely limits the ability to identify planning tolerances most predictive of

  10. Affordable measurement of human total energy expenditure and body composition using one-tenth dose doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Mann, D V; Ho, C S; Critchley, L; Fok, B S P; Pang, E W H; Lam, C W K; Hjelm, N M

    2007-05-01

    The doubly labelled water (DLW) method is the technique of choice for measurement of free-living total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans. A major constraint on the clinical applicability of the method has been the expense of the (18)O isotope. We have used a reduced-dose (one-tenth of the currently recommended standard dose) of DLW for the measurement of TEE and body composition in nine healthy adult male volunteers. TEE measured by reduced-dose DLW was positively correlated with resting energy expenditure measured by metabolic cart (r=0.87, P<0.01). Isotope-derived fat mass and body mass index were strongly correlated (r=0.86, P<0.01). In four subjects in whom we performed a complementary evaluation using standard-dose isotope enrichment, the TEE measurements were satisfactorily comparable (mean+/-s.d.: reduced dose 2586+/-155 kcal/day vs standard dose 2843+/-321 kcal/day; mean difference 257+/-265 kcal/day). These data indicate that DLW measurements of human energy expenditure and body composition can be performed at a substantially reduced dose (and cost) of isotope enrichment than is currently employed.

  11. A multi-label learning based kernel automatic recommendation method for support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Song, Qinbao

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate kernel is very important and critical when classifying a new problem with Support Vector Machine. So far, more attention has been paid on constructing new kernels and choosing suitable parameter values for a specific kernel function, but less on kernel selection. Furthermore, most of current kernel selection methods focus on seeking a best kernel with the highest classification accuracy via cross-validation, they are time consuming and ignore the differences among the number of support vectors and the CPU time of SVM with different kernels. Considering the tradeoff between classification success ratio and CPU time, there may be multiple kernel functions performing equally well on the same classification problem. Aiming to automatically select those appropriate kernel functions for a given data set, we propose a multi-label learning based kernel recommendation method built on the data characteristics. For each data set, the meta-knowledge data base is first created by extracting the feature vector of data characteristics and identifying the corresponding applicable kernel set. Then the kernel recommendation model is constructed on the generated meta-knowledge data base with the multi-label classification method. Finally, the appropriate kernel functions are recommended to a new data set by the recommendation model according to the characteristics of the new data set. Extensive experiments over 132 UCI benchmark data sets, with five different types of data set characteristics, eleven typical kernels (Linear, Polynomial, Radial Basis Function, Sigmoidal function, Laplace, Multiquadric, Rational Quadratic, Spherical, Spline, Wave and Circular), and five multi-label classification methods demonstrate that, compared with the existing kernel selection methods and the most widely used RBF kernel function, SVM with the kernel function recommended by our proposed method achieved the highest classification performance.

  12. A Multi-Label Learning Based Kernel Automatic Recommendation Method for Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueying; Song, Qinbao

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate kernel is very important and critical when classifying a new problem with Support Vector Machine. So far, more attention has been paid on constructing new kernels and choosing suitable parameter values for a specific kernel function, but less on kernel selection. Furthermore, most of current kernel selection methods focus on seeking a best kernel with the highest classification accuracy via cross-validation, they are time consuming and ignore the differences among the number of support vectors and the CPU time of SVM with different kernels. Considering the tradeoff between classification success ratio and CPU time, there may be multiple kernel functions performing equally well on the same classification problem. Aiming to automatically select those appropriate kernel functions for a given data set, we propose a multi-label learning based kernel recommendation method built on the data characteristics. For each data set, the meta-knowledge data base is first created by extracting the feature vector of data characteristics and identifying the corresponding applicable kernel set. Then the kernel recommendation model is constructed on the generated meta-knowledge data base with the multi-label classification method. Finally, the appropriate kernel functions are recommended to a new data set by the recommendation model according to the characteristics of the new data set. Extensive experiments over 132 UCI benchmark data sets, with five different types of data set characteristics, eleven typical kernels (Linear, Polynomial, Radial Basis Function, Sigmoidal function, Laplace, Multiquadric, Rational Quadratic, Spherical, Spline, Wave and Circular), and five multi-label classification methods demonstrate that, compared with the existing kernel selection methods and the most widely used RBF kernel function, SVM with the kernel function recommended by our proposed method achieved the highest classification performance. PMID:25893896

  13. A Methodology to Compare Insulin Dosing Recommendations in Real-Life Settings.

    PubMed

    Groat, Danielle; Grando, Maria A; Thompson, Bithika; Neto, Pedro; Soni, Hiral; Boyle, Mary E; Bailey, Marilyn; Cook, Curtiss B

    2017-11-01

    We propose a methodology to analyze complex real-life glucose data in insulin pump users. Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on insulin pumps were recruited from an academic endocrinology practice. Glucose data, insulin bolus (IB) amounts, and self-reported alcohol consumption and exercise events were collected for 30 days. Rules were developed to retrospectively compare IB recommendations from the insulin pump bolus calculator (IPBC) against recommendations from a proposed decision aid (PDA) and for assessing the PDA's recommendation for exercise and alcohol. Data from 15 participants were analyzed. When considering instances where glucose was below target, the PDA recommended a smaller dose in 14%, but a larger dose in 13% and an equivalent IB in 73%. For glucose levels at target, the PDA suggested an equivalent IB in 58% compared to the subject's IPBC, but higher doses in 20% and lower in 22%. In events where postprandial glucose was higher than target, the PDA suggested higher doses in 25%, lower doses in 13%, and equivalent doses in 62%. In 64% of all alcohol events the PDA would have provided appropriate advice. In 75% of exercise events, the PDA appropriately advised an IB, a carbohydrate snack, or neither. This study provides a methodology to systematically analyze real-life data generated by insulin pumps and allowed a preliminary analysis of the performance of the PDA for insulin dosing. Further testing of the methodological approach in a broader diabetes population and prospective testing of the PDA are needed.

  14. Evaluation of radiation dose to anthropomorphic paediatric models from positron-emitting labelled tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-03-01

    PET uses specific molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides to provide valuable biochemical and physiological information. However, the administration of radiotracers to patients exposes them to low-dose ionizing radiation, which is a concern in the paediatric population since children are at a higher cancer risk from radiation exposure than adults. Therefore, radiation dosimety calculations for commonly used positron-emitting radiotracers in the paediatric population are highly desired. We evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 19 positron-emitting labelled radiotracers in anthropomorphic paediatric models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old male and female. This is achieved using pre-calculated S-values of positron-emitting radionuclides of UF-NCI paediatric phantoms and published biokinetic data for various radiotracers. The influence of the type of anthropomorphic model, tissue weight factors and direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data on the effective dose for paediatric phantoms was also evaluated. In the case of 18F-FDG, dosimetry calculations of reference paediatric patients from various dose regimens were also calculated. Among the considered radiotracers, 18F-FBPA and 15O-water resulted in the highest and lowest effective dose in the paediatric phantoms, respectively. The ICRP 103 updated tissue-weighting factors decrease the effective dose in most cases. Substantial differences of radiation dose were observed between direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data. Moreover, the effect of using voxel- versus MIRD-type models on the calculation of the effective dose was also studied. The generated database of absorbed organ dose and effective dose for various positron-emitting labelled radiotracers using new generation computational models and the new ICRP tissue-weighting factors can be used for the assessment of radiation risks to paediatric patients in clinical practice. This work also contributes

  15. Adherence with renal dosing recommendations in outpatients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, G J; Je, N K; Kim, D-S; Lee, S

    2016-02-01

    Adjustment of drug dosage in patients with end-stage renal disease prevents serious adverse effects, which occur due to the accumulation of drugs or other toxic metabolites. Nevertheless, dosing errors occur most commonly among patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of care for end-stage renal disease outpatients using their renal dosing adjustment status. A cross-sectional study was performed using the data collected from 43 South Korean medical institutions via questionnaires. A total of 2428 patients on haemodialysis, who were at least 18 years of age, were included. Among these patients, the study population was confined to patients who were taking medications and required renal dosing adjustments from three therapeutic classes: antihypertensives, antihyperglycaemics and lipid-modifying agents. The study population (n = 828) was prescribed a total of 1097 drug orders for the target drugs. Determination of appropriate dosage adjustment was based on GFR (glomerular filtration rate) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease revised 4-variable equation. The primary outcome was non-adherence to drug dosing requirements for end-stage renal disease patients with consideration to their renal function. Among the study population (n = 828), 469 haemodialysis patients were identified as having drug orders that were adherent to renal dosing recommendations. There were significant differences between the patient groups who received recommendation-adherent and non-adherent drug orders in the characteristics of the medical institutions they visited, causes of chronic renal failure and prevalence of concurrent diabetes mellitus. The primary factor of non-adherence to renal dosing adjustment recommendations was characteristics of medical institutions. Compared to tertiary hospitals, secondary hospitals and primary care clinics were 1·16 and 1·22 times, respectively, more non-adherent in accordance with the multivariate

  16. Comparing Drug-Disease Associations in Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations and Drug Product Label Indications.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tiffany I; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and structured product labels (SPLs) are both intended to promote evidence-based medical practices and guide clinicians' prescribing decisions. However, it is unclear how well CPG recommendations about pharmacologic therapies for certain diseases match SPL indications for recommended drugs. In this study, we use publicly available data and text mining methods to examine drug-disease associations in CPG recommendations and SPL treatment indications for 15 common chronic conditions. Preliminary results suggest that there is a mismatch between guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapies and SPL indications. Conflicting or inconsistent recommendations and indications may complicate clinical decision making and implementation or measurement of best practices.

  17. Adolescent dosing and labeling since the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007.

    PubMed

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Mulugeta, Yeruk; Green, Dionna J; Karesh, Alyson; Krudys, Kevin M; Sachs, Hari C; Yao, Lynn P; Burckart, Gilbert J

    2013-10-01

    During pediatric drug development, dedicated pharmacokinetic studies are generally performed in all relevant age groups to support dose selection for subsequent efficacy trials. To our knowledge, no previous assessments regarding the need for an intensive pharmacokinetic study in adolescents have been performed. To compare U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved adult and adolescent drug dosing and to assess the utility of allometric scaling for the prediction of drug clearance in the adolescent population. Adult and adolescent dosing and drug clearance data were obtained from FDA-approved drug labels and publicly available databases containing reviews of pediatric trials submitted to the FDA. Dosing information was compared for products with concordant indications for adolescent and adult patients. Adolescent drug clearance was predicted from adult pharmacokinetic data by using allometric scaling and compared with observed values. Adolescent and adult dosing information and drug clearance. There were 126 unique products with pediatric studies submitted to the FDA since the FDA Amendments Act of 2007, of which 92 had at least 1 adolescent indication concordant with an adult indication. Of these 92 products, 87 (94.5%) have equivalent dosing for adults and adolescent patients. For 18 of these 92 products, a minimum weight or body surface area threshold is recommended for adolescents to receive adult dosing. Allometric scaling predicted adolescent drug clearance with an overall mean absolute percentage error of 17.0%. Approved adult and adolescent drug dosing is equivalent for 94.5% of products with an adolescent indication studied since the FDA Amendments Act of 2007. Allometric scaling may be a useful tool to avoid unnecessary dedicated pharmacokinetic studies in the adolescent population during pediatric drug development, although each development program in adolescents requires a full discussion of drug dosing with the FDA.

  18. Current dosing of low-molecular-weight heparins does not reflect licensed product labels: an international survey

    PubMed Central

    Barras, Michael A; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Green, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are used globally to treat thromboembolic diseases; however, there is much debate on how to prescribe effectively for patients who have renal impairment and/or obesity. We aimed to investigate the strategies used to dose-individualize LMWH therapy. METHODS We conducted an online survey of selected hospitals in Australia, New Zealand (NZ), United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Outcome measures included: the percentage of hospitals which recommended that LMWHs were prescribed according to the product label (PL), the percentage of hospitals that dose-individualized LMWHs outside the PL based on renal function, body weight and anti-Xa activity and a summary of methods used to dose-individualize therapy. RESULTS A total of 257 surveys were suitable for analysis: 84 (33%) from Australia, 79 (31%) from the UK, 73 (28%) from the US and 21 (8%) from NZ. Formal dosing protocols were used in 207 (81%) hospitals, of which 198 (96%) did not adhere to the PL. Of these 198 hospitals, 175 (87%) preferred to dose-individualize based on renal function, 128 (62%) on body weight and 48 (23%) by monitoring anti-Xa activity. All three of these variables were used in 29 (14%) hospitals, 98 (47%) used two variables and 71 (34%) used only one variable. CONCLUSIONS Dose-individualization strategies for LMWHs, which contravene the PL, were present in 96% of surveyed hospitals. Common individualization methods included dose-capping, use of lean body size descriptors to calculate renal function and the starting dose, followed by post dose anti-Xa monitoring. PMID:20573088

  19. Current dosing of low-molecular-weight heparins does not reflect licensed product labels: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Barras, Michael A; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Green, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are used globally to treat thromboembolic diseases; however, there is much debate on how to prescribe effectively for patients who have renal impairment and/or obesity. We aimed to investigate the strategies used to dose-individualize LMWH therapy. We conducted an online survey of selected hospitals in Australia, New Zealand (NZ), United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Outcome measures included: the percentage of hospitals which recommended that LMWHs were prescribed according to the product label (PL), the percentage of hospitals that dose-individualized LMWHs outside the PL based on renal function, body weight and anti-Xa activity and a summary of methods used to dose-individualize therapy. A total of 257 surveys were suitable for analysis: 84 (33%) from Australia, 79 (31%) from the UK, 73 (28%) from the US and 21 (8%) from NZ. Formal dosing protocols were used in 207 (81%) hospitals, of which 198 (96%) did not adhere to the PL. Of these 198 hospitals, 175 (87%) preferred to dose-individualize based on renal function, 128 (62%) on body weight and 48 (23%) by monitoring anti-Xa activity. All three of these variables were used in 29 (14%) hospitals, 98 (47%) used two variables and 71 (34%) used only one variable. Dose-individualization strategies for LMWHs, which contravene the PL, were present in 96% of surveyed hospitals. Common individualization methods included dose-capping, use of lean body size descriptors to calculate renal function and the starting dose, followed by post dose anti-Xa monitoring.

  20. Supplementing Menu Labeling With Calorie Recommendations to Test for Facilitation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jessica; Wansink, Brian; Loewenstein, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect on food purchases of adding recommended calorie intake per day or per meal to the mandated calorie information posted on chain restaurant menus. Methods. Before and after New York City implemented calorie posting on chain restaurant menus in 2008, we provided daily, per-meal, or no calorie recommendations to randomized subsets of adult lunchtime customers (n = 1121) entering 2 McDonald’s restaurants, in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and collected receipts and survey responses as they exited. In linear and logistic regressions, with adjustment for gender, race, age, and day, we tested for simple differences in calories consumed and interactions between variables. Results. Posting calorie benchmarks had no direct impact, nor did it moderate the impact of calorie labels on food purchases. The recommendation appeared to promote a slight increase in calorie intake, attributable to increased purchases of higher-calorie entrées. Conclusions. These results do not support the introduction of calorie recommendations as a means of enhancing the impact of posted calorie information or reducing the contribution of restaurant dining to the obesity epidemic. PMID:23865657

  1. Ceftazidime dosing in the elderly: economic implications.

    PubMed

    Vlasses, P H; Bastion, W A; Behal, R; Sirgo, M A

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and resulting costs of ceftazidime dosing in excess of product labeling recommendations in elderly hospitalized patients. Ceftazidime is a beta-lactam antibiotic excreted via glomerular filtration. According to product labeling, ceftazidime dosing can frequently be decreased in the elderly because glomerular filtration declines with age. A multicenter, retrospective utilization audit involving 11 US academic medical centers examined 221 medical records of patients 65 years of age or older receiving ceftazidime (any brand, any indication). The creatinine clearance of each patient was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Renal insufficiency, defined as an estimated creatinine clearance of less than 50 mL/min, was present in 111 of the patients (50 percent). Ceftazidime dosing in excess of product labeling recommendations was noted in 75 of those 111 (68 percent). The cost of excess ceftazidime dosing for those 75 patients (i.e., extra drug acquisition, preparation, administration) was $13,822.50. Although the dosage of ceftazidime required in a specific patient is based on many factors, ceftazidime is frequently overdosed in the elderly because renal function is not considered. Ceftazidime dose-adjustment in the elderly, based on the estimated creatinine clearance, can lead to cost savings. In the US, where hospital reimbursement by Medicare is based on diagnosis, institutions can realize direct cost savings.

  2. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  3. 76 FR 53847 - New International Commission on Radiological Protection; Recommendations on the Annual Dose Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Radiological Protection; Recommendations on the Annual Dose Limit to the Lens of the Eye AGENCY: Nuclear... Protection (ICRP) recommendations for the limitation of annual dose to the lens of the eye. This significant... might be lower than previously considered. For the lens of the eye, the threshold in absorbed dose for...

  4. Individual bone structure segmentation and labeling from low-dose chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Xie, Yiting; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    The segmentation and labeling of the individual bones serve as the first step to the fully automated measurement of skeletal characteristics and the detection of abnormalities such as skeletal deformities, osteoporosis, and vertebral fractures. Moreover, the identified landmarks on the segmented bone structures can potentially provide relatively reliable location reference to other non-rigid human organs, such as breast, heart and lung, thereby facilitating the corresponding image analysis and registration. A fully automated anatomy-directed framework for the segmentation and labeling of the individual bone structures from low-dose chest CT is presented in this paper. The proposed system consists of four main stages: First, both clavicles are segmented and labeled by fitting a piecewise cylindrical envelope. Second, the sternum is segmented under the spatial constraints provided by the segmented clavicles. Third, all ribs are segmented and labeled based on 3D region growing within the volume of interest defined with reference to the spinal canal centerline and lungs. Fourth, the individual thoracic vertebrae are segmented and labeled by image intensity based analysis in the spatial region constrained by the previously segmented bone structures. The system performance was validated with 1270 lowdose chest CT scans through visual evaluation. Satisfactory performance was obtained respectively in 97.1% cases for the clavicle segmentation and labeling, in 97.3% cases for the sternum segmentation, in 97.2% cases for the rib segmentation, in 94.2% cases for the rib labeling, in 92.4% cases for vertebra segmentation and in 89.9% cases for the vertebra labeling.

  5. The incidence of phlebitis with intravenous amiodarone at guideline dose recommendations.

    PubMed

    Slim, Ahmad M; Roth, Jason E; Duffy, Benjamin; Boyd, Sheri Y N; Rubal, Bernard J

    2007-12-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation following cardiothoracic surgery is common and frequently managed with intravenous (IV) amiodarone. Phlebitis is the most common complication with peripheral infusion of this agent. Current practice guidelines for peripheral IV administration of <2 mg/mL amiodarone were established to reduce the risk of phlebitis. The present study examines the incidence of phlebitis in a postoperative patient population given current dose recommendations. A total of 273 patient charts were reviewed. The incidence of phlebitis in patients given IV amiodarone (n = 36) was 13.9% (95% confidence interval, 2.6-25.2%; p = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis with backward elimination of other therapeutic risk factors suggests that the odds ratio for phlebitis using current dose regimens without IV filters is 19-fold greater than baseline risk in this population. Phlebitis remains a significant complication associated with peripheral infusion of amiodarone within recommended dosing limits.

  6. [131I]FIAU labeling of genetically transduced, tumor-reactive lymphocytes: cell-level dosimetry and dose-dependent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat; Koehne, Guenther; Gallardo, Humilidad F; Doubrovin, Mikhail; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Finn, Ronald; Blasberg, Ronald G; Riviere, Isabelle; O'Reilly, Richard J; Sadelain, Michel; Larson, Steven M

    2006-09-01

    Donor T cells have been shown to be reactive against and effective in adoptive immunotherapy of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphomas which develop in some leukemia patients post marrow transplantation. These T cells may be genetically modified by incorporation of a replication-incompetent viral vector (NIT) encoding both an inactive mutant nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR), as an immunoselectable surface marker, and a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), rendering the cells sensitive to ganciclovir. The current studies are based on the selective HSV-TK-catalyzed trapping (phosphorylation) of the thymidine analog [(131)I]-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-beta-D-arabinofuransyl-5-iodo-uracil (FIAU) as a means of stably labeling such T cells for in vivo trafficking (including tumor targeting) studies. Because of the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes and the potentially high absorbed dose to the nucleus from intracellular (131)I (even at tracer levels), the nucleus absorbed dose (D ( n )) and dose-dependent immune functionality were evaluated for NIT(+) T cells labeled ex vivo in [(131)I]FIAU-containing medium. Based on in vitro kinetic studies of [(131)I]FIAU uptake by NIT(+) T cells, D ( n ) was calculated using an adaptation of the MIRD formalism and the recently published MIRD cellular S factors. Immune cytotoxicity of [(131)I]FIAU-labeled cells was assayed against (51)Cr-labeled target cells [B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLCLs)] in a standard 4-h release assay. At median nuclear absorbed doses up to 830 cGy, a (51)Cr-release assay against BLCLs showed no loss of immune cytotoxicity, thus demonstrating the functional integrity of genetically transduced, tumor-reactive T cells labeled at this dose level for in vivo cell trafficking and tumor targeting studies.

  7. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2015-09-09

    : Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX(®), UpToDate(®), Medscape(®) and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss' kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211-0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292-0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  8. Initial apixaban dosing in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Alexander; Ueberham, Laura; Gorczynska, Kaja; Dinov, Borislav; Hilbert, Sebastian; Dagres, Nikolaos; Husser, Daniela; Hindricks, Gerhard; Bollmann, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Apixaban is a non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Current labeling recommends dose reduction based on patient age, weight, and renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze adherence to current labeling instructions concerning initial apixaban dosing in clinical practice and identify factors associated with inappropriate dose reduction. Patients with AF initiated on apixaban in 2016 were identified in the Heart Center Leipzig database. Records were screened to identify patient characteristics, prescribed apixaban dose, renal function, and further dosing-relevant secondary diagnoses and co-medication. We identified 569 consecutive patients with AF initiated on apixaban. In 301 (52.9%) patients, apixaban was prescribed in standard dose (5 mg b.i.d.) and in 268 (47.1%) in a reduced dose (2.5 mg b.i.d.). Of 268 patients receiving a reduced dose, 163 (60.8%) did not meet labeling criteria for dose reduction. In univariate and multivariate regression analysis, age (OR: 0.736, 95% CI: 0.664-0.816, P < 0.0001), patient weight (OR: 1.120, 95% CI: 1.076-1.166, P < 0.0001), and serum creatinine level (OR: 0.910, 95% CI: 0.881-0.940, P < 0.0001) were independent predictors for apixaban underdosage. In clinical practice, apixaban dosing is frequently inconsistent with labeling. Factors associated with inappropriate dose reduction are age, patient weight, and serum creatinine level, the same factors used as criteria for dose adjustment. However, in underdosed patients, the 3 factors did not meet the criteria for dose reduction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  10. Decrease in varicella incidence after implementation of the 2-dose recommendation for varicella vaccine in New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Daly, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Ludmila; Dreisig, John; Dionne-Odom, Jodie

    2013-09-01

    Varicella is a common infectious disease, for which 2-dose vaccination was recommended in 2006. Varicella case and vaccination data in New Hampshire were analyzed to assess impact of this recommendation on disease incidence and clinical characteristics. Varicella incidence decreased after the 2-dose recommendation, with greatest reductions in ages 5-19 years. Continued vaccination efforts should further reduce disease.

  11. Iron absorption from oral iron supplements given on consecutive versus alternate days and as single morning doses versus twice-daily split dosing in iron-depleted women: two open-label, randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Nicole U; Cercamondi, Colin I; Brittenham, Gary; Zeder, Christophe; Geurts-Moespot, Anneke J; Swinkels, Dorine W; Moretti, Diego; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-11-01

    Current guidelines to treat iron deficiency recommend daily provision of ferrous iron divided through the day to increase absorption. However, daily dosing and split dosing might increase serum hepcidin and decrease iron absorption from subsequent doses. Our study aim was to compare iron absorption from oral iron supplements given on consecutive versus alternate days and given as single morning doses versus twice-daily split dosing. We did two prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trials assessing iron absorption using ( 54 Fe)-labelled, ( 57 Fe)-labelled, or ( 58 Fe)-labelled ferrous sulfate in iron-depleted (serum ferritin ≤25 μg/L) women aged 18-40 years recruited from ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich, Switzerland. In study 1, women were randomly assigned (1:1) to two groups. One group was given 60 mg iron at 0800 h (±1 h) on consecutive days for 14 days, and the other group was given the same doses on alternate days for 28 days. In study 2, women were assigned to two groups, stratified by serum ferritin so that two groups with similar iron statuses could be formed. One group was given 120 mg iron at 0800 h (±1 h) and the other was given the dose split into two divided doses of 60 mg at 0800 h (±1 h) and 1700 h (±1 h) for three consecutive days. 14 days after the final dose, the groups were each crossed over to the other regimen. Within-individual comparisons were done. The co-primary outcomes in both studies were iron bioavailability (total and fractional iron absorption), assessed by measuring the isotopic label abundance in erythrocytes 14 days after administration, and serum hepcidin. Group allocations in both studies were not masked and primary and safety analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. The studies were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02175888 (study 1) and NCT02177851 (study 2) and are complete. For study 1, 40 women were enrolled on Oct 15-29, 2015. 21 women were assigned to the consecutive-day group

  12. Persistent use of against-label statin-fibrate combinations from 2003-2009 despite United States Food and Drug Administration dose restrictions.

    PubMed

    Alford, Julie C; Saseen, Joseph J; Allen, Richard R; Nair, Kavita V

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of prescribing against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy. Retrospective cohort study. Medstat MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounter database. Adults (aged 18-89 yrs) who were prescribed statin-fibrate combination therapy between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2009, had pharmacy claims demonstrating two or more concurrently filled prescriptions for a statin and a fibrate, and had continuous insurance enrollment for at least 12 months. Claims data were used to identify patients with dyslipidemia based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. National Drug Codes were used to describe concurrent statin-fibrate combination therapy. The primary outcome was recent use of against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy, defined as use during the last 18 months (January 1, 2008-June 30, 2009) of the study period. Patients were stratified according to statin and dosage to identify against-label combination use (e.g., simvastatin > 10 mg/day with gemfibrozil). Within the recent-use period, 131,394 patients were prescribed concurrent statin-fibrate combination therapy; of these patients, 13,420 (10.2%) had against-label therapy. Simvastatin-gemfibrozil accounted for 8978 (66.9%) of all against-label combinations. Of all 9877 simvastatin-gemfibrozil combinations prescribed in the recent-use period (both on-label and against-label use), 8978 (90.9%) were against label. The secondary outcome was prevalence of against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy on an annual basis: 15.5% in 2003, 18.7% in 2004, 9.1% in 2005, 8.3% in 2006, 9.2% in 2007, and 9.8% in 2008. Against-label statin-fibrate combination therapy continues to be prescribed despite established United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dose restrictions. Nearly every time the simvastatin-gemfibrozil combination was prescribed, it was against label because simvastatin exceeded the maximum dose restriction

  13. Discriminating nutritional quality of foods using the 5-Color nutrition label in the French food market: consistency with nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Méjean, Caroline; Fézeu, Léopold; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-28

    Our objectives were to assess the performance of the 5-Colour nutrition label (5-CNL) front-of-pack nutrition label based on the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system to discriminate nutritional quality of foods currently on the market in France and its consistency with French nutritional recommendations. Nutritional composition of 7777 foods available on the French market collected from the web-based collaborative project Open Food Facts were retrieved. Distribution of products across the 5-CNL categories according to food groups, as arranged in supermarket shelves was assessed. Distribution of similar products from different brands in the 5-CNL categories was also assessed. Discriminating performance was considered as the number of color categories present in each food group. In the case of discrepancies between the category allocation and French nutritional recommendations, adaptations of the original score were proposed. Overall, the distribution of foodstuffs in the 5-CNL categories was consistent with French recommendations: 95.4% of 'Fruits and vegetables', 72.5% of 'Cereals and potatoes' were classified as 'Green' or 'Yellow' whereas 86.0% of 'Sugary snacks' were classified as 'Pink' or 'Red'. Adaptations to the original FSA score computation model were necessary for beverages, added fats and cheese in order to be consistent with French official nutritional recommendations. The 5-CNL label displays a high performance in discriminating nutritional quality of foods across food groups, within a food group and for similar products from different brands. Adaptations from the original model were necessary to maintain consistency with French recommendations and high performance of the system.

  14. 78 FR 15370 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Product Container Is Not Made With Natural Rubber Latex.'' The purpose of this draft guidance is to make recommendations on the appropriate language to include in the labeling of a medical product to convey that natural... Products To Inform Users That the Product or Product Container Is Not Made With Natural Rubber Latex...

  15. Methodological Challenges in Describing Medication Dosing Errors in Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    recommendations. As an example, amoxicillin is the most commonly used medication in children. This one drug accounts for approximately 10 percent of...and a team intervention on prevention of serious medication errors. JAMA 1998;280(15):1311–6. 13. Bates DW, Teich JM, Lee J, et al. The impact of...barriers include prescribing medication that is not labeled for use in children, discrepancies in published dosing recommendations for many

  16. Use of gastroprotective agents in recommended doses in hospitalized patients receiving NSAIDs: a drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Erdeljic, Viktorija; Francetic, Igor; Macolic Sarinic, Viola; Bilusic, Marinko; Makar Ausperger, Ksenija; Huic, Mirjana; Mercep, Iveta

    2006-10-01

    In recent years, studies investigated to what extend recommendations for co-prescribing gastroprotective agents in prevention of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications are followed in clinical practice. However, only a few studies have also taken into consideration the recommended dose of gastroprotectives prescribed in NSAID-induced ulcer prophylaxis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of concomitant use of gastroprotectives with NSAIDs in hospitalized patients, with emphasis on the recommended dose of gastroprotectives for ulcer prophylaxis. This observational, cross-sectional, drug utilization study included all adult patients receiving NSAIDs hospitalized in the Clinical Hospital Center Zagreb on the day of the study. Data on age, sex, comorbidities, indications for NSAID use, type/dose of NSAIDs and gastroprotectives, history of gastrointestinal events, active gastrointestinal symptoms and risk factors were evaluated. Study outcomes were: (1) prevalence of prescription of gastroprotectives among NSAID-users at risk; (2) prevalence of prescription of gastroprotective in recommended dose; (3) association between risk factors and prescription of GPAs. The rates of gastroprotectives prescription were significantly higher in NSAID-users with concomitant risk factors as compared to patients without risk factors [47/70 (67.1%) and 8/22 (36.4%), respectively; p=0.01072]. However, gastroprotection in recommended ulcer-preventive dose was low in both groups [8/70 (11.4%) and 9/92 (9.8%), respectively]. The number of concomitant risk factors did not increase the odds of receiving anti-ulcer therapy (odds ratio 0.7279). Thirty-three percent of patients with concomitant risk factors were not prescribed gastroprotectives. Ibuprofen, NSAID with the lowest risk of inducing gastrointestinal complications, was prescribed in only two patients. The results indicate high awareness among hospital physicians about possible NSAID-induced gastrointestinal

  17. Off-label use of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Neels, Pieter; Southern, James; Abramson, Jon; Duclos, Philippe; Hombach, Joachim; Marti, Melanie; Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Hanquet, Germaine

    2017-04-25

    This article reviews the off-label recommendations and use of vaccines, and focuses on the differences between the labelled instructions on how to use the vaccine as approved by the regulatory authorities (or "label" 1 ), and the recommendations for use issued by public health advisory bodies at national and international levels. Differences between public health recommendations and the product label regarding the vaccine use can lead to confusion at the level of vaccinators and vaccinees and possibly result in lower compliance with national vaccination schedules. In particular, in many countries, the label may contain regulatory restrictions and warnings against vaccination of specific population groups (e.g. pregnant women) due to a lack of evidence of safety from controlled trials at the time of initial licensure of the vaccine, while public health authorities may recommend the same vaccine for that group, based on additional post-marketing data and benefit risk analyses. We provide an overview of the different responsibilities between regulatory authorities and public health advisory bodies, and the rationale for off-label use 2 of vaccines, the challenges involved based on the impact of off-label use in real-life. We propose to reduce off-label use of vaccines by requiring the manufacturer to regularly adapt the label as much as possible to the public health needs as supported by new evidence. This would require manufacturers to collect and report post-marketing data, communicate them to all stakeholders and regulators to extrapolate existing evidence (when acceptable) to other groups or to other brands of a vaccine (class effect 3 ). Regulatory authorities have a key role to play by requesting additional post-marketing data, e.g. in specific target groups. When public health recommendations for vaccine use that are outside labelled indications are considered necessary, good communication between regulatory bodies, public health authorities, companies and

  18. Reading the Small Print – Labelling Recommendations for Orthopaedic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Haene, Roger A; Sandhu, Ranbir S; Baxandall, Richard

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There exist, currently, no clear guidelines regarding standards for surgical implant labelling. Dimensions of the laminar flow canopies in orthopaedic use fixes the distance at which implant labels can be read. Mistakes when reading the label on an implant box can pose health risks for patients, and financial consequences for medical institutions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Using scientifically validated tools such as the Snellen Chart Formula, a theoretical minimum standard for text on implant labels was reached. This theoretical standard was then tested under real operating conditions. After discovering a minimum practical standard for implant labels, the authors then audited current labels in use on a wide range of orthopaedic implant packages. Furthermore, other non-text-related labelling problems were also noted. RESULTS There is a definite minimum standard which should be observed when implant labels are manufactured. Implants in current use bear labels on the packaging that are of an insufficient standard to ensure patient safety in theatre. CONCLUSIONS The authors have established text parameters that will increase the legibility of implant labels. In the interests of improving risk management in theatre, therefore, the authors propose a standard for orthopaedic implant labelling, and believe this will provide a useful foundation for further discussion between the orthopaedic community and implant manufacturers. PMID:19686615

  19. Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers: an FDA Perspective on Utilization in Biological Product Labeling.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Robert N; Grillo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Precision medicine promises to improve both the efficacy and safety of therapeutic products by better informing why some patients respond well to a drug, and some experience adverse reactions, while others do not. Pharmacogenomics is a key component of precision medicine and can be utilized to select optimal doses for patients, more precisely identify individuals who will respond to a treatment and avoid serious drug-related toxicities. Since pharmacogenomic biomarker information can help inform drug dosing, efficacy, and safety, pharmacogenomic data are critically reviewed by FDA staff to ensure effective use of pharmacogenomic strategies in drug development and appropriate incorporation into product labels. Pharmacogenomic information may be provided in drug or biological product labeling to inform health care providers about the impact of genotype on response to a drug through description of relevant genomic markers, functional effects of genomic variants, dosing recommendations based on genotype, and other applicable genomic information. The format and content of labeling for biologic drugs will generally follow that of small molecule drugs; however, there are notable differences in pharmacogenomic information that might be considered useful for biologic drugs in comparison to small molecule drugs. Furthermore, the rapid entry of biologic drugs for treatment of rare genetic diseases and molecularly defined subsets of common diseases will likely lead to increased use of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels in the near future. In this review, we outline the general principles of therapeutic product labeling and discuss the utilization of pharmacogenomic information in biologic drug labels.

  20. Evaluation of dose reduction versus standard dosing for maintenance of remission in patients with spondyloarthritis and clinical remission with anti-TNF (REDES-TNF): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Caridad; Gratacós, Jordi; Torres, Ferran; Avendaño, Cristina; Sanz, Jesús; Vallano, Antoni; Juanola, Xavier; de Miguel, Eugenio; Sanmartí, Raimon; Calvo, Gonzalo

    2015-08-20

    Dose reduction schedules of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) as maintenance therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis are used empirically in clinical practice, despite the lack of clinical trials providing evidence for this practice. To address this issue the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) and Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology (SEFC) designed a 3-year multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial (2 years for inclusion and 1 year of follow-up). The study is expected to include 190 patients with axial spondyloarthritis on stable maintenance treatment (≥4 months) with any anti-TNF agent at doses recommended in the summary of product characteristics. Patients will be randomized to either a dose reduction arm or maintenance of the dosing regimen as per the official labelling recommendations. Randomization will be stratified according to the anti-TNF agent received before study inclusion. Patient follow-up, visit schedule, and examinations will be maintained as per normal clinical practice recommendations according to SER guidelines. The study aims to test the hypothesis of noninferiority of the dose reduction strategy compared with standard treatment. The first patients were recruited in July 2012, and study completion is scheduled for the end of April 2015. The REDES-TNF study is a pragmatic clinical trial that aims to provide evidence to support a medical decision now made empirically. The study results may help inform clinical decisions relevant to both patients and healthcare decision makers. EudraCT 2011-005871-18 (21 December 2011).

  1. The new World Health Organization recommendation on the 2-dose measles vaccine schedule and the way forward in African Region

    PubMed Central

    Biellik, Robin Julian; Davis, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The new W.H.O. recommendation, which drops the coverage criterion for adoption of the 2-dose measles vaccine schedule, makes some African countries eligible for the 2-dose schedule which were previously ineligible. We look at the implications of the new recommendation for Ethiopia and Nigeria, the two largest African countries which are eligible under the new recommendation. PMID:29296149

  2. Recommended Implementation of Arterial Spin Labeled Perfusion MRI for Clinical Applications: A consensus of the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European Consortium for ASL in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, David C.; Detre, John A.; Golay, Xavier; Günther, Matthias; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Lu, Hanzhang; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Parkes, Laura M.; Smits, Marion; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Wang, Danny JJ; Wong, Eric C.; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a summary statement of recommended implementations of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for clinical applications. It is a consensus of the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ‘ASL in Dementia’ consortium, both of whom met to reach this consensus in October 2012 in Amsterdam. Although ASL continues to undergo rapid technical development, we believe that current ASL methods are robust and ready to provide useful clinical information, and that a consensus statement on recommended implementations will help the clinical community to adopt a standardized approach. In this article we describe the major considerations and tradeoffs in implementing an ASL protocol, and provide specific recommendations for a standard approach. Our conclusions are that, as an optimal default implementation we recommend: pseudo-continuous labeling, background suppression, a segmented 3D readout without vascular crushing gradients, and calculation and presentation of both label/control difference images and cerebral blood flow in absolute units using a simplified model. PMID:24715426

  3. Dosing antibiotics in neonates: review of the pharmacokinetic data.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chaparro, Nazario D; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Greenberg, Rachel G

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics are often used in neonates despite the absence of relevant dosing information in drug labels. For neonatal dosing, clinicians must extrapolate data from studies for adults and older children, who have strikingly different physiologies. As a result, dosing extrapolation can lead to increased toxicity or efficacy failures in neonates. Driven by these differences and recent legislation mandating the study of drugs in children and neonates, an increasing number of pharmacokinetic studies of antibiotics are being performed in neonates. These studies have led to new dosing recommendations with particular consideration for neonate body size and maturation. Herein, we highlight the available pharmacokinetic data for commonly used systemic antibiotics in neonates.

  4. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Jessica L; Fixen, Danielle R; Saseen, Joseph J; Saba, Laura M; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) per night in women. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Methods: Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change). Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients’ records was also evaluated. Results: A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020). In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%–50%, p = 0.23), elderly men (34%–40%, p = 0.53), and elderly women (60%–74%, p = 0.14), but the change was only significant in young women (42%–70%, p = 0.0045). Conclusion: After Food and Drug Administration–mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health system

  5. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jessica L; Fixen, Danielle R; Saseen, Joseph J; Saba, Laura M; Linnebur, Sunny A

    2017-01-01

    Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) per night in women. The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change). Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release) or 6.25 mg (controlled release) daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients' records was also evaluated. A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020). In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%-50%, p = 0.23), elderly men (34%-40%, p = 0.53), and elderly women (60%-74%, p = 0.14), but the change was only significant in young women (42%-70%, p = 0.0045). After Food and Drug Administration-mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health system, and specifically young women, with initial prescriptions for low-dose

  6. Optimal quality (131)I-monoclonal antibodies on high-dose labeling in a large reaction volume and temporarily coating the antibody with IODO-GEN.

    PubMed

    Visser, G W; Klok, R P; Gebbinck, J W; ter Linden, T; van Dongen, G A; Molthoff, C F

    2001-03-01

    A novel, facile procedure for efficient coupling of high doses of (131)I to monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was developed with minimal chemical and radiation damage. To diminish the radiation and chemical burden during labeling, iodination was performed in a large reaction volume and by temporarily coating the MAb with a minimal amount of IODO-GEN. The MAb was coated by injection of IODO-GEN (dissolved in acetonitrile [MeCN]) into the aqueous MAb solution, and the coating was subsequently removed by addition of ascorbic acid. For chemoprotection before, during, and after PD-10 purification of the (131)I-MAbs, ascorbic acid and human serum albumin were used. The effects of autoradiolysis in the starting (131)I solution were countered by treatment with NaOH and ascorbic acid. For this so-called IODO-GEN-coated MAb method, the sensitive chimeric MAb MOv18 (c-MOv18) and the more robust murine MAbs K928 and E48 were used. The high-dose (131)I-labeled MAbs were characterized for radiochemical purity and MAb integrity by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by phosphor imager quantification. The high-dose (131)I-labeled MAbs were also characterized for immunoreactivity. The radiopharmacokinetics and biodistribution of (131)I-c-MOv18 were analyzed in human tumor-bearing nude mice. For comparison, (131)I-c-MOv18 batches were made using the conventional chloramine-T or IODO-GEN-coated vial method. Conventional high-dose labeling of 5 mg c-MOv18 with 4.4 GBq (131)I resulted in a labeling yield of 60%, a radiochemical purity of 90%, an immunoreactive fraction of 25% (72% being the maximum in the assay used), and the presence of aggregation and degradation products. Using similar amounts of (131)I and MAb in the IODO-GEN-coated MAb method, 85%-89% overall radiochemical yield, at least 99.7% radiochemical purity, and full preservation of MAb integrity and immunoreactivity were

  7. Concordance with prescribing information dosage recommendations for dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Shetty, Sharash; Bauer, Elise; Lang, Kathleen

    2018-06-01

    To estimate the proportion of patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) whose initial dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4-i) dosage was concordant with prescribing information (label) recommendations in the United States. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who initiated a DPP4-i (linagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin) between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2014 were identified using electronic medical records and administrative claims, with index date being the date of first observed DPP4-i treatment. Patients were required to have chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3b, 4 or 5 (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate [eGFR] value <45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) during the 12 month pre-index period. Patients were classified as concordant or not concordant based on whether the first prescribed dose was consistent with label recommendations. Demographics, clinical characteristics, resource use and costs during pre-index were evaluated by DPP4-i concordance status. Of the 492 patients (323 sitagliptin, 57 saxagliptin, 112 linagliptin), 36.2% were prescribed doses that were not concordant with label recommendations (44.9% for sitagliptin, 57.9% for saxagliptin and 0% for linagliptin [which does not require dosage adjustment]). Concordant patients were slightly older (mean age 71 years vs. 68, p = .01) but had similar gender distribution (55% vs. 60% female, p = .31) compared to those who were not concordant. They had lower general health status (Charlson Comorbidity Score 2.6 vs. 2.2, p = .03), and had similar pre-index all-cause total costs ($25,245 vs. $21,972, p = .68) and lower pre-index T2DM-related costs ($1618 vs. $1922, p = .05). More than a third of DPP4-i patients with CKD stage 3b or higher were prescribed doses not concordant with DPP4-i label dosage recommendations.

  8. Best practices for developmental toxicity assessment for classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Daston, George; Piersma, Aldert; Attias, Leonello; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Chen, Connie; Foreman, Jennifer; Hallmark, Nina; Leconte, Isabelle

    2018-05-14

    Many chemicals are going through a hazard-based classification and labeling process in Europe. Because of the significant public health implications, the best science must be applied in assessing developmental toxicity data. The European Teratology Society and Health and Environmental Sciences Institute co-organized a workshop to consider best practices, including data quality and consistency, interpretation of developmental effects in the presence of maternal toxicity, human relevance of animal data, and limits of chemical classes. Recommendations included larger historical control databases, more pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant animals for dose setting and study interpretation, generation of mechanistic data to resolve questions about whether maternal toxicity is causative of developmental toxicity, and more rigorous specifications for what constitutes a chemical class. It is our hope that these recommendations will form the basis for subsequent consensus workshops and other scientific activities designed to improve the scientific robustness of data interpretation for classification and labeling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Can we safely administer the recommended dose of phenobarbital in very low birth weight infants?

    PubMed

    Oztekin, Osman; Kalay, Salih; Tezel, Gonul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Oygur, Nihal

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the recommended phenobarbital loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg with maintenance of 3-4 mg/kg/day can safely be administered to very low birth weight preterm newborns with seizures. Twenty-four convulsive preterms of <1,500 g were enrolled in the study. Phenobarbital was administered intravenously with a loading dose of 15 mg/kg in approximately 10-15 min. After 24 h, the maintenance dose of 3 mg/kg/day was administered as a single injection. Blood samples were obtained 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the phenobarbital loading dose was administered, immediately before the next phenobarbital dose was injected. None of the cases had plasma phenobarbital concentrations above the therapeutic upper limit of 40 μg/mL on the 2nd hour; one case (4.7%), on the 24th; 11 cases (45.8%), on the 48th; 15 cases (62.5%), on the 72nd; and 17 cases (70.8%), on the 96th hour. A negative correlation was detected between the serum concentrations of phenobarbital and gestational age on the 72th (p, 0.036; r, -0.608) and 96th hour (p, 0.043; r, -0.769). We suggest that particular attention should be done while administering phenobarbital in preterms, as blood levels of phenobarbital are higher than the reference ranges that those are often reached with the recommended doses in these groups of babies.

  10. Healthcare provider compliance with the 2013 ACC/AHA Adult Cholesterol Guideline recommendation for high-intensity dose statins for patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Housholder-Hughes, Susan D; Martin, Melanie M; McFarland, Marilyn R; Creech, Constance J; Shea, Michael J

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the foremost cause of death for U.S. adults. The 2013 ACC/AHA Adult Cholesterol Guidelines recommend high-intensity dose statins for individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD). To determine healthcare provider compliance with the Cholesterol Guideline recommendation specific to high-intensity dose statins for patients with CAD. A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine compliance rate. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate healthcare provider beliefs, attitudes, and self-confidence toward this recommendation. Of the 473 patients with CAD, 67% were prescribed a high-intensity dose statin. Patients with non-ST segment myocardial infarction and ST segment myocardial infarction were more likely to be prescribed a high-intensity dose statin versus a moderate or low-intensity dose. Healthcare providers strongly agreed with this guideline recommendation. There exists a dichotomy between intention to prescribe and actual prescribing behaviors of high-intensity dose statin for patients with CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety of Single-Dose Primaquine in G6PD-Deficient and G6PD-Normal Males in Mali Without Malaria: An Open-Label, Phase 1, Dose-Adjustment Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ingrid; Diawara, Halimatou; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Sanogo, Koualy; Keita, Sekouba; Kone, Daouda; Diarra, Kalifa; Djimde, Moussa; Keita, Mohamed; Brown, Joelle; Roh, Michelle E; Hwang, Jimee; Pett, Helmi; Murphy, Maxwell; Niemi, Mikko; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Gosling, Roly; Dicko, Alassane

    2018-03-28

    The World Health Organization recommendation on the use of a single low dose of primaquine (SLD-PQ) to reduce Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission requires more safety data. We conducted an open-label, nonrandomized, dose-adjustment trial of the safety of 3 single doses of primaquine in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient adult males in Mali, followed by an assessment of safety in G6PD-deficient boys aged 11-17 years and those aged 5-10 years, including G6PD-normal control groups. The primary outcome was the greatest within-person percentage drop in hemoglobin concentration within 10 days after treatment. Fifty-one participants were included in analysis. G6PD-deficient adult males received 0.40, 0.45, or 0.50 mg/kg of SLD-PQ. G6PD-deficient boys received 0.40 mg/kg of SLD-PQ. There was no evidence of symptomatic hemolysis, and adverse events considered related to study drug (n = 4) were mild. The mean largest within-person percentage change in hemoglobin level between days 0 and 10 was -9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.5% to -5.90%) in G6PD-deficient adults receiving 0.50 mg/kg of SLD-PQ, -11.5% (95% CI, -16.1% to -6.96%) in G6PD-deficient boys aged 11-17 years, and -9.61% (95% CI, -7.59% to -13.9%) in G6PD-deficient boys aged 5-10 years. The lowest hemoglobin concentration at any point during the study was 92 g/L. SLD-PQ doses between 0.40 and 0.50 mg/kg were well tolerated in G6PD-deficient males in Mali. NCT02535767.

  12. Dose-response of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling on mesenchymal stem cells chondrogenic differentiation: a multi-scale in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Emilie; Henrionnet, Christel; Goebel, Jean Christophe; Gambier, Nicolas; Beuf, Olivier; Grenier, Denis; Chen, Bailiang; Vuissoz, Pierre-André; Gillet, Pierre; Pinzano, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of successful cell therapy techniques for cartilage engineering. This will depend on the ability to monitor non-invasively transplanted cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are promising candidates to regenerate damaged tissues. MSCs were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO). We examined the effects of long-term labeling, possible toxicological consequences and the possible influence of progressive concentrations of SPIO on chondrogenic differentiation capacity. No influence of various SPIO concentrations was noted on human bone marrow MSC viability or proliferation. We demonstrated long-term (4 weeks) in vitro retention of SPIO by human bone marrow MSCs seeded in collagenic sponges under TGF-β1 chondrogenic conditions, detectable by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and histology. Chondrogenic differentiation was demonstrated by molecular and histological analysis of labeled and unlabeled cells. Chondrogenic gene expression (COL2A2, ACAN, SOX9, COL10, COMP) was significantly altered in a dose-dependent manner in labeled cells, as were GAG and type II collagen staining. As expected, SPIO induced a dramatic decrease of MRI T2 values of sponges at 7T and 3T, even at low concentrations. This study clearly demonstrates (1) long-term in vitro MSC traceability using SPIO and MRI and (2) a deleterious dose-dependence of SPIO on TGF-β1 driven chondrogenesis in collagen sponges. Low concentrations (12.5-25 µg Fe/mL) seem the best compromise to optimize both chondrogenesis and MRI labeling.

  13. Open-Label Single-Sequence Crossover Study Evaluating Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety of Once-Daily Dosing of Nitisinone in Patients with Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type 1.

    PubMed

    Guffon, Nathalie; Bröijersén, Anders; Palmgren, Ingrid; Rudebeck, Mattias; Olsson, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Although nitisinone is successfully used to treat hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) with the recommended twice-daily dosing, data describing a long half-life motivate less frequent dosing. Therefore, in agreement with the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee at the European Medicines Agency, this study was performed to investigate the switch to once-daily dosing. This open-label, non-randomized, single-sequence crossover study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing of nitisinone in patients with HT-1 (NCT02323529). Well-controlled patients of <2, 2 to <12, 12 to <18, and ≥18 years of age who were on twice-daily dosing were eligible for participation. Nitisinone and succinylacetone levels were determined from dry blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was C min of nitisinone after ≥4 weeks of treatment on each dosing regimen. Secondary objectives were evaluation of efficacy and safety during each dosing regimen. In total, 19 patients were enrolled and 17 included in the per-protocol analysis set. The mean (SD) nitisinone C min decreased by 23%, from 26.4 (10.2) to 21.2 (9.9) μmol/L in dry blood spot samples (not equivalent to plasma concentrations), when patients switched from twice- to once-daily dosing. There was no apparent age- or bodyweight-related trend in the degree of C min decrease. No patient had quantifiable succinylacetone levels during the once-daily treatment period, indicating efficacious treatment. All adverse events were mild or moderate and judged unrelated to nitisinone. The switch to once-daily treatment with nitisinone appeared efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with HT-1.

  14. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  15. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  16. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  17. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How...

  18. Effect of Chelator Conjugation Level and Injection Dose on Tumor and Organ Uptake of 111In Labeled MORAb-009, an Anti-mesothelin Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Shin, I. S.; Lee, S.-M.; Kim, H. S.; Yao, Z.; Regino, C.; Sato, N.; Cheng, K. T.; Hassan, R.; Campo, M. F.; Albone, E. F.; Choyke, P. L.; Pastan, I.; Paik, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Radiolabeling of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a metallic radionuclide requires the conjugation of a bifunctional chelator to the mAb. The conjugation, however, can alter the physical and immunological properties of the mAb, consequently affecting its tumor targeting pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated the effect of the amount of 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-cyclohexyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″) conjugated to MORAb-009, a mAb directed against mesothelin and the effect of MORAb dose on the biodistribution of 111In labeled MORAb-009. Methods We used nude mice bearing A431/K5 tumor as a mesothelin-positive tumor model and A431 tumor as a mesothelin-negative control. To find the optimal level of CHX-A″ conjugation, CHX-A″-MORAb-009 conjugates with 2.4, 3.5, and 5.5 CHX-A″ molecules were investigated. To investigate the effect of injected MORAb-009 dose on neutralizing the shed-mesothelin in the circulation, the biodistribution studies were performed after the i.v. co-injection of the 111In labeled MORAb-009 (2.4 CHX-A″/MORAb-009) with three different doses, 0.2, 2, and 30 μg of MORAb-009. Results The tumor uptake in A431/K5 tumor was 4 times higher than that in A431 tumor, indicating that the tumor uptake in A431/K5 was mesothelin-mediated. The conjugate with 5.5 CHX-A″ showed a lower isoelectric point (pI) and lower immunoreactivity (IR) than the 2.4 CHX-A″ conjugate. These differences were reflected in biodistribution of the 111In label. The 111In labeled MORAb-009 conjugated with 2.4 CHX-A″ produced higher tumor uptake, and lower liver and spleen uptakes than the 5.5 CHX-A″ conjugate. The biodistribution studies also revealed that the tumor uptake was significantly affected by the injected MORAb-009 dose and tumor size. The 30 μg dose produced higher tumor uptake than the 0.2 and 2 μg doses whereas the 30 μg dose produced lower liver and spleen uptakes than the 0.2 μg dose. Conclusion This study

  19. Effect of chelator conjugation level and injection dose on tumor and organ uptake of 111In-labeled MORAb-009, an anti-mesothelin antibody.

    PubMed

    Shin, In Soo; Lee, Sang-Myung; Kim, Hyung Sub; Yao, Zhengsheng; Regino, Celeste; Sato, Noriko; Cheng, Kenneth T; Hassan, Raffit; Campo, Melissa F; Albone, Earl F; Choyke, Peter L; Pastan, Ira; Paik, Chang H

    2011-11-01

    Radiolabeling of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a metallic radionuclide requires the conjugation of a bifunctional chelator to the mAb. The conjugation, however, can alter the physical and immunological properties of the mAb, consequently affecting its tumor-targeting pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated the effect of the amount of 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-cyclohexyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″) conjugated to MORAb-009, a mAb directed against mesothelin, and the effect of MORAb dose on the biodistribution of (111)In-labeled MORAb-009. We used nude mice bearing the A431/K5 tumor as a mesothelin-positive tumor model and the A431 tumor as a mesothelin-negative control. To find the optimal level of CHX-A″ conjugation, CHX-A″-MORAb-009 conjugates with 2.4, 3.5 and 5.5 CHX-A″ molecules were investigated. To investigate the effect of injected MORAb-009 dose on neutralizing the shed mesothelin in the circulation, biodistribution studies were performed after the intravenous co-injection of (111)In-labeled MORAb-009 (2.4 CHX-A″/MORAb-009) with three different doses: 0.2, 2 and 30 μg of MORAb-009. The tumor uptake in A431/K5 tumor was four times higher than that in A431 tumor, indicating that the tumor uptake in A431/K5 was mesothelin mediated. The conjugate with 5.5 CHX-A″ showed a lower isoelectric point (pI) and lower immunoreactivity (IR) than the 2.4 CHX-A″ conjugate. These differences were reflected in the biodistribution of the (111)In label. The (111)In-labeled MORAb-009 conjugated with 2.4 CHX-A″ produced higher tumor uptake and lower liver and spleen uptakes than the 5.5 CHX-A″ conjugate. The biodistribution studies also revealed that the tumor uptake was significantly affected by the injected MORAb-009 dose and tumor size. The 30-μg dose produced higher tumor uptake than the 0.2- and 2-μg doses, whereas the 30-μg dose produced lower liver and spleen uptakes than the 0.2-μg dose. This study demonstrates that the

  20. The efficacy of sugar labeling formats: Implications for labeling policy.

    PubMed

    Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Bordes, Isabelle; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2015-12-01

    To examine knowledge of sugar recommendations and test the efficacy of formats for labeling total and added sugar on pre-packaged foods. Online surveys were conducted among 2008 Canadians aged 16-24. Participants were asked to identify recommended limits for total and added sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, participants were randomized to one of six labeling conditions with varying information for total sugar for a high- or low-sugar product and were asked to identify the relative amount of total sugar in the product. In Experiment 2, participants were randomized to one of three labels with different added sugar formats and were asked if the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar. Few young people correctly identified recommendations for total sugar (5%) or added sugar (7%). In Experiment 1, those who were shown percent daily value information were more likely to correctly identify the relative amount of total sugar (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, those shown added sugar information were more likely to correctly identify that the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar in the product (P < 0.05). Improved labeling may improve consumer understanding of the amount of sugars in food products. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. A tracer dose of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes can estimate the effect of hyperthermia on intratumoral doxil extravasation.

    PubMed

    Kleiter, Miriam M; Yu, Daohai; Mohammadian, Lenore A; Niehaus, Nelsen; Spasojevic, Ivan; Sanders, Linda; Viglianti, Benjamin L; Yarmolenko, Pavel S; Hauck, Marlene; Petry, Neil A; Wong, Terence Z; Dewhirst, Mark W; Thrall, Donald E

    2006-11-15

    A noninvasive method to monitor intratumoral Doxil delivery in individual patients during targeted tumor therapy is important to predict treatment response. The purpose of this study was to determine if a small tracer dose of technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled liposomes could be used to quantify the effect of local hyperthermia on intratumoral Doxil extravasation. Experiments were carried out in a rat fibrosarcoma model with transplanted thigh tumors. Liposomes of approximately same size and composition as Doxil were radiolabeled using [technetium-99m (99mTc)]exametazime. Eight treatment groups received either Doxil, a tracer dose or a large dose of 99mTc-labeled liposomes, or a combination of tracer and Doxil, with or without hyperthermia. This design was chosen to assure that coadministration of both liposomal formulations did not influence their intratumoral distribution. Hyperthermia was done for 45 minutes. Scintigraphic images were obtained at 5 and 18 hours. At 18 hours, tumors were removed and gamma counts as well as doxorubicin concentrations were measured. Intratumoral extravasation of the 99mTc-labeled tracer could be imaged scintigraphically under normothermic and hyperthermic conditions. The thermal enhancement ratio was slightly higher for radiolabeled liposomes than for doxorubicin concentration. However, there was a significant positive correlation of intratumoral doxorubicin concentration and intratumoral uptake of the radiolabeled tracer (expressed as percentage of the injected dose per gram of tissue). Coadministration of radiolabeled liposomes did not negatively influence the amount of drug delivered with Doxil. The use of a radiolabeled tracer has potential value to monitor drug delivery and estimate the effect of an intervention aimed to increase liposomal accumulation, such as local hyperthermia.

  2. FDA-sunlamp recommended Maximum Timer Interval And Exposure Schedule: consensus ISO/CIE dose equivalence.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, John C; Czako, Eugene A; Stepp, Michael E; Schlitt, Steven C; Bender, Gregory R; Khan, Lateef U; Shinneman, Kenneth D; Karos, Manuel G; Shepherd, James G; Sayre, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    The authors compared calculations of sunlamp maximum exposure times following current USFDA Guidance Policy on the Maximum Timer Interval and Exposure Schedule, with USFDA/CDRH proposals revising these to equivalent erythemal exposures of ISO/CIE Standard Erythema Dose (SED). In 2003, [USFDA/CDRH proposed replacing their unique CDRH/Lytle] erythema action spectrum with the ISO/CIE erythema action spectrum and revising the sunlamp maximum exposure timer to 600 J m(-2) ISO/CIE effective dose, presented as being biologically equivalent. Preliminary analysis failed to confirm said equivalence, indicating instead ∼38% increased exposure when applying these proposed revisions. To confirm and refine this finding, a collaboration of tanning bed and UV lamp manufacturers compiled 89 UV spectra representing a broad sampling of U.S. indoor tanning equipment. USFDA maximum recommended exposure time (Te) per current sunlamp guidance and CIE erythemal effectiveness per ISO/CIE standard were calculated. The CIE effective dose delivered per Te averaged 456 J(CIE) m(-2) (SD = 0.17) or ∼4.5 SED. The authors found that CDRH's proposed 600 J(CIE) m(-2) recommended maximum sunlamp exposure exceeds current Te erythemal dose by ∼33%. The current USFDA 0.75 MED initial exposure was ∼0.9 SED, consistent with 1.0 SED initial dose in existing international sunlamp standards. As no sunlamps analyzed exceeded 5 SED, a revised maximum exposure of 500 J(CIE) m(-2) (∼80% of CDRH's proposal) should be compatible with existing tanning equipment. A tanning acclimatization schedule is proposed beginning at 1 SED thrice-weekly, increasing uniformly stepwise over 4 wk to a 5 SED maximum exposure in conjunction with a tan maintenance schedule of twice-weekly 5 SED sessions, as biologically equivalent to current USFDA sunlamp policy.

  3. BRIM-P: A phase I, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study of vemurafenib in pediatric patients with surgically incurable, BRAF mutation-positive melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Julia C; Suvada, Jozef; Dunkel, Ira J; Casanova, Michela; Zhang, Weijiang; Ritchie, Natasha; Choi, YounJeong; Park, Jane; Das Thakur, Meghna; Simko, Stephen; Wan Rachel Tam, Nga; Ferrari, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Vemurafenib, a selective inhibitor of BRAF kinase, is approved for the treatment of adult stage IIIc/IV BRAF V600 mutation-positive melanoma. We conducted a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study in pediatric patients aged 12-17 years with this tumor type (NCT01519323). Patients received vemurafenib orally until disease progression. Dose escalation was conducted using a 3 + 3 design. Patients were monitored for dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during the first 28 days of treatment to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Safety/tolerability, tumor response, and pharmacokinetics were evaluated. Six patients were enrolled (720 mg twice daily [BID], n = 3; 960 mg BID [n = 3]). The study was terminated prematurely due to low enrollment. No DLTs were observed; thus, the MTD could not be determined. All patients experienced at least one adverse event (AE); the most common were diarrhea, headache, photosensitivity, rash, nausea, and fatigue. Three patients experienced serious AEs, one patient developed secondary cutaneous malignancies, and five patients died following disease progression. Mean steady-state plasma concentrations of vemurafenib following 720 mg and 960 mg BID dosing were similar or higher, respectively, than in adults. There were no objective responses. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-5.2) and 8.1 months (95% CI = 5.1-12.0), respectively. A recommended and effective dose of vemurafenib for patients aged 12-17 years with metastatic or unresectable melanoma was not identified. Extremely low enrollment in this trial highlights the importance of considering the inclusion of adolescents with adult cancers in adult trials. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. To Take or Not to Take With Meals? Unraveling Issues Related to Food Effects Labeling for Oral Antineoplastic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiexin; Brar, Satjit S; Lesko, Lawrence J

    2017-12-02

    There has been controversy regarding whether bioavailability of certain oral oncology drugs should be maximized by taking these medications with food, irrespective of label instructions in the dosing and administration section. To provide insight into this controversy, we conducted an in-depth analysis for oral antineoplastic drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2000-2016 and identified important issues influencing food labeling decisions. Furthermore, a case study involving sonidegib, a drug approved for locally advanced basal cell carcinoma with a significant food effect on exposure, was used to demonstrate the consequences of failure to adhere to food label recommendations using drug-specific population pharmacokinetic and exposure-toxicity models. In 2000-2009, 80% (4 out of 5) of all approved oral antineoplastics with increased bioavailability in the fed state were labeled as "take on empty stomach." In contrast, we found that in 2010-2016 there is a greater diversity in food recommendations for drugs with increased bioavailability in the fed state. Currently, many oral oncology drugs are given with food to maximize their bioavailability; however, as seen from our case study of sonidegib, failure to fully adhere to label recommendations to either take with food or not could lead to adverse consequences in terms of safety and efficacy. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Absorbed organ and effective doses from digital intra-oral and panoramic radiography applying the ICRP 103 recommendations for effective dose estimations

    PubMed Central

    Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ylhan, Betȕl; Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Ekestubbe, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: During dental radiography, the salivary and thyroid glands are at radiation risk. In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) updated the methodology for determining the effective dose, and the salivary glands were assigned tissue-specific weighting factors for the first time. The aims of this study were to determine the absorbed dose to the organs and to calculate, applying the ICRP publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, the effective doses delivered during digital intraoral and panoramic radiography. Methods: Thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements were performed on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom. The organ-absorbed doses were measured at 30 locations, representing different radiosensitive organs in the head and neck, and the effective dose was calculated according to the ICRP recommendations. Results: The salivary glands and the oral mucosa received the highest absorbed doses from both intraoral and panoramic radiography. The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination was 15 μSv and for panoramic radiography, the effective dose was in the range of 19–75 μSv, depending on the panoramic equipment used. Conclusion: The effective dose from a full-mouth intraoral examination is lower and that from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported. Clinicians should be aware of the higher effective dose delivered during panoramic radiography and the risk–benefit profile of this technique must be assessed for the individual patient. Advances in knowledge: The effective dose of radiation from panoramic radiography is higher than previously reported and there is large variability in the delivered radiation dosage among the different types of equipment used. PMID:27452261

  6. Does intravenous induction dosing among patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgical procedures follow current recommendations: a study of contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Shamsuddin; Liu, Jia; Heng, Joseph; Dai, Feng; Schonberger, Robert B; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-09-01

    It is recommended to correct intravenous induction doses by up to 50% for patients older than 65 years. The objectives were to determine (a) the degree to which anesthesia providers correct induction doses for age and (b) additionally adjust for American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) class (severity of illness) and (c) whether postinduction hypotension is more common among patients aged >65. Retrospective chart review. Academic medical center. A total of 1869 adult patients receiving general anesthesia for GI surgical procedures from February 2013 to January 2014. Patients were divided into 3 age groups (age <65, 65-79, ≥80 years) and then further stratified into ASA-PS class (I/II vs III/IV). Multiple pairwise comparisons were conducted using Welch t tests for continuous variables to determine whether dosing was different for the older groups vs the younger group; separate analyses were performed within and across ASA-PS class. This approach was also used to determine differences in mean arterial pressure change in the older groups vs the younger group, whereas the rates of hypotension among different age groups were compared by Cochran-Armitage trend test. No significant decrease in dosing between age groups was observed for fentanyl and midazolam. For propofol, there was a significantly lower dosing for older patients: 17% for patients aged 65-79 and 29% for those aged >80, which was still in less than the recommendations. An inverse relationship was observed between propofol dosing and ASA-PS class, but no consistent relationship was noted for fentanyl and midazolam. There were a significantly larger drop in mean arterial pressure and a greater likelihood of hypotension following induction in patients aged 65-79 years and >80 years as compared with those aged <65 years. This study shows that the administered dose of anesthetic induction agents is significantly higher than that recommended for patients older than 65 years. This failure

  7. Proton-pump inhibitors in patients requiring antiplatelet therapy: new FDA labeling.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David A; Chilton, Robert; Liker, Harley R

    2014-05-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Proton-pump inhibitors should also be considered for patients receiving antiplatelet therapy who have other risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, including use of aspirin. Thus, evidence of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has caused concern. Here, we discuss comparative studies suggesting that the extent to which a PPI reduces exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and attenuates its antithrombotic effect differs among PPIs. Although a clinically meaningful effect of the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel on cardiovascular outcomes has not been established, these studies provided the basis for recent changes in US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling for several PPIs and clopidogrel. New labeling suggests that PPI use among patients taking clopidogrel be limited to pantoprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole, or dexlansoprazole. Because comparative studies indicate that omeprazole and esomeprazole have a greater effect on the CYP2C19-mediated conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite and, consequently, clopidogrel's effect on platelet reactivity, FDA labeling recommends avoiding omeprazole and esomeprazole in patients taking clopidogrel. Even a 12-hour separation of dosing does not appear to prevent drug interactions between omeprazole and clopidogrel.

  8. Improving the Effectiveness of Penicillin Allergy De-labeling.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Jack; Pavlos, Rebecca; James, Ian; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10-20% of hospitalized patients are labeled as penicillin allergic, and this is associated with significant health and economic costs. We looked at the effectiveness of penicillin allergy de-labeling in clinical practice with the aim of deriving risk stratification models to guide testing strategies. Consecutive patients aged 15 years or more, referred to a Western Australian public hospital drug allergy service between 2008 and 2013 for beta-lactam allergy, were included. Follow-up surveys were conducted. Results of skin prick testing and intradermal testing (SPT/IDT) and oral challenge (OC), and follow-up of post testing antibiotic usage were the main outcomes. SPT/IDT was performed in 401 consecutive patients with immediate (IMM) (≤ 1 hour) (n = 151) and nonimmediate (NIM) (>1 hour) (n = 250) reactions. Of 341 patients, 42 (12.3%) were SPT/IDT+ to ≥ 1 penicillin reagents, including 35/114 (30.4%) in the IMM group and 7/227 (3.1%) in the NIM group (P < .0001). Of 355 SPT/IDT patients, 3 (0.8%), all in the IMM group, had nonserious positive OC reactions to single dose penicillin VK (SPT/IDT negative predictive value [NPV] 99.2%). Selective or unrestricted beta-lactam was recommended in almost 90% overall, including 238/250 (95.2%) in the NIM group and 126/151 (83.4%) in the IMM group (P = .0001). Of 182 patients, 137 (75.3%) were following the allergy label modifications (ALM) at the time of follow-up. Penicillin SPT/IDT/OC safely de-labels penicillin-allergic patients and identifies selective beta-lactam allergies; however, incomplete adherence to ALM recommendations impairs effectiveness. Infrequent SPT/IDT+ and absent OC reactions in patients with NIM reactions suggest OC alone to be a safe and cost-effective de-labeling strategy that could improve the coverage of penicillin allergy de-labeling in lower risk populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Methylphenidate Extended-Release Chewable Tablet Dose in Children with ADHD: Open-Label Dose Optimization in a Laboratory Classroom Study.

    PubMed

    Wigal, Sharon B; Childress, Ann; Berry, Sally A; Belden, Heidi W; Chappell, Phillip; Wajsbrot, Dalia B; Nagraj, Praneeta; Abbas, Richat; Palumbo, Donna

    2018-06-01

    To examine methylphenidate extended-release chewable tablets (MPH ERCT) dose patterns, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom scores, and safety during the 6-week, open-label (OL) dose-optimization period of a phase 3, laboratory classroom study. Boys and girls (6-12 years) diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled. MPH ERCT was initiated at 20 mg/day; participants were titrated in 10-20 mg/day increments weekly based on efficacy and tolerability (maximum dose, 60 mg/day). Dose-optimization period efficacy assessments included the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV), analyzed by week in a post hoc analysis using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures with final optimized dose (20, 30/40, or 50/60 mg), visit, final optimized dose and visit interaction, and baseline score as terms. Adverse events (AEs) and concomitant medications were collected throughout the study. Mean MPH ERCT daily dose increased weekly from 29.4 mg/day after the first dose adjustment at week 1 (n = 90) to 42.8 mg/day after the final adjustment at week 5 (n = 86). Final optimized MPH ERCT dose ranged from 20 to 60 mg/day. Mean final optimized MPH ERCT dose ranged from 40.0 mg/day in 6-8 year-old participants to 44.8 mg/day for 11-12 year-old participants. There was a progressive decrease in mean (standard deviation) ADHD-RS-IV total score from 40.1 (8.72) at baseline to 12.4 (7.88) at OL week 5, with similar improvement patterns for hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattentiveness subscale scores. Participants optimized to MPH ERCT 50/60 mg/day had a significantly higher mean (standard error) ADHD-RS-IV score at baseline compared with participants optimized to MPH ERCT 20 mg/day (42.4 [1.34] vs. 35.1 [2.55]; p = 0.013). Treatment-emergent AEs were reported by 65/90 (72.2%) participants in the dose-optimization period. Dose-optimization period results describing relationships between change in ADHD symptom scores and final optimized MPH ERCT dose will be

  10. Mumps Outbreak at a University and Recommendation for a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine - Illinois, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Justin P; Clegg, Whitney J; Reid, Heather D; Arbise, Benjamin S; Pryde, Julie; Vaid, Awais; Thompson-Brown, Rachella; Echols, Fredrick

    2016-07-29

    Mumps is an acute viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid or other salivary glands. On May 1, 2015, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) confirmed a mumps outbreak at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. IDPH and the Champaign-Urbana Public Health District (C-UPHD) conducted an investigation and identified 317 cases of mumps during April 2015-May 2016. Because of sustained transmission in a population with high 2-dose coverage with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, a third MMR dose was recommended by IDPH, C-UPHD, and the university's McKinley Health Center. No formal recommendation for or against the use of a third MMR dose has been issued by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1). However, CDC has provided guidelines for use of a third dose as a control measure during mumps outbreaks in settings in which persons are in close contact with one another, where transmission is sustained despite high 2-dose MMR coverage, and when traditional control measures fail to slow transmission (2).

  11. Respiratory drugs prescribed off-label among children in the outpatient clinics of a hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nurul Fadilah; Mhd Ali, Adliah; Mohamed Shah, Noraida

    2015-02-01

    Prescribing medicines in an unlicensed and off-label manner for children is a widespread practice around the world. To determine the extent and predictors of off-label respiratory drug prescriptions for children in the outpatient clinics of a hospital in Malaysia. Outpatient clinics at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. The pharmacy-based computer system and medical records of the patients were utilized to collect data from 220 pediatric patients who were prescribed at least one respiratory drug from July 2011 to December 2011. Characteristics of the off-label respiratory drug prescriptions were measured. A total of 134 children (60.9 %) received at least one respiratory drug prescribed in an off-label manner. The most common reasons for the off-label prescribing of drugs were off-label use by indication (31.5 %), followed by higher than the recommended dose (24.9 %) and lower than the recommended frequency (17.1 %). Diphenhydramine was the most common respiratory drug prescribed off-label. The number of medications prescribed was the only significant predictor of off-label prescription of respiratory drugs. Pediatric patients receiving 4-6 medications were 7.8 times more likely to receive at least one off-label respiratory drug compared to pediatric patients that received 1-3 medications (OR 7.8, 95 % CI 1.74-37.44). There was substantial prescribing of respiratory drugs for children in an off-label manner at the outpatient clinics at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. This highlights the need for more research to be carried out on respiratory drugs in the pediatric population.

  12. Real-life GH dosing patterns in children with GHD, TS or born SGA: a report from the NordiNet® International Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Blankenstein, Oliver; Snajderova, Marta; Blair, Jo; Pournara, Effie; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Petit, Isabelle Oliver

    2017-08-01

    To describe real-life dosing patterns in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), born small for gestational age (SGA) or with Turner syndrome (TS) receiving growth hormone (GH) and enrolled in the NordiNet International Outcome Study (IOS; Nbib960128) between 2006 and 2016. This non-interventional, multicentre study included paediatric patients diagnosed with GHD (isolated (IGHD) or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD)), born SGA or with TS and treated according to everyday clinical practice from the Czech Republic (IGHD/MPHD/SGA/TS: n  = 425/61/316/119), France ( n  = 1404/188/970/206), Germany ( n  = 2603/351/1387/411) and the UK ( n  = 259/60/87/35). GH dosing was compared descriptively across countries and indications. Proportions of patients by GH dose group (low/medium/high) or GH dose change (decrease/increase/no change) during years 1 and 2 were also evaluated across countries and indications. In the Czech Republic, GH dosing was generally within recommended levels. In France, average GH doses were higher for patients with IGHD, MPHD and SGA than in other countries. GH doses in TS tended to be at the lower end of the recommended label range, especially in Germany and the UK; the majority of patients were in the low-dose group. A significant inverse association between baseline height standard deviation score and GH dose was shown ( P  < 0.05); shorter patients received higher doses. Changes in GH dose, particularly increases, were more common in the second (40%) than in the first year (25%). GH dosing varies considerably across countries and indications. In particular, almost half of girls with TS received GH doses below practice guidelines and label recommendations. © 2017 The authors.

  13. Real-life GH dosing patterns in children with GHD, TS or born SGA: a report from the NordiNet® International Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Snajderova, Marta; Blair, Jo; Pournara, Effie; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Petit, Isabelle Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe real-life dosing patterns in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), born small for gestational age (SGA) or with Turner syndrome (TS) receiving growth hormone (GH) and enrolled in the NordiNet International Outcome Study (IOS; Nbib960128) between 2006 and 2016. Design This non-interventional, multicentre study included paediatric patients diagnosed with GHD (isolated (IGHD) or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD)), born SGA or with TS and treated according to everyday clinical practice from the Czech Republic (IGHD/MPHD/SGA/TS: n = 425/61/316/119), France (n = 1404/188/970/206), Germany (n = 2603/351/1387/411) and the UK (n = 259/60/87/35). Methods GH dosing was compared descriptively across countries and indications. Proportions of patients by GH dose group (low/medium/high) or GH dose change (decrease/increase/no change) during years 1 and 2 were also evaluated across countries and indications. Results In the Czech Republic, GH dosing was generally within recommended levels. In France, average GH doses were higher for patients with IGHD, MPHD and SGA than in other countries. GH doses in TS tended to be at the lower end of the recommended label range, especially in Germany and the UK; the majority of patients were in the low-dose group. A significant inverse association between baseline height standard deviation score and GH dose was shown (P < 0.05); shorter patients received higher doses. Changes in GH dose, particularly increases, were more common in the second (40%) than in the first year (25%). Conclusions GH dosing varies considerably across countries and indications. In particular, almost half of girls with TS received GH doses below practice guidelines and label recommendations. PMID:28522645

  14. Safety reports on the off-label use of baclofen for alcohol-dependence: recommendations to improve causality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Auffret, Marine; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The off-label use of high-dose baclofen (HDB) for alcohol-dependence has recently spread. However, HDB has been associated with numerous reports of adverse events (AEs). Pharmacovigilance reporting is supposed to differentiate AEs from adverse drug reactions (ADRs), for which the causality of the drug is determined using validated methods. Since 2010, we found 20 publications on baclofen-related AEs in alcohol dependence, in Medline-referenced journals or national pharmacovigilance reports. We focused on whether these reports used causality algorithms, and provided essential elements for determining baclofen causality and excluding the involvement of alcohol and other psychoactive substances or psychotropic drugs. In half of the cases, no causality algorithm was used. Detailed information on baclofen dosing was found in 17 out of 20 (85%) articles, whereas alcohol doses were given only in 10 (50%) publications. Other psychoactive substances and psychotropic drugs were broached in 14 (70%) publications. future publications reporting suspected HDB-induced ADRs should use validated causality algorithms and provide sufficient amount of contextual information for excluding other potential causes. For HDB, the psychiatric history, and the longitudinal description of alcohol consumptions and associated doses of psychoactive substances or psychotropic medications should be detailed for every reported case.

  15. [Low dose naltrexone for treatment of pain].

    PubMed

    Plesner, Karin Bruun; Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte

    2015-10-09

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the use of low dose naltrexone (LDN) for off-label treatment of pain in diseases as fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis and morbus Crohn. The evidence is poor, with only few randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studies. The studies currently available are reviewed in this paper. LDN could be a potentially useful drug in the future for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia, but more studies are needed to verify that it is superior to placebo, and currently it cannot be recommended as first-line therapy.

  16. Developing consumer-centered, nonprescription drug labeling a study in acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer P; Davis, Terry C; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Jacobson, Kara L; Hedlund, Laurie A; Di Francesco, Lorenzo; Parker, Ruth M; Wolf, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    In the U.S., acetaminophen overdose has surpassed viral hepatitis as the leading cause of acute liver failure, and misuse contributes to more than 30,000 hospitalizations annually. Half to two thirds of acetaminophen overdoses are unintentional, suggesting the root cause is likely poor understanding of medication labeling or failure to recognize the consequences of exceeding the recommended maximum daily dosage. Elicit subject feedback about active ingredient and dosing information on over-the-counter (OTC) acetaminophen and elicit feedback on proposed plain-language text and icons. Six focus groups, preceded by individual interviews, were conducted in April 2010 among 45 adults in two cities from two clinics and an adult basic education center. The individual interviews evaluated knowledge of OTC pain relievers, attention to product label information and literacy level while the group discussion elicited preference for label messages and icons. Analyses were conducted from April to June 2010. Forty-four percent read at or below the 6th-grade level. Individual interviews revealed that <50% of participants routinely examine product label information. Only 31% know acetaminophen is in Tylenol®. The groups achieved consensus on a preferred icon for acetaminophen, desired explicit statement of potential liver damage in the warning against simultaneous use of acetaminophen products, and indicated preference for an icon and wording for maximum dose. With the high prevalence of OTC use, a consumer-centered approach to developing icons and messages to promote awareness and safe use of acetaminophen could benefit consumers. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adjunctive low-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depression: An open-label pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Deidre J; Sarris, Jerome; Dowling, Nathan; O'Connor, Manjula; Ng, Chee H

    2018-04-01

    Whilst the majority of evidence supports the adjunctive use of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in improving mood, to date no study exists using low-dose docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) alone as an adjunctive treatment in patients with mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD). A naturalistic 8-week open-label pilot trial of low-dose DHA, (260 mg or 520 mg/day) in 28 patients with MDD who were non-responsive to medication or psychotherapy, with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of greater than 17, was conducted. Primary outcomes of depression, clinical severity, and daytime sleepiness were measured. After 8 weeks, 54% of patients had a ≥50% reduction on the HAM-D, and 45% were in remission (HAM-D ≤ 7). The eta-squared statistic (0.59) indicated a large effect size for the reduction of depression (equivalent to Cohen's d of 2.4). However confidence in this effect size is tempered due to the lack of a placebo. The mean score for the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale was significantly improved by 1.28 points (P < 0.05). Despite a significant reduction in the HAM-D score for middle insomnia (P = 0.02), the reduction in excessive daytime somnolence on the total Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) did not reach significance. No significant adverse reactions to DHA were found. Within the major limits of this open-label pilot study, the results suggest that DHA may provide additional adjunctive benefits in patients with mild- to -moderate depression.

  18. Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Yasukawa, Kosuke; Villarreal, Erick; Ross, Michael; Serpa, Jose A

    2017-03-15

    Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in coinfected patients. We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of single-dose and 3-dose regimens of BPG for the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected individuals. RPR titers were monitored every 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a decrease in RPR titers of ≥2 dilutions (4-fold) during a 12-month follow-up period. Sixty-four patients were included. In the intention-to-treat analysis, treatment success rates were 80% (28 of 35 subjects) and 93% (27 of 29 subjects) in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 13% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5% to 30%; P = .17). In the per-protocol analysis, success rates were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 7% [95% CI, -7% to 22%]; P = .49). CD4 T-cell count, RPR titer and syphilis stage did not affect treatment results. When compared with a single dose of BPG, a 3-dose regimen did not improve syphilis serological outcomes. Our results support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation of a single dose of BPG in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. NCT02611765. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Are Recommended Doses of Acetaminophen Effective for Children Aged 2 to 3 Years? A Pharmacokinetic Modeling Answer.

    PubMed

    Abourbih, Daniel Asher; Gosselin, Sophie; Villeneuve, Eric; Kazim, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) elixir is a widely used pediatric antipyretic medication. It has been shown that up to 30% of febrile children presenting to a large urban pediatric emergency department received inadequate APAP dosages at home with errors primarily due to age-based dosing. Parental education material in the form of weight-based dosing guides has been proposed; however, validation of current recommended APAP dosages using pharmacokinetic models is needed. This study used a mathematical model of APAP absorption to predict plasma concentrations and to compare them with the range required to reach and achieve antipyresis (10-20 μg/mL). A common APAP preparation (Children's Tylenol Elixir) was tested (children aged 2-3 years, 10.9-15.9 kg). The manufacturer's suggested dose of 160 mg was compared with the standard 10 to 15 mg/kg dose range. The model predicts a peak plasma concentration between 6.38 and 8.55 μg/mL for 10 mg/kg dose and 9.57 and 12.8 μg/mL for 15 mg/kg dose. The manufacturer's suggested dose of 160 mg was tested across the limits of the weight range (10.9-15.9 kg). A peak plasma concentration between 9.36 and 12.6 μg/mL was found for the lower weight limit (10.9 kg child) and 6.42 to 8.61 μg/mL for the upper weight limit (15.9 kg child). With the use of this model, the 10 mg/kg dose does not reach the plasma concentration value for antipyresis (10-20 μg/mL), whereas 15 mg/kg is adequate only if assuming a greater absorption constant. The 160 mg dose is effective only for children weighing 10.9 kg. Individual differences in drug bioavailability, volume of distribution, and absorption/elimination constants undoubtedly exist, and future studies directly measuring plasma APAP concentration and pharmacokinetics are needed. However, these results indicate that dosages for APAP in children should be weight based and manufacturers should review their dosing recommendations.

  20. Open-label dose-finding trial of buprenorphine implants (Probuphine) for treatment of heroin dependence.

    PubMed

    White, Jason; Bell, James; Saunders, John B; Williamson, Paul; Makowska, Maria; Farquharson, Aaron; Beebe, Katherine L

    2009-07-01

    Buprenorphine, a mu-opioid receptor partial agonist, has been shown to be safe and effective for treatment of opioid dependence. A novel implantable formulation of buprenorphine (Probuphine), using a polymer matrix sustained-release technology, has been developed to offer treatment for opioid dependence while minimizing risks of patient noncompliance and illicit diversion. The goal of the current study was to conduct an initial, open-label, evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of two doses of Probuphine in subjects with opioid dependence maintained on sublingual buprenorphine. Two doses of Probuphine were evaluated in 12 heroin-dependent volunteers switched from daily sublingual buprenorphine dosing to either two or four Probuphine implants based upon their buprenorphine daily maintenance dose of 8 mg or 16 mg respectively, and were monitored for 6 months. Probuphine implants provided continuous steady state delivery of buprenorphine until their removal at 6 months. Withdrawal symptoms and craving remained low throughout the 6 months. For the 12 subjects, an average of 59% of urines were opioid-negative across the 6 month treatment period. Injection site reactions were present in half of patients, but none were serious. No safety concerns were evident. These results suggest that Probuphine implants offer significant promise for enhancing delivery of effective opioid substitution treatment while minimizing risk for abuse of medication.

  1. Dose constraints for moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: The French genito-urinary group (GETUG) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Langrand-Escure, J; de Crevoisier, R; Llagostera, C; Créhange, G; Delaroche, G; Lafond, C; Bonin, C; Bideault, F; Sargos, P; Belhomme, S; Pasquier, D; Latorzeff, I; Supiot, S; Hennequin, C

    2018-04-01

    Considering recent phase III trials results, moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy can be considered as a standard treatment for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer management. This assessment call for a framework allowing homogeneous and reproducible practices in the different centers using this radiotherapy schedule. The French Genito-Urinary Group (GETUG) provides here recommendations for daily practice of moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer, with indications, dose, fractionation, pre-treatment planning, volume of interest delineation (target volume and organs at risk) and margins, dose constraints and radiotherapy techniques. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Practical strategies when using a stable isotope labeled microtracer for absolute bioavailability assessment: A case study of a high oral dose clinical candidate GDC-0810.

    PubMed

    Chen, Buyun; Lu, Pingping; Freeman, Dugan; Gao, Yang; Choo, Edna; DeMent, Kevin; Savage, Scott; Zhang, Kelly; Milanwoski, Dennis; Liu, Lichuan; Dean, Brian; Deng, Yuzhong

    2018-05-30

    The pH labile metabolite, hydrophobicity, high oral dose and systematic exposure of GDC-0810 posed tremendous challenges to develop a LC-MS method for a stable isotope labeled aBA study. In this study, we explored practical solutions to balance stability and sensitivity and to cope with the impact of high C p.o. to C i.v. ratio on the labeling selection and assay dynamic range. A [ 13 C 9 ] GDC-0810 was synthesized to minimize the isotopic interference between PO dose, internal standard and I.V. microtracer. A highly sensitive LC-MS assay was validated for quantitation of [ 13 C 9 ] GDC-0810 from 5 to 1250 pg/mL. The optimized method was applied to a proof of concept cynomolgus monkey aBA study and the bioavailability calculated using microtracer dosing and regular dosing were similar to each other. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges and Path Forward on Mandatory Allergen Labeling and Voluntary Precautionary Allergen Labeling for a Global Company.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jupiter; Robert, Marie-Claude

    2018-01-01

    For food manufacturers, the label on a food package is a tool meant to alert consumers to the presence of specific allergens, allowing consumers to make informed decisions and not unnecessarily limit their food choices. Mandatory allergen labeling is used when the allergen is an intentionally added ingredient, whereas voluntary allergen labeling is used when the presence of the allergen is unintentional and may be in the finished product as a result of cross-contact. In a globalized economy, ensuring food safety is a growing challenge for manufacturers. When ingredients and technologies are sourced worldwide from multiple business partners, complexity rises, which can increase the chance for errors, leading to potential harm. Threshold science, Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) reference doses, fit-for-purpose analytical technology, and common sense enable us to optimize allergen management for the benefit of allergic consumers. This is a good strategy because all stakeholders share the common goal of making foods safe and wholesome for all. Herein, we recommend that (1) senior management make science-based thresholds a priority for both regulatory authorities and the food industry; (2) VITAL 2.0 be adopted as a risk assessment and risk management tool for precautionary allergen labeling (PAL); (3) a standardized message for PAL, i.e., "may contain x," be used to make it easily understandable to allergic consumers so they can make informed food choices; and (4) validated fit-for-purpose allergen methods be used to meet analytical needs. This is an opportunity for us to speak with one voice and demonstrate that food safety is not a competitive issue, but a shared responsibility. This approach could significantly improve allergic consumers' lives.

  4. Axitinib in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced renal cell cancer: a non-randomised, open-label, dose-finding, and dose-expansion phase 1b trial.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Michael B; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Puzanov, Igor; Fishman, Mayer N; McDermott, David F; Cho, Daniel C; Vaishampayan, Ulka; George, Saby; Olencki, Thomas E; Tarazi, Jamal C; Rosbrook, Brad; Fernandez, Kathrine C; Lechuga, Mariajose; Choueiri, Toni K

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies combining PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors with tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the VEGF pathway have been characterised by excess toxicity, precluding further development. We hypothesised that axitinib, a more selective VEGF inhibitor than others previously tested, could be combined safely with pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) and yield antitumour activity in patients with treatment-naive advanced renal cell carcinoma. In this ongoing, open-label, phase 1b study, which was done at ten centres in the USA, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older who had advanced renal cell carcinoma (predominantly clear cell subtype) with their primary tumour resected, and at least one measureable lesion, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, controlled hypertension, and no previous systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma. Eligible patients received axitinib plus pembrolizumab in a dose-finding phase to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, and additional patients were enrolled into a dose-expansion phase to further establish safety and determine preliminary efficacy. Axitinib 5 mg was administered orally twice per day with pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg given intravenously every 3 weeks. We assessed safety in all patients who received at least one dose of axitinib or pembrolizumab; antitumour activity was assessed in all patients who received study treatment and had an adequate baseline tumour assessment. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed dose-limiting toxicity during the first two cycles (6 weeks) to estimate the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02133742. Between Sept 23, 2014, and March 25, 2015, we enrolled 11 patients with previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma to the dose-finding phase and between June 3, 2015, and Oct 13, 2015, we enrolled 41 patients to the dose-expansion phase. All 52 patients were analysed together. No unexpected toxicities were

  5. Evolution of TUNEL-labeling in the rat lens after in vivo exposure to just above threshold dose UVB.

    PubMed

    Kronschläger, Martin; Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Meyer, Linda M; Hallböök, Finn; Söderberg, Per G

    2013-08-01

    To quantitatively analyse the evolution of TUNEL-labeling, after in vivo exposure to UVB. Altogether, 16 Sprague Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed in vivo for 15 min to close to threshold dose, 5 kJ/m(2), of ultraviolet radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region. Animals were sacrificed in groups of 4 at 1, 5, 24 and 120 h after exposure. For each animal, both eye globes were removed and frozen. The frozen eye was cryo-sectioned in 10 µm thick midsagittal sections. From each globe, three midsagittal sections with at least five sections interval in between were mounted on a microscope slide. Sections were TUNEL-labeled and counter stained with DAPI. For quantification of apoptosis, a fluorescence microscope was used. In sections with a continuous epithelial cell surface, the number of lens epithelial cell nuclei and the number of TUNEL-positive epithelial cell nuclei was counted. The total number of TUNEL-positive epithelial cell nuclei for all three sections of one lens in relation to the total number of epithelial cell nuclei for all three sections of the same lens was compared between exposed and contralateral not exposed lens for each animal. The relative difference of the fraction of TUNEL-positive nuclei between exposed and contralateral not exposed lens increased gradually, peaked in the time interval 5-120 h after exposure, and then declined. Close to threshold dose of UVB induces TUNEL-labeling that peaks in the time window 5-120 h after exposure to UVB.

  6. Sorafenib Dose Recommendation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Based on Exposure-FLT3 Relationship.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Ivaturi, Vijay; Sabato, Philip; Gobburu, Jogarao V S; Greer, Jacqueline M; Wright, John J; Smith, B Douglas; Pratz, Keith W; Rudek, Michelle A

    2018-04-27

    Sorafenib administered at the approved dose continuously is not tolerated long-term in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to optimize the dosing regimen by characterizing the sorafenib exposure-response relationship in patients with AML. A one-compartment model with a transit absorption compartment and enterohepatic recirculation described the exposure. The relationship between sorafenib exposure and target modulation of kinase targets (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-ITD and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)) were described by an inhibitory maximum effect (E max ) model. Sorafenib could inhibit FLT3-ITD activity by 100% with an IC 50 of 69.3 ng/mL and ERK activity by 84% with an IC 50 of 85.7 ng/mL (both adjusted for metabolite potency). Different dosing regimens utilizing 200 or 400 mg at varying frequencies were simulated based on the exposure-response relationship. Simulations demonstrate that a 200 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) dosing regimen showed similar FLT3-ITD and ERK inhibitory activity compared with 400 mg b.i.d. and is recommended in further clinical trials in patients with AML. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Pharmacometrics-based dose selection of levofloxacin as a treatment for postexposure inhalational anthrax in children.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Nandy, Partha; Chien, Shuchean; Noel, Gary J; Tornoe, Christoffer W

    2010-01-01

    Levofloxacin was recently (May 2008) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for children following inhalational exposure to anthrax. Given that no clinical trials to assess the efficacy of a chosen dose was conducted, the basis for the dose recommendation was based upon pharmacometric analyses. The objective of this paper is to describe the basis of the chosen pediatric dose recommended for the label. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 90 pediatric patients receiving 7 mg/kg of body weight levofloxacin and two studies of 47 healthy adults receiving 500 and 750 mg/kg levofloxacin were used for the pharmacometric analyses. Body weight was found to be a significant covariate for levofloxacin clearance and the volume of distribution. Consistently with developmental physiology, clearance also was found to be reduced in pediatric patients under 2 years of age due to immature renal function. Different dosing regimens were simulated to match adult exposure (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h at steady state, maximum concentration of drug in serum at steady state, and minimum concentration of drug in serum at steady state) following the approved adult dose of 500 mg once a day. The recommended dose of 8 mg/kg twice a day was found to match the exposure of the dose approved for adults in a manner that permitted confidence that this dose in children would achieve efficacy comparable to that of adults.

  8. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) in Future Studies.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2015-07-01

    High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  9. Estimation of organ cumulated activities and absorbed doses on intakes of several 11C labelled radiopharmaceuticals from external measurement with thermoluminescent dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Hayashi, Y; Watabe, H; Matsumoto, M; Horikawa, T; Fujiwara, T; Ito, M; Yanai, K

    1998-02-01

    We have developed a method for obtaining the cumulated activities in organs from radionuclides, which are injected into the patient in nuclear medicine procedures, by external exposure measurement with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) which are attached to the patient's body surface close to source organs to obtain information on body-surface doses. As the surface dose is connected to the cumulated activities in source organs through radiation transmission in the human body which can be estimated with the aid of a mathematical phantom, the organ cumulated activities can be obtained by the inverse transform method. The accuracy of this method was investigated by using a water phantom in which several gamma-ray volume sources of known activity were placed to simulate source organs. We then estimated by external measurements the organ cumulated activities and absorbed doses in subjects to whom the radiopharmaceuticals 11C-labelled Doxepin, 11C-labelled YM09151-2 and 11C-labelled Benzotropin were administered in clinical nuclear medicine procedures. The cumulated activities in the brain obtained with TLDs for Doxepin and YM09151-2 are 63.6 +/- 6.2 and 32.1 +/- 12.0 kBq h MBq-1 respectively, which are compared with the respective values of 33.3 +/- 9.9 and 23.9 +/- 6.2 kBq h MBq-1 with direct PET (positron emission tomography) measurements. The agreement between the two methods is within a factor of two. The effective doses of Doxepin, YM09151-2 and Benzotropin are determined as 6.92 x 10(-3), 7.08 x 10(-3) and 7.65 x 10(-3) mSv MBq-1 respectively with the TLD method. This method has great advantages, in that cumulated activities in several organs can be obtained easily with a single procedure, and the measurements of body surface doses are performed simultaneously with the nuclear medicine procedure, as TLDs are too small to interfere with other medical measurements.

  10. Concordance between actual and pharmacogenetic predicted desvenlafaxine dose needed to achieve remission in major depressive disorder: a 10-week open-label study.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Müller, Daniel J; Ng, Chee H; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael; Singh, Ajeet B

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic-based dosing support tools have been developed to personalize antidepressant-prescribing practice. However, the clinical validity of these tools has not been adequately tested, particularly for specific antidepressants. To examine the concordance between the actual dose and a polygene pharmacogenetic predicted dose of desvenlafaxine needed to achieve symptom remission. A 10-week, open-label, prospective trial of desvenlafaxine among Caucasian adults with major depressive disorder (n=119) was conducted. Dose was clinically adjusted and at the completion of the trial, the clinical dose needed to achieve remission was compared with the predicted dose needed to achieve remission. Among remitters (n=95), there was a strong concordance (Kendall's τ-b=0.84, P=0.0001; Cohen's κ=0.82, P=0.0001) between the actual and the predicted dose need to achieve symptom remission, showing high sensitivity (≥85%), specificity (≥86%), and accuracy (≥89%) of the tool. Findings provide initial evidence for the clinical validity of a polygene pharmacogenetic-based tool for desvenlafaxine dosing.

  11. High-dose levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Seo Woo; Kim, Ji Hye; Ryu, Yon Ju; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) involves combination therapy consisting of a β-lactam penicillin or a cephalosporin with a macrolide. Alternatively, high-dose levofloxacin treatment has been used as single-agent therapy for treating CAP, covering atypical pathogens. This study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of high-dose levofloxacin with combined ceftriaxone and azithromycin for the treatment of CAP. This phase IV, prospective, randomized, open-label trial enrolled patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for CAP treatment from 2010 to 2011. Hospital admission was decided based on clinical judgement and the pneumonia severity index. Forty subjects were enrolled and assigned to two treatment arms using a random numbers table. The 20 subjects in the experimental group were given levofloxacin 750 mg intravenously once daily, followed by the same dose of oral levofloxacin at discharge when clinically improved and the 20 subjects in the control group were given ceftriaxone 2.0 g intravenously once daily plus oral azithromycin 500 mg for 3 consecutive days, followed by oral cefpodoxime 200 mg per day at discharge after clinical improvement. The primary outcome was the clinical success rate. Secondary outcomes were the microbiological success rate and adverse events during the study. Of the 40 subjects enrolled, 36 completed the study: 17 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group. The groups did not differ in terms of demographic factors or clinical findings at baseline. The clinical success rate (cured + improved) was 94% in the experimental (levofloxacin) group and 84% in the control group (p > 0.05). The microbiological success rate and overall adverse events were also similar in both groups. Single-agent, high-dose levofloxacin treatment exhibited excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy with a safety profile comparable to that of ceftriaxone plus azithromycin therapy. Large-scale clinical

  12. Dose Dependent Side Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Labeling on Cell Motility in Two Fetal Stem Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Valentina; Bossolasco, Patrizia; Moscatelli, Davide; Silani, Vincenzo; Cova, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent stem cells (SCs) could substitute damaged cells and also rescue degeneration through the secretion of trophic factors able to activate the endogenous SC compartment. Therefore, fetal SCs, characterized by high proliferation rate and devoid of ethical concern, appear promising candidate, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn), routinely used for pre-clinical cell imaging and already approved for clinical practice, allow tracking of transplanted SCs and characterization of their fate within the host tissue, when combined with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this work we investigated how SPIOn could influence cell migration after internalization in two fetal SC populations: human amniotic fluid and chorial villi SCs were labeled with SPIOn and their motility was evaluated. We found that SPIOn loading significantly reduced SC movements without increasing production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Moreover, motility impairment was directly proportional to the amount of loaded SPIOn while a chemoattractant-induced recovery was obtained by increasing serum levels. Interestingly, the migration rate of SPIOn labeled cells was also significantly influenced by a degenerative surrounding. In conclusion, this work highlights how SPIOn labeling affects SC motility in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, shedding the light on an important parameter for the creation of clinical protocols. Establishment of an optimal SPIOn dose that enables both a good visualization of grafted cells by MRI and the physiological migration rate is a main step in order to maximize the effects of SC therapy in both animal models of neurodegeneration and clinical studies. PMID:24244310

  13. Off-label prescribing to children: attitudes and experience of general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Ekins-Daukes, Suzie; Helms, Peter J; Taylor, Michael W; McLay, James S

    2005-01-01

    Aim To identify experience with and attitudes towards paediatric off-label prescribing in primary care. Method A prospective questionnaire survey was sent to a sample of Scottish primary care practices (346 doctors in 80 general practices located throughout Scotland). Results Two hundred and two (58%) completed questionnaires were returned. Over 70% of GPs admitted to being familiar with the concept, and 40% to knowingly prescribing off-label. The most important sources of paediatric prescribing information were the British National Formulary (81%), personal experience (71%) and previous prescription notes (45%). The most common reason given by GPs for off-label prescribing was prescribing for a younger age than recommended, although prescribing data confirm that age is the least important and dose the most important reason for such prescribing. When asked to comment upon different causes for off-label prescribing, 80% of respondents expressed appropriate awareness of and concern for the described scenarios. Over 97% of GPs ranked development of paediatric formulations and clearer dosage information more highly than clinical trials as a means to reducing off-label prescribing. Conclusions Despite high levels of off-label prescribing in primary care in the UK, the majority of GPs claimed to be familiar with the concept, although less than half were aware of this common practice. A clear disparity between perceived and actual reasons for off-label prescribing was noted, possibly due to a reliance on personal experience, colleague experience or previous patient prescription notes as a guide to prescribing. PMID:16042667

  14. Towards new methods for the determination of dose limiting toxicities and the assessment of the recommended dose for further studies of molecularly targeted agents--dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-led study.

    PubMed

    Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Collette, Laurence; Paoletti, Xavier; Rizzo, Elisa; Massard, Christophe; Olmos, David; Fowst, Camilla; Levy, Bernard; Mancini, Pierre; Lacombe, Denis; Ivy, Percy; Seymour, Lesley; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Siu, Lillian L; Kaye, Stan B; Verweij, Jaap; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2014-08-01

    Traditional dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition, which uses grade (G) 3-4 toxicity data from cycle 1 (C1) only, may not be appropriate for molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) of prolonged administration, for which late or lower grade toxicities also deserve attention. In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies and academia, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-led initiative, Dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies (DLT-TARGETT), collected data from completed phase 1 trials evaluating MTAs as monotherapy. All toxicities at least possibly related to the study drugs that occurred during C1-6, their type, grade (CTCAEv3.0), and duration as well as patients' relative dose-intensity (RDI), were recorded. The 54 eligible trials enrolled 2084 evaluable adult patients with solid tumours between 1999 and 2013, and evaluated small molecules (40), antibodies (seven), recombinant peptides (five) and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (two). A maximum tolerated dose was set in 43 trials. Fifteen percent of the patients received <75% of the intended RDI in C1, but only 9.1% of them presented protocol-defined DLTs. After C1, 16-19% of patients received <75% of the intended RDI. A similar proportion of G ⩾ 3 toxicities was recorded in C1 and after C1 (936 and 1087 toxicities, respectively), with the first G⩾3 toxicity occurring after C1 in 18.6% of patients. Although protocol-defined DLT period is traditionally limited to C1, almost 20% of patients present significant reductions in RDI at any time in phase 1 trials of MTAs. Recommended phase 2 dose assessment should incorporate all available information from any cycle (notably lower grade toxicities leading to such RDI decrease), and be based on achieving >75% RDI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye: overview of the recommendations in NCRP Commentary No. 26.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Dynlacht, Joseph; Hoel, David; Klein, Barbara E K; Mayer, Donald; Prescott, Christina R; Thornton, Raymond H; Vano, Eliseo; Woloschak, Gayle E; Flannery, Cynthia M; Goldstein, Lee E; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Tran, Phung K; Grissom, Michael P; Blakely, Eleanor A

    2017-10-01

    This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP addressed radiation protection principles in respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epidemiology, and assessed exposed populations with the potential for significant radiation exposures to the lens while suggesting monitoring and protection practices. Radiation-induced damage to the lens of the eye can include the loss of clarity resulting in opacification or clouding several years after exposure. The impact is highly dependent on the type of radiation, how the exposure of the lens was delivered, the genetic susceptibilities of the individual exposed, and the location of the opacity relative to the visual axis of the individual. The preponderance of epidemiological evidence suggests that lens damage could occur at lower doses than previously considered and the NCRP has determined that it is prudent to reduce the recommended annual lens of the eye occupational dose limit from an equivalent dose of 150 mSv to an absorbed dose of 50 mGy. Significant additional research is still needed in the following areas: comprehensive evaluation of the overall effects of ionizing radiation on the eye, dosimetry methodology and dose-sparing optimization techniques, additional high quality epidemiology studies, and a basic understanding of the mechanisms of cataract development.

  16. The legibility of prescription medication labelling in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Kristina; Krishnamoorthy, Abinaya; Gold, Deborah; Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The legibility of medication labelling is a concern for all Canadians, because poor or illegible labelling may lead to miscommunication of medication information and poor patient outcomes. There are currently few guidelines and no regulations regarding print standards on medication labels. This study analyzed sample prescription labels from Ontario, Canada, and compared them with print legibility guidelines (both generic and specific to medication labels). Methods: Cluster sampling was used to randomly select a total of 45 pharmacies in the tri-cities of Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge. Pharmacies were asked to supply a regular label with a hypothetical prescription. The print characteristics of patient-critical information were compared against the recommendations for prescription labels by pharmaceutical and health organizations and for print accessibility by nongovernmental organizations. Results: More than 90% of labels followed the guidelines for font style, contrast, print colour and nonglossy paper. However, only 44% of the medication instructions met the minimum guideline of 12-point print size, and none of the drug or patient names met this standard. Only 5% of the labels were judged to make the best use of space, and 51% used left alignment. None of the instructions were in sentence case, as is recommended. Discussion: We found discrepancies between guidelines and current labels in print size, justification, spacing and methods of emphasis. Conclusion: Improvements in pharmacy labelling are possible without moving to new technologies or changing the size of labels and would be expected to enhance patient outcomes. PMID:24847371

  17. Frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in a southern municipality of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Marcele Giacomin; Heineck, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in medium-sized municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, which analyzed prescriptions issued to 326 patients from August to December/2012 in two basic health units in the city of Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. It included all prescriptions of patients whose medical records or service records were available and complete in relation to the date of presence, weight and date of birth. Off-label prescriptions were those which, in relation to the drug leaflet, showed dose different the recommended range, frequency of prescription and/or different form of administration and younger age than the indicated range. Descriptive statistics with absolute frequencies, means and standard deviations were used. Results: During the study period, a total of 731 drug prescriptions were issued and the frequency of off-label medications prescribed was 31.7%, especially antihistamines and antiasthmatics (32.3% and 31.5%, respectively). The main type of off-label prescription was dose (38.8%), followed by age range (31.5%) and frequency of administration (29.3%). Regarding the dose off-label prescription, overdose was more frequent (93.3%) than the underdose (6.7%). Prescriptions of unapproved drugs were not identified. Conclusions: The study showed that off label prescription is common in both assessed units. The observed percentage of off label prescription was higher than that reported by European studies carried out in primary care. On the other hand, the prescription of drugs not approved for children was not observed. PMID:26530249

  18. Concordance between actual and pharmacogenetic predicted desvenlafaxine dose needed to achieve remission in major depressive disorder: a 10-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel J.; Ng, Chee H.; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael; Singh, Ajeet B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic-based dosing support tools have been developed to personalize antidepressant-prescribing practice. However, the clinical validity of these tools has not been adequately tested, particularly for specific antidepressants. Objective To examine the concordance between the actual dose and a polygene pharmacogenetic predicted dose of desvenlafaxine needed to achieve symptom remission. Materials and methods A 10-week, open-label, prospective trial of desvenlafaxine among Caucasian adults with major depressive disorder (n=119) was conducted. Dose was clinically adjusted and at the completion of the trial, the clinical dose needed to achieve remission was compared with the predicted dose needed to achieve remission. Results Among remitters (n=95), there was a strong concordance (Kendall’s τ-b=0.84, P=0.0001; Cohen’s κ=0.82, P=0.0001) between the actual and the predicted dose need to achieve symptom remission, showing high sensitivity (≥85%), specificity (≥86%), and accuracy (≥89%) of the tool. Conclusion Findings provide initial evidence for the clinical validity of a polygene pharmacogenetic-based tool for desvenlafaxine dosing. PMID:27779571

  19. Interpreting labels of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R

    To provide an overview of available abuse-deterrent opioids (ADOs) and the labeling text that describes abuse-deterrent (AD) properties. A nonsystematic review of ADO literature and regulatory documents guiding their development. A critical assessment and discussion of common routes of opioid abuse, AD methods and properties, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) study requirements to achieve AD labeling, and brief guide to understanding AD labels. The FDA has issued guidance as incentive and direction to industry to develop ADOs as one component of a multi-pronged public-health strategy to combat opioid abuse and misuse. The guidance describes separate categories of premarket and postmarket studies and makes recommendations for claims that may be made based on study findings. Ten ADOs have FDA-approved labeling attesting to AD properties. Available formulations that fail to conform to FDA guidance in study and labeling recommendations cannot be considered ADO. Formulations with AD properties are expected to reduce risk compared to the same agents without AD properties but cannot prevent all abuse and adverse clinical outcomes.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Menu Labeling on Food Choices and Intake

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Peter D.; Agnew, Henry; Baik, Jenny; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of restaurant menu calorie labels on food choices and intake. Methods. Participants in a study dinner (n = 303) were randomly assigned to either (1) a menu without calorie labels (no calorie labels), (2) a menu with calorie labels (calorie labels), or (3) a menu with calorie labels and a label stating the recommended daily caloric intake for an average adult (calorie labels plus information). Food choices and intake during and after the study dinner were measured. Results. Participants in both calorie label conditions ordered fewer calories than those in the no calorie labels condition. When calorie label conditions were combined, that group consumed 14% fewer calories than the no calorie labels group. Individuals in the calorie labels condition consumed more calories after the study dinner than those in both other conditions. When calories consumed during and after the study dinner were combined, participants in the calorie labels plus information group consumed an average of 250 fewer calories than those in the other groups. Conclusions. Calorie labels on restaurant menus impacted food choices and intake; adding a recommended daily caloric requirement label increased this effect, suggesting menu label legislation should require such a label. Future research should evaluate menu labeling's impact on children's food choices and consumption. PMID:20019307

  1. Drug utilization and off-label drug use in Spanish pediatric gastroenterology outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Antorán, Belén; Piñeiro, Roi; Avendaño, Cristina; Román, Enriqueta; Cilleruelo, María Luz; Gutiérrez-Junquera, Carolina; Centeno, Gustavo; Cilleruelo, María José

    2013-02-01

    The clinical use of medicines outside the conditions authorized in their Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) (off-label use) is a common practice in pediatrics. The aim of the present study was to describe and quantify the medicines received by children attended in the pediatric gastroenterology department, their off-label use, and compliance with accepted rules for said use. A retrospective observational study was performed on all of the patients who had their first consultation in pediatric gastroenterology between January 1 and October 31, 2010. All of the clinical information and medicines prescribed were analyzed. Off-label use was defined as the use of medicines in indications not included in the officially approved SPC or in ages not included or recommended in the SPC as well as the use of doses, intervals, or administration routes different from those considered in the SPC. A total of 695 patients (52.8% male) were included, 48.2% younger than 2 years. Two-hundred seven patients (29.8%) received 331 prescriptions. The most commonly used medicines were anti-H2 and proton pump inhibitors. Of all the prescriptions, 33.2% were considered off-label, and up to 47.3% of the prescribed patients had at least 1 medicine under off-label conditions. The medical records contained no documentation on information given to the parents regarding off-label use. The study found a high percentage of off-label use of medicines in the Pediatric Gastroenterology outpatient setting, especially in children younger than 2 years. Several initiatives were derived from the present study and implemented in our hospital.

  2. Hemodialysis patients receiving a greater Kt dose than recommended have reduced mortality and hospitalization risk.

    PubMed

    Maduell, Francisco; Ramos, Rosa; Varas, Javier; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Molina, Manuel; Pérez-Garcia, Rafael; Marcelli, Daniele; Moreso, Francesc; Aljama, Pedro; Merello, Jose Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Achieving an adequate dialysis dose is one of the key goals for dialysis treatments. Here we assessed whether patients receiving the current cleared plasma volume (Kt), individualized for body surface area per recommendations, had improved survival and reduced hospitalizations at 2 years of follow-up. Additionally, we assessed whether patients receiving a greater dose gained more benefit. This prospective, observational, multicenter study included 6129 patients in 65 Fresenius Medical Care Spanish facilities. Patients were classified monthly into 1 of 10 risk groups based on the difference between achieved and target Kt. Patient groups with a more negative relationship were significantly older with a higher percentage of diabetes mellitus and catheter access. Treatment dialysis time, effective blood flow, and percentage of on-line hemodiafiltration were significantly higher in groups with a higher dose. The mortality risk profile showed a progressive increase when achieved minus target Kt became more negative but was significantly lower in the group with 1 to 3 L clearance above target Kt and in groups with greater increases above target Kt. Additionally, hospitalization risk appeared significantly reduced in groups receiving 9 L or more above the minimum target. Thus, prescribing an additional 3 L or more above the minimum Kt dose could potentially reduce mortality risk, and 9 L or more reduce hospitalization risk. As such, future prospective studies are required to confirm these dose effect findings. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adjunctive lacosamide for focal epilepsy: an open-label trial evaluating the impact of flexible titration and dosing on safety and seizure outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baulac, Michel; Coulbaut, Safia; Doty, Pamela; McShea, Cindy; De Backer, Marc; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Vlaicu, Mihaela

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of lacosamide in a real-life setting with the use of a flexible dose titration schedule and individualised maintenance doses up to the maximum approved dose of 400 mg/day. Adults with a diagnosis of focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization, were enrolled in this open-label Phase IV trial (NCT01235403). Lacosamide was initiated at 100 mg/day (50 mg bid) and uptitrated over a 12-week period to 200, 300 or 400 mg/day, based on safety and seizure control. Although dose increases were to be in increments of 100 mg/day, intermediate doses were permitted at each escalation step for one week for patients known to be particularly sensitive to starting new AEDs. After receiving a stable, effective dose for three weeks, patients entered the 12-week maintenance period. Primary outcomes were incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and withdrawal due to TEAEs. Seizure outcomes, all secondary, were median focal seizure frequency, ≥50% reduction in focal seizure frequency, and seizure freedom. One hundred patients with a mean age of 44 years were enrolled and 74 completed the trial. The incidence of TEAEs was 64.0% (n=100), with the most frequently reported (≥5% of patients) being dizziness, headache, and asthenia. Fourteen patients withdrew due to TEAEs, most frequently due to dizziness (six patients; 6.0%), vomiting (two patients; 2%), and tremor (two patients; 2%). Among patients with baseline and maintenance phase seizure data (n=75), median reduction in focal seizure frequency from baseline was 69.7% and the ≥50% responder rate was 69.3%. Among 74 patients who completed the maintenance phase, 21 (28.4%) were seizure-free. Flexible lacosamide dosing in this open-label trial was associated with a favourable tolerability and safety profile; the nature of the TEAEs was consistent with that observed in previous pivotal trials. Treatment with lacosamide was also associated with effective seizure

  4. Comparison of current recommended regimens of atropinization in organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Connors, Nicholas J; Harnett, Zachary H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate (OP) toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In 2004, as reported by Eddleston et al. (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42(6):865-75, 2004), they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al.'s work, texts of Internal and Emergency Medicine, and electronic resources were reviewed for atropine dosing recommendations. For comparison, recommendations were assessed using the same mean dose (23.4 mg) and the highest dose (75 mg) of atropine as used in the original paper. Recommendations were also compared with the dosing regimen from the World Health Organization (WHO). Thirteen of the original recommendations were updated and 15 additional references were added giving a convenience sample of 28. Sufficient information to calculate time to targeted dose was provided by 24 of these samples. Compared to 2004, current recommendations have greatly increased the speed of atropinization with 13/24 able to reach the mean and high atropine dose within 30 min compared to 1/36 in 2004. In 2004, there were 13 regimens where the maximum time to reach 75 mg was over 18 h, whereas now, there are 2. While only one recommendation called for doubling the dose for faster escalation in 2004, 15 of the 24 current works include dose doubling. In 2004, Eddleston et al. called for an evidence-based guideline for the treatment of OP poisoning that could be disseminated worldwide. Many current recommendations can adequately treat patients within 1 h. While the WHO recommendations remain slow to treat patients with OP poisoning, other authorities are close to a consensus on rapid atropinization.

  5. [Frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in a southern municipality of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marcele Giacomin; Heineck, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in medium-sized municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, which analyzed prescriptions issued to 326 patients from August to December/2012 in two basic health units in the city of Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. It included all prescriptions of patients whose medical records or service records were available and complete in relation to the date of presence, weight and date of birth. Off-label prescriptions were those which, in relation to the drug leaflet, showed dose different the recommended range, frequency of prescription and/or different form of administration and younger age than the indicated range. Descriptive statistics with absolute frequencies, means and standard deviations were used. During the study period, a total of 731 drug prescriptions were issued and the frequency of off-label medications prescribed was 31.7%, especially antihistamines and antiasthmatics (32.3% and 31.5%, respectively). The main type of off-label prescription was dose (38.8%), followed by age range (31.5%) and frequency of administration (29.3%). Regarding the dose off-label prescription, overdose was more frequent (93.3%) than the underdose (6.7%). Prescriptions of unapproved drugs were not identified. The study showed that off label prescription is common in both assessed units. The observed percentage of off label prescription was higher than that reported by European studies carried out in primary care. On the other hand, the prescription of drugs not approved for children was not observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Open-label dose optimization of methylphenidate modified release long acting (MPH-LA): a post hoc analysis of real-life titration from a 40-week randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Huss, Michael; Ginsberg, Ylva; Arngrim, Torben; Philipsen, Alexandra; Carter, Katherine; Chen, Chien-Wei; Gandhi, Preetam; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    In the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults it is important to recognize that individual patients respond to a wide range of methylphenidate doses. Studies with methylphenidate modified release long acting (MPH-LA) in children have reported the need for treatment optimization for improved outcomes. We report the results from a post hoc analysis of a 5-week dose optimization phase from a large randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter 40-week study (9-week double-blind dose confirmation phase, 5-week open-label dose optimization phase, and 26-week double-blind maintenance of effect phase). Patients entering the open-label dose optimization phase initiated treatment with MPH-LA 20 mg/day; up/down titrated to their optimal dose (at which there was balance between control of symptoms and side effects) of 40, 60, or 80 mg/day in increments of 20 mg/week by week 12 or 13. Safety was assessed by monitoring the adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Efficacy was assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (DSM-IV ADHD RS) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total scores. At the end of the dose confirmation phase, similar numbers of patients were treated optimally with each of the 40, 60, and 80 mg/day doses (152, 177, and 160, respectively) for MPH-LA. Mean improvement from baseline in the dose confirmation phase in total scores of DSM-IV ADHD RS and SDS were 23.5 ± 9.90 and 9.7 ± 7.36, respectively. Dose optimization with MPH-LA (40, 60, or 80 mg/day) improved treatment outcomes and was well-tolerated in adult ADHD patients.

  7. Attitudes and experiences of community pharmacists towards paediatric off-label prescribing: a prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Derek; Rouf, Abdul; Snaith, Ailsa; Elliott, Kathleen; Helms, Peter J; McLay, James S

    2007-01-01

    %, 103/258) recommended dose, primarily antibiotics and analgesics. Over 60% of respondents had been asked by the public to sell paediatric over-the-counter medicines, such as antihistamines, analgesics and steroid preparations for off-label use. The majority of respondents used the British National Formulary or the Pack Insert rather than specialist formularies or guidelines as a source of specialist paediatric information. Although 78% of respondents believed they had a responsibility to inform the prescriber that a medicine was off label, only 66% believed that they had a similar responsibility to inform parents. Conclusion The community pharmacists who responded to this questionnaire appear to be aware of and concerned by the issues which surround paediatric off-label prescribing. Despite this, most gained relevant knowledge through work experience rather than undergraduate or postgraduate training or professional development. PMID:17324238

  8. Coronary artery calcification identification and labeling in low-dose chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiting; Liu, Shuang; Miller, Albert; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Markowitz, Steven; Akhund, Ali; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    A fully automated computer algorithm has been developed to evaluate coronary artery calcification (CAC) from lowdose CT scans. CAC is identified and evaluated in three main coronary artery groups: Left Main and Left Anterior Descending Artery (LM + LAD) CAC, Left Circumflex Artery (LCX) CAC, and Right Coronary Artery (RCA) CAC. The artery labeling is achieved by segmenting all CAC candidates in the heart region and applying geometric constraints on the candidates using locally pre-identified anatomy regions. This algorithm was evaluated on 1,359 low-dose ungated CT scans, in which each artery CAC content was categorically visually scored by a radiologist into none, mild, moderate and extensive. The Spearman correlation coefficient R was used to assess the agreement between three automated CAC scores (Agatston-weighted, volume, and mass) and categorical visual scores. For Agatston-weighted automated scores, R was 0.87 for total CAC, 0.82 for LM + LAD CAC, 0.66 for LCX CAC and 0.72 for RCA CAC; results using volume and mass scores were similar. CAC detection sensitivities were: 0.87 for total, 0.82 for LM + LAD, 0.65 for LCX and 0.74 for RCA. To assess the impact of image noise, the dataset was further partitioned into three subsets based on heart region noise level (low<=80HU, medium=(80HU, 110HU], high>110HU). The low and medium noise subsets had higher sensitivities and correlations than the high noise subset. These results indicate that location specific heart risk assessment is possible from low-dose chest CT images.

  9. Labelling of household products and prevention of unintentional poisoning.

    PubMed

    de Presgrave, Rosaura Farias; Alves, Eloisa Nunes; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Bôas, Maria Helena Simões Villas

    2008-04-01

    Unintentional poisoning occurs mainly in childhood due to ingestion of common household products. A decisive factor is the lack of knowledge concerning the potential toxicity of these products. A random study of 158 labels of cleaning products was conducted at the National Institute of Quality Control in Health--Brazil. Health hazard warnings, first aid in case of poisoning and storage instructions were evaluated to assess the quality of information provided to the consumer regarding the risks inherent in these products. Among these labels, 75% were considered inadequate since they did not provide all cautionary information necessary to avoid the health hazards associated with these products. First aid instructions in the case of inhalation were missing on more than 50% of labels studied and 47% did not recommend taking the label to a health professional in case of accident. Furthermore, the labels did not provide other important warnings such as "read before use" and "keep in original container': The results indicate that the labelling of cleaning products does not provide all safety information recommended for consumers.

  10. End labeling procedures: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hilario, Elena

    2004-09-01

    There are two ways to label a DNA molecular; by the ends or all along the molecule. End labeling can be performed at the 3'- or 5'-end. Labeling at the 3' end is performed by filling 3'-end recessed ends with a mixture or labeled and unlabeled dNTPs using Klenow or T4 DNA polymerases. Both reactions are template dependent. Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase incorporates dNTPs at the 3' end of any kind of DNA molecule or RNA. Labels incorporated at the 3'-end of the DNA molecule prevent any further extension or ligation to any other molecule, but this can be overcome by labeling the 5'-end of the desired DNA molecule. 5'-end labeling is performed by enzymatic methods (T4 polynucleotide kinase exchange and forward reactions), by chemical modification of sensitized oligonucleotides with phosphoroamidite, or by combined methods. Probe cleanup is recommended when high background problems occur, but caution should be taken not to damage the attached probe with harsh chemicals or by light exposure.

  11. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Yucca mountain radiation standards, dose/risk assessments, thinking outside the box, evaluations, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2009-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository is designed to contain spent nuclear fuel and vitrified fission products. Due to the fact that it will be the first such facility constructed anywhere in the world, it has proved to be one in which multiple organizations, most prominently the U.S. Congress, are exercising a role. In addition to selecting a site for the facility, Congress specified that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) promulgate the associated Standards, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission establish applicable Regulations to implement the Standards, and the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) design, construct, and operate the repository. Congress also specified that U.S. EPA request that the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) provide them guidance on the form and nature of the Standards. In so doing, Congress also stipulated that the Standards be expressed in terms of an "equivalent dose rate." As will be noted, this subsequently introduced serious complications. Due to the inputs of so many groups, and the fact that the NAS recommendations conflicted with the Congressional stipulation that the limits be expressed in terms of a dose rate, the outcome is a set of Standards that not only does not comply with the NAS recommendations, but also is neither integrated, nor consistent. The initial goals of this paper are to provide an independent risk/dose analysis for each of the eight radionuclides that are to be regulated, and to evaluate them in terms of the Standards. These efforts reveal that the Standards are neither workable nor capable of being implemented. The concluding portions of the paper provide guidance that, if successfully implemented, would enable U.S. DOE to complete the construction of the repository and operate it in accordance with the recommendations of NAS while, at the same time, provide a better, more accurate, understanding of its potential risks to the public. This facility is too important to

  12. Acinetobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated with Debridement and High-Dose Tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Amadio, Claudio; Leiva, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Prosthesis retention is not recommended for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter prosthetic joint infection due to its high failure rate. Nevertheless, replacing the prosthesis implies high morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Although tigecycline is not approved for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, its appropriate use may preclude prosthesis exchange. Since the area under the curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration is the best pharmacodynamic predictor of its efficacy, we used tigecycline at high dose, in order to optimize its efficacy and achieve implant retention in 3 patients who refused prosthesis exchange. All patients with prosthetic joint infections treated at our Institution are prospectively registered in a database. Three patients with early prosthetic joint infection of total hip arthroplasty due to multidrug resistant A. baumannii were treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention, using a high maintenance dose of tigecycline (100 mg every 12 hours). The cases were retrospectively reviewed. All patients signed informed consent for receiving off-label use of tigecycline. Tigecycline was well tolerated, allowing its administration at high maintenance dose for a median of 40 days (range 30-60). Two patients were then switched to minocycline at standard doses for a median of 3.3 months in order to complete treatment. Currently, none of the patients showed relapse. Increasing the dose of tigecycline could be considered as a means to better attain pharmacodynamic targets in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat infections. Tigecycline at high maintenance dose might be useful when retention of the implant is attempted for treatment for prosthetic joint infections due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Although this approach might be promising, off-label use of tigecycline should be interpreted cautiously until prospective data are available. Tigecycline is

  13. Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Third Dose of Mumps Virus-Containing Vaccine in Persons at Increased Risk for Mumps During an Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Marlow, Mariel; Moore, Kelly L; Patel, Manisha

    2018-01-12

    A substantial increase in the number of mumps outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases has occurred in the United States since late 2015 (1,2). To address this public health problem, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed the available evidence and determined that a third dose of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe and effective at preventing mumps. During its October 2017 meeting, ACIP recommended a third dose of a mumps virus-containing vaccine* for persons previously vaccinated with 2 doses who are identified by public health authorities as being part of a group or population at increased risk for acquiring mumps because of an outbreak. The purpose of the recommendation is to improve protection of persons in outbreak settings against mumps disease and mumps-related complications. This recommendation supplements the existing ACIP recommendations for mumps vaccination (3).

  14. Evaluation of adverse drug event information in US manufacturer labels.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Catherine A; Garcia, Angela S; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza

    2011-02-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturer labels are an important source of adverse drug event (ADE) information. The study objective was to determine the sufficiency of ADE reporting in US drug labels. A sample of 50 labels was evaluated from the top 200 drugs dispensed in the US. Electronic copies of labels were obtained and reviewed by 2 pharmacists for ADE incidence and discontinuation data. ADE incidence data were provided in 86% of labels. However, discontinuation rates due to ADEs and ADE incidence by dose were only reported in 60%. ADE incidence reporting by age (46%) or gender (18%) was also low. ADEs that occurred in less than 2% of the population were rarely reported. Incidence rates were based on small populations (median of 794) and short term studies (median of 84 days for chronic conditions). Labels for 19 drugs used chronically had no long term study data. Methods for collecting ADE data were stated in only 12% of labels. Adverse drug event and drug discontinuation data is under-reported in US labels. More information on adverse events causing discontinuation (especially serious events) and those related to dose, age, and gender is needed in labels to ensure safe prescribing and dispensing of drugs.

  15. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of... labeling. (a) The labeling for anticaries fluoride treatment rinses identified in § 355.10(a)(3) and (c)(3) that are specially formulated so they may be swallowed (fluoride supplements) and are provided to...

  16. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of... labeling. (a) The labeling for anticaries fluoride treatment rinses identified in § 355.10(a)(3) and (c)(3) that are specially formulated so they may be swallowed (fluoride supplements) and are provided to...

  17. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of... labeling. (a) The labeling for anticaries fluoride treatment rinses identified in § 355.10(a)(3) and (c)(3) that are specially formulated so they may be swallowed (fluoride supplements) and are provided to...

  18. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of... labeling. (a) The labeling for anticaries fluoride treatment rinses identified in § 355.10(a)(3) and (c)(3) that are specially formulated so they may be swallowed (fluoride supplements) and are provided to...

  19. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water supply contains 0.3 to 0.7 ppm fluoride ion, reduce the dose to 2.5 mL of 0.02 percent or 5 mL of... labeling. (a) The labeling for anticaries fluoride treatment rinses identified in § 355.10(a)(3) and (c)(3) that are specially formulated so they may be swallowed (fluoride supplements) and are provided to...

  20. Rationale for recommending a lower dose of primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide in populations where G6PD deficiency is common.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas J; Qiao, Li Guo; Qi, Gao; Luzzatto, Lucio

    2012-12-14

    In areas of low malaria transmission, it is currently recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.75 mg base/kg; 45 mg adult dose) be added to artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) in acute falciparum malaria to block malaria transmission. Review of studies of transmission-blocking activity based on the infectivity of patients or volunteers to anopheline mosquitoes, and of haemolytic toxicity in glucose 6-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient subjects, suggests that a lower primaquine dose (0.25 mg base/kg) would be safer and equally effective. This lower dose could be deployed together with ACTs without G6PD testing wherever use of a specific gametocytocide is indicated.

  1. The effect of increasing the dose of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in patients with refractory cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE): An open-label prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chasset, François; Arnaud, Laurent; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Zahr, Noel; Bessis, Didier; Francès, Camille

    2016-04-01

    Up to 30% of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) fail to respond to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). We sought to evaluate the efficacy of increased daily doses of HCQ on cutaneous response in refractory CLE. We conducted an open-label prospective study between 2010 and 2014. Patients with CLE and HCQ blood level less than or equal to 750 ng/mL were included. The daily dose of HCQ was increased to reach blood concentrations greater than 750 ng/mL. The primary end point was the number of responders defined by an improvement of CLE Disease Area and Severity Index score (4 points or 20% decrease) in patients with HCQ blood concentration greater than 750 ng/mL. We included 34 patients (26 women; median age 45 [range 28-72] years). Two nonadherent patients were excluded. The median CLE Disease Area and Severity Index score before treatment was significantly improved after treatment (8 [range 2-30] vs 1.5 [range 0-30]), P < .001). The primary response criterion was reached in 26 (81%) of the 32 patients analyzed. A decrease in HCQ doses without further CLE flare (median follow-up 15.8 [range 3.06-77.4] months) was achieved in 15 of the 26 responders. The main limitations of the study are its open-label design and the limited number of patients included. Increasing HCQ doses to reach blood concentrations greater than 750 ng/mL should be considered before addition of other treatments in refractory CLE. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical evidence supporting pharmacogenomic biomarker testing provided in US Food and Drug Administration drug labels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Canestaro, William J; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2014-12-01

    Genetic biomarkers that predict a drug's efficacy or likelihood of toxicity are assuming increasingly important roles in the personalization of pharmacotherapy, but concern exists that evidence that links use of some biomarkers to clinical benefit is insufficient. Nevertheless, information about the use of biomarkers appears in the labels of many prescription drugs, which may add confusion to the clinical decision-making process. To evaluate the evidence that supports pharmacogenomic biomarker testing in drug labels and how frequently testing is recommended. Publicly available US Food and Drug Administration databases. We identified drug labels that described the use of a biomarker and evaluated whether the label contained or referenced convincing evidence of its clinical validity (ie, the ability to predict phenotype) and clinical utility (ie, the ability to improve clinical outcomes) using guidelines published by the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Working Group. We graded the completeness of the citation of supporting studies and determined whether the label recommended incorporation of biomarker test results in therapeutic decision making. Of the 119 drug-biomarker combinations, only 43 (36.1%) had labels that provided convincing clinical validity evidence, whereas 18 (15.1%) provided convincing evidence of clinical utility. Sixty-one labels (51.3%) made recommendations about how clinical decisions should be based on the results of a biomarker test; 36 (30.3%) of these contained convincing clinical utility data. A full description of supporting studies was included in 13 labels (10.9%). Fewer than one-sixth of drug labels contained or referenced convincing evidence of clinical utility of biomarker testing, whereas more than half made recommendations based on biomarker test results. It may be premature to include biomarker testing recommendations in drug labels when convincing data that link testing to patient outcomes do not exist.

  3. Predesigned labels to prevent medication errors in hospitalized patients: a quasi-experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Morales-González, María Fernanda; Galiano Gálvez, María Alejandra

    2017-09-08

    Our institution implemented the use of pre-designed labeling of intravenous drugs and fluids, administration routes and infusion pumps of to prevent medication errors. To evaluate the effectiveness of predesigned labeling in reducing medication errors in the preparation and administration stages of prescribed medication in patients hospitalized with invasive lines, and to characterize medication errors. This is a pre/post intervention study. Pre-intervention group: invasively administered dose from July 1st to December 31st, 2014, using traditional labeling (adhesive paper handwritten note). Post-intervention group: dose administered from January 1st to June 30th, 2015, using predesigned labeling (labeling with preset data-adhesive labels, color- grouped by drugs, labels with colors for invasive lines). Outcome: medication errors in hospitalized patients, as measured with notification form and record electronics. Tabulation/analysis Stata-10, with descriptive statistics, hypotheses testing, estimating risk with 95% confidence. In the pre-intervention group, 5,819 doses of drugs were administered invasively in 634 patients. Error rate of 1.4 x 1,000 administrations. The post-intervention group of 1088 doses comprised 8,585 patients with similar routes of administration. The error rate was 0.3 x 1,000 (p = 0.034). Patients receiving medication through an invasive route who did not use predesigned labeling had 4.6 times more risk of medication error than those who had used predesigned labels (95% CI: 1.25 to 25.4). The adult critically ill patient unit had the highest proportion of medication errors. The most frequent error was wrong dose administration. 41.2% produced harm to the patient. The use of predesigned labeling in invasive lines reduces errors in medication in the last two phases: preparation and administration.

  4. The conclusion of a comparative efficacy study of fluralaner and sarolaner against the tick Amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on results obtained at study times that are outside the fluralaner label recommendations.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Rob

    2017-03-24

    The only fluralaner-related conclusion presented in a study comparing the efficacy of fluralaner and sarolaner for control of the tick Amblyomma americanum on dogs is based on study times that are outside the label administration recommendations. Label recommendations for fluralaner treatment of A. americanum on dogs in the USA require re-administration at 56 days. This 56 day re-administration was not conducted in the study; therefore, all assessed time points following 56 days post-treatment in the study present comparisons that are not consistent with fluralaner administration recommendations. The only comparative time point assessed prior to 56 days showing a difference between treatments was at 42 days post-administration, a time point when methodological problems were identified by the investigators. Therefore, the only comparative study conclusion that a difference was shown between fluralaner and sarolaner beyond 6 weeks (42 days) after treatment is not based on recommended product use. Furthermore, if the study does not show that there is a difference between the treatments at times when the products are used as recommended, then there also can be no comparative discussion of the risk of tick-borne pathogen transmission risk between treatments.

  5. Optimization and validation of FePro cell labeling method.

    PubMed

    Janic, Branislava; Rad, Ali M; Jordan, Elaine K; Iskander, A S M; Ali, Md M; Varma, N Ravi S; Frank, Joseph A; Arbab, Ali S

    2009-06-11

    Current method to magnetically label cells using ferumoxides (Fe)-protamine (Pro) sulfate (FePro) is based on generating FePro complexes in a serum free media that are then incubated overnight with cells for the efficient labeling. However, this labeling technique requires long (>12-16 hours) incubation time and uses relatively high dose of Pro (5-6 microg/ml) that makes large extracellular FePro complexes. These complexes can be difficult to clean with simple cell washes and may create low signal intensity on T2* weighted MRI that is not desirable. The purpose of this study was to revise the current labeling method by using low dose of Pro and adding Fe and Pro directly to the cells before generating any FePro complexes. Human tumor glioma (U251) and human monocytic leukemia cell (THP-1) lines were used as model systems for attached and suspension cell types, respectively and dose dependent (Fe 25 to 100 microg/ml and Pro 0.75 to 3 microg/ml) and time dependent (2 to 48 h) labeling experiments were performed. Labeling efficiency and cell viability of these cells were assessed. Prussian blue staining revealed that more than 95% of cells were labeled. Intracellular iron concentration in U251 cells reached approximately 30-35 pg-iron/cell at 24 h when labeled with 100 microg/ml of Fe and 3 microg/ml of Pro. However, comparable labeling was observed after 4 h across the described FePro concentrations. Similarly, THP-1 cells achieved approximately 10 pg-iron/cell at 48 h when labeled with 100 microg/ml of Fe and 3 microg/ml of Pro. Again, comparable labeling was observed after 4 h for the described FePro concentrations. FePro labeling did not significantly affect cell viability. There was almost no extracellular FePro complexes observed after simple cell washes. To validate and to determine the effectiveness of the revised technique, human T-cells, human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) and mouse neuronal stem cells (mNSC C17

  6. Suboptimal Antituberculosis Drug Concentrations and Outcomes in Small and HIV-Coinfected Children in India: Recommendations for Dose Modifications.

    PubMed

    Guiastrennec, Benjamin; Ramachandran, Geetha; Karlsson, Mats O; Kumar, A K Hemanth; Bhavani, Perumal Kannabiran; Gangadevi, N Poorana; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gupta, Amita; Dooley, Kelly E; Savic, Radojka M

    2017-12-16

    This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily antituberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing thrice-weekly dosing as per previous Indian pediatric guidelines. The exposure-response relationships were established using a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach. Rifampin exposure was identified as the unique predictor of treatment outcome. Consequently, children with low body weight (4-7 kg) and/or HIV infection, who displayed the lowest rifampin exposure, were associated with the highest probability of unfavorable treatment (therapy failure, death) outcome (P unfavorable ). Model-based simulation of optimized (P unfavorable ≤ 5%) rifampin once-daily doses were suggested per treatment weight band and HIV coinfection status (33% and 190% dose increase, respectively, from the new Indian guidelines). The established dose-exposure-response relationship could be pivotal in the development of future pediatric tuberculosis treatment guidelines. © 2017, The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Role of Quantitative Clinical Pharmacology in Pediatric Approval and Labeling.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Nitin; Bhattaram, Atul; Earp, Justin C; Florian, Jeffry; Krudys, Kevin; Lee, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo Yeon; Liu, Jiang; Mulugeta, Yeruk; Yu, Jingyu; Zhao, Ping; Sinha, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    Dose selection is one of the key decisions made during drug development in pediatrics. There are regulatory initiatives that promote the use of model-based drug development in pediatrics. Pharmacometrics or quantitative clinical pharmacology enables development of models that can describe factors affecting pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics in pediatric patients. This manuscript describes some examples in which pharmacometric analysis was used to support approval and labeling in pediatrics. In particular, the role of pharmacokinetic (PK) comparison of pediatric PK to adults and utilization of dose/exposure-response analysis for dose selection are highlighted. Dose selection for esomeprazole in pediatrics was based on PK matching to adults, whereas for adalimumab, exposure-response, PK, efficacy, and safety data together were useful to recommend doses for pediatric Crohn's disease. For vigabatrin, demonstration of similar dose-response between pediatrics and adults allowed for selection of a pediatric dose. Based on model-based pharmacokinetic simulations and safety data from darunavir pediatric clinical studies with a twice-daily regimen, different once-daily dosing regimens for treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected pediatric subjects 3 to <12 years of age were evaluated. The role of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) in predicting pediatric PK is rapidly evolving. However, regulatory review experiences and an understanding of the state of science indicate that there is a lack of established predictive performance of PBPK in pediatric PK prediction. Moving forward, pharmacometrics will continue to play a key role in pediatric drug development contributing toward decisions pertaining to dose selection, trial designs, and assessing disease similarity to adults to support extrapolation of efficacy. Copyright © 2016 U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  8. Rationale for recommending a lower dose of primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide in populations where G6PD deficiency is common

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In areas of low malaria transmission, it is currently recommended that a single dose of primaquine (0.75 mg base/kg; 45 mg adult dose) be added to artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) in acute falciparum malaria to block malaria transmission. Review of studies of transmission-blocking activity based on the infectivity of patients or volunteers to anopheline mosquitoes, and of haemolytic toxicity in glucose 6-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient subjects, suggests that a lower primaquine dose (0.25 mg base/kg) would be safer and equally effective. This lower dose could be deployed together with ACTs without G6PD testing wherever use of a specific gametocytocide is indicated. PMID:23237606

  9. Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-01

    Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Off-label use of intravascular iodinated organic and MR contrast media.

    PubMed

    Tamburrini, O; Aprile, I; Falcone, C; Console, D; Rotundo, A; Rotondo, A

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses off-label prescribing of the iodinated organic and magnetic resonance (MR) contrast media used in diagnostic imaging and evaluates the liability profiles and medicolegal issues associated with such use. The term off-label generally indicates the use of known drugs for which new scientific evidence suggests use in a manner and in clinical scenarios not explicitly addressed by the drug data sheet and is outside the indications for which the medication was approved. In addition, the term also indicates the use of drugs with a different route of administration and dosage from those indicated in the information leaflet. Intravascular contrast media used in diagnostic imaging are drugs in the complete sense of the term, even though they have unique characteristics which in many ways distinguish them from other pharmacological agents. The off-label use of contrast media in diagnostic imaging is a little-investigated field and most commonly, but not exclusively, applies to gadolinium-based contrast media used in MR angiography as well as cardiac and paediatric applications. In particular, the off-label use of contrast media mostly concerns deviations from the recommended dose. As contrast media are to all effects pharmaceutical agents, their off-label use can be considered admissible within the limitations laid down by the Italian law in force (Article 3 of Law 94/98) and its interpretation, i.e. the following criteria must be present: the lack of a valid diagnostic alternative; written informed consent by the patient; the presence of scientific publications validated at the international level; assumption of responsibility by the radiologist. The use of contrast media in modern image-guided medicine is essential. In cases in which the information contained in the information leaflet is modified and updated in any way whatsoever (indications, dosage, at others), specifically if restrictions are introduced in accordance with the law in force, the

  11. Tracer level radiochemistry to clinical dose preparation of (177)Lu-labeled cyclic RGD peptide dimer.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Sarma, H D; Vimalnath, K V; Pillai, M R A

    2013-10-01

    Integrin αvβ3 plays a significant role in angiogenesis during tumor growth and metastasis, and is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine(R)-glycine(G)-aspartic acid(D) tripeptide sequence. The over-expression of integrin αvβ3 during tumor growth and metastasis presents an interesting molecular target for both early detection and treatment of rapidly growing solid tumors. Considering the advantages of (177)Lu for targeted radiotherapy and enhanced tumor targeting capability of cyclic RGD peptide dimer, an attempt has been made to optimize the protocol for the preparation of clinical dose of (177)Lu labeled DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (E=Glutamic acid, f=phenyl alanine, K=lysine) as a potential agent for targeted tumor therapy. (177)Lu was produced by thermal neutron bombardment on enriched Lu2O3 (82% in (176)Lu) target at a flux of 1 × 10(14) n/cm(2).s for 21 d. Therapeutic dose of (177)Lu-DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]2 (7.4GBq) was prepared by adding the aqueous solution of the ligand and (177)LuCl3 to 0.1M NH4OAC buffer containing gentisic acid and incubating the reaction mixture at 90°C for 30 min. The yield and radiochemical purity of the complex was determined by HPLC technique. Parameters, such as, ligand-to-metal ratio, pH of the reaction mixture, incubation time and temperature were varied using tracer quantity of (177)Lu (37 MBq) in order to arrive at the optimized protocol for the preparation of clinical dose. Biological behavior of the radiotracer prepared was studied in C57/BL6 mice bearing melanoma tumors. (177)Lu was produced with a specific activity of 950 ± 50 GBq/mg (25.7 ± 1.4 Ci/mg) and radionuclidic purity of 99.98%. A careful optimization of several parameters showed that (177)Lu-DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]2 could be prepared with adequately high radiochemical purity using a ligand-to-metal ratio ~2. Based on these studies therapeutic dose of the agent with 7.4 GBq of (177)Lu was formulated in ~63 GBq/μM specific activity with high

  12. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage using two-dose or three-dose schedule criteria.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia; Rodgers, Loren; Zhu, Liping; Stokley, Shannon; Meites, Elissa; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2017-10-13

    In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) updated the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendation to include a 2-dose schedule for U.S. adolescents initiating the vaccine series before their 15th birthday. We analyzed records for >4million persons aged 9-17years receiving any HPV vaccine by the end of each quarter during January 1, 2014-September 30, 2016 from six Immunization Information Systems Sentinel Sites, and reclassified HPV vaccination up-to-date coverage according to the updated recommendations. Compared with HPV vaccination up-to-date coverage by the 3-dose schedule only, including criteria for either a 2-dose or 3-dose schedule increased up-to-date coverage in 11-12, 13-14, and 15-17 year-olds by 4.5-8.5 percentage points. The difference between 3-dose up-to-date coverage and 2- or 3-dose up-to-date coverage was greatest in late 2016. These data provide baseline HPV vaccination coverage using current ACIP recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Food labeling and the prevention of overweight and obesity: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2011-11-01

    This article reports on a systematic review of articles on food labeling and the prevention of obesity and overweight, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, LILACS, and CINAHL databases. The DeCS/MeSH descriptors were obesity and food labeling. 207 articles were retrieved. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 articles were selected: 11 were on food labeling and its impact on final food product consumption; 2 were on fast food establishments; 1 on sensory attributes as compared to health recommendations; and 2 on follow-up of interventions. Labeling has a positive effect on final food product consumption, in contrast with fast food restaurants. Sensory attributes were more effective than recommendations on the labels. Follow-up of interventions confirmed the long-term effect of the target interventions.

  14. A Collaborative Recommend Algorithm Based on Bipartite Community

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuchen; Liu, Quan; Cui, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    The recommendation algorithm based on bipartite network is superior to traditional methods on accuracy and diversity, which proves that considering the network topology of recommendation systems could help us to improve recommendation results. However, existing algorithms mainly focus on the overall topology structure and those local characteristics could also play an important role in collaborative recommend processing. Therefore, on account of data characteristics and application requirements of collaborative recommend systems, we proposed a link community partitioning algorithm based on the label propagation and a collaborative recommendation algorithm based on the bipartite community. Then we designed numerical experiments to verify the algorithm validity under benchmark and real database. PMID:24955393

  15. Low-Dose versus Standard-Dose Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig S; Robinson, Thompson; Lindley, Richard I; Arima, Hisatomi; Lavados, Pablo M; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Broderick, Joseph P; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Guofang; Sharma, Vijay K; Kim, Jong S; Thang, Nguyen H; Cao, Yongjun; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher; Huang, Yining; Olavarría, Verónica V; Demchuk, Andrew M; Bath, Philip M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Martins, Sheila; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Silva, Federico; Ricci, Stefano; Roffe, Christine; Pandian, Jeyaraj; Billot, Laurent; Woodward, Mark; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xia; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John

    2016-06-16

    Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke with a lower-than-standard dose of intravenous alteplase may improve recovery along with a reduced risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Using a 2-by-2 quasi-factorial open-label design, we randomly assigned 3310 patients who were eligible for thrombolytic therapy (median age, 67 years; 63% Asian) to low-dose intravenous alteplase (0.6 mg per kilogram of body weight) or the standard dose (0.9 mg per kilogram); patients underwent randomization within 4.5 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary objective was to determine whether the low dose would be noninferior to the standard dose with respect to the primary outcome of death or disability at 90 days, which was defined by scores of 2 to 6 on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). Secondary objectives were to determine whether the low dose would be superior to the standard dose with respect to centrally adjudicated symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and whether the low dose would be noninferior in an ordinal analysis of modified Rankin scale scores (testing for an improvement in the distribution of scores). The trial included 935 patients who were also randomly assigned to intensive or guideline-recommended blood-pressure control. The primary outcome occurred in 855 of 1607 participants (53.2%) in the low-dose group and in 817 of 1599 participants (51.1%) in the standard-dose group (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.25; the upper boundary exceeded the noninferiority margin of 1.14; P=0.51 for noninferiority). Low-dose alteplase was noninferior in the ordinal analysis of modified Rankin scale scores (unadjusted common odds ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.13; P=0.04 for noninferiority). Major symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1.0% of the participants in the low-dose group and in 2.1% of the participants in the standard-dose group (P=0.01); fatal events occurred within 7 days in 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively

  16. Pilot Evaluation of an In-Store Nutrition Label Education Program.

    PubMed

    Dukeshire, Steven; Nicks, Emily; Ferguson, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    To describe and provide recommendations for the implementation of an evaluation for an already existing, in-store Nutrition Label Education Program (NLEP). We describe the development and implementation of an evaluation consisting of a pre- and postsurvey and one month follow-up. The evaluation was designed to assess satisfaction with the NLEP as well as changes in participant nutrition label knowledge, confidence in using nutrition labels, and actual changes in nutrition label use. Nineteen participants took part in the pilot evaluation. The evaluation was successful in demonstrating high levels of satisfaction with the NLEP as well as positive changes in participant confidence and some increased knowledge in using nutrition labels. However, only 3 people participated in the follow-up, limiting the ability to assess behaviour change. Ideally, NLEPs should include ongoing evaluation that extends beyond just assessing participant satisfaction. Recommendations are provided for conducting such evaluations, including the importance of incorporating the evaluation into the program itself, using existing questionnaires when possible, and employing pre- and postsurveys as well as follow-up interviews to assess change.

  17. Does Pregnancy Increase Use and Awareness of Nutrition Information in Food Labels?

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Imai, Satomi; Mathews, Holly

    2017-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine food label use, specific reading behaviors and the awareness of dietary recommendations among U.S. pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a representative national sample of U.S. women aged 16 to 44 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (n = 1875). Food label users were defined as woman who used the Nutrition Facts panel when making a food choice in the frequency of always, most of the time, or sometimes. Pregnancy status was assessed in relation to food label use, specific reading behaviors and the awareness of dietary recommendations by conducting hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models including covariates of SES and perceived health and weight variables. Results The prevalence of using food labels at purchase greatly differs by SES, perceived health and weight variables, and awareness of dietary recommendations but not by pregnancy: 68.6% of pregnant and 66.1% of non-pregnant women used food labels in the U.S. However, after controlling for SES and perceived health and weight status, pregnant women are more likely to read food labels than their counterparts (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07-1.89). Pregnant women were less likely to check cholesterol (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.44-0.77) and calories from fat content (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42-0.89), after adjusting for SES variables. Pregnant women may not have a higher awareness of dietary recommendations compared to non-pregnant women in the U.S. Conclusions While pregnancy itself is a factor that appears to encourage the reading of food labels, pregnancy does not encourage positive reading behaviors. The findings suggest a great need for prenatal nutrition education programs in the U.S.

  18. International Implications of Labeling Foods Containing Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Mortensen, Ninell P; Cates, Sheryl; Kowalcyk, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related to the use of ENMs in foods and the potential impacts that this type of food labeling might have on diverse stakeholder groups, including those outside the European Union (EU), e.g., in the United States. We also provide recommendations to stakeholders for overcoming existing challenges related to labeling foods containing ENMs. The revised EU food labeling requirements will likely result in a number of positive developments and a number of challenges for stakeholders in both EU and non-EU countries. Although labeling of foods containing ENMs will likely improve transparency, provide more information to facilitate consumer decisions, and build trust among food safety authorities and consumers, critical obstacles to the successful implementation of these labeling requirements remain, including the need for (i) harmonized information requirements or regulations between countries in different regions of the world, (ii) clarification of the regulatory definitions of the ENMs to be used for food labeling, (iii) robust techniques to detect, measure, and characterize diverse ENMs in food matrices, and (iv) clarification of the list of ENMs that may be exempt from labeling requirements, such as several food additives used for decades. We recommend that food industries and food safety authorities be more proactive in communicating with the public and consumer groups regarding the potential benefits and risks of using ENMs in foods. Efforts should be made to improve harmonization of information requirements between countries to avoid potential international trade barriers.

  19. The ciprofloxacin target AUC : MIC ratio is not reached in hospitalized patients with the recommended dosing regimens.

    PubMed

    Haeseker, Michiel; Stolk, Leo; Nieman, Fred; Hoebe, Christian; Neef, Cees; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Verbon, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ciprofloxacin serum concentrations in hospitalized patients and to determine which percentage reached the efficacy target of AUC : MIC > 125. Additionally, the influence of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical parameters on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ciprofloxacin were investigated. In serum of 80 hospitalized patients ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured with reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The ciprofloxacin dose was 400-1200 mg day(-1) i.v. in two or three doses depending on renal function and causative bacteria. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation (MW\\PHARM 3.60). A two compartment open model was used. Mean (± SD) age was 66 (± 17) years, the mean clearance corrected for bodyweight was 0.24 l h(-1) kg(-1) and the mean AUC was 49 mg l(-1) h. Ciprofloxacin clearance and thus AUC were associated with both age and serum creatinine. Of all patients, 21% and 75% of the patients, did not reach the proposed ciprofloxacin AUC : MIC > 125 target with MICs of 0.25 and 0.5 mg l(-1), respectively. A computer simulated increase in the daily dose from 800 mg to 1200 mg, decreased these percentages to 1% and 37%, respectively. A substantial proportion of the hospitalized patients did not reach the target ciprofloxacin AUC : MIC and are suboptimally dosed with recommended doses. Taking into account the increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin worldwide, a ciprofloxacin dose of 1200 mg i.v. daily in patients with normal renal function is necessary to reach the targeted AUC : MIC > 125. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Effect on moisture permeability of typewriting on unit dose package surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rackson, J T; Zellhofer, M J; Birmingham, P H

    1984-10-01

    The effects of typewriting on labels of two unit dose packages with respect to moisture permeability were examined. Using an electric typewriter, a standard label format was imprinted on two different types of class A unit dose packages: (1) a heat-sealed paper-backed foil and cellofilm strip pouch, and (2) a copolyester and polyethylene multiple-cup blister with a heat-sealed paper-backed foil and cellofilm cover. The labels were typed at various typing-element impact settings. The official USP test for water permeation was then performed on typed packages and untyped control packages. The original untyped packages were confirmed to be USP class A quality. The packages for which successively harder impact settings were used showed a corresponding increase in moisture permeability. This resulted in a lowering of USP package ratings from class A to class B and D, some of which would be unsuitable for use in any unit dose system under current FDA repackaging standards. Typing directly onto the label of a unit dose package before it is sealed will most likely damage the package and possibly make it unfit for use. Pharmacists who must type labels for the unit dose packages studied should use the lowest possible typewriter impact setting and test for damage using the USP moisture-permeation test.

  1. Report of Task Group on the implications of the implementation of the ICRP recommendations for a revised dose limit to the lens of the eye.

    PubMed

    Broughton, J; Cantone, M C; Ginjaume, M; Shah, B

    2013-12-01

    This report was commissioned by the IRPA President to provide an assessment of the impact on members of IRPA Associate Societies of the introduction of ICRP recommendations for a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The report summarises current practice and considers possible changes that may be required. Recommendations for further collaboration, clarification and changes to working practices are suggested.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses.

    PubMed

    Zvada, Simbarashe P; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R; Schaaf, H Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A; Seifart, Heiner I; Smith, Peter J; McIlleron, Helen M; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2014-05-01

    To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing.

  3. Phase 2a, Open-Label, 4-Escalating-Dose, Randomized Multicenter Study Evaluating the Safety and Activity of Ferroquine (SSR97193) Plus Artesunate, versus Amodiaquine Plus Artesunate, in African Adult Men with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Supan, Christian; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Kombila, Maryvonne; Ospina Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Lell, Bertrand; Cantalloube, Cathy; Djeriou, Elhadj; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Otsula, Nekoye; Apollo, Duncan; Polhemus, Mark E; Kremsner, Peter G; Walsh, Douglas S

    2017-08-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended as first-line agents for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Ferroquine, a 4-aminoquinolone, is a novel long-acting combination partner for fast-acting drugs like artesunate (AS). We did a small phase 2a, multicenter, open-label, safety-focused dose-ranging randomized study of ferroquine at three African hospitals: two Gabonese and one Kenyan. We recruited adult men with symptomatic uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection. Four escalating doses of ferroquine (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg) were assessed in sequence, versus an amodiaquine comparator. After a 2:1 randomization (block size three, equating to N = 12 for each ferroquine dose and N = 6 for each of four amodiaquine comparator groups) patients received daily for three consecutive days, either ferroquine + AS (200 mg/day) or amodiaquine (612 mg/day) + AS (200 mg/day). Safety, electrocardiograms, parasite clearance times, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics were assessed to day 28. Seventy-two patients were randomized. Ferroquine + AS showed generally mild increases (Grade 1 toxicity) in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with a dose trend starting at 400 mg. There were two Grade 2 ALT events: one patient receiving 200 mg (3.8 upper limit of normal [ULN], day 7) and one receiving 600 mg (3.3 ULN, day 14), both without increased bilirubin. One ferroquine 100 mg + AS patient after one dose was withdrawn after developing a QTcF interval prolongation > 60 milliseconds over baseline. Parasitemias in all patients cleared quickly, with no recurrence through day 28. Hepatic, as well as cardiac, profiles should be monitored closely in future trials. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00563914).

  4. Vorapaxar and optimal aspirin dose: The FDA outlook.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Fortmann, Seth D; Kim, Moo Hyun

    2016-01-15

    Vorapaxar, a novel thrombin PAR-1 inhibitor, approved for post-myocardial infarction, and peripheral artery disease indications has been tested in 2 major clinical trials. In the successful TRA2P, antecedent aspirin (ASA) has been used in 94% of patients, and in failed TRACER in over 96% of patients. However, both trial publications were silent on the impact of ASA dose on clinical outcomes after voraparax. We determined which ASA dose range should be used in combination with voraparax based on the TRA2P and TRACER secondary FDA review. The data suggest that for both voraparax trials, younger patients, males, and diabetics received higher ASA doses. The interactions between voraparax efficacy and ASA dose ≥ 300 mg was marginally significant by Cox regressions for TRA2P (CI=1.00-1.61; p=0.048) and strongly trended in TRACER (CI=0.98-1.47; p=0.073). Bleeding rates were overall slightly higher with voraparax than with placebo, and were the highest in patients receiving ASA dosages ≥ 300 mg. However, there were no interactions between ASA dose and GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding. In conclusion, the efficacy of voraparax in TRA2P and TRACER, was slightly worse while bleeding was substantially worse with the higher over 300 mg/day of ASA dosages. Voraparax label should recommend ASA daily use in 75 to 100mg range for concomitant use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A phase I open-label dose-escalation study of the anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or head and neck and HER2-overexpressing breast or gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kerry Lynn; Bedard, Philippe L; Lee, Se-Hoon; Lin, Chia-Chi; Tabernero, Josep; Alsina, Maria; Cohen, Ezra; Baselga, José; Blumenschein, George; Graham, Donna M; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Juric, Dejan; Sharma, Sunil; Salgia, Ravi; Seroutou, Abdelkader; Tian, Xianbin; Fernandez, Rose; Morozov, Alex; Sheng, Qing; Ramkumar, Thiruvamoor; Zubel, Angela; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2017-09-12

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is important in maintaining epidermal growth factor receptor-driven cancers and mediating resistance to targeted therapy. A phase I study of anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 was conducted with the primary objective to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended dose for expansion (RDE), and dosing schedule. Secondary objectives were to characterize safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity. This open-label, dose-finding study comprised dose escalation, followed by expansion in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or esophagus, and HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer or gastric cancer. During dose escalation, patients received LJM716 intravenous once weekly (QW) or every two weeks (Q2W), in 28-day cycles. An adaptive Bayesian logistic regression model was used to guide dose escalation and establish the RDE. Exploratory pharmacodynamic tumor studies evaluated modulation of HER3 signaling. Patients received LJM716 3-40 mg/kg QW and 20 mg/kg Q2W (54 patients; 36 patients at 40 mg/kg QW). No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported during dose-escalation. One patient experienced two DLTs (diarrhea, hypokalemia [both grade 3]) in the expansion phase. The RDE was 40 mg/kg QW, providing drug levels above the preclinical minimum effective concentration. One patient with gastric cancer had an unconfirmed partial response; 17/54 patients had stable disease, two lasting >30 weeks. Down-modulation of phospho-HER3 was observed in paired tumor samples. LJM716 was well tolerated; the MTD was not reached, and the RDE was 40 mg/kg QW. Further development of LJM716 is ongoing. Clinicaltrials.gov registry number NCT01598077 (registered on 4 May, 2012).

  6. Controlling off-label medication use.

    PubMed

    Gillick, Muriel R

    2009-03-03

    Off-label prescribing may lead to innovative new uses of old medications, is essential in such fields as pediatrics, and avoids the lengthy and expensive process of modifying U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labeling. Using medications for unapproved indications, however, raises concerns about patient safety when the drugs have a high potential for toxicity and generates economic concerns when their cost is high. A possible means of controlling the use of off-label drugs is to focus on medications used off-label that are both expensive and potentially risky. These are principally biotechnology drugs, such as recombinant enzymes, cytokines, and monoclonal antibodies. This article suggests a 2-step process for controlling use of such drugs, analogous to that used for devices. Once a drug is FDA approved, it would undergo scrutiny using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) National Coverage Determination method if its cost exceeds a specified benchmark-for example, $12 000, which is the average cost of a pacemaker. The CMS would pay only for off-label uses for which there is adequate evidence in its National Coverage Determination process. Other insurance companies would probably adopt the recommendations of CMS.

  7. A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label, Blinded, Endpoint Study Exploring Platelet Response to Half-Dose Prasugrel and Ticagrelor in Patients with the Acute Coronary Syndrome: HOPE-TAILOR Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cai De; Kim, Moo Hyun; Bang, Junghee; Serebruany, Victor

    The optimal dosing of novel oral P2Y12 receptor platelet inhibitors such as prasugrel or ticagrelor is unclear and especially challenging in East Asians. We hypothesize that half-dose prasugrel and ticagrelor may be sufficient for long-term maintenance management in Korean patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with conventional dosages. HOPE-TAILOR (Half Dose of Prasugrel and Ticagrelor in Platelet Response after Acute Coronary Syndromes) is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded, endpoint (PROBE) single-center, clinical trial. A total of 100 patients with ACS undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation will be randomly assigned to prasugrel, ticagrelor, or clopidogrel, and the patients in each treatment group will receive 1-month therapy with 100 mg q.d. aspirin plus prasugrel 10 mg q.d., ticagrelor 90 mg b.i.d., or clopidogrel 75 mg q.d., followed by half-dose prasugrel 5 mg q.d. or ticagrelor 45 mg b.i.d. for maintenance treatment but without clopidogrel dose reduction. The primary endpoint will be optimal platelet reactivity 3 months after coronary intervention, defined by VerifyNow Analyzer (PRU: 85-208) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein P2Y12 flow cytometry assay (platelet reactivity indices: 16-50%). Clinical outcomes will also be assessed, including major efficacy (composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, or stroke) and safety (bleeding ≥2 according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium). HOPE-TAILOR is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded, endpoint study to explore the efficacy and safety of novel P2Y12 receptor inhibitors administered orally at half the dose in Korean patients with ACS. The results will be available late in 2017. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. 75 FR 45641 - Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products.'' The guidance provides recommendations on the design of label comprehension...

  9. Copper absorption from foods labelled intrinsically and extrinsically with Cu-65 stable isotope.

    PubMed

    Harvey, L J; Dainty, J R; Beattie, J H; Majsak-Newman, G; Wharf, S G; Reid, M D; Fairweather-Tait, S J

    2005-03-01

    To determine copper absorption from copper containing foods labelled either intrinsically or extrinsically with a highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label. A longitudinal cross-over study. The study was conducted at the Institute of Food Research, Human Nutrition Unit, Norwich, UK. Subjects were recruited locally via advertisements placed around the Norwich Research Park. A total of 10 volunteers (nine female, one male) took part in the study, but not all volunteers completed each of the test meals. A highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label was administered to volunteers in the form of a reference dose or in breakfast test meals consisting of red wine, soya beans, mushrooms or sunflower seeds. Faecal monitoring and mass spectrometry techniques were used to estimate the relative quantities of copper absorbed from the different test meals. True copper absorption from the reference dose (54%) was similar to extrinsically labelled red wine (49%) and intrinsically labelled sunflower seeds (52%), but significantly higher than extrinsically labelled mushrooms (35%), intrinsically (29%) and extrinsically (15%) labelled soya beans and extrinsically labelled sunflower seed (32%) test meals. The use of Cu-65 extrinsic labels in copper absorption studies requires validation according to the food being examined; intrinsic and extrinsic labelling produced significantly different results for sunflower seeds.

  10. Preschool Teachers' Attitudes Towards Nutritional Information on Food Labels in Turkey and Recommendations for an Educational Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unusan, Nurhan

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate preschool teachers' attitudes towards nutrition labels. A sample of 154 preschool teachers was surveyed to determine their label-reading behaviours and knowledge. A total of 71.5% of the preschool teachers reported that they read food labels when purchasing food items (i.e. rather often or sometimes).…

  11. Characterization of labelling and de-labelling reagents for detection and recovery of tyrosine residue in peptide.

    PubMed

    Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Mantani, Tomomi; Kato, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterized the labelling and de-labelling reagents for reversible labelling of tyrosine (Tyr)-containing peptide, which involves detection and recovery. The phenolic hydroxyl group (-OH) in Tyr structure reacted with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F), 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F), and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) under mild conditions at room temperature at pH 9.3. The labels in the resulting derivatives were removed with the treatment of nucleophiles, such as thiols (cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and dithiothreitol) and amines (dimethylamine, methylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine and pyrrolidine). The de-labelling reactions of NBD-labelled N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (N-AcTyr) with the nucleophiles produced N-AcTyr, accompanied by NBD-nucleophile. Although DBD-F and DNFB also successfully labeled the -OH group in N-AcTyr, the efficiency of Cbond;O bond cleavage and recovery of N-AcTyr by the nucleophiles was relatively low compared with NBD-label. Among the de-labelling reagents, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and dimethylamine were recommended for the elimination of NBD moiety, with respect to the reaction rate, the side reaction, and the yield of recovery. The proposed procedure, which includes the labelling with NBD-F and the removal of NBD moiety by the nucleophiles, was successfully applied to the reversible labelling of N-terminal amine-blocked peptides, i.e. N-AcTyr-Val-Gly, Z-Glu-Tyr, Z-Phe-Tyr, N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Tyr, and N-AcArg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Tyr-Arg. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses

    PubMed Central

    Zvada, Simbarashe P.; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A.; Seifart, Heiner I.; Smith, Peter J.; McIlleron, Helen M.; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. Patients and methods We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. Results The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Conclusions Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing. PMID:24486870

  14. Estimation of the Dose and Dose Rate Effectiveness Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Current models to estimate radiation risk use the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort that received high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Transferring risks from these high dose rates to the low doses and dose rates received by astronauts in space is a source of uncertainty in our risk calculations. The solid cancer models recommended by BEIR VII [1], UNSCEAR [2], and Preston et al [3] is fitted adequately by a linear dose response model, which implies that low doses and dose rates would be estimated the same as high doses and dose rates. However animal and cell experiments imply there should be curvature in the dose response curve for tumor induction. Furthermore animal experiments that directly compare acute to chronic exposures show lower increases in tumor induction than acute exposures. A dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) has been estimated and applied to transfer risks from the high doses and dose rates of the LSS cohort to low doses and dose rates such as from missions in space. The BEIR VII committee [1] combined DDREF estimates using the LSS cohort and animal experiments using Bayesian methods for their recommendation for a DDREF value of 1.5 with uncertainty. We reexamined the animal data considered by BEIR VII and included more animal data and human chromosome aberration data to improve the estimate for DDREF. Several experiments chosen by BEIR VII were deemed inappropriate for application to human risk models of solid cancer risk. Animal tumor experiments performed by Ullrich et al [4], Alpen et al [5], and Grahn et al [6] were analyzed to estimate the DDREF. Human chromosome aberration experiments performed on a sample of astronauts within NASA were also available to estimate the DDREF. The LSS cohort results reported by BEIR VII were combined with the new radiobiology results using Bayesian methods.

  15. An accelerated dose escalation with a grass pollen allergoid is safe and well-tolerated: a randomized open label phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Chaker, A M; Al-Kadah, B; Luther, U; Neumann, U; Wagenmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The number of injections in the dose escalation of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is small for some currently used hypoallergenic allergoids, but can still be inconvenient to patients and can impair compliance. The aim of this trial was to compare safety and tolerability of an accelerated to the conventional dose escalation scheme of a grass pollen allergoid. In an open label phase II trial, 122 patients were 1:1 randomized for SCIT using a grass pollen allergoid with an accelerated dose escalation comprising only 4 weekly injections (Group I) or a conventional dose escalation including 7 weekly injections (Group II). Safety determination included the occurrence of local and systemic adverse events. Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Treatment-related adverse events were observed in 22 (36.1 %) patients in Group I and 15 (24.6 %) in Group II. Local reactions were reported by 18 patients in Group I and 11 in Group II. Five Grade 1 systemic reactions (WAO classification) were observed in Group I and 2 in Group II. Grade 2 reactions occurred 3 times in Group I and 2 times in Group II. Tolerability was rated as "good" or "very good" by 53 (86.9 %) patients in Group I and 59 (100 %) in Group II by investigators. Forty-eight patients in Group I (80.0 %) and 54 in Group II (91.5 %) rated tolerability as "good" or "very good". The dose escalation of a grass pollen allergoid can be accelerated with safety and tolerability profiles comparable to the conventional dose escalation.

  16. Dose specification for radiation therapy: dose to water or dose to medium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.-M.; Li, Jinsheng

    2011-05-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables accurate dose calculation for radiation therapy treatment planning and has been implemented in some commercial treatment planning systems. Unlike conventional dose calculation algorithms that provide patient dose information in terms of dose to water with variable electron density, the Monte Carlo method calculates the energy deposition in different media and expresses dose to a medium. This paper discusses the differences in dose calculated using water with different electron densities and that calculated for different biological media and the clinical issues on dose specification including dose prescription and plan evaluation using dose to water and dose to medium. We will demonstrate that conventional photon dose calculation algorithms compute doses similar to those simulated by Monte Carlo using water with different electron densities, which are close (<4% differences) to doses to media but significantly different (up to 11%) from doses to water converted from doses to media following American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 105 recommendations. Our results suggest that for consistency with previous radiation therapy experience Monte Carlo photon algorithms report dose to medium for radiotherapy dose prescription, treatment plan evaluation and treatment outcome analysis.

  17. High-dose transdermal nicotine in Parkinson's disease patients: a randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint evaluation phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Villafane, G; Thiriez, C; Audureau, E; Straczek, C; Kerschen, P; Cormier-Dequaire, F; Van Der Gucht, A; Gurruchaga, J-M; Quéré-Carne, M; Evangelista, E; Paul, M; Defer, G; Damier, P; Remy, P; Itti, E; Fénelon, G

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the effects of nicotine on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) brought out discordant results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high doses of transdermal nicotine on motor symptoms in PD. Forty PD patients were randomly assigned to a treated and untreated arm in an open-label study. Treated patients received increasing doses of nicotine to reach 90 mg/day by 11 weeks. This dosage was maintained for 28 weeks (W39) and then reduced over 6 weeks. Final evaluation was performed 6 weeks after washout. The main outcome measure was the OFF-DOPA Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score measured on video recordings by raters blinded to the medication status of the patients. There was no significant difference in OFF-DOPA UPDRS motor scores between the nicotine-treated and non-treated groups, neither at W39 (19.4 ± 9.3 vs. 21.5 ± 14.2) nor considering W39 differences from baseline (-1.5 ± 12.1 vs. +0.9 ± 12.1). The 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire scores decreased in nicotine-treated patients and increased in non-treated patients, but the difference was not significant. Overall tolerability was acceptable, and 12/20 treated patients reached the maximal dosage. High doses of transdermal nicotine were tolerated, but our study failed to demonstrate significant improvement in UPDRS motor scores. Improvement in unblinded secondary outcomes (UPDRS-II, UPDRS-IV, doses of l-DOPA equivalents) suggest a possible benefit for patients treated with nicotine, which should be confirmed in larger double blind, placebo-controlled studies. © 2017 EAN.

  18. Genetically Modified Food Labeling in China: In Pursuit of a Rational Path.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao; Roberts, Michael T; Wu, Kaijie

    2016-08-01

    Facing a tension between the increasing use of genetically engineered or modified food and consumer concerns over the risks associated with GMOs, China has established a GM food labeling regime through regulations-known as Agro-GMO regulations-to protect consumers' right to know. However, the design and enforcement of this GM food labeling regime is problematic. As a result, the labeling regime is ineffective and inconsistent, leaving consumers' rights unprotected. As the recently amended Food Safety Law in China requires GM food labeling for the first time, this article argues that China should replace the current Agro-GMO food labeling scheme with a special regulatory scheme. A comparative analysis of the GM food labeling systems in the European Union and United States, coupled with a rigorous examination of the problems and barriers of GM food labeling in China, sets a solid foundation by which to propose changes to incorporate into a special regulatory scheme. To this end, this article engages in such an analysis and recommends practical steps to guide the enactment of a special regulatory scheme. The recommendations comport with China's unique legal and political culture, but also could be used by other national regulatory regimes who permit use of GM food while also being committed to improving consumers' right to know.

  19. When zero is greater than one: consumer misinterpretations of nutrition labels.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Mohr, Gina S

    2014-12-01

    Front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels are increasingly used by food manufacturers. A call to regulate the content and format of these labels resulted in recommendations by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) for standardized FOP labels that clearly communicate packaged foods' healthfulness. It is currently unclear how consumers would interpret and use these proposed labels. This research addresses psychological factors affecting the efficacy of FOP label use. It was hypothesized that IOM's proposed 0- to 3-point rating scale would produce the zero-comparison effect, leading to more favorable evaluations than are warranted for the least healthful products (i.e., those earning zero nutritional points). In two studies (Study 1, n = 68; Study 2, n = 101), participants evaluated products containing FOP labels on the basis of IOM recommendations. Primary outcomes were perceived product healthfulness and purchase intentions. Study 1 demonstrated that less-healthful products were rated by study participants to be equally healthful as more-healthful products. The relationship between FOP rating and purchase intentions was mediated by perceived healthfulness. Biases in product healthfulness ratings were exacerbated for consumers with higher (vs. lower) health concern. Study 2 demonstrated that by changing the rating scale from 0-3 to 1-4, consumers avoid the zero-comparison effect and accurately evaluate products' healthfulness. This research has implications for theory and policy in the domains of nutrition labeling and consumer health. Specifically, FOP labels can help consumers identify healthful options, but products receiving zero nutritional points may be misidentified as healthful; a simple label modification can prevent this confusion.

  20. 198 AAAAI Survey on Immunotherapy Practice Patterns Concerning Dosing, Dose-Adjustment after Missed Doses and Duration of Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Désirée Larenas; Gupta, Payel; Mithani, Sima; Ponda, Punita

    2012-01-01

    Background Several practical issues dealing with the exact application of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) among European and US allergists are not well known. Guidelines on AIT give recommendations and suggestions for only some of them. We present this unique survey with worldwide response. Methods The AAAAI immunotherapy committee conducted a web-based practice patterns survey (program: Survey Monkey) among all members in&outside US on dosing, dose-adjustment after missed doses and duration of AIT. Results 1201 Returned questionnaires (almost 25% response rate). 21% were non-US-Canada members. Maintenance doses in USCan are (mean/median): Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) combined with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt): 2155/1000AU; Df solo 2484/1000AU. Dpt when combined with Df 1937/1000AU; Dpt solo: 2183/1000AU.Cat 3224/2000BAU. Grass 11,410/4000BAU. 57-65% of the dosing falls within the recommended Practice Parameters recommended ranges. Non-USCan allergists expressed maintenance doses in many different units making analysis impossible. Dose-adjustment after missed doses is based on ‘time elapsed since the last applied dose’ by 77% of USCan and 58% of non-USCan allergists and on ‘time since missed scheduled dose’ by the rest. Doses are adjusted when a patient comes in more than 14 d/5 wk after the last administration at build-up/maintenance by both USCan and non-USCan colleagues. The mostly followed dose-adjustment schedules after 1, 2, 3 missed doses are: Build-up: repeat last dose, reduce by one dose, reduce by 2 doses; maintenance: reduce by one dose, reduce by 2 doses, reduce by 3 doses. 26% uses a different approach reducing doses by a certain percentage or volume. AIT is restarted after a gap in build-up of >30 days and of >12 weeks during maintenance in both groups (median). Outside USCan AIT is prescribed for 3 years (Median). However, 75% of USCan allergists prescribes AIT for 5 years. Main reasons why to continue AIT beyond 5 years:

  1. What good is labeling what's good? A field experimental investigation of parental labeled praise and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Leijten, Patty; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Dishion, Thomas J; Matthys, Walter

    2016-12-01

    There is a need to identify the "effective ingredients" of evidence-based behavior therapies. We tested the effects of one of the most common ingredients in parenting interventions for preventing disruptive child behavior, referred to as labeled praise (e.g., "well done picking up your toys"), which is typically recommended in preference to unlabeled praise (e.g., "well done"). We compared the effects of labeled praise, unlabeled praise, and no praise on child compliance in two experiments. Experiment 1 included 161 4 to 8 year-old community sample children and tested immediate effects of praise. Experiment 2 included 132 3 to 9 year-old children with varying levels of disruptive behavior and tested immediate and two-week effects of praise. In Experiment 1, teaching parents to use labeled praise did not increase immediate child compliance, whereas teaching them to use unlabeled praise did. In Experiment 2, teaching parents to use labeled praise for two weeks reduced disruptive child behavior, but this effect was of a similar magnitude to that for unlabeled praise. Parents preferred the use of unlabeled over labeled praise. These findings suggest that parental praise promotes child compliance, but the addition of labeling the specific positive behavior may not be of incremental value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-dose pharmacokinetic properties of esomeprazole in children aged 1 - 11 years with endoscopically proven GERD: a randomized, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nader N; Tron, Eduardo; Tolia, Vasundhara; Hamer-Maansson, Jennifer E; Lundborg, Per; Illueca, Marta

    2014-11-01

    To assess the overall exposure after a single dose of esomeprazole in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Oral esomeprazole administered as an intact capsule with 30 - 180 mL of water, or as an opened capsule mixed with as much as 1 tablespoon of applesauce followed by 30 - 180 mL of water. In this randomized, open-label study of children aged 1 - 11 years with endoscopically proven GERD, patients weighing 8 - < 20 kg were randomized to a single 5- or 10-mg oral dose of esomeprazole, and patients weighing >= 20 kg were randomized to a single 10- or 20-mg oral dose of esomeprazole. Esomeprazole exposure (AUC(0-∞)), AUC from zero to last measurable concentration (AUC(0-t)), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (t(max)), terminal-phase half-life, apparent oral clearance, and apparent volume of distribution were determined. 28 patients were randomized to receive esomeprazole: 14 patients weighing 8 to < 20 kg received esomeprazole 5 mg (n = 7) or 10 mg (n = 7), and 14 patients weighing ≥20 kg received esomeprazole 10 mg (n = 6) or 20 mg (n = 8). Children weighing 8 - < 20 kg had a 1.8-fold higher exposure with the 10-mg vs. 5-mg dose (AUC(0-∞), 1.32 vs. 0.73 μmol·h/L, respectively); children weighing ≥ 20 kg had a 4.4-fold higher exposure with the 20-mg vs. 10-mg dose (AUC(0-∞), 3.06 vs. 0.69 μmol·h/L). C(max) was 2.2-fold higher for the 10-mg vs. 5-mg dose (8 to < 20 kg) and 2.4-fold higher for the 20-mg vs.10-mg dose (>= 20 kg). The pharmacokinetics of single-dose esomeprazole were dose-dependent in children weighing >= 20 kg but not in children weighing 8 to < 20 kg.

  3. Radiosynthesis of clinical doses of 68Ga-DOTATATE (GalioMedix™) and validation of organic-matrix-based 68Ge/68Ga generators

    PubMed Central

    Tworowska, Izabela; Ranganathan, David; Thamake, Sanjay; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Schultz, Michael K.; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Marx, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction 68Ga-DOTATATE is a radiolabeled peptide-based agonist that targets somatostatin receptors overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors. Here, we present our results on validation of organic matrix 68Ge/68Ga generators (ITG GmbH) applied for radiosynthesis of the clinical doses of 68Ga-DOTATATE (GalioMedixTM). Methods The clinical grade of DOTATATE (25 µg±5µg) compounded in 1MNaOAc at pH=5.5 was labeled manually with 514±218MBq (13.89±5.9 mCi) of 68Ga eluate in 0.05 N HCl at 95 °C for 10 min. The radiochemical purity of the final dose was validated using radio-TLC. The quality control of clinical doses included tests of their osmolarity, endotoxin level, radionuclide identity, filter integrity, pH, sterility and 68Ge breakthrough. Results The final dose of 272±126MBq (7.35±3.4 mCi) of 68Ga-DOTATATE was produced with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 99%±1%. The total time required for completion of radiolabeling and quality control averaged approximately 35 min. This resulted in delivery of 50% ± 7% of 68Ga-DOTATATE at the time of calibration (not decay corrected). Conclusions 68Ga eluted from the generator was directly applied for labeling of DOTA-peptide with no additional pre-concentration or pre-purification of isotope. The low acidity of 68Ga eluate allows for facile synthesis of clinical doses with radiochemical and radionuclide purity higher than 98% and average activity of 272 ± 126 MBq (7.3 ± 3 mCi). There is no need for post-labeling C18 Sep-Pak purification of final doses of radiotracer. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care. The clinical interest in validation of 68Galabeled agents has increased in the past years due to availability of generators from different vendors (Eckert-Ziegler, ITG, iThemba), favorable approach of U.S. FDA agency to initiate clinical trials, and collaboration of U.S. centers with leading EU clinical sites. The list of 68Ga-labeled tracers evaluated in clinical studies should growth because of the

  4. Conformity of commercial oral single solid unit dose packages in hospital pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Maxime; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bussières, Jean-François; Lebel, Denis

    2008-06-01

    There are limited published data on the labelling of single unit dose packages in hospitals. The study was conducted in three large hospitals (two adult and one paediatric) in the metropolitan Montreal area, Quebec, Canada. The objective is to evaluate the labelling of commercial oral single solid unit dose packages available in Canadian urban hospital pharmacy practice. The study endpoint was the labelling conformity of each unit dose package for each criterion and overall for each manufacturer. Complete labelling of unit dose packages should include the following information: (1) brand name, (2) international non-proprietary name or generic name, (3) dosage, (4) pharmaceutical form, (5) manufacturer's name, (6) expiry date, (7) batch number and (8) drug identification number. We also evaluated the ease with which a single unit dose package is detached from a multiple unit dose package for quick, easy and safe use by pharmacy staff. Conformity levels were compared between brand-name and generic packages. A total of 124 different unit dose packages were evaluated. The level of conformity of each criterion varied between 19 and 50%. Only 43% of unit dose packages provided an easy-to-detach system for single doses. Among the 14 manufacturers with three or more unit dose packages evaluated, eight (57%) had a conformity level less than 50%. This study describes the conformity of commercial oral single solid unit dose packages in hospital pharmacy practice in Quebec. A large proportion of unit dose packages do not conform to a set of nine criteria set out in the guidelines of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists and the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists.

  5. A Recommender System in the Cyber Defense Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    monitoring software is a java based program sending updates to the database on the sensor machine. The host monitoring program gathers information about...3.2.2 Database. A MySQL database located on the sensor machine acts as the storage for the sensors on the network. Snort, Nmap, vulnerability scores, and...machine with the IDS and the recommender is labeled “sensor”. The recommender system code is written in java and compiled using java version 1.6.024

  6. Product Recommendation System Based on Personal Preference Model Using CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Orihara, Ryohei; Furukawa, Koichi

    Product recommendation system is realized by applying business rules acquired by data maining techniques. Business rules such as demographical patterns of purchase, are able to cover the groups of users that have a tendency to purchase products, but it is difficult to recommend products adaptive to various personal preferences only by utilizing them. In addition to that, it is very costly to gather the large volume of high quality survey data, which is necessary for good recommendation based on personal preference model. A method collecting kansei information automatically without questionnaire survey is required. The constructing personal preference model from less favor data is also necessary, since it is costly for the user to input favor data. In this paper, we propose product recommendation system based on kansei information extracted by text mining and user's preference model constructed by Category-guided Adaptive Modeling, CAM for short. CAM is a feature construction method that can generate new features constructing the space where same labeled examples are close and different labeled examples are far away from some labeled examples. It is possible to construct personal preference model by CAM despite less information of likes and dislikes categories. In the system, retrieval agent gathers the products' specification and user agent manages preference model, user's likes and dislikes. Kansei information of the products is gained by applying text mining technique to the reputation documents about the products on the web site. We carry out some experimental studies to make sure that prefrence model obtained by our method performs effectively.

  7. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Bull reproductive function and testicular histopathology.

    PubMed

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Phillips, Patrick E; Madson, Darin M; Clark, Christopher A; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Pyrethroid administration to a wide variety of laboratory animals has been shown to cause detrimental effects on male fertility, including sperm quality, by means of endocrine disruption. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of a commercial, permethrin-containing pour-on product on reproductive variables and testicular histopathology of yearling beef bulls. Black Angus bulls (n = 60; aged 369 ± 17 days; 511 ± 33 kg; 6.2 ± 0.5 body condition scores) were assigned to either (1) saline control (CON) or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Blood samples were collected, and industry standard breeding soundness examinations (BSE), via electroejaculation, were performed on all bulls at 5 days before and 14 days after treatment. Progressive sperm motility and eosin-nigrosin-stained sperm were analyzed using high-power phase-contrast microscopy. Plasma testosterone concentrations were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Bulls were slaughtered at 34 days, and one testicle per bull was randomly collected for histologic examination. Change in sperm motility between BSEs was not different because of treatment; sperm morphology however improved across treatments, but PYR bulls had less improvement in percent of head (P < 0.001) sperm abnormalities compared to CON, resulting in less improvement of primary abnormalities (P = 0.04). Nonetheless, morphological differences did not change the overall outcome for satisfactory breeder status. Change in testosterone concentration did not differ because of treatment. Histopathologic examination identified that testicular degeneration and tubule diameter did not differ as a result of treatment. It should be noted, however, that degeneration score (higher score having more degeneration) was positively correlated with primary abnormalities (P < 0.01; r = 0.35) and negatively correlated with normal sperm cells (P < 0.001; r = -0.43). In summary, these data indicate that a single

  8. Recommended de minimis radiation dose rates for Canada. Report No. INFO-0355

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A de minimis dose or dose rate as used in this report represents a level of risk which is generally accepted as being of no significance to an individual, or in the case of a population, of no significance to society. The report describes the risk of biological effects from radiation; radiation from natural and man-made sources; normal incidences of cancer and genetic defects; initiatives by other agencies in the U.S., the U.K. and internationally; the importance of collective dose and dose rate; assigning values to the de minimis dose rates; and application of the de minimis dose rates.

  9. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial

    PubMed Central

    Todd, John A.; Porter, Linsey; Smyth, Deborah J.; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Yang, Jennie H.; Bell, Charles J. M.; Schuilenburg, Helen; Challis, Ben; Clarke, Pamela; Coleman, Gillian; Dawson, Sarah; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Brown, Judy; Greatorex, Jane; Goodfellow, Ian; Evans, Mark; Mander, Adrian P.; Bond, Simon; Wicker, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs. Methods and Findings To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D), a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low) from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39) found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = −0

  10. An open-label, dose-titration tolerability study of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Michihiro; Takita, Yasushi; Goto, Taro; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Saito, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2011-02-01

    The main purpose of this first atomoxetine study in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to investigate the tolerability of an 8-week treatment regimen. This was an open-label, dose escalation study conducted in 45 Japanese patients aged at least 18 years with DSM-IV-defined ADHD. Patients received atomoxetine orally for 8 weeks. Atomoxetine administration was started at 40 mg/day (7 days), and subsequently increased to a maximum dose of 120 mg/day. Tolerability was assessed by discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs and electrocardiograms were collected. In addition, ADHD symptoms were assessed by using the Japanese version of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) scores. Thirty-nine patients completed the study period. Atomoxetine was well tolerated with a 6.7% (3/45) discontinuation rate due to nausea, malaise and anorexia. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea, nasopharyngitis and headache; there were no unexpected safety concerns. No deaths or serious adverse events were reported. Mean CAARS-Inv:SV-J total ADHD symptom scores decreased in a time-dependent manner; the mean change from baseline to endpoint was -15.0 (P<0.001). This study showed that atomoxetine was well tolerated in these patients and suggested that atomoxetine at a maximum dose of 120 mg/day would be safe in Japanese ADHD patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Kathleen; Essajee, Shaffiq; Penazzato, Martina; Holmes, Charles; Resch, Stephen; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2014-05-02

    Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0-13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments.

  12. Estimating age-based antiretroviral therapy costs for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings based on World Health Organization weight-based dosing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected infants and children. To accurately project program costs, analysts need accurate estimations of antiretroviral drug (ARV) costs for children. However, the costing of pediatric antiretroviral therapy is complicated by weight-based dosing recommendations which change as children grow. Methods We developed a step-by-step methodology for estimating the cost of pediatric ARV regimens for children ages 0–13 years old. The costing approach incorporates weight-based dosing recommendations to provide estimated ARV doses throughout childhood development. Published unit drug costs are then used to calculate average monthly drug costs. We compared our derived monthly ARV costs to published estimates to assess the accuracy of our methodology. Results The estimates of monthly ARV costs are provided for six commonly used first-line pediatric ARV regimens, considering three possible care scenarios. The costs derived in our analysis for children were fairly comparable to or slightly higher than available published ARV drug or regimen estimates. Conclusions The methodology described here can be used to provide an accurate estimation of pediatric ARV regimen costs for cost-effectiveness analysts to project the optimum packages of care for HIV-infected children, as well as for program administrators and budget analysts who wish to assess the feasibility of increasing pediatric ART availability in constrained budget environments. PMID:24885453

  13. Bumetanide for the treatment of seizures in newborn babies with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (NEMO): an open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Ronit M; Boylan, Geraldine B; Marlow, Neil; Blennow, Mats; Chiron, Catherine; Cross, J Helen; de Vries, Linda S; Hallberg, Boubou; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Jullien, Vincent; Livingstone, Vicki; Mangum, Barry; Murphy, Brendan; Murray, Deirdre; Pons, Gerard; Rennie, Janet; Swarte, Renate; Toet, Mona C; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Zohar, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Preclinical data suggest that the loop-diuretic bumetanide might be an effective treatment for neonatal seizures. We aimed to assess dose and feasibility of intravenous bumetanide as an add-on to phenobarbital for treatment of neonatal seizures. In this open-label, dose finding, and feasibility phase 1/2 trial, we recruited full-term infants younger than 48 h who had hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and electrographic seizures not responding to a loading-dose of phenobarbital from eight neonatal intensive care units across Europe. Newborn babies were allocated to receive an additional dose of phenobarbital and one of four bumetanide dose levels by use of a bivariate Bayesian sequential dose-escalation design to assess safety and efficacy. We assessed adverse events, pharmacokinetics, and seizure burden during 48 h continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The primary efficacy endpoint was a reduction in electrographic seizure burden of more than 80% without the need for rescue antiepileptic drugs in more than 50% of infants. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01434225. Between Sept 1, 2011, and Sept 28, 2013, we screened 30 infants who had electrographic seizures due to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. 14 of these infants (10 boys) were included in the study (dose allocation: 0·05 mg/kg, n=4; 0·1 mg/kg, n=3; 0·2 mg/kg, n=6; 0·3 mg/kg, n=1). All babies received at least one dose of bumetanide with the second dose of phenobarbital; three were withdrawn for reasons unrelated to bumetanide, and one because of dehydration. All but one infant also received aminoglycosides. Five infants met EEG criteria for seizure reduction (one on 0·05 mg/kg, one on 0·1 mg/kg and three on 0·2 mg/kg), and only two did not need rescue antiepileptic drugs (ie, met rescue criteria; one on 0·05 mg/kg and one on 0·3 mg/kg). We recorded no short-term dose-limiting toxic effects, but three of 11 surviving infants had hearing impairment confirmed on

  14. Radiation doses for pediatric nuclear medicine studies: comparing the North American consensus guidelines and the pediatric dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Grant, Frederick D; Gelfand, Michael J; Drubach, Laura A; Treves, S Ted; Fahey, Frederic H

    2015-04-01

    Estimated radiation dose is important for assessing and communicating the risks and benefits of pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Radiation dose depends on the radiopharmaceutical, the administered activity, and patient factors such as age and size. Most radiation dose estimates for pediatric nuclear medicine have not been based on administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals recommended by established practice guidelines. The dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the North American consensus guidelines each provide recommendations of administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals in children, but there are substantial differences between these two guidelines. For 12 commonly performed pediatric nuclear medicine studies, two established pediatric radiopharmaceutical administration guidelines were used to calculate updated radiation dose estimates and to compare the radiation exposure resulting from the recommendations of each of the guidelines. Estimated radiation doses were calculated for 12 common procedures in pediatric nuclear medicine using administered activities recommended by the dosage card of the EANM (version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American consensus guidelines for radiopharmaceutical administered activities in pediatrics. Based on standard models and nominal age-based weights, radiation dose was estimated for typical patients at ages 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and adult. The resulting effective doses were compared, with differences greater than 20% considered significant. Following either the EANM dosage card or the 2010 North American guidelines, the highest effective doses occur with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123. In 24% of cases, following the North American consensus guidelines would result in a substantially higher radiation dose. The guidelines of the EANM dosage card would lead to a substantially higher radiation dose in 39% of all cases, and in 62% of cases in which patients

  15. Development of computational pregnant female and fetus models and assessment of radiation dose from positron-emitting tracers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-12-01

    Molecular imaging using PET and hybrid (PET/CT and PET/MR) modalities nowadays plays a pivotal role in the clinical setting for diagnosis and staging, treatment response monitoring, and radiation therapy treatment planning of a wide range of oncologic malignancies. The developing embryo/fetus presents a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Therefore, estimation of the radiation dose delivered to the embryo/fetus and pregnant patients from PET examinations to assess potential radiation risks is highly praised. We constructed eight embryo/fetus models at various gestation periods with 25 identified tissues according to reference data recommended by the ICRP publication 89 representing the anatomy of the developing embryo/fetus. The developed embryo/fetus models were integrated into realistic anthropomorphic computational phantoms of the pregnant female and used for estimating, using Monte Carlo calculations, S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides, organ absorbed dose, and effective dose of a number of positron-emitting labeled radiotracers. The absorbed dose is nonuniformly distributed in the fetus. The absorbed dose of the kidney and liver of the 8-week-old fetus are about 47.45 % and 44.76 % higher than the average absorbed dose of the fetal total body for all investigated radiotracers. For 18 F-FDG, the fetal effective doses are 2.90E-02, 3.09E-02, 1.79E-02, 1.59E-02, 1.47E-02, 1.40E-02, 1.37E-02, and 1.27E-02 mSv/MBq at the 8th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 35th, and 38th weeks of gestation, respectively. The developed pregnant female/fetus models matching the ICRP reference data can be exploited by dedicated software packages for internal and external dose calculations. The generated S-values will be useful to produce new standardized dose estimates to pregnant patients and embryo/fetus from a variety of positron-emitting labeled radiotracers.

  16. A System for Anesthesia Drug Administration Using Barcode Technology: The Codonics Safe Label System and Smart Anesthesia Manager.

    PubMed

    Jelacic, Srdjan; Bowdle, Andrew; Nair, Bala G; Kusulos, Dolly; Bower, Lynnette; Togashi, Kei

    2015-08-01

    Many anesthetic drug errors result from vial or syringe swaps. Scanning the barcodes on vials before drug preparation, creating syringe labels that include barcodes, and scanning the syringe label barcodes before drug administration may help to prevent errors. In contrast, making syringe labels by hand that comply with the recommendations of regulatory agencies and standards-setting bodies is tedious and time consuming. A computerized system that uses vial barcodes and generates barcoded syringe labels could address both safety issues and labeling recommendations. We measured compliance of syringe labels in multiple operating rooms (ORs) with the recommendations of regulatory agencies and standards-setting bodies before and after the introduction of the Codonics Safe Label System (SLS). The Codonics SLS was then combined with Smart Anesthesia Manager software to create an anesthesia barcode drug administration system, which allowed us to measure the rate of scanning syringe label barcodes at the time of drug administration in 2 cardiothoracic ORs before and after introducing a coffee card incentive. Twelve attending cardiothoracic anesthesiologists and the OR satellite pharmacy participated. The use of the Codonics SLS drug labeling system resulted in >75% compliant syringe labels (95% confidence interval, 75%-98%). All syringe labels made using the Codonics SLS system were compliant. The average rate of scanning barcodes on syringe labels using Smart Anesthesia Manager was 25% (730 of 2976) over 13 weeks but increased to 58% (956 of 1645) over 8 weeks after introduction of a simple (coffee card) incentive (P < 0.001). An anesthesia barcode drug administration system resulted in a moderate rate of scanning syringe label barcodes at the time of drug administration. Further, adaptation of the system will be required to achieve a higher utilization rate.

  17. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, A.K.; FitzGerald, G.A.

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy(3,4,5,6-/sup 2/H4)benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenouslymore » with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans.« less

  18. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora M S H; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro P M; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination.

  19. Restaurant menu labelling: Is it worth adding sodium to the label?

    PubMed

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Corey, Paul N; Mendoza, Julio; Henson, Spencer J; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2014-07-31

    Several provincial and federal bills have recommended various forms of menu labelling that would require information beyond just calories; however, the additional benefit of including sodium information is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether sodium information on menus helps consumers make lower-sodium choices and to understand what other factors influence the effect of menu labelling on consumers' meal choices. A total of 3,080 Canadian consumers completed an online survey that included a repeated measures experiment in which consumers were asked to select what they would typically order from four mock-restaurant menus. Subsequently, consumers were randomly allocated to see one of three menu-labelling treatments (calories; calories and sodium; or calories, sodium and serving size) and were given the option to change their order. There was a significant difference in the proportion of consumers who changed their order, varying from 17% to 30%, depending on the restaurant type. After participants had seen menu labelling, sodium levels decreased in all treatments (p<0.0001). However, in three of the four restaurant types, consumers who saw calorie and sodium information ordered meals with significantly less sodium than consumers who saw only calorie information (p<0.01). Consumers who saw sodium labelling decreased the sodium level of their meal by an average of 171-384 mg, depending on the restaurant. In the subset of consumers who saw sodium information and chose to change their order, sodium levels decreased by an average of 681-1,360 mg, depending on the restaurant. Sex, intent to lose weight and the amount of calories ordered at baseline were the most important predictors of who used menu labelling. Eighty percent of survey panelists wanted to see nutrition information when dining out. Including sodium information alongside calorie information may result in a larger decrease in the amount of sodium ordered by restaurant-goers.

  20. Nutrition labelling: purpose, scientific issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Van den Wijngaart, Annoek W E M

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition labels describe the nutrient content of a food and are intended to guide the consumer in food selection. The nutrition information provided must be selected on the basis of consistency with dietary recommendations. Selection of the specific nutrients or food components to be listed should further take into account label space, the analytical feasibility of measuring the particular nutritional component within the food matrix, and the relative costs of such analyses. Nutrition information provided on labels should be truthful and not mislead consumers. At the same time, labelling regulations should provide incentives to manufacturers to develop products that promote public health and assist consumers in following dietary recommendations. It is likely that in many countries, there would be some segments of the population that would benefit from information about the composition of foods. In these cases, countries should consider the need to provide for appropriate labelling and its presentation relative to existing guidelines and approaches. As nutrition-labelling efforts have evolved, different approaches and legal requirements have been established. These create difficulties in developing and harmonizing nutrition information listings, which have broad international applications. For these reasons, the Codex Guidelines on Nutrition Labeling play an important role to provide guidance to member countries when they want to develop or update their national regulations and to encourage harmonization of national standards with international standards. These Guidelines are based on the principle that no food should be described or presented in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive. The Guidelines include provisions for voluntary nutrient declaration, calculation and presentation of nutrient information. The Guidelines on Claims establish general principles to be followed and leave the definition of specific claims to national regulations. Definitions

  1. (90)Y-labelled anti-CD22 epratuzumab tetraxetan in adults with refractory or relapsed CD22-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a phase 1 dose-escalation study.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Patrice; Eugene, Thomas; Robillard, Nelly; Isnard, Françoise; Nicolini, Franck; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Huguet, Françoise; Hunault, Mathilde; Marcais, Antoine; Gaschet, Joelle; Cherel, Michel; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Peterlin, Pierre; Eveillard, Marion; Thomas, Xavier; Ifrah, Norbert; Lapusan, Simona; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Barbet, Jacques; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Ferrer, Ludovic; Bene, Marie C; Le Houerou, Claire; Goldenberg, David M; Wegener, William A; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2015-03-01

    Prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is poor and new treatments are needed. We aimed to assess the feasibility, tolerability, dosimetry, and efficacy of yttrium-90-labelled anti-CD22 epratuzumab tetraxetan ((90)Y-DOTA-epratuzumab) radioimmunotherapy in refractory or relapsed CD22-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in a standard 3 + 3 phase 1 study. Adults (≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (with CD22 expression on at least 70% of blast cells) were enrolled at six centres in France. Patients received one cycle of (90)Y-DOTA-epratuzumab on days 1 and 8 (give or take 2 days) successively at one of four dose levels: 2·5 mCi/m(2) (92·5 MBq/m(2); level 1), 5·0 mCi/m(2) (185 MBq/m(2); level 2), 7·5 mCi/m(2) (277·5 MBq/m(2); level 3), and 10·0 mCi/m(2) (370 MBq/m(2); level 4). The primary objective was to identify the maximum tolerated dose of (90)Y-DOTA-epratuzumab. We assessed safety during infusions and regularly after radioimmunotherapy over a 6-month period. Analyses included only patients who received radioimmunotherapy. The trial is closed to inclusion and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01354457. Between Aug 25, 2011, and June 11, 2014, 17 patients (median age 62 years; range 27-77) were treated (five at level 1, three at level 2, three at level 3, and six at level 4). Radioimmunotherapy infusion was overall well tolerated. One dose-limiting toxic effect (aplasia lasting 8 weeks) occurred at level 4, but the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were pancytopenia (one patient at level 2, one at level 3, and six at level 4) and infections (three at level 1, one at level 2, and five at level 4). (90)Y-DOTA-epratuzumab radioimmunotherapy is well tolerated. We recommend the dose of 2 × 10·0 mCi/m(2) 1 week apart per cycle for phase 2 studies. Immunomedics and Direction de la Recherche Clinique of Nantes

  2. Losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination vs. high-dose losartan in patients with morning hypertension--a prospective, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tamenobu; Kai, Hisashi; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of morning hypertension has not been established. We compared the efficacy and safety of a losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination and high-dose losartan in patients with morning hypertension. A prospective, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, multicenter trial enrolled 216 treated outpatients with morning hypertension evaluated by home blood pressure (BP) self-measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a combination therapy of 50 mg losartan and 12.5 mg HCTZ (n=109) or a high-dose therapy with 100 mg losartan (n=107), each of which were administered once every morning. Primary efficacy end points were morning systolic BP (SBP) level and target BP achievement rate after 3 months of treatment. At baseline, BP levels were similar between the two therapy groups. Morning SBP was reduced from 150.3±10.1 to 131.5±11.5 mm Hg by combination therapy (P<0.001) and from 151.0±9.3 to 142.5±13.6 mm Hg by high-dose therapy (P<0.001). The morning SBP reduction was greater in the combination therapy group than in the high-dose therapy group (P<0.001). Combination therapy decreased evening SBP from 141.6±13.3 to 125.3±13.1 mm Hg (P<0.001), and high-dose therapy decreased evening SBP from 138.9±9.9 to 131.4±13.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). Although both therapies improved target BP achievement rates in the morning and evening (P<0.001 for both), combination therapy increased the achievement rates more than high-dose therapy (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). In clinic measurements, combination therapy was superior to high-dose therapy in reducing SBP and improving the achievement rate (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively). Combination therapy decreased urine albumin excretion (P<0.05) whereas high-dose therapy reduced serum uric acid. Both therapies indicated strong adherence and few adverse effects (P<0.001). In conclusion, losartan/HCTZ combination therapy was more effective for controlling morning hypertension and reducing

  3. Interleukin 1 increases thymidine labeling index of normal tissues of mic but not the tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, M.S.; Dorie, M.J.; Kallman, R.F.

    1994-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the action of human recombinant interleukin 1 as a radioprotector for different mouse normal cells other than bone marrow cells. Semi-continuous injections of tritiated thymidine were administered every 6 h, over 24 h to determine thymidine labeling index. Mice were injected with recombinant human interleukin 1 24 h prior to tritiated thymidine and were compared to control animals that did not receive interleukin 1. Mice were killed 1 h after the last thymidine injection. The 24 h thymidine labeling index for normal tissues and RIF-1 tumor was determined. Labeling indices were also determined 1-14more » days after a series of fractionated irradiations with or without pretreatment with a single dose of interleukin 1 administered 24 h prior to the first radiation. The thymidine labeling index of normal tissues was higher following the injection of recombinant human interleukin 1 24 h before radiolabeling. This was found in all normal tissues tested. The thymidine labeling index of RIF-1 fibrosarcoma was not affected by interleukin 1 injection. A single interleukin 1 injection 24 h before the first radiation fraction also increased the thymidine labeling indices of normal tissues after localized fractionated irradiation. The thymidine labeling index of RIF-1 tumor was not increased by interleukin 1 administration except after relatively high radiation doses (20 Gy in five fractions). The ability of interleukin 1 to enhance the thymidine labeling index declined after the first day following the completion of fractionated irradiation. Recombinant human interleukin 1 increased the 24 h thymidine labeling index in normal tissues in mice, but not in RIF-1 tumor. Fractionated irradiation could maintain the effect of a single dose of interleukin 1, administered 24 h prior to the first fraction, up to 24 h after the end of radiation. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  4. Overview and guidelines of off-label use of methotrexate in ectopic pregnancy: report by CNGOF.

    PubMed

    Marret, Henri; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Dubernard, Gil; Misme, Hélène; Lagarce, Laurence; Lesavre, Magali; Fernandez, Hervé; Mimoun, Camille; Tourette, Claire; Curinier, Sandra; Rabishong, Benoit; Agostini, Aubert

    2016-10-01

    Our objective is to describe off-label use of methotrexate in ectopic pregnancy treatment using evidence based medicine. The patient group includes all women with a pregnancy outside the usual endometrium, or of unknown location. Method used was a Medline search on ectopic pregnancy managed using methotrexate treatment; evidence synthesis was done based on this current literature analysis. Level of evidence (LE) were given according to the centre for evidence base medicine rules. Grade was proposed for guidelines but no recommendation was possible as misoprostol is off label use for all the indications studied. In the absence of any contraindication, the protocol recommended for medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy is a single intramuscular injection of methotrexate (MTX) at a dosage of 1mg/kg or 50mg/m(2) (Grade A). It can be repeated once at the same dose should the hCG concentration not fall sufficiently. Pretreatment laboratory results must include a complete blood count and kidney and liver function tests (in accordance with its marketing authorization). MTX is an alternative to conservative treatment such as laparoscopic salpingotomy for uncomplicated tubal pregnancy (Grade A) with pretreatment hCG levels≤5000IU/l (Grade B). Expectant management is preferred for hCG levels<1000IU/l or in the process of spontaneous decreasing (Grade B). Intramuscular MTX is also recommended after the failure of surgical salpingotomy (Grade C) or immediately after surgery, if monitoring is not possible. Except in special circumstances, a local insitu ultrasound-guided MTX injection is not recommended for unruptured tubal pregnancies (Grade B). In situ MTX is an option for treating cervical, interstitial, or cesarean-scar pregnancies (Grade C). In pregnancies of unknown location persisting more than 10days in an asymptomatic woman who has an hCG level>2000IU/l, routine MTX treatment is an option. MTX is not indicated for combination with treatments such as mifepristone or

  5. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  6. Environmental labelling in The Netherlands: a framework for integrated farming.

    PubMed

    Manhoudt, A G E; van de Ven, G W J; Udo de Haes, H A; de Snoo, G R

    2002-07-01

    This article compares four Dutch environmental certification schemes for agricultural food crops, analysing their methodology and the completeness of their criteria on five aspects: pesticide use, nutrient use, water management, energy and materials consumption, and habitat management. The least stringent of the labels, the MBT ('Environmentally Aware Cultivation') certificate, serves mainly to increase farmers' awareness of nutrient and pesticide use. With regard to both administrative obligations and actual management practices, the MBT label largely mirrors the terms of standing Dutch legislation. The CC ('Controlled Cultivation') and AMK ('Agro-Environmental') labels comprise more and more stringent criteria. With their restrictions on nutrient and pesticide use, these two labels serve as the two principal labels in the field of integrated agriculture. There is little difference between the two and it is recommended that they be merged, on the basis of a standardised definition of integrated agriculture. The EKO ('Organic Agriculture') label proceeds from different principles, but as a minimum should also comply with Dutch legislation without exception. For both integrated and organic agriculture, in addition to criteria on pesticide and nutrient use, criteria should also be developed for water management, energy and materials use and habitat management. The relationship between the criteria and their respective thresholds and Dutch legislation is also addressed. Existing criteria are frequently specified in such a way that the environmental benefits cannot be ascertained. This is a serious drawback for the parties further down the chain: auctioneers, retailers and consumers. It is recommended to develop qualitative guidelines for an Agricultural Stewardship Council at international level, like the Forest Stewardship Council, and a separate label for integrated agriculture per country comprising quantitative criteria for all relevant aspects of farming

  7. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Garcés Sánchez, María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Méndez Hernández, María; Merino Moína, Manuel; Montesdeoca Melián, Abián; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). MMRV vaccine could be applied as the second dose if available. Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendation for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. The new 9 genotypes vaccine is now available, expanding the coverage for both gender. Regarding non-funded immunisations, Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics recommends meningococcal B vaccination, with a 3+1 schedule, and requests to be included in the National Immunisation Program. Tetravalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended to adolescents (14-18 years) who are going to live in countries with systematic vaccination against ACWY serogroups, and people >6 weeks of age with risk factors or travellers to countries with very high incidence. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Spin labeled antioxidants protect bacteria against the toxicity of alkylating antitumor drug CCNU.

    PubMed

    Gadjeva, Vesselina; Lazarova, Grozdanka; Zheleva, Antoaneta

    2003-10-15

    We have studied the toxic effect of the alkylating antitumor drug N'-cyclohexyl-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (lomustine, CCNU) on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains, alone and in presence of oxygen radical-scavenging substances [Vitamin E, stable nitroxyl radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TMPO), and spin labeled (nitroxyl free radical moiety containing) analogues of CCNU] and compared with that of the alkylating antitumor drug 5-(3,3-dimethyltriazene-1-yl)-imidazole-4-carboxamide (dacarbazine, DTIC). All spin labeled compounds tested were almost no toxic at doses of 50-500 microM/ml, whereas the alkylating antitumor drug CCNU showed toxicity in a dose dependent manner. Even low doses of spin labeled nitrosoureas provided protection against the toxicity caused by the antitumor drug CCNU alone. The lowest toxicity against E. coli and S. aureus were achieved when 500 microM/ml of CCNU was combined with 200 microM/ml of spin labeled nitrosourea N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-glycine amid of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-aminopiperidine-1-oxyl (SLCNUgly). A combination of TMPO with vitamin E completely abolished the toxicity of CCNU. Endogenous formation of oxygen radicals and their possible involvement in CCNU toxicity towards the bacteria strains tested have been also discussed.

  9. Pharmacogenetics-based personalized therapy: Levels of evidence and recommendations from the French Network of Pharmacogenetics (RNPGx).

    PubMed

    Picard, Nicolas; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Etienne-Grimaldi, Marie-Christine; Barin-Le Guellec, Chantal; Thomas, Fabienne; Loriot, Marie-Anne

    2017-04-01

    More than 50 laboratories offer pharmacogenetic testing in France. These tests are restricted to a limited number of indications: prevention of serious adverse drug reactions; choice of most appropriate therapeutic option; dose adjustment for a specific drug. A very small proportion of these tests are mentioned in drug information labeling and the data provided (if any) are generally insufficient to ascertain whether a test is required and if it is useful. This article discusses the rationale for evaluating the performance and clinical usefulness of pharmacogenetics and provides, on behalf of the French national network of pharmacogenetics (RNPGx), three levels of recommendation for testing: essential, advisable, and possibly helpful. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. An investigative model evaluating how consumers process pictorial information on nonprescription medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S

    1997-01-01

    Currently, marketed over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels were simulated and tested in a controlled environment to understand consumer evaluation of OTC label information. Two factors, consumers' age (younger and older adults) and label designs (picture-only, verbal-only, congruent picture-verbal, and noncongruent picture-verbal) were controlled and tested to evaluate consumer information processing. The effects exerted by the independent variables, namely, comprehension of label information (understanding) and product evaluations (satisfaction, certainty, and perceived confusion) were evaluated on the dependent variable purchase intention. Intention measured as purchase recommendation was significantly related to product evaluations and affected by the factor label design. Participants' level of perceived confusion was more important than actual understanding of information on OTC medication labels. A Label Evaluation Process Model was developed which could be used for future testing of OTC medication labels.

  11. Psychological functioning and adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity in later life: results from a national health survey.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Dunsky, Ayelet; Zach, Sima; Goldsmith, Rebecca; Shimony, Tal; Goldbourt, Uri; Zeev, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    Official health organizations have established the dose of physical activity needed for preserving both physical and psychological health in old age. The objective of this study was to explore whether adherence to the recommended criterion of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning in older adults in Israel. A random sample of 1,663 (799 men) Israelis reported their physical activity routine, and based on official guidelines were divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used for assessing mental health and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for assessing cognitive functioning. Factor analysis performed on the GHQ yielded two factors - positive and negative. Logistic regressions for the GHQ factors and for the MMSE were conducted for explaining their variance, with demographic variables entered first, followed by health and then physical activity. The explained variance in the three steps was Cox and Snell R2 = 0.022, 0.023, 0.039 for the positive factor, 0.066, 0.093, 0.101 for the negative factor, and 0.204, 0.206, 0.209 for the MMSE. Adherence to the recommended dose of physical activity accounted for better psychological functioning beyond demographic and health variables; however, the additional explained variance was small. More specific guidelines of physical activity may elucidate a stronger relationship, but only randomized controlled trials can reveal cause-effect relationship between physical activity and psychological functioning. More studies are needed focusing on the positive factor of psychological functioning.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intravenous ibuprofen injection in healthy Chinese volunteers: a randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study
.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huili; Xu, Wei; Wu, Guolan; Wu, Lihua; Shentu, Jianzhong; Pan, Zhengfei; Hu, Shuai; Liu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Recently a formulation of intravenous (IV) ibuprofen was developed in China for management of mild to moderate pain in patients who could not take oral medications or where intravenous administration was preferable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of single and multiple doses of ibuprofen injection in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, single- and multiple-dose study was conducted in healthy Chinese volunteers. In the single-dose phase, subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of ibuprofen injection 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 g administered as a 30-minute IV infusion with a 1-week washout between periods. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 12.5 hours after drug administration and were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. In the multiple-dose phase, subjects received 0.4 g ibuprofen every 6 hours for 9 doses. Blood samples were obtained before the 7th, 8th, and 9th administration to determine the Cmin at steady state; on the 9th intravenous administration, blood samples were also collected for 12.5 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a noncompartmental model. Tolerability was determined using clinical evaluation and monitoring of adverse events (AEs). A total of 12 healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 6) Chinese volunteers were enrolled and completed the trial. After IV administration of single dose, the mean (SD) Cmax value increased from 35.77 (6.98) to 117.12 (19.78) µg/mL, and the mean (SD) AUC0-t value increased from 67.63 (10.30) to 230.50 (33.55) µg×h/mL in the range of 0.2-g to 0.8-g dose. The terminal half-life in plasma was ~ 2.0 hours. After IV administration of 9 doses of ibuprofen 400 mg every 6 hours, the mean (SD) Cmax was 66.49 (8.49) µg/mL, the AUC0-t was 135.65 (26.91) µg×h/mL, the t1

  13. Category labels versus feature labels: category labels polarize inferential predictions.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yu, Na-Yung

    2008-04-01

    What makes category labels different from feature labels in predictive inference? This study suggests that category labels tend to make inductive reasoning polarized and homogeneous. In two experiments, participants were shown two schematic pictures of insects side by side and predicted the value of a hidden feature of one insect on the basis of the other insect. Arbitrary verbal labels were shown above the two pictures, and the meanings of the labels were manipulated in the instructions. In one condition, the labels represented the category membership of the insects, and in the other conditions, the same labels represented attributes of the insects. When the labels represented category membership, participants' responses became substantially polarized and homogeneous, indicating that the mere reference to category membership can modify reasoning processes.

  14. Influence of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of Afatinib: An Open-Label, Single-Dose Study.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sabrina; Schnell, David; Külzer, Raimund; Gansser, Dietmar; Weber, Anne; Wallenstein, Gudrun; Halabi, Atef; Conrad, Anja; Wind, Sven

    2017-06-01

    Afatinib is an oral irreversible ErbB-Family Blocker indicated for treatment of patients with EGFR mutation positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. This trial assessed whether renal impairment influences the pharmacokinetics and safety of afatinib. This was an open-label, single-dose study. Pharmacokinetic parameters after afatinib 40 mg were investigated in subjects with moderate (n = 8) or severe (n = 8) renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively) and healthy matched controls (n = 14). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and up to 14 days after dosing for pharmacokinetic and plasma protein-binding assessment. Primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC last ) and maximum plasma concentration (C max ) between subjects with renal impairment and healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetic profiles and plasma protein binding were similar in all groups. The extent of exposure, as indicated by AUC last and C max , was generally similar between the matched treatment groups, with the exception of the geometric mean ratio of AUC last for subjects with severe renal impairment, which showed a trend towards a higher value compared with matched healthy subjects (150.0 % [90 % CI 105.3-213.7]) Inter-individual variability was moderate (geometric mean coefficient of variation 28-39 % for moderate impairment, 34-42 % for severe impairment). Afatinib was well tolerated and urinary excretion was minimal. Moderate-to-severe renal impairment had a minor influence on the pharmacokinetics of afatinib that was within the observed inter-individual variability, suggesting that afatinib treatment can be considered in this patient population. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02096718.

  15. Oral penicillin prescribing for children in the UK: a comparison with BNF for Children age-band recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sonia; Ismael, Zareen; Murray, Macey L; Barker, Charlotte; Wong, Ian CK; Sharland, Mike; Long, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Background The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) recommends dosing oral penicillins according to age-bands, weight-bands, or weight-based calculations. Because of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity, age-band-based prescribing could lead to subtherapeutic dosing. Aim To investigate actual oral penicillin prescribing by GPs in the UK with reference to the current BNFC age-band recommendations. Design and setting Descriptive analysis of UK prescriptions in the 2010 IMS Disease-Analyzer database (IMS-DA). Method A detailed database analysis was undertaken of oral penicillin prescriptions for 0–18 year olds from the 2010 IMS-DA. The prescription analysis included all available data on formulation, strength (mg), prescription quantity unit, package size, prescribed quantity, and volume. Results Considering amoxicillin alone, no infants (aged <1 year) were prescribed the BNFC 2011 edition recommended unit dose (62.5 mg), while the majority received double the dose (125 mg); among children aged 1–5 years, 96% were prescribed the recommended unit dose (125 mg), but 40% of 6–12 year olds and 70% of 12–18 year olds were prescribed unit doses below the BNFC recommendations. For otitis media, only those children aged <1 year received the recommended dose of amoxicillin (40–90 mg/kg/day). Similar variations in dosing across age-bands were observed for phenoxymethylpenicillin and flucloxacillin. Conclusion There is wide variation in the dosing of penicillins for children in UK primary care, with very few children being prescribed the current national recommended doses. There is an urgent need to review dosing guidelines, in relation to the weights of children today. PMID:24686886

  16. Lower Dose of Prostate Cancer Drug with Food

    Cancer.gov

    In a small clinical trial, researchers compared the efficacy of a low dose of the cancer drug abiraterone (Zytiga) taken with a low-fat breakfast with a full dose taken on an empty stomach, as directed on the drug’s label. Learn what they found in this Cancer Currents blog post.

  17. Recommended treatment for urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vercaigne, L M; Zhanel, G G

    1994-02-01

    To establish and recommend a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy based on the published studies. An English-language literature search employing MEDLINE, Index Medicus, and bibliographic reviews of the references obtained were searched (key terms: urinary tract infection, UTI, pregnancy, bacteriuria). All identified human studies dealing with bacteriuria or UTI in pregnancy were analyzed. Limited data are available regarding the appropriate antibiotic management of UTI in pregnancy. Single-dose cure rates with amoxicillin are approximately 80 percent. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole provides cure rates of greater than 80 percent. Cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin produce variable results. We recommend separating pregnant subjects with UTI into two groups. Those with asymptomatic bacteriuria can be treated with a single dose of an antimicrobial to which the organism is susceptible. For those with symptomatic UTI, we recommend amoxicillin 500 mg tid for three days. Urine cultures should be repeated seven days following therapy to assess cure or failure. Well-designed studies need to be performed, comparing single-dose and three-day therapy for UTI in pregnancy.

  18. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4-8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals.

  19. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Bechini, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4–8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals. PMID:27929751

  20. Epinephrine doses delivered from auto-injectors stored at excessively high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Ousama; Simons, F Estelle R; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Lewis, Stephen; Simons, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Prompt injection of epinephrine (adrenaline) from epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs) is the primary treatment for anaphylaxis in out-of-hospital settings. Storage of EAIs at room temperature (25 °C) is advised; however, storage at excessively high temperatures sometimes occurs. To our knowledge, there are no previous publications on the doses of epinephrine ejected from EAIs after storage at such temperatures. We examined the epinephrine doses delivered from activated EAIs stored constantly or cyclically at 70 °C. Twenty-five in-date EAIs were stored constantly or cyclically at 70 °C (excessive heat) or 25 °C (controls) for 5 d or 10 d. EAIs were activated and the epinephrine doses in the ejected solutions were measured using HPLC-UV. The enantiomeric purity of epinephrine was also measured by HPLC-UV. Control EAIs ejected a volume of 0.300 ± 0.006 mL containing 103.7 ± 3.3% of labeled dose (LD). After 5 d or 10 d of constant storage at 70 °C and activation at 70 °C, EAIs ejected a volume of 0.367 ± 0.008 mL containing 96.8 ± 3.8% LD and 0.373 ± 0.007 mL containing 77.7 ± 3.3% LD, respectively. After 5 d of cyclic storage at 70 °C and cooling to 25 °C before activation, EAIs ejected a volume of 0.311 ± 0.008 mL containing 87.2 ± 1.9% LD. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the resultant chromatographic peaks of epinephrine solutions from all EAIs represented only the pure l-enantiomer of epinephrine. EAIs should be stored under recommended conditions of the manufacturer. EAIs stored at excessively high temperatures cannot be used to treat humans while still hot, and when cooled, cannot be relied on to deliver the labeled epinephrine dose in anaphylaxis.

  1. Rationale and design of a randomized trial to evaluate an evidence-based prescription drug label on actual medication use.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Parker, Ruth; Davis, Terry; Pandit, Anjali U; Knox, Joann P; Moraras, Pear; Rademaker, Alfred; Wolf, Michael S

    2010-11-01

    Medication errors are an important public health concern, and poor understanding of medication labels are a root cause. Research shows that labels are variable, of poor quality, and not patient-centered. No real-world trials have evaluated whether improved medication labels can affect appropriate medication use, adherence or health outcomes. We developed an evidence-based prescription label that addresses both content and format. The enhanced label includes a universal medication schedule (UMS) that standardizes the directions for use incorporating 1) standard time periods for administration (morning, noon, evening, and bedtime), 2) numeric vs. alpha characters, 3) 'carriage returns' to separate daily dose and 4) a graphic aid to visually depict dose and frequency. We will evaluate the effect of providing this label to randomly sampled patients who receive their care from free clinics, mobile vans and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in Northern Virginia. We will recruit patients with diabetes or hypertension; these patients will be randomly assigned to receive all of their medications with improved labels or to receive prescriptions with standard labels. The primary outcome will be the patient's ability to correctly demonstrate dosing instructions. Other outcomes include adherence, error rates and health outcomes. To our knowledge, this trial is the first to evaluate the effect of prescription label improvement on understanding, medication use and outcomes in a clinical setting. If successful, these findings could be implemented broadly to promote safe and appropriate medication use and to support evidence-based standards in the development of labels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Can we achieve a radionuclide radiation dose equal to or less than that of 99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate bone scintigraphy with a low-dose 18F-sodium fluoride time-of-flight PET of diagnostic quality?

    PubMed

    Ohnona, Jessica; Michaud, Laure; Balogova, Sona; Paycha, Frédéric; Nataf, Valérie; Chauchat, Paul; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Kerrou, Khaldoun

    2013-05-01

    18F-Sodium fluoride is a bone tracer with a high signal-to-noise ratio, but its dosimetry is higher than that of 99mTc-labeled phosphonates at the recommended activities. The study's purpose was to determine whether the reduction by half of F-sodium fluoride-injected activity, mimicked by a short-timed reconstruction image, simulating a total dose less than or equal to that of 99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate scintigraphy, had an impact on the accuracy of PET semiquantitative measurements and image quality. Whole-body time-of-flight 18F-sodium fluoride PET/computed tomography (CT) images were acquired prospectively from 40 adult patients for detection of bone metastases. 18F-Sodium fluoride was administered according to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) practice guidelines. From the acquired 1 min/bed position list-mode data, 30-s reconstructions were extracted. Measurements of maximum standard uptake value were recorded with a region of interest applied to the same location on the 1-min and 30-s images, which were displayed side by side, and were analyzed using Bland-Altman plots. A masked reading was performed by two senior nuclear medicine physicians who counted the foci of visually increased uptake. Bland-Altman plots showed an excellent agreement between the maximum standard uptake value measurements of the 60- and 30-s images. The paired Wilcoxon test results between the corresponding 60- and 30-s images read by masked readers A and B were not significant (P=0.15 and 0.19, respectively). Reducing acquisition duration by half or injecting half of the activity recommended by the EANM and SNM practice guidelines can lead to 18F-sodium fluoride time-of-flight PET images of diagnostic quality, achieving a radiation dose less than or equal to that of 99mTc-labeled phosphonates.

  3. Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Implementation strategies have unparalleled importance in implementation science, as they constitute the ‘how to’ component of changing healthcare practice. Yet, implementation researchers and other stakeholders are not able to fully utilize the findings of studies focusing on implementation strategies because they are often inconsistently labelled and poorly described, are rarely justified theoretically, lack operational definitions or manuals to guide their use, and are part of ‘packaged’ approaches whose specific elements are poorly understood. We address the challenges of specifying and reporting implementation strategies encountered by researchers who design, conduct, and report research on implementation strategies. Specifically, we propose guidelines for naming, defining, and operationalizing implementation strategies in terms of seven dimensions: actor, the action, action targets, temporality, dose, implementation outcomes addressed, and theoretical justification. Ultimately, implementation strategies cannot be used in practice or tested in research without a full description of their components and how they should be used. As with all intervention research, their descriptions must be precise enough to enable measurement and ‘reproducibility.’ We propose these recommendations to improve the reporting of implementation strategies in research studies and to stimulate further identification of elements pertinent to implementation strategies that should be included in reporting guidelines for implementation strategies. PMID:24289295

  4. Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Enola K; Powell, Byron J; McMillen, J Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Implementation strategies have unparalleled importance in implementation science, as they constitute the 'how to' component of changing healthcare practice. Yet, implementation researchers and other stakeholders are not able to fully utilize the findings of studies focusing on implementation strategies because they are often inconsistently labelled and poorly described, are rarely justified theoretically, lack operational definitions or manuals to guide their use, and are part of 'packaged' approaches whose specific elements are poorly understood. We address the challenges of specifying and reporting implementation strategies encountered by researchers who design, conduct, and report research on implementation strategies. Specifically, we propose guidelines for naming, defining, and operationalizing implementation strategies in terms of seven dimensions: actor, the action, action targets, temporality, dose, implementation outcomes addressed, and theoretical justification. Ultimately, implementation strategies cannot be used in practice or tested in research without a full description of their components and how they should be used. As with all intervention research, their descriptions must be precise enough to enable measurement and 'reproducibility.' We propose these recommendations to improve the reporting of implementation strategies in research studies and to stimulate further identification of elements pertinent to implementation strategies that should be included in reporting guidelines for implementation strategies.

  5. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2017 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Arístegui Fernández, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Corretger Rauet, José María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, Teresa; Merino Moína, Manuel; Ortigosa Del Castillo, Luis; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV- AEP) annually publishes the immunisation schedule which, in our opinion, is considered optimal for children resident in Spain, taking into account the evidence available on current vaccines. Pneumococcal and varicella immunisation in early childhood is already included in all funded vaccines present in the regional immunisation programmes. Furthermore, this committee establishes recommendations on vaccines not included in official calendars (non-funded immunisations), such as rotavirus, meningococcal B, and meningococcal ACWY. As regards funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTaP-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines is recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTaP is recommended, as well as a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, with the Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women between 27 and 32 weeks gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two-dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendations for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of the tetravalent HPV vaccine should also be provided. ACWY meningococcal vaccine is the optimal choice in adolescents. For recommended unfunded immunisations, the CAV-AEP recommends the administration of meningococcal B vaccine, due to the current availability in Spanish community pharmacies, with a 3+1 scheme. CAV-AEP requests the incorporation of this vaccine in the funded unified schedule. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships among food label use, motivation, and dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L; Applegate, Elizabeth A; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-02-05

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r=0.29, p<0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p<0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p<0.09), but not objective (p<0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  7. Development and evaluation of an automatic labeling technique for spring small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A labeling technique is described which seeks to associate a sampling entity with a particular crop or crop group based on similarity of growing season and temporal-spectral patterns of development. Human analyst provide contextual information, after which labeling decisions are made automatically. Results of a test of the technique on a large, multi-year data set are reported. Grain labeling accuracies are similar to those achieved by human analysis techniques, while non-grain accuracies are lower. Recommendations for improvments and implications of the test results are discussed.

  8. Radiation-induced cataracts: the Health Protection Agency's response to the ICRP statement on tissue reactions and recommendation on the dose limit for the eye lens.

    PubMed

    Bouffler, Simon; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Gilvin, Phil; Harrison, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the response of the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to the 2011 statement from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on tissue reactions and recommendation of a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The response takes the form of a brief review of the most recent epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. This is presented together with a discussion of dose limits in the context of the related risk and the current status of eye dosimetry, which is relevant for implementation of the limits. It is concluded that although further work is desirable to quantify better the risk at low doses and following protracted exposures, along with research into the mechanistic basis for radiation cataractogenesis to inform selection of risk projection models, the HPA endorses the conclusion reached by the ICRP in their 2011 statement that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year, averaged over a five year period, with no year's dose exceeding 50 mSv.

  9. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

  10. Is nutritional labeling associated with individual health? The effects of labeling-based awareness on dyslipidemia risk in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yeob; Kweon, Ki Hong; Kim, Min Jae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Suk-Yong; Kim, Woorim; Han, Kyu-Tae

    2016-09-15

    In 1995, the South Korean government made nutrition labeling compulsory, which has positively impacted patients with certain chronic diseases, such as dyslipidemia. We investigated the association between nutrition labeling-based awareness and the risk of dyslipidemia among individuals not yet diagnosed. Our study used data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys administered during 2010-2014 (n = 17,687). We performed multiple or logistic regression analysis to examine the association between nutritional analysis and various outcome variables. Approximately 70 % of the respondents (n = 11,513) were familiar with nutrition labeling, of which 20 % (n = 3172) decided what food to buy based on that information. This awareness yielded mostly positive results on outcome indicators, such as triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In general, individuals who used nutritional labels to make decisions regarding food purchases had a lower risk of dyslipidemia than individuals who did not (OR: 0.806, 95 % CI: 0.709-0.917). Utilizing nutrition labels for making food choices correlated with a lower risk of dyslipidemia in certain subgroups. Based on our findings, we recommend that health policymakers and medical professionals consider promoting nutrition labeling as an alternative method for managing certain chronic diseases in South Korean patients.

  11. Perspective: A Definition for Whole-Grain Food Products-Recommendations from the Healthgrain Forum.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; van der Kamp, Jan-Willem; King, Roberto; Lê, Kim-Anne; Mejborn, Heddie; Seal, Chris J; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Whole grains are a key component of a healthy diet, and enabling consumers to easily choose foods with a high whole-grain content is an important step for better prevention of chronic disease. Several definitions exist for whole-grain foods, yet these do not account for the diversity of food products that contain cereals. With the goal of creating a relatively simple whole-grain food definition that aligns with whole-grain intake recommendations and can be applied across all product categories, the Healthgrain Forum, a not-for-profit consortium of academics and industry working with cereal foods, established a working group to gather input from academics and industry to develop guidance on labeling the whole-grain content of foods. The Healthgrain Forum recommends that a food may be labeled as "whole grain" if it contains ≥30% whole-grain ingredients in the overall product and contains more whole grain than refined grain ingredients, both on a dry-weight basis. For the purposes of calculation, added bran and germ are not considered refined-grain ingredients. Additional recommendations are also made on labeling whole-grain content in mixed-cereal foods, such as pizza and ready meals, and a need to meet healthy nutrition criteria. This definition allows easy comparison across product categories because it is based on dry weight and strongly encourages a move from generic whole-grain labels to reporting the actual percentage of whole grain in a product. Although this definition is for guidance only, we hope that it will encourage more countries to adopt regulation around the labeling of whole grains and stimulate greater awareness and consumption of whole grains in the general population. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Phase 1, open-label, dose escalation, safety, and pharmacokinetics study of ME-344 as a single agent in patients with refractory solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Bendell, Johanna C; Patel, Manish R; Infante, Jeffrey R; Kurkjian, Carla D; Jones, Suzanne F; Pant, Shubham; Burris, Howard A; Moreno, Ofir; Esquibel, Vanessa; Levin, Wendy; Moore, Kathleen N

    2015-04-01

    The current phase 1, open-label, dose escalation study was conducted to establish the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and preliminary antitumor activity of the novel mitochondrial inhibitor ME-344 in patients with refractory solid tumors. Patients with refractory solid tumors were treated in a 3 + 3 dose escalation design. ME-344 was administered via intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of the first 28-day cycle and weekly thereafter. Pharmacokinetics was assessed on days 1 and 15 of the first cycle. A total of 30 patients (median age, 65 years; 67% of whom were female) received ME-344. There were 5 dose-limiting toxicities reported. Four patients developed grade 3 neuropathy (2 patients each at doses of 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) and 1 patient treated at a dose of 10 mg/kg developed a grade 3 acute myocardial infarction (toxicity was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.03]). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was defined as 10 mg/kg weekly. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and fatigue. At the MTD of 10 mg/kg, the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) was 25.8 µg/mL and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to infinity was 25.9 hour*µg/mL. One patient with small cell lung cancer achieved a partial response for ≥ 52 weeks. Four patients had prolonged stable disease (1 patient each with urothelial carcinoma [47 weeks], carcinoid tumor [≥ 40 weeks], cervical leiomyosarcoma [39 weeks], and cervical cancer [≥ 31 weeks]). The once-weekly administration of ME-344 was generally well tolerated in the current study, a first-in-human study; dose-limiting neuropathy was noted, but not at the MTD. Exposures at the 10-mg/kg dose level suggest a sufficient therapeutic index. The preliminary clinical activity as a monotherapy supports the further clinical development of ME-344 in combination with chemotherapy. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  13. Pharmacogenetic-Based Efavirenz Dose Modification: Suggestions for an African Population and the Different CYP2B6 Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mukonzo, Jackson K.; Owen, Joel S.; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Kuteesa, Ronald B.; Nanzigu, Sarah; Sewankambo, Nelson; Thabane, Lehana; Gustafsson, Lars L.; Ross, Colin; Aklillu, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetics contributes to inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics (PK) of efavirenz (EFV), leading to variations in both efficacy and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of genetic factors on EFV pharmacokinetics, treatment outcomes and genotype based EFV dose recommendations for adult HIV-1 infected Ugandans. Methods In total, 556 steady-state plasma EFV concentrations from 99 HIV infected patients (64 female) treated with EFV/lamivudine/zidovidine were analyzed. Patient genotypes for CYP2B6 (*6 & *11), CYP3A5 (*3,*6 & *7) and ABCB1 c.4046A>G, baseline biochemistries and CD4 and viral load change from baseline were determined. A one-compartment population PK model with first-order absorption (NONMEM) was used to estimate genotype effects on EFV pharmacokinetics. PK simulations were performed based upon population genotype frequencies. Predicted AUCs were compared between the product label and simulations for doses of 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg. Results EFV apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.2 and 1.74 fold higher in CYP2B6*6 (*1/*1) and CYP2B6*6 (*1/*6) compared CYP2B6*6 (*6/*6) carriers, while a 22% increase in F1 was observed for carriers of ABCB1 c.4046A>G variant allele. Higher mean AUC was attained in CYP2B6 *6/*6 genotypes compared to CYP2B6 *1/*1 (p<0.0001). Simulation based AUCs for 600 mg doses were 1.25 and 2.10 times the product label mean AUC for the Ugandan population in general and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes respectively. Simulated exposures for EFV daily doses of 300 mg and 450 mg are comparable to the product label. Viral load fell precipitously on treatment, with only six patients having HIV RNA >40 copies/mL after 84 days of treatment. No trend with exposure was noted for these six patients. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that daily doses of 450 mg and 300 mg might meet the EFV treatment needs of HIV-1 infected Ugandans in general and individuals homozygous for CYP2B6*6 mutation, respectively

  14. A framework for diversifying recommendation lists by user interest expansion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2016-08-01

    Recommender systems have been widely used to discover users' preferences and recommend interesting items to users during this age of information load. Researchers in the field of recommender systems have realized that the quality of a top-N recommendation list involves not only relevance but also diversity. Most traditional recommendation algorithms are difficult to generate a diverse item list that can cover most of his/her interests for each user, since they mainly focus on predicting accurate items similar to the dominant interests of users. Additionally, they seldom exploit semantic information such as item tags and users' interest labels to improve recommendation diversity. In this paper, we propose a novel recommendation framework which mainly adopts an expansion strategy of user interests based on social tagging information. The framework enhances the diversity of users' preferences by expanding the sizes and categories of the original user-item interaction records, and then adopts traditional recommendation models to generate recommendation lists. Empirical evaluations on three real-world data sets show that our method can effectively improve the accuracy and diversity of item recommendation.

  15. A framework for diversifying recommendation lists by user interest expansion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhu; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-01-01

    Recommender systems have been widely used to discover users’ preferences and recommend interesting items to users during this age of information load. Researchers in the field of recommender systems have realized that the quality of a top-N recommendation list involves not only relevance but also diversity. Most traditional recommendation algorithms are difficult to generate a diverse item list that can cover most of his/her interests for each user, since they mainly focus on predicting accurate items similar to the dominant interests of users. Additionally, they seldom exploit semantic information such as item tags and users’ interest labels to improve recommendation diversity. In this paper, we propose a novel recommendation framework which mainly adopts an expansion strategy of user interests based on social tagging information. The framework enhances the diversity of users’ preferences by expanding the sizes and categories of the original user-item interaction records, and then adopts traditional recommendation models to generate recommendation lists. Empirical evaluations on three real-world data sets show that our method can effectively improve the accuracy and diversity of item recommendation. PMID:28959089

  16. Development and Prospective Federal State-Wide Evaluation of a Device for Height-Based Dose Recommendations in Prehospital Pediatric Emergencies: A Simple Tool to Prevent Most Severe Drug Errors.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Jost; Roth, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Thomas; Lechleuthner, Alex; Laschat, Michael; Hadamitzky, Christoph; Wappler, Frank; Hellmich, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Drug dosing errors pose a particular threat to children in prehospital emergency care. With the Pediatric emergency ruler (PaedER), we developed a simple height-based dose recommendation system and evaluated its effectiveness in a pre-post interventional trial as the Ethics Committee disapproved randomization due to the expected positive effect of the PaedER on outcome. Pre-interventional data were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic records and medical protocols of the Cologne Emergency Medical Service over a two-year period prior to the introduction of the PaedER. Post-interventional data were collected prospectively over a six-year period in a federal state-wide open trial. The administered doses of either intravenous or intraosseous fentanyl, midazolam, ketamine or epinephrine were recorded. Primary outcome measure was the number and severity of drug dose deviation from recommended dose (DRD) based on the patient's weight. Fifty-nine pre-interventional and 91 post-interventional prehospital drug administrations in children were analyzed. The rate of DRD > 300% overall medications were 22.0% in the pre- and 2.2% in the post-interventional group (p < 0.001). All administrations of epinephrine occurred excessive (DRD > 300%) in pre-interventional and none in post-interventional patients (p < 0.001). The use of the PaedER resulted in a 90% reduction of medication errors (95% CI: 57% to 98%; p < 0.001) and prevented all potentially life-threatening errors associated with epinephrine administration. There is an urgent need to increase the safety of emergency drug dosing in children during emergencies. A simple height-based system can support health care providers and helps to avoid life-threatening medication errors.

  17. Ciprofloxacin Use in Hospitalized Children: Approved or Off-label?

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Toktam; Tekmehdash, Leila Yavari; Radfar, Mania; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2017-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are not routinely used as the first-line antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fluoroquinolones on certain indications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent and how ciprofloxacin is used on approved indication or as off-label. Besides, dose adequacy and treatment duration were assessed. In a 10-month observational study, all children receiving systemic ciprofloxacin were assessed. We classified ciprofloxacin prescription to an AAP/FDA or off-label indication. The off-label prescriptions were further categorized to justified and unjustified therapy subgroups. The AAP/FDA category and the justified subgroup constituted the appropriate prescriptions. During the study period, 32 patients were prescribed ciprofloxacin. In general, 37% (12) of prescriptions determined to be appropriate. Of the appropriate prescriptions, 7 were AAP/FDA-approved indications. Children with Crohn's disease with abdominal abscess and children with infectious bloody diarrhea constituted the off-label; justified therapy subgroup. Unjustified prescriptions mainly occurred in the presence of a suitable alternative antibiotic for ciprofloxacin. Mean ± SD of ciprofloxacin dose (mg/kg/day) and duration (days) were 21.25 ± 6.35 and 13.56 ± 8.48, respectively. Of the appropriate prescriptions, 41% were underdosed. Underdosing was more encountered in patients with cystic fibrosis. Duration of treatment of the appropriate prescriptions was determined to be appropriate. The majority of children were receiving ciprofloxacin off-label and in an inappropriate manner. This issue emphasizes that antimicrobial stewardship program on ciprofloxacin use in pediatric hospitals should be implemented. Further studies evaluating clinical and microbiological outcomes of these programs in children are needed.

  18. Micro-Dose Calibrator for Pre-clinical Radiotracer Assays | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Pre-clinical radiotracer biomedical research involves the use of compounds labeled with radioisotopes, including cell binding studies, immune cell labeling techniques, and radio-ligand bio-distribution studies. Before this Micro-Dose Calibrator, measurement of pre-clinical level dosage for small animal studies was inaccurate and unreliable. This dose calibrator is a prototype ready for manufacturing. It is designed to accurately measure radioactive doses in the range of 50 nCi (1.8 kBq) to 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) with 1% precision. The NCI seeks co-development or licensing to commercialize it. Alternative uses will be considered.

  19. Dose/Exposure‐Response Modeling to Support Dosing Recommendation for Phase III Development of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Laiyi; Ernest, Charles; Macias, William; Rooney, Terence; Tham, Lai San

    2017-01-01

    Baricitinib is an oral inhibitor of Janus kinases (JAKs), selective for JAK1 and 2. It demonstrated dose‐dependent efficacy in patients with moderate‐to‐severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a phase IIb study up to 24 weeks. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PopPK/PD) models were developed to characterize concentration‐time profiles and dose/exposure‐response (D/E‐R) relationships for the key efficacy (proportion of patients achieving American College of Rheumatology 20%, 50%, or 70% response rate) and safety endpoints (incidence of anemia) for the phase IIb study. The modeling suggested that 4 mg q.d. was likely to offer the optimum risk/benefit balance, whereas 2 mg q.d. had the potential for adequate efficacy. In addition, at the same total daily dose, a twice‐daily regimen is not expected to provide an advantage over q.d. dosing for the efficacy or safety endpoints. The model‐based simulations formed the rationale for key aspects of dosing, such as dose levels and dosing frequency for phase III development. PMID:28891251

  20. Update on pediatric resuscitation drugs: high dose, low dose, or no dose at all.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Annalise

    2005-04-01

    Pediatric resuscitation has been a topic of discussion for years. It is difficult to keep abreast of changing recommendations, especially for busy pediatricians who do not regularly use these skills. This review will focus on the most recent guidelines for resuscitation drugs. Three specific questions will be discussed: standard dose versus high-dose epinephrine, amiodarone use, and the future of vasopressin in pediatric resuscitation. The issue of using high-dose epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation refractory to standard dose epinephrine has been a topic of debate for many years. Recently, a prospective, double-blinded study was performed to help settle the debate. These results will be reviewed and compared with previous studies. Amiodarone is a medication that was added to the pediatric resuscitation algorithms with the most recent recommendations from the American Heart Association in 2000. Its use and safety will also be discussed. Another topic that is resurfacing in resuscitation is the use of vasopressin. Its mechanism and comparisons to other agents will be highlighted, although its use in the pediatric patient has not been thoroughly studied. Pediatric resuscitation is a constantly evolving subject that is on the mind of anyone taking care of sick children. Clinicians are continually searching for the most effective methods to resuscitate children in terms of short- and long-term outcomes. It is important to be familiar with not only the agents being used but also the optimal way to use them.

  1. Ibrutinib Dosing Strategies Based on Interaction Potential of CYP3A4 Perpetrators Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, L; Snoeys, J; De Jong, J; Sukbuntherng, J; Mannaert, E; Monshouwer, M

    2016-11-01

    Based on ibrutinib pharmacokinetics and potential sensitivity towards CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a physiologically based pharmacokinetic approach was developed to mechanistically describe DDI with various CYP3A4 perpetrators in healthy men under fasting conditions. These models were verified using clinical data for ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) and used to prospectively predict and confirm the inducing effect of rifampin (strong CYP3A4 inducer); DDIs with mild (fluvoxamine, azithromycin) and moderate inhibitors (diltiazem, voriconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, erythromycin), and moderate (efavirenz) and strong CYP3A4 inducers (carbamazepine), were also predicted. Ketoconazole increased ibrutinib area under the curve (AUC) by 24-fold, while rifampin decreased ibrutinib AUC by 10-fold; coadministration of ibrutinib with strong inhibitors or inducers should be avoided. The ibrutinib dose should be reduced to 140 mg (quarter of maximal prescribed dose) when coadministered with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors so that exposures remain within observed ranges at therapeutic doses. Thus, dose recommendations for CYP3A4 perpetrator use during ibrutinib treatment were developed and approved for labeling. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  2. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Ziprasidone in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Floyd R.; Miceli, Jeffrey J.; Tensfeldt, Thomas; Robarge, Lisa; Wilner, Keith; Patel, Nick C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide single-dose pharmacokinetic, safety, and tolerability data for ziprasidone in youths with tic disorder, for comparison to adult studies to discern whether ziprasidone pediatric dosing could be modeled from adult data. Method: A single-dose, open-label study of ziprasidone was conducted in youths…

  3. Drug dosing in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven; Abramson, Stuart

    2005-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions. Drug dosing in these patients often proves to be a difficult task. Renal dysfunction-induced changes in human pathophysiology regularly results may alter medication pharmacodynamics and handling. Several pharmacokinetic parameters are adversely affected by CKD, secondary to a reduced oral absorption and glomerular filtration; altered tubular secretion; and reabsorption and changes in intestinal, hepatic, and renal metabolism. In general, drug dosing can be accomplished by multiple methods; however, the most common recommendations are often to reduce the dose or expand the dosing interval, or use both methods simultaneously. Some medications need to be avoided all together in CKD either because of lack of efficacy or increased risk of toxicity. Nevertheless, specific recommendations are available for dosing of certain medications and are an important resource, because most are based on clinical or pharmacokinetic trials.

  4. Pharmacokinetic studies in children: recommendations for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Barker, Charlotte I S; Standing, Joseph F; Kelly, Lauren E; Hanly Faught, Lauren; Needham, Allison C; Rieder, Michael J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Offringa, Martin

    2018-04-19

    Optimising the dosing of medicines for neonates and children remains a challenge. The importance of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) research is recognised both in medicines regulation and paediatric clinical pharmacology, yet there remain barriers to undertaking high-quality PK and PD studies. While these studies are essential in understanding the dose-concentration-effect relationship and should underpin dosing recommendations, this review examines how challenges affecting the design and conduct of paediatric pharmacological studies can be overcome using targeted pharmacometric strategies. Model-based approaches confer benefits at all stages of the drug life-cycle, from identifying the first dose to be used in children, to clinical trial design, and optimising the dosing regimens of older, off-patent medications. To benefit patients, strategies to ensure that new PK, PD and trial data are incorporated into evidence-based dosing recommendations are needed. This review summarises practical strategies to address current challenges, particularly the use of model-based (pharmacometric) approaches in study design and analysis. Recommendations for practice and directions for future paediatric pharmacological research are given, based on current literature and our joint international experience. Success of PK research in children requires a robust infrastructure, with sustainable funding mechanisms at its core, supported by political and regulatory initiatives, and international collaborations. There is a unique opportunity to advance paediatric medicines research at an unprecedented pace, bringing the age of evidence-based paediatric pharmacotherapy into sight. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Adherence to national recommendations for safe methotrexate dispensing in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ellen S; Walgers, Joelle C D; van Grinsven, Mariska C J; Winters, Nina A; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-02-01

    The number of patients using methotrexate (MTX) has increased during the last decade. Because of the narrow therapeutic range and potential risks of incorrect use, vigilance is required when dispensing MTX. In 2009, the Royal Dutch Pharmacists Society, in accordance with the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate, published safe MTX dispensing recommendations for community pharmacies. To examine adherence to recommendations aimed at safe 
MTX dispensing. This study was conducted within a convenience sample of 78 community pharmacies belonging to the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice Network for Education and Research (UPPER). Data were collected in May 2011. 95 pharmacists and 337 pharmacy technicians were interviewed to assess self-reported adherence with dispensing recommendations. In addition, medication records for patients using MTX were extracted in 52 pharmacies in order to objectively assess adoption of recommendations. More than 75% of the pharmacists and pharmacy technicians reported to be adherent to 6 of the 11 recommendations. There are variations in reported adherence between team members working in 1 pharmacy; higher adherence rates ( greater than 75%) for the pharmacy team as a whole were only shown for 2 recommendations (recording of day of intake on the label and moment of authorization by the pharmacist). The medication records showed that adherence with working procedures significantly increased: The number of dispensed records with notification of the day of intake on the medication label increased from 9.9% of the records per pharmacy in 2008 to 77.1% in 2010 (P  less than  0.001). Dutch community pharmacies seem to be adherent to most safe dispensing recommendations. However, inconsistencies exist between team members that emphasize the importance of addressing this issue and discussing recommendations within the team, as there is still room for improvement to ensure safe dispensing.

  6. Radiosynthesis of clinical doses of ⁶⁸Ga-DOTATATE (GalioMedix™) and validation of organic-matrix-based ⁶⁸Ge/⁶⁸Ga generators.

    PubMed

    Tworowska, Izabela; Ranganathan, David; Thamake, Sanjay; Delpassand, Ebrahim; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Schultz, Michael K; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Marx, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    68Ga-DOTATATE is a radiolabeled peptide-based agonist that targets somatostatin receptors overexpressed in neuroendocrine tumors. Here, we present our results on validation of organic matrix 68Ge/68Ga generators (ITG GmbH) applied for radiosynthesis of the clinical doses of 68Ga-DOTATATE (GalioMedixTM). The clinical grade of DOTATATE (25 μg±5 μg) compounded in 1 M NaOAc at pH=5.5 was labeled manually with 514±218 MBq (13.89±5.9 mCi) of 68Ga eluate in 0.05 N HCl at 95°C for 10 min. The radiochemical purity of the final dose was validated using radio-TLC. The quality control of clinical doses included tests of their osmolarity, endotoxin level, radionuclide identity, filter integrity, pH, sterility and 68Ge breakthrough. The final dose of 272±126 MBq (7.35±3.4 mCi) of 68Ga-DOTATATE was produced with a radiochemical yield (RCY) of 99%±1%. The total time required for completion of radiolabeling and quality control averaged approximately 35 min. This resulted in delivery of 50%±7% of 68Ga-DOTATATE at the time of calibration (not decay corrected). 68Ga eluted from the generator was directly applied for labeling of DOTA-peptide with no additional pre-concentration or pre-purification of isotope. The low acidity of 68Ga eluate allows for facile synthesis of clinical doses with radiochemical and radionuclide purity higher than 98% and average activity of 272±126 MBq (7.3±3 mCi). There is no need for post-labeling C18 Sep-Pak purification of final doses of radiotracer. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care. The clinical interest in validation of 68Galabeled agents has increased in the past years due to availability of generators from different vendors (Eckert-Ziegler, ITG, iThemba), favorable approach of U.S. FDA agency to initiate clinical trials, and collaboration of U.S. centers with leading EU clinical sites. The list of 68Ga-labeled tracers evaluated in clinical studies should growth because of the sensitivity of PET technique, the

  7. Patient doses from chest radiography in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, I; Boal, T J; Einsiedel, P F

    1997-06-01

    This survey examines doses from PA chest radiography at radiology practices, private hospitals and public hospitals throughout metropolitan and country Victoria. Data were collected from 111 individual X-ray units at 86 different practices. Entrance skin doses in air were measured for exposure factors used by the centre for a 23 cm thick male chest. A CDRH LucA1 chest phantom was used when making these measurements. About half of the centres used grid technique and half used non-grid technique. There was a factor of greater than 10 difference in the entrance dose delivered between the highest dose centre and the lowest dose centre for non-grid centres; and a factor of about 5 for centres using grids. Factors contributing to the high doses recorded at some centres were identified. Guidance levels for chest radiography based on the third quartile value of the entrance doses from this survey have been recommended and compared with guidance levels recommended in other countries.

  8. Development of Semiautomated Module for Preparation of 131I Labeled Lipiodol for Liver Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Archana; Subramanian, Suresh; Ambade, Rajwardhan; Avhad, Bhaurao; Dash, Ashutosh; Korde, Aruna

    2017-02-01

    Intra-arterial injection of 131 I Lipiodol is an effective treatment option for primary hepatocellular carcinoma as it delivers high radiation dose to liver tumor tissue with minimal accumulation in adjacent normal tissue. The present article demonstrates design, fabrication, and utilization of a semiautomated radiosynthesis module for preparation of 131 I labeled Lipiodol. The radiolabeling method was standardized for preparation of patient dose of 131 I labeled Lipiodol radiochemical yield (RCY); radiochemical purity (RCP) and pharmaceutical purity of the product were determined using optimized procedures. Sterile and apyrogenic 131 I labeled Lipiodol in >60% RCY could be prepared with >95% RCP. Preclinical evaluation in animals indicated retention of more than 90% of activity at 24 hours postportal vein injection. This is the first report demonstrating potential application of simple user friendly and safe semiautomated system for routine production of 131 I labeled Lipiodol, which is adaptable at centralized hospital radiopharmacies. The described prototype module can be modified as per demand for preparation of other therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics between a microdose and therapeutic dose for clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and phenobarbital in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Graham; Shishikura, Yoko; Jochemsen, Roeline; Weaver, Richard John; Gesson, Charlotte; Brian Houston, J; Oosterhuis, Berend; Bjerrum, Ole J; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Alder, Jane; Rowland, Malcolm; Garner, Colin

    2011-06-14

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of a microdose (100 μg) to predict the human pharmacokinetics (PK) following a therapeutic dose of clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and phenobarbital, both within the study and by reference to the existing literature on these compounds and to explore the source of any nonlinearity if seen. For each drug, 6 healthy male volunteers were dosed with 100 μg (14)C-labelled compound. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone this labelled dose was administered alone, i.e. as a microdose, orally and intravenously (iv) and as an iv tracer dose concomitantly with an oral non-labelled therapeutic dose, in a 3-way cross over design. The oral therapeutic doses were 250, 50, and 150 mg, respectively. Paracetamol was given as the labelled microdose orally and iv using a 2-way cross over design, whereas phenobarbital was given only as the microdose orally. Plasma concentrations of total (14)C and parent drug were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) or HPLC followed by AMS. Plasma concentrations following non-(14)C-labelled oral therapeutic doses were measured using either HPLC-electrochemical detection (clarithromycin) or HPLC-UV (sumatriptan, propafenone). For all five drugs an oral microdose predicted reasonably well the PK, including the shape of the plasma profile, following an oral therapeutic dose. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone, one parameter, oral bioavailability, was marginally outside of the normally acceptable 2-fold prediction interval around the mean therapeutic dose value. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan and propafenone, data obtained from an oral and iv microdose were compared within the same cohort of subjects used in the study, as well as those reported in the literature. For paracetamol (oral and iv) and phenobarbital (oral), microdose data were compared with those reported in the literature only. Where 100 μg iv (14)C-doses were

  10. Labeling and advertising of home insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This staff report, prepared by the F.T.C.'s Bureau of Consumer Protection for Commission review, includes recommendations as to the final form of a trade regulation rule relating to the labeling and advertising of home insulation. Because of marketing abuses which accompanied the rising demand for home insulation, there has been broad support for a rule requiring information disclosures to help purchasers of home insulation to make an informed decision. The Commission, to provide such rule as quickly as possible, undertook its rulemaking proceeding under its new expedited rulemaking procedure. The rule was proposed on November 18, 1977, and, following amore » two-month period for written comments, four weeks of hearings were held in Washington, D.C. in February 1978. The record, contributed to by a variety of interests, shows that consumers do not know how to shop for home insulation. The staff-recommended rule, among other things, would require that insulation be tested and R-values (a measure of insulation's ability to retain heat) disclosed on labels and in advertising. To facilitate comparison shopping, the industry would also be required to furnish consumers with fact sheets describing, on a product-to-product basis, factors that can reduce the R-value of insulation.« less

  11. Evaluation of the sterility of single-dose medications used in a multiple-dose fashion

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth P.; Mukherjee, Jean; Sharp, Claire R.; Sinnott-Stutzman, Virginia B.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial proliferation was evaluated in single-dose medications used in a multi-dose fashion and when medications were intentionally inoculated with bacteria. Of 5 experimentally punctured medications, 1 of 75 vials (50% dextrose) became contaminated. When intentionally inoculated, hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline supported microbial growth. Based on these findings, it is recommended that hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline not be used in a multi-dose fashion. PMID:29089656

  12. Activity and safety of AZD3759 in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer with CNS metastases (BLOOM): a phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Myung-Ju; Kim, Dong-Wan; Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Sang-We; Lee, Jong Seok; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Kim, Tae Min; Lin, Chia-Chi; Kim, Hye Ryun; John, Thomas; Kao, Steven; Goldman, Jonathan W; Su, Wu-Chou; Natale, Ronald; Rabbie, Sarit; Harrop, Bryony; Overend, Philip; Yang, Zhenfan; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2017-11-01

    CNS metastases-including brain and leptomeningeal metastases-from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are associated with poor prognosis. AZD3759 is a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high capability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of AZD3759 in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC with brain and leptomeningeal metastases. This open-label, multicentre, phase 1 study was undertaken at 11 centres and hospitals in Australia, South Korea, Taiwan, and the USA. Eligible patients included those with histologically confirmed, advanced-stage, EGFR-mutant NSCLC. The study was done in two parts, with dose-escalation and dose-expansion phases. In the dose-escalation phase, patients who had progressed after treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor received AZD3759 at 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, or 500 mg twice a day. In the dose-expansion phase, AZD3759 at 200 mg or 300 mg twice a day was administered to patients with either brain or leptomeningeal metastases who had never received an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and patients with leptomeningeal metastases who had been pretreated with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The primary objective was safety and tolerability, with severity of adverse events assessed with the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.03. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02228369. Between Nov 18, 2014, and Sept 7, 2016, 67 patients with NSCLC were enrolled into the study, 29 to the dose-escalation phase and 38 to the dose-expansion phase. At data cutoff (Dec 12, 2016), three (10%) patients in the dose-escalation phase and 20 (53%) in the dose-expansion phase were still receiving treatment. Dose-limiting toxic effects occurred in two (67%) of three patients who received 500 mg twice a day in the dose-escalation phase (grade 3 acne [n=1] and

  13. Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H. Y.; Tung, C. J.; Yu, C. C.

    2007-04-15

    The IAEA and the ICRP recommended dose guidance levels for the most frequent computed tomography (CT) examinations to promote strategies for the optimization of radiation dose to CT patients. A national survey, including on-site measurements and questionnaires, was conducted in Taiwan in order to establish dose guidance levels and evaluate effective doses for CT. The beam quality and output and the phantom doses were measured for nine representative CT scanners. Questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from facilities of 146 CT scanners out of 285 total scanners. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for the head and body examinationsmore » was provided. The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub w}), the dose length product (DLP), organ doses and effective dose were calculated using measured data, questionnaire information and Monte Carlo simulation results. A cost-effective analysis was applied to derive the dose guidance levels on CTDI{sub w} and DLP for several CT examinations. The mean effective dose{+-}standard deviation distributes from 1.6{+-}0.9 mSv for the routine head examination to 13{+-}11 mSv for the examination of liver, spleen, and pancreas. The surveyed results and the dose guidance levels were provided to the national authorities to develop quality control standards and protocols for CT examinations.« less

  14. Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?

    PubMed

    Wade, Benjamin; Merrill, Ray M; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco warning labels on cigarette packs have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption. The current study measures the Russian population's acceptance and preference of graphic (picture + text) tobacco warning labels. Nationally representative data were collected from 1778 participants in the Russian Federation in October 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through person-to-person household interviews with respondents aged ≥ 14 years. Survey questions included standard demographic queries and three study-specific questions. Participants rated the strength of 13 cigarette warning labels according to their effectiveness to deter from smoking. Smoking status and the population's acceptance of similar warning labels was also measured. A dose-response pattern is apparent between the degree of graphic content of cigarette warning labels and the public's perception regarding the warning label's ability to discourage smoking. Approximately 87% of all respondents thought Russian authorities should require tobacco manufacturers to place graphic warning labels on cigarette packs, while 80% of current smokers wanted their government to enact such enforcement. The Russian population would strongly support government policy that would require graphic warning labels to be placed on cigarette packs in their country. In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible.

  15. Dose-escalation of human anti-interferon-α receptor monoclonal antibody MEDI-546 in subjects with systemic sclerosis: a phase 1, multicenter, open label study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Type I interferons (IFNs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). MEDI-546 is an investigational human monoclonal antibody directed against the type I IFN receptor. This Phase 1 study evaluated the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics (PD) of single and multiple intravenous doses of MEDI-546 in adults with SSc. Methods Subjects (≥18 years) with SSc were enrolled in an open-label, dose-escalation study to receive single (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, or 20.0 mg/kg), or 4 weekly intravenous doses (0.3, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/kg/week) of MEDI-546. Subjects were followed for 12 weeks. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), laboratory results, and viral monitoring. Blood samples were collected from all subjects for determination of PK, presence of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), and expression of type I IFN-inducible genes. Results Of 34 subjects (mean age 47.4 years), 32 completed treatment and 33 completed the study. Overall, 148 treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) were reported (68.9% mild, 27.7% moderate). TEAEs included one grade 1 infusion reaction (5.0 mg/kg/week multiple dose). Of 4 treatment-emergent serious AEs (skin ulcer, osteomyelitis, vertigo, and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)), only CML (1.0 mg/kg/week multiple dose) was considered possibly treatment-related. MEDI-546 exhibited non-linear PK at lower doses. ADAs were detected in 5 subjects; no apparent impact on PK was observed. Peak inhibition of the type I IFN signature in whole blood was achieved within 1 day and in skin after 7 days. Conclusion The safety/tolerability, PK, and PD profiles observed in this study support further clinical development of MEDI-546. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00930683 PMID:24559157

  16. Persistence of rubella and mumps antibodies, following changes in the recommended age for the second dose of MMR vaccine in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, G; Frade, J; Nascimento, M S J; Mesquita, J R; Nunes, C

    2016-11-01

    In Portugal, the recommended age for the second dose of MMR (MMR2) was changed from 10-13 years to 5-6 years for those born in 1994 and afterwards. This study aimed to assess if MMR schedule and time elapsed from the last dose are associated with the concentration of rubella and mumps IgG antibodies. Three Portuguese birth cohorts (convenience samples) were selected for this study (66, 59 and 41 participants born respectively in 1990-1993, 1994-1995 and 2001-2003). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for mumps IgG were respectively 36, 30 and 38 RU/ml (P = 0·236) and for rubella IgG were 18, 20 and 17 IU/ml (P = 0·641). For both specific antibodies, no differences were observed with time since MMR2. Receiving MMR2 at 5-6 or 10-13 years was not associated with concentration of both antibodies. The GMC of rubella IgG was lower in males (P = 0·029). Taking into account previous evidence and the logistics needed to change vaccination schedules, it seems reasonable that sustaining very high coverage with two doses of MMR is currently the most pragmatic way to control mumps and rubella rather than any changes to the schedule.

  17. A pioneer experience in Malaysia on In-house Radio-labelling of (131)I-rituximab in the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and a case report of high dose (131)I-rituximab-BEAM conditioning autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Jew Win; Law, Chiong Soon; Wong, Xiang Qi; Ko, Ching Tiong; Awang, Zool Hilmi; Chew, Lee Ping; Chang, Kian Meng

    2016-10-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 12760 - Guidance for Industry on Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Implementing the PLR Content and Format Requirements.'' This guidance is intended to assist applicants in complying with the content and format requirements of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products. The recommendations in this guidance will help ensure that the labeling is clear; useful; informative; and to the extent possible, consistent in content and format. It will assist applicants in developing labeling for new products, revising existing labeling, and implementing the requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products (71 FR 3922), which appeared in the Federal Register of January 24, 2006. The rule is commonly referred to as the ``Physician Labeling Rule'' (PLR) because it addresses prescription drug labeling that is used by prescribers and other health care practitioners.

  19. Dose Transition Pathways: The Missing Link Between Complex Dose-Finding Designs and Simple Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Yap, Christina; Billingham, Lucinda J; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Craddock, Charlie; O'Quigley, John

    2017-12-15

    The ever-increasing pace of development of novel therapies mandates efficient methodologies for assessment of their tolerability and activity. Evidence increasingly support the merits of model-based dose-finding designs in identifying the recommended phase II dose compared with conventional rule-based designs such as the 3 + 3 but despite this, their use remains limited. Here, we propose a useful tool, dose transition pathways (DTP), which helps overcome several commonly faced practical and methodologic challenges in the implementation of model-based designs. DTP projects in advance the doses recommended by a model-based design for subsequent patients (stay, escalate, de-escalate, or stop early), using all the accumulated information. After specifying a model with favorable statistical properties, we utilize the DTP to fine-tune the model to tailor it to the trial's specific requirements that reflect important clinical judgments. In particular, it can help to determine how stringent the stopping rules should be if the investigated therapy is too toxic. Its use to design and implement a modified continual reassessment method is illustrated in an acute myeloid leukemia trial. DTP removes the fears of model-based designs as unknown, complex systems and can serve as a handbook, guiding decision-making for each dose update. In the illustrated trial, the seamless, clear transition for each dose recommendation aided the investigators' understanding of the design and facilitated decision-making to enable finer calibration of a tailored model. We advocate the use of the DTP as an integral procedure in the co-development and successful implementation of practical model-based designs by statisticians and investigators. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7440-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Comparison of therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen between LDX and commonly prescribed long-acting stimulants for the treatment of ADHD in youth and adults.

    PubMed

    Setyawan, Juliana; Hodgkins, Paul; Guérin, Annie; Gauthier, Geneviève; Cloutier, Martin; Wu, Eric; Erder, M Haim

    2013-10-01

    To compare therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients initiated on lisdexamfetamine (LDX) vs other once-daily Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved stimulants. ADHD patients initiated on a long-acting ADHD stimulant medication (index medication) in/after 2007 were selected from a large U.S. administrative claims database. Patients were required to be persistent for ≥90 days and continuously enrolled in their healthcare plan for ≥12 months following treatment initiation date. Based on age and previous treatment status, patients were classified into treatment-naïve children and adolescents (6-17 years old), previously treated children and adolescents, treatment-naïve adults (≥18 years old), and previously treated adults. Furthermore, patients were classified into four mutually exclusive treatment groups, based on index medication: lisdexamfetamine (LDX), osmotic release methylphenidate hydrochloride long-acting (OROS MPH), other methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate long-acting (MPH LA), and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine long-acting (AMPH LA). The average daily consumption was measured as the quantity of index medication supplied in the 12-month study period divided by the total number of days of supply. Therapy augmentation was defined as the use of another ADHD medication concomitantly with the index medication for ≥28 consecutive days. Therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen were compared between treatment groups using multivariate logistic regression models. Compared to the other treatment groups, LDX patients were less likely to augment with another ADHD medication (range odds ratios [OR]; 1.28-3.30) and to deviate from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen (range OR; 1.73-4.55), except for previously treated adult patients, where therapy augmentation differences were not statistically

  1. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  2. Simvastatin prescribing patterns before and after FDA dosing restrictions: a retrospective analysis of a large healthcare claims database.

    PubMed

    Tuchscherer, Rhianna M; Nair, Kavita; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Saseen, Joseph J

    2015-02-01

    Muscle-related events, or myopathies, are a commonly reported adverse event associated with statin use. In June 2011, the US FDA released a Drug Safety Communication that provided updated product labeling with dosing restrictions for simvastatin to minimize the risk of myopathies. Our objective was to describe prescribing patterns of simvastatin in combination with medications known to increase the risk of myopathies following updated product labeling dosing restrictions in June 2011. A retrospective observational analysis was carried out, in which administrative claims data were utilized to identify prescribing patterns of simvastatin in combination with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and other pre-specified drug therapies. Prescribing patterns were analyzed on a monthly basis 24 months prior to and 9 months following product label changes. Incidence of muscle-related events was also analyzed. In June 2011, a total of 60% of patients with overlapping simvastatin-CCB claims and 94% of patients with overlapping simvastatin-non-CCB claims were prescribed an against-label combination. As of March 2012, a total of 41% and 93% of patients continued to be prescribed against-label simvastatin-CCB and simvastatin-non-CCB combinations, respectively. The most commonly prescribed dose of simvastatin was 20 mg (39%). Against-label combinations were most commonly prescribed at a simvastatin dose of 40 mg (56%). Amlodipine was the most commonly prescribed CCB in combination with simvastatin (70%) and the most common CCB prescribed against-label (67%). Despite improvements in prescribing practices, many patients are still exposed to potentially harmful simvastatin combinations. Aggressive changes in simvastatin prescribing systems and processes are needed to improve compliance with FDA labeling to improve medication and patient safety.

  3. An Open-Label, Phase 1 Study to Assess the Effects of Hepatic Impairment on Pomalidomide Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Liangang; Zhang, Chengyue; Gomez, Diana; Reyes, Josephine; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2018-05-10

    Pomalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug and the dosage of 4 mg per day taken orally on days 1-21 of repeated 28-day cycles has been approved in the European Union and United States to treat patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Because pomalidomide is extensively metabolized prior to excretion, a total of 32 subjects (8 healthy subjects in group 1; 8 subjects with severe hepatic impairment in group 2; 8 subjects with moderate hepatic impairment in group 3; and 8 subjects with mild hepatic impairment in group 4) were enrolled in a multicenter, open-label, single-dose study to assess the impact of hepatic impairment on pomalidomide exposure. Following administration of a single oral dose of 4-mg pomalidomide, the geometric mean ratios of pomalidomide total plasma exposures (AUC) were 171.5%, 157.5%, and 151.2% and the geometric mean ratios of pomalidomide plasma peak exposures (C max ) were 75.8%, 94.8%, and 94.2% for subjects with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment, respectively, versus healthy subjects. Pomalidomide administered as a single oral 4-mg dose was safe and well tolerated by healthy subjects and subjects with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment. Based on the pharmacokinetic results from this study, the pomalidomide prescribing information approved by the US Food and Drug Administration recommends for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classes A or B), a 3-mg starting daily dose (25% dose reduction) and for patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C), a 2-mg starting daily dose (50% dose reduction). © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Dose rate in brachytherapy using after-loading machine: pulsed or high-dose rate?

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2014-10-01

    Since February 2014, it is no longer possible to use low-dose rate 192 iridium wires due to the end of industrial production of IRF1 and IRF2 sources. The Brachytherapy Group of the French society of radiation oncology (GC-SFRO) has recommended switching from iridium wires to after-loading machines. Two types of after-loading machines are currently available, based on the dose rate used: pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate. In this article, we propose a comparative analysis between pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, based on biological, technological, organizational and financial considerations. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover, relative bioavailability study in healthy adults, comparing the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole granules administered using soft food or infant formula as dosing vehicle versus suspension.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, An; Solanki, Bhavna; Treem, William

    2012-07-01

    A sprinkle capsule formulation containing enteric-coated, delayed-release rabeprazole granules is being developed for the treatment of children with gastrointestinal reflux disease. The granules are designed to be mixed with vehicles that facilitate delivery to children, who may be unable to swallow solid formulations. The primary objective of this study-conducted on the sponsor's initiative-was to compare the bioavailability of rabeprazole granules when mixed with various dosing vehicles (small amount of soft food or infant formula) with that of a rabeprazole suspension with inactive vehicle granules (reference), to determine which dosing vehicle can be used to deliver rabeprazole in children. Tolerability was also assessed. This single-center, single-dose, randomized, open-label, 5-period crossover study was conducted in 35 healthy adult subjects. In a randomized sequence, fasting subjects received a single dose of 10-mg rabeprazole granules per treatment period, mixed with small amounts of 1 of 5 dosing vehicles (a strawberry-flavored suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle granules reconstituted with water, yogurt [1 tablespoon], applesauce [1 tablespoon], or infant formula [5 mL], or a suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle tablet reconstituted with water). Full plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of rabeprazole and its thioether metabolite were collected; concentrations were estimated via LC-MS/MS. PK properties were estimated using noncompartmental methods; 90% CIs around least squares mean test-to-reference ratios were calculated for C(max) and AUC values. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded and assessed for severity (mild, moderate, or severe) and relationship to study drug. A total of 35 subjects were enrolled (mean age, 38 years; 54.3% female; 100% white; mean weight, 71.4 kg). Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether plasma PK properties were comparable

  6. Open-label Bendamustine Monotherapy for Pediatric Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia: Efficacy and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick; Megason, Gail; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Cho, Bin; Kirov, Ivan; Frankel, Lawrence; Aplenc, Richard; Bensen-Kennedy, Debra; Munteanu, Mihaela; Weaver, Jennifer; Harker-Murray, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This open-label, single-arm, phase I/II, dose-escalation study was designed to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy of bendamustine in pediatric patients (age ranging from 1 to 20 y) with histologically proven relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients (27 with ALL, 16 with AML) received intravenous bendamustine on days 1 and 2 of each treatment cycle. Phase I involved planned dose escalation of bendamustine to establish the RP2D for phase II. Objectives included overall response rate, duration of response, and tolerability. Eleven patients were treated in phase I, and the RP2D was 120 mg/m2. In phase II, 32 patients received bendamustine 120 mg/m2. Two patients with ALL (bendamustine 90 mg/m2) experienced complete response (CR). Among patients who received bendamustine 120 mg/m2, 2 experienced partial response (PR); 7 had stable disease. The overall response rate (CR+CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 4.7% and biological activity rate (CR+CRp+PR) was 9.3%. No AML patients responded. The most common adverse events were anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pyrexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Bendamustine monotherapy has acceptable tolerability in heavily pretreated children with relapsed/refractory ALL or AML and appears to have some activity in ALL, warranting further studies in combination trials. PMID:24072240

  7. Consumers' knowledge, understanding, and attitudes toward health claims on food labels.

    PubMed

    Fullmer, S; Geiger, C J; Parent, C R

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumers' knowledge of current fiber recommendations and their attitudes, understanding, and awareness of health claims on breakfast cereal labels. An incidental sample of 241 respondents was drawn from four grocery stores of a local chain in Utah. Data were collected using a computerized interviewing system. The results suggested that consumers with higher education levels had a better understanding of diet-disease-related messages and a more positive attitude toward health messages on food labels. Knowledge of fiber was significantly correlated with positive attitudes toward health messages and understanding of health messages. Overall, attitudes toward placing diet-disease-related messages on food labels were positive. On a scale of 1 through 250, the mean score was 182.5 +/- 37.5 standard deviation (73%). Consumer knowledge of fiber was low. Out of 15 possible points, the mean score for fiber knowledge questions was 8.8 +/- 2.1 (59%). Consumers were more familiar with the role fiber may play in the prevention or treatment of certain diseases or conditions than with sources, classifications, and recommended intakes of fiber. Understanding of health messages was relatively low (45%). Whereas consumer attitudes toward health messages on food labels were positive, consumers (especially less-educated consumers) did not appear to understand the messages well. These results reiterate the concern for public policymakers to exercise caution and ensure that health messages on food labels are responsible and accurate. The results should also remind dietetic practitioners, who are the nutrition experts, of their continual role in providing and ensuring accurate nutrition education to the public.

  8. Flexible and precise dosing of enalapril maleate for all paediatric age groups utilizing orodispersible minitablets.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Yasmin; Walsh, Jennifer; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-04-25

    Enalapril is an off-patent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for which no paediatric age-appropriate formulation is commercially available in Europe, and enalapril maleate (EM) orodispersible minitablets (ODMTs) have previously been formulated within the LENA (labelling enalapril from neonates to adolescents) project. In this study, a dilution method has been developed by dispersing the lowest dose strength ODMTs to enable flexible and precise EM dosing during the dose titration phase of the therapy. Furthermore, the physicochemical stability of the ODMTs has been investigated in child-friendly beverages and the administration of ODMTs via nasogastric tubes (NGT) of different sizes and materials has been evaluated. The results for the ODMT dilution procedure reveal that dispersion within an oral syringe is preferred over dispersion in a separate container, leading to flexible and precise dosing down to 0.025 mg EM. Although ODMTs were stable in the beverages over the investigated time period, dispersion in tap water only is recommended due to prolonged disintegration times within the other beverages. Dispersed ODMTs can be administered through NGTs of CH5. Almost no adsoprtion of EM on silicone, polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride could be observed. The ODMT concept together with the investigated dispersion method enables the safe administration of EM for all paediatric subpopulations from new-borns to adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2015 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Álvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Sánchez, N; Hernández Merino, A; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa Del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2015-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics updates the immunisation schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the safety, effectiveness and efficiency of current vaccines, including levels of recommendation. In our opinion, this is the optimal vaccination calendar for all children resident in Spain. Regarding the vaccines included in the official unified immunization schedule, the Committee emphasizes the administration of the first dose of hepatitis B either at birth or at 2 months of life; the recommendation of the first dose of MMR and varicella vaccine at the age of 12 months, with the second dose at the age of 2-3 years; DTaP or Tdap vaccine at the age of 6 years, followed by another Tdap booster dose at 11-12 years old; Tdap strategies for pregnant women and household contacts of the newborn, and immunization against human papillomavirus in girls aged 11-12 years old with a 2 dose scheme (0, 6 months). The Committee reasserts its recommendation to include vaccination against pneumococcal disease in the routine immunisation schedule, the same as it is being conducted in Western European countries. The recently authorised meningococcal B vaccine, currently blocked in Spain, exhibits the profile of a universal vaccine. The Committe insists on the need of having the vaccine available in communitary pharmacies. It has also proposed the free availability of varicella vaccines. Their efectiveness and safety have been confirmed when they are administred from the second year of life. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. The Committee stresses the need to vaccinate population groups considered at risk against influenza and hepatitis A. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions Between Vonoprazan and Low-Dose Aspirin or Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: A Phase 2, Open-Label, Study in Healthy Japanese Men.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yuuichi; Shiino, Madoka; Horii, Sayako; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Koki; Nishimura, Akira; Sakata, Yukikuni

    2017-01-01

    Gastroprotective agents are recommended for patients receiving low-dose aspirin (LDA) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Vonoprazan is a potassium-competitive acid blocker recently approved for the prevention of peptic ulcer recurrence in patients receiving LDA or NSAIDs. This phase 2, open-label, single-center study in healthy Japanese males evaluated drug-drug interactions between vonoprazan 40 mg and LDA (100 mg) or NSAIDs [loxoprofen sodium (60 mg), diclofenac sodium (25 mg), or meloxicam (10 mg)] and vice versa. Subjects were allocated to one of eight cohorts and received their orally administered treatment regimen (to assess the effect of vonoprazan vs. NSAID or LDA, or vice versa) once daily. Endpoints were the pharmacokinetics of plasma concentrations of the study drugs alone and in combination (primary), safety (secondary), and vonoprazan effects on aspirin-mediated inhibition of platelet-aggregation. Of 109 subjects screened, 64 were assigned to one of eight cohorts (n = 8 per cohort) and received treatment, one subject discontinued due to a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), and 63 completed the study. There were few differences in the pharmacokinetics of vonoprazan when administered with LDA or NSAIDs, and few differences in the pharmacokinetics of LDA or NSAIDs when administered with vonoprazan. The differences were small and not clinically meaningful. Inhibition of arachidonic-induced platelet aggregation by LDA was not influenced by vonoprazan. Six patients experienced a TEAE, all were mild and were deemed unrelated to study drugs. One subject withdrew due to infection (tonsillitis). No clinically meaningful drug-drug interactions were observed and vonoprazan was well tolerated when administered with LDA or NSAIDs. JapicCTI-153100.

  11. Do Nutrient-Based Front-of-Pack Labelling Schemes Support or Undermine Food-Based Dietary Guideline Recommendations? Lessons from the Australian Health Star Rating System.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark A; Dickie, Sarah; Woods, Julie L

    2018-01-05

    Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the 'healthiness' of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for every new food product displaying a HSR entering the Australian marketplace from 27 June 2014 (HSR system endorsement) until 30 June 2017. Foods were categorised as either a five food group (FFG) food or 'discretionary' food in accordance with ADG recommendations. Ten percent (1269/12,108) of new food products displayed a HSR, of which 57% were FFG foods. The median number of 'health' stars displayed on discretionary foods (2.5; range: 0.5-5) was significantly lower ( p < 0.05) than FFG foods (4.0; range: 0.5-5), although a high frequency of anomalies and overlap in the number of stars across the two food categories was observed, with 56.7% of discretionary foods displaying ≥2.5 stars. The HSR system is undermining the ADG recommendations through facilitating the marketing of discretionary foods. Adjusting the HSR's algorithm might correct certain technical flaws. However, supporting the ADGs requires reform of the HSR's design to demarcate the food source (FFG versus discretionary food) of a nutrient.

  12. Disease activity guided dose reduction and withdrawal of adalimumab or etanercept compared with usual care in rheumatoid arthritis: open label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    van Herwaarden, Noortje; van der Maas, Aatke; Minten, Michiel J M; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; Kievit, Wietske; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van den Bemt, Bart J F; den Broeder, Alfons A

    2015-04-09

    To evaluate whether a disease activity guided strategy of dose reduction of two tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, adalimumab or etanercept, is non-inferior in maintaining disease control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with usual care. Randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority strategy trial. Two rheumatology outpatient clinics in the Netherlands, from December 2011 to May 2014. 180 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and low disease activity using adalimumab or etanercept; 121 allocated to the dose reduction strategy, 59 to usual care. Disease activity guided dose reduction (advice to stepwise increase the injection interval every three months, until flare of disease activity or discontinuation) or usual care (no dose reduction advice). Flare was defined as increase in DAS28-CRP (a composite score measuring disease activity) greater than 1.2, or increase greater than 0.6 and current score of at least 3.2. In the case of flare, TNF inhibitor use was restarted or escalated. Difference in proportions of patients with major flare (DAS28-CRP based flare longer than three months) between the two groups at 18 months, compared against a non-inferiority margin of 20%. Secondary outcomes included TNF inhibitor use at study end, functioning, quality of life, radiographic progression, and adverse events. Dose reduction of adalimumab or etanercept was non-inferior to usual care (proportion of patients with major flare at 18 months, 12% v 10%; difference 2%, 95% confidence interval -12% to 12%). In the dose reduction group, TNF inhibitor use could successfully be stopped in 20% (95% confidence interval 13% to 28%), the injection interval successfully increased in 43% (34% to 53%), but no dose reduction was possible in 37% (28% to 46%). Functional status, quality of life, relevant radiographic progression, and adverse events did not differ between the groups, although short lived flares (73% v 27%) and minimal radiographic progression (32% v 15

  13. The rationale for recommending fixed-dose combination tablets for treatment of tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, B.; Spinaci, S.; Fourie, B.; Laing, R.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable exigency to take all necessary steps to cure tuberculosis cases and prevent further emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The most important of these steps is to ensure that the treatment, particularly of sputum smear-positive cases, is adequate and that patients adhere to their treatment by supervised, direct observation of drug-taking according to the standardized regimens. Use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of tablets against tuberculosis is now being recommended by WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) as an additional step to ensuring proper treatment. FDCs simplify the prescription of drugs and the management of drug supply, and may also limit the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis arising as a result of inappropriate drug selection and monotherapy. Only FDCs of proven quality and proven rifampicin bioavailability should be purchased and used. In most situations, blood levels of the drugs are inadequate because of poor drug quality rather than poor absorption. This is true irrespective of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status of the tuberculosis patients (other than those with overt acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, with CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3). Currently, WHO, IUATLD and their partners are developing strategies for ensuring that only quality FDCs are used in tuberculosis programmes. A simplified and effective protocol for assessment of rifampicin bioavailability has been developed, and laboratories are being recruited to form a supranational network for quality assurance of FDCs. Standardization of FDC drug formulations has been proposed, which limits rifampicin-containing preparations to nine (including a four-drug FDC and three paediatric FDCs). PMID:11217670

  14. Pharmacokinetic profile of extended-release versus immediate-release oral naproxen sodium after single and multiple dosing under fed and fasting conditions: two randomized, open-label trials.

    PubMed

    Laurora, Irene; Wang, Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Extended-release (ER) naproxen sodium provides pain relief for up to 24 hours with a single dose (660 mg/day). Its pharmacokinetic profile after single and multiple dosing was compared to immediate release (IR) naproxen sodium in two randomized, open-label, crossover studies, under fasting and fed conditions. Eligible healthy subjects were randomized to ER naproxen sodium 660-mg tablet once daily or IR naproxen sodium 220-mg tablet twice daily (440 mg initially, followed by 220 mg 12 hours later). Primary variables: pharmacokinetic parameters after singleday administration (day 1) and at steady state after multiple-day administration (day 6). Total exposure was comparable for both treatments under fasting and fed conditions. After fasting: peak naproxen concentrations were slightly lower with ER naproxen sodium than with IR naproxen sodium but were reached at a similar time. Fed conditions: mean peak concentrations were comparable but reached after a longer time with ER vs. IR naproxen sodium. ER naproxen sodium was well tolerated, with a similar safety profile to IR naproxen sodium. The total exposure of ER naproxen sodium (660 mg) is comparable to IR naproxen sodium (220 mg) when administered at the maximum over the counter (OTC) dose of 660-mg daily dose on a single day and over multiple days. The rate of absorption is delayed under fed conditions.

  15. Meeting physical activity recommendations: self-regulatory efficacy characterizes differential adherence during arthritis flares.

    PubMed

    Gyurcsik, Nancy C; Brawley, Lawrence R; Spink, Kevin S; Sessford, James D

    2013-02-01

    Using social-cognitive theory, we examined whether adults who experienced an arthritis flare and met/did not meet the disease-specific public health recommended dose for physical activity differed in their self-regulatory efficacy beliefs, overall pain, and flare-related factors. Adults with arthritis (N = 56; M(age) = 49.41 ± 11.56 years) participated in this prospective study. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing groups who met or did not meet the recommended dose (n(met) = 24, ≥ 150 minutes/week vs. n(not met) = 32, < 150 min/week) on efficacy, overall pain, and flare-related factors was significant (p < .01; η(partial)² = .28). People meeting the dose had significantly greater self-regulatory efficacy to overcome arthritis barriers (M(met dose) = 7.33 ± 1.95 vs. M(did not meet dose) = 5.74 ± 2.08, η(partial)² = .14) and to schedule/plan (M(met dose) = 7.27 ± 1.80 vs. M(did not meet dose) = 5.72 ± 1.90, η(partial)² = .15). Overall pain and flare-related factors did not differ (ps > .05). During flares, individuals with greater self-regulatory efficacy to manage disease barriers and plan their physical activity were more adherent to disease-specific public health activity recommendations. This study was the first to demonstrate differences in social cognitions that characterize adherence to recommended activity among people challenged by arthritis flares. Findings support the theoretical position that self-regulatory efficacy is related to better adherence in the face of challenging disease-related circumstances. The importance of studying individual characteristics of people who succeed in being active despite such obstacles is stressed.

  16. Antibodies to biotinylated red blood cells in adults and infants: improved detection, partial characterization, and dependence on red blood cell-biotin dose.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; Franco, Robert S; Cohen, Robert M; North, Anne K; Cancelas, José A; Geisen, Christof; Strauss, Ronald G; Vlaar, Alexander P; Nalbant, Demet; Widness, John A

    2017-06-01

    Biotin-labeled red blood cells (BioRBCs) are used for in vivo kinetic studies. Because BioRBC dosing occasionally induces antibodies, a sensitive and specific anti-BioRBC detection assay is needed. Aims were to 1) develop a gel card assay to evaluate existing, naturally occurring and BioRBC-induced plasma antibodies, 2) compare gel card and tube agglutination detection results, and 3) test for a relationship of antibody induction and BioRBC dose. Reagent BioRBCs were prepared using sulfo-NHS biotin ranging from densities 18 (BioRBC-18) to 1458 (BioRBC-1458) µg/mL RBCs. Among BioRBC-exposed subjects, gel card and tube agglutination results were concordant in 21 of 22 adults and all 19 infant plasma samples. Gel card antibody detection sensitivity was more than 10-fold greater than tube agglutination. Twelve to 16 weeks after BioRBC exposure, induced anti-antibodies were detected by gel card in three of 26 adults (12%) at reagent densities BioRBC-256 or less, but in none of 41 infants. Importantly, induced anti-BioRBC antibodies were associated with higher BioRBC dose (p = 0.008); no antibodies were detected in 18 subjects who received BioRBC doses less than or equal to BioRBC-18. For noninduced BioRBC antibodies, six of 1125 naïve adults (0.3%) and none of 46 naïve infants demonstrated existing anti-BioRBC antibodies using reagent BioRBC-140 or -162. Existing anti-BioRBCs were all neutralized by biotin compounds, while induced antibodies were not. The gel card assay is more sensitive than the tube agglutination assay. We recommend reagent BioRBC-256 for identifying anti-BioRBCs. Use of a low total RBC biotin label dose (≤ BioRBC-18) may minimize antibody induction. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Dose reduction of risperidone and olanzapine and estimated dopamine D₂ receptor occupancy in stable patients with schizophrenia: findings from an open-label, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Takefumi; Bies, Robert R; Remington, Gary; Watanabe, Koichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    While acute-phase antipsychotic response has been attributed to 65%-80% dopamine D₂ receptor blockade, the degree of occupancy for relapse prevention in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia remains unknown. In this secondary study of an open-label, 28-week, randomized, controlled trial conducted between April 2009 and August 2011, clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) treated with risperidone or olanzapine were randomly assigned to the reduction group (dose reduced by 50%) or maintenance group (dose kept constant). Plasma antipsychotic concentrations at peak and trough before and after dose reduction were estimated with population pharmacokinetic techniques, using 2 collected plasma samples. Corresponding dopamine D₂ occupancy levels were then estimated using the model we developed. Relapse was defined as worsening in 4 Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Positive subscale items: delusion, conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, and suspiciousness. Plasma antipsychotic concentrations were available for 16 and 15 patients in the reduction and maintenance groups, respectively. Estimated dopamine D₂ occupancy (mean ± SD) decreased following dose reduction from 75.6% ± 4.9% to 66.8% ± 6.4% at peak and 72.3% ± 5.7% to 62.0% ± 6.8% at trough. In the reduction group, 10 patients (62.5%) did not demonstrate continuous D₂ receptor blockade above 65% (ie, < 65% at trough) after dose reduction; furthermore, 7 patients (43.8%) did not achieve a threshold of 65% occupancy even at peak. Nonetheless, only 1 patient met our relapse criteria after dose reduction during the 6 months of the study. The results suggest that the therapeutic threshold regarding dopamine D₂ occupancy may be lower for those who are stable in antipsychotic maintenance versus acute-phase treatment. Positron emission tomography studies are warranted to further test our preliminary findings. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry identifier: UMIN000001834. © Copyright

  18. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83) to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg) or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg) for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026) and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003). Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6%) vs doubling statin (41.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675). The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00652327 PMID:22621316

  19. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2004].

    PubMed

    2004-05-01

    The Vaccine Assessment Committee of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics discusses vaccine developments in 2003 and recommends some modifications to the vaccination schedule. The recommendation of substituting the oral polio vaccine for the inactivated polio vaccine, suppressing the fifth dose, is maintained. The introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine and the varicella vaccine is stressed. Concerning the meningococcal C vaccine, the improvement introduced by being able to immunize with just two doses is discussed. In agreement with the information received from the European Medicines Agency, there appear to be no well-founded reasons to abandon hexavalent preparations.

  20. Liquid Medication Dosing Errors by Hispanic Parents: Role of Health Literacy and English Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Leslie M.; Dreyer, Benard; Mendelsohn, Alan; Bailey, Stacy C.; Sanders, Lee M.; Wolf, Michael S.; Parker, Ruth M.; Patel, Deesha A.; Kim, Kwang Youn A.; Jimenez, Jessica J.; Jacobson, Kara; Smith, Michelle; Yin, H. Shonna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hispanic parents in the US are disproportionately affected by low health literacy and limited English proficiency (LEP). We examined associations between health literacy, LEP, and liquid medication dosing errors in Hispanic parents. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a multisite randomized controlled experiment to identify best practices for the labeling/dosing of pediatric liquid medications (SAFE Rx for Kids study); 3 urban pediatric clinics. Analyses were limited to Hispanic parents of children <8 years, with health literacy and LEP data (n=1126). Parents were randomized to 5 groups that varied by pairing of units of measurement on the label/dosing tool. Each parent measured 9 doses [3 amounts (2.5,5,7.5 mL) using 3 tools (2 syringes (0.2,0.5 mL increment), 1 cup)] in random order. Dependent variable: Dosing error=>20% dose deviation. Predictor variables: health literacy (Newest Vital Sign) [limited=0–3; adequate=4–6], LEP (speaks English less than “very well”). Results 83.1% made dosing errors (mean(SD) errors/parent=2.2(1.9)). Parents with limited health literacy and LEP had the greatest odds of making a dosing error compared to parents with adequate health literacy who were English proficient (% trials with errors/parent=28.8 vs. 12.9%; AOR=2.2[1.7–2.8]). Parents with limited health literacy who were English proficient were also more likely to make errors (% trials with errors/parent=18.8%; AOR=1.4[1.1–1.9]). Conclusion Dosing errors are common among Hispanic parents; those with both LEP and limited health literacy are at particular risk. Further study is needed to examine how the redesign of medication labels and dosing tools could reduce literacy and language-associated disparities in dosing errors. PMID:28477800

  1. How to translate therapeutic recommendations in clinical practice guidelines into rules for critiquing physician prescriptions? Methods and application to five guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines give recommendations about what to do in various medical situations, including therapeutical recommendations for drug prescription. An effective way to computerize these recommendations is to design critiquing decision support systems, i.e. systems that criticize the physician's prescription when it does not conform to the guidelines. These systems are commonly based on a list of "if conditions then criticism" rules. However, writing these rules from the guidelines is not a trivial task. The objective of this article is to propose methods that (1) simplify the implementation of guidelines' therapeutical recommendations in critiquing systems by automatically translating structured therapeutical recommendations into a list of "if conditions then criticize" rules, and (2) can generate an appropriate textual label to explain to the physician why his/her prescription is not recommended. Methods We worked on the therapeutic recommendations in five clinical practice guidelines concerning chronic diseases related to the management of cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the system using a test base of more than 2000 cases. Results Algorithms for automatically translating therapeutical recommendations into "if conditions then criticize" rules are presented. Eight generic recommendations are also proposed; they are guideline-independent, and can be used as default behaviour for handling various situations that are usually implicit in the guidelines, such as decreasing the dose of a poorly tolerated drug. Finally, we provide models and methods for generating a human-readable textual critique. The system was successfully evaluated on the test base. Conclusion We show that it is possible to criticize physicians' prescriptions starting from a structured clinical guideline, and to provide clear explanations. We are now planning a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of the system on practices. PMID:20509903

  2. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearingmore » 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.« less

  3. A study of the nonprescription drug consumer's understanding of the ranitidine product label and actual product usage patterns in the treatment of episodic heartburn.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, A A; Sirgo, M A; Pappa, K A; McGuire, J A; Fung, K

    2001-01-01

    A study of the consumer's understanding of the product label instructions and the resulting product use were conducted to support the switch of a product from prescription to nonprescription status. H2 receptor antagonists have recently been approved for nonprescription use. This study evaluated the consumer's understanding of the product label for ranitidine hydrochloride (Zantac 75) and the product usage pattern in the treatment of episodic heartburn. Our objectives were to evaluate each aspect of the communication of labeled indications, contraindications, and directions for use of two label formats (old and new) for a new nonprescription preparation of ranitidine (Zantac) and to evaluate nonprescription consumers' use of ranitidine 75-mg tablets (as Zantac 75) in a medically unsupervised, at-home setting to observe whether these consumers used the product appropriately and followed directions as written on the package label. Adult male and female consumers (n = 1405) in a shopping mall environment who were attracted to a poster asking, "Do you have stomach problems?" were recruited for the label comprehension phase (two different label formats) and the 3-week usage phase if after reading the Zantac 75 package label they decided the product was appropriate for them. No instructions regarding the use of Zantac 75 were provided beyond what was printed on the package label. Subjects recorded use in a diary and tablet counts were performed at the end of the study period. A medical history was also taken at this time and an assessment of product use was performed by a physician. In at least 84% of all subjects, both formats were effective in the communication of label objectives for the contraindication against concurrent prescription stomach ulcer medication, maximum daily dose, and maximum duration of dosing at maximum daily doses. The direction to take one tablet per dose was adhered to by 90% of consumers, and 90% of consumers followed the instructions to take no

  4. Cell labeling with magnetic nanoparticles: Opportunity for magnetic cell imaging and cell manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial describes a method of controlled cell labeling with citrate-coated ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. This method may provide basically all kinds of cells with sufficient magnetization to allow cell detection by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to enable potential magnetic manipulation. In order to efficiently exploit labeled cells, quantify the magnetic load and deliver or follow-up magnetic cells, we herein describe the main requirements that should be applied during the labeling procedure. Moreover we present some recommendations for cell detection and quantification by MRI and detail magnetic guiding on some real-case studies in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24564857

  5. A first-in-human study investigating biodistribution, safety and recommended dose of a new radiolabeled MAb targeting FZD10 in metastatic synovial sarcoma patients.

    PubMed

    Giraudet, Anne-Laure; Cassier, Philippe Alexandre; Iwao-Fukukawa, Chicaco; Garin, Gwenaelle; Badel, Jean-Noël; Kryza, David; Chabaud, Sylvie; Gilles-Afchain, Laurence; Clapisson, Gilles; Desuzinges, Claude; Sarrut, David; Halty, Adrien; Italiano, Antoine; Mori, Masaharu; Tsunoda, Takuya; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Alberti, Laurent; Cropet, Claire; Baconnier, Simon; Berge-Montamat, Sandrine; Pérol, David; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2018-06-08

    Synovial Sarcomas (SS) are rare tumors occurring predominantly in adolescent and young adults with a dismal prognosis in advanced phases. We report a first-in-human phase I of monoclonal antibody (OTSA-101) targeting FZD10, overexpressed in most SS but not present in normal tissues, labelled with radioisotopes and used as a molecular vehicle to specifically deliver radiation to FZD10 expressing SS lesions. Patients with progressive advanced SS were included. In the first step of this trial, OTSA-101 in vivo bio-distribution and lesions uptake were evaluated by repeated whole body planar and SPECT-CT scintigraphies from H1 till H144 after IV injection of 187 MBq of 111 In-OTSA-101. A 2D dosimetry study also evaluated the liver absorbed dose when using 90 Y-OTSA-101. In the second step, those patients with significant tumor uptake were randomized between 370 MBq (Arm A) and 1110 MBq (Arm B) of 90 Y-OTSA-101 for radionuclide therapy. From January 2012 to June 2015, 20 pts. (median age 43 years [21-67]) with advanced SS were enrolled. Even though 111 In-OTSA-101 liver uptake appeared to be intense, estimated absorbed liver dose was less than 20 Gy for each patient. Tracer intensity was greater than mediastinum in 10 patients consistent with sufficient tumor uptake to proceed to treatment with 90 Y-OTSA-101: 8 were randomized (Arm A: 3 patients and Arm B: 5 patients) and 2 were not randomized due to worsening PS. The most common Grade ≥ 3 AEs were reversible hematological disorders, which were more frequent in Arm B. No objective response was observed. Best response was stable disease in 3/8 patients lasting up to 21 weeks for 1 patient. Radioimmunotherapy targeting FZD10 is feasible in SS patients as all patients presented at least one lesion with 111 In-OTSA-101 uptake. Tumor uptake was heterogeneous but sufficient to select 50% of pts. for 90 Y-OTSA-101 treatment. The recommended activity for further clinical investigations is 1110 MBq of 90 Y-OTSA-101

  6. Calculated and TLD-based absorbed dose estimates for I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody in a human neuroblastoma xenograft nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Scott, A M; Kostakoglu, L; Hui, T E; Masterson, M E; Febo, R; Sgouros, G; Rosa, E; Mehta, B M; Fisher, D R

    1995-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of radiolabeled antibodies is commonly performed in a xenografted nude mouse model. To assess therapeutic efficacy it is important to estimate the absorbed dose to the tumor and normal tissues of the nude mouse. The current study was designed to accurately measure radiation does to human neuroblastoma xenografts and normal organs in nude mice treated with I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against disialoganglioside GD2 antigen. Absorbed dose estimates were obtained using two different approaches: (1) measurement with teflon-imbedded CaSO4:Dy mini-thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and (2) calculations using mouse S-factors. The calculated total dose to tumor one week after i.v. injection of the 50 microCi I-131-3F8 MoAb was 604 cGy. The corresponding decay corrected and not corrected TLD measurements were 109 +/- 9 and 48.7 +/- 3.4 cGy respectively. The calculated to TLD-derived dose ratios for tumor ranged from 6.1 at 24 h to 5.5 at 1 week. The light output fading rate was found to depend upon the tissue type within which the TLDs were implanted. The decay rate in tumor, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and in vitro, were 9.5, 5.0, 3.7 and 0.67% per day, respectively. We have demonstrated that the type of tissue in which the TLD was implanted strongly influenced the in vivo decay of light output. Even with decay correction, a significant discrepancy was observed between MIRD-based calculated and CaSO4:Dy mini-TLD measured absorbed doses. Batch dependence, pH of the tumor or other variables associated with TLDs which are not as yet well known may account for this discrepancy.

  7. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  8. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    PubMed

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  9. Drug labeling and exposure in neonates.

    PubMed

    Laughon, Matthew M; Avant, Debbie; Tripathi, Nidhi; Hornik, Christoph P; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian; Rodriguez, William

    2014-02-01

    Federal legislation has led to a notable increase in pediatric studies submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), resulting in new pediatric information in product labeling. However, approximately 50% of drug labels still have insufficient information on safety, efficacy, or dosing in children. Neonatal information in labeling is even scarcer because neonates comprise a vulnerable subpopulation for which end-point development is lagging and studies are more challenging. To quantify progress made in neonatal studies and neonatal information in product labeling as a result of recent legislation. We identified a cohort of drug studies between 1997 and 2010 that included neonates as a result of pediatric legislation using information available on the FDA website. We determined what studies were published in the medical literature, the legislation responsible for the studies, and the resulting neonatal labeling changes. We then examined the use of these drugs in a cohort of neonates admitted to 290 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (the Pediatrix Data Warehouse) in the United States from 2005 to 2010. Infants exposed to a drug studied in neonates as identified by the FDA website. Number of drug studies with neonates and rate of exposure per 1000 admissions among infants admitted to an NICU. In a review of the FDA databases, we identified 28 drugs studied in neonates and 24 related labeling changes. Forty-one studies encompassed the 28 drugs, and 31 (76%) of these were published. Eleven (46%) of the 24 neonatal labeling changes established safety and effectiveness. In a review of a cohort of 446,335 hospitalized infants, we identified 399 drugs used and 1,525,739 drug exposures in the first 28 postnatal days. Thirteen (46%) of the 28 drugs studied in neonates were not used in NICUs; 8 (29%) were used in fewer than 60 neonates. Of the drugs studied, ranitidine was used most often (15,627 neonates, 35 exposures per 1000 admissions). Few drug labeling changes

  10. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer Gordon; Quinn, Conrad P; Shadomy, Sean; Messonnier, Nancy

    2010-07-23

    These recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2000;49:1-20; CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2002;51:1024-6) and reflect the status of anthrax vaccine supplies in the United States. This statement 1) provides updated information on anthrax epidemiology; 2) summarizes the evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of AVA; 3) provides recommendations for pre-event and preexposure use of AVA; and 4) provides recommendations for postexposure use of AVA. In certain instances, recommendations that did not change were clarified. No new licensed anthrax vaccines are presented. Substantial changes to these recommendations include the following: 1) reducing the number of doses required to complete the pre-event and preexposure primary series from 6 doses to 5 doses, 2) recommending intramuscular rather than subcutaneous AVA administration for preexposure use, 3) recommending AVA as a component of postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women exposed to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores, 4) providing guidance regarding preexposure vaccination of emergency and other responder organizations under the direction of an occupational health program, and 5) recommending 60 days of antimicrobial prophylaxis in conjunction with 3 doses of AVA for optimal protection of previously unvaccinated persons after exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis spores.

  11. Unlicensed and off label drug use in paediatric wards: prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, S.; Longworth, A.; Nunn, A. J.; Choonara, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of use in children in hospital of drugs that are not specifically licensed for use in children (unlicensed) and of drugs that are used outside the terms of their product licence that apply to indication, age, dose, or route of administration (off label). DESIGN: Prospective study of drugs administered on paediatric medical and surgical wards for 13 weeks. SETTING: Regional children's hospital. SUBJECTS: Paediatric inpatients in medical and surgical wards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of the use of each drug with its product licence to determine whether the drug was used in an unlicensed or off label manner. RESULTS: 2013 courses of drugs were administered to 609 paediatric patients in 707 admissions. 506 (25%) of the drug courses (prescriptions) were either unlicensed (139) or off label (367) uses. In 256 (36%) of the 707 admissions patients received one or more courses of an unlicensed or off label treatment in hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Use of drugs in an off label or unlicensed manner to treat children is widespread. Drugs are more likely to be used in an off label manner than in an unlicensed manner. PMID:9487167

  12. Influence of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of dapagliflozin: an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study.

    PubMed

    Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj; Liu, Xiaoni; Zhang, Weijiang; Pfister, Marc; LaCreta, Frank P; Boulton, David W

    2011-11-01

    Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of renal sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dapagliflozin elimination is primarily via glucuronidation to an inactive metabolite, dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide. Pharmacokinetic studies are recommended in subjects with impaired hepatic function if hepatic metabolism accounts for a substantial portion of the absorbed drug. The purpose of our study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin in patients with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (HI) with healthy subjects. This was an open-label, parallel-group study in male or female patients with mild, moderate, or severe HI (6 per group according to Child-Pugh classification) and in 6 healthy control subjects. The control subjects were matched to the combined HI group for age (±10 years), weight (±20%), sex, and smoking status, with no deviations from normal in medical history, physical examination, ECG, or laboratory determinations. All participants received a single 10-mg oral dose of dapagliflozin, and the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin and dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide were characterized. Dapagliflozin tolerability was also assessed throughout the study. Demographic characteristics and baseline physical measurements (weight, height, and body mass index) were similar among the 18 patients in the HI groups (58-126 kg; 151.2-190.0 cm, and 31.5-37.7 kg/m(2), respectively) and the healthy subject group (65.0-102.6 kg; 166.0-184.0 cm, and 23.3-34.3 kg/m(2), respectively). In those with mild, moderate, or severe HI, dapagliflozin mean C(max) values were 12% lower and 12% and 40% higher than healthy subjects, respectively. Mean dapagliflozin AUC(0-∞) values were 3%, 36%, and 67% higher compared with healthy subjects, respectively. Dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide mean C(max) values were 4% and 58% higher and 14% lower in those with mild, moderate, or severe HI compared with healthy subjects

  13. Organ distribution of technetium-99m-labeled Corynebacterium parvum in normal and tumor-bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, R.F.; Singla, O.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution patterns were studied for /sup 99m/Tc-labeled Corynebacterium parvum in normal and tumor-bearing mice. C57BL/6 mice were given i.v., i.p., or s.c. injections of 250 ..mu..g of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled C. parvum and killed at 10 min, 1, 4, and 24 hr. After iv. administration, labeled organisms were distributed primarily to the liver, the lungs, and the blood (46% of injected dose), followed by the gastrointestinal tract, the spleen, and the kidneys (11%). Total recoverable radioactivity, which was defined as the percentage of injected dose that was recovered, ranged from 59% at 10 min to 15% at 24 hr. Inmore » contrast to this, /sup 99m/TcS colloid, an inert particulate material, was localized almost entirely in the liver, and the amount recoverable remained constant over 24 hr. One hr after i.p. administration of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled C. parvum, the gastrointestinal tract accounted for 27% of the injected radioactivity, followed by liver, blood, and spleen (12%). This was rapidly excreted between 4 and 24 hr, at which time only 12% of the injected dose was recovered. The skin accounted for 54.6% of the injected radioactivity 1 hr after s.c. injection, 6% 4 hr after s.c. injection, and 0.8% at 24 hr after s.c. injection.« less

  14. 78 FR 57394 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Patient Counseling Information Section of Labeling for Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Patient Counseling Information Section of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products--Content and Format.'' The recommendations in the draft guidance are intended to help ensure that the labeling is clear, useful, informative, and to the extent possible, consistent in content and format.

  15. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2006].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the evidence available, the Vaccines Advisory Committee (VAC) of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics reports and comments on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2005 and recommends some modifications to the vaccination schedule for 2006. In agreement with changes in the product monographs for the meningococcal C vaccine, the VAC recommends two doses for the three commercially available preparations with a booster dose in the second year of life. The European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) has temporarily suspended the sale of the Hexavac vaccine due to doubts about its long-term protection against hepatitis B. The VAC continues to support the use of these combined vaccines. Currently only Infranrix Hexa is available in Spain. The recommendation of vaccinating adolescents with a booster dose of pertussis vaccine via the administration of an acellular preparation of low antigenic load together with the adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine remains valid. Vaccination against chickenpox in susceptible children aged more than 12 months old continues to be recommended. There is wide coverage for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in many areas of Spain. In view of the studies published, the VAC reiterates the need for universal immunization by introducing this vaccine in the official vaccination schedule. Finally, other vaccines not included in this schedule are discussed, with special mention of the advisability of influenza vaccination in children, according to the recommendations of the VAC available at the beginning of each season on the web site of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics www.aeped.es; www. vacunasaep.org.

  16. Flow-aggregated traffic-driven label mapping in label-switching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagami, Kenichi; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Esaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Osamu

    1998-12-01

    Label switching technology enables high performance, flexible, layer-3 packet forwarding based on the fixed length label information mapped to the layer-3 packet stream. A Label Switching Router (LSR) forwards layer-3 packets based on their label information mapped to the layer-3 address information as well as their layer-3 address information. This paper evaluates the required number of labels under traffic-driven label mapping policy using the real backbone traffic traces. The evaluation shows that the label mapping policy requires a large number of labels. In order to reduce the required number of labels, we propose a label mapping policy which is a traffic-driven label mapping for the traffic toward the same destination network. The evaluation shows that the proposed label mapping policy requires only about one tenth as many labels compared with the traffic-driven label mapping for the host-pair packet stream,and the topology-driven label mapping for the destination network packet stream.

  17. Nutrition Label Viewing during a Food-Selection Task: Front-of-Package Labels vs Nutrition Facts Labels.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Heidrick, Charles; Hodgin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Earlier research has identified consumer characteristics associated with viewing Nutrition Facts labels; however, little is known about those who view front-of-package nutrition labels. Front-of-package nutrition labels might appeal to more consumers than do Nutrition Facts labels, but it might be necessary to provide consumers with information about how to locate and use these labels. This study quantifies Nutrition Facts and front-of-package nutrition label viewing among American adult consumers. Attention to nutrition information was measured during a food-selection task. One hundred and twenty-three parents (mean age=38 years, mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=28) and one of their children (aged 6 to 9 years) selected six foods from a university laboratory-turned-grocery aisle. Participants were randomized to conditions in which front-of-package nutrition labels were present or absent, and signage explaining front-of-package nutrition labels was present or absent. Adults' visual attention to Nutrition Facts labels and front-of-package nutrition labels was objectively measured via eye-tracking glasses. To examine whether there were significant differences in the percentages of participants who viewed Nutrition Facts labels vs front-of-package nutrition labels, McNemar's tests were conducted across all participants, as well as within various sociodemographic categories. To determine whether hypothesized factors, such as health literacy and education, had stronger relationships with front-of-package nutrition label vs Nutrition Facts label viewing, linear regression assessed the magnitude of relationships between theoretically and empirically derived factors and each type of label viewing. Overall, front-of-package nutrition labels were more likely to be viewed than Nutrition Facts labels; however, for all subgroups, higher rates of front-of-package nutrition label viewership occurred only when signage was present drawing attention to the presence and

  18. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  19. Defining unnecessary disinfection procedures for single-dose and multiple-dose vials.

    PubMed

    Buckley, T; Dudley, S M; Donowitz, L G

    1994-11-01

    Recommendations in the literature conflict on the necessity of disinfecting single-use vials prior to aspiration of fluid. Interventions to disinfect the stopper surface on multiple-dose vials vary considerably. To determine the necessity of alcohol disinfection of the stopper on single-dose vials and to compare povidone-iodine and alcohol versus alcohol-only disinfection of the stopper prior to each needle penetration on multiple-dose vials. The rubber stopper surfaces of 100 single-dose vials were cultured for the presence of bacteria. To determine the efficacy of two procedures for disinfection of multiple-dose vials, 87 stopper surfaces routinely disinfected with both povidone-iodine and alcohol were cultured for bacteria. After a change in practice, 100 multiple-dose vials routinely disinfected with alcohol only were cultured for the presence of bacteria. Of the cultures done on single-dose vial stoppers, 99% were sterile. A comparison of the two disinfection techniques for multiple-dose vials revealed that 83 (95%) of the 87 vials prepped with both povidone-iodine and alcohol were sterile, compared with all stoppers disinfected with alcohol only. This study shows the lack of necessity of any disinfection procedure on the rubber stopper of single-dose vials and the efficacy of alcohol only for disinfecting the stopper of multiple-dose vials.

  20. Ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates chronic morphine-induced gliosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Theresa-Alexandra M; Milne, Brian; Cahill, Catherine M

    2010-04-16

    The development of analgesic tolerance following chronic morphine administration can be a significant clinical problem. Preclinical studies demonstrate that chronic morphine administration induces spinal gliosis and that inhibition of gliosis prevents the development of analgesic tolerance to opioids. Many studies have also demonstrated that ultra-low doses of naltrexone inhibit the development of spinal morphine antinociceptive tolerance and clinical studies demonstrate that it has opioid sparing effects. In this study we demonstrate that ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates glial activation, which may contribute to its effects on attenuating tolerance. Spinal cord sections from rats administered chronic morphine showed significantly increased immuno-labelling of astrocytes and microglia compared to saline controls, consistent with activation. 3-D images of astrocytes from animals administered chronic morphine had significantly larger volumes compared to saline controls. Co-injection of ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuated this increase in volume, but the mean volume differed from saline-treated and naltrexone-treated controls. Astrocyte and microglial immuno-labelling was attenuated in rats co-administered ultra-low dose naltrexone compared to morphine-treated rats and did not differ from controls. Glial activation, as characterized by immunohistochemical labelling and cell size, was positively correlated with the extent of tolerance developed. Morphine-induced glial activation was not due to cell proliferation as there was no difference observed in the total number of glial cells following chronic morphine treatment compared to controls. Furthermore, using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, no increase in spinal cord cell proliferation was observed following chronic morphine administration. Taken together, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the prevention of analgesic tolerance and the inhibition of spinal gliosis by treatment with ultra-low dose naltrexone

  1. Fatal sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome after off-label prasugrel: a case report.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; Kipshidze, Nodar; Pershukov, Igor V; Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Carnes, Judy; Atar, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive dual antiplatelet therapy is associated not only with more bleeding, impaired wound healing, and potentially more solid cancer rates but it also causes higher infection risks including sepsis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This may be especially true considering the alarming off-label use of prasugrel. A 65-year-old white male patient with a history of myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and implantation of 2 bare metal stents, was treated with off-label clopidogrel for 4 years, including a double daily dose (150 mg) for the initial 13 months. Still on clopidogrel, the patient was hospitalized with suspected pneumonia. A diagnostic cardiac catheterization revealed a 60%-70% blockage of the mid left anterior descending, but there was no need for coronary intervention. At discharge, clopidogrel 75 mg/d was switched over to off-label prasugrel 10 mg/d on top of aspirin (81 mg/d). On day 3 after prasugrel was given, a football-sized bruise appeared on the patient's lower right abdomen, but computed tomography results were unremarkable. On day 6 after administration of prasugrel, the patient became dizzy, disoriented, confused, experienced difficulty breathing, severe headache, weakness, intensive petechial rash covering the entire body, and breathing difficulty requiring ventilation. Within 24 hours, the patient was unable to correctly identify his age; his eyes were pale in color to almost colorless and when hearing a sound he would turn his entire head toward the sound and he appeared to be blind. His lungs, liver, and kidneys began to show signs of failure over the next 5-9 days. Sixteen days after the administration of the first prasugrel dose, the patient died of sepsis complicated with SIRS. Aggressive off-label use of clopidogrel (double dose for 13 months, and >4 years overall duration), followed by off-label switchover to the highest daily dose (10 mg) prasugrel may trigger sepsis and fatal

  2. Unlicensed and off-label use of drugs in pediatric surgical units at tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Shakeel, Faisal; Asim, Syed Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Background Unlicensed and off-label prescribing practice is global dilemma around the world. This pioneering study was designed to determine unlicensed and off-label use of drug in surgical wards of tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. Objective To assess unlicensed and off-label use of drugs in pediatric surgical unit at three tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. Setting Two government and one private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Method Drug profiles of 895 patients from three different clinical settings were evaluated for unlicensed and off-label use of drugs using Micromedex DRUGDEX. Main outcome measure Characteristics of the unlicensed and off-label drug prescriptions. Result Total of 3168 prescribed drugs were analyzed in this study. Indication (38.7%) and dose (34.8%) were the most frequent off-label categories. In comparison with the corresponding reference categories, infants and children, male patients and having less than five prescribed drugs were significant predictors of unlicensed prescriptions. In comparison with the corresponding reference categories, significant predictors of off-label drug prescribing were children younger than two year, children between 2-12 years, patient staying at hospital less than 5 days and patients having less than five prescribed drugs. Conclusion The prevalence of unlicensed and off-label drug prescriptions are high at pediatric surgical ward of tertiary care hospitals. More awareness of the efficacy and safety of drugs are required in pediatrics. In addition, new formulations with advanced dosing for children are also required to minimize the risk of adverse outcomes.

  3. SCCT guidelines on radiation dose and dose-optimization strategies in cardiovascular CT

    PubMed Central

    Halliburton, Sandra S.; Abbara, Suhny; Chen, Marcus Y.; Gentry, Ralph; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Raff, Gilbert L.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Hausleiter, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, computed tomography (CT) has developed into a standard clinical test for a variety of cardiovascular conditions. The emergence of cardiovascular CT during a period of dramatic increase in radiation exposure to the population from medical procedures and heightened concern about the subsequent potential cancer risk has led to intense scrutiny of the radiation burden of this new technique. This has hastened the development and implementation of dose reduction tools and prompted closer monitoring of patient dose. In an effort to aid the cardiovascular CT community in incorporating patient-centered radiation dose optimization and monitoring strategies into standard practice, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography has produced a guideline document to review available data and provide recommendations regarding interpretation of radiation dose indices and predictors of risk, appropriate use of scanner acquisition modes and settings, development of algorithms for dose optimization, and establishment of procedures for dose monitoring. PMID:21723512

  4. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua; Zhang, Xi

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to anmore » environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.« less

  5. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2005].

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides information and comments on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2004 and recommends a few modifications to the Immunization Schedule for 2005. Concerning the meningococcal C vaccine, no change is made to the possibility of administering two doses for the first vaccination with one of the available formulations. The existence of immunization failure in children who have received a first vaccination with three vaccine doses before the age of 12 months is discussed, and the health authorities will probably include a booster dose in the second year of life throughout 2005. The recommendations of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) on hexavalent vaccines continue to be valid and consequently the use of these vaccines should not be stopped. This year the need for adolescents to receive a booster dose of the pertussis vaccine, with administration of an acellular, low antigenic load preparation together with the adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine is stressed.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF INTENDED RADIATION THERAPY OF MELANOMA AND THE CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM BY SELECTIVE H$sup 3$ INCORPORATION AFTER DOSES OF H$sup 3$-LABELED DOPA (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Hempel, K.; Deimel, M.

    1963-05-01

    The possibilities for radiotherapeutic application of H/sup 3/labeled 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) were investigated. DOPA in the animal organism is the precursor of melanine and the catecholamines. The integral radiation burden of the different organs of the normal mouse and the melanoma-mouse was calculated using the distribution with time of the Ha-activity in the organs. The H/sup 3/-distribution in adrenal and melanoma was determined autoradiographically. In the adrenal medulla H/sup 3/-concentration was 50 to 100 times greater than in all other organs. In that case, therapeutically effective radiation doses of about 25 000 rad can be obtained with H/sup 3/-DOPA, while themore » radiation burden of the other organs did not exceed 400 rad. However, in the melanoma radiation doses were considerably higher than in the other parts of the organism, but were not sufficient enough for radiotherapy of the tumor. (P.C.H.)« less

  7. Prehospital Care for the Adult and Pediatric Seizure Patient: Current Evidence-based Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Eric C; Sporer, Karl A; Lemieux, Justin M; Brown, John F; Koenig, Kristi L; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Rudnick, Eric M; Salvucci, Angelo A; Gilbert, Greg H

    2017-04-01

    We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with a seizure and to compare these recommendations against the current protocol used by the 33 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in California. We performed a review of the evidence in the prehospital treatment of patients with a seizure, and then compared the seizure protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. We analyzed the type and route of medication administered, number of additional rescue doses permitted, and requirements for glucose testing prior to medication. The treatment for eclampsia and seizures in pediatric patients were analyzed separately. Protocols across EMS Agencies in California varied widely. We identified multiple drugs, dosages, routes of administration, re-dosing instructions, and requirement for blood glucose testing prior to medication delivery. Blood glucose testing prior to benzodiazepine administration is required by 61% (20/33) of agencies for adult patients and 76% (25/33) for pediatric patients. All agencies have protocols for giving intramuscular benzodiazepines and 76% (25/33) have protocols for intranasal benzodiazepines. Intramuscular midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult dose, 2 to 8 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intranasal midazolam dosages ranged from 2 to 10 mg per single adult or pediatric dose, and 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Intravenous/intrasosseous midazolam dosages ranged from 1 to 6 mg per single adult dose, 1 to 5 mg per single pediatric dose, and 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg as a weight-based dose. Eclampsia is specifically addressed by 85% (28/33) of agencies. Forty-two percent (14/33) have a protocol for administering magnesium sulfate, with intravenous dosages ranging from 2 to 6 mg, and 58% (19/33) allow benzodiazepines to be administered. Protocols for a patient

  8. Management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Australasian Pancreatic Club recommendations.

    PubMed

    Toouli, James; Biankin, Andrew V; Oliver, Mark R; Pearce, Callum B; Wilson, Jeremy S; Wray, Nicholas H

    2010-10-18

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when the amounts of enzymes secreted into the duodenum in response to a meal are insufficient to maintain normal digestive processes. The main clinical consequence of PEI is fat maldigestion and malabsorption, resulting in steatorrhoea. Pancreatic exocrine function is commonly assessed by conducting a 3-day faecal fat test and by measuring levels of faecal elastase-1 and serum trypsinogen. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy is the mainstay of treatment for PEI. In adults, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 25,000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 80,000 units of lipase per meal. In infants and children, the initial recommended dose of pancreatic enzymes is 500 units of lipase per gram of dietary fat; the maximum daily dose should not exceed 10,000 units of lipase per kilogram of bodyweight. Oral pancreatic enzymes should be taken with meals to ensure adequate mixing with the chyme. Adjunct therapy with acid-suppressing agents may be useful in patients who continue to experience symptoms of PEI despite high-dose enzyme therapy. A dietitian experienced in treating PEI should be involved in patient management. Dietary fat restriction is not recommended for patients with PEI. Patients with PEI should be encouraged to consume small, frequent meals and to abstain from alcohol. Medium-chain triglycerides do not provide any clear nutritional advantage over long-chain triglycerides, but can be trialled in patients who fail to gain or to maintain adequate bodyweight in order to increase energy intake.

  9. Preliminary results for avelumab plus axitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (JAVELIN Renal 100): an open-label, dose-finding and dose-expansion, phase 1b trial.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Larkin, James; Oya, Mototsugu; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Martignoni, Marcella; Nathan, Paul; Powles, Thomas; McDermott, David; Robbins, Paul B; Chism, David D; Cho, Daniel; Atkins, Michael B; Gordon, Michael S; Gupta, Sumati; Uemura, Hirotsugu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Compagnoni, Anna; Fowst, Camilla; di Pietro, Alessandra; Rini, Brian I

    2018-04-01

    The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. The JAVELIN Renal 100 study is an ongoing open-label, multicentre, dose-finding, and dose-expansion, phase 1b study, done in 14 centres in the USA, UK, and Japan. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) and had histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced renal-cell carcinoma with clear-cell component, life expectancy of at least 3 months, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less, received no previous systemic treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma, and had a resected primary tumour. Patients enrolled into the dose-finding phase received 5 mg axitinib orally twice daily for 7 days, followed by combination therapy with 10 mg/kg avelumab intravenously every 2 weeks and 5 mg axitinib orally twice daily. Based on the pharmacokinetic data from the dose-finding phase, ten additional patients were enrolled into the dose-expansion phase and assigned to this regimen. The other patients in the dose-expansion phase started taking combination therapy directly. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicities in the first 4 weeks (two cycles) of treatment with avelumab plus axitinib. Safety and antitumour activity analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of avelumab or axitinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02493751. Between Oct 30, 2015, and Sept 30, 2016, we enrolled six patients into the dose-finding phase and 49 into the

  10. Radiation Exposure from CT Scans: How to Close Our Knowledge Gaps, Monitor and Safeguard Exposure—Proceedings and Recommendations of the Radiation Dose Summit, Sponsored by NIBIB, February 24–25, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Boone, John M.; Hendee, William R.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a portion of the Radiation Dose Summit, which was organized by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering and held in Bethesda, Maryland, in February 2011. The current understandings of ways to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of computed tomography (CT) examinations are summarized and recommendations are made for priority areas of research to close existing gaps in our knowledge. The prospects of achieving a submillisievert effective dose CT examination routinely are assessed. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22966066

  11. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  12. Estimated background doses of [67Ga]-DTPA-USPIO in normal Balb/c mice as a potential therapeutic agent for liver and spleen cancers.

    PubMed

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Oghabian, Mohammad A; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Abolghasem Haeri, Seyed; Amanlou, Massoud; Daha, Fariba J; Allen, Barry J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles labeled with gallium-67 (Ga) in various organs by intravenous injection in Balb/c mice. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was successively labeled with Ga-chloride after chelation with freshly prepared cyclic DTPA-dianhydride. The labeling efficiency of USPIOs labeled with Ga is above 98%. Sixty-five mice were killed at 13 different time points. The percentage of injected dose per gram of each organ was measured by direct counting for 19 harvested organs of the mice. The medical internal radiation dose formula was applied to extrapolate data from mouse to human and to predict the absorbed radiation dose for various organs in the human body. The biodistribution of Ga-USPIO in Balb/c mice showed that 75% of the injected dose accumulated in the spleen and liver 15 min after injection. These nanoparticles remained in the liver for more than 7 days after injection, whereas their clearance was very fast from other organs. Extrapolating these data to the intravenous injection of Ga-USPIO in humans gave an estimated absorbed dose of 36.38 mSv/MBq for the total body, and the highest effective absorbed dose was seen in the liver (32.9 mSv/MBq). High uptakes of USPIO nanoparticles in the liver and spleen and their fast clearance from other tissues suggest that these nanoparticles labeled with a β-emitter radioisotope could be suitable as treatment agents for spleen and liver malignancies only if the organ tolerance dose is not exceeded.

  13. Agreement of label information of cardiovascular drugs in pregnancy among Korea, the USA, the UK, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin Haeng; Shin, Ju-Young; Park, Mi-Ju; Park, Byung-Joo

    2014-04-01

    Drug label is a common source of information; however, the content varies widely. This study aims to evaluate label information on cardiovascular drugs regarding pregnancy for their similarities in Korea, USA, UK, and Japan. Study drugs were selected as following (1) cardiovascular drugs according to the WHO ATC code (C01-C09) and (2) drugs currently marketed in all four countries were included. Evidence level was classified into five categories ('Definite', 'Probable', 'Possible', 'Unlikely', and 'Unclassified') and recommendation level was classified into four categories ('Contraindicated', 'Cautious', 'Compatible', and 'Unclassified'). Frequency and proportion were presented. Percent agreement and kappa coefficient with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using SAS ver. 9.3. Total of 50 cardiovascular drugs were included. 'Unclassified' was represented the most in Korea, followed by Japan and UK (58%, 54%, and 46%, p<0.05). For recommendation level, the majority of drugs in all four countries were classified as 'contraindicated' or 'cautious'. Japanese labels had the largest proportion of 'contraindicated' level (62%), and Korea and UK followed (58%, 44%, p<0.05). Only in the USA, 10.0% of the drugs were 'compatible' whereas, there were none in Korea, UK, and Japan (p<0.01). Korea and Japan showed a substantial agreement in evidence and recommendation level (kappa=0.69, 0.67). Labels of cardiovascular drugs in pregnancy differed widely. Reliable safety information in pregnancy should be provided through regular updates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport and dose deposition from locally released gold nanoparticles labeled with 111In, 177Lu or 90Y incorporated into tissue implantable depots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Priscilla; Cai, Zhongli; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Lechtman, Eli; Mashouf, Shahram; Lu, Yijie; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Jaffray, David A.; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2017-11-01

    Permanent seed implantation (PSI) brachytherapy is a highly conformal form of radiation therapy but is challenged with dose inhomogeneity due to its utilization of low energy radiation sources. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated with electron emitting radionuclides have recently been developed as a novel form of brachytherapy and can aid in homogenizing dose through physical distribution of radiolabeled AuNP when injected intratumorally (IT) in suspension. However, the distribution is unpredictable and precise placement of many injections would be difficult. Previously, we reported the design of a nanoparticle depot (NPD) that can be implanted using PSI techniques and which facilitates controlled release of AuNP. We report here the 3D dose distribution resulting from a NPD incorporating AuNP labeled with electron emitters (90Y, 177Lu, 111In) of different energies using Monte Carlo based voxel level dosimetry. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to assess differences in dose distribution from simulated NPD and conventional brachytherapy sources, positioned in breast tissue simulating material. We further compare these dose distributions in mice bearing subcutaneous human breast cancer xenografts implanted with 177Lu-AuNP NPD, or injected IT with 177Lu-AuNP in suspension. The radioactivity distributions were derived from registered SPECT/CT images and time-dependent dose was estimated. Results demonstrated that the dose distribution from NPD reduced the maximum dose 3-fold when compared to conventional seeds. For simulated NPD, as well as NPD implanted in vivo, 90Y delivered the most homogeneous dose distribution. The tumor radioactivity in mice IT injected with 177Lu-AuNP redistributed while radioactivity in the NPD remained confined to the implant site. The dose distribution from radiolabeled AuNP NPD were predictable and concentric in contrast to IT injected radiolabeled AuNP, which provided irregular and temporally variant dose distributions

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  16. YouTube Video Educational Package Increased Acceptance of Antibiotic Clinical Decision Support System Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Shi Thong; Tan, Michelle; Young, Barnaby; Lye, David; Ng, Tat Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotic clinical decision support systems (CDSS) were implemented to provide stewardship at the point of ordering of broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems). We postulated that a YouTube based educational video package (EP) with quizzes can help to improve CDSS acceptance. Methods A before-after study was conducted in general wards at Tan Tock Seng Hospital from April 2016 to March 2017. Baseline data were collected for 6 months before EP was implemented and during the next 6 months with EP dissemination to all doctors. Acceptance of CDSS recommendations between both phases were compared. Independent factors associated with acceptance of specific CDSS recommendations were identified by logistic regression. Results Patients recruited before and after EP was 1642 and 1313 respectively. Overall CDSS acceptance rate was similar before and after EP. There was improved acceptance for recommendations for dose optimizaton, antibiotic optimization and set duration (Figures 1 and 2). Independent factors of CDSS acceptance for dose optimizaton, antibiotic optimization and set duration are shown in Table 1. EP implementation was independently associated with acceptance of recommendations to set duration and optimize antibiotics. Conclusion EP was independently associated with increased CDSS acceptance on antibiotic duration and antibiotic optimization. Although acceptance of dose optimization was improved, EP was not associated independently with acceptance of the recommendations. Figure 2 Acceptance of CDSS recommendations by classifications of recommendations Table 1 3 multivariate models of acceptance of CDSS recommendations on antibiotic optimization, dose optimization and duration setting Set duration Antibiotic optimization Dose optimization Factor Odds ratio [95% CI] Lung infection 2.71[2.13–3.45] 2.08[1.71–2.52] 2.79[2.19-3.55] Unknown sepsis source 1.73[1.27–2.35] – 1.44[1.05-1.96] Piperacillin

  17. Extended release naltrexone injection is performed in the majority of opioid dependent patients receiving outpatient induction: a very low dose naltrexone and buprenorphine open label trial.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Wu, Li-Tzy; Peindl, Kathleen S; Swartz, Marvin S; Woody, George E

    2014-05-01

    The approval of extended release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol(®)) has introduced a new option for treating opioid addiction, but studies are needed to identify its place within the spectrum of available therapies. The absence of physiological opioid dependence is a necessary and challenging first step for starting XR-NTX. Outpatient detoxification gives poor results and inpatient detoxification is either unavailable or too brief for the physiological effects of opioids to resolve. Here we present findings from an open label study that tested whether the transition from opioid addiction to XR-NTX can be safely and effectively performed in an outpatient setting using very low dose naltrexone and buprenorphine. Twenty treatment seeking opioid addicted individuals were given increasing doses of naltrexone starting at 0.25mg with decreasing doses of buprenorphine starting at 4 mg during a 7-day outpatient XR-NTX induction procedure. Withdrawal discomfort, craving, drug use, and adverse events were assessed daily until the XR-NTX injection, then weekly over the next month. Fourteen of the 20 participants received XR-NTX and 13 completed weekly assessments. Withdrawal, craving, and opioid or other drug use were significantly lower during induction and after XR-NTX administration compared with baseline, and no serious adverse events were recorded. Outpatient transition to XR-NTX combining upward titration of very low dose naltrexone with downward titration of low dose buprenorphine was safe, well tolerated, and completed by most participants. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to see if this approach is useful for naltrexone induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Diabeo software enabling individualized insulin dose adjustments combined with telemedicine support improves HbA1c in poorly controlled type 1 diabetic patients: a 6-month, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter trial (TeleDiab 1 Study).

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Guillaume; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Dardari, Dured; Clergeot, Annie; Franc, Sylvia; Schaepelynck-Belicar, Pauline; Catargi, Bogdan; Melki, Vincent; Chaillous, Lucy; Farret, Anne; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Penfornis, Alfred

    2011-03-01

    To demonstrate that Diabeo software enabling individualized insulin dose adjustments combined with telemedicine support significantly improves HbA(1c) in poorly controlled type 1 diabetic patients. In a six-month open-label parallel-group, multicenter study, adult patients (n = 180) with type 1 diabetes (>1 year), on a basal-bolus insulin regimen (>6 months), with HbA(1c) ≥ 8%, were randomized to usual quarterly follow-up (G1), home use of a smartphone recommending insulin doses with quarterly visits (G2), or use of the smartphone with short teleconsultations every 2 weeks but no visit until point end (G3). Six-month mean HbA(1c) in G3 (8.41 ± 1.04%) was lower than in G1 (9.10 ± 1.16%; P = 0.0019). G2 displayed intermediate results (8.63 ± 1.07%). The Diabeo system gave a 0.91% (0.60; 1.21) improvement in HbA(1c) over controls and a 0.67% (0.35; 0.99) reduction when used without teleconsultation. There was no difference in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes or in medical time spent for hospital or telephone consultations. However, patients in G1 and G2 spent nearly 5 h more than G3 patients attending hospital visits. The Diabeo system gives a substantial improvement to metabolic control in chronic, poorly controlled type 1 diabetic patients without requiring more medical time and at a lower overall cost for the patient than usual care.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 20

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section focuses on supplemental labeling.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  2. Finger doses for staff handling radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Pant, Gauri S; Sharma, Sanjay K; Rath, Gaura K

    2006-09-01

    Radiation doses to the fingers of occupational workers handling 99mTc-labeled compounds and 131I for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine were measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The doses were measured at the base of the ring finger and the index finger of both hands in 2 groups of workers. Group 1 (7 workers) handled 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, and group 2 (6 workers) handled 131I for diagnosis and therapy. Radiation doses to the fingertips of 3 workers also were measured. Two were from group 1, and 1 was from group 2. The doses to the base of the fingers for the radiopharmacy staff and physicians from group 1 were observed to be 17+/-7.5 (mean+/-SD) and 13.4+/-6.5 microSv/GBq, respectively. Similarly, the dose to the base of the fingers for the 3 physicians in group 2 was estimated to be 82.0+/-13.8 microSv/GBq. Finger doses for the technologists in both groups could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts that accumulated in 1 wk. The doses to the fingertips of the radiopharmacy worker and the physician in group 1 were 74.3+/-19.8 and 53.5+/-21.9 microSv/GBq, respectively. The dose to the fingertips of the physician in group 2 was 469.9+/-267 microSv/GBq. The radiation doses to the fingers of nuclear medicine staff at our center were measured. The maximum expected annual dose to the extremities appeared to be less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y), except for a physician who handled large quantities of 131I for treatment. Because all of these workers are on rotation and do not constantly handle radioactivity throughout the year, the doses to the base of the fingers or the fingertips should not exceed the prescribed annual limit of 500 mSv.

  3. Nivolumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (CheckMate 040): an open-label, non-comparative, phase 1/2 dose escalation and expansion trial.

    PubMed

    El-Khoueiry, Anthony B; Sangro, Bruno; Yau, Thomas; Crocenzi, Todd S; Kudo, Masatoshi; Hsu, Chiun; Kim, Tae-You; Choo, Su-Pin; Trojan, Jörg; Welling, Theodore H; Meyer, Tim; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Yeo, Winnie; Chopra, Akhil; Anderson, Jeffrey; Dela Cruz, Christine; Lang, Lixin; Neely, Jaclyn; Tang, Hao; Dastani, Homa B; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-06-24

    For patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, sorafenib is the only approved drug worldwide, and outcomes remain poor. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of nivolumab, a programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without chronic viral hepatitis. We did a phase 1/2, open-label, non-comparative, dose escalation and expansion trial (CheckMate 040) of nivolumab in adults (≥18 years) with histologically confirmed advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with or without hepatitis C or B (HCV or HBV) infection. Previous sorafenib treatment was allowed. A dose-escalation phase was conducted at seven hospitals or academic centres in four countries or territories (USA, Spain, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and a dose-expansion phase was conducted at an additional 39 sites in 11 countries (Canada, UK, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan). At screening, eligible patients had Child-Pugh scores of 7 or less (Child-Pugh A or B7) for the dose-escalation phase and 6 or less (Child-Pugh A) for the dose-expansion phase, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less. Patients with HBV infection had to be receiving effective antiviral therapy (viral load <100 IU/mL); antiviral therapy was not required for patients with HCV infection. We excluded patients previously treated with an agent targeting T-cell costimulation or checkpoint pathways. Patients received intravenous nivolumab 0·1-10 mg/kg every 2 weeks in the dose-escalation phase (3+3 design). Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was given every 2 weeks in the dose-expansion phase to patients in four cohorts: sorafenib untreated or intolerant without viral hepatitis, sorafenib progressor without viral hepatitis, HCV infected, and HBV infected. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability for the escalation phase and objective response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1) for the expansion phase

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  8. Quantification of absorption, retention and elimination of two different oral doses of vitamin A in Zambian boys using accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Aklamati, E K; Mulenga, M; Dueker, S R

    A recent survey indicated that high-dose vitamin A supplements (HD-VAS) had no apparent effect on vitamin A (VA) status of Zambian children <5 y of age. To explore possible reasons for the lack of response to HD-VAS among Zambian children, we quantified the absorption, retention, and urinary elimination of either a single HDVAS (60 mg) or a smaller dose of stable isotope (SI)-labeled VA (5 mg), which was used to estimate VA pool size, in 3-4 y old Zambian boys (n = 4 for each VA dose). A 25 nCi tracer dose of [{sup 14}C{sub 2}]-labeled VA was co-administered withmore » the HD-VAS or SI-labeled VA, and 24-hr stool and urine samples were collected for 3 and 7 consecutive days, respectively, and 24-hr urine samples at 4 later time points. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to measure the cumulative excretion of {sup 14}C in stool and urine 3d after dosing to estimate, respectively, absorption and retention of the VAS and SI-labeled VA. The urinary elimination rate (UER) was estimated by plotting {sup 14}C in urine vs. time, and fitting an exponential equation to the data. Estimates of mean absorption, retention and the UER were 83.8 {+-} 7.1%, 76.3 {+-} 6.7%, and 1.9 {+-} 0.6%/d, respectively, for the HD-VAS and 76.5 {+-} 9.5%, 71.1 {+-} 9.4%, and 1.8 {+-} 1.2%/d, respectively for the smaller dose of SI-labeled VA. Estimates of absorption, retention and the UER did not differ by size of the VA dose administered (P=0.26, 0.40, 0.88, respectively). Estimated absorption and retention were negatively associated with reported fever (P=0.011) and malaria (P =0.010). HD-VAS and SI-labeled VA were adequately absorbed, retained and utilized in apparently healthy Zambian preschool-age boys, although absorption and retention may be affected by recent infections.« less

  9. In Vivo Differentiation of Uric Acid Versus Non-Uric Acid Urinary Calculi With Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT at Reduced Radiation Dose.

    PubMed

    Franken, Axelle; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Muylem, Alain Van; Howarth, Nigel; Keyzer, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate in vivo urinary calculus characterization with third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT) at reduced versus standard radiation dose. One hundred fifty-three patients requiring unenhanced CT for suspected or known urolithiasis were prospectively included in our study. They underwent two acquisitions at reduced-dose CT (90 kV and 50 mAs ref ; Sn150 kV and 31 mAs ref , where Sn denotes the interposition of a tin filter in the high-energy beam) and standard-dose CT (90 kV and 50 mAs ref ; Sn150 kV and 94 mAs ref ). One radiologist interpreted the reduced-dose examinations before the standard-dose examinations during the same session. Among 103 patients (23 women, 80 men; mean age ± SD, 50 ± 15 years; age range, 18-82 years) with urolithiasis, dedicated DECT software measured the maximal diameter and CT numbers, calculated the DECT number ratio, and labeled with a color code each calculus visualized by the radiologist as uric acid (UA) or non-UA. Volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded. The radiologist visualized 279 calculi on standard-dose CT and 262 on reduced-dose CT; 17 calculi were missed on reduced-dose CT, all of which were ≤ 3 mm. Among the 262 calculi visualized at both doses, the CT number ratio was obtained with the software for 227 calculi and was not different between the doses (p = 0.093). Among these 262 calculi, 197 were labeled at both doses; 194 of the 197 labeled calculi were labeled with the same color code. Among the 65 remaining calculi, 48 and 61 (all ≤ 5 mm) were not labeled at standard-dose and reduced-dose CT (p = 0.005), respectively. At reduced-dose CT, the mean CTDI vol was 2.67 mGy and the mean DLP was 102.2 mGy × cm. With third-generation dual-source DECT, a larger proportion of calculi ≤ 5 mm are not characterized as UA or non-UA at a reduced dose.

  10. Dysport (botulinum toxin type A) in routine therapeutic usage: a telephone needs assessment survey of European physicians to evaluate current awareness and adherence to product labeling changes.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean; Schwab, Joseph; Hubert, Catherine; Abbott, Chandra Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A is a well-established treatment for a number of conditions involving muscle hyperactivity. Dysport (Ipsen Ltd, Wrexham, United Kingdom) is a botulinum neurotoxin type A preparation that has been available for a number of therapeutic uses for over 20 years in the European Union (EU). This survey was part of the EU botulinum toxin risk management plan to identify potential educational needs of injectors by collecting data on their routine practice administration of Dysport and their awareness of potential adverse events (AEs) that are included in the current product labeling. Dysport-experienced injectors in 5 EU countries were surveyed via telephone about their experience of Dysport in patients with cervical dystonia, adult upper and lower limb spasticity, pediatric cerebral palsy, and blepharospasm/hemifacial spasm. The reconstitution dilution volume most often used was 2.5 mL per 500 U for all indications. The mean total dose ranged from 387 to 530 U for cervical dystonia, 508 to 773 U for upper limb spasticity, 600 to 832 U for lower limb spasticity, 375 to 700 U for pediatric cerebral palsy, and 54 to 213 U for blepharospasm/hemifacial spasm. The potential AEs most commonly mentioned by surveyed physicians were dysphagia for cervical dystonia, arm muscle weakness for upper limb spasticity, leg muscle weakness for lower limb spasticity, and pediatric cerebral palsy and ptosis for blepharospasm/hemifacial spasm. The results indicate that product-labeling recommendations are generally applied in clinical practice and that there is a good familiarity with potential AEs based on clinical condition. Nevertheless, the survey shows that experienced injectors do sometimes deviate from the manufacturers labeling recommendations, highlighting the importance of ongoing education.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  14. Quality and Dose Optimized CT Trauma Protocol - Recommendation from a University Level-I Trauma Center.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Johannes; Kaul, David; Böning, Georg; Rotzinger, Roman; Freyhardt, Patrick; Schwabe, Philipp; Maurer, Martin H; Renz, Diane Miriam; Streitparth, Florian

    2017-09-01

    Purpose  As a supra-regional level-I trauma center, we evaluated computed tomography (CT) acquisitions of polytraumatized patients for quality and dose optimization purposes. Adapted statistical iterative reconstruction [(AS)IR] levels, tube voltage reduction as well as a split-bolus contrast agent (CA) protocol were applied. Materials and Methods  61 patients were split into 3 different groups that differed with respect to tube voltage (120 - 140 kVp) and level of applied ASIR reconstruction (ASIR 20 - 50 %). The CT protocol included a native acquisition of the head followed by a single contrast-enhanced acquisition of the whole body (64-MSCT). CA (350 mg/ml iodine) was administered as a split bolus injection of 100 ml (2 ml/s), 20 ml NaCl (1 ml/s), 60 ml (4 ml/s), 40 ml NaCl (4 ml/s) with a scan delay of 85 s to detect injuries of both the arterial system and parenchymal organs in a single acquisition. Both the quantitative (SNR/CNR) and qualitative (5-point Likert scale) image quality was evaluated in parenchymal organs that are often injured in trauma patients. Radiation exposure was assessed. Results  The use of IR combined with a reduction of tube voltage resulted in good qualitative and quantitative image quality and a significant reduction in radiation exposure of more than 40 % (DLP 1087 vs. 647 mGyxcm). Image quality could be improved due to a dedicated protocol that included different levels of IR adapted to different slice thicknesses, kernels and the examined area for the evaluation of head, lung, body and bone injury patterns. In synopsis of our results, we recommend the implementation of a polytrauma protocol with a tube voltage of 120 kVp and the following IR levels: cCT 5mm: ASIR 20; cCT 0.625 mm: ASIR 40; lung 2.5 mm: ASIR 30, body 5 mm: ASIR 40; body 1.25 mm: ASIR 50; body 0.625 mm: ASIR 0. Conclusion  A dedicated adaptation of the CT trauma protocol (level of reduction of tube voltage and of IR

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  16. Ion mobility-enhanced MS(E)-based label-free analysis reveals effects of low-dose radiation post contextual fear conditioning training on the mouse hippocampal proteome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Wickramasekara, Samanthi I; Akinyeke, Tunde; Stewart, Blair S; Jiang, Yuan; Raber, Jacob; Maier, Claudia S

    2016-05-17

    Recent advances in the field of biodosimetry have shown that the response of biological systems to ionizing radiation is complex and depends on the type and dose of radiation, the tissue(s) exposed, and the time lapsed after exposure. The biological effects of low dose radiation on learning and memory are not well understood. An ion mobility-enhanced data-independent acquisition (MS(E)) approach in conjunction with the ISOQuant software tool was utilized for label-free quantification of hippocampal proteins with the goal of determining protein alteration associated with low-dose whole body ionizing radiation (X-rays, 1Gy) of 5.5-month-old male C57BL/6J mice post contextual fear conditioning training. Global proteome analysis revealed deregulation of 73 proteins (out of 399 proteins). Deregulated proteins indicated adverse effects of irradiation on myelination and perturbation of energy metabolism pathways involving a shift from the TCA cycle to glutamate oxidation. Our findings also indicate that proteins associated with synaptic activity, including vesicle recycling and neurotransmission, were altered in the irradiated mice. The elevated LTP and decreased LTD suggest improved synaptic transmission and enhanced efficiency of neurotransmitter release which would be consistent with the observed comparable contextual fear memory performance of the mice following post-training whole body or sham-irradiation. This study is significant because the biological consequences of low dose radiation on learning and memory are complex and not yet well understood. We conducted a IMS-enhanced MS(E)-based label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of hippocampal tissue with the goal of determining protein alteration associated with low-dose whole body ionizing radiation (X-ray, 1Gy) of 5.5-month-old male C57BL/6J mice post contextual fear conditioning training. The IMS-enhanced MS(E) approach in conjunction with ISOQuant software was robust and accurate with low median CV values of

  17. Barriers and facilitators of consumer use of nutrition labels at sit-down restaurant chains.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Young, Candace; Davis, Andrea L; Wasson, Sara; Chilton, Mariana; Karamanian, Vanesa

    2013-12-01

    Numerous localities have mandated that chain restaurants post nutrition information at the point of purchase. However, some studies suggest that consumers are not highly responsive to menu labelling. The present qualitative study explored influences on full-service restaurant customers’ noticing and using menu labelling. Five focus groups were conducted with thirty-six consumers. A semi-structured script elicited barriers and facilitators to using nutrition information by showing excerpts of real menus from full-service chain restaurants. Participants were recruited from a full-service restaurant chain in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, in September 2011. Focus group participants were mostly female, African American, with incomes <$US 60 000, mean age 36 years and education 14·5 years. At recruitment, 33 % (n 12) reported changing their order after seeing nutrition information on the menu. Three themes characterized influences on label use in restaurants: nutrition knowledge, menu design and display, and normative attitudes and behaviours. Barriers to using labels were low prior knowledge of nutrition; displaying nutrition information using codes; low expectations of the nutritional quality of restaurant food; and restaurant discounts, promotions and social influences that overwhelmed interest in nutrition and reinforced disinterest in nutrition. Facilitators were higher prior knowledge of recommended daily intake; spending time reading the menu; having strong prior interest in nutrition/healthy eating; and being with people who reinforced dietary priorities. Menu labelling use may increase if consumers learn a few key recommended dietary reference values, understand basic energy intake/expenditure scenarios and if chain restaurants present nutrition information in a user-friendly way and promote healthier items.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  19. Medication use in pregnancy and the pregnancy and lactation labeling rule.

    PubMed

    Sahin, L; Nallani, S C; Tassinari, M S

    2016-07-01

    On 30 June 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule (PLLR) took effect. This rule sets new and improved standards for the inclusion of information about the use of prescription drugs and biological products during pregnancy and lactation. The new labeling requirements have important implications for clinical pharmacology as there is a subheading that is dedicated to inclusion of clinical pharmacology information that inform dosing during pregnancy and the postpartum period, if available. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. CH5424802 (RO5424802) for patients with ALK-rearranged advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (AF-001JP study): a single-arm, open-label, phase 1-2 study.

    PubMed

    Seto, Takashi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Nishio, Makoto; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Maemondo, Makoto; Inoue, Akira; Hida, Toyoaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Harada, Masao; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nogami, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Kengo; Shimada, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Tomohide

    2013-06-01

    Currently, crizotinib is the only drug that has been approved for treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to study the activity and safety of CH5424802, a potent, selective, and orally available ALK inhibitor. In this multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 1-2 study of CH5424802, we recruited ALK inhibitor-naive patients with ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC from 13 hospitals in Japan. In the phase 1 portion of the study, patients received CH5424802 orally twice daily by dose escalation. The primary endpoints of the phase 1 were dose limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetic parameters. In the phase 2 portion of the study, patients received CH5424802 at the recommended dose identified in the phase 1 portion of the study orally twice a day. The primary endpoint of the phase 2 was the proportion of patients who had an objective response. Treatment was continued in 21-day cycles until disease progression, intolerable adverse events, or withdrawal of consent. The analysis was done by intent to treat. This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center, number JapicCTI-101264. Patients were enrolled between Sept 10, 2010, and April 18, 2012. The data cutoff date was July 31, 2012. In the phase 1 portion, 24 patients were treated at doses of 20-300 mg twice daily. No DLTs or adverse events of grade 4 were noted up to the highest dose; thus 300 mg twice daily was the recommended phase 2 dose. In the phase 2 portion of the study, 46 patients were treated with the recommended dose, of whom 43 achieved an objective response (93.5%, 95% CI 82.1-98.6) including two complete responses (4.3%, 0.5-14.8) and 41 partial responses (89.1%, 76.4-96.4). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 were recorded in 12 (26%) of 46 patients, including two patients each experiencing decreased neutrophil count and increased blood creatine phosphokinase. Serious adverse events occurred in five patients

  1. Drug Labeling and Exposure in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, Matthew M.; Avant, Debbie; Tripathi, Nidhi; Hornik, Christoph P.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian; Rodriguez, William

    2014-01-01

    Importance Federal legislation has led to a notable increase in pediatric studies submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), resulting in new pediatric information in product labeling. However, approximately 50% of drug labels still have insufficient information on safety, efficacy, or dosing in children. Neonatal information in labeling is even scarcer because neonates comprise a vulnerable subpopulation for which end point development is lagging and studies are more challenging. Objective To quantify progress made in neonatal studies and neonatal information in product labeling as result of recent legislation. Design 1. Cohort of neonatal drug studies; and 2. Cohort of infants exposed to these drugs.. Setting 1. Neonatal drug studies: FDA website; 2. National review: infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) Participants 1) We identified drug studies between 1997 and 2010 that included neonates as a result of pediatric legislation using information available on the FDA website. We determined what studies were published in the medical literature, the legislation responsible for the studies, and the resulting neonatal labeling changes. 2) We then examined the use of these drugs in neonates admitted to 290 NICUs (the Pediatrix Data Warehouse) in the United States from 2005–2010. Exposures Infants exposed to a drug studied in neonates as identified by the FDA website Main outcome measures Number of drug studies with neonates and rate of exposure per 1000 admission among infants admitted to a NICU Results In a review of the FDA databases, we identified 28 drugs studied in neonates and 24 related labeling changes. Forty-one studies encompassed the 28 drugs, and 31 (76%) of these were published. Eleven (46%) of the 24 neonatal labeling changes established safety and effectiveness. In a review of a cohort of 446,335 hospitalized infants, we identified 399 drugs used and 1,525,739 drug exposures in the first 28 postnatal days. Thirteen (46%) of

  2. Preventing postmarketing changes in recommended doses and marketing withdrawals.

    PubMed

    Peck, C

    2007-01-01

    Recent market withdrawals of prescription drug products have brought attention to premarketing safety research. Less known but related to some drug withdrawals are postmarketing dosage changes of newly marketed drugs, including both dosage reductions and increases. These events have serious effects on patients, manufacturers, and regulatory authorities. Most of these harmful events could be avoided by intensive employment of targeted clinical pharmacology investigations to optimize dosage prior to phase III testing and regulatory approval. In this paper, the frequency and implications of postmarketing dosing changes and market withdrawals are considered in light of approaches to preventing them.

  3. Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Tejpratap; Moro, Pedro; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Reingold, Arthur; Sawyer, Mark; Clark, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    Summary This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; it is intended for use by clinicians and public health providers as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Infants and young children are recommended to receive a 5-dose series of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines, with one adolescent booster dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Adults who have never received Tdap also are recommended to receive a booster dose of Tdap. Women are recommended to receive a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, which should be administered from 27 through 36 weeks’ gestation, regardless of previous receipt of Tdap. After receipt of Tdap, adolescents and adults are recommended to receive a booster tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine every 10 years to assure ongoing protection against tetanus and diphtheria. PMID:29702631

  4. Dissemination of information on the off-label (unapproved) use of medication: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rita-Marié

    2011-03-01

    "Off-label" in relation to the use of medication means that a medicine is used in another way or for indications other than those specified in its conditions of registration and reflected in its labelling. The off-label use of medication accounts for an estimated 21 per cent of drug use overall and is an important part of mainstream, legitimate medical practice worldwide. In South Africa, legislation prohibits the dissemination of information regarding the off-label use of medication. There are diverging views on whether pharmaceutical companies should be allowed to distribute scientific publications on off-label uses of approved drugs. Current policy in the United States of America (USA) eases restrictions on the dissemination of information of this nature. The prohibitions existing in South Africa, however, are more comparable with those in European countries. After analysing the different legal positions on the issue, it is submitted that pharmaceutical companies should not be allowed to disseminate information on off-label uses, but that the regulatory authority play an active and leading role in providing the latest, objective medical and scientific information, as well as guidelines on the off-label use of medication. Other related recommendations are also made.

  5. Prediction of Vancomycin Dose for Recommended Trough Concentrations in Pediatric Patients With Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Raid W; Guttmann, Rodney P; Harris, Quianna R; Thomas, Janesha W

    2018-05-01

    Vancomycin is a key antibiotic used in the treatment of multiple conditions including infections associated with cystic fibrosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study sought to develop a model based on empirical evidence of optimal vancomycin dose as judged by clinical observations that could accelerate the achievement of desired trough level in children with cystic fibrosis. Transformations of dose and trough were used to arrive at regression models with excellent fit for dose based on weight or age for a target trough. Results of this study indicate that the 2 proposed regression models are robust to changes in age or weight, suggesting that the daily dose on a per-kilogram basis is determined primarily by the desired trough level. The results show that to obtain a vancomycin trough level of 20 μg/mL, a dose of 80 mg/kg/day is needed. This analysis should improve the efficiency of vancomycin usage by reducing the number of titration steps, resulting in improved patient outcome and experience. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Broder, Karen R; Temte, Jonathan L; Snider, Dixie E; Seward, Jane F

    2010-05-07

    This report presents new recommendations adopted in June 2009 by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of the combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV, ProQuad, Merck & Co., Inc.). MMRV vaccine was licensed in the United States in September 2005 and may be used instead of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR, M-M-RII, Merck & Co., Inc.) and varicella vaccine (VARIVAX, Merck & Co., Inc.) to implement the recommended 2-dose vaccine schedule for prevention of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella among children aged 12 months-12 years. At the time of its licensure, use of MMRV vaccine was preferred for both the first and second doses over separate injections of equivalent component vaccines (MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine), which was consistent with ACIP's 2006 general recommendations on use of combination vaccines (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55;[No. RR-15]). Since July 2007, supplies of MMRV vaccine have been temporarily unavailable as a result of manufacturing constraints unrelated to efficacy or safety. MMRV vaccine is expected to be available again in the United States in May 2010. In February 2008, on the basis of preliminary data from two studies conducted postlicensure that suggested an increased risk for febrile seizures 5-12 days after vaccination among children aged 12-23 months who had received the first dose of MMRV vaccine compared with children the same age who had received the first dose of MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered as separate injections at the same visit, ACIP issued updated recommendations regarding MMRV vaccine use (CDC. Update: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] regarding administration of combination MMRV vaccine. MMWR 2008;57:258-60). These updated recommendations expressed no preference for use of MMRV vaccine over

  7. Implications of current recommendations for third-generation cephalosporin use in the WHO Western Pacific Region following the emergence of multiresistant gonococci.

    PubMed

    Tapsall, J W

    2009-08-01

    To ascertain recommendations for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) following the emergence of "cephalosporin-resistant" Neisseria gonorrhoeae and to relate these to clinical and laboratory measures directed towards disease and antibiotic resistance control. WHO WPR Gonococcal Antimicrobial Resistance Programme members provided data on the type, dose and source of third-generation cephalosporins recommended for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Ceftriaxone was recommended more widely (11/15 respondents) than cefixime (five centres). No cephalosporins were recommended in three jurisdictions. One other oral (ceftibuten) and injectable (cefodizime) agent was recommended. Uniform (400 mg) doses of cefixime were recommended but ceftriaxone regimens ranged between 125 mg and 1 g, with nine of 11 respondents using a 250 mg dose. Both generic and proprietary preparations were widely used. Third-generation cephalosporins are widely recommended for the treatment of gonorrhoea in the WPR, with injectable ceftriaxone more extensively so than oral cefixime and in an expanded dose range. Few other cephalosporins were recommended. Current knowledge suggests that the trend towards ceftriaxone treatment in higher doses may decrease the impact of the circulation of "cephalosporin-resistant" gonococci in the WPR. These recommendations represent public sector practice only and of themselves are unlikely to contain the further spread of "cephalosporin-resistant" gonococci because of the general clinical use of cephalosporins. Optimisation of strategies for laboratory detection of third-generation cephalosporin resistance can be simplified in the WPR because of the restricted spectrum of cephalosporins recommended. Additional efforts are urgently required for both disease and antibiotic resistance control in gonorrhoea.

  8. Phase I, Dose-Escalation, Two-Part Trial of the PARP Inhibitor Talazoparib in Patients with Advanced Germline BRCA1/2 Mutations and Selected Sporadic Cancers.

    PubMed

    de Bono, Johann; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Mina, Lida; Chugh, Rashmi; Glaspy, John; Rafii, Saeed; Kaye, Stan; Sachdev, Jasgit; Heymach, John; Smith, David C; Henshaw, Joshua W; Herriott, Ashleigh; Patterson, Miranda; Curtin, Nicola J; Byers, Lauren Averett; Wainberg, Zev A

    2017-06-01

    Talazoparib inhibits PARP catalytic activity, trapping PARP1 on damaged DNA and causing cell death in BRCA1/2 -mutated cells. We evaluated talazoparib therapy in this two-part, phase I, first-in-human trial. Antitumor activity, MTD, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of once-daily talazoparib were determined in an open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study (NCT01286987). The MTD was 1.0 mg/day, with an elimination half-life of 50 hours. Treatment-related adverse events included fatigue (26/71 patients; 37%) and anemia (25/71 patients; 35%). Grade 3 to 4 adverse events included anemia (17/71 patients; 24%) and thrombocytopenia (13/71 patients; 18%). Sustained PARP inhibition was observed at doses ≥0.60 mg/day. At 1.0 mg/day, confirmed responses were observed in 7 of 14 (50%) and 5 of 12 (42%) patients with BRCA mutation-associated breast and ovarian cancers, respectively, and in patients with pancreatic and small cell lung cancer. Talazoparib demonstrated single-agent antitumor activity and was well tolerated in patients at the recommended dose of 1.0 mg/day. Significance: In this clinical trial, we show that talazoparib has single-agent antitumor activity and a tolerable safety profile. At its recommended phase II dose of 1.0 mg/day, confirmed responses were observed in patients with BRCA mutation-associated breast and ovarian cancers and in patients with pancreatic and small cell lung cancer. Cancer Discov; 7(6); 620-9. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 539 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Comparing errors in ED computer-assisted vs conventional pediatric drug dosing and administration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren; Kanemori, Joan

    2010-06-01

    Compared to fixed-dose single-vial drug administration in adults, pediatric drug dosing and administration requires a series of calculations, all of which are potentially error prone. The purpose of this study is to compare error rates and task completion times for common pediatric medication scenarios using computer program assistance vs conventional methods. Two versions of a 4-part paper-based test were developed. Each part consisted of a set of medication administration and/or dosing tasks. Emergency department and pediatric intensive care unit nurse volunteers completed these tasks using both methods (sequence assigned to start with a conventional or a computer-assisted approach). Completion times, errors, and the reason for the error were recorded. Thirty-eight nurses completed the study. Summing the completion of all 4 parts, the mean conventional total time was 1243 seconds vs the mean computer program total time of 879 seconds (P < .001). The conventional manual method had a mean of 1.8 errors vs the computer program with a mean of 0.7 errors (P < .001). Of the 97 total errors, 36 were due to misreading the drug concentration on the label, 34 were due to calculation errors, and 8 were due to misplaced decimals. Of the 36 label interpretation errors, 18 (50%) occurred with digoxin or insulin. Computerized assistance reduced errors and the time required for drug administration calculations. A pattern of errors emerged, noting that reading/interpreting certain drug labels were more error prone. Optimizing the layout of drug labels could reduce the error rate for error-prone labels. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic Labeling: Individual Differences in the Behavior of Clinicians Conducting Presentence Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Terrill R.

    1979-01-01

    Clinicians with highly deviant recommendation rates also exhibited extreme differences in their use of the normal and sociopathic categories. It was concluded that biases in the definition and assignment of labels might be reduced by means of a combined clinical-statistical approach to gathering and utilizing diagnostic information. (Author)

  11. Masitinib in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis: results of a multicentre, open-label, dose-ranging, phase 2a study

    PubMed Central

    Tebib, Jacques; Mariette, Xavier; Bourgeois, Pierre; Flipo, René-Marc; Gaudin, Philippe; Le Loët, Xavier; Gineste, Paul; Guy, Laurent; Mansfield, Colin D; Moussy, Alain; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Sibilia, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Since current treatment options for patients suffering from active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain inadequate, especially for those unresponsive to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), new and improved medication is needed. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of masitinib (AB1010), a potent and selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-KIT, in the monotherapy treatment of DMARD-refractory RA. Methods This was a multicentre, uncontrolled, open-label, randomised, dose-ranging, phase 2a trial. Masitinib was administered orally to 43 patients who had inadequate response to DMARDs, at initial randomised dosing levels of 3 and 6 mg/kg per day over a 12-week period. Dose adjustment was permitted based upon tolerability and response criteria. Efficacy was assessed via American College of Rheumatology 20%/50%/70% improvement criteria (ACR20/50/70) responses, disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28), index of improvement in RA (ACRn) and C-reactive protein (CRP) improvement, relative to baseline at week 12. Results Improvement was observed in all efficacy endpoints, including ACR20/50/70 scores of 54%, 26% and 8%, respectively, and a reduction in CRP level by greater than 50% for approximately half the population. This improvement was sustainable throughout an extension phase (> 84 weeks) and was also independent of initial DMARD resistance (anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha and/or methotrexate). A relatively high patient withdrawal rate (37%) required the use of last observation carried forward (LOCF) data imputation. Incidence of adverse events was high (95%), although the majority were of mild or moderate severity with a considerable decline in frequency observed after 12 weeks of treatment. Two nonfatal serious adverse events were reported. Dose-response analyses tentatively indicate that an initial dosing level of 6.0 mg/kg per day administered orally in two daily intakes is the most appropriate, based upon potency

  12. SPIO-labeled Yttrium Microspheres for MR Imaging Quantification of Transcatheter Intrahepatic Delivery in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhuoli; Gordon, Andrew C.; Chen, Jeane; Nicolai, Jodi; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Omary, Reed A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the qualitative and quantitative impacts of labeling yttrium microspheres with increasing amounts of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) material for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in phantom and rodent models. Materials and Methods Animal model studies were approved by the institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The r2* relaxivity for each of four microsphere SPIO compositions was determined from 32 phantoms constructed with agarose gel and in eight concentrations from each of the four compositions. Intrahepatic transcatheter infusion procedures were performed in rats by using each of the four compositions before MR imaging to visualize distributions within the liver. For quantitative studies, doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg 2% SPIO-labeled yttrium microspheres were infused into 24 rats (six rats per group). MR imaging R2* measurements were used to quantify the dose delivered to each liver. Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, and intraclass correlation analyses were performed to compare MR imaging measurements in phantoms and animal models. Results Increased r2* relaxivity was observed with incremental increases of SPIO microsphere content. R2* measurements of the 2% SPIO–labeled yttrium microsphere concentration were well correlated with known phantom concentrations (R2 = 1.00, P < .001) over a broader linear range than observed for the other three compositions. Microspheres were heterogeneously distributed within each liver; increasing microsphere SPIO content produced marked signal voids. R2*-based measurements of 2% SPIO–labeled yttrium microsphere delivery were well correlated with infused dose (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.98; P < .001). Conclusion MR imaging R2* measurements of yttrium microspheres labeled with 2% SPIO can quantitatively depict in vivo intrahepatic biodistribution in a rat model. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26313619

  13. Measuring the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhensen; Zhang, Xingxing; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Xihai; van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-05-01

    Optimization and validation of a sequence for measuring the labeling efficiency of pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) perfusion MRI. The proposed sequence consists of a labeling module and a single slice Look-Locker echo planar imaging readout. A model-based algorithm was used to calculate labeling efficiency from the signal acquired from the main brain-feeding arteries. Stability of the labeling efficiency measurement was evaluated with regard to the use of cardiac triggering, flow compensation and vein signal suppression. Accuracy of the measurement was assessed by comparing the measured labeling efficiency to mean brain pCASL signal intensity over a wide range of flip angles as applied in the pCASL labeling. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can effectively calculate labeling efficiency when correcting for T1 relaxation of the blood spins. Use of cardiac triggering and vein signal suppression improved stability of the labeling efficiency measurement, while flow compensation resulted in little improvement. The measured labeling efficiency was found to be linearly (R = 0.973; P < 0.001) related to brain pCASL signal intensity over a wide range of pCASL flip angles. The optimized labeling efficiency sequence provides robust artery-specific labeling efficiency measurement within a short acquisition time (∼30 s), thereby enabling improved accuracy of pCASL CBF quantification. Magn Reson Med 77:1841-1852, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Magn Reson Med 77:1841-1852, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Trial Evaluating Ambulatory Therapy of Travelers' Diarrhea (TrEAT TD) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 3 Single-Dose Antibiotic Regimens With Loperamide.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Connor, Patrick; Fraser, Jamie; Porter, Chad K; Swierczewski, Brett; Hutley, Emma J; Danboise, Brook; Simons, Mark P; Hulseberg, Christine; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Gutierrez, Ramiro L; Tribble, David R

    2017-11-29

    Recommended treatment for travelers' diarrhea includes the combination of an antibiotic, usually a fluoroquinolone or azithromycin, and loperamide for rapid resolution of symptoms. However, adverse events, postdose nausea with high-dose azithromycin, effectiveness of single-dose rifaximin, and emerging resistance to front-line agents are evidence gaps underlying current recommendations. A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 4 countries (Afghanistan, Djibouti, Kenya, and Honduras) between September 2012 and July 2015. US and UK service members with acute watery diarrhea were randomized and received single-dose azithromycin (500 mg; 106 persons), levofloxacin (500 mg; 111 persons), or rifaximin (1650 mg; 107 persons), in combination with loperamide (labeled dosing). The efficacy outcomes included clinical cure at 24 hours and time to last unformed stool. Clinical cure at 24 hours occurred in 81.4%, 78.3%, and 74.8% of the levofloxacin, azithromycin, and rifaximin arms, respectively. Compared with levofloxacin, azithromycin was not inferior (P = .01). Noninferiority could not be shown with rifaximin (P = .07). At 48 and 72 hours, efficacy among regimens was equivalent (approximately 91% at 48 and 96% at 72 hours). The median time to last unformed stool did not differ between treatment arms (azithromycin, 3.8 hours; levofloxacin, 6.4 hours; rifaximin, 5.6 hours). Treatment failures were uncommon (3.8%, 4.4%, and 1.9% in azithromycin, levofloxacin, and rifaximin arms, respectively) (P = .55). There were no differences between treatment arms with postdose nausea, vomiting, or other adverse events. Single-dose azithromycin, levofloxacin, and rifaximin with loperamide were comparable for treatment of acute watery diarrhea. NCT01618591. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2016 recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Álvarez García, F J; Arístegui Fernández, J; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Corretger Rauet, J M; García Sánchez, N; Hernández Merino, A; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Merino Moína, M; Ortigosa del Castillo, L; Ruiz-Contreras, J

    2016-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) annually publishes the immunisation schedule which, in our opinion, estimates optimal for children resident in Spain, considering available evidence on current vaccines. We acknowledge the effort of the Ministry of Health during the last year in order to optimize the funded unified Spanish vaccination schedule, with the recent inclusion of pneumococcal and varicella vaccination in early infancy. Regarding the funded vaccines included in the official unified immunization schedule, taking into account available data, CAV-AEP recommends 2+1 strategy (2, 4 and 12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) vaccines and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Administration of Tdap and poliomyelitis booster dose at the age of 6 is recommended, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women, between 27-36 weeks gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 11-12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. Regarding recommended unfunded immunisations, CAV-AEP recommends the administration of meningococcal B vaccine, due to the current availability in Spanish communitary pharmacies, with a 3+1 scheme (3, 5, 7 and 13-15 months). CAV-AEP requests the incorporation of this vaccine in the funded unified schedule. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Annual influenza immunisation and vaccination against hepatitis A are indicated in population groups considered at risk. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. An open-label, flexible dose adaptive study evaluating the efficacy of vortioxetine in subjects with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anish; Northcutt, Joanne

    2018-01-01

    Despite the current treatments available for panic disorder (PD), as many as one-third of patients have persistent and treatment-resistant panic attacks. Vortioxetine is an approved medicine for major depressive disorder and has been shown to have anxiolytic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficacy and safety in an adult population with a diagnosis of PD. The study design was open label with flexible dose strategies (5, 10, or 20 mg) with a treatment period of 10 weeks. 27 male and female subjects aged between 18 and 60 years, who met DSM-IV criteria for PD with or without agoraphobia, or who had a Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) score > 8 at baseline were enrolled. Statistical significance was established by the Student's T test. A statistically significant decrease in the occurrence of panic attacks was measured with the PDSS with vortioxetine. In addition, a moderate improvement in the quality of life and no significant side effects were observed using the Quality-of-Life Scale and Monitoring of Side Effects Scale, respectively. These results provide some support for the use of vortioxetine in the management of panic disorder. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID#: NCT02395510. Registered March 23, 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02395510.

  17. Exercise Dose in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wasfy, Meagan; Baggish, Aaron L.

    2016-01-01

    There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice. PMID:27267537

  18. Parental misinterpretations of over-the-counter pediatric cough and cold medication labels.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Nicole; Sanders, Lee; Perrin, Eliana M; Kumar, Disha; Finkle, Joanne; Franco, Vivian; Choi, Leena; Johnston, Philip E; Rothman, Russell L

    2009-06-01

    Concerns about the safety and efficacy of over-the-counter cold medications have led to a recent US Food and Drug Administration public health advisory against their use in children <2 years of age. Our goal was to examine caregiver understanding of the age indication of over-the-counter cold medication labels and identify factors, associated with caregiver understanding. Caregivers of infant children (< or =1 year old) were recruited from clinics at 3 institutions. Questions were administered regarding the use of 4 previously common "infant" over-the-counter cold and cough medicines labeled to consult a physician if used in children <2 years of age. Literacy and numeracy skills were assessed with validated instruments. A total of 182 caregivers were recruited; 87% were the infants' mothers. Mean education level was 12.5 years, and 99% had adequate literacy skills, but only 17% had >9th-grade numeracy skills. When examining the front of the product label, 86% of the time parents thought these products were appropriate for use in children <2 years of age. More than 50% of the time, parents stated they would give these over-the-counter products to a 13-month-old child with cold symptoms. Common factors that influenced parental decisions included label saying "infant," graphics (eg, infants, teddy bears, droppers), and dosing directions. Caregivers were influenced by the dosing directions only 47% of the time. Caregivers with lower numeracy skills were more likely to provide inappropriate reasons for giving an over-the-counter medication. Misunderstanding of over-the-counter cold products is common and could result in harm if medications are given inappropriately. Label language and graphics seem to influence inappropriate interpretation of over-the-counter product age indications. Poorer parental numeracy skills may increase the misinterpretation of these products. Opportunities exist for the Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers to revise existing labels to

  19. Bioequivalence between two serum-free recombinant factor VIII preparations (N8 and ADVATE®)--an open-label, sequential dosing pharmacokinetic study in patients with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Martinowitz, U; Bjerre, J; Brand, B; Klamroth, R; Misgav, M; Morfini, M; Santagostino, E; Tiede, A; Viuff, D

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant coagulation factor VIII (rFVIII) concentrates provide a safe and efficacious replacement therapy for treatment and prevention of bleeding in patients with severe haemophilia A. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of two serum-free rFVIII products: N8, a new rFVIII manufactured by Novo Nordisk and Advate(®), a marketed product. Patients with severe haemophilia A with >150 exposure days to FVIII, without current or past inhibitors, were enrolled in an open-label, first human dose (FHD), multicentre trial. Twenty-three patients first received a single dose of 50 IU kg(-1) body weight Advate(®) followed by 50 IU kg(-1) body weight N8 at the next visit. A 4-day washout period was required prior to each dosing. Blood samples for PK and safety analyses were drawn prior to dosing and at intervals up until 48 h postdosing. The PK parameters were based on FVIII clotting activity (FVIII:C) measurements. Occurrence of adverse events was closely monitored. The mean profiles of FVIII:C and all primary and secondary parameters for Advate(®) and N8 were comparable. The 90% CI for the treatment ratio (Advate(®)/N8) for all primary endpoints (incremental recovery, t(1/2), AUC and Cl), and the secondary endpoints (AUC(last) and C(max)) were within the bioequivalence interval of 0.8-1.25. There were no safety concerns in the study and no reports of inhibitor formation in the 72-h period following exposure to a single N8 dose. In conclusion, N8 is bioequivalent to Advate(®). Furthermore, N8 is well tolerated in the FHD trial. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Recommendations for the use of methotrexate in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Antón, J; López Robledillo, J C; de Inocencio, J; Gamir, M L; Merino, R; Lacruz, L; Camacho, M; Rua, M J; Bustabad, S; Díaz Cordovés-Rego, G

    2016-03-01

    To develop a consensus document of recommendations for the use of methotrexate (MTX) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A group of eleven experts proposed several clinical questions on the use of MTX in patients with JIA. A systematic review was conducted and the evidence and recommendations for each question were extracted. The results were discussed and validated by the experts in a work session to establish the final recommendations. MTX is recommended as the first drug for inducing remission in JIA, and its indication should be made according to the clinical category of the patient. Prior to treatment, it is recommended to perform a complete blood count, including white cells, levels of liver enzymes, serum creatinine, and other analytical parameters according to specific risk factors. Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10-15 mg/m(2)/week. In cases of uveitis or polyarthritis, an initial dose of 15 mg/m(2)/week should be considered. For a better bioavailability and tolerability, it is preferable to administer MTX parenterally if the dose is ≥15 mg/m(2)/week. It is necessary to periodically perform an analytical monitoring of the patient and to assess possible alterations in liver enzymes to make changes if necessary. Combinations with biological agents may be necessary, as well as the concomitant addition of folic or folinic acid. This document describes the main recommendations for the appropriate use of MTX in JIA patients, according to scientific evidence and clinical experience. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Tucatinib with capecitabine and trastuzumab in advanced HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases: a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b study.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Rashmi; Borges, Virginia F; Conlin, Alison; Chaves, Jorge; Chamberlain, Marc; Gray, Todd; Vo, Alex; Hamilton, Erika

    2018-05-24

    Tucatinib is a potent and selective oral HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with the potential to provide a well tolerated new treatment option for patients whose disease has progressed on currently available therapies. We aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of tucatinib in combination with capecitabine or trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with or without brain metastases. In this non-randomised, open-label, phase 1b trial done in five sites in the USA, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with HER2-positive progressive breast cancer who had been previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine. Eligible patients required HER2-positivity assessed locally, evaluable lesions as defined per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Tucatinib was administered twice a day in conjunction with capecitabine 1000 mg/m 2 orally twice a day for 14 days of a 21-day cycle, trastuzumab 6 mg/kg intravenously once every 21 days, or both. A modified 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine the recommended phase 2 dose, starting with tucatinib in combination with capecitabine or trastuzumab, and subsequently evaluating the triplet combination. The primary endpoint was to establish the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of tucatinib, evaluated by toxicity assessments. Efficacy was assessed in all patients by contrast CT of the body. Analyses included all patients who had received at least one dose of study treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02025192. Between Jan 15, 2014, and Dec 15, 2015, 60 patients were enrolled and treated. The current report is from mature data as of June 30, 2017. The tucatinib recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 300 mg orally twice a day, equivalent to single-agent maximum tolerated

  2. A Framework for "Fit for Purpose" Dose Response Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NRC report Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment made several recommendations to improve chemical risk assessment, with a focus on in-depth chronic dose-response assessments conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The recommendations addressed two ...

  3. Assessment of levothyroxine sodium bioavailability: recommendations for an improved methodology based on the pooled analysis of eight identically designed trials with 396 drug exposures.

    PubMed

    Walter-Sack, Ingeborg; Clanget, Christof; Ding, Reinhard; Goeggelmann, Christoph; Hinke, Vera; Lang, Matthias; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Tayrouz, Yorki; Wegscheider, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of dosage form performance in delivering endogenous compounds, such as hormones, in vivo requires a specific approach. Assessment of relative bioavailability of levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) from eight solid preparations, compared with a liquid formulation, by using pharmacological doses, and critical evaluation of trial methodology based on the pooled analysis of individual data. Eight open-label, randomised, single-dose, crossover phase I studies using eight solid L-T4 dosage forms (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200 microg per tablet; administered total doses 600, 625 or 700 microg) and a liquid formulation; assessment of relative bioavailability by 90% confidence intervals for the relative area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of total thyroxine (TT4), i.e. protein-bound plus free thyroxine, calculated by using the recommended log AUC four-way analysis of variance models for crossover designs. For the pooled analysis, general linear models were applied to assess the validity of model assumptions, to identify potential sources of effect modification, to discuss alternative modelling approaches with respect to endogenous hormone secretion and to give recommendations for future designs and sample sizes. One hundred and sixty-nine healthy males; 29 of these individuals participating in two studies. Single oral doses of L-T4 tablets and the liquid formulation administered after fasting, separated by at least 6 weeks; a total of 396 drug exposures. TT4 AUC from 0 to 48 hours and peak plasma concentration with and without baseline correction. Each study demonstrated equivalence of the tablets to the drinking solution, independent of the chosen analysis model. Sequence effects that could devalidate the chosen crossover approach were not found. Period effects with changing directions that could best be explained by seasonal variation were detected. While the pre-specified method of baseline correction of simply subtracting individual time-zero TT4

  4. IMPY: an improved thioflavin-T derivative for in vivo labeling of beta-amyloid plaques.

    PubMed

    Kung, Mei-Ping; Hou, Catherine; Zhuang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Bin; Skovronsky, Daniel; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Kung, Hank F

    2002-11-29

    Development of small molecular probes for in vivo labeling and detection of beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques in patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of significant scientific interest, and it may also assist the development of drugs targeting Abeta plaques for treatment of AD. A novel probe, [123I/(125)I]IMPY, 6-iodo-2-(4'-dimethylamino-)phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, was successfully prepared with an iododestannylation reaction catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide. The modified thioflavin-T derivative displayed a good binding affinity for preformed synthetic Abeta40 aggregates in solution (K(i)=15+/-5 nM) and showed selective plaque labeling on postmortem AD brain sections. Biodistribution study in normal mice after an iv injection of [125I]IMPY exhibited excellent brain uptake (2.9% initial dose/brain at 2 min) and fast washout (0.2% initial dose/brain at 60 min). These properties are highly desirable for amyloid plaque imaging agents. In vivo plaque labeling was evaluated in a transgenic mouse model (Tg2576) engineered to produce excess amyloid plaques in the brain. Ex vivo autoradiograms of brain sections of the Tg 2576 mouse obtained at 4 h after an i.v. injection of [125I]IMPY clearly displayed a distinct plaque labeling with a low background activity. When the same brain section was stained with a fluorescent dye, thioflavin-S, the same Abeta plaques showed prominent fluorescent labeling consistent with the results of the autoradiogram. In conclusion, these findings clearly suggest that radioiodinated IMPY demonstrates desirable characteristics for in vivo labeling of Abeta plaques and it may be useful as a molecular imaging agent to study amyloidogenesis in the brain of living AD patients. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. The future of warfarin pharmacogenetics in under-represented minority groups

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Perera, Minoli A

    2012-01-01

    Genotype-based dosing recommendations are provided in the US FDA-approved warfarin labeling. However, data that informed these recommendations were from predominately Caucasian populations. Studies show that variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in Caucasians provide similar contributions to dose requirements in US Hispanics, but significantly lesser contributions in African–Americans. Further data demonstrate that variants occurring commonly in individuals of African ancestry, but rarely in other racial groups, significantly influence dose requirements in African–Americans. These data suggest that it is important to consider variants specific for African–Americans when implementing genotype-guided warfarin dosing in this population. PMID:22871196

  6. Performance evaluation of multi-material electronic cleansing for ultra-low-dose dual-energy CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Rie; Kohlhase, Naja; Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Ota, Junko; Ishida, Takayuki; Regge, Daniele; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Accurate electronic cleansing (EC) for CT colonography (CTC) enables the visualization of the entire colonic surface without residual materials. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of a novel multi-material electronic cleansing (MUMA-EC) scheme for non-cathartic ultra-low-dose dual-energy CTC (DE-CTC). The MUMA-EC performs a wateriodine material decomposition of the DE-CTC images and calculates virtual monochromatic images at multiple energies, after which a random forest classifier is used to label the images into the regions of lumen air, soft tissue, fecal tagging, and two types of partial-volume boundaries based on image-based features. After the labeling, materials other than soft tissue are subtracted from the CTC images. For pilot evaluation, 384 volumes of interest (VOIs), which represented sources of subtraction artifacts observed in current EC schemes, were sampled from 32 ultra-low-dose DE-CTC scans. The voxels in the VOIs were labeled manually to serve as a reference standard. The metric for EC accuracy was the mean overlap ratio between the labels of the reference standard and the labels generated by the MUMA-EC, a dualenergy EC (DE-EC), and a single-energy EC (SE-EC) scheme. Statistically significant differences were observed between the performance of the MUMA/DE-EC and the SE-EC methods (p<0.001). Visual assessment confirmed that the MUMA-EC generated less subtraction artifacts than did DE-EC and SE-EC. Our MUMA-EC scheme yielded superior performance over conventional SE-EC scheme in identifying and minimizing subtraction artifacts on noncathartic ultra-low-dose DE-CTC images.

  7. Six-month, open-label study of hydrocodone extended release formulated with abuse-deterrence technology: Safety, maintenance of analgesia, and abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin E; Ma, Yuju; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate long-term safety, maintenance of analgesia, and aberrant drug-related behaviors of hydrocodone extended release (ER) formulated with CIMA® Abuse-Deterrence Technology. Phase 3, multicenter, open-label extension. Fifty-six US centers. Adults with chronic low back pain completing a 12-week placebocontrolled study of abuse-deterrent hydrocodone ER were eligible. One hundred eighty-two patients enrolled and received ≥1 dose of study drug, 170 entered openlabel treatment, and 136 completed the study. Patients receiving hydrocodone ER in the 12-week, placebo-controlled study continued their previous dose unless adjustment was needed; those previously receiving placebo (n=78) underwent dose titration/adjustment to an analgesic dose (15-90 mg every 12 hours). Patients received 22 weeks of open-label treatment. adverse events (AEs). Maintenance of analgesia: worst pain intensity (WPI) and average pain intensity (API) at each study visit. Aberrant drug behavior: study drug loss and diversion. AEs were reported for 65/182 (36 percent) patients during dose titration/ adjustment and 88/170 (52 percent) during open-label treatment. No treatmentrelated serious AEs were reported. There were no clinically meaningful trends in other safety assessments, including physical examinations and pure tone audiometry. One patient receiving hydrocodone ER 30 mg twice daily experienced a severe AE of neurosensory deafness that was considered treatment related. Mean WPI and API remained steady throughout open-label treatment. Six (3 percent) patients reported medication loss, and 5 (3 percent) reported diversion. Abuse-deterrent hydrocodone ER was generally well tolerated in patients with chronic low back pain, maintained efficacy, and was associated with low rates of loss and diversion.

  8. Off-label use of misoprostol in gynaecology

    PubMed Central

    Turner, JV; Agatonovic-Kustrn, S; Ward, HRG

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of drugs is approved for specified clinical indication, route of administration, dose and population group. Off-label prescribing of a registered medicine occurs outside of these parameters and may be justified by pharmacology and physiology, as well as sufficient evidence from published clinical trials and reviews. Misoprostol and mifepristone in combination have recently been registered in Australia for medical termination of pregnancy in women of child-bearing age. There is good clinical evidence for efficacy and safety of misoprostol in uterine evacuation in both miscarriage and termination of pregnancy. The pharmacological effects of misoprostol on the uterus and clinical outcomes in both early miscarriage and abortion are comparable. Medical management of miscarriage with misoprostol in Australia is performed off-label. A woman presenting with first trimester miscarriage must be clearly informed that use of misoprostol in her case is for a non-approved indication. This raises the issue of inequity in her management compared with that of first trimester medical abortion, including being treated off-label and the potential cost of non-subsidised medication. The clinician must also be careful to use an evidence-based protocol that would withstand medicolegal challenge in the case of an adverse outcome. PMID:27729972

  9. Exercise Dose in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-06-07

    There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Open-label, dose-titration tolerability study of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Michihiro; Goto, Taro; Takita, Yasushi; Chung, Sang-Keun; Wang, Yufeng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the overall safety and tolerability of atomoxetine in Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 44 patients aged ≥18 years who met the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD were enrolled from China, Korea, and Taiwan. In this open-label, dose-escalation study, patients received atomoxetine orally once daily over a period of eight weeks, starting at 40 mg/day (one week) up to a maximum dosage of 120 mg/day. Tolerability was evaluated by rate of discontinuation due to adverse events. Safety was assessed by recording all adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms. ADHD symptoms were evaluated by the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) for efficacy assessment. Thirty-four patients (77.3%) completed the study. Atomoxetine was well tolerated with a discontinuation rate of 2.3% (1/44) due to adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and somnolence. The mean change from baseline to endpoint in CAARS-Inv:SV total ADHD symptom score was -12.5 (P < 0.001). A significant reduction in the CAARS-Inv:SV subscales (inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, and ADHD index score, P < 0.001) was observed. This is the first atomoxetine clinical trial in adult patients with ADHD in China, Korea, and Taiwan. Atomoxetine was well tolerated in doses of up to 120 mg/day with no unknown safety concerns. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Low dose naltrexone in multiple sclerosis: Effects on medication use. A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raknes, Guttorm; Småbrekke, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Low dose naltrexone (LDN) has become a popular off-label therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). A few small, randomized studies indicate that LDN may have beneficial effects in MS and other autoimmune diseases. If proven efficacious, it would be a cheap and safe alternative to the expensive treatments currently recommended for MS. We investigated whether a sudden increase in LDN use in Norway in 2013 was followed by changes in dispensing of other medications used to treat MS. We performed a quasi-experimental before-and-after study based on population data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We included all patients that collected at least one LDN prescription in 2013, and had collected at least two medications with a reimbursement code for MS, or collected a medication with MS as the only indication in 2009 or 2010. Outcomes were differences in cumulative dispensed doses and incidence of users of disease modifying MS therapies, and medications used to treat MS symptoms two years before and two years after dispensing the initial LDN prescription. The eligible 341 patients collected 20 921 prescriptions in the observation period. Apart from changes in line with general trends in MS therapy in Norway, there was no difference in neither dispensed cumulative doses or number of prevalent users of MS specific medication. Initiation of LDN was not followed by reductions of other medications used to treat symptoms associated with MS.

  12. Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using α-emitter astatine-211–labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Kornblit, Brian; Hamlin, Donald K.; Sale, George E.; Santos, Erlinda B.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storer, Barry E.; Storb, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    To reduce toxicity associated with external γ-beam radiation, we investigated radioimmunotherapy with an anti-CD45 mAb labeled with the α-emitter, astatine-211 (211At), as a conditioning regimen in dog leukocyte antigen-identical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Dose-finding studies in 6 dogs treated with 100 to 618 μCi/kg 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) without HCT rescue demonstrated dose-dependent myelosuppression with subsequent autologous recovery, and transient liver toxicity in dogs treated with 211At doses less than or equal to 405 μCi/kg. Higher doses of 211At induced clinical liver failure. Subsequently, 8 dogs were conditioned with 155 to 625 μCi/kg 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb (0.5 mg/kg) before HCT with dog leukocyte antigen-identical bone marrow followed by a short course of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. Neutropenia (1-146 cells/μL), lymphopenia (0-270 cells/μL), and thrombocytopenia (1500-6560 platelets/μL) with prompt recovery was observed. Seven dogs had long-term donor mononuclear cell chimerism (19%-58%), whereas 1 dog treated with the lowest 211At dose (155 μCi/kg) had low donor mononuclear cell chimerism (5%). At the end of follow-up (18-53 weeks), only transient liver toxicity and no renal toxicity had been observed. In conclusion, conditioning with 211At-labeled anti-CD45 mAb is safe and efficacious and provides a platform for future clinical trials of nonmyeloablative transplantation with radioimmunotherapy-based conditioning. PMID:22134165

  13. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  14. Melatonin for Sleep in Children with Autism: A Controlled Trial Examining Dose, Tolerability, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Beth; Adkins, Karen W.; McGrew, Susan G.; Wang, Lily; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Fawkes, Diane; Burnette, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental melatonin has shown promise in treating sleep onset insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four children, free of psychotropic medications, completed an open-label dose-escalation study to assess dose-response, tolerability, safety, feasibility of collecting actigraphy data, and ability of outcome measures…

  15. Pharmacokinetic Properties and Tolerability of Cycloserine Following Oral Administration in Healthy Chinese Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single- and Multiple-Dose 3-Way Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huili; Wu, Guolan; Hu, Xingjiang; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhai, You; Liu, Jian; Shentu, Jianzhong; Wu, Lihua

    2015-06-01

    A new generic formulation of cycloserine has been developed in China but the pharmacokinetic properties of cycloserine in the Chinese population have not been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of single and multiple oral administrations of cycloserine capsules in healthy Chinese volunteers. This open-label, single- and multiple-dose 3-way crossover study was conducted in healthy Chinese volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of cycloserine (250, 500, or 1000 mg) in separate trial periods, with a 1-week washout between periods. Those allocated to the 250-mg dose continued into the multiple-dose phase, in which they received 250 mg BID for 5 consecutive days. During the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected at regular intervals from 0 to 72 hours after drug administration and the concentrations of cycloserine were determined using LC-MS/MS. During the multiple-dose phase, blood samples were obtained before drug administration on Days 4, 5, and 6 to determine the Cmin at steady state. On Day 6, blood samples were also collected from 0 to 72 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was determined using clinical evaluation and monitoring of adverse events. The study enrolled 12 healthy Chinese volunteers (6 men: mean [SD] age = 23.0 [2.6] years, weight = 60.2 [6.2] kg, height = 170.0 [3.0] cm, and body mass index = 20.7 [1.7]; 6 women: mean [SD] age = 25.3 [1.4] years, weight = 51.5 [3.3] kg, height = 160.0 [4.0] cm, and body mass index = 20.1 [0.9]). After administration of a single dose, cycloserine was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak plasma concentrations approximately 0.84 hours after oral administration, and t½ in plasma was about 13.0 hours. The geometric mean (SD) Cmax value increased in proportion to cycloserine dose, from 19.42 (5.89) to 84.76 (21.74) mg/L, and the geometric mean (SD) AUC0

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  18. The effects of restaurant nutrition menu labelling on college students' healthy eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Mary G; Joung, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Eun-Kyong Cindy; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2017-04-01

    According to the US Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains are required to provide energy (calorie) and other nutrition information on their menu. The current study examined the impact of menu labelling containing calorie information and recommended daily calorie intake, along with subjective nutrition knowledge, on intention to select lower-calorie foods prior to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Full factorial experimental design with participants exposed to four variants of a sample menu in a 2 (presence v. absence of calorie information) ×2 (presence v. absence of recommended daily calorie intake). Large, public university in the Southwest USA. Primarily undergraduate college students. Majority of participants were 19-23 years of age (mean 21·8 (sd 3·6) years). Menu information about calorie content and respondents' subjective nutrition knowledge had a significantly positive impact on students' intention to select lower-calorie foods (β=0·24, P<0·001 and β=0·33, P<0·001, respectively); however, recommended daily calorie intake information on the menu board did not influence students' intention to select lower-calorie foods (β=0·10, P=0·105). Gender played a significant role on purchase intent for lower-calorie menu items, with females more affected by the calorie information than males (β=0·37, P<0·001). Findings support the role menu labelling can play in encouraging a healthier lifestyle for college students. College students who are Generation Y desire healthier menu options and accept nutritional labels on restaurant menus as a way to easily and expediently obtain nutrition information.

  19. No Dose Adjustment is Recommended for Digoxin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin or a Combination Oral Contraceptive When Coadministered with Dulaglutide.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Amparo; Cui, Xuewei; Geiser, Jeanne; Loghin, Corina

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to delay gastric emptying (GE). The potential effect of the GLP-1 RA dulaglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of four orally administered drugs and on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of warfarin was investigated. In four separate clinical pharmacology studies, digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® were orally administered to healthy subjects with and without a subcutaneous dose of dulaglutide 1.5 mg. The effect of dulaglutide coadministration was assessed based on the PK parameters of key analytes. For warfarin PD, the effect of dulaglutide on the international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated. Areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) with and without dulaglutide were similar for all analytes except atorvastatin, where it was reduced by 21%. Maximum concentrations (C max ) were generally lower following coadministration with dulaglutide, with statistically significant reductions (90% confidence intervals of geometric least squares means ratios outside 0.80-1.25) for all analytes except R-warfarin. For all analytes, there was a general trend for the time to C max (t max ) to increase following coadministration with dulaglutide. For warfarin, dulaglutide coadministration had no statistically significant effect on the maximum INR (INR max ); however, a 2% increase in area under the INR curve (AUC INR ) was observed. Dulaglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested medications to a clinically relevant degree. Based on the PK and PD evaluations, no dose adjustments for digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen ® are recommended when coadministered with dulaglutide. NCT01458210, NCT01436201, NCT01432938, and NCT01250834.

  20. Dose estimation of eye lens for interventional procedures in diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Huang, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Ching-Han; Hsu, Fang-Yuh

    2017-11-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye be decreased from 150 mSv/y (ICRP, 2007) to 20 mSv/y averaged over five years (ICRP, 2011). How to accurately measure the eye-lens dose has, therefore, been an issue of interest recently. Interventional radiologists are at a higher risk of radiation-induced eye injury, such as cataracts, than all other occupational radiation workers. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the doses to the eye lenses of interventional radiologists measured by different commercial eye-lens dosimeters. This study measured a reference eye-lens dose, which involved placing thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips at the surface of the eye of the Rando Phantom, and the TLD chips were covered by a 3-mm-thick tissue-equivalent bolus. Commercial eye-lens dosimeters, such as a headband dosimeter and standard personnel dose badges, were placed at the positions recommended by the manufacturers. The results show that the personnel dose badge is not an appropriate dosimeter for evaluating eye-lens dose. Dose deviations for different dosimeters are discussed and presented in this study.

  1. Medical and occupational dose reduction in pediatric barium meal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S. A.; Ledesma, J. A.; Legnani, A.; Bunick, A. P.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Vosiak, P.

    2017-11-01

    Doses received in pediatric Barium Meal procedure can be rather high. It is possible to reduce dose values following the recommendations of the European Communities (EC) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In the present work, the modifications of radiographic techniques made in a Brazilian hospital according to the EC and the ICRP recommendations and their influence on medical and occupational exposure are reported. The procedures of 49 patients before and 44 after the optimization were studied and air kerma-area product (PK,A) values and the effective doses were evaluated. The occupational equivalent doses were measured next to the eyes, under the thyroid shield and on each hand of both professionals who remained inside the examination room. The implemented modifications reduced by 70% and 60% the PK,A and the patient effective dose, respectively. The obtained dose values are lower than approximately 75% of the results from similar studies. The occupational annual equivalent doses for all studied organs became lower than the limits set by the ICRP. The equivalent doses in one examination were on average below than 75% of similar studies.

  2. Weight-based dosing in medication use: what should we know?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sheng-dong; Zhu, Ling-ling; Chen, Meng; Xia, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Background Weight-based dosing strategy is still challenging due to poor awareness and adherence. It is necessary to let clinicians know of the latest developments in this respect and the correct circumstances in which weight-based dosing is of clinical relevance. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed. Results Clinical indications, physiological factors, and types of medication may determine the applicability of weight-based dosing. In some cases, the weight effect may be minimal or the proper dosage can only be determined when weight is combined with other factors. Medications within similar therapeutic or structural class (eg, anticoagulants, antitumor necrosis factor medications, P2Y12-receptor antagonists, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies) may exhibit differences in requirements on weight-based dosing. In some cases, weight-based dosing is superior to currently recommended fixed-dose regimen in adult patients (eg, hydrocortisone, vancomycin, linezolid, and aprotinin). On the contrary, fixed dosing is noninferior to or even better than currently recommended weight-based regimen in adult patients in some cases (eg, cyclosporine microemulsion, recombinant activated Factor VII, and epoetin α). Ideal body-weight-based dosing may be superior to the currently recommended total body-weight-based regimen (eg, atracurium and rocuronium). For dosing in pediatrics, whether weight-based dosing is better than body surface-area-based dosing is dependent on the particular medication (eg, methotrexate, prednisone, prednisolone, zidovudine, didanosine, growth hormone, and 13-cis-retinoic acid). Age-based dosing strategy is better than weight-based dosing in some cases (eg, intravenous busulfan and dalteparin). Dosing guided by pharmacogenetic testing did not show pharmacoeconomic advantage over weight-adjusted dosing of 6-mercaptopurine. The common viewpoint (ie, pediatric patients should be dosed on the basis of body weight) is not always

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Ixekizumab vs Etanercept and Their Manufacturer-Recommended Dosing Regimens in Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-10-01

    Biologic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis; however, their use is limited by costs. Ixekizumab was more effective than etanercept in the UNCOVER trials, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ixekizumab for treating psoriasis. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of these therapies is crucial for medical decision making and our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of various ixekizumab dosing frequencies compared with etanercept. We utilized published data from the UNCOVER comparative efficacy trials, including transitional probabilities and treatment response rates, to create a Markov model simulating the clinical course and cost-effectiveness of three treatment algorithms for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis over 60-weeks: (1) ixekizumab every 2 weeks for 12 weeks then every 4 weeks, (2) ixekizumab every 4 weeks throughout the treatment period, (3) biweekly etanercept for 12 weeks then once weekly. We utilized a standard willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $150,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and Medicaid drug acquisition costs for our calculations. Ixekizumab every 4 weeks was $28,681 (USD) less expensive than biweekly etanercept, and $21,375 less expensive, and 0.006 QALY less effective, than ixekizumab every 2 weeks-- a savings of $28.7 and $21.4 million, respectively, per 1,000 patients. A 95.6% cost reduction to $197.83 per dose is required for ixekizumab every 2 weeks to be more cost-effective than every 4 weeks. Biweekly etanercept requires a 29.5% cost reduction ($743.82 per dose) to be competitive with ixekizumab every 4 weeks. This cost-effectiveness model utilizes strong input data but is a limited approximation of real-life scenarios. Treatment with ixekizumab every 2 weeks is unlikely to be cost-effective compared with ixekizumab every 4 weeks at current U.S. market prices. Yet, the U.S. FDA approval and manufacturer's recommendation are for ixekizumab every 2 weeks

  4. Beta-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been suggested that high doses of B-carotene limit its conversion to vitamin A, yet this effect has not been well established in humans. A feeding study was conducted in which volunteers consumed two doses of deuterium labeled B-carotene on two occasions, with B-carotene and vitamin A respon...

  5. Onabotulinumtoxin A Treatment of Drooling in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective, Longitudinal Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Eigild; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Vinicoff, Pablo Gustavo; Bardow, Allan; Lykkeaa, Joan; Svendsen, Pia; Bakke, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective open-label study was to treat disabling drooling in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with onabotulinumtoxin A (A/Ona, Botox®) into submandibular and parotid glands and find the lowest effective dosage and least invasive method. A/Ona was injected in 14 children, Mean age 9 years, SD 3 years, under ultrasonic guidance in six successive Series, with at least six months between injections. Doses and gland involvement increased from Series A to F (units (U) per submandibular/parotid gland: A, 10/0; B, 15/0; C, 20/0; D, 20/20; E, 30/20; and F, 30/30). The effect was assessed 2, 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks after A/Ona (drooling problems (VAS), impact (0–7), treatment effect (0–5), unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow and composition)) and analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The effect was unchanged–moderate in A to moderate–marked in F. Changes in all parameters were significant in E and F, but with swallowing problems ≤5 weeks in 3 of 28 treatments. F had largest VAS and UWS reduction (64% and 49%). We recommend: Start with dose D A/Ona (both submandibular and parotid glands and a total of 80 U) and increase to E and eventually F (total 120 U) without sufficient response. PMID:26134257

  6. Integration of drug dosing data with physiological data streams using a cloud computing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Nadja; James, Andrew; McGregor, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs are used during the provision of intensive care for the preterm newborn infant. Recommendations for drug dosing in newborns depend upon data from population based pharmacokinetic research. There is a need to be able to modify drug dosing in response to the preterm infant's response to the standard dosing recommendations. The real-time integration of physiological data with drug dosing data would facilitate individualised drug dosing for these immature infants. This paper proposes the use of a novel computational framework that employs real-time, temporal data analysis for this task. Deployment of the framework within the cloud computing paradigm will enable widespread distribution of individualized drug dosing for newborn infants.

  7. Radioimmunotherapy of human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with 131I-labelled antiferritin antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Saiful Alam, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 131-labelled antiferritin polyclonal antibody for the treatment of established hepatocellular carcinoma (HC-04) in athymic nude mice were evaluated. 131I-labelled antiferritin antibody localised specifically to a subcutaneous tumour with a mean of 8.1% of the infused dose per gram of tumour at 24 h after infusion when the experiment was started 15 days after inoculation and with a mean of about 6.5% of the infused dose per gram of tumour when the experiment was started 30 days after tumour transplantation. The concentrations of 131I-antiferritin antibody in tumour delivered a mean of 1994 cGy to tumour following infusion of 500 microCi of radiolabelled antiferritin antibody in the early group and a mean of 1600 cGy in the late group. Treatment with 500 microCi led to regression of the tumour in 55% of animals in the early group and 44% in the late group. In contrast, unlabelled antiferritin and 131I-labelled IgG failed to exert any significant effect on tumour growth. The transplanted tumours in the early groups of animals had relatively higher concentration of ferritin than those in the late group. There was accelerated inhibition of tumour growth and prolonged survival in animals in the early group compared with those in the late group. PMID:2021533

  8. A label distance maximum-based classifier for multi-label learning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Bao, Hang; Zhao, Dazhe; Cao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Multi-label classification is useful in many bioinformatics tasks such as gene function prediction and protein site localization. This paper presents an improved neural network algorithm, Max Label Distance Back Propagation Algorithm for Multi-Label Classification. The method was formulated by modifying the total error function of the standard BP by adding a penalty term, which was realized by maximizing the distance between the positive and negative labels. Extensive experiments were conducted to compare this method against state-of-the-art multi-label methods on three popular bioinformatic benchmark datasets. The results illustrated that this proposed method is more effective for bioinformatic multi-label classification compared to commonly used techniques.

  9. Less label, more free: approaches in label-free quantitative mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Karlie A; Ali, Naveid A; Muralidharan, Sridevi; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Mariani, Michael; Assadourian, Gariné; Lee, Albert; van Sluyter, Steven C; Haynes, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    In this review we examine techniques, software, and statistical analyses used in label-free quantitative proteomics studies for area under the curve and spectral counting approaches. Recent advances in the field are discussed in an order that reflects a logical workflow design. Examples of studies that follow this design are presented to highlight the requirement for statistical assessment and further experiments to validate results from label-free quantitation. Limitations of label-free approaches are considered, label-free approaches are compared with labelling techniques, and forward-looking applications for label-free quantitative data are presented. We conclude that label-free quantitative proteomics is a reliable, versatile, and cost-effective alternative to labelled quantitation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparing five front-of-pack nutrition labels' influence on consumers' perceptions and purchase intentions.

    PubMed

    Gorski Findling, Mary T; Werth, Paul M; Musicus, Aviva A; Bragg, Marie A; Graham, Dan J; Elbel, Brian; Roberto, Christina A

    2018-01-01

    In 2011, a National Academy of Medicine report recommended that packaged food in the U.S. display a uniform front-of-package nutrition label, using a system such as a 0-3 star ranking. Few studies have directly compared this to other labels to determine which best informs consumers and encourages healthier purchases. In 2013, we randomized adult participants (N=1247) in an Internet-based survey to one of six conditions: no label control; single traffic light; multiple traffic light; Facts Up Front; NuVal; or 0-3 star ranking. We compared groups on purchase intentions and accuracy of participants' interpretation of food labels. There were no differences in the nutritional quality of hypothetical shopping baskets across conditions (p=0.845). All labels improved consumers' abilities to judge the nutritional quality of foods relative to no label, but the best designs varied by outcomes. NuVal and multiple traffic light labels led to the greatest accuracy identifying the healthier of two products (p<0.001), while the multiple traffic light also led to the most accurate estimates of saturated fat, sugar, and sodium (p<0.001). The single traffic light outperformed other labels when participants compared nutrient levels between similar products (p<0.03). Single/multiple traffic light and Facts Up Front labels led to the most accurate calories per serving estimations (p<0.001). Although front-of-package labels helped participants more accurately assess products' nutrition information relative to no label, no conditions shifted adults' purchase intentions. Results did not point to a clearly superior label design, but they suggest that a 3-star label might not be best for educating consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Off-label prescribing for children with chronic diseases in Nigeria; findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Oreagba, Ibrahim Adekunle; Godman, Brian; Fadare, Joseph; Orubu, Samuel; Massele, Amos; Senbanjo, Idowu Odunayo

    2017-09-01

    Prescribing medicines in an off-label manner for children with chronic conditions is sparsely documented, even more so among developing countries. This needs addressing. The objective of this research was to investigate the extent of off-label prescribing among children with epilepsy, asthma, and sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria. Prescriptions for children ≤16 years documented in their case files that attended paediatric clinics in Lagos, Nigeria, for these three conditions between January and October 2015, were reviewed retrospectively to extract data on the medicines prescribed. British National Formulary for children and American Hospital Formulary Service Drug information were used as references. 477 patients received 1746 prescriptions. Off-label prescriptions were seen in 7.7% of prescriptions, related to dose (93; 68.9%), indication (22; 16.3%), and age (20; 14.8%). Nervous system (525; 30.1%) and anti-infective (441; 25.2%) medicines were the most prescribed but only 9.5% and 8.2% of the respective prescriptions were off-label. Children with epilepsy received the most number (94; 69.6%) of off-label prescriptions. The three chronic conditions did not associate significantly with the category of off-label medicine prescribed (p = 0.925). Off-label prescribing for children with epilepsy, asthma and sickle cell anaemia occurs. Encouragingly, the overall rate appears low in Nigeria.

  12. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Systematic review: reliability of compendia methods for off-label oncology indications.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Amy P; Raman, Gowri; Balk, Ethan M; Hammond, Julia M; Orlando, Lori A; Wheeler, Jane L; Lau, Joseph; McCrory, Douglas C

    2009-03-03

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services limit coverage of cancer drugs for off-label indications to indications listed in specified compendia. To assess whether compendia provide comprehensive, research-based, and timely information for off-label prescribing in oncology. 6 drug compendia, English-language literature searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 2006 and 2008, and American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting abstracts from 2004 to 2007. Data Assessment: The compendia's stated methods, literature related to off-label indications of 14 cancer drugs in 2006, updated literature related to 1 off-label indication between 2006 and 2008, and completeness of compendia content and citations were assessed. The compendia's stated methods varied greatly from their actual practices. Compendia cited little of the available evidence, often neither the most recent nor that of highest methodological quality. Compendia differed in evidence cited, terminology, detail, presentation, and referencing. For the 14 off-label indications studied, the compendia differed in the indications included and whether and how they recommended particular agents for particular types of cancer. Update schedules varied, and documentation practices made it difficult to determine whether and when compendia content was updated. For 1 indication, compendia citations did not increase between 2006 and 2008 despite newly published articles. The 2006 analysis was limited to 14 off-label indications; the 2008 update examined 1 indication. Only off-label indications for cancer drugs were included, and results cannot be generalized to noncancer drugs or indications. Oncologists rely on compendia for up-to-date access to evidence and reimbursement information for off-label indications. Current compendia lack transparency, cite little current evidence, and lack systematic methods to review or update evidence.

  14. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-02-05

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures.

  15. Assessment of corporate compliance with guidance and regulations on labels of commercially produced complementary foods sold in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Lara; Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Mengkheang, Khin; Adhikary, Indu; Gueye, Ndèye Yaga Sy; Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract National legislation and global guidance address labelling of complementary foods to ensure that labels support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. This cross‐sectional study assessed the labels of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF) sold in Phnom Penh (n = 70), Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley (n = 22), Nepal; Dakar Department (n = 84), Senegal; and Dar es Salaam (n = 26), Tanzania. Between 3.6% and 30% of products did not provide any age recommendation and 8.6−20.2% of products, from all sites, recommended an age of introduction of <6 months. Few CPCF products provided a daily ration (0.0−8.6%) and 14.5−55.6% of those that did exceeded the daily energy recommendation for complementary foods for a breastfed child from 6 to 8.9 months of age. Only 3.6−27.3% of labels provided accurate and complete messages in the required language encouraging exclusive breastfeeding, and almost none (0.0−2.9%) provided accurate and complete messages regarding the appropriate introduction of complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding. Between 34.3% and 70.2% of CPCF manufacturers also produced breastmilk substitutes and 41.7−78.0% of relevant CPCF products cross‐promoted their breastmilk substitutes products. Labelling practices of CPCF included in this study do not fully comply with international guidance on their promotion and selected aspects of national legislation, and there is a need for more detailed normative guidance on certain promotion practices in order to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding. PMID:27061960

  16. Microdose study of a P-glycoprotein substrate, fexofenadine, using a non-radioisotope-labelled drug and LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, A; Kumagai, Y; Yamane, N; Tozuka, Z; Sugiyama, Y; Fujita, T; Yokota, S; Maeda, M

    2010-04-01

    Fexofenadine is a P-glycoprotein substrate of low bioavailability. It is primarily excreted into faeces as a parent drug via biliary excretion. The predictability from microdose data for the drug absorbed via transporters such as P-glycoprotein is not known. Therefore, this study assessed the predictability of therapeutic-dose pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine from microdosing data using non-radioisotope-labelled drug and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). In a single dose, randomized, two-way crossover study, eight subjects received a microdose (100 microg) or a therapeutic dose (60 mg) of fexofenadine. Blood samples were collected until 12 h after dosing, and assayed using LC/MS/MS. Plasma concentration-time curves of fexofenadine between microdose and therapeutic dose were similar. The mean +/- SD of C(max) normalized to 60 mg dose after microdose and therapeutic dose were 379 +/- 147 and 275 +/- 145 ng/mL respectively. The mean AUC(last) normalized to 60 mg dose after microdose and therapeutic dose were 1914 +/- 738 and 1431 +/- 432 ng/h/mL respectively. The mean dose-adjusted C(max) and AUC(last) after microdose were higher compared with those after therapeutic dose. Individual plots of C(max) and AUC(last) normalized to 60 mg dose, were similar for microdose and therapeutic dose. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters were statistically different using anova. Overall, the microdose pharmacokinetics profile was similar to, and hence predictive of, that of the therapeutic dose. For the P-glycoprotein substrate fexofenadine, the predictability of therapeutic-dose pharmacokinetics from microdose data was good. A microdose study using a non-radioisotope-labelled drug and LC/MS/MS is convenient, and has the potential to aid the early selection of drug candidates.

  17. Is nutrient content and other label information for prescription prenatal supplements different from nonprescription products?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prenatal supplements are often recommended to pregnant women to help meet their nutrient needs. Many products are available, making it difficult to choose a suitable supplement because little is known about their labeling and contents to evaluate their appropriateness. To determine differences bet...

  18. Systematic Comparison of Label-Free, Metabolic Labeling, and Isobaric Chemical Labeling for Quantitative Proteomics on LTQ Orbitrap Velos

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhou; Adams, Rachel M; Chourey, Karuna

    2012-01-01

    A variety of quantitative proteomics methods have been developed, including label-free, metabolic labeling, and isobaric chemical labeling using iTRAQ or TMT. Here, these methods were compared in terms of the depth of proteome coverage, quantification accuracy, precision, and reproducibility using a high-performance hybrid mass spectrometer, LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Our results show that (1) the spectral counting method provides the deepest proteome coverage for identification, but its quantification performance is worse than labeling-based approaches, especially the quantification reproducibility; (2) metabolic labeling and isobaric chemical labeling are capable of accurate, precise, and reproducible quantification and provide deep proteome coverage for quantification. Isobaricmore » chemical labeling surpasses metabolic labeling in terms of quantification precision and reproducibility; (3) iTRAQ and TMT perform similarly in all aspects compared in the current study using a CID-HCD dual scan configuration. Based on the unique advantages of each method, we provide guidance for selection of the appropriate method for a quantitative proteomics study.« less

  19. Real-World Dosing Patterns of Atomoxetine in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kabul, Samaneh; Alatorre, Carlos; Montejano, Leslie B; Farr, Amanda M; Clemow, David B

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a retrospective analysis. Adult (≥ 18 years) patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine with ≥ 1 outpatient pharmacy claim for atomoxetine between January 2006 and December 2011 were selected from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial database. After a 30-day titration period, dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy were analyzed in the 12 months following initiation. In addition, patient demographic and clinical characteristics were compared to identify characteristics associated with suboptimal versus recommended dosing. Of the 12,412 adult patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine, 4548 (36.6%) were suboptimally dosed, whereas 3323 (26.7%) were treated at recommended dose. Overall, study patients were treated at a mean (standard deviation [SD]) dose of 68.5 (44.9) mg/day. The suboptimal dosing cohort included significantly more females (54% vs. 44%, P < 0.001) and had fewer patients with pre-index use of other ADHD medications (17% vs. 20%, P < 0.001) compared with the recommended dosing cohort. Adult patients with ADHD receiving atomoxetine therapy in a real-world setting are often dosed suboptimally. Increasing the awareness on optimal dosing strategy among clinicians and patients is warranted to maximize the therapeutic benefits of atomoxetine among adult patients with ADHD. © 2015 Eli Lilly and Company. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; de Boer, Michiel R; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C

    2013-05-16

    Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels ('special offer', 'healthy choice' and 'special offer & healthy choice') on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N=109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI=3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI=2.74 - 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives.

  1. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-02-01

    Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, corresponding motivation to comply, and control beliefs. The subjects (n = 300) responded to the questionnaire by self-report, and data from 275 students were analyzed using t-test or χ(2)-test. The results showed that 37.8% of subjects were nutrition label users. Three out of 15 behavioral beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. Nutrition label users agreed more strongly on the benefits of using nutrition labels including 'comparing and selecting better foods' (P < 0.001), 'selecting healthy foods' (P < 0.05). The negative belief of 'annoying' was stronger in non-users than in users (P < 0.001). Three out of 7 sources (parents, siblings, best friend) were important in nutrition label use. Twelve out of 15 control beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. These included beliefs regarding constraints of using nutrition labels (e.g., time, spending money for healthy foods) and lack of nutrition knowledge (P < 0.001). Perceived confidence in understanding and applying the specifics of nutrition labels in food selection was also significantly related to nutrition label use (P < 0.001). This study found that the beliefs, especially control beliefs, suggested in the TPB were important in explaining nutrition label use. To promote nutrition label use, nutrition education might focus on increasing perceived control over constraints of using nutrition labels, acquiring skills for checking nutrition labels, as well as the benefits of using nutrition labels and receiving support from significant

  2. 101 Labeled Brain Images and a Consistent Human Cortical Labeling Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Arno; Tourville, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The “Desikan–Killiany–Tourville” (DKT) protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://mindboggle.info/data website. PMID:23227001

  3. Comparative efficacy of low-dose versus standard-dose azithromycin for patients with yaws: a randomised non-inferiority trial in Ghana and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Bottomley, Christian; Kwakye, Cynthia; Houinei, Wendy; Bauri, Mathias; Adwere, Paul; Abdulai, Abdul A; Dua, Fredrick; Boateng, Laud; Wangi, James; Ohene, Sally-Ann; Wangnapi, Regina; Simpson, Shirley V; Miag, Helen; Addo, Kennedy K; Basing, Laud A; Danavall, Damien; Chi, Kai H; Pillay, Allan; Ballard, Ronald; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Bieb, Sibauk V; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Mabey, David C W; Asiedu, Kingsley

    2018-04-01

    A dose of 30 mg/kg of azithromycin is recommended for treatment of yaws, a disease targeted for global eradication. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of azithromycin is recommended for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. In some settings, these diseases are co-endemic. We aimed to determine the efficacy of 20 mg/kg of azithromycin compared with 30 mg/kg azithromycin for the treatment of active and latent yaws. We did a non-inferiority, open-label, randomised controlled trial in children aged 6-15 years who were recruited from schools in Ghana and schools and the community in Papua New Guinea. Participants were enrolled based on the presence of a clinical lesion that was consistent with infectious primary or secondary yaws and a positive rapid diagnostic test for treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either standard-dose (30 mg/kg) or low-dose (20 mg/kg) azithromycin by a computer-generated random number sequence. Health-care workers assessing clinical outcomes in the field were not blinded to the patient's treatment, but investigators involved in statistical or laboratory analyses and the participants were blinded to treatment group. We followed up participants at 4 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome was cure at 6 months, defined as lesion healing at 4 weeks in patients with active yaws and at least a four-fold decrease in rapid plasma reagin titre from baseline to 6 months in patients with active and latent yaws. Active yaws was defined as a skin lesion that was positive for Treponema pallidum ssp pertenue in PCR testing. We used a non-inferiority margin of 10%. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02344628. Between June 12, 2015, and July 2, 2016, 583 (65·1%) of 895 children screened were enrolled; 292 patients were assigned a low dose of azithromycin and 291 patients were assigned a standard dose of azithromycin. 191 participants had active yaws and 392 had presumed

  4. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In Silico Labeling: Predicting Fluorescent Labels in Unlabeled Images.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Eric M; Yang, Samuel J; Ando, D Michael; Javaherian, Ashkan; Skibinski, Gaia; Lipnick, Scott; Mount, Elliot; O'Neil, Alison; Shah, Kevan; Lee, Alicia K; Goyal, Piyush; Fedus, William; Poplin, Ryan; Esteva, Andre; Berndl, Marc; Rubin, Lee L; Nelson, Philip; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2018-04-19

    Microscopy is a central method in life sciences. Many popular methods, such as antibody labeling, are used to add physical fluorescent labels to specific cellular constituents. However, these approaches have significant drawbacks, including inconsistency; limitations in the number of simultaneous labels because of spectral overlap; and necessary perturbations of the experiment, such as fixing the cells, to generate the measurement. Here, we show that a computational machine-learning approach, which we call "in silico labeling" (ISL), reliably predicts some fluorescent labels from transmitted-light images of unlabeled fixed or live biological samples. ISL predicts a range of labels, such as those for nuclei, cell type (e.g., neural), and cell state (e.g., cell death). Because prediction happens in silico, the method is consistent, is not limited by spectral overlap, and does not disturb the experiment. ISL generates biological measurements that would otherwise be problematic or impossible to acquire. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Awareness of and compliance with recommended dietary supplement among age-related macular degeneration patients.

    PubMed

    Ng, Weng T; Goggin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The age-related eye disease study suggested that taking zinc and anti-oxidants supplements could reduce the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In Australia, the available supplement is Macu-Vision. The study aimed to assess the awareness of and compliance with taking this supplement and the public health implication. The fundus photograph database of patients aged 55 years and older at the ophthalmology department of a public teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia was reviewed. In total, 125 patients with category 3 and 4 AMD were identified. A total of 100 patients participated in this cross-sectional study. In total, 53% of participants were aware of the availability of the formulae available in Australia, 38% were taking the supplement and only 1% were taking the correct dose. Of those taking the supplement 95% (36/38) were taking half the recommended dosage. Among those who were aware of the supplement but not taking it, cost was the most common reason (31%). Another 31% were not taking it because of actual side-effects experienced, fear of potential side-effect and/or fear of interaction with other medications. There was no predictive factor for failing to take the formulae available in Australia among age, sex, smoking status, living arrangement and category of AMD. Clinicians need to emphasize that the recommended dosage is twice that on the supplement label. If the trend demonstrated here of underutilizing the formulae available in Australia among public hospital patients continues, it is unlikely to have any major public health impact in similar settings in Australia.

  7. Enhanced labelling on alcoholic drinks: reviewing the evidence to guide alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan E; Breda, Joao; Møller, Lars; Alfonso-Sanchez, Jose L; Gorgojo, Lydia

    2013-12-01

    Consumer and public health organizations have called for better labelling on alcoholic drinks. However, there is a lack of consensus about the best elements to include. This review summarizes alcohol labelling policy worldwide and examines available evidence to support enhanced labelling. A literature review was carried out in June-July 2012 on Scopus using the key word 'alcohol' combined with 'allergens', 'labels', 'nutrition information', 'ingredients', 'consumer information' and/or 'warning'. Articles discussing advertising and promotion of alcohol were excluded. A search through Google and the System for Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) identified additional sources on alcohol labelling policies, mainly from governmental and organizational websites. Five elements were identified as potentially useful to consumers: (i) a list of ingredients, (ii) nutritional information, (iii) serving size and servings per container, (iv) a definition of 'moderate' intake and (v) a health warning. Alcohol labelling policy with regard to these aspects is quite rudimentary in most countries, with few requiring a list of ingredients or health warnings, and none requiring basic nutritional information. Only one country (Australia) requires serving size and servings per container to be displayed. Our study suggests that there are both potential advantages and disadvantages to providing consumers with more information about alcohol products. Current evidence seems to support prompt inclusion of a list of ingredients, nutritional information (usually only kcal) and health warnings on labels. Standard drink and serving size is useful only when combined with other health education efforts. A definition of 'moderate intake' and recommended drinking guidelines are best suited to other contexts.

  8. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo labeling of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors with sup 3 H-TCP in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, T.; Vignon, J.

    1990-07-01

    The phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine (3H-TCP) was used to label in vivo the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated ionic channel in the mouse brain. After the injection of a tracer dose of 3H-TCP, a spread labeling throughout the brain was observed, but was the highest in the cerebellum. Preadministration of unlabeled TCP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a 90% reduction of 3H-TCP binding. PCP, TCP, MK-801, dexoxadrol, ketamine, and SKF 10,047 isomers dose-dependently prevented the in vivo 3H-TCP binding. ID50 determined in the cerebrum and the cerebellum were respectively correlated with K0.5 for 3H TCP high (rat cortex) and low affinity (rat cerebellum)more » sites in vitro. The pharmacological specificity of the 3H-TCP binding site in the cerebellum was significantly different from that in the cerebrum. ID50 values were generally higher than in the cerebrum and, particularly, MK-801, the most potent drug in the cerebrum, was without significant effect in the cerebellum, at any time and at doses as high as 30 mg/kg. N-(1-(2-benzo(b) thiophenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine (BTCP), desipramine, and atropine showed a more efficient prevention of 3H-TCP binding in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. The prevention of the binding by TCP or PCP, at doses close to their ID50 values, was rapid and then decreased slowly. The effect of MK-801 was long-lasting. This study confirm previous in vitro studies: 3H-TCP is an efficient tool for the labeling of the NMDA receptor-associated ionic channel.« less

  10. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Shanahan, Danielle F; Hudson, Hannah L; Fuller, Richard A; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J

    2017-02-09

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  11. Brachytherapy with Intratumoral Injections of Radiometal-Labeled Polymers That Thermoresponsively Self-Aggregate in Tumor Tissues.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kohei; Kanada, Yuko; Kanazaki, Kengo; Ding, Ning; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy wherein titanium capsules containing therapeutic radioisotopes are implanted within tumor tissues, enabling high-dose radioirradiation to tumor tissues around the seeds. Although marked therapeutic effects have been demonstrated, brachytherapy needs a complicated implantation technique under general anesthesia and the seeds could migrate to other organs. The aim of this study was to establish a novel brachytherapy using biocompatible, injectable thermoresponsive polymers (polyoxazoline [POZ]) labeled with 90 Y, which can self-aggregate above a specific transition temperature (Tt), resulting in long-term intratumoral retention of radioactivity and therapeutic effect. Therefore, we evaluated the tumor retention of radiolabeled POZ derivatives and their therapeutic effects. Methods: Using oxazoline derivatives with ethyl (Et), isopropyl (Isp), and propyl (Pr) side chains, we synthesized EtPOZ, IspPOZ, Isp-PrPOZ (heteropolymer), and PrPOZ and measured their characteristic Tts. The intratumoral retention of 111 In-labeled POZ was evaluated until 7 d after injection in nude mice bearing PC-3 human prostate cancer. The intratumoral localization of 111 In-labeled POZ derivatives was investigated by an autoradiographic study. Furthermore, a therapeutic study using 90 Y-labeled Isp-PrPOZ was performed, and tumor growth and survival rate were evaluated. Results: The Tts of EtPOZ, IspPOZ, Isp-PrPOZ, and PrPOZ (∼20 kDa) were greater than 70°C, 34°C, 25°C, and 19°C, respectively. In the intratumoral injection study, Isp-PrPOZ and PrPOZ (2,000 μM) with Tts lower than tumor temperature (33.5°C under anesthesia) showed a significantly higher retention of radioactivity at 1 d after injection (73.6% and 73.9%, respectively) than EtPOZ (5.6%) and IspPOZ (15.8%). Even at low injected dose (100 μM), Isp-PrPOZ exhibited high retention (68.3% at 1 d). The high level of radioactivity of Isp-PrPOZ was retained in the tumor 7 d after injection

  12. Restaurant menu labeling: impact of nutrition information on entree sales and patron attitudes.

    PubMed

    Albright, C L; Flora, J A; Fortmann, S P

    1990-01-01

    This study examined changes in sales of low fat/low cholesterol foods targeted in a restaurant menu labeling program. Sales of labeled items were tracked before and after the program was introduced, and a subsample of patrons were surveyed for information on visibility and comprehension of the menu labels. Two of the four restaurants had significant increases in the sales of targeted foods following labeling. Comparisons between patrons dining in restaurants which had an increase in sales (I--increase restaurants) to those dining in restaurants which had no overall shift in sales (NI--no increase restaurants) revealed no differences in patron awareness or comprehension of the menu labels. There were age and gender differences between I and NI restaurants, with I restaurants having proportionally more males, and a younger clientele. Taste was the primary reason given by patrons for their entree choice, regardless of whether or not it was labeled. In all four restaurants women and older patrons were more aware of the program and more responsive to its recommendations. These findings suggest that environmental strategies may be an effective method of encouraging dietary changes in the general population, but patron characteristics such as age and gender may influence receptivity to this type of intervention. Future studies aimed at developing effective point of purchase education programs should evaluate these patron characteristics and include more powerful behavior change strategies.

  13. [Knowledge and use of nutrient labelling of industrialized foods and beverages in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, Sofía; Bahena-Espina, Liliana; Ríos, Víctor; Barquera, Simón

    2018-01-01

    To keep record of the knowledge and use of information of the different food labels on industrialized products in Mexico. We administered a semi-structured survey-developed by research¬ers free of conflict interestin a subsample of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2016. This survey was previously validated and piloted in different populations of varying socio¬economic levels and age and country regions. Data was collected from a total of 8 667 individuals ≥20 years of age. The most frecuent type of label on industrialized foods and beverages was the nutrient table with 41.5% (95%CI 36.9- 46.3) and the least used was the nutrient seal, 4.3% (95%CI 3.1-5.7). It is of critical importance that the regulating authorities and the Ministry of Health, implement criteria that guarantee the compliance of recommendations promulgated in official documents. As well as the standarization of the percentage of recommended sugar intake based on WHO standards or lower considering the epidemiological alert for diabetes that the country is experiencing.

  14. Message on a bottle: are alcohol warning labels about cancer appropriate?

    PubMed

    Miller, Emma R; Ramsey, Imogen J; Baratiny, Genevieve Y; Olver, Ian N

    2016-02-11

    Although most Australians are unaware of the risk, there is strong evidence for a direct link between alcohol consumption and many types of cancer. Warning labels on alcohol products have been proposed as a cost-effective strategy to inform the community of this health risk. We aimed to identify how Australians might respond to such an approach. We conducted a national online survey canvassing responses to four separate cancer warning messages on labels. The graphically presented messages were informed by qualitative data from a series of focus groups among self-identified 'light-to-moderate' drinkers. For each label, participants were asked their level of agreement with impact statements about raising awareness, prompting conversation, influencing drinking behaviour and educating others about cancer risk. We analysed responses according to demographic and other factors, including self-reported drinking behaviour (using the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Test - AUDIT-C - scores). Approximately 1600 participants completed the survey, which was open to all Australian adults over a period of 1 month in 2014. Overall, the labels were well received, with the majority (>70 %) agreeing all labels could raise awareness and prompt conversations about the cancer risk associated with alcohol. Around 50 % or less agreed that the labels could influence drinking behaviour, but larger proportions agreed that the labels would prompt them to discuss the issue with family and friends. Although sex, AUDIT-C score and age were significantly associated with agreement on bivariate analysis, multivariate analyses demonstrated that being inclined to act upon warning label recommendations in general was the most important predictor of agreement with all of the impact statements. Having a low AUDIT-C score also predicted agreement that the labels might prompt behaviour change in friends. The findings suggest that providing detailed warnings about cancer risk on alcohol products is a viable

  15. Tolerance limits and methodologies for IMRT measurement-based verification QA: Recommendations of AAPM Task Group No. 218.

    PubMed

    Miften, Moyed; Olch, Arthur; Mihailidis, Dimitris; Moran, Jean; Pawlicki, Todd; Molineu, Andrea; Li, Harold; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Shi, Jie; Xia, Ping; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Low, Daniel A

    2018-04-01

    Patient-specific IMRT QA measurements are important components of processes designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered radiation doses. Discrepancy tolerance limits are neither well defined nor consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report provides a comprehensive review aimed at improving the understanding and consistency of these processes as well as recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. The performance of the dose difference/distance-to-agreement (DTA) and γ dose distribution comparison metrics are investigated. Measurement methods are reviewed and followed by a discussion of the pros and cons of each. Methodologies for absolute dose verification are discussed and new IMRT QA verification tools are presented. Literature on the expected or achievable agreement between measurements and calculations for different types of planning and delivery systems are reviewed and analyzed. Tests of vendor implementations of the γ verification algorithm employing benchmark cases are presented. Operational shortcomings that can reduce the γ tool accuracy and subsequent effectiveness for IMRT QA are described. Practical considerations including spatial resolution, normalization, dose threshold, and data interpretation are discussed. Published data on IMRT QA and the clinical experience of the group members are used to develop guidelines and recommendations on tolerance and action limits for IMRT QA. Steps to check failed IMRT QA plans are outlined. Recommendations on delivery methods, data interpretation, dose normalization, the use of γ analysis routines and choice of tolerance limits for IMRT QA are made with focus on detecting differences between calculated and measured doses via the use of robust analysis methods and an in-depth understanding of IMRT verification metrics. The recommendations are intended to improve the IMRT QA process and establish consistent, and comparable IMRT QA

  16. Effects of Epoetin Alfa Titration Practices, Implemented After Changes to Product Labeling, on Hemoglobin Levels, Transfusion Use, and Hospitalization Rates.

    PubMed

    Molony, Julia T; Monda, Keri L; Li, Suying; Beaubrun, Anne C; Gilbertson, David T; Bradbury, Brian D; Collins, Allan J

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about epoetin alfa (EPO) dosing at dialysis centers after implementation of the US Medicare prospective payment system and revision of the EPO label in 2011. Retrospective cohort study. Approximately 412,000 adult hemodialysis patients with Medicare Parts A and B as primary payer in 2009 to 2012 to describe EPO dosing and hemoglobin patterns; of these, about 70,000 patients clustered in about 1,300 dialysis facilities to evaluate facility-level EPO titration practices and patient-level outcomes in 2012. Facility EPO titration practices when hemoglobin levels were <10 and >11g/dL (grouped treatment variable) determined from monthly EPO dosing and hemoglobin level patterns. Patient mean hemoglobin levels, red blood cell transfusion rates, and all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates using a facility-based analysis. Monthly EPO dose and hemoglobin level, red blood cell transfusion rates, and all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates. Monthly EPO doses declined across all hemoglobin levels, with the greatest decline in patients with hemoglobin levels < 10g/dL (July-October 2011). In 2012, nine distinct facility titration practices were identified. Across groups, mean hemoglobin levels differed slightly (10.5-10.8g/dL) but within-patient hemoglobin standard deviations were similar (∼0.68g/dL). Patients at facilities implementing greater dose reductions and smaller dose escalations had lower hemoglobin levels and higher transfusion rates. In contrast, patients at facilities that implemented greater dose escalations (and large or small dose reductions) had higher hemoglobin levels and lower transfusion rates. There were no clinically meaningful differences in all-cause or cause-specific hospitalization events across groups. Possibly incomplete claims data; excluded small facilities and those without consistent titration patterns; hemoglobin levels reported monthly; inferred facility practice from observed dosing. Following

  17. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Embracing model-based designs for dose-finding trials

    PubMed Central

    Love, Sharon B; Brown, Sarah; Weir, Christopher J; Harbron, Chris; Yap, Christina; Gaschler-Markefski, Birgit; Matcham, James; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher; Clive, Sally; Craddock, Charlie; Spicer, James; Cornelius, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dose-finding trials are essential to drug development as they establish recommended doses for later-phase testing. We aim to motivate wider use of model-based designs for dose finding, such as the continual reassessment method (CRM). Methods: We carried out a literature review of dose-finding designs and conducted a survey to identify perceived barriers to their implementation. Results: We describe the benefits of model-based designs (flexibility, superior operating characteristics, extended scope), their current uptake, and existing resources. The most prominent barriers to implementation of a model-based design were lack of suitable training, chief investigators’ preference for algorithm-based designs (e.g., 3+3), and limited resources for study design before funding. We use a real-world example to illustrate how these barriers can be overcome. Conclusions: There is overwhelming evidence for the benefits of CRM. Many leading pharmaceutical companies routinely implement model-based designs. Our analysis identified barriers for academic statisticians and clinical academics in mirroring the progress industry has made in trial design. Unified support from funders, regulators, and journal editors could result in more accurate doses for later-phase testing, and increase the efficiency and success of clinical drug development. We give recommendations for increasing the uptake of model-based designs for dose-finding trials in academia. PMID:28664918

  19. Toy Age-Labeling: An Overview for Pediatricians of How Toys Receive Their Age Safety and Developmental Designations.

    PubMed

    Kulak, Shuli; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-07-01

    Injuries related to toys continue to cause significant childhood morbidity and mortality, despite considerable government regulation of the toy industry. Recent controversy related to toys that contain strong magnets demonstrate the dangers they pose to children. The pediatric community is often unaware of how toys receive their developmental and safety labeling and the degree to which age-labeling on toys can be discretionary. Toy labeling has 2 basic manifestations. The first, safety labeling for hazards like small parts, balloons, or small balls that may present a choking risk, is mandatory. The second, "developmental" age-labeling, describes the age of the children for which the toy is intended, and sometimes has discretionary components. This article provides a review of the regulations governing toy age-safety standards and how they are reflected on toy packaging to help pediatric practitioners apply safety advice across settings and patient characteristics. We review the existing age-labeling regulations and processes and discuss the major areas where children remain vulnerable despite labeling. Finally, we list some recommendations for counseling parents about toy safety. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. 21 CFR 320.27 - Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vivo bioavailability study. 320.27 Section 320.27 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study. (a) Basic principles. (1) In... labeling of the test product. (3) A multiple-dose study may be required to determine the bioavailability of...

  1. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine besylate/losartan and amlodipine camsylate/losartan in healthy subjects: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoonJung; Lee, SeungHwan; Cho, Sang-Min; Kang, Won-Ho; Nam, Kyu-Yeol; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of amlodipine and losartan has been used to reduce blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and tolerability of an FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium compared to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted on 46 healthy male subjects. Blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected up to 144 hours post dose for each period. PK parameters were calculated in each treatment group using a noncompartmental method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the two treatments for the maximum plasma concentration ( C max ) and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to the last quantifiable time point (AUC 0-t ) were estimated. Tolerability assessments were performed for all subjects who received the drug at least once. The PK profiles of the two treatments were similar. For amlodipine, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of amlodipine besylate to amlodipine camsylate for the C max and AUC 0-t were 0.98 (0.94-1.01) and 0.97 (0.93-1.01), respectively. The corresponding values for losartan were 0.91 (0.81-1.02) and 1.05 (0.98-1.12), respectively. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two treatments, and both were well tolerated. An FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium produced similar results to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium treatment with respect to the PK parameters of amlodipine and losartan based on C max and AUC 0-t values. The amlodipine besylate/losartan potassium combination was well tolerated by healthy male

  2. Dose-ranging pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) and colistin in rats following single intravenous CMS doses.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sandrine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) dose on CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in rats. Three rats per group received an intravenous bolus of CMS at a dose of 5, 15, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg. Arterial blood samples were drawn at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. CMS and colistin plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of CMS and colistin were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Linear relationships were observed between CMS and colistin AUCs to infinity and CMS doses, as well as between CMS and colistin C(max) and CMS doses. CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics were linear for a range of colistin concentrations covering the range of values encountered and recommended in patients even during treatment with higher doses.

  3. GEO Label: User and Producer Perspectives on a Label for Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, V.; Lumsden, J.; Masó, J.; Díaz, P.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    One of the aims of the Science and Technology Committee (STC) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) was to establish a GEO Label- a label to certify geospatial datasets and their quality. As proposed, the GEO Label will be used as a value indicator for geospatial data and datasets accessible through the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). It is suggested that the development of such a label will significantly improve user recognition of the quality of geospatial datasets and that its use will help promote trust in datasets that carry the established GEO Label. Furthermore, the GEO Label is seen as an incentive to data providers. At the moment GEOSS contains a large amount of data and is constantly growing. Taking this into account, a GEO Label could assist in searching by providing users with visual cues of dataset quality and possibly relevance; a GEO Label could effectively stand as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection. Currently our project - GeoViQua, - together with EGIDA and ID-03 is undertaking research to define and evaluate the concept of a GEO Label. The development and evaluation process will be carried out in three phases. In phase I we have conducted an online survey (GEO Label Questionnaire) to identify the initial user and producer views on a GEO Label or its potential role. In phase II we will conduct a further study presenting some GEO Label examples that will be based on Phase I. We will elicit feedback on these examples under controlled conditions. In phase III we will create physical prototypes which will be used in a human subject study. The most successful prototypes will then be put forward as potential GEO Label options. At the moment we are in phase I, where we developed an online questionnaire to collect the initial GEO Label requirements and to identify the role that a GEO Label should serve from the user and producer standpoint. The GEO Label Questionnaire consists of generic questions to identify whether

  4. Pediatric patient and staff dose measurements in barium meal fluoroscopic procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S. A.; Porto, L. E.; Ledesma, J. A.; Nascimento, E. X.; Legnani, A.; Andrade, M. E. A.; Khoury, H. J.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates patient and staff dose measurements in pediatric barium meal series fluoroscopic procedures. It aims to analyze radiographic techniques, measure the air kerma-area product (PKA), and estimate the staff's eye lens, thyroid and hands equivalent doses. The procedures of 41 patients were studied, and PKA values were calculated using LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) positioned at the center of the patient's upper chest. Furthermore, LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs were used to estimate the equivalent doses. The results showed a discrepancy in the radiographic techniques when compared to the European Commission recommendations. Half of the results of the analyzed literature presented lower PKA and dose reference level values than the present study. The staff's equivalent doses strongly depends on the distance from the beam. A 55-cm distance can be considered satisfactory. However, a distance decrease of ~20% leads to, at least, two times higher equivalent doses. For eye lenses this dose is significantly greater than the annual limit set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In addition, the occupational doses were found to be much higher than in the literature. Changing the used radiographic techniques to the ones recommended by the European Communities, it is expected to achieve lower PKA values ​​and occupational doses.

  5. Hyperthermia increases accumulation of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes in feline sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, M L; Anyarambhatla, G; Rosner, G; Azuma, C; Fisher, P E; Dewhirst, M W; Needham, D; Thrall, D E

    2000-09-01

    The effect of hyperthermia on the accumulation of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes was studied in feline sarcomas. Each cat received two separate injections of liposomes. The first was used to quantify the amount of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes within the tumor under normothermic conditions. The second injection was made at the beginning of a 60-min hyperthermia procedure. Planar scintigraphy was used to measure the activity of technetium-99m-labeled liposomes within the tumor at predetermined times up to 18 h after injection. Regions of interest were drawn for the tumor, lungs, liver, kidney, and aorta. Counts in the regions of interest were decay corrected. Counts/pixel in the tumor under normothermic and hyperthermic conditions were normalized to aorta counts/pixel. A total of 16 cats were eligible for the study. In two of the 16 cats, incomplete count data precluded analysis. In the remaining 14 cats, hyperthermia resulted in a significant increase in liposome accumulation in the tumor (P = 0.001). Tumor volume ranged from 1.2 to 236.2 cm3, and thermal dose ranged from 2.0 to 243.3 CEM43CT90 (equivalent time that the 10th percentile temperature was equal to 43 degrees C). There was not a relationship between either tumor volume or hyperthermia dose on the magnitude of increased liposome accumulation, suggesting that this method has application across a range of tumor volumes and degrees of heatibility.

  6. Evaluation of the adverse event profile and pharmacodynamics of toceranib phosphate administered to dogs with solid tumors at doses below the maximum tolerated dose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The receptor kinase inhibitor toceranib phosphate (Palladia) was approved for use in dogs in 2009 using a dose of 3.25 mg/kg administered every other day. Preliminary data suggests that lower doses of toeceranib may be associated with a reduced adverse event profile while maintaining sufficient drug exposure to provide biologic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the Cmax of toceranib in dogs with solid tumors receiving 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and to document the adverse events associated with this dose rate. Secondary objectives included determination of plasma VEGF concentrations in treated dogs and response to therapy. Results Dogs with solid tumors were administered toceranib at an intended target dose ranging from 2.5-2.75 mg/kg every other day and plasma samples were obtained for analysis of toceranib and VEGF plasma concentrations on days 0, 7, 14 and 30 of the study at 6 and 8 hours post drug administration. Additionally, plasma samples were obtained at 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 12 hours from dogs on day 30 for confirmation of Cmax. Response to therapy was assessed using standard RECIST criteria and adverse events were characterized using the VCOG-CTCAE. Toceranib administered at doses between 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day resulted in an average 6–8 hr plasma concentration ranging from 100–120 ng/ml, well above the 40 ng/ml concentration associated with target inhibition. Plasma VEGF concentrations increased significantly over the 30 day treatment period indicating that VEGFR2 inhibition was likely achieved in the majority of dogs. The lower doses of toceranib used in this study were associated with a substantially reduced adverse event profile compared to the established label dose of 3.25 mg/kg EOD. Conclusions Doses of toceranib ranging from 2.4-2.9 mg/kg every other day provide drug exposure considered sufficient for target inhibition while resulting in an adverse event profile substantially reduced from that

  7. Assessment of corporate compliance with guidance and regulations on labels of commercially produced complementary foods sold in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lara; Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Badham, Jane; Mengkheang, Khin; Adhikary, Indu; Sy Gueye, Ndèye Yaga; Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    National legislation and global guidance address labelling of complementary foods to ensure that labels support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. This cross-sectional study assessed the labels of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF) sold in Phnom Penh (n = 70), Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley (n = 22), Nepal; Dakar Department (n = 84), Senegal; and Dar es Salaam (n = 26), Tanzania. Between 3.6% and 30% of products did not provide any age recommendation and 8.6-20.2% of products, from all sites, recommended an age of introduction of <6 months. Few CPCF products provided a daily ration (0.0-8.6%) and 14.5-55.6% of those that did exceeded the daily energy recommendation for complementary foods for a breastfed child from 6 to 8.9 months of age. Only 3.6-27.3% of labels provided accurate and complete messages in the required language encouraging exclusive breastfeeding, and almost none (0.0-2.9%) provided accurate and complete messages regarding the appropriate introduction of complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding. Between 34.3% and 70.2% of CPCF manufacturers also produced breastmilk substitutes and 41.7-78.0% of relevant CPCF products cross-promoted their breastmilk substitutes products. Labelling practices of CPCF included in this study do not fully comply with international guidance on their promotion and selected aspects of national legislation, and there is a need for more detailed normative guidance on certain promotion practices in order to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dynamic map labeling.

    PubMed

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  9. Dose assessment of aircraft crew in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, J W E

    2003-01-01

    As the operator of the National Dose Registration and Information System, NRG has implemented a system for radiation exposure monitoring for the Dutch airlines. The system is based on the use of computer generated flight plans together with dose calculations using the CARI-6M program. Before installing the system a study was performed to estimate the uncertainty in the assessment of the annual dose of the crew members. It was concluded that the proposed system complies with international recommendations on the uncertainty in dose assessments in individual monitoring and that the operational costs of the system are low.

  10. Effects of different discount levels on healthy products coupled with a healthy choice label, special offer label or both: results from a web-based supermarket experiment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two strategies commonly recommended to improve population diets include food labels and food taxes/subsidies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both strategies separately and in combination. Findings An experiment with a 3x3 factorial design was conducted, including: three levels of price reduction (10%; 25%; and 50%) x three labels (‘special offer’, ‘healthy choice’ and ‘special offer & healthy choice’) on healthy foods defined following the Choices front-of-pack nutrition label. N = 109 participants completed the experiment by conducting a typical weekly shop for their household at a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance. Participants receiving a 50% price discount purchased significantly more healthy foods for their household in a typical weekly shop than the 10% discount (+8.7 items; 95%CI = 3.8-13.6) and the 25% discount group (+7.7 items; 95%CI = 2.74 – 12.6). However, the proportion of healthy foods was not significantly higher and the discounts lead to an increased amount of energy purchased. No significant effects of the labels were found. Conclusion This study brings some relevant insights into the effects of price discounts on healthier foods coupled with different labels and shows that price effects over shadowed food labels. However, price discounts seem to have ambiguous effects; they do encourage the purchase of healthy products, but also lead to increased energy purchases. More research is needed to examine how pricing strategies can work in directing consumers towards interchanging unhealthier options for healthier alternatives. PMID:23680347

  11. Consensus guidelines for dosing of amoxicillin-clavulanate in melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Chaowagul, Wipada; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Dance, David A B; Peacock, Sharon J; Currie, Bart J

    2008-02-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia. In response to clinical confusion regarding the appropriate dose of amoxicillin-clavulanate, we have developed guidelines for the appropriate dosing of this second-line agent. For eradication therapy for melioidosis, we recommend 20/5 mg/kg orally, three times daily.

  12. The Bittersweet Truth About Sugar Labeling Regulations: They Are Achievable and Overdue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent Institute of Medicine recommendation to the Food and Drug Administration to include added sugar in a new front-of-package system provides new justification for reviewing outdated regulations pertinent to sugar and analyzing whether the government’s previous resistance to sugar labeling remains valid given new and robust science. I have provided an overview of US sugar consumption, its public health implications, and the science related to added sugar detection. I reviewed US and international sugar intake recommendations and suggested revised regulations to better inform and protect consumers. I concluded by noting new directions in the area of sugar research for future public health policy. PMID:22594751

  13. Consumers' perceptions of the dietary supplement health and education act: implications and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the United States Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). The regulatory framework for dietary supplements created by DSHEA has led to significant misperceptions regarding consumers' understanding of the safety and efficacy of supplements. Research shows that consumers erroneously believe that: (1) supplements are approved by the government, (2) supplements have been tested for safety and effectiveness, (3) the content of supplements is analyzed, and (4) manufacturers are required to disclose known adverse effects to consumers. Furthermore, labelling requirements that are intended to provide transparency to consumers are relatively ineffective. The following four recommendations are offered for reforming DSHEA: (1) only allow structure-function claims that are supported by research evidence, (2) require manufacturers to list known adverse effects on the labels of dietary supplements, (3) require that the Food and Drug Administration analyzes the content of dietary supplements and (4) restrict the definition of dietary ingredients. These recommendations would bring DSHEA to more closely align with consumer expectations regarding the regulation of dietary supplements and would likely provide a safer landscape for the use of supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Absorbed dose and the effective dose of panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ayae; Okano, Tsuneichi; Gotoh, Kenichi; Yokoi, Midori; Hirukawa, Akiko; Okumura, Shinji; Koyama, Syuji

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the radiation doses absorbed by the patient during Panoramic temporo mandibular joint radiography (Panoramic TMJ), Schüllers method and Orbitoramus projection. The dose of the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Orbitoramus projection and the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was compared to that with Schüllers method. We measured the doses received by various organs and calculated the effective doses using the guidelines of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 103. Organ absorbed doses were measured using an anthropomorphic phantom, loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD), located at 160 sensitive sites. The dose shows the sum value of irradiation on both the right and left sides. In addition, we set a few different exposure field sizes. The effective dose for a frontal view in Panoramic TMJ was 11 µSv, and that for the lateral view was 14 µSv. The lens of the Orbitoramus projection was 40 times higher than the frontal view in Panoramic TMJ. Although the effective dose of the lateral view in Panoramic TMJ was 3 times higher than that of the small exposure field (10×10 cm on film) in Schüller's method, it was the same as that of a mid-sized exposure field. When the exposure field in the inferior 1/3 was reduced during panoramic TMJ, the effective doses could be decreased. Therefore we recommend that the size of the exposure field in Panoramic TMJ be decreased.

  15. An Open-label, Single-dose, Pharmacokinetic Study of Factor VIII Activity After Administration of Moroctocog Alfa (AF-CC) in Male Chinese Patients With Hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhong; Wu, Runhui; Hu, Pei; Sun, Feifei; Xu, Lihong; Liang, Yali; Nepal, Sunil; Qu, Peng Roger; Huard, Francois; Korth-Bradley, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    Hemophilia A represents up to 80% of all hemophilia cases in China. In patients with this condition, bleeding can be prevented and controlled by administering clotting factor VIII (FVIII). Since their initial availability, recombinant FVIII products have undergone several iterations to enhance their safety. Moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) is among the third generation of recombinant FVIII products and received regulatory approval in China in August 2012. The present study characterizes the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII activity (FVIII:C) after administration of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in male Chinese patients with hemophilia A. This multicenter, open-label, single-dose study enrolled 13 male Chinese patients diagnosed with severe hemophilia A (FVIII:C <1%) and a history of at least 150 exposure-days to any FVIII-containing product. Eligible patients received a single dose of moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) 50 IU/kg IV within 10 minutes. Blood samples were collected within 2 hours before administration and through 72 hours after dosing. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed based on FVIII:C and were analyzed by age groups: ages 6 to <12 years (n = 3) and ≥12 years (n = 10). The mean plasma concentration-time profile for FVIII:C activity was consistently lower in patients aged 6 to <12 years compared with those aged ≥12 years. Geometric AUC 0-∞ and C max were approximately 57% and 28% lower in the younger patients relative to the older patients, respectively. A total of 4 adverse events occurred in 4 patients. Low-titer, transient FVIII inhibitors were observed in 2 patients and were considered serious adverse events. Neither case resulted in clinical manifestations nor required treatment. This is the first report of the pharmacokinetic parameters of FVIII:C after moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) in an all-Chinese population of males with hemophilia A. The pharmacokinetic profile in older patients was similar to that previously reported

  16. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance: administered dose in relationship to United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nacif, Marcelo S; Arai, Andrew E; Lima, Joao A C; Bluemke, David A

    2012-02-29

    Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement was originally validated using higher than label-recommended doses of gadolinium chelate. The objective of this study was to evaluate available evidence for various gadolinium dosing regimens used for CMR. The relationship of gadolinium dose warnings (due to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) announced in 2008 to gadolinium dosing regimens was also examined. We conducted a meta-analysis of peer reviewed publications from January, 2004 to December, 2010. Major subject search headings (MeSh) terms from the National Library of Medicine's PubMed were: contrast media, gadolinium, heart, magnetic resonance imaging; searches were limited to human studies with abstracts published in English. Case reports, review articles, editorials, MRA related papers and all reports that did not indicate gadolinium type or weight-based dose were excluded. For all included references, full text was available to determine the total administered gadolinium dose on a per kg basis. Average and median dose values were weighted by the number of subjects in each study. 399 publications were identified in PubMed; 233 studies matched the inclusion criteria, encompassing 19,934 patients with mean age 54.2 ± 11.4 (range 9.3 to 76 years). 34 trials were related to perfusion testing and 199 to myocardial late gadolinium enhancement. In 2004, the weighted-median and weighted-mean contrast dose were 0.15 and 0.16 ± 0.06 mmol/kg, respectively. Median contrast doses for 2005-2010 were: 0.2 mmol/kg for all years, respectively. Mean contrast doses for the years 2005-2010 were: 0.19 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.10, 0.18 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.04 mmol/kg, respectively (p for trend, NS). Gadopentetate dimeglumine was the most frequent gadolinium type [114 (48.9%) studies]. No change in mean gadolinium dose was present before, versus after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning (p > 0.05). Three multi-center dose ranging trials have been

  17. Human rabies prevention--United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

    PubMed

    Manning, Susan E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Fishbein, Daniel; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Guerra, Marta; Meltzer, Martin I; Dhankhar, Praveen; Vaidya, Sagar A; Jenkins, Suzanne R; Sun, Benjamin; Hull, Harry F

    2008-05-23

    These recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) update the previous recommendations on human rabies prevention (CDC. Human rabies prevention--United States, 1999: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 1999;48 [No. RR-1]) and reflect the status of rabies and antirabies biologics in the United States. This statement 1) provides updated information on human and animal rabies epidemiology; 2) summarizes the evidence regarding the effectiveness/efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of rabies biologics; 3) presents new information on the cost-effectiveness of rabies postexposure prophylaxis; 4) presents recommendations for rabies postexposure and pre-exposure prophylaxis; and 5) presents information regarding treatment considerations for human rabies patients. These recommendations involve no substantial changes to the recommended approach for rabies postexposure or pre-exposure prophylaxis. ACIP recommends that prophylaxis for the prevention of rabies in humans exposed to rabies virus should include prompt and thorough wound cleansing followed by passive rabies immunization with human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and vaccination with a cell culture rabies vaccine. For persons who have never been vaccinated against rabies, postexposure antirabies vaccination should always include administration of both passive antibody (HRIG) and vaccine (human diploid cell vaccine [HDCV] or purified chick embryo cell vaccine [PCECV]). Persons who have ever previously received complete vaccination regimens (pre-exposure or postexposure) with a cell culture vaccine or persons who have been vaccinated with other types of vaccines and have previously had a documented rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer should receive only 2 doses of vaccine: one on day 0 (as soon as the exposure is recognized and administration of vaccine can be arranged) and the second on day 3. HRIG is administered only once (i.e., at the beginning

  18. Assessing the Role of Shape and Label in the Misleading Packaging of Food Imitating Products: From Empirical Evidence to Policy Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Frédéric; Bouillé, Julien; Le Goff, Kévin; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Food imitating products are chemical consumer items used frequently in the household for cleaning and personal hygiene (e.g., bleach, soap, and shampoo), which resemble food products. Their containers replicate elements of food package design such as possessing a shape close in style to drinking product containers or bearing labels that depict colorful fruits. In marketing, these incongruent forms are designed to increase the appeal of functional products, leading to chemical consumer product embellishment. However, due to the resulting visual ambiguity, food imitating products may expose consumers to the risk of being poisoned from ingestion. Thus, from a public health perspective, food imitating products are considered dangerous chemical products that should not be sold, and may merit being recalled for the safety of consumers. To help policymakers address the hazardous presence of food imitating products, the purpose of this article is to identify the specific design features that generate most ambiguity for the consumer, and therefore increase the likelihood of confusion with foodstuffs. Among the visual elements of food packaging, the two most important features (shape and label) are manipulated in a series of three lab studies combining six Implicit Association Tests (IATs) and two explicit measures on products' drinkability and safety. IATs were administered to assess consumers' implicit association of liquid products with tastiness in a within-subject design in which the participants (N = 122) were presented with two kinds of food imitating products with a drink shape or drink label compared with drinks (experiential products with congruent form) and classic chemical products (hygiene products) (functional products with congruent form). Results show that chemical consumer products with incongruent drink shapes (but not drink labels) as an element of food package design are both implicitly associated with tastiness and explicitly judged as safe and drinkable

  19. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  20. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... container of a misleading form or size.\\1\\ FSIS has interpreted these provisions as requiring that the...-evaluating-labeling . Labels submitted as an extraordinary circumstance are given the highest priority for... submissions to FSIS headquarters, thus increasing the availability of FSIS labeling staff. Upon publication of...