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Sample records for recommended-dairy weight-maintenance diet

  1. Protein diets, body weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-01-01

    The review addresses briefly the relevance of protein diets for body weight loss and weight maintenance. The addition of recent findings on age-dependent protein requirements, specific effects of protein intake and protein source, the relevance of the other dietary macronutrients, especially of 'low-carb', 'protein leverage', the mechanisms of protein-induced satiety, and food-reward makes the review up-to-date. Different effects of protein diets in different age groups result from age-dependent protein requirements that are primarily related to effects on body composition. A protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain a negative energy balance in adults, irrespective of the protein source. 'Low-carb' diets trace back to the protein-induced effects. Evidence that protein intake drives energy intake as suggested by the 'Protein leverage hypothesis' is scarce and equivocal. Finally, limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet. An implication of the findings for clinical practice is that a protein intake of 0.8-1.2 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain satiety, energy expenditure, and fat-free mass, independent of a dietary 'low-carb' content. Limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet.

  2. Macronutrient Content of the Diet: What Do We Know About Energy Balance and Weight Maintenance?

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2016-06-01

    The 2013 AHA/ACC Clinical Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity recommends a reduced energy diet for weight loss regardless of the macronutrient content. However, diet composition may affect the maintenance of weight loss. In general, a healthful dietary pattern with reduced portion sizes, low energy dense foods, and physical activity are successful for many. Certain populations, such as those with insulin resistance, may find reductions in carbohydrate and higher levels of unsaturated fats to be more effective and promote greater adherence. Of importance is that metabolic adaptations following weight loss also may impact weight loss maintenance and should be considered in the transition from weight loss to weight stabilization. Thus, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies are both important in an intervention for sustaining long-term behavior change.

  3. Better dietary adherence and weight maintenance achieved by a long-term moderate-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Leila; Mirmiran, Parvin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a long-term moderate-fat diet (30 % energy from fat) v. a low-fat one (20 % energy from fat) on metabolic risks. The study was a randomised, prospective 14-month trial on overweight and obese patients (eighty-nine overweight and obese men and women). The intervention was a moderate-fat diet (30 % energy) or a low-fat diet (20 % energy). The main outcome measurements were change in body weight, waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, TAG, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Forty-five subjects on the moderate-fat diet and forty-four subjects on the low-fat one were studied. Characteristics of all randomised participants were similar in both groups. After 7 months, the moderate- and low-fat diets had similar effects on cardiovascular risks. The moderate-fat diet was more successful after 14 months in reducing weight ( -5.0 (SD 2.5) kg in the moderate-fat group v. -1.2 (SD 1.1) kg in the low-fat one; P < 0.0001), waist circumference (-5.5 (SD 2.4) cm in the moderate-fat group v. - 2.3 (SD 1.3) cm in the low-fat one; P < 0.0001), and other cardiovascular risk factors as well (LDL, TAG, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure). In conclusion, a moderate-fat energy-restricted diet in the long term might have more beneficial effects on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors compared with a low-fat diet. Better dietary adherence with the moderate-fat diet may be the reason for its successful effects.

  4. Comparative Effects of 3 Popular Diets on Lipids, Endothelial Function and C-Reactive Protein during Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Although popular diets focus on weight loss and their favorable biochemical and physiological effects, fewer investigations have evaluated the biological impact of these diets during weight maintenance. To study this issue, three popular diets, Atkins, South Beach and Ornish were tested in a randomized and counterbalanced, crossover study between January and December 2006. Participants completed each of the three 4-week isocaloric dietary intervention phases followed by a 4-week washout period. They were weighed weekly and caloric adjustments made if weight change exceeded 1 kg. At the completion of each dietary phase, 3-day food records were analyzed, fasting blood sampled and brachial artery reactivity testing (BART) performed. Eighteen adults completed all 3 isocaloric dietary phases. During the South Beach and Ornish maintenance phase there were significant reductions in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (11.8% [P=0.01], 16.6% [P=0.0006], respectively) compared to pre-diet baseline. Moreover, in contrast to the Atkins maintenance phase, significant reductions in LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels were observed after the South Beach (P=0.003, P=0.05, repeated measures ANOVA) and Ornish maintenance phase (P=0.0004, P=0.006, repeated measures ANOVA). Brachial artery testing revealed an inverse correlation between flow-mediated vasodilatation and intake of saturated fat (r=−0.33; p=0.016). These data suggest that during weight maintenance, less favorable biological effects are observed during a simulated, high fat Atkins diet when compared to the South Beach and Ornish diet. The findings support additional study in subjects with visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome, in whom an increased risk of coronary disease at baseline may be accentuated with chronic consumption of a diet that exhibits unfavorable effects on lipids and endothelial function. PMID:19328268

  5. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  6. Comparative effects of three popular diets on lipids, endothelial function, and C-reactive protein during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael; Beach, Valerie; Sorkin, John D; Mangano, Charles; Dobmeier, Christine; Novacic, Danica; Rhyne, Jeffrey; Vogel, Robert A

    2009-04-01

    Although popular diets focus on weight loss and their favorable biochemical and physiological effects, fewer investigations have evaluated the biological impact of these diets during weight maintenance. To study this issue, three popular diets-Atkins, South Beach, and Ornish-were tested in a randomized and counterbalanced crossover study between January and December 2006. Participants completed each of the three 4-week isocaloric dietary intervention phases followed by a 4-week washout period. They were weighed weekly and caloric adjustments made if weight change exceeded 1 kg. At the completion of each dietary phase, 3-day food records were analyzed, fasting blood sampled, and brachial artery reactivity testing performed. Eighteen adults completed all three isocaloric dietary phases. During the South Beach and Ornish maintenance phase, there were significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.8%; P=0.01, 16.6%; P=0.0006, respectively) compared to prediet baseline. In addition, in contrast to the Atkins maintenance phase, significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels were observed after the South Beach (P=0.003, P=0.05; repeated measures analyses of variance) and Ornish maintenance phases (P=0.0004, P=0.006, repeated measures analyses of variance). Brachial artery testing revealed an inverse correlation between flow-mediated vasodilatation and intake of saturated fat (r=-0.33; P=0.016). These data suggest that during weight maintenance, less favorable biological effects are observed during a simulated, high-fat Atkins diet when compared to the South Beach and Ornish diet. The findings support additional study in subjects with visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome, in whom an increased risk of coronary disease at baseline may be accentuated with chronic consumption of a diet that exhibits unfavorable effects on lipids and endothelial function.

  7. Overweight and obesity: The efficacy of diets for weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Dieter; Kister, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The report examines which diets are successful as therapy for overweight and obese persons. In general all considered diets are effective. Besides the food the patients have to change the kinesic behaviour and the lifestyle to achieve sustained success.

  8. Overweight and obesity: The efficacy of diets for weight maintenance after weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Kister, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The report examines which diets are successful as therapy for overweight and obese persons. In general all considered diets are effective. Besides the food the patients have to change the kinesic behaviour and the lifestyle to achieve sustained success. PMID:23904889

  9. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets--a systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Clifton, P M; Condo, D; Keogh, J B

    2014-03-01

    Meta analysis of short term trials indicates that a higher protein, lower carbohydrate weight loss diet enhances fat mass loss and limits lean mass loss compared with a normal protein weight loss diet. Whether this benefit persists long term is not clear. We selected weight loss studies in adults with at least a 12 month follow up in which a higher percentage protein/lower carbohydrate diet was either planned or would be expected for either weight loss or weight maintenance. Studies were selected regardless of the success of the advice but difference in absolute and percentage protein intake at 12 months was used as a moderator in the analysis. Data was analysed using Comprehensive Meta analysis V2 using a random effects analysis. As many as 32 studies with 3492 individuals were analysed with data on fat and lean mass, glucose and insulin from 18 to 22 studies and lipids from 28 studies. A recommendation to consume a lower carbohydrate, higher protein diet in mostly short term intensive interventions with long term follow up was associated with better weight and fat loss but the effect size was small-standardised means of 0.14 and 0.22, p = 0.008 and p < 0.001 respectively (equivalent to 0.4 kg for both). A difference of 5% or greater in percentage protein between diets at 12 mo was associated with a 3 fold greater effect size compared with <5% (p = 0.038) in fat mass (0.9 vs. 0.3 kg). Fasting triglyceride and insulin were also lower with high protein diets with effect sizes of 0.17 and 0.22, p = 0.003 and p = 0.042 respectively. Other lipids and glucose were not different. The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (p<0.01). BW and FM decreased over 3 months (p<0.001): HP (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -11.9 ± 1.7 kg) vs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (p<0.001); LC (-13.5 ± 4 kg; -11.0 ± 1.2 kg) vs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.001); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.001). Decreases over 12 months (p<0.001) showed HP (-12.8 ± 4 kg; -9.1 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (p<0.001); LC (-10.6 ± 4 kg; -8.3 ± 0.7 kg) vs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.01); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.01). HPNC vs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet

  11. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    PubMed Central

    LeCheminant, James D; Gibson, Cheryl A; Sullivan, Debra K; Hall, Sandra; Washburn, Rik; Vernon, Mary C; Curry, Chelsea; Stewart, Elizabeth; Westman, Eric C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC) diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF) diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW) for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet) overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA), and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day) followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20%) or fat (~30%). BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84). The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96). BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87). Fifty-five percent (16/29) and 50% (13/26) of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group. PMID:17976244

  12. Green tea catechin plus caffeine supplementation to a high-protein diet has no additional effect on body weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-01

    Green tea (epigallocatechin gallate + caffeine) and protein each were shown to improve body weight maintenance after weight loss. We investigated the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture added to a high-protein (HP) diet on weight maintenance (WM) after body weight loss in moderately obese subjects. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial was conducted in 80 overweight and moderately obese subjects [age (mean +/- SD): 44 +/- 2 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 29.6 +/- 2.0] matched for sex, age, BMI, height, body mass, and with a habitually low caffeine intake. A very-low-energy diet intervention during 4 wk was followed by 3 mo of WM; during the WM period, the subjects received a green tea-caffeine mixture (270 mg epigallocatechin gallate + 150 mg caffeine/d) or placebo, both in addition to an adequate protein (AP) diet (50-60 g protein/d) or an HP diet (100-120 g protein/d). Subjects lost 7.0 +/- 1.6 kg, or 8.2 +/- 2.0%, body weight (P < 0.001). During the WM phase, WM, resting energy expenditure, and fat-free mass (FFM) increased relatively in both the HP groups and in the AP + green tea-caffeine mixture group (P < 0.05), whereas respiratory quotient and body fat mass decreased, all compared with the AP + placebo group. Satiety increased only in both HP groups (P < 0.05). The green tea-caffeine mixture was only effective with the AP diet. The green tea-caffeine mixture, as well as the HP diet, improved WM independently through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, sparing FFM, and, for the HP diet, satiety; a possible synergistic effect failed to appear.

  13. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (<45 points per 1000 kcal; n = 40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P < 0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P = 0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P < 0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  15. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-05-12

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  16. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P < 0.001), and the decrease was sustained after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P < 0.01) and 52 wk (0.984 ± 0.068; P < 0.01). RMRm/RMRp was correlated with the weight loss after 8 wk (P < 0.01), 20 wk (P < 0.05), and 52 wk (P < 0.05). Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  17. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  18. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  19. Determining optimal approaches for weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Kelly S.; McAuley, Kirsten A.; Taylor, Rachael W.; Williams, Sheila M.; Farmer, Victoria L.; Hansen, Paul; Vorgers, Sue M.; Chisholm, Alexandra W.; Mann, Jim I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight regain often occurs after weight loss in overweight individuals. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 support programs and 2 diets of different macronutrient compositions intended to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. Methods Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 200 women who had lost 5% or more of their initial body weight to an intensive support program (implemented by nutrition and activity specialists) or to an inexpensive nurse-led program (involving “weigh-ins” and encouragement) that included advice about high-carbohydrate diets or relatively high-monounsaturated-fat diets. Results In total, 174 (87%) participants were followed-up for 2 years. The average weight loss (about 2 kg) did not differ between those in the support programs (0.1 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.8 to 1.9, p = 0.95) or diets (0.7 kg, 95% CI −1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.46). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly higher among those on the high-monounsaturated-fat diet (total cholesterol: 0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.33; p = 0.040; LDL cholesterol: 0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.31; p = 0.039) than among those on the high-carbohydrate diet. Those on the high-monounsaturated-fat diet also had significantly higher intakes of total fat (5% total energy, 95% CI 3% to 6%, p < 0.001) and saturated fat (2% total energy, 95% CI 1% to 2%, p < 0.001). All of the other clinical and laboratory measures were similar among those in the support programs and diets. Interpretation A relatively inexpensive program involving nurse support is as effective as a more resource-intensive program for weight maintenance over a 2-year period. Diets of different macronutrient composition produced comparable beneficial effects in terms of weight loss maintenance. ClinicalTrials.gov trial register no. NCT00128336. PMID:19433812

  20. Video telehealth for weight maintenance of African-American women.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study.

  1. Video telehealth for weight maintenance of African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Ben S; Schiffer, Linda; Brown, Allison A; Berbaum, Michael L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-01-01

    Summary We evaluated the effect of home telehealth on weight maintenance after a group-based weight loss programme. The home telehealth intervention comprised telephone counselling and home Internet-enabled digital video recorders (DVRs) with three channels of video programmes. The video content provided reinforcement and support to promote problem solving, prevent relapse, and sustain motivation. Eighty-eight obese or overweight African-American women were randomized to receive monthly telephone counselling (control) or the home telehealth intervention. The weight change during maintenance was not significant in either group (0.6 kg in the intervention group, 0.0 kg in the control group), and there was no significant difference between them. Changes in diet, physical activity, social support and self-efficacy during the maintenance period did not differ significantly between groups. DVR use was low: during the intervention, the number of valid DVR viewings ranged from zero to 42 per person. DVR use was positively associated with previous attendance at the weight loss classes. Home video-based telehealth is a new method of delivering a weight loss maintenance intervention to African-American women. It had no effect on weight maintenance in the present study. PMID:24163236

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of Weight Maintenance Among Black & White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Melanie Warziski; Sereika, Susan M.; Yang, Kyeongra; Ewing, Linda J.; Hravnak, Marilyn; Burke, Lora E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate (1) weight maintenance among black and white participants and (2) psychosocial correlates (eg, healthy eating barriers, self-efficacy, stress) of weight maintenance 18 months after behavioral weight-loss treatment. Methods Linear and logistic regression examined weight change and unsuccessful weight maintenance (>5% weight gain) among 107 black and white adults. Results After controlling for socio-demographics, differences in weight maintenance between ethnicities were not generally noted. Healthy eating barriers and stressful life events were associated with weight gain, P<.04. Conclusions Strategies to cope with stressful events and overcome barriers to eating healthfully are needed for weight maintenance among both ethnicities. PMID:22370440

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue Triglycerides After Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance: the DIOGENES Study

    PubMed Central

    KUNEŠOVÁ, M.; HLAVATÝ, P.; TVRZICKÁ, E.; STAŇKOVÁ, B.; KALOUSKOVÁ, P.; VIGUERIE, N.; LARSEN, T. M.; VAN BAAK, M. A.; JEBB, S. A.; MARTINEZ, J. A.; PFEIFFER, A. F. H.; KAFATOS, A.; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; HILL, M.; LANGIN, D.; ŽÁK, A.; ASTRUP, A.; SARIS, W. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower weight decrease. These findings suggest a specific role of monounsaturated fatty acids in weight management and as weight change predictors. PMID:23098653

  4. Lessons learned about primary weight maintenance and secondary weight maintenance: results from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Ann; Mawn, Barbara; Susta, Davide; Staines, Anthony; Browne, Sarah; Sweeney, Mary Rose

    2015-06-24

    Obesity is now a worldwide problem and Ireland is no exception with approximately two thirds of the adult population now overweight or obese. A recent report has found that 53% of Irish adults aged 50 years and over are classified as centrally obese and at substantially increased risk of metabolic complications. While most studies investigating weight maintenance have been conducted on those who have managed to lose weight and/or achieved weight loss maintenance (secondary weight maintainers), few studies have been undertaken to understand the attitudes, behaviours, motivations and strategies of those who maintain their weight within normal weight ranges over their lifetime, so called primary weight maintainers. This study aims to explore this issue through qualitative exploration of primary weight maintainers in an Irish University. Seven focus groups were conducted (including three single interviews) with 17 participants in total across three different groups, 1) primary weight maintainers, 2) secondary weight maintainers, and 3) those unable to sustain or achieve weight loss. The interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was applied to interpret the findings. After analyzing the participant's interviews, planning and organization or lack of, emerged as themes across the three groups in varying degrees. Strategizing, perseverance and willpower were seen as integral to weight maintenance and weight loss in groups one and two, these were lacking in group three. Prioritizing exercise and perseverance in maintaining a high level of activity was evident in groups one and two and was lacking in group three. Motivational influences were equal across the groups however, group three found it difficult to turn this into action. Group one had behavioural control of calorie intake maintaining a balance between week and weekend eating. Group three found it difficult to control calorie intake and portion size. Self-image differed across the three groups with cognitive

  5. The effect of dietary glycemic index on weight maintenance in overweight subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Neary, Nicola M; Chaudhri, Owais; Brynes, Audrey E; Dornhorst, Anne; Leeds, Anthony R; Hickson, Mary; Frost, Gary S

    2009-02-01

    Evidence suggests that a low-glycemic index (LGI) diet has a satiating effect and thus may enhance weight maintenance following weight loss. This study was conducted at Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK, and assessed the effect of altering diet GI on weight-loss maintenance. It consisted of a weight-loss phase and a 4-month randomized weight maintenance phase. Subjects were seen monthly to assess dietary compliance and anthropometrics. Appetite was assessed bimonthly by visual analogue scales while meal challenge postprandial insulin and glucose concentrations were assessed before and after the intervention. Following a median weight loss of 6.1 (interquartile range: 5.2-7.1) % body weight, subjects were randomized to a high-glycemic index (HGI) (n = 19) or LGI (n = 23) diet. Dietary composition differed only in GI (HGI group: 63.7 +/- 9.4; LGI group: 49.7 +/- 5.7, P < 0.001) and glycemic load (HGI group: 136.8 +/- 56.3; LGI group: 89.7 +/- 27.5, P < 0.001). Groups did not differ in body weight (weight change over 4 months, HGI group: 0.3 +/- 1.9 kg; LGI group: -0.7 +/- 2.9 kg, P = 0.3) or other anthropometric measurements. This pilot study suggests that in the setting of healthy eating, changing the diet GI does not appear to significantly affect weight maintenance.

  6. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening.

  7. A virtual reality intervention (second life) to improve weight maintenance: Rationale and design for an 18 month randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, DK; Goetz, JR; Gibson, CA; Mayo, MS; Washburn, RA; Lee, Y; Ptomey, LT; Donnelly, JE

    2015-01-01

    Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance is clearly needed. Virtual reality environments offer a promising platform for delivering weight maintenance interventions as they provide rapid feedback, learner experimentation, real-time personalized task selection and exploration. Utilizing virtual reality during weight maintenance allows individuals to engage in repeated experiential learning, practice skills, and participate in real-life scenarios without reallife repercussions, which may diminish weight regain. We will conduct an 18-month effectiveness trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months weight maintenance) in 202 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25–44.9 kg/m2). Participants who achieve ≥ 5% weight loss following a 6 month weight loss intervention delivered by phone conference call will be randomized to weight maintenance interventions delivered by conference call or conducted in a virtual environment (Second Life®). The primary aim of the study is to compare weight change during maintenance between the phone conference call and virtual groups. Secondarily, potential mediators of weight change including energy and macronutrient intake, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy for both physical activity and diet, and attendance and completion of experiential learning assignments will also be assessed. PMID:26616535

  8. A virtual reality intervention (Second Life) to improve weight maintenance: Rationale and design for an 18-month randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D K; Goetz, J R; Gibson, C A; Mayo, M S; Washburn, R A; Lee, Y; Ptomey, L T; Donnelly, J E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of weight loss programs available in the US, the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) among US adults continues to rise at least, in part, due to the high probability of weight regain following weight loss. Thus, the development and evaluation of novel interventions designed to improve weight maintenance are clearly needed. Virtual reality environments offer a promising platform for delivering weight maintenance interventions as they provide rapid feedback, learner experimentation, real-time personalized task selection and exploration. Utilizing virtual reality during weight maintenance allows individuals to engage in repeated experiential learning, practice skills, and participate in real-life scenarios without real-life repercussions, which may diminish weight regain. We will conduct an 18-month effectiveness trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months weight maintenance) in 202 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25-44.9kg/m(2)). Participants who achieve ≥5% weight loss following a 6month weight loss intervention delivered by phone conference call will be randomized to weight maintenance interventions delivered by conference call or conducted in a virtual environment (Second Life®). The primary aim of the study is to compare weight change during maintenance between the phone conference call and virtual groups. Secondarily, potential mediators of weight change including energy and macronutrient intake, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy for both physical activity and diet, and attendance and completion of experiential learning assignments will also be assessed.

  9. Weight maintenance: challenges, tools and strategies for primary care physicians[Link

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is recognized as a chronic disease and one of the major healthcare challenges facing us today. Weight loss can be achieved via lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical interventions, but weight maintenance remains a lifetime challenge for individuals with obesity. Guidelines for the management of obesity have highlighted the role of primary care providers (PCPs). This review examines the long‐term outcomes of clinical trials to identify effective weight maintenance strategies that can be utilized by PCPs. Because of the broad nature of the topic, a structured PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant research articles, peer‐reviewed reviews, guidelines and articles published by regulatory bodies. Trials have demonstrated the benefit of sustained weight loss in managing obesity and its comorbidities. Maintaining 5–10% weight loss for ≥1 year is known to ameliorate many comorbidities. Weight maintenance with lifestyle modification – although challenging – is possible but requires long‐term support to reinforce diet, physical activity and behavioural changes. The addition of pharmacotherapy to lifestyle interventions promotes greater and more sustained weight loss. Clinical evidence and recently approved pharmacotherapy has given PCPs improved strategies to support their patients with maintenance of weight loss. Further studies are needed to assess the translation of these strategies into clinical practice. PMID:26490059

  10. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Eva M R; Lejeune, Manuela P G M; Nijs, Ilse; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2004-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether green tea may improve weight maintenance by preventing or limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5 to 10 % in overweight and moderately obese subjects. The study had a randomised, parallel, placebo-controlled design. A total of 104 overweight and moderately obese male and female subjects (age 18-60 years; BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) participated. The study consisted of a very-low-energy diet intervention (VLED; 2.1 MJ/d) of 4 weeks followed by a weight-maintenance period of 13 weeks in which the subjects received green tea or placebo. The green tea contained caffeine (104 mg/d) and catechins (573 mg/d, of which 323 mg was epigallocatechin gallate). Subjects lost 6.4 (sd 1.9) kg or 7.5 (sd 2.2) % of their original body weight during the VLED (P<0.001). Body-weight regain was not significantly different between the green tea and the placebo group (30.5 (sd 61.8) % and 19.7 (sd 56.9) %, respectively). In the green tea treatment, habitual high caffeine consumption was associated with a higher weight regain compared with habitual low caffeine consumption (39 (sd 17) and 16 (sd 11) %, respectively; P<0.05). We conclude that weight maintenance after 7.5 % body-weight loss was not affected by green tea treatment and that habitual caffeine consumption affected weight maintenance in the green tea treatment.

  11. Improving Weight Maintenance Using Virtual Reality (Second Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Gerald, Stephanie; Fincham, Tennille; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Compare weight loss and maintenance between a face-to-face (FTF) weight management clinic and a clinic delivered via virtual reality (VR). Methods: Participants were randomized to 3 months of weight loss with a weekly clinic delivered via FTF or VR and then 6 months' weight maintenance delivered with VR. Data were collected at baseline…

  12. Improving Weight Maintenance Using Virtual Reality (Second Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Gerald, Stephanie; Fincham, Tennille; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Compare weight loss and maintenance between a face-to-face (FTF) weight management clinic and a clinic delivered via virtual reality (VR). Methods: Participants were randomized to 3 months of weight loss with a weekly clinic delivered via FTF or VR and then 6 months' weight maintenance delivered with VR. Data were collected at baseline…

  13. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Bouwman, Freek G; van Otterdijk, Sanne; Wodzig, Will K W H; Andersen, Malene R; van Baak, Marleen A; Rasmussen, Lone G; Martinez, J Alfredo; Jebb, Susan A; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kafatos, Anthony; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some differences between continued weight losers and weight regainers. Increases in leptin (LEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with weight regain (P < 0·001 and P = 0·005, respectively), and these relationships were influenced by the diet. Consuming a high-protein and high-GI diet dissociated the positive relationship between the change in LEP concentration and weight regain. CRP increased during the weight-maintenance period only in weight regainers with a high-protein diet (P < 0·001). In addition, testosterone, luteinising hormone, angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, retinol-binding protein 4, insulin, glucagon, haptoglobin and growth hormone were also affected by the dietary intervention. The blood profile reflects not only the weight change during the maintenance period, but also the macronutrient composition of the dietary intervention, especially the protein level.

  14. [Weight maintenance after weight loss - how the body defends its weight].

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H

    2011-01-01

    Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Body weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea supplementation.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Lejeune, Manuela P G M; Kovacs, Eva M R

    2005-07-01

    Investigation of the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture on weight maintenance after body weight loss in moderately obese subjects in relation to habitual caffeine intake. A randomized placebo-controlled double blind parallel trial in 76 overweight and moderately obese subjects, (BMI, 27.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m2) matched for sex, age, BMI, height, body mass, and habitual caffeine intake was conducted. A very low energy diet intervention during 4 weeks was followed by 3 months of weight maintenance (WM); during the WM period, the subjects received a green tea-caffeine mixture (270 mg epigallocatechin gallate + 150 mg caffeine per day) or placebo. Subjects lost 5.9 +/-1.8 (SD) kg (7.0 +/- 2.1%) of body weight (p < 0.001). At baseline, satiety was positively, and in women, leptin was inversely, related to subjects' habitual caffeine consumption (p < 0.01). High caffeine consumers reduced weight, fat mass, and waist circumference more than low caffeine consumers; resting energy expenditure was reduced less and respiratory quotient was reduced more during weight loss (p < 0.01). In the low caffeine consumers, during WM, green tea still reduced body weight, waist, respiratory quotient and body fat, whereas resting energy expenditure was increased compared with a restoration of these variables with placebo (p < 0.01). In the high caffeine consumers, no effects of the green tea-caffeine mixture were observed during WM. High caffeine intake was associated with weight loss through thermogenesis and fat oxidation and with suppressed leptin in women. In habitual low caffeine consumers, the green tea-caffeine mixture improved WM, partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation.

  16. Stories of weight management: factors associated with successful and unsuccessful weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Julie A; Swanson, Vivien

    2012-05-01

    Although behavioural interventions are successful in achieving short-term weight loss, most individuals regain most or all of their weight within a few years. Our aim was to investigate factors that can help in long-term weight maintenance. Qualitative interviews were conducted in order to elicit experiences, successes, and difficulties associated with weight control over the lifespan. Participants were 20 adult volunteers (aged 30-67) including lifelong weight maintainers, active weight maintainers who have maintained weight loss, and weight gainers. Thematic analysis was used to highlight differences between weight groups. Successful weight maintainers adopt a staged approach to weight management, including monitoring weight fluctuations and having a clear alarm signal for weight gain that triggers immediate action. They have several behavioural strategies for weight control, comprising relatively small adjustments to diet and/or exercise behaviour and also have clear strategies for coping with lifestyle interruptions. In contrast, unsuccessful weight maintainers display negative cognitive factors, including erratic or inconsistent weight vigilance, failure to respond to warning signs of weight gain, and failure to restrict weight unless in a positive mindset. Further, their coping strategies for weight gain or failed actions are poor. The results suggest that successful weight maintainers, irrespective of current weight band, adopt a staged behavioural approach to weight management that allows them to maintain a fairly stable weight. Encouraging the use of such strategies in those who typically regain weight after dieting may aid them in maintaining weight loss. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Beneficial Effects of a Dietary Weight Loss Intervention on Human Gut Microbiome Diversity and Metabolism Are Not Sustained during Weight Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Fangmann, Daniela; Müller, Nike; Schulte, Dominik M; Rühlemann, Malte C; Türk, Kathrin; Settgast, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Baines, John F; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Laudes, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0.047). The VLCD resulted in significant alterations in gut microbiome diversity from baseline to 3 months (p = 0.0053). Acinetobacter represented an indicator species for the observed effect (indicator value = 0.998, p = 0.006). Metabolic analyses revealed alterations of the bacterial riboflavin pathway from baseline to 3 months (pnom = 0.0078). These changes in diversity and bacterial metabolism induced by VLCD diminished during the weight maintenance phase, despite sustained reductions in body weight and sustained improvements of insulin sensitivity. The present data show that a VLCD is able to beneficially alter both gut microbiome diversity and metabolism in obese humans, but that these changes are not sustained during weight maintenance. This finding might suggest that the microbiome should be targeted during obesity programs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. The A-allele of the common FTO gene variant rs9939609 complicates weight maintenance in severe obese patients.

    PubMed

    Woehning, A; Schultz, J-H; Roeder, E; Moeltner, A; Isermann, B; Nawroth, P P; Wolfrum, C; Rudofsky, G

    2013-01-01

    The A-allele of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant rs9939609 has been associated with increased body weight, whereas no effect on weight loss during weight reduction programs has been observed. We questioned whether the AA-genotype interferes with weight stabilization after weight loss. We conducted a monocentric, longitudinal study involving obese individuals. The FTO gene variant rs9939609 was genotyped in participants attending a weight reduction program that was divided into two phases: a weight reduction period with formula diet (12 weeks) and a weight maintenance phase (40 weeks). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were determined in week 0 (T(0)), after 12 weeks (T(1)) and at the end in week 52 (T(2)). A total of 193 obese subjects aged between 18 and 72 years (129 female, 64 male; initial body weight: 122.4±22.3 kg, initial BMI: 41.8±6.7 kg m(-2)) were included. Genotyping revealed 32.1% TT-, 39.4% AT- and 28.5% AA-genotype carriers. At T (0), carriers of the AA-genotype had significantly higher body weight (P=0.04) and BMI (P=0.005) than carriers of the TT-genotype. Of the 193 participants, 68 discontinued and 125 completed the program. Dropout rate was not influenced by genotype (P=0.33). Completers with AA-genotype showed significantly lower additional weight loss during the weight maintenance phase than TT-genotype carriers (P=0.02). Furthermore, among participants facing weight regain during weight maintenance (n=52), more subjects were carrying the AA-genotype (P=0.006). No influence of genotype on weight reduction under formula diet was observed (P=0.32). In this program, the AA-genotype of rs9939609 was associated with a higher initial body weight and did influence success of weight stabilization. Thus, emphasizing the maintenance phase during a weight reduction program might result

  19. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to <9 h) sleepers increased their sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  20. The Influence of Weight-Loss Expectations on Weight Loss and of Weight-Loss Satisfaction on Weight Maintenance in Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; El Ghoch, Marwan; Gavasso, Ilaria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether cognitive mechanisms contribute to weight loss and maintenance. To assess the influence of weight-loss expectations on weight loss, and of weight-loss satisfaction on weight maintenance, in individuals with severe obesity. A randomized controlled trial comparing two types of energy-restricted diets (high protein vs high carbohydrate) combined with weight-loss cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted over 51 weeks and divided into two phases: weight-loss phase (3 weeks of inpatient treatment and 24 weeks of outpatient treatment) and weight maintenance phase (24 weeks of outpatient treatment). Eighty-eight participants with severe obesity (mean age=46.7 years and mean body mass index=45.6), referred to an eating and weight disorders clinical service, were studied. Body weight was assessed at baseline, and after 3, 27 (end of weight-loss phase), and 51 weeks (end of weight maintenance phase). Weight loss expectations were assessed at the time of enrollment, and weight-loss satisfaction was assessed after 27 weeks. The relationship between weight-loss expectations and weight loss was assessed using a linear mixed model. The association between weight-loss satisfaction and final outcomes was tested by linear regression. The two groups had similar weight-loss expectations and satisfaction, and their results were therefore pooled. In general, the total amount of expected weight loss (in kilograms), but not the percentage of expected weight loss, predicted weight loss, and both satisfaction with weight loss and the amount of weight lost (in kilograms) were independent predictors of weight maintenance. Higher expected weight loss improves weight loss, and both the total amount of weight lost and satisfaction with weight loss are associated with weight-loss maintenance at 1-year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  2. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  3. Tailoring a Web-Based Weight Maintenance Intervention for Northern Plains American Indian Public University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmingson, Kaitlyn; Lucchesi, Roxanne; Droke, Elizabeth; Kattelmann, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High levels of obesity-related health disparities are common among US American Indian (AI) populations. AI public university students often face unique challenges that may contribute to weight gain and related consequences. Few weight maintenance interventions have been developed that meet the needs of AI public university students. The…

  4. Tailoring a Web-Based Weight Maintenance Intervention for Northern Plains American Indian Public University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmingson, Kaitlyn; Lucchesi, Roxanne; Droke, Elizabeth; Kattelmann, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High levels of obesity-related health disparities are common among US American Indian (AI) populations. AI public university students often face unique challenges that may contribute to weight gain and related consequences. Few weight maintenance interventions have been developed that meet the needs of AI public university students. The…

  5. The Effectiveness of a Weight Maintenance Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Obesity: A Single Stranded Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Hankey, Catherine R.; Melville, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence base for weight management programmes incorporating a weight loss and a weight maintenance phase for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited. This study describes the weight maintenance phase of a multicomponent weight management programme for adults with intellectual disability and obesity (TAKE 5).…

  6. The Effectiveness of a Weight Maintenance Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Obesity: A Single Stranded Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Hankey, Catherine R.; Melville, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence base for weight management programmes incorporating a weight loss and a weight maintenance phase for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited. This study describes the weight maintenance phase of a multicomponent weight management programme for adults with intellectual disability and obesity (TAKE 5).…

  7. System Model Network for Adipose Tissue Signatures Related to Weight Changes in Response to Calorie Restriction and Subsequent Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Montastier, Emilie; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Hlavaty, Petr; Tvrzicka, Eva; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Kunesova, Marie; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT) response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts) AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels) and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD). After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level) content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the beneficial

  8. The preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Sareh; Esfehani, Ali Jafarzadeh; Leonard Joseph, H J

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has increased recently especially in women. Obesity is related to mortality due to non-communicable diseases and has become a public health issue. Among the two important factors to reduce weight calorie limitation alone is modestly effective in initial weight but can result in weight gain after primary weight reduction is common. Therefore adding physical activity to weight maintenance program can reduce weight gain rebound. The aim of this review article was to identify the preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight women. Articles were selected from PubMed database and screened for the relativity to the study objectives, using scoring systems. Eleven studies were found appropriate. No statistical test was done on the data except simple mean and some descriptive analyses. Physical activity is proved to have a significant effect in weight loss/maintenance both in induction and maintenance period. This effect was more significant in higher intensities. Sever intensity physical activity can be effective in weight maintenance in long term but the effect of moderate and light physical activity could not be evaluated due to lack of data.

  9. Weight maintenance as a tight rope walk - a Grounded Theory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are considerable public health problems internationally as well as in Sweden. The long-term results of obesity treatment are modest as reported by other studies. The importance of extending the focus to not only comprise obesity treatment but also prevention of weight gain is therefore being emphasized. However, despite the suggested change in focus there is still no consensus on how to prevent obesity or maintain weight. This study reports findings from a qualitative study focusing on attitudes, behaviors and strategies important for primary weight maintenance in a middle-aged population. Methods In depth interviews were conducted with 23 maintainers and four slight gainers in Sweden. The interviews were transcribed and an analysis of weight maintenance was performed using Grounded Theory. Results Based on the informants' stories, describing attitudes, behaviors and strategies of importance for primary weight maintenance, a model illustrating the main findings, was constructed. Weight maintenance was seen as "a tightrope walk" and four strategies of significance for this "tightrope walk" were described as "to rely on heritage", "to find the joy", "to find the routine" and "to be in control". Eleven "ideal types" were included in the model to illustrate different ways of relating to the main strategies. These "ideal types" described more specific attitudes and behaviors such as; eating food that is both tasteful and nutritious, and choosing exercise that provides joy. However, other somewhat contradictory behaviors were also found such as; only eating nutritious food regardless of taste, and being physically active to control stress and emotions. Conclusion This study show great variety with regards to attitudes, strategies and behaviors important for weight maintenance, and considerations need to be taken before putting the model into practice. However, the results from this study can be used within primary health care by

  10. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  11. Promoting Weight Maintenance among Overweight and Obese Hispanic Children in a Rural Practice.

    PubMed

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Mojica, Cynthia; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ouyang, Yongjian; Ramos, Awilda I; Gomez, Ismaela

    2015-08-01

    US Hispanic children experience a disproportionate burden of overweight and obesity. Comprehensive high-intensity behavioral programs have demonstrated effectiveness in improving weight status among obese children. However, there remains a need to develop more efficient interventions that are feasible in primary care and demonstrate effectiveness in Hispanic children. The pilot study used a two-group randomized design. Eligible overweight (BMI between the 85th and 94th percentile for age and gender) or obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) Hispanic children and their parents (N=118 child/parent dyads) were recruited from a rural pediatric clinic and randomized to: standard care (SC; n=61 dyads) or behavioral intervention (INT; n=57 dyads). The primary outcomes-weight, waist circumference, and zBMI-were measured at baseline, 2, 6, and 18 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the effect of INT on the likelihood of weight maintenance adjusting for potential confounding variables. Significantly fewer INT children (68.5%) experienced weight gain, compared to SC children (89.7%; p=0.009). The same pattern was observed for waist circumference, where fewer INT children (44%) experienced an increase in waist circumference, compared to SC children (68.6%; p=0.02). Although a trend of improvement in favor of the INT was observed for zBMI, it was not significant. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility of a primary-care-based approach to promoting weight maintenance among a high-risk population.

  12. Weight maintenance through behaviour modification with a cooking course or neurolinguistic programming.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Greve, Tine; Kreutzer, Martin; Pedersen, Ulla; Nielsen, Claus Meyer; Toubro, Søren; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effect on weight regain of behaviour modification consisting of either a gourmet cooking course or neurolinguistic programming (NLP) therapy. Fifty-six overweight and obese subjects participated. The first step was a 12-week weight loss program. Participants achieving at least 8% weight loss were randomized to five months of either NLP therapy or a course in gourmet cooking. Follow-up occurred after two and three years. Forty-nine participants lost at least 8% of their initial body weight and were randomized to the next step. The NLP group lost an additional 1.8 kg and the cooking group lost 0.2 kg during the five months of weight maintenance (NS). The dropout rate in the cooking group was 4%, compared with 26% in the NLP group (p=0.04). There was no difference in weight maintenance after two and three years of follow-up. In conclusion, weight loss in overweight and obese participants was maintained equally efficiently with a healthy cooking course or NLP therapy, but the dropout rate was lower during the active cooking treatment.

  13. Establishing energy requirements for body weight maintenance: validation of an intake-balance method.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Hirezi, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Smith, Steven; Bray, George; Redman, Leanne

    2017-06-26

    Experimentally establishing a group's body weight maintenance energy requirement is an important component of metabolism research. At present, the reference approach for measuring the metabolizable energy intake (MEI) from foods required for body weight maintenance in non-confined subjects is the doubly-labeled water (DLW)-total energy expenditure (TEE) method. In the current study, we evaluated an energy-intake weight balance method as an alternative to DLW that is more flexible and practical to apply in some settings. The hypothesis was tested that MEI from foods observed in a group of subjects maintaining a constant energy intake while keeping their weight within ±1 kg over 10 days is non-significantly different from DLW-measured TEE (TEEDLW). Six non-obese subjects evaluated as part of an earlier study completed the inpatient protocol that included a 3-day initial adjustment period. The group body weight coefficient of variation (X ± SD) during the 10-day balance period was 0.38 ± 0.10% and the slope of the regression line for body weight versus protocol day was non-significant at 1.8 g/day (R(2), 0.002, p = 0.98). MEI from foods observed during the 10-day balance period (2390 ± 543 kcal/day) was non-significantly different (p = 0.96) from TEE measured by DLW (2373 ± 713 kcal/day); the MEI/TEEDLW ratio was 1.03 ± 0.15 (range 0.87-1.27) and the correlation between MEI from foods and TEEDLW was highly significant (R(2), 0.88, p = 0.005). A carefully managed 10-day protocol that includes a constant MEI level from foods with weight stability (±1 kg) will provide a group's body weight maintenance energy requirement similar to that obtained with DLW. This approach opens the possibility of conducting affordable weight balance studies, shorter in duration than those previously reported, that are needed to answer a wide range of questions in clinical nutrition. Trial registration The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT

  14. Primary weight maintenance: an observational study exploring candidate variables for intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have focused on weight maintenance following weight loss, i.e. secondary weight maintenance (SWM). The long-term results of SWM have been rather modest and it has been suggested that preventing initial weight gain, i.e. primary weight maintenance (PWM), may be more successful. Therefore, developing a prevention strategy focused on PWM, enabling normal weight or overweight individuals to maintain their weight, would be of great interest. The aim of this study was to identify attitudes, strategies, and behaviors that are predictive of PWM in different age, sex and BMI groups in Northern Sweden. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 3497 individuals in a Swedish population that had two measured weights taken ten years apart, as participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Subjects were between 41–63 years of age at the time of the survey, had a baseline BMI of 20–30, and a ten year percent change in BMI greater than -3%. The respondents were divided into twelve subgroups based on baseline age (30, 40 and 50), sex and BMI (normal weight and overweight). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, and linear regression were performed to identify independent predictors of PWM. Results Of the 166 predictors tested, 152 (91.6%) were predictive of PWM in at least one subgroup. However, only 7 of these 152 variables (4.6%) were significant in 6 subgroups or more. The number of significant predictors of PWM was higher for male (35.8) than female (27.5) subgroups (p=0.044). There was a tendency (non significant) for normal weight subgroups to have a higher number of predictors (35.3) than overweight subgroups (28.0). Adjusted R-squared values ranged from 0.1 to 0.420. Conclusions The large number of PWM predictors identified, and accompanying high R-squared values, provide a promising first step towards the development of PWM interventions. The large disparity in the pattern of significant variables between subgroups suggests that

  15. Promoting Weight Maintenance among Overweight and Obese Hispanic Children in a Rural Practice

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Cynthia; Liang, Yuanyuan; Ouyang, Yongjian; Ramos, Awilda I.; Gomez, Ismaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: US Hispanic children experience a disproportionate burden of overweight and obesity. Comprehensive high-intensity behavioral programs have demonstrated effectiveness in improving weight status among obese children. However, there remains a need to develop more efficient interventions that are feasible in primary care and demonstrate effectiveness in Hispanic children. Methods: The pilot study used a two-group randomized design. Eligible overweight (BMI between the 85th and 94th percentile for age and gender) or obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) Hispanic children and their parents (N=118 child/parent dyads) were recruited from a rural pediatric clinic and randomized to: standard care (SC; n=61 dyads) or behavioral intervention (INT; n=57 dyads). The primary outcomes—weight, waist circumference, and zBMI—were measured at baseline, 2, 6, and 18 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the effect of INT on the likelihood of weight maintenance adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results: Significantly fewer INT children (68.5%) experienced weight gain, compared to SC children (89.7%; p=0.009). The same pattern was observed for waist circumference, where fewer INT children (44%) experienced an increase in waist circumference, compared to SC children (68.6%; p=0.02). Although a trend of improvement in favor of the INT was observed for zBMI, it was not significant. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility of a primary-care–based approach to promoting weight maintenance among a high-risk population. PMID:25950140

  16. Case management via telephone counseling and SMS for weight maintenance in adolescent obesity: study concept of the TeAM program.

    PubMed

    Markert, Jana; Herget, Sabine; Marschke, Stefanie; Lehnert, Thomas; Falkenberg, Christian; Blüher, Susann

    2014-01-01

    In-patient obesity treatment programs for adolescents are associated with good success and substantial weight loss. However, maintaining weight loss remains a challenge. This article presents the concept of the TeAM (Telephone counseling as Adiposity Management) program. TeAM is an innovative, weight maintenance program for obese adolescents after in-patient therapy. It applies the case management approach in combination with new media (telephone counseling, web forum, and SMS messaging). Adolescents (14-18 years) were recruited via German rehabilitation hospitals. The intervention of the TeAM program consists of telephone counseling through trained case managers in order to maintain body weight reduction (expressed as BMI-SDS: body mass index standard deviation score) achieved during an in-patient obesity therapy. At baseline and after completion of the program, participants provide anthropometric measures (obtained by trained medical staff) as well as information on socio-demographics, usage of health services, psychosocial status, daily physical activity, media consumption, and eating behavior. The core of the intervention is regular telephone contact with the adolescent participants combined with tailored SMS messages. Telephone counseling is based on the systemic approach and addresses the topics of mental hygiene, physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet and eating behavior. Baseline data of the feasibility study: Thirty-eight adolescents were recruited for the feasibility study (14 male, 24 female; mean age 15.82 years); out of them, ten participants lived with a single parent; 68% planned to graduate from school without pre-requisites for university admission (O-level). The mean weight loss during in-patient treatment was 0.32 BMI-SDS units. Mean BMI at the start of intervention was 31.93 kg/m(2), corresponding to a mean BMI-SDS of 2.48. Weight maintenance treatment programs for adolescent obesity utilizing new media are a promising approach as they

  17. Weight Maintenance Following the STRIDE Weight Loss and Lifestyle Intervention for Individuals taking Antipsychotic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Leo, Michael C.; Stumbo, Scott P.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Nichols, Gregory A.; Stevens, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals taking antipsychotic medications have increased risk of obesity-related early morbidity/mortality. This report presents weight maintenance results from a successful weight loss and behavioral lifestyle change program developed for people taking antipsychotic medications. Design and Methods STRIDE was a 2-arm, randomized controlled trial. Intervention participants attended weekly group meetings for 6 months, then monthly group meetings for 6 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results At 24-months, intervention participants lost 3.7% of baseline weight and control participants 2.1%, a non-significant difference. Fasting glucose results followed a similar pattern. There was a statistically significant difference, however, for fasting insulin—the intervention group’s levels decreased between the end of the intensive intervention (at 6 months) and 24 months (10.1 to 7.91μU/mL); control participants’ levels increased (11.66 to 12.92μU/mL) during this period. There were also fewer medical hospitalizations among intervention participants (5.7%) than controls (21.1%; Χ2=8.47, p=0.004) during the 12 to 24-month post-intervention maintenance period. Conclusions Weight-change differences between arms diminished following the intervention period, though fasting insulin levels continued to improve. Reduced hospitalizations suggest that weight loss, even with regain, may have long-term positive benefits for people taking antipsychotic medications and may reduce costs. PMID:26334929

  18. Weight maintenance following the STRIDE lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Leo, Michael C; Stumbo, Scott P; Perrin, Nancy A; Nichols, Gregory A; Stevens, Victor J

    2015-10-01

    Individuals taking antipsychotic medications have increased risk of obesity-related early morbidity/mortality. This report presents weight maintenance results from a successful weight loss and behavioral lifestyle change program developed for people taking antipsychotic medications. STRIDE was a two-arm randomized controlled trial. Intervention participants attended weekly group meetings for 6 months, then monthly group meetings for 6 months. Assessments were completed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months. At 24 months, intervention participants lost 3.7% of baseline weight and control participants 2.1%, a non-significant difference. Fasting glucose results followed a similar pattern. There was a statistically significant difference, however, for fasting insulin-the intervention group's levels decreased between the end of the intensive intervention (at 6 months) and 24 months (10.1-7.91 μU/mL); control participants' levels increased (11.66 to 12.92 μU/mL) during this period. There were also fewer medical hospitalizations among intervention participants (5.7%) than controls (21.1%; χ(2) = 8.47, P = 0.004) during the 12- to 24-month post-intervention maintenance period. Weight change differences between arms diminished following the intervention period, though fasting insulin levels continued to improve. Reduced hospitalizations suggest that weight loss, even with regain, may have long-term positive benefits for people taking antipsychotic medications and may reduce costs. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Perceived barriers to weight maintenance among university students in Kuwait: the role of gender and obesity.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Kandari, Fawzia I; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Faraj, Alaa M; Bouriki, Fajer A; Shehab, Fatima S; Al-Dabous, Lulwa A; Al-Qalaf, Wassin B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the barriers to weight maintenance among university students in Kuwait by gender and obesity. A sample of 530 students was selected at convenience from four universities in Kuwait (2 public and 2 private). The age of students ranged from 19 to 26 years. A self-reported pretested questionnaire was used to obtain the barriers, which were divided into barriers to healthy eating and barriers to physical activity. Weight and height were based on self-reporting, and the students were grouped into non-obese and obese according to the WHO classification. The response options to barriers were: very important, somewhat important and not important. The main barriers to healthy eating for both genders were: "Do not have skills to plan, shop for, prepare or cook healthy foods" and "Not having time to prepare or eat healthy food". In general, there were no significant differences between men and women in barriers to healthy eating. There were highly significant differences between men and women regarding barriers to physical activity (P values ranged from <0.001 to <0.016). "Not having time to be physically active" and "The climate is not suitable for practising exercise" were the main barriers reported. Obese men were more likely to face barriers to healthy eating than non-obese men. There were no significant differences between obese and non-obese women regarding barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. The findings of this study can be utilized in intervention activities to promote a healthy lifestyle and to combat obesity in Kuwait, and maybe in other Arab countries.

  20. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hursel, R; Viechtbauer, W; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2009-09-01

    Different outcomes of the effect of green tea on weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance (WM) have been reported in studies with subjects differing in ethnicity and habitual caffeine intake. To elucidate by meta-analysis whether green tea indeed has a function in body weight regulation. English-language studies about WL and WM after green tea supplementation were identified through PubMed and based on the references from retrieved articles. Out of the 49 studies initially identified, a total of 11 articles fitted the inclusion criteria and provided useful information for the meta-analysis. Effect sizes (mean weight change in treatment versus control group) were computed and aggregated based on a random-effects model. The influence of several moderators on the effect sizes was examined. Catechins significantly decreased body weight and significantly maintained body weight after a period of WL (microcirc=-1.31 kg; P<0.001). Inhibition of this effect by high habitual caffeine intake (>300 mg per day) failed to reach significance (microcirc=-0.27 kg for high and microcirc=-1.60 kg for low habitual caffeine intake; P=0.09). Also, the seemingly smaller effect of catechins in Caucasian (microcirc=-0.82 kg) subjects compared with Asians (microcirc=-1.51 kg; P=0.37) did not reach significance. Interaction of ethnicity and caffeine intake was a significant moderator (P=0.04). Catechins or an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-caffeine mixture have a small positive effect on WL and WM. The results suggest that habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity may be moderators, as they may influence the effect of catechins.

  1. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth

    2012-12-12

    Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar

  2. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  3. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-07-30

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet.

  4. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome® on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-07-22

    Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss obtained with a 3-month lifestyle intervention. In a randomized placebo-controlled study, we examined whether a highly bioavailable GT extract may counteract weight regain after weight loss. Forty obese women (age 50.1 ± 10.1 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 36.3 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) underwent a 3-month lifestyle intervention. At the end of the intervention, the women were randomized in two groups for the weight-maintenance phase: 20 of them were prescribed twice a day, for 3 months, with a formula containing 150 mg/dose of Greenselect Phytosome® and 15 mg/dose of pure piperine (GSP group), and 20 were given placebo (P group). Anthropometric measures and body composition were measured before (V-3) and after lifestyle intervention (V0), 1 (V1), 2 (V2), and 3 (V3) months after prescribing supplements and 3 months following the discontinuation of supplements (V6). Lifestyle intervention induced a significant weight reduction in both groups with similar weight change (-6.2 ± 2.6 in GSP group vs. -4.8 ± 3.1 % in P group). In the GSP group, V1 in comparison to V0, had further reduction in weight and fat mass, which remained stable at V2 and V3 and increased at V6. In the P group, weight and fat mass increased from V2 onwards. Weight changes in GSP group and P group from V0 to V3 were -1.0 kg (95 % CI -2.5 to +0.5) and + 0.3 kg (95 % CI -0.9 to +1.6), respectively. The proportion of women with weight loss ≥ 5 % was greater in the GSP group than in the P group (75

  5. Effects of Reduced Weight Maintenance and Leptin Repletion on Functional Connectivity of the Hypothalamus in Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hinkle, William; Cordell, Michael; Leibel, Rudy; Rosenbaum, Michael; Hirsch, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Treating obesity has proven to be an intractable challenge, in part, due to the difficulty of maintaining reduced weight. In our previous studies of in-patient obese subjects, we have shown that leptin repletion following a 10% or greater weight loss reduces many of the metabolic (decreased energy expenditure, sympathetic nervous system tone, and bioactive thyroid hormones) and behavioral (delayed satiation) changes that favor regain of lost weight. FMRI studies of these same subjects have shown leptin-sensitive increases in activation of the right hypothalamus and reduced activation of the cingulate, medial frontal and parahippocampal gryi, following weight loss, in response to food stimuli. In the present study, we expanded our cohort of in-patient subjects and employed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to examine changes in the functional connectivity of the right hypothalamus. During reduced-weight maintenance with placebo injections, the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus increased with visual areas and the dorsal anterior cingulate (dorsal ACC) in response to food cues, consistent with higher sensitivity to food. During reduced-weight maintenance with leptin injections, however, the functional connectivity of the right hypothalamus increased with the mid-insula and the central and parietal operculae, suggesting increased coupling with the interoceptive system, and decreased with the orbital frontal cortex, frontal pole and the dorsal ACC, suggesting a down-regulated sensitivity to food. These findings reveal neural mechanisms that may underlie observed changes in sensitivity to food cues in the obese population during reduced-weight maintenance and leptin repletion. PMID:23555620

  6. Effects of rye bread enriched with green tea extract on weight maintenance and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome following weight loss: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether the incorporation of green tea extract enriched rye bread (GTRB) into the diet can improve weight loss (WL) maintenance and control of abnormalities linked to metabolic syndrome (MS). A total of 55 obese men and women (mean age: 53.0±7.0 years, body mass index: 35.0±5.5 kg m(-2)) were recruited. The study had a single-blind randomized study design and consisted of an 8-week WL phase with low-energy calorie diet, followed by a 12-week weight maintenance (WM) phase. During the WM phase, the subjects were randomized into two groups, receiving either the control rye bread (control group) or the GTRB (intervention group). The ingestion of 280 and 360 g GTRB provided daily totals of 123.2 and 158.4 mg caffeine, and 188.3 and 242.1 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, for women and men, respectively. After the WL phase, subjects lost 7.3±3.1 kg of their baseline body weight. GTRB intake did not significantly influence the maintenance of WL, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations. Although, it resulted in significant differences (mean difference [95% confidence interval]) between the treatment groups in the maintenance of waist circumference (-1.22 cm [-2.4, -0.02; P=.04]), the results were not clinically meaningful. Nevertheless, the ingestion of GTRB led to the maintenance of lower blood pressure (BP), also the proportion of subjects fulfilling the criteria of MS after the WM phase was lower in the intervention group than in the control group. Although GTRB consumption did not improve significantly the WL maintenance, it resulted in a better control of BP.

  7. Comparison of three weight maintenance programs on cardiovascular risk, bone and vitamins in sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Pia; Frederiksen, Rikke; Bliddal, Henning; Riecke, Birgit F; Bartels, Else M; Henriksen, Marius; Juul-S Rensen, Tina; Gudbergsen, Henrik; Winther, Kaj; Astrup, Arne; Christensen, Robin

    2013-10-01

    Obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are encouraged to lose weight to obtain symptomatic relief. Risk of vascular events is higher in people with OA compared to people without arthritis. Our aim in this randomized trial was to compare changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-factors, nutritional health, and body composition after 1-year weight-loss maintenance achieved by [D]diet, [E]knee-exercise, or [C]control, following weight loss by low-energy-diet. Obese individuals (n = 192, >50 years) with knee OA, 63 years (SD 6), weight 103.2 kg (15.0), body-mass index 37.3 kg/m(2) (4.8), were enrolled into a 68-week weight-loss trial. Mean changes in weight, in D, E, and C were -11.0, -6.3, and -8.3 kg (P = 0.002). Reduction in waist circumference in D, E, and C were -8.4, -4.6, and -7.0 cm (P = 0.007). D reduced waist circumference significantly more than E: -3.8 cm (95%CI -6.2 to -1.4; P = 0.0024). There was no difference between the groups in changes in CVD risk factors; blood pressure, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Nutritional health was improved in all groups. For markers of bone, no statistical difference was found between the groups. Dietary support, or control, maintained improvements in cardiovascular risk factors to the same extent and none of the interventions had a detrimental effect on bone. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of 124 086 US men and women followed for up to 24 years

    PubMed Central

    Rimm, Eric B; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Cassidy, Aedín

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether dietary intake of specific flavonoid subclasses (including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers) is associated with weight change over time. Design Three prospective cohort studies. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 124 086 men and women participating in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II). Main outcome measure Self reported change in weight over multiple four year time intervals between 1986 and 2011. Results Increased consumption of most flavonoid subclasses, including flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers, was inversely associated with weight change over four year time intervals, after adjustment for simultaneous changes in other lifestyle factors including other aspects of diet, smoking status, and physical activity. In the pooled results, the greatest magnitude of association was observed for anthocyanins (−0.23 (95% confidence interval −0.30 to −0.15) lbs per additional standard deviation/day, 10 mg), flavonoid polymers (−0.18 (−0.28 to −0.08) lbs per additional SD/day, 138 mg), and flavonols (−0.16 (−0.26 to −0.06) lbs per additional SD/day, 7 mg). After additional adjustment for fiber intake, associations remained significant for anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and total flavonoid polymers but were attenuated and no longer statistically significant for other subclasses. Conclusions Higher intake of foods rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers may contribute to weight maintenance in adulthood and may help to refine dietary recommendations for the prevention of obesity and its potential consequences. PMID:26823518

  9. Dietary saturated fat intake is negatively associated with weight maintenance among the PREMIER participants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Wang, Yanfang; Grambow, Steven C; Goggins, William; Almirall, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Research finding on the composition of macronutrient intakes on body weight has not been consistent. Furthermore, little research has examined the impact of subcomponents of macronutrients such as saturated fat or plant protein on body weight. The purpose of this report was to examine the impact of saturated fat, animal and plant protein, and other macronutrient intakes at the end of an intensive intervention on subsequent follow-up body weight. This is a secondary, observational data analysis using data from PREMIER, an 18-month randomized clinical trial that enrolled a total of 810 participants. Participants completed group and individual sessions designed to help them improve blood pressure (BP) control by making lifestyle changes. Dietary intakes were assessed by two 24-h diet recalls at baseline, 6, and 18 months. Body weight and physical fitness were monitored regularly. Regression models were used to examine the impact of animal or plant protein and other macronutrient intakes on subsequent body weight. After controlling for potential confounders, none of the calorie-contributing nutrient intakes at baseline was associated with subsequent weight at 6 or 18 months. However, a greater intake of saturated fat at 6 months was associated with higher weight at 18 months (P = 0.002). A greater intake of plant protein at 6 month was marginally associated with lower absolute weight at 18 month (P = 0.069). We conclude that macronutrient intakes before the intervention were not associated with subsequent body weight at 6 or 18 months. However, a lower saturated fat intake achieved after 6-month intervention predicts a lower body weight at 18 months and thus greater weight-loss maintenance.

  10. A High Rate of Non-Compliance Confounds the Study of Whole Grains and Weight Maintenance in a Randomised Intervention Trial-The Case for Greater Use of Dietary Biomarkers in Nutrition Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Pelletier, Xavier; Ross, Alastair B; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-01-11

    Observational studies consistently find an inverse relationship between whole-grain intake and weight gain. We aimed to confirm this in an open-label researcher-blinded parallel design randomised trial. A total of 179 overweight/obese women with a habitually low whole-grain intake (<16 g/day) were randomised to a weight maintenance diet with refined-grain (RG) or whole-grain (WG) foods (80 g/day) for 12 weeks after an initial weight loss program over 8 weeks. Body weight and composition was assessed at baseline, after the initial weight loss, and after the 12-week dietary intervention. During the 12-week dietary intervention phase, there were no group differences in changes in body weight and total fat mass %, whereas abdominal fat mass tended to increase more during the dietary intervention phase in the WG compared to the RG group (0.7 (SD 3.6) vs. -0.3 (SD 3.8) %; p = 0.052). Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake, indicated poor compliance, particularly in the WG group, where >60% of participants had alkylresorcinol concentrations below 70 nmol/L, a concentration indicating low or no intake of whole-grain wheat. Further, weight regain was lower than expected in both intervention groups, further supporting a lack of compliance to the post-weight-loss diet. The rate of compliance was too low to conclude any effect of whole grain on weight maintenance, and reinforces the need to use objective measures of compliance in nutrition intervention studies.

  11. A High Rate of Non-Compliance Confounds the Study of Whole Grains and Weight Maintenance in a Randomised Intervention Trial—The Case for Greater Use of Dietary Biomarkers in Nutrition Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Mette; Pelletier, Xavier; Ross, Alastair B.; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies consistently find an inverse relationship between whole-grain intake and weight gain. We aimed to confirm this in an open-label researcher-blinded parallel design randomised trial. A total of 179 overweight/obese women with a habitually low whole-grain intake (<16 g/day) were randomised to a weight maintenance diet with refined-grain (RG) or whole-grain (WG) foods (80 g/day) for 12 weeks after an initial weight loss program over 8 weeks. Body weight and composition was assessed at baseline, after the initial weight loss, and after the 12-week dietary intervention. During the 12-week dietary intervention phase, there were no group differences in changes in body weight and total fat mass %, whereas abdominal fat mass tended to increase more during the dietary intervention phase in the WG compared to the RG group (0.7 (SD 3.6) vs. −0.3 (SD 3.8) %; p = 0.052). Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake, indicated poor compliance, particularly in the WG group, where >60% of participants had alkylresorcinol concentrations below 70 nmol/L, a concentration indicating low or no intake of whole-grain wheat. Further, weight regain was lower than expected in both intervention groups, further supporting a lack of compliance to the post-weight-loss diet. The rate of compliance was too low to conclude any effect of whole grain on weight maintenance, and reinforces the need to use objective measures of compliance in nutrition intervention studies. PMID:28085022

  12. Weight maintenance 2 years after participation in a weight loss program promoting low-energy density foods.

    PubMed

    Greene, Lori F; Malpede, Christie Z; Henson, C Suzanne; Hubbert, Kathy A; Heimburger, Douglas C; Ard, Jamy D

    2006-10-01

    Observational study designed to determine weight outcomes and associated dietary intake patterns for a sample of participants > or =1 year after completing the University of Alabama at Birmingham EatRight Weight Management Program. Seventy-four former participants (64% women) completed follow-up visits > or =1 year after participating in EatRight, which promotes low-energy density, high-complex carbohydrate foods. Weight maintenance was defined as gaining <5% of body weight since completion of the EatRight program and staying below their program entry weight. Those who gained > or =5% of their body weight since completion were classified as gainers. During EatRight, participants of the follow-up study lost an average of 4.0 kg. After a mean follow-up time of 2.2 years, the average weight change was +0.59 kg (mean BMI, 32.5 kg/m(2)). Seventy-eight percent of participants gained <5% of their body weight; 46% had no weight regain or continued weight loss. Unadjusted mean intake for maintainers was 1608 kcal, whereas calorie intake for gainers was 1989 kcal. Despite eating slightly fewer calories (adjusted difference, 244; p = 0.058), maintainers ate a similar amount of food, resulting in a lower energy-density pattern (p = 0.016) compared with those who regained > or =5% of body weight. Gainers also reported consuming larger portions of several food groups. Our results indicate that low-energy-density eating habits are associated with long-term weight maintenance. Those who maintain weight after the EatRight program consume a low-energy-density dietary pattern and smaller portions of food groups potentially high in energy density than those who regain weight.

  13. Metabolomic analysis of plasma metabolites that may mediate effects of rye bread on satiety and weight maintenance in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Mattila, Ismo; Juntunen, Katri; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Gylling, Helena; Oresic, Matej

    2011-01-01

    The evidence of the beneficial health effects of dietary fiber and whole grain consumption is strong, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we investigate how the consumption of high-fiber rye bread (RB) or white-wheat bread (WB) modifies the plasma metabolomic profiles in postmenopausal women. The study was a randomized crossover trial consisting of 8-wk intervention periods and an 8-wk washout period. The study included 39 postmenopausal women with elevated serum total cholesterol (5.0-8.5 mmol/L) and BMI 20-33 kg/m(2). During the intervention periods, the study breads contributed to least 20% of total energy intake. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied. Lipidomic analysis was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization MS and the other metabolites, including sterols, organic acids, and alcohols, were analyzed by 2-dimensional GC coupled to time-of-flight MS. Altogether, 540 metabolites were profiled. Ribitol (P < 0.001), ribonic acid (P < 0.001), and indoleacetic acid (P < 0.001) increased during the RB consumption period. Ribonic acid correlated positively with tryptophan (r = 0.40; P = 0.003), which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of hunger-depressing serotonin. There were no changes in plasma lipidomic profiles during the RB or WB intervention periods. The results suggest that 8-wk consumption of high-fiber rye bread increases metabolites that might mediate positive effects of rye bread on satiety and weight maintenance.

  14. The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jimikaye; Cardel, Michelle; Wyatt, Holly R.; Foster, Gary D.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C.; Vander Veur, Stephanie S.; Herring, Sharon J.; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non‐nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year‐long behavioral weight loss treatment program. Methods The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight‐stable people with overweight and obesity. All participants participated in a weight loss program plus assignment to consume 24 ounces (710 ml) of water or NNS beverages daily for 1 year. Results NNS and water treatments were non‐equivalent, with NNS treatment showing greater weight loss at the end of 1 year. At 1 year subjects receiving water had maintained a 2.45 ± 5.59 kg weight loss while those receiving NNS beverages maintained a loss of 6.21 ± 7.65 kg (P < 0.001 for difference). Conclusions Water and NNS beverages were not equivalent for weight loss and maintenance during a 1‐year behavioral treatment program. NNS beverages were superior for weight loss and weight maintenance in a population consisting of regular users of NNS beverages who either maintained or discontinued consumption of these beverages and consumed water during a structured weight loss program. These results suggest that NNS beverages can be an effective tool for weight loss and maintenance within the context of a weight management program. PMID:26708700

  15. The effects of water and non-nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Peters, John C; Beck, Jimikaye; Cardel, Michelle; Wyatt, Holly R; Foster, Gary D; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Herring, Sharon J; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year-long behavioral weight loss treatment program. The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight-stable people with overweight and obesity. All participants participated in a weight loss program plus assignment to consume 24 ounces (710 ml) of water or NNS beverages daily for 1 year. NNS and water treatments were non-equivalent, with NNS treatment showing greater weight loss at the end of 1 year. At 1 year subjects receiving water had maintained a 2.45 ± 5.59 kg weight loss while those receiving NNS beverages maintained a loss of 6.21 ± 7.65 kg (P < 0.001 for difference). Water and NNS beverages were not equivalent for weight loss and maintenance during a 1-year behavioral treatment program. NNS beverages were superior for weight loss and weight maintenance in a population consisting of regular users of NNS beverages who either maintained or discontinued consumption of these beverages and consumed water during a structured weight loss program. These results suggest that NNS beverages can be an effective tool for weight loss and maintenance within the context of a weight management program. © 2015 The Authors, Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  16. Network Analysis of Metabolite GWAS Hits: Implication of CPS1 and the Urea Cycle in Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Carayol, Jerome; Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Lefebvre, Gregory; Valsesia, Armand; Charon, Celine; Vervoort, Jacques; Astrup, Arne; Saris, Wim H. M.; Morine, Melissa; Hager, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Background and Scope Weight loss success is dependent on the ability to refrain from regaining the lost weight in time. This feature was shown to be largely variable among individuals, and these differences, with their underlying molecular processes, are diverse and not completely elucidated. Altered plasma metabolites concentration could partly explain weight loss maintenance mechanisms. In the present work, a systems biology approach has been applied to investigate the potential mechanisms involved in weight loss maintenance within the Diogenes weight-loss intervention study. Methods and Results A genome wide association study identified SNPs associated with plasma glycine levels within the CPS1 (Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase 1) gene (rs10206976, p-value = 4.709e-11 and rs12613336, p-value = 1.368e-08). Furthermore, gene expression in the adipose tissue showed that CPS1 expression levels were associated with successful weight maintenance and with several SNPs within CPS1 (cis-eQTL). In order to contextualize these results, a gene-metabolite interaction network of CPS1 and glycine has been built and analyzed, showing functional enrichment in genes involved in lipid metabolism and one carbon pool by folate pathways. Conclusions CPS1 is the rate-limiting enzyme for the urea cycle, catalyzing carbamoyl phosphate from ammonia and bicarbonate in the mitochondria. Glycine and CPS1 are connected through the one-carbon pool by the folate pathway and the urea cycle. Furthermore, glycine could be linked to metabolic health and insulin sensitivity through the betaine osmolyte. These considerations, and the results from the present study, highlight a possible role of CPS1 and related pathways in weight loss maintenance, suggesting that it might be partly genetically determined in humans. PMID:26938218

  17. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p<0.05), and BW regain was 3.7+/-1.4 kg (p<0.05), including changes in body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference, body-composition and leptin concentrations (p<0.05). Linkage disequilibria were observed between PLIN1 and PLIN4: D' >0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (p<0.05). Since the haplotype of the minor alleles PLIN1-4, PLIN5-7 and PLIN6, was related to body-weight regulation at a lower level of body-weight in the men as well in the women we conclude that the PLIN1-4, 6, and 5-7 locus appears as a genetic influencer of obesity risk in humans.

  18. Dietary habits and weight maintenance success in high versus low exercisers in the National Weight Control Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Lorraine G.; Phelan, Suzanne; Thomas, J. Graham; Hill, James O; Wing, Rena R.; Wyatt, Holly R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) was established to examine characteristics of successful weight loss maintainers. This study compares the diet and behavioral characteristics and weight regain trajectories of NWCR members with differing physical activity (PA) levels at baseline. Methods Participants (n=3591) were divided into 4 levels of self-reported PA at registry entry (<1000, 1000 to <2250, 2250 to <3500, and ≥3500 kcals/week). We compared self-reported energy intake (EI), macronutrient composition, eating behaviors (dietary restraint, hunger, and disinhibition), weight loss maintenance strategies, and 3 year weight regain between these 4 activity groups. Results Those with the highest PA at registry entry had lost the most weight, and reported lower fat intake, more dietary restraint, and greater reliance on several specific dietary strategies to maintain weight loss. Those in the lowest PA category maintained weight loss despite low levels of PA and without greater reliance on dietary strategies. There were no differences in odds of weight regain at year 3 between PA groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is not a “one size fits all strategy” for successful weight loss maintenance and that weight loss maintenance may require the use of more strategies by some individuals than others. PMID:24385447

  19. Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring. PMID:22465256

  20. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with long-term weight maintenance after a multidisciplinary treatment of uncomplicated obesity.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Castellini, Giovanni; Batsis, John A; Ricca, Valdo; Sprini, Delia; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Caravello, Marzia; Rini, Giovam Battista

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial syndrome and the likelihood of success of a medical nutritional treatment (MNT) over the long term is low. As psychological and behavioural factors have an important role in both pathogenesis and the treatment of obesity, these issues were investigated in individuals with obesity who reported a long-term success or a failure in terms of weight loss following a MNT. Eighty-eight individuals of an original cohort of 251 subjects were re-evaluated 10 years after a MNT with cognitive-behavioural approach for uncomplicated obesity. Fifty-three participants were classified as failure (body weight change ≥0.5 kg) and 35 as a success (10-year body weight change <0.5 kg) of the MNT. Prior to the beginning of the weight-management program, both the Dieting Readiness Test (DRT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered. At a 10-year follow-up after the MNT, self-reported questionnaires were administered: quality of life was assessed by the Obesity Related Well-Being (ORWELL 97) questionnaire, eating attitudes and behaviours by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Binge Eating Scale (BES) investigated the presence and severity of binge eating and the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90-R) was used to identify the psychopathological distress. The scores of the ORWELL 97 items concerning symptoms (P = 0.005), discomfort (P = 0.03) and the total score (P = 0.02) were significantly lower in the success group. The depression score of the HADS was positively correlated with the percentage of body weight change observed 10 years after the MNT (r = 0.22; P = 0.045). The scores of the shape concern (EDE-Q) (r = 0.35; P = 0.013) and of the discomfort (ORWELL 97) (r = 0.36; P = 0.012) were significantly correlated with the percentage of body weight change 10 years after the MNT. In conclusion, this study is in agreement with the possibility that the psychological quality of life is associated even with modest amounts

  1. Meal replacement with a low-calorie diet formula in weight loss maintenance after weight loss induction with diet alone.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; Montagna, C; Alcaraz, F; Balsa, J A; Zamarrón, I; Arrieta, F; Botella-Carretero, J I

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss in obesity can reduce morbidity and mortality and benefits persist as long as weight loss is maintained. Weight maintenance is difficult in the long term and new strategies need to be developed to achieve this goal. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of substituting a low-calorie diet formula for a meal in a weight loss program during the maintenance phase. Randomized paralleled clinical trial including 62 adult patients with at least a 5% weight loss with diet alone for 6 months, randomized to two groups: daily replacement of one meal with a low-calorie diet formula, or dieting alone for another 6 months (weight maintenance phase). Weight maintenance or further weight loss occurred in 83.9% of patients in the intervention group, whereas only in 58.1% in the control group (P=0.025). As a whole, patients in the intervention group lost a further 3.2+/-3.7% of initial weight compared with a 1.3+/-3.6% in the control group (P=0.030). Body fat mass diminished in both groups, with no differences between them (1.6+/-3.5 vs 1.0+/-9.3 kg, respectively, P=0.239), and the same happened with free fat mass (0.9+/-3.3 vs 0.4+/-6.7 kg, respectively, P=0.471). A multivariate logistic regression analysis (R (2)=0.114, P=0.023) retained only the intervention as a predictor of the achievement of weight maintenance with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.756 (1.138-12.391). Substitution of a low-calorie diet formula for a meal is an effective measure for weight loss maintenance compared with dieting alone.

  2. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-08-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control.Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included. The study was initiated with an 8-wk WL period followed by a 24-wk WM period. During WM, participants consumed the following isocaloric supplements (45-48 g/d): whey and calcium (whey+), whey, soy, or maltodextrin (control). Data were collected at baseline, before WM, and after WM (weeks 0, 8, and 32, respectively) and included body composition, blood biochemistry, and blood pressure. Meal tests were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1.58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite-sensation profile.Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of normal

  3. Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Barnosky, Adrienne; Klempel, Monica C; Bhutani, Surabhi; Hoddy, Kristin K; Gabel, Kelsey; Freels, Sally; Rigdon, Joseph; Rood, Jennifer; Ravussin, Eric; Varady, Krista A

    2017-07-01

    Alternate-day fasting has become increasingly popular, yet, to date, no long-term randomized clinical trials have evaluated its efficacy. To compare the effects of alternate-day fasting vs daily calorie restriction on weight loss, weight maintenance, and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. A single-center randomized clinical trial of obese adults (18 to 64 years of age; mean body mass index, 34) was conducted between October 1, 2011, and January 15, 2015, at an academic institution in Chicago, Illinois. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 1 year: alternate-day fasting (25% of energy needs on fast days; 125% of energy needs on alternating "feast days"), calorie restriction (75% of energy needs every day), or a no-intervention control. The trial involved a 6-month weight-loss phase followed by a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. The primary outcome was change in body weight. Secondary outcomes were adherence to the dietary intervention and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. Among the 100 participants (86 women and 14 men; mean [SD] age, 44 [11] years), the dropout rate was highest in the alternate-day fasting group (13 of 34 [38%]), vs the daily calorie restriction group (10 of 35 [29%]) and control group (8 of 31 [26%]). Mean weight loss was similar for participants in the alternate-day fasting group and those in the daily calorie restriction group at month 6 (-6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.5%] vs -6.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to -4.6%]) and month 12 (-6.0% [95% CI, -8.5% to -3.6%] vs -5.3% [95% CI, -7.6% to -3.0%]) relative to those in the control group. Participants in the alternate-day fasting group ate more than prescribed on fast days, and less than prescribed on feast days, while those in the daily calorie restriction group generally met their prescribed energy goals. There were no significant differences between the intervention groups in blood pressure, heart rate, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, C

  4. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  5. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P < 0.07). Ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake

  6. Whole-body protein turnover response to short-term high-protein diets during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, S M; Margolis, L M; McClung, J P; Cao, J J; Whigham, L D; Combs, G F; Young, A J

    2014-07-01

    To determine whole-body protein turnover responses to high-protein diets during weight loss, 39 adults (age, 21±1 years; VO2peak, 48±1 ml kg(-1) min(-1); body mass index, 25±1 kg m(2)) were randomized to diets providing protein at the recommend dietary allowance (RDA), 2 × -RDA or 3 × -RDA. A 10-day weight maintenance period preceded a 21-day, 40% energy deficit. Postabsorptive (FASTED) and postprandial (FED) whole-body protein turnover was determined during weight maintenance (day 10) and energy deficit (day 31) using [1-(13)C]leucine. FASTED flux, synthesis and breakdown were lower (P<0.05) for energy deficit than weight maintenance. Protein flux and synthesis were higher (P<0.05) for FED than FASTED. Feeding attenuated (P<0.05) breakdown during weight maintenance but not energy deficit. Oxidation increased (P<0.05) between dietary protein levels and feeding stimulated oxidation, although oxidative responses to feeding were higher (P<0.05) for energy deficit than weight maintenance. FASTED net balance decreased between dietary protein levels, but in the FED state, net balance was lower for 3 × -RDA as compared with RDA and 2 × -RDA (diet-by-state, P<0.05). Consuming dietary protein at levels above the RDA, particularly 3 × -RDA, during short-term weight loss increases protein oxidation with concomitant reductions in net protein balance.

  7. Weight Maintenance: Determinants of Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-15

    considered an individual serving. Compare this portion with that of a Coca - Cola in 1950 when a "king-size" Coke was considered 12-ounces. Fast-food...34 agreement, companies like Pepsi and Coca - Cola gain exclusive selling and promotional rights, while financially-strapped school districts negotiate...10- year contract with Coca - Cola that included cash bonuses for sales exceeding targets (29). Thus, commercial interests and profits are dependent upon

  8. Evaluation of diet pattern and weight gain in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is unclear which of four popular contemporary diet patterns is best for weight maintenance among postmenopausal women. Four dietary patterns were characterised among postmenopausal women aged 49-81 years (mean 63.6 (sd 7.4) years) from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study: (1) a low-...

  9. Effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) and low-fat weight-loss diets on the serum lipid profile in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Pelkman, Christine L; Fishell, Valerie K; Maddox, Deborah H; Pearson, Thomas A; Mauger, David T; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2004-02-01

    Little evidence of the effects of moderate-fat (from monounsaturated fat) weight-loss diets on risk factors for cardiovascular disease exists because low-fat diets are typically recommended. Previous studies in weight-stable persons showed that a moderate-fat diet results in a more favorable lipid and lipoprotein profile (ie, lower serum triacylglycerol and higher HDL cholesterol) than does a low-fat diet. We evaluated the effects of energy-controlled, low-fat and moderate-fat diets on changes in lipids and lipoproteins during weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance. We conducted a parallel-arm study design in overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 29.8 +/- 2.4] healthy men and women (n = 53) assigned to consume a low-fat (18% of energy) or moderate-fat (33% of energy) diet for 6 wk to achieve weight loss, which was followed by 4 wk of weight maintenance. All foods were provided and body weight was monitored to ensure equal weight loss between groups. The moderate-fat diet elicited favorable changes in the lipoprotein profile. Compared with baseline, HDL cholesterol was unchanged, whereas triacylglycerol and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol were lower at the end of the weight-maintenance period in the moderate-fat diet group. Despite similar weight loss, triacylglycerol rebounded, HDL cholesterol decreased, and the ratios of total and non-HDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol did not change during the 10-wk interval in the low-fat diet group. A moderate-fat weight-loss and weight-maintenance diet improves the cardiovascular disease risk profile on the basis of favorable changes in lipids and lipoproteins. There is merit in recommending a moderate-fat weight-loss diet.

  10. Portion Controlled Meals Provide Increases in Diet Quality During Weight Loss and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Lee, Jaehoon; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral weight loss interventions utilizing portion controlled meals (PCMs) produce significant decreases in weight. However, the impact on diet quality during weight maintenance is unknown. To assess the influence of a weight management intervention employing PCMs and increased physical activity on diet quality during weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods 197 overweight and obese adults (67% women; BMI = 34.0±4.6 kg/m2; age = 46.1± 8.9 yrs.) completed an 18-month trial. The weight loss phase, 0–6 months, consisted of energy restriction achieved using PCMs plus fruits and vegetables and increased physical activity. During weight maintenance, 6–18 months, participants consumed a diet designed to maintain weight loss. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) was calculated using data obtained from 3-day food records. Results Body weight was 14.3 ± 6.6%, and 8.7 ± 8.0% below baseline at 6 and 18 months, respectively. The HEI-2010 score following weight loss,(66.6 ± 9.4) was significantly higher than baseline (46.4 ± 8.9) and remained significantly higher than baseline at 18 months (57.7 ± 10.6; both p < 0.001). Conclusion A weight management intervention using PCMs resulted in both clinically significant weight loss and increased diet quality scores, demonstrating that the use of PCMs during weight loss allows for meaningful changes in diet quality during weight maintenance. PMID:25664818

  11. Portion-controlled meals provide increases in diet quality during weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, L T; Willis, E A; Goetz, J R; Lee, J; Szabo-Reed, A N; Sullivan, D K; Donnelly, J E

    2016-04-01

    Behavioural weight-loss interventions utilising portion-controlled meals (PCMs) produce significant decreases in weight. However, their impact on diet quality during weight maintenance is unknown. The present study aimed to assess the influence of a weight management intervention employing PCMs and increased physical activity on diet quality during weight loss and weight maintenance. One hundred and ninety-seven overweight and obese adults [67% women; mean (SD) BMI = 34.0 (4.6) kg m(-2); age = 46.1 (8.9) years] completed an 18-month trial. The weight-loss phase (0-6 months) consisted of energy restriction, which was achieved using PCMs plus fruits and vegetables and increased physical activity. During weight maintenance (6-18 months), participants consumed a diet designed to maintain weight loss. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12 and 18 months. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) was calculated using data obtained from 3-day food records. Mean (SD) body weight was 14.3% (6.6%) and 8.7% (8.0%) below baseline at 6 and 18 months, respectively. The mean (SD) HEI-2010 score after weight loss [66.6 (9.4)] was significantly higher than baseline [46.4 (8.9)] and remained significantly higher than baseline at 18 months [57.7 (10.6)] (both P < 0.001). A weight management intervention using PCMs resulted in both clinically significant weight loss and increased diet quality scores, demonstrating that the use of PCMs during weight loss allows for meaningful changes in diet quality during weight maintenance. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pekkarinen, Tuula; Kaukua, Jarmo; Mustajoki, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women) were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69) and one year later (week 121). Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P = 0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P = 0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655. PMID:25918644

  13. Bland diet

    MedlinePlus

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may also need a bland ...

  14. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in investigations of dietary factors, genetic factors, and their interactive effects on obesity and weight loss. Recent findings Even with a tremendous body of research conducted, controversy still abounds regarding the relative effectiveness of various weight-loss diets. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of regulation of body weight. In prospective cohorts, reproducible evidence is emerging to show interactions between genetic factors and dietary factors such as sugar-sweetened beverage on obesity. In randomized clinical trials, individuals’ genotypes have also been found to modify diet interventions on weight loss, weight maintenance, and changes in related metabolic traits such as lipids, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. However, replication, functional exploration, and translation of the findings into personalized diet interventions remain the chief challenges. Summary Preliminary but promising data have emerged to lend support to gene–diet interaction in determining weight loss and maintenance; and studies in the area hold great promise to inform future personalized diet interventions on the reduction of obesity and related health problems. PMID:24345984

  15. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-02-16

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines.

  16. A Mediterranean Diet to Improve Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health: Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Alexandra T.; Davis, Courtney R.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Woodman, Richard J.; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Murphy, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has demonstrated efficacy for improving cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, a traditional Mediterranean diet delivers fewer serves of dairy and less dietary calcium than is currently recommended in Australia, which may limit long-term sustainability. The present study aims to evaluate whether a Mediterranean diet with adequate dairy and calcium can improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in an at-risk population, and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. A randomised, controlled, parallel, crossover design trial will compare a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods against a low-fat control diet. Forty participants with systolic blood pressure above 120 mmHg and at least two other risk factors of CVD will undertake each dietary intervention for eight weeks, with an eight-week washout period between interventions. Systolic blood pressure will be the primary measure of interest. Secondary outcomes will include measures of cardiometabolic health, dietary compliance, cognitive function, assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), psychological well-being and dementia risk. This research will provide empirical evidence as to whether the Mediterranean diet can be modified to provide recommended dairy and calcium intakes while continuing to deliver positive effects for cardiovascular and cognitive health. The findings will hold relevance for the field of preventative healthcare and may contribute to revisions of national dietary guidelines. PMID:28212320

  17. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  18. IBS Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Diarrhea Foods that Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet for IBS Rice Based ... and Diarrhea Foods that Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination Diet for IBS Rice-Based ...

  19. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  20. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  1. Low energy density diet, weight loss maintenance, and risk of cardiovascular disease following a recent weight reduction program: A randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Golgis; Azadbakht, Leila; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED) diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year. LED diet contained 30% fat, 15% protein, and 55% carbohydrate was administered to the test group, and a usual diet including 35% fat, 15% protein, and 50% carbohydrate was prescribed to the control group for 7 months. Dietary intake was assessed by using 3 days food records. Biochemical markers and anthropometric measures were done according to the standard protocol. Results: Weight reduced in LED diet consumers compared to usual diet consumers (−0.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4%, P = 0.002). The results was the same regarding waist circumference (−0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1%, P = 0.004). Fasting blood sugar also decreased in LED diet group (−9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.4 ± 1.0%, P = 0.0001). LED diet group had a drop in percent change of their total cholesterol (−0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.05 ± 0.4%, P = 0.04) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.8 ± 0.9 vs. −0.3 ± 0.9%, P = 0.002). Conclusion: Our findings confirmed beneficial effects of LED diet on attenuating weight regain in subjects with history of recent weight reduction. It might be derived from higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber among LED diet than usual diet consumers. PMID:27904578

  2. Low-carbohydrate diets: what are the potential short- and long-term health implications?

    PubMed

    Bilsborough, Shane A; Crowe, Timothy C

    2003-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss are receiving a lot of attention of late. Reasons for this interest include a plethora of low-carbohydrate diet books, the over-sensationalism of these diets in the media and by celebrities, and the promotion of these diets in fitness centres and health clubs. The re-emergence of low-carbohydrate diets into the spotlight has lead many people in the general public to question whether carbohydrates are inherently 'bad' and should be limited in the diet. Although low-carbohydrate diets were popular in the 1970s they have resurged again yet little scientific fact into the true nature of how these diets work or, more importantly, any potential for serious long-term health risks in adopting this dieting practice appear to have reached the mainstream literature. Evidence abounds that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted, nutritionally balanced diets both in terms of weight loss and weight maintenance. Studies examining the efficacy of using low-carbohydrate diets for long-term weight loss are few in number, however few positive benefits exist to promote the adoption of carbohydrate restriction as a realistic, and more importantly, safe means of dieting. While short-term carbohydrate restriction over a period of a week can result in a significant loss of weight (albeit mostly from water and glycogen stores), of serious concern is what potential exists for the following of this type of eating plan for longer periods of months to years. Complications such as heart arrhythmias, cardiac contractile function impairment, sudden death, osteoporosis, kidney damage, increased cancer risk, impairment of physical activity and lipid abnormalities can all be linked to long-term restriction of carbohydrates in the diet. The need to further explore and communicate the untoward side-effects of low-carbohydrate diets should be an important public health message from nutrition professionals.

  3. Vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Sutnick, M R

    1975-06-01

    A growing number of Americans are choosing to follow vegetarian diets. These diets can meet the nutritional needs of individuals of all ages. Vegetarians who eat eggs and/or milk and dairy products have no special problems in obtaining adequate nutrients. Pure vegetarians, who avoid all animal products, should pay particular attention to sources of protein, calcium, and riboflavin. Supplementation of vitamin B12 is indicated in these individuals. Guidelines for both good normal nutrition and therapeutic diets can be adapted for use with a vegetarian diet.

  4. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  5. Impulse control in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex counteracts post-diet weight regain in obesity.

    PubMed

    Weygandt, Martin; Mai, Knut; Dommes, Esther; Ritter, Kerstin; Leupelt, Verena; Spranger, Joachim; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-04-01

    A variety of studies suggest that efficient treatments to induce short-term dietary success in obesity exist. However, sustained maintenance of reduced weight is rare as a large proportion of patients start to regain weight when treatment is discontinued. Thus, from a clinical perspective, it would be desirable to identify factors that counteract post-diet weight regain across longer time-scales. To address this question, we extended our previous work on neural impulse control mechanisms of short-term dietary success in obesity and now investigated the mechanisms counteracting long-term weight regain after a diet. Specifically, we measured neural impulse control during a delay discounting task with fMRI at two time points, i.e. the beginning ('T0') and the end ('T12') of a one-year follow-up interval after a 12-week diet. Then, we tested whether activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at T0 and whether activity changes across the follow-up period (T0-T12) are linked to success in weight maintenance. The analyses conducted show that control-related DLPFC activity at T0 was coupled to the degree of success in weight maintenance. Consistently, also behavioral measures of control were linked to the degree of success in maintenance. A direct comparison of neural and behavioral control parameters for prognostic weight change modeling revealed that neural signals were more informative. Taken together, neural impulse control in the DLPFC measured with fMRI directly after a diet predicts real-world diet success in obese patients across extended time periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  7. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet-induced weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Uebele, Victor N; Gotter, Anthony L; Nuss, Cindy E; Kraus, Richard L; Doran, Scott M; Garson, Susan L; Reiss, Duane R; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C; Reger, Thomas S; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S; Renger, John J

    2009-06-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity.

  8. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Laaksonen, David E.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet. PMID:22792447

  9. The role of yogurt in improving the quality of the American diet and meeting dietary guidelines.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Donovan, Sharon M; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend three daily servings of low- or nonfat dairy products, yet two-thirds of individuals in the United States do not meet that goal. Including low- or nonfat yogurt as part of an overall healthful diet can be a positive step toward meeting the DGA recommendations. Yogurt naturally contains calcium and potassium, and some products are fortified with vitamin D. All of these nutrients were identified in the DGA as "nutrients of concern," because typical intake falls far short of recommended intakes. Yogurt can also be an excellent source of high-quality protein, which promotes satiety, helps in maintaining a healthy body weight, and aids muscle and bone growth. In addition, yogurt is low in sodium and contributes 1.0% or less of added sugars to the diets of most individuals in the United States; however, 90% of children and adults consume less than 8 ounces (1 cup) of yogurt per week. Thus, consuming 1 serving of yogurt per day would help to meet the DGA-recommended dairy servings and would provide nutrients of concern.

  10. Does the DASH diet lower blood pressure by altering peripheral vascular function?

    PubMed

    Hodson, L; Harnden, K E; Roberts, R; Dennis, A L; Frayn, K N

    2010-05-01

    We tested whether lowering of blood pressure (BP) on the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet was associated with changes in peripheral vascular function: endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF). We also assessed effects on heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic control of the heart. We allocated 27 men and women to DASH diet and control groups. We measured FMD, ATBF and HRV on fasting and after ingestion of 75 g glucose, before and after 30 days on dietary intervention, aiming for weight maintenance. The control group did not change their diet. The DASH-diet group complied with the diet as shown by significant reductions in systolic (P<0.001) and diastolic (P=0.005) BP, and in plasma C-reactive protein (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.01) and apolipoprotein B (P=0.001), a novel finding. Body weight changed by <1 kg. There were no changes in the control group. We found no changes in FMD, or in ATBF, in the DASH-diet group, although heart rate fell (P<0.05). Glucose and insulin concentrations did not change. In this small-scale study, the DASH diet lowered BP independently of peripheral mechanisms.

  11. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.

    PubMed

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Mann, Jim

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weight reducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. EffectS of non-nutritive sWeetened beverages on appetITe during aCtive weigHt loss (SWITCH): Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial assessing the effects of non-nutritive sweetened beverages compared to water during a 12-week weight loss period and a follow up weight maintenance period.

    PubMed

    Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Christiansen, P; Cuthbertson, D J; Hardman, C A; Robinson, E; Halford, J C G

    2017-02-01

    Acute and medium-term intervention studies suggest that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are beneficial for weight loss, however there is limited human data on the long-term effects of consuming NNS on weight loss, maintenance, and appetite. Further research is therefore required to elucidate the prolonged impact of NNS consumption on these outcome measures. A randomized parallel groups design will be used to assess whether regular NNS beverage intake is equivalent to a water control in promoting weight loss over 12-weeks (weekly weight loss sessions; Phase I), then supporting weight maintenance over 40-weeks (monthly sessions; Phase II) and subsequently independent weight maintenance over 52-weeks (Phase III) in 432 participants. A subset of these participants (n=116) will complete laboratory-based appetite probe days (15 sessions; 3 sessions each at baseline, at the start of phase I and the end of each phase). A separate subset (n=50) will complete body composition scans (DXA) at baseline and at the end of each phase. All participants will regularly be weighed and will complete questionnaires and cognitive tasks to assess changes in body weight and appetitive behaviours. Measures of physical activity and biochemical markers will also be taken. The trial will assess the efficacy of NNS beverages compared to water during a behavioural weight loss and maintenance programme. We aim to understand whether the impact of NNS on weight, dietary adherence and well-being are beneficial or transient and effects on prolonged successful weight loss and weight maintenance through sustained changes in appetite and eating behaviour. Clinical Trials: NCT02591134; registered: 23.10.2015. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gout Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... to lower levels of uric acid. A little history Gout has been associated for centuries with overindulgence ... nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/gout-diet/art-20048524 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  14. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Omega-3 Publication Diet and MS Research Review Paper With increasing interest in the possible role of ... for people with MS. A recent research review paper by Pavan Bhargava, MD, provides information and current ...

  15. The effect of reducing dietary energy density via the addition of water to a dry diet, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly domestic cats live in an overfeeding and underexercising environment where obesity is a major health concern. One strategy to aid healthy body weight maintenance is dietary energy dilution. Published data indicate that increasing dietary moisture content leads to a reduction in energy intake and increased activity. However, a number of different methodologies were employed in these studies and associated changes in physical activity have only been measured once. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of diets of three different moisture contents offered in excess of energy requirements, on body weight, energy intake and physical activity in adult neutered cats. Sixty-nine adult cats randomised into three groups, received 100 % of their daily individual maintenance energy requirements (IMER) of dry diet or dry diet hydrated to 40 or 80 % total moisture content (tmc). Baseline activity, intake, body weight and body composition were measured. Following this baseline phase, the cats received the same diets at 200 % of daily IMER and the measurements repeated over the next 28 d. When offered the diets at 200 % IMER, cats fed the dry diet significantly increased body weight and percentage of body fat (P < 0·01), while those offered the hydrated diets did not (P > 0·01). The levels of physical activity in cats offered the hydrated 80 % tmc diet were significantly (P < 0·01) higher than those offered the dry or 40 % tmc diet. We suggest that dietary energy dilution by addition of water may be a useful strategy for healthy body weight maintenance in overfed cats.

  16. Diet and metabolic syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Keane, Deirdre; Kelly, Stacey; Healy, Niamh P; McArdle, Maeve A; Holohan, Kieran; Roche, Helen M

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex multifactorial disorder and its incidence is on the increase worldwide. Due to the definitive link between obesity and the MetS weight loss strategies are of prime importance in halting the spread of MetS. Numerous epidemiological studies provide evidence linking dietary patterns to incidence of MetS symptoms. As a consequence of the epidemiology studies, dietary intervention studies which analyse the effects of supplementing diets with particular nutrients of interest on the symptoms of the MetS have been conducted. Evidence has shown that lifestyle intervention comprising changes in dietary intake and physical activity leads to an improved metabolic profile both in the presence or absence of weight loss thus highlighting the importance of a multi-faceted approach in combating MetS. Nutritional therapy research is not focused solely on reducing energy intake and manipulating macronutrient intake but is investigating the role of functional foods or bioactive components of food. Such bioactives which target weight maintenance and /or insulin sensitivity may have a potentially positive effect on the symptoms of the MetS. However the efficacy of different functional nutrients needs to be further defined and clearly demonstrated.

  17. Effects of moderate (MF) versus lower fat (LF) diets on lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis of clinical trials in subjects with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yumei; Mauger, David T; Pelkman, Christine L; Zhao, Guixiang; Townsend, Stacie M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2009-02-01

    Dyslipidemia increases coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and often presents in diabetes, which amplifies risk of CHD. Lower fat (LF) diets increase triglyceride (TG) and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); moderate fat (MF) diets decrease TG and lower HDL-C less. To quantify the magnitude of lipid and lipoprotein responses to MF versus LF cholesterol-lowering weight maintenance diets in subjects with and without diabetes. A meta-analysis of 30 controlled-feeding studies (n = 1213 subjects) was conducted to evaluate LF versus MF diets on lipids and lipoproteins in subjects with and without diabetes. In all subjects, MF and LF diets decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) similarly. MF diets decreased HDL-C less versus LF diets. The estimated increase in HDL-C after MF diets versus LF diets was 2.28 mg/dL (95% confidence interval 1.66 to 2.90 mg/dL, P < .0001). MF diets decreased TG, whereas LF diets increased TG. The decrease in TG was -9.36 mg/dL (-12.16 to -6.08 mg/dL, P < .00001) for MF versus LF diets. In subjects with diabetes, there was a similar increase in HDL-C (2.28 mg/dL) versus subjects without diabetes; however, there was a greater reduction in TG (-24.79 mg/dL, P < .05) on the MF diet. Subjects with diabetes had greater reductions in the total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio (TC:HDL-C) (-0.62, P < .0001) and non-HDL-C (-5.39 %, P < .06) after MF versus LF diets. Both men and women had greater estimated reductions (6.37% and 9.34%, respectively) in predicted CHD risk after MF diets compared to LF diets. Moreover, based on greater reductions in TG, the TC:HDL-C ratio and non-HDL-C in subjects with diabetes, the CHD risk reduction would be greater for a MF versus a LF weight maintenance, cholesterol-lowering diet.

  18. Alternative diets.

    PubMed

    Berschneider, Helen M

    2002-02-01

    As pet owners become more conscious of their own diets and the impact it has on their health, they naturally become more interested in what their animal companions are eating and how that might be affecting their pet's health. Many are exploring alternatives to standard commercial pet foods, and some are asking their veterinarians for advice. Small-animal nutrition is an ever-changing field. What veterinarians were taught 10 years ago may no longer be sound advice. This article explores some of the reasoning behind the development of both conventional commercial pet foods and the alternative foods and diets. It questions some of the conventional dogma as well as some of the trendy assumptions in the current marketplace. The intent is to provide the veterinarian with some balanced information on which to base nutritional advice to clients, and to begin forming new opinions or at least asking new questions. Guidelines on formulating a homemade diet for dogs are included.

  19. Corticosterone administration in drinking water decreases high-fat diet intake but not preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2016-04-15

    One of the mechanisms through which regular exercise contributes to weight maintenance could be by reducing intake and preference for high-fat (HF) diets. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that wheel-running rats robustly reduced HF diet intake and preference. The reduced HF diet preference by wheel running can be so profound that the rats consumed only the chow diet and completely avoided the HF diet. Because previous research indicates that exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases circulating levels of corticosterone, this study tested the hypothesis that elevation of circulating corticosterone is involved in wheel running-induced reduction in HF diet preference in rats.Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone levels under sedentary and wheel-running conditions in the two-diet-choice (high-carbohydrate chow vs. HF) feeding regimen. The results revealed that plasma corticosterone is significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels of running in wheel-running rats with two-diet choice.Experiments 2 and 3 determined whether elevated corticosterone without wheel running is sufficient to reduce HF diet intake and preference. Corticosterone was elevated by adding it to the drinking water. Compared with controls, corticosterone-drinking rats had reduced HF diet intake and body weight, but the HF diet preference between groups did not differ. The results of this study support a role for elevated corticosterone on the reduced HF diet intake during wheel running. The elevation of corticosterone alone, however, is not sufficient to produce a robust reduction in HF diet preference. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Corticosterone administration in drinking water decreases high-fat diet intake but not preference in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the mechanisms through which regular exercise contributes to weight maintenance could be by reducing intake and preference for high-fat (HF) diets. Indeed, we previously demonstrated that wheel-running rats robustly reduced HF diet intake and preference. The reduced HF diet preference by wheel running can be so profound that the rats consumed only the chow diet and completely avoided the HF diet. Because previous research indicates that exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increases circulating levels of corticosterone, this study tested the hypothesis that elevation of circulating corticosterone is involved in wheel running-induced reduction in HF diet preference in rats. Experiment 1 measured plasma corticosterone levels under sedentary and wheel-running conditions in the two-diet-choice (high-carbohydrate chow vs. HF) feeding regimen. The results revealed that plasma corticosterone is significantly increased and positively correlated with the levels of running in wheel-running rats with two-diet choice. Experiments 2 and 3 determined whether elevated corticosterone without wheel running is sufficient to reduce HF diet intake and preference. Corticosterone was elevated by adding it to the drinking water. Compared with controls, corticosterone-drinking rats had reduced HF diet intake and body weight, but the HF diet preference between groups did not differ. The results of this study support a role for elevated corticosterone on the reduced HF diet intake during wheel running. The elevation of corticosterone alone, however, is not sufficient to produce a robust reduction in HF diet preference. PMID:26818055

  1. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  2. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the diet; Hypokalemia - potassium in the diet; Chronic kidney disease - potassium in diet; Kidney failure - potassium in diet ... are also excellent sources of potassium. People with kidney problems, especially those on dialysis, should not eat ...

  3. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M; Pannell, Benjamin K; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

  4. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M.; Pannell, Benjamin K.; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. Methods: The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year. PMID:27621707

  5. Diet modification for treatment and prevention of obesity.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2006-02-01

    The obesity epidemic is best explained by global lifestyle alterations favoring weight gain in a susceptible population. The consumption of calorically dense foods, increased portion sizes, and a decrease in workplace and leisure physical activity most likely accounts for the increase in overweight and obesity worldwide. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity therapy is dietary intervention, but unfortunately most patients eventually regain the weight lost through diet alone. The search for a macronutrient composition that may enhance and help maintain weight loss has brought an abundance of fad diets into the lay literature. According to the available data, weight loss and maintenance of weight loss are dictated by total caloric intake, and not by macronutrient composition. There is epidemiologic data linking sugar-sweetened beverages to adult and childhood obesity, and an inverse relationship between dairy intake and overweight and obesity has also been observed. More research is needed to elucidate mechanisms explaining these relationships. Further research should focus on permanent lifestyle changes that may reverse this growing epidemic. This review will focus on current practices for the dietary management of obesity and to promote weight maintenance.

  6. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA does not promote weight loss when combined with a very-low-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Munro, Irene A; Garg, Manohar L

    2012-10-28

    Obesity is associated with elevated levels of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities which are linked to CVD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA), combined with a very-low-energy diet (VLED), facilitated weight loss and weight maintenance, and improvements in blood lipids and inflammatory mediators. This was a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial with two parallel groups. For 14 weeks, one group consumed 6 × 1 g capsules/d of monounsaturated oil (placebo group, PB), and the other group consumed 6 × 1 g capsules/d of LCn-3PUFA (fish oil group, FO), each comprising 70 mg EPA and 270 mg DHA. Both groups were on VLED for 4 weeks (n 14 PB, n 18 FO), which was then followed by 10 weeks of weight maintenance (n 12 PB, n 17 FO). Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3 d food diaries were collected at baseline, at 4 and 14 weeks. A greater-than-2-fold increase occurred in plasma levels of EPA and DHA in the FO group (P < 0·001). At 4 weeks, the mean weight loss was -6·54 (SD 2·08) kg (-6·9%) for PB and -6·87 (SD 1·83) kg (-7·7%) for FO. At week 14, after the maintenance phase, there was a further mean decrease in weight, -1·57 (SD 3·7) kg (1·85%) for PB and -1·69 (SD 2·32) kg (-1·9%) for FO. Both groups experienced improved metabolic profiles and there was a significant reduction in fat mass for the FO group at week 14 but not for PB. However, it would appear that supplementation with LCn-3PUFA had no significant effect on weight loss or weight maintenance over the 14 weeks.

  7. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (<20 g of carbohydrate daily; LCKD) or a low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001) compared to the LGID group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes. PMID:19099589

  8. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-12-19

    Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (<20 g of carbohydrate daily; LCKD) or a low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001) compared to the LGID group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p < 0.01). Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  9. Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Varady, Krista A

    2013-01-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a low-fat (LF) diet is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection. However, the applicability of these findings is questionable as the majority of Americans consume a high-fat (HF) diet. The goal of this study was to determine if these beneficial changes in body weight and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk can be reproduced if an HF background diet is used in place of an LF diet during ADF. Thirty-two obese subjects were randomized to an ADF-HF (45% fat) or ADF-LF diet (25% fat), which consisted of two phases: 1) a 2-week baseline weight maintenance period, and 2) an 8-week ADF weight loss period. All food was provided during the study. Body weight was reduced (P<0.0001) by ADF-HF (4.8%±1.1%) and by ADF-LF (4.2%±0.8%). Fat mass decreased (P<0.0001) by ADF-HF (5.4±1.5 kg) and ADF-LF (4.2±0.6 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (P<0.001) by ADF-HF (7.2±1.5 cm) and ADF-LF (7.3±0.9 cm). LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were reduced (P<0.001) by both interventions (ADF-HF: 18.3%±4.6%, 13.7%±4.8%; and ADF-LF: 24.8%±2.6%, 14.3%±4.4%). HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart rate remained unchanged. There were no between-group differences for any parameter. These findings suggest that an ADF-HF diet is equally as effective as an ADF-LF diet in helping obese subjects lose weight and improve CHD risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bakhach, Marwan; Shah, Vaishal; Harwood, Tara; Lappe, Sara; Bhesania, Natalie; Mansoor, Sana; Alkhouri, Naim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) is a rigorous way of rapidly losing a large amount of weight. Although adult studies have shown the PSMF to be effective, data in adolescents are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the PSMF in severely obese adolescents. Methods: 12 subjects who were evaluated in the Obesity Management Program at the Cleveland Clinic from 2011 to 2014 were included. The subjects were initiated on the PSMF after failing other conventional methods of weight loss. Once the goal weight was achieved, subjects were transitioned to the refeeding phase for weight maintenance. Results: Follow-up was scheduled at 3-month (11 patients) and 6-month (6 patients) intervals. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the average weight loss was 11.19 kg (95% confidence interval = -5.4, -27.8, P = .028), with average of 9.8% from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects had >5% weight loss and 20% had >10% weight loss. Four patients were lost to the follow-up (40%). An improvement was noted in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein. Due to a small sample size these results were not statistically significant. Side effects reported by subjects were mild dehydration due to nausea (2 patients), decreased energy (1 patient), and transient labile mood (1 patient). No life-threatening side effects were reported. Conclusion: Our results show that the PSMF diet can be used as an effective and safe method in the outpatient setting for rapid weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity. PMID:27335996

  11. Effects of totally synthetic, low phenylalanine diet on adolescent phenylketonuric patients

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Charles M.

    1971-01-01

    The long-term responses of 5 adolescent phenylketonuric patients to chemically-defined, synthetic diets with normal and low phenylalanine content were determined. The synthetic preparations were found capable of sustaining good health and rapid growth in this group of profoundly retarded, behaviourally disturbed patients over a 3½-year period without clinical or biochemical evidence of nutritional inadequacy. 4 of these patients who were treated for 6 months on a comparable diet, in which 80% of the phenylalanine was replaced by tyrosine, continued to show weight maintenance and height increases. There was no evidence of poor acceptability of the imbalanced diet, whether the blood phenylalanine concentrations were at phenylketonuric or treatment levels. The phenylalanine intake required to maintain blood phenylalanine concentrations of 3-5 mg/100 ml in these 4 patients was well below normal requirements, and ranged between 6·8 and 20·1 mg/kg per day. Predictably, the phenylalanine requirement varied with individual growth rates. All 4 treated patients had objective signs of improved central nervous system function during the six-month period on the phenylalanine-restricted diet. These electrophysiological and behavioural improvements were manifest after blood phenylalanine concentrations fell below 12 mg/100 ml in 3 cases and below 5 mg/100 ml in the fourth. PMID:5118048

  12. Effects of a novel MC4R agonist on maintenance of reduced body weight in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Alicja A; Morabito, Michael V; Mueller, Bridget R; Lee, Samuel; Hjorth, Stephan; Lehmann, Anders; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Zeltser, Lori M; Ravussin, Yann; Rosenbaum, Michael; LeDuc, Charles A; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2014-05-01

    The physiology of the weight-reduced (WR) state suggests that pharmacologic agents affecting energy homeostasis may have greater efficacy in WR individuals. Our aim was to establish a protocol that allows for evaluation of efficacy of weight maintenance agents and to assess the effectiveness of AZD2820, a novel melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in such a paradigm. MC4R agonist was administered in stratified doses to mice who were either fed high-fat diet ad libitum (AL) throughout the study; or stabilized at a 20% reduced body weight (BW), administered the drug for 4 weeks, and thereafter released from caloric restriction while continuing to receive the drug (WR). After release of WR mice to AL feeding, the high-dose group (53.4 nmol/day) regained 12.4% less BW than their vehicle-treated controls since the beginning of drug treatment. In WR mice, 10.8 nmol/day of the agonist was sufficient to maintain these animals at 95.1% of initial BW versus 53.4 nmol/day required to maintain the BW of AL animals (94.5%). In the WR state, the MC4R agonist was comparably efficacious to a five-fold higher dose in the AL state. This protocol provides a model for evaluating the mechanisms and quantitative efficacy of weight-maintenance strategies and agents. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  14. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  15. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  16. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  17. Diet after gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  18. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention: the Diet, Obesity and Genes randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne; Hager, Jörg; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-09-01

    An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic improvement. We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. After weight loss, a lipid signature identified 2 groups of patients who were comparable at baseline but who differed in their capacities to lose weight and improve glycemic control. Six months after the LCD, one group had significant glycemic improvement [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) mean change: -0.92; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.67)]. The other group showed no improvement in glycemic control (HOMA-IR mean change: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.64, 0.13). These differences were sustained for ≥1 y after the LCD. The same conclusions were obtained with other endpoints (Matsuda index and fasting insulin and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects would be considered to be insulin resistant after 6 mo of weight maintenance [validation's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC): 71%; 95% CI: 62%, 81%]. This model outperformed a clinical data-only model (validation's ROC AUC: 61%; 95% CI: 50%, 71%; P = 0.01). In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight

  19. Determinants of Human Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: Impact of Diet, Sex, Metabolic Status, and Cis Genetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José; Roussel, Balbine; Combes, Marion; Valle, Carine; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Iacovoni, Jason S.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Vidal, Hubert; Clément, Karine; Hager, Jorg; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases. PMID:23028366

  20. A randomised trial comparing low-fat diets differing in carbohydrate and protein ratio, combined with regular moderate intensity exercise, on glycaemic control, cardiometabolic risk factors, food cravings, cognitive function and psychological wellbeing in adults with type 2 diabetes: Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee Ann; Dyer, Kathryn Ann; Buckley, Jonathan David; Brinkworth, Grant David; Coates, Alison Mary; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter Ranald Charles; Noakes, Manny; Dye, Louise; Chadwick, Helen; Murphy, Karen Joy

    2015-11-01

    Hypocaloric low-fat diets, high in protein with moderate carbohydrate (HP) can enhance weight loss, improve glycaemic control and improve cardiometabolic health risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unclear whether the metabolic benefits observed during weight loss are sustained during energy-balance and weight maintenance. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence regarding the effect of HP diets on food cravings, cognitive function and psychological wellbeing in T2DM, despite carbohydrate food cravings, cognitive impairment and depression being associated with hyperglycaemia. Overweight/obese adults with T2DM were randomised to consume either a HP diet (n=32, ~32% protein, 33% carbohydrate, 30% fat) or a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC, n=29, ~22% protein, 51% carbohydrate, 22% fat) for 24 weeks with 30 min of moderate intensity exercise five days/week for the study duration. There were 2 phases: a 12 week weight loss phase followed by a 12 week weight maintenance phase. Primary outcome was glycaemic control (glycosylated haemoglobin; HbA1c). Secondary outcomes were cardiometabolic risk factors (body composition, fasting blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein), food cravings, cognitive function (memory; psychomotor and executive function and psychological well-being. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each 12-week intervention phase. Data will be analysed as intention-to-treat using linear mixed effects models. This study will examine the effects of two dietary interventions on health outcomes in T2DM during weight loss and notably following weight maintenance where there is a paucity of evidence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia

    2015-01-05

    Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms.

  2. Effect of the LoBAG30 diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Schweim, Kelly; Hoover, Heidi; Gannon, Mary C

    2008-03-01

    In subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes, we previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30 % protein, 50 % fat and 20 % carbohydrate (30:50:20) decreased the percentage total glycohaemoglobin (%tGHb) by 2.2 % glycohaemoglobin over 5 weeks compared to a diet recommended for the American public (protein-fat-carbohydrate 15:30:55). Both the fasting and postprandial glucose were decreased. The objective of the present study was to determine if increasing the carbohydrate content from 20 to 30 % at the expense of fat would still provide a similar effect on %tGHb, fasting and postprandial glucose concentration. Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 5-week period. Results at the beginning (standard diet) and end of the 5-week study were analysed. Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose concentration decreased by 40 %; 24 h glucose area response decreased by 45 %. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 1.7 (from 10.8 to 9.1 %), and was still decreasing linearly at 5 weeks. In conclusion, a high-protein, 30 % carbohydrate diet could be a patient-empowering method of improving the hyperglycaemia of type 2 diabetes without pharmacologic intervention. Long-term effects and general applicability of this diet remain to be determined.

  3. High protein-high red meat versus high carbohydrate weight loss diets do not differ in effect on genome stability and cell death in lymphocytes of overweight men.

    PubMed

    Benassi-Evans, Bianca; Clifton, Peter M; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer B; Fenech, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The importance of diet in DNA damage prevention is well established; however, the comparison of weight loss diets with different micronutrient and macronutrient profiles on genome stability in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) has not been studied. This study tested the hypothesis that genome stability in PBLs of overweight men who consume a high protein-high red meat (HP) weight loss diet is different from that of overweight men who consume a high carbohydrate (HC) weight loss diet. Thirty-three male subjects were randomly assigned to an HP or HC isocaloric energy-restricted dietary intervention for 12 weeks intensive weight loss and weight maintenance up to 52 weeks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 12 and 52 weeks. DNA damage in PBLs was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. Average weight loss after 12 weeks was 9.3 +/- 0.7 kg for both diets, with no further change at 52 weeks. Two-way analysis of variance showed no time or diet effect on micronucleus frequency (chromosome loss/breaks). There was a significant trend with time (P = 0.03) but not diet, for reduction of nuclear buds (gene amplification). There was a positive trend with time for increased nucleoplasmic bridges (chromosome rearrangement) (P = 0.051). Necrosis and apoptosis both significantly decreased with time (P = 0.037 and P = 0.007, respectively) with no diet effect. There was no significant effect of time or diet for nuclear division index, a biomarker of immune response. The results suggest that the effect of the HP weight loss diet on DNA damage measured using the CBMN-Cyt assay in PBLs was not different from that observed for the HC weight loss diet.

  4. Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women.

    PubMed

    McAuley, K A; Hopkins, C M; Smith, K J; McLay, R T; Williams, S M; Taylor, R W; Mann, J I

    2005-01-01

    A diet low in saturated fatty acids and rich in wholegrains, vegetables and fruit is recommended in order to reduce the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However there is widespread interest in high-fat ("Atkins Diet") and high-protein ("Zone Diet") alternatives to the conventional high-carbohydrate, high-fibre approach. We report on a randomised trial that compared these two alternative approaches with a conventional diet in overweight insulin-resistant women. Ninety-six normoglycaemic, insulin-resistant women (BMI >27 kg/m(2)) were randomised to one of three dietary interventions: a high-carbohydrate, high-fibre (HC) diet, the high-fat (HF) Atkins Diet, or the high-protein (HP) Zone Diet. The experimental approach was designed to mimic what might be achieved in clinical practice: the recommendations involved advice concerning food choices and were not prescriptive in terms of total energy. There were supervised weight loss and weight maintenance phases (8 weeks each), but there was no contact between the research team and the participants during the final 8 weeks of the study. Outcome was assessed in terms of body composition and indicators of cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Body weight, waist circumference, triglycerides and insulin levels decreased with all three diets but, apart from insulin, the reductions were significantly greater in the HF and HP groups than in the HC group. These observations suggest that the popular diets reduced insulin resistance to a greater extent than the standard dietary advice did. When compared with the HC diet, the HF and HP diets were shown to produce significantly (p<0.01) greater reductions in several parameters, including weight loss (HF -2.8 kg, HP -2.7 kg), waist circumference (HF -3.5 cm, HP -2.7 cm) and triglycerides (HF -0.30 mmol/l, HP [corrected] -0.22 mmol/l). LDL cholesterol decreased in individuals on the HC and HP diets, but tended to fluctuate in those on the HF diet to the

  5. A high-legume low-glycemic index diet reduces fasting plasma leptin in middle-aged insulin-resistant and -sensitive men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z; Lanza, E; Ross, AC; Albert, PS; Colburn, NH; Rovine, MJ; Bagshaw, D; Ulbrecht, JS; Hartman, TJ

    2012-01-01

    Fasting leptin and ghrelin levels were measured in 36 insulin-sensitive (IS) and 28 insulin-resistant (IR) men who consumed a legume-enriched low-glycemic index (LG) diet or healthy American (HA) diet in a randomly ordered cross-over feeding study consisting of two 4-week periods. Weight remained stable over the entire study. Fasting plasma leptin was significantly reduced from pre-study levels by both the LG (18.8%, P<0.001) and HA (16.1%, P<0.001) diets, whereas fasting ghrelin did not change. By subgroup analysis according to prestudy insulin status, leptin was reduced in IR subjects after both the LG (17.1%, P<0.01) and the HA (33.3%, P<0.001) diets, whereas IS subjects responded only after the LG diet (23.1%, P<0.01). Thus, a legume-rich LG index diet may be a beneficial strategy for reducing circulating leptin concentrations, even under conditions of weight maintenance. PMID:21206508

  6. Better Diet, Longer Life?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167146.html Better Diet, Longer Life? A large study suggests you're never too ... show that sustained diet changes -- even later in life -- might extend people's lives, the researchers said. "A ...

  7. Sodium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet Images Sodium content References Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the ...

  8. Effect of low-fat diet interventions versus other diet interventions on long-term weight change in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Deirdre K; Chen, Mu; Manson, JoAnn E; Ludwig, David S; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of low-fat diets for long-term weight loss has been debated for decades, with many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and recent reviews giving mixed results. We aimed to summarise the large body of evidence from RCTs to determine whether low-fat diets contribute to greater weight loss than participants' usual diet, low-carbohydrate diets, and other higher-fat dietary interventions. We did a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of RCTs comparing the long-term effect (≥1 year) of low-fat and higher-fat dietary interventions on weight loss by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify eligible trials published from database inception up until July 31, 2014. We excluded trials if one intervention group included a non-dietary weight loss component but the other did not, and trials of dietary supplements or meal replacement drink interventions. Data including the main outcome measure of mean difference in weight change between interventions, and whether interventions were intended to lead to weight loss, weight maintenance, or neither, were extracted from published reports. We estimated the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with a DerSimonian and Laird random effects method. 3517 citations were identified by the search and 53 studies met our inclusion criteria, including 68 128 participants (69 comparisons). In weight loss trials, low-carbohydrate interventions led to significantly greater weight loss than did low-fat interventions (18 comparisons; WMD 1·15 kg [95% CI 0·52 to 1·79]; I(2)=10%). Low-fat interventions did not lead to differences in weight change compared with other higher-fat weight loss interventions (19 comparisons; WMD 0·36 kg [-0·66 to 1·37; I(2)=82%), and led to a greater weight decrease only when compared with a usual diet (eight comparisons; -5·41 kg [-7·29 to -3·54]; I(2)=68%). Similarly, results of non

  9. Diets for constipation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sun Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation.

  10. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  11. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  12. High-protein/high red meat and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets do not differ in their effect on faecal water genotoxicity tested by use of the WIL2-NS cell line and with other biomarkers of bowel health.

    PubMed

    Benassi-Evans, Bianca; Clifton, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Fenech, Michael

    2010-12-21

    The impact of popular weight-loss diets with different macronutrient profiles on bowel health in humans has not been previously assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a high-protein/high red meat (HP) diet influences faecal water genotoxicity and other standard biomarkers of bowel health differently compared with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Thirty-three male subjects were randomly assigned to a HP (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate) or HC (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate) isocaloric energy-restricted dietary intervention consisting of 12 weeks intensive weight loss followed by weight maintenance for up to 52 weeks. Faecal samples were collected at 0, 12 and 52 weeks. Faecal water genotoxicity was assessed in the WIL2-NS human B lymphoblastoid cell line by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Average weight loss after 12 weeks was 9.3 ± 0.7kg for both diets, with no further change in weight at 52 weeks. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect with time (P<0.001) but not diet for total DNA damage, with a reduction in genotoxicity after 12 weeks intensive weight loss, and a subsequent increase after 9 months weight maintenance to levels not significantly different from baseline. There was no significant effect for time or diet on faecal pH, short-chain fatty acid excretion, phenol or p-cresol. Results suggest that HP and HC weight-loss diets may modify the carcinogenic profile of the bowel contents such that weight loss may exert a beneficial effect by reducing genotoxic load in the short term; however, these results require verification against a non-weight-loss control. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  14. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting ... not — diet this way. Why? Let's find out. Dieting to Lose Weight All foods and many drinks ...

  15. Engagement in New Dietary Habits-Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Christina; Hammarström, Anne; Sandberg, Susanne; Lindahl, Bernt; Olsson, Tommy; Larsson, Christel; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2016-02-01

    Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time. The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles. A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase". We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in

  16. A diet high in protein, dairy, and calcium attenuates bone loss over twelve months of weight loss and maintenance relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate diet in adults.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Matthew P; Jacobson, Edward H; Layman, Donald K; He, Xuming; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Evans, Ellen M

    2008-06-01

    Weight loss causes bone mineral loss. Higher protein diets continue to be criticized for further potential harmful bone effects, including elevated urinary calcium, but may promote bone health if protein sources include dairy. Overweight middle-aged subjects (n = 130, 59 males) were randomized to a diet providing 1.4 g.kg(-1).d(-1) protein and 3 daily servings of dairy (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg(-1).d(-1) protein and 2 daily servings of dairy (CARB) for 4 mo of weight loss plus 8 mo of weight maintenance. Diets prescribed 6276 kJ/d for females and 7113 kJ/d for males. Bone mineral content and density (BMD) for whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and dietary intake using 3-d weighed food records. Urinary calcium was measured using 24-h collection at 0 and 8 mo for a subsample (n = 42). Participants lost body weight (mean, 95% CI) of 8.2% (7.5-8.9%) at 4 mo, 10.6% (9.5-11.8%) at 8 mo, and 10.5% (8.9-12.0%) at 12 mo without differences between groups at any time (P = 0.64). At 12 mo, PRO BMD was higher by 1.6% (0.3-3.0%) at WB, 2.1% (0.6-3.7%) at LS, and 1.4% (0.2-2.5%) at TH compared with CARB. PRO calcium intake was higher (PRO: 1140 +/- 58 mg/d, CARB: 766 +/- 46; P < 0.01), as was urinary calcium (PRO: 163 +/- 15 mg/d, CARB: 100 +/- 9.2; P < 0.01). A reduced-energy diet supplying 1.4 g.kg(-1).d(-1) protein and 3 dairy servings increased urinary calcium excretion but provided improved calcium intake and attenuated bone loss over 4 mo of weight loss and 8 additional mo of weight maintenance.

  17. Normal vs. high-protein weight loss diets in men: effects on body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a prescribed weight-loss diet with 0.8 versus 1.4 g protein·kg(-1) day(-1) on changes in weight, body composition, indices of metabolic syndrome, and resting energy expenditure (REE) in overweight and obese men. Men were randomized to groups that consumed diets containing 750 kcal day(-1) less than daily energy needs for weight maintenance with either normal protein (NP, n = 21) or higher protein (HP, n = 22) content for 12 weeks. The macronutrient distributions of the NP and HP diets were 25:60:15, and 25:50:25 percent energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Assessments were made pre and post intervention. The subjects were retrospectively subgrouped into overweight and obese groups. Both diet groups lost comparable body weight and fat. The HP group lost less lean body mass than the NP group (-1.9 ± 0.3 vs. -3.0 ± 0.4 kg). The effects of protein and BMI status on lean body mass loss were additive. The reductions in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triacylglycerol, glucose, and insulin, along with LDL-C, total cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio, and HOMA-IR, were not statistically different between NP and HP. Likewise, macronutrient distributions of the diet did not affect the reductions in REE, and blood pressure. In conclusion, energy restriction effectively improves multiple clinical indicators of cardiovascular health and glucose control, and consumption of a higher-protein diet and accomplishing weight loss when overweight versus obese help men preserve lean body mass over a short period of time. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  19. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    PubMed

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  1. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... build up of fat in liver cells. Diet Recommendations: • Limit foods that are high in calories • Eat foods that ... liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. Diet Recommendations: • Limit foods that have a lot of iron • Do not ...

  2. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged < or = 5 y and can lead to imparied growth. Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  3. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Porphyria Research You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  4. Very Low-Calorie Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... list of resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Very Low-calorie Diets Page Content What is a VLCD? Should ... weight? Research ​ Clinical Trials Resources​ A very low-calorie diet (VLCD) is not just any diet that ...

  5. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS) and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF) diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats). Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3%) or high (5.9%) levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences. PMID:21736742

  6. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  7. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls.

  8. Diet Therapy Career Ladder, AFSC 926XO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    diet . On the other hand, first-termers in AFSC tend to have experience with more types of thera- peutic diets , such as gluten restricted, high...DENTAL SOFT DIET 96 95 95 DIABETIC DIET 96 95 96 k FAT CONTROLLED, CHOLESTEROL RESTRICTED DIET 91 92 92 FAT FREE TEST DIET 60 71 70 FAT RESTRICTED DIET ...ELIMINATION DIET 36 45 46 CARBOHYDRATE TEST DIET , 150GM AND 300GM 40 62 69 - GLUTEN RESTRICTED DIET 30 40 55 . HIGH POTASSIUM DIET

  9. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  10. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoided if you are pregnant or have an eating disorder . Detox diets can be addicting. That's because there's ... addiction that leads to health problems, including serious eating disorders, heart problems, and even death. Detox supplements can ...

  11. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/20101007 . de Koning L, Chiuve SE, Fung TT, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Hu FB. Diet-quality ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21464460 . Fung TT, Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Rexrode KM, Logroscino G, ...

  12. Diet-busting foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... prepared in cream, such as creamy sauces and soups Refined grains. Unlike diet-boosting whole grains, most ... for a healthier way to refuel. Cream-based soups. The advice to make a meal of soup ...

  13. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  14. Low-fiber diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... popcorn. Vegetables: You may eat these vegetables raw: Lettuce (shredded, in small quantities at first) Cucumbers (without ... restricted diets. In: Morrison, Inc. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/ ...

  15. Selenium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002414.htm Selenium in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Selenium is an essential trace mineral. This means your ...

  16. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  17. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxins hang around in our digestive, lymph, and gastrointestinal systems as well as in our skin and hair ... cause dehydration, mineral imbalances, and problems with the digestive system. Detox diets don't help people lose fat. ...

  18. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  19. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    PubMed

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology.

  20. Diet and acne.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  2. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  3. Feasibility and efficacy of an isocaloric high-protein vs. standard diet on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Luger, M; Holstein, B; Schindler, K; Kruschitz, R; Ludvik, B

    2013-05-01

    To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a high-protein diet compared with a standard diet aiming for weight maintenance in insulin treated type-2 diabetic patients on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters over 12 weeks. In a randomized controlled trial we assigned 44 type-2 diabetic patients on insulin therapy either to high-protein or standard diet over 12 weeks. Parameters were evaluated at baseline and monthly. After 12 weeks, the high protein diet significantly decreased insulin requirement (9.4 ± 16.3 vs. +0.8 ± 4.8 IU, mean ± SD; p=0.007), fasting plasma glucose (41.7 ± 62.5 vs. 2.1 ± 39.0 mg dl(-1); p=0.02), body mass index (1.1 ± 0.8 vs. 0.3 ± 0.7 kg m(-2); p=0.003), fat-free (0.8 ± 0.5 vs. 0.2 ± 0.5 kg; p=0.001), fat mass (2.6 ± 1.7 vs. 0.8 ± 1.6 kg; p=0.001) and increased serum folate (4.2 ± 8.3 vs. − 0.8 ± 5.5 nmol l(-1); p=0.04) compared to the standard diet. These beneficial metabolic effects are most likely related to the achieved weight loss. No significant differences between groups in renal function were observed. In this study we demonstrate that a high protein diet with emphasis on plant source protein vs. a standard diet is feasible in insulin-treated type-2 diabetic patients and reduces insulin requirement and body weight and improves metabolic parameters up to 12 weeks. A high protein diet can thus be considered as an appropriate diet choice for type-2 diabetic patients. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea) Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Kadir, Noor Atiqah Aizan; Rahmat, Asmah; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1), medium dose (200 mg kg−1), or high dose (300 mg kg−1) or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p < 0.05). Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS) (p < 0.05). Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs. PMID:26171246

  5. Energy and macronutrient balances for humans in a whole body metabolic chamber without control of preceding diet and activity level.

    PubMed

    White, M D; Bouchard, G; Buemann, B; Alméras, N; Després, J P; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    1997-02-01

    To examine the relationships between 24 h energy and macronutrient balances in a whole body metabolic chamber subsequent to periods when subjects maintained their normal food intake and physical activity levels. Thirteen males and 17 females were studied for two 24 h sessions while consuming an estimated isocaloric diet with a food quotient of 0.85. Energy expenditure and macronutrient oxidation rates were measured twice for 24 h in whole body indirect calorimeter. Positive and significant correlations were evident between energy and lipid balances (r = 0.38, P < 0.05 and r = 0.54, P < 0.01, respectively) and differences between the two sessions for energy and lipid balances were also significantly correlated (r = 0.40, P < 0.05). Accounting for carbohydrate or protein balances improved the strength of each of these associations. These results indicate that for subjects in a small but significant positive energy balance, with uncontrolled diet and activity preceding their metabolic chamber sessions, that 24 h energy balance is positively correlated with lipid balance. Accounting for associations between lipid, carbohydrate, protein and energy balances, improved the strength of the association between 24 h lipid and energy balances. The implications of these results are that in these conditions modifications to lipid balance are important for weight maintenance.

  6. Reduced carbohydrate diet to improve metabolic outcomes and decrease adiposity in obese peripubertal African American girls.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Krista; Cardel, Michelle; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hanks, Lynae J; Gower, Barbara A; Newton, Anna L; Wallace, Stephenie

    2012-03-01

    apply to weight maintenance/fat loss during development alone and/or in combination with additional weight loss/metabolic improvement strategies.

  7. The ketogenic diet: 1997.

    PubMed

    Swink, T D; Vining, E P; Freeman, J M

    1997-01-01

    There has been a dramatic resurgence of interest in the ketogenic diet during the past several years. For many children with difficult-to-control epilepsy, the diet presents an alternative approach to trying multiple medications. The ketogenic diet's current success rate, when properly executed, greatly exceeds that of the medications which have recently become available. Its side effects, both cognitive and allergic, appear fewer than most available medications. The ketogenic diet is also cheaper than most new anticonvulsants. Even though we now know that the diet works, we still do not know how it works. Nor do we know how most anticonvulsants work. The mechanism of action of the ketogenic diet appears to rely on a fundamental change in the brain's metabolism from that of a glucose-based energy substrate to a ketone-based substrate. This change is, in some fashion, critical to the maintenance of seizure threshold. Why should the source of the energy make a difference in seizure threshold? The change in seizure threshold appears to occur without affecting the brain's ability to carry out its normal complex functions. Could the brain's utilization of an energy substrate for seizure control be different from its utilization of energy for normal brain function? If so it should it be possible to study the metabolic differences between the two and develop a biochemistry of epilepsy, which is differentiated from the biochemistry of normal cognition and function. The ketogenic diet is successful in controlling or ameliorating a broad spectrum of seizure types and etiologies. Perhaps then, common metabolic pathways, independent of seizure type, are used in the initiation and spread of electrical seizures. Based on clinical experience and limited research data, it would appear that different seizures and different epilepsies must have metabolic pathways in common that make them susceptible to treatment with a common metabolic therapy. If we could understand how the

  8. Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet with aminoacid supplement versus very low restricted-calorie diet for preserving muscle mass during weight loss: a pilot double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Merra, G; Miranda, R; Barrucco, S; Gualtieri, P; Mazza, M; Moriconi, E; Marchetti, M; Chang, T F M; De Lorenzo, A; Di Renzo, L

    2016-07-01

    Obesity plays a relevant pathophysiological role in the development of health problems, arising as result of complex interaction of genetic, nutritional and metabolic factors. We conducted a dietary intervention case-control randomized trial, to compare the effectiveness on body composition of two nutritional protocols: a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD), integrated by an aminoacid supplement with whey protein, and very low restricted-calorie diet (VLCD). The clinical study was conducted with a randomized case-control in which twenty-five healthy subjects gave informed consent to participate in the interventional study and were evaluated for their health and nutritional status, by anthropometric, and body composition evaluation. The results of this pilot study show that a diet low in carbohydrates, associated with a decreased caloric intake, is effective in weight loss. After VLCKD, versus VLCD, no significant differences in body lean of the trunk, body lean distribution (android and gynoid), total body lean were observed (p > 0.05). After VLCKD, no increasing of sarcopenia frequency, according ASSMI, was observed. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet on weight loss; even if not know how to work effectively, as some researchers believe that the weight loss is due to reduced calorie intake, satiety could also be induced by the effect of the proteins, rather than the low-carbohydrates. Our pilot study showed that a VLCKD was highly effective in terms of body weight reduction without to induce lean body mass loss, preventing the risk of sarcopenia. Further clinical trials are needed on a larger population and long-term body weight maintenance and risk factors management effects of VLCKD. There is no doubt, however, that a proper dietary approach would impact significantly on the reduction of public expenditure costs, in view of prospective data on increasing the percentage of obese people in our nation.

  9. Phylogenetic distribution of genes encoding β-glucuronidase activity in human colonic bacteria and the impact of diet on faecal glycosidase activities.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Freda M; Maison, Nathalie; Holtrop, Grietje; Young, Pauline; Stevens, Valerie J; Ince, Jennifer; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Flint, Harry J; Louis, Petra

    2012-08-01

    Bacterial β-glucuronidase in the human colon plays an important role in cleaving liver conjugates of dietary compounds and xenobiotics, while other glycosidase activities are involved in the conversion of dietary plant glycosides. Here we detected an increase in β-glucuronidase activity in faecal samples from obese volunteers following a high-protein moderate carbohydrate weight-loss diet, compared with a weight maintenance diet, but little or no changes were observed when the type of fermentable carbohydrate was varied. Other faecal glycosidase activities showed little or no change over a fivefold range of dietary NSP intake, although α-glucosidase increased on a resistant starch-enriched diet. Two distinct groups of gene, gus and BG, have been reported to encode β-glucuronidase activity among human colonic bacteria. Degenerate primers were designed against these genes. Overall, Firmicutes were found to account for 96% of amplified gus sequences, with three operational taxonomic units particularly abundant, whereas 59% of amplified BG sequences belonged to Bacteroidetes and 41% to Firmicutes. A similar distribution of operational taxonomic units was found in a published metagenome dataset involving a larger number of volunteers. Seven cultured isolates of human colonic bacteria that carried only the BG gene gave relatively low β-glucuronidase activity that was not induced by 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucuronide. By comparison, in three of five isolates that possessed only the gus gene, β-glucuronidase activity was induced. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Calorie Restriction in Overweight SeniorS: Response of Older Adults to a Dieting Study: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Marilyn C.; Bodner, Eric V.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Bryan, David; Buys, David R.; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Wingo, Brooks C.; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling, obese, older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue (VAT)), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article. PMID:25424512

  11. Macronutrient Composition of the Diet and Prospective Weight Change in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Romaguera, Dora; May, Anne M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Agudo, Antonio; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Slimani, Nadia; Perquier, Florence; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Crowe, Francesca L.; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Johansson, Ingeged; Hallmans, Göran; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of the macronutrient composition of the usual diet on long term weight maintenance remains controversial. Methods 373,803 subjects aged 25–70 years were recruited in 10 European countries (1992–2000) in the PANACEA project of the EPIC cohort. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated questionnaires and weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. The association between weight change after 5 years of follow-up and the iso-energetic replacement of 5% of energy from one macronutrient by 5% of energy from another macronutrient was assessed using multivariate linear mixed-models. The risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to initial Body Mass Index. Results A higher proportion of energy from fat at the expense of carbohydrates was not significantly associated with weight change after 5 years. However, a higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of fat was positively associated with weight gain. A higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrates was also positively associated with weight gain, especially when carbohydrates were rich in fibre. The association between percentage of energy from protein and weight change was slightly stronger in overweight participants, former smokers, participants ≥60 years old, participants underreporting their energy intake and participants with a prudent dietary pattern. Compared to diets with no more than 14% of energy from protein, diets with more than 22% of energy from protein were associated with a 23–24% higher risk of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight and overweight subjects at baseline. Conclusion Our results show that participants consuming an amount of protein above the protein intake recommended by the American Diabetes Association may experience a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese

  12. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  13. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  14. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  15. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  16. Diet affects spawning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Michelle L; Rizzuto, Noel V; Brown, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Seven-month-old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed four different diets to test the hypothesis that diet affects spawning success and resulting characteristics of eggs and offspring. The diets were: the recommended feeding regime for zebrafish (a mixture of Artemia, flake feed, and liver paste); Artemia; a flake feed; and a commercially available trout diet. The number of eggs laid and average egg diameter were significantly different as functions of male, female, and individual matings. Fish fed the flake diet produced significantly fewer eggs (mean, 116) than fish fed all other diets (means, 166-187). However, the percent hatch of eggs from fish fed the flake diet (62.5%) was significantly higher than from fish fed the trout diet (19.5%). The percentages of hatched eggs from fish fed the control diet (36.2%) or Artemia (35.6%) were not significantly different from each other or from fish fed the other two diets. Wet weight and diameter of eggs were not significantly affected by diet. Larval length was significantly higher from parents fed the flake diet (14.5 mm) compared to larvae from parents fed Artemia (13.7 mm). Length of larvae from fish fed the control or trout diets was intermediate and not significantly different from fish fed the flake diet or Artemia. Larval weight was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, but offspring from fish fed the flake diet were heavier than larvae from adults fed any of the other diets. Feeding adult zebrafish the flake diet alone resulted in more viable offspring and larger larvae and is a simpler feeding regime than the current recommendation. The authors recommend feeding adult zebrafish flake diets to satiation three times daily for maximum production of viable offspring.

  17. Formula food-reducing diets:A new evidence-based addition to the weight management tool box

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, A R

    2014-01-01

    evidence for improved vitamin D status and maintained bone health in elderly obese people with osteoarthritis but more research is needed. Rapid initial weight loss was feared to be followed by rapid weight regain. However, provided initial weight loss is delivered in parallel with an intense education programme about nutrition, cooking, shopping and lifestyle for long-term maintenance; and where long-term support is provided, subsequent weight maintenance after VLCDs and LCDs has been shown to be possible. A recent literature review identified high-protein diets, obesity drugs and partial use of formula meal replacements as methods which can result in statistically significantly greater weight maintenance after initial weight loss with VLCDs or LCDs. Anxiety about serious adverse side effects seems to be unfounded although users need to be aware of both minor and more serious, though very infrequent, adverse events, such as gallstones and gallbladder disease. PMID:25663817

  18. Iron and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K; Posen, Jennifer S

    2013-08-19

    Vegetarians who eat a varied and well balanced diet are not at any greater risk of iron deficiency anaemia than non-vegetarians. A diet rich in wholegrains, legumes, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, iron-fortified cereals and green leafy vegetables provides an adequate iron intake. Vitamin C and other organic acids enhance non-haem iron absorption, a process that is carefully regulated by the gut. People with low iron stores or higher physiological need for iron will tend to absorb more iron and excrete less. Research to date on iron absorption has not been designed to accurately measure absorption rates in typical Western vegetarians with low ferritin levels.

  19. High protein diets and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carapetis, Melissa; Phillips, Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    Higher protein diets are currently 'hot'. The CSIRO total wellbeing diet book has been on the bestseller list in Australia and internationally. Various other high protein diets have also had, or are getting, media attention. However, high protein diets, particularly for people with diabetes, are controversial. There are questions about effectiveness and safety, especially in the long term. As a general practitioner people will look to you for advice about what to eat. This article summarises the pros and cons of two of the popular higher protein diets--the Atkins diet and the CSIRO total wellbeing.

  20. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  1. Psoriasis Diet: Can Changing Your Diet Treat Psoriasis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can changing my diet treat psoriasis? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Although there's no special ... either confirm or rule out this condition. With Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. References Diet and nutrition. ...

  2. Dieting among Thai adolescents: having friends who diet and pressure to diet.

    PubMed

    Page, R M; Suwanteerangkul, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dieting behavior, the number of friends who diet, and number of friends who pressure to go on a diet among a sample of 2,519 Thai adolescents. More than half of the girls (52.2%) and over one-fourth of boys (28.0%) reported going on a diet in the past 30 days. Dieting among friends was very common with only 14.2% of girls and 34.3% of boys saying none of their friends dieted. Results also showed significant associations between 1) number of friends who diet and 2) number of friends who pressure to diet with dieting behavior, body mass index (BMI), weight satisfaction, perceived body fatness, effort to look like people in the media, and frequency of thinking about wanting to be thinner in girls. In addition, several of these associations for boys were significant. The role of BMI in these relationships was also explored.

  3. Insect phermones: diet related?

    PubMed

    Hendry, L B

    1976-04-09

    The question of the origin of insect pheromones is discussed in the light of new published information on the communication system of the oak leaf roller. It is concluded that compounds found in diets may be partially responsible for insect sexual behavior and that substructuring of insect populations in ecological and evolutionary time through dietary chemicals remains a hypothesis worthy of further testing.

  4. [Acne and diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish.

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  6. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  7. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Should a person with lupus be on a gluten-free diet? If you also have celiac disease, a gluten-free diet is critical. Otherwise, there is no evidence that gluten worsens or improves inflammation in any other autoimmune ...

  8. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... like skipping meals or deciding to eat only lettuce. Who Needs to Diet? Though some people may ... they stay a healthy weight? All kids can benefit from eating a balanced diet and getting plenty ...

  9. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Should a person with lupus be on a gluten-free diet? If you also have celiac disease, a gluten-free diet is critical. Otherwise, there is no evidence that gluten worsens or improves inflammation in any other autoimmune ...

  10. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation How can my diet help prevent ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  11. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  12. Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Claire T; Temple, Norman; Woodside, Jayne V

    2012-12-01

    To review the epidemiological evidence for vegetarian diets, low-meat dietary patterns and their association with health status in adults. Published literature review focusing primarily on prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the association between vegetarian diets and health outcomes. Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention. Evidence linking red meat intake, particularly processed meat, and increased risk of CHD, cancer and type 2 diabetes is convincing and provides indirect support for consumption of a plant-based diet. The health benefits of vegetarian diets are not unique. Prudent plant-based dietary patterns which also allow small intakes of red meat, fish and dairy products have demonstrated significant improvements in health status as well. At this time an optimal dietary intake for health status is unknown. Plant-based diets contain a host of food and nutrients known to have independent health benefits. While vegetarian diets have not shown any adverse effects on health, restrictive and monotonous vegetarian diets may result in nutrient deficiencies with deleterious effects on health. For this reason, appropriate advice is important to ensure a vegetarian diet is nutritionally adequate especially for vulnerable groups.

  13. Diet and Men's Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    La, Justin; Roberts, Natalie H; Yafi, Faysal A

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual dysfunctions are more prevalent with aging. With increasing evidence about the impact of various diets on chronic diseases, there is a growing interest in establishing an association between various diets and men's health and sexual dysfunction. To review the current literature examining diet and dietary patterns and male sexual health. A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the association between diet and dietary patterns and male sexual health (erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism, and infertility) was carried using the online PubMed database from 1977 through 2017 with the keywords diet, dietary patterns, erectile dysfunction, male hypogonadism, low testosterone, and male infertility. Summary of significant findings on erectile function, androgen levels, and semen analysis parameters in relation to diets or dietary patterns. Thirteen studies on diet and erectile dysfunction and 15 studies on diet and testosterone levels were reviewed, including observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Thirteen studies analyzing the relation between diet and semen analysis parameters were reviewed but consisted of only cross-sectional and case-control studies. Evidence exists demonstrating the association between various diets and men's sexual health. Erectile dysfunction appears to lessen in men adhering to the Mediterranean diet. Obese and overweight men who lose weight through low-fat, low-calorie diets seem to have improvements in their erectile function and testosterone levels. Furthermore, a Western diet is associated with lower semen quality. Future prospective and randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish the benefit of diet and dietary patterns on men's sexual health. La J, Roberts NH, Yafi FA. Diet and Men's Sexual Health. Sex Med Rev 2017;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ng Tang Fui, Mark; Prendergast, Luke A; Dupuis, Philippe; Raval, Manjri; Strauss, Boyd J; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-10-07

    Whether testosterone treatment has benefits on body composition over and above caloric restriction in men is unknown. We hypothesised that testosterone treatment augments diet-induced loss of fat mass and prevents loss of muscle mass. We conducted a randomised double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. A total of 100 obese men (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) with a total testosterone level of or below 12 nmol/L and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very low energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of 10-weekly intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 49, cases) or matching placebo (n = 51, controls). The main outcome measures were the between-group difference in fat and lean mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and visceral fat area (computed tomography). A total of 82 men completed the study. At study end, compared to controls, cases had greater reductions in fat mass, with a mean adjusted between-group difference (MAD) of -2.9 kg (-5.7 to -0.2; P = 0.04), and in visceral fat (MAD -2678 mm(2); -5180 to -176; P = 0.04). Although both groups lost the same lean mass following VLED (cases -3.9 kg (-5.3 to -2.6); controls -4.8 kg (-6.2 to -3.5), P = 0.36), cases regained lean mass (3.3 kg (1.9 to 4.7), P < 0.001) during weight maintenance, in contrast to controls (0.8 kg (-0.7 to 2.3), P = 0.29) so that, at study end, cases had an attenuated reduction in lean mass compared to controls (MAD 3.4 kg (1.3 to 5.5), P = 0.002). While dieting men receiving placebo lost both fat and lean mass, the weight loss with testosterone treatment was almost exclusively due to loss of body fat. clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01616732 , registration date: June 8, 2012.

  15. [Sense and nonsense of diets].

    PubMed

    Ballmer, P E

    1990-03-17

    Strict vegetarian diets and liquid formulations of "protein-sparing modified fast diets" can be harmful and represent potential "nonsense" in diets. "Sense" with respect to diets is demonstrated by a short summary of the physiological effects of dietary fibre. Fibre incorporates water, increases fecal bulk and reduces transit time of the bowel. Fermentation of fibres in the large bowel produces short-chain fatty acids, e.g. acetate, propionate and butyrate with desirable effects. Butyrate, for example, modifies colonic cell proliferation and may reduce the incidence of colorectal neoplasms. The beneficial effects of a diet, high in fibre, on blood lipids, overweight, colorectal disease and diabetes mellitus are briefly discussed.

  16. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  17. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health.

  18. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  19. [Diet low in potassium].

    PubMed

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  20. Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Divisi, Duilio; Di Tommaso, Sergio; Salvemini, Salvatore; Garramone, Margherita; Crisci, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between diet and cancer development. It has been estimated that 30-40% of all kinds of cancer can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. A low use of fibres, the intake of red meat and an imbalance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats may contribute to increase the risk of cancer. On the other hand, the assumption of lots of fruit and vegetables may lower the risk of cancer. Protective elements in a cancer-preventive diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, chlorophyll and antioxidants such as carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits if taken orally, but it effective through intravenous injection. A supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics is also an anticancer dietary measure. A diet drawn up according to the proposed guidelines could decrease the incidence of breast, colon-rectal, prostate and bronchogenic cancer.

  1. Plants, diet, and health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  2. Consumption of milk-protein combined with green tea modulates diet-induced thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-08-01

    Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001). Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs) for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001) for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ·3.5 h) vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ·3.5 h), GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ·3.5 h) and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ·3.5 h), but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ·3.5 h) and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ·3.5 h) was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001), but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  3. Consumption of Milk-Protein Combined with Green Tea Modulates Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18–60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001). Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs) for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001) for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ・3.5 h) vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ・3.5 h), GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ・3.5 h) and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ・3.5 h), but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ・3.5 h) and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ・3.5 h) was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001), but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT. PMID:22254119

  4. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J; Rehfeld, J F; Truby, H; Kulseng, B; Martins, C

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). Subjects/methods: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m−2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9 and 13. Data are shown as mean±s.d. Results: A significant increase in fasting hunger was observed by day 3 (2±1% WL), (P<0.01), 5% WL (12±8 days) (P<0.05) and wk 13 (17±2% WL) (P<0.05). Increased desire to eat was observed by day 3 (P<0.01) and 5% WL (P<0.05). Postprandial prospective food consumption was significantly reduced at wk 9 (16±2% WL) (P<0.01). Basal total PYY was significantly reduced at 10% WL (32±8 days) (P<0.05). Postprandial active GLP-1 was increased at 5% WL (P<0.01) and CCK reduced at 5 and 10% WL (P<0.01, for both) and wk 9 (P<0.001). Basal and postprandial AG were significantly increased at wk 13 (P<0.001, both). Conclusions: WL with a ketogenic VLED transiently increases the drive to eat up to 3 weeks (5% WL). After that, and while participants are ketotic, a 10–17% WL is not associated with increased appetite. However, hunger feelings and AG concentrations increase significantly from baseline, once refeeding occurs. PMID:28439092

  5. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J; Rehfeld, J F; Truby, H; Kulseng, B; Martins, C

    2017-08-01

    Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m(-2)) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9 and 13. Data are shown as mean±s.d. A significant increase in fasting hunger was observed by day 3 (2±1% WL), (P<0.01), 5% WL (12±8 days) (P<0.05) and wk 13 (17±2% WL) (P<0.05). Increased desire to eat was observed by day 3 (P<0.01) and 5% WL (P<0.05). Postprandial prospective food consumption was significantly reduced at wk 9 (16±2% WL) (P<0.01). Basal total PYY was significantly reduced at 10% WL (32±8 days) (P<0.05). Postprandial active GLP-1 was increased at 5% WL (P<0.01) and CCK reduced at 5 and 10% WL (P<0.01, for both) and wk 9 (P<0.001). Basal and postprandial AG were significantly increased at wk 13 (P<0.001, both). WL with a ketogenic VLED transiently increases the drive to eat up to 3 weeks (5% WL). After that, and while participants are ketotic, a 10-17% WL is not associated with increased appetite. However, hunger feelings and AG concentrations increase significantly from baseline, once refeeding occurs.

  6. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  7. Metabolic profile before and after short-term overfeeding with a high-fat diet: a comparison between South Asian and White men.

    PubMed

    Wulan, Siti N; Westerterp, Klaas R; Plasqui, Guy

    2014-05-28

    For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage and an adverse metabolic profile compared with whites. The objective of the present study was to determine the metabolic profiles of South Asian and white men matched for body fat percentage in response to short-term overfeeding with a high-fat diet. A total of ten healthy non-diabetic South Asian men matched for body fat percentage with ten white men were included in the study. A weight-maintenance diet (containing 30 % fat, 55 % carbohydrate and 15 % protein) was provided for 3 d followed by 4 d of overfeeding (150 % of energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60 % fat, 25 % carbohydrate and 15 % protein). Before and after the overfeeding period, plasma glucose, insulin, TAG, NEFA, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were determined. Glucose clearance was calculated using a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. The results revealed that in South Asian and white men, respectively, overfeeding with a high-fat diet decreased plasma TAG concentrations by 0·4 (sd 0·6) and 0·4 (sd 0·5) mmol/l (P diet= 0·008; P ethnicity= 0·24), increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0·12 (sd 0·1) and 0·14 (sd 0·2) mmol/l (P diet= 0·001; P ethnicity= 0·06) and decreased glucose clearance by 48·8 (sd 53·5) and 37·2 (sd 34·2) ml/min per m2 body surface (P diet= 0·004; P ethnicity= 0·18). There was a significant interaction between diet and ethnicity with regard to the changes in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P= 0·01 and 0·007, respectively), which trended towards a larger increase in South Asian subjects than in white subjects. Despite a similar body fat percentage, short-term overfeeding with a high-fat diet had more adverse effects on the lipid profile of South Asians than on that of whites.

  8. Biochemical and physiological observations in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) at two zoos during a dietary transition to a diet designed for insectivores.

    PubMed

    Gutzmann, Lori D; Hill, H Karl; Koutsos, Elizabeth A

    2009-07-01

    This research (involving two separate institutions) assessed the serum chemistries and body weights of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over a 6-10-week feeding trial to determine the acceptability of a commercially available manufactured diet intended for the feeding of insectivorous animals. Five animals at two zoos were heavier than desired and otherwise healthy at the start of the studies. Measurements of blood chemistries including cholesterol and cell blood count remained within physiologic expected ranges throughout the short-term study. Plasma and serum amino acid levels also remained within normal expected ranges, except taurine, which was much higher than predicted, although there were no significant changes in taurine over time. After initiation of the 6-week trial, these trials were extended for longer-term evaluation of animals in regards to body weight maintenance. In the long-term study, some individuals were restricted in their access to diet, and achieved a beneficial weight loss while maintaining good health. Approximate dietary consumption for captive meerkats in our study averaged 32-44 g, or calculated 92-127 kcal GE/meerkat*day (83-114 kcal ME/meerkat*day), and weight loss of animals at one institution of 10.4% was accomplished over 151 days from day 0, at approximately 30 g, or calculated 86 kcal GE/meerkat*day (78 kcal ME/meerkat*day).

  9. Effect of a non-dieting lifestyle randomised control trial on psychological well-being and weight management in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Borkoles, Erika; Carroll, Sean; Clough, Peter; Polman, Remco C J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention approach for morbidly obese women designed in the framework of the self-determination theory (SDT) and Health at Every Size on weight maintenance and psychological functioning. Predominantly white (97%), morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg m(-2) with at least one co-morbid condition or a BMI ≥ 40 kg m(-2)) pre-menopausal women (N=62), aged between 24 and 55 years were initially randomly assigned to 12 weeks of lifestyle intervention (IIG) or delayed start control group (DSCG). The program consisted of 3 months intensive lifestyle intervention followed by 9 month maintenance phase. The DSCG group commenced the program after 3 months. Initially, the IIG showed a significant decrease in body weight (baseline to end of the RCT phase) compared with a significant increase in the DSCG group. However, no significant changes in weight status were evident in either group at 12 months compared with baseline. The 3-month intensive intervention resulted in significantly improved psychological functioning in both groups, which were maintained at 12 months. The study provides additional support for a non-dieting, theory-based, lifestyle approach to weight management and psychological well-being among morbidly obese females. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Body mass index and the risk of obesity in coeliac disease treated with the gluten-free diet.

    PubMed

    Kabbani, T A; Goldberg, A; Kelly, C P; Pallav, K; Tariq, S; Peer, A; Hansen, J; Dennis, M; Leffler, D A

    2012-03-01

    Coeliac disease is increasingly diagnosed and weight changes are common after adoption of a gluten-free diet (GFD), however data on body mass index (BMI) changes are limited. To assess changes in BMI after diagnosis in a large coeliac population. A total of 1018 patients with biopsy confirmed coeliac disease seen at our centre were studied retrospectively. Initial and follow-up BMIs were recorded, as was GFD adherence as assessed by an expert dietitian. A total of 679 patients with at least two recorded BMIs and GFD adherence data were included in the study. Mean follow-up was 39.5 months. Compared to regional population data, the coeliac cohort was significantly less likely to be overweight or obese (32% vs. 59%, P < 0.0001). Mean BMI increased significantly after GFD initiation (24.0 to 24.6; P < 0.001). 21.8% of patients with normal or high BMI at study entry increased their BMI by more than two points. Individuals with coeliac disease have lower BMI than the regional population at diagnosis. BMI increases on the GFD, especially in those that adhere closely to the GFD. On the GFD, 15.8% of patients move from a normal or low BMI class into an overweight BMI class, and 22% of patients overweight at diagnosis gain weight. These results indicate that weight maintenance counselling should be an integral part of coeliac dietary education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss.

  12. Diet and dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, P K

    1987-01-01

    Personal experience shows that subjective and objective improvements can be achieved in chronic renal failure treated with dialysis. These aims were achieved by limiting energy intake to 8 MJ a day and by substituting cassava for bread and potatoes, thereby reducing the intake of protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Water soluble vitamins were added to the diet. With this regimen blood urea concentrations vary between 2.5 and 12 mmol/l for most of the week and the packed cell volume between 0.30 and 0.37. PMID:3119029

  13. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  14. Vegetarian diets in cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Dominique Ashen, M

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that consumption of a vegetarian diet as well as specific components of a vegetarian diet lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Vegetarian diets lower the probability of developing CVD, are effective in altering serum lipids, are beneficial in reducing blood pressure, improve glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, reduce weight, and lower mortality. Vascular effects of a vegetarian diet include a thinner carotid IMT and lower brachial artery resistance. Health care providers should be aware of the types of vegetarian diets and their risks and benefits in order to guide patients' dietary habits with the ultimate goal of reducing their CVD risk. While a patient does not have to become a complete vegetarian to reduce their CVD risk, they can make simple changes in their diet that are effective in risk reduction.

  15. Putting the diet back into diet-induced obesity: diet-induced hypothalamic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Julian G; Archer, Zoë A

    2008-05-06

    A wealth of detailed mechanistic information relating to obesity and body weight regulation has emerged from study of single gene mutation models, and continues to be generated by engineered rodent models targeting specific genes. However, as an early step in translational research, many researchers are turning to models of diet-induced obesity. Interpretation of data generated from such models is not aided by the variety of diets and rodent strains employed in these studies and a strong case could be made for rationalisation. Differences in experimental protocol, which may deploy a single obligatory solid diet, a choice of solid diets, or liquid/solid combinations, and which may or may not allow a preferred macronutrient composition to be selected, mean that different models of diet-induced obesity achieve that obesity by different routes. The priority should be to mimic the palatability- and choice-driven over-consumption that probably underlies the majority of human obesity. Some of the hypothalamic energy balance genes apparently 'recognise' developing diet-induced obesity as indicated by counter-regulatory changes in expression levels. However, substantial changes in gene expression on long-term exposure to obesogenic diets are not able to prevent weight gain. Forebrain reward systems are widely assumed to be overriding hypothalamic homeostatic energy balance systems under these circumstances. More mechanism-based research at the homeostatic/reward/diet interface may enable diets to be manipulated with therapeutic benefit, or define the contribution of these interactions to susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

  16. Long-Term Effects of a Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing High Protein or High Carbohydrate Weight Loss Diets on Testosterone, SHBG, Erectile and Urinary Function in Overweight and Obese Men.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Brinkworth, Grant D; Martin, Sean; Wycherley, Thomas P; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Lutze, Janna; Clifton, Peter M; Wittert, Gary A; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27-40 kg/m2, age 20-65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (P<0.001) and the total IIEF increased (P = 0.017) with no differences between diets (P≥0.244). Increases in testosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.001) and improvements in the total IIEF (P = 0.041) occurred from weeks 0-12 with a further increase in testosterone from week 12-52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12-52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P≥0.126). In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall sexual function. Anzctr.org.au ACTRN12606000002583.

  17. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss: the DiOGenes randomized study.

    PubMed

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Bakker, S J L; Larsen, T M; Handjieva-Darlesnka, T; Kafatos, A; Martinez, J A; Pfeiffer, A F H; Kunešová, M; Jebb, S A; Holst, C; Astrup, A; Saris, W H M; Brink, E J; van Baak, M A

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss in 420 overweight adults from the Diet, Obesity and Genes study. After an 8-week weight-loss period (>8% BW), subjects (42±6 years) were randomized to either a high-protein diet (23-28 en% protein) or a lower-protein control diet (10-15 en% protein) for 26 weeks. BMI after weight loss was 30.3±4.3 kg m(-2), BP was 118/73 mm Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents. Systolic BP during 26 weeks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2 mm Hg less (95% CI: -4.6 to 0.2 mm Hg, P=0.08) in the high-protein group than in the lower-protein control group. In 191 (pre)hypertensive subjects (baseline systolic BP⩾120 mm Hg), a larger difference was observed (-4.2 mm Hg (-7.7, -0.7), P=0.02). The effect was attenuated after adjustment for initial BP (-3.4 mm Hg (-6.9, -0.03), P=0.048), and after additional adjustment for weight change (-2.7 mm Hg (-6.1, 0.4), P=0.11). Adjustment for 24-h urinary excretion of sodium and potassium did not change the results. Diastolic BP yielded similar results. These findings suggest that a BP reduction after weight loss is better maintained when the intake of protein is increased at the expense of carbohydrates. This effect is partly mediated by body weight.

  18. Vegetarian diets and weight status.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Susan E; Barnard, Neal

    2006-04-01

    The increasing global health problems of overweight and obesity are associated with coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers, among other health concerns. Vegetarian diets are associated with reduced body weight, lower incidence of certain chronic disease, and lower medical costs compared with non-vegetarian diets. We reviewed the literature to ascertain the extent to which and by what mechanism(s) a plant-based diet may mediate body weight.

  19. Diet and Headache: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent T; Vij, Brinder

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive diets do not require the exclusion of a specific provocative food or ingredient, but regulate the quantities of core components of foods such as vitamins, ions, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. To review the evidence supporting the use of comprehensive diets in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders and to discuss the mechanisms through which food, and ingredients within foods and beverages might trigger attacks of headache METHODS: This represents Part 2 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders. A PubMed search was performed with the following search terms: "folate," "vitamin D," "low fat diet," "omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid diet," "ketogenic diet," "Atkins diet," and "sodium." Each of these search terms was then crossreferenced with "headache" and "migraine" to identify relevant studies. Only studies that were written in English were included in this review. Low fat and high omega-3/low omega-6 fatty diets decrease the frequency of attacks of migraine and/or other headache disorders as demonstrated in two separate randomized controlled trials. A ketogenic diet was more effective than a standard diet in reducing the frequency of migraine in a single nonrandomized clinical study. An observation study found that dietary consumption of folate was inversely associated with the frequency of migraine attacks in persons with migraine with aura that have the C variant of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. The mechanisms though which diets may precipitate headache include their effects on neuropeptides, neuro-receptors and ion channels, inflammation, sympathetic nervous system, release of nitric oxide, vasodilation, and cerebral glucose metabolism. Evidence exists to support the use of comprehensive diets in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders. However, the results of these studies should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger

  20. Diet quality and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Florence, Michelle D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2008-04-01

    Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia, Canada, and their parents were surveyed as part of the Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study. Information on dietary intake, height, and weight and sociodemographic variables were linked to results of a provincial standardized literacy assessment. Diet Quality Index-International was used to summarize overall diet quality. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between indicators of diet quality and academic performance while adjusting for gender and socioeconomic characteristics of parents and residential neighborhoods. Across various indicators of diet quality, an association with academic performance was observed. Students with decreased overall diet quality were significantly more likely to perform poorly on the assessment. Girls performed better than boys as did children from socioeconomically advantaged families. Children attending better schools and living in wealthy neighborhoods also performed better. These findings demonstrate an association between diet quality and academic performance and identify specific dietary factors that contribute to this association. Additionally, this research supports the broader implementation and investment in effective school nutrition programs that have the potential to improve student access to healthy food choices, diet quality, academic performance, and, over the long term, health.

  1. [Dieting among girls from Hordaland].

    PubMed

    Skeie, Guri; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2002-08-10

    Dieting is highly prevalent among girls and women. The purpose of this article is to study the stability of dieting in a cohort of young females from age 13 until age 21, and to relate their dieting behaviour to their body mass index. Participants took part in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. In 1990, a representative sample of 13-year-old school children from Hordaland County were invited to participate. A total of 414 girls participated at baseline, and 253 (61%) also participated at ages 15, 18 and 21 years. Height, weight and attempts to loose weight were collected through self-reports. At age 14, 40% reported dieting during the past year; the proportion stayed stable with increasing age. Dieting at later ages was much more prevalent in girls who had dieted at age 14 than in those who had not. In the 13 to 21 year cohort, 18% reported dieting on all the three main measuring points. While these girls had a higher body mass index than their non-dieting peers, only 30% of them could be characterised as overweight. Dieting is highly prevalent among adolescent girls and a stable feature in the life of many of them.

  2. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  3. Very Low-Calorie Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... calorie Diets Related Topics Section Navigation Weight Management Bariatric Surgery Definition & Facts Types of Bariatric Surgery Bariatric Surgery Benefits Bariatric Surgery Side Effects Potential ...

  4. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.

  5. Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed. PMID:24224147

  6. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  7. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting an X-ray Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A What's in this article? ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  8. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  9. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  10. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  11. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition A A A What's in this article? CF ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  12. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  13. Nutrition, diet and immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Maijó, Mònica; Clements, Sarah J; Ivory, Kamal; Nicoletti, Claudio; Carding, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by immunosenescence and the progressive decline in immunity in association with an increased frequency of infections and chronic disease. This complex process affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems with a progressive decline in most immune cell populations and defects in activation resulting in loss of function. Although host genetics and environmental factors, such as stress, exercise and diet can impact on the onset or course of immunosenescence, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. This review focusses on identifying the most significant aspects of immunosenescence and on the evidence that nutritional intervention might delay this process, and consequently improve the quality of life of the elderly. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Zinc and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    Well planned vegetarian diets can provide adequate amounts of zinc from plant sources. Vegetarians appear to adapt to lower zinc intakes by increased absorption and retention of zinc. Good sources of zinc for vegetarians include whole grains, tofu, tempeh, legumes, nuts and seeds, fortified breakfast cereals and dairy products. The inhibitory effects of phytate on absorption of zinc can be minimised by modern food-processing methods such as soaking, heating, sprouting, fermenting and leavening. Absorption of zinc can be improved by using yeast-based breads and sourdough breads, sprouts, and presoaked legumes. Studies show vegetarians have similar serum zinc concentrations to, and no greater risk of zinc deficiency than, non-vegetarians (despite differences in zinc intake).

  15. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  16. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  17. Diet and stroke.

    PubMed

    Renaud, S C

    2001-01-01

    In industrialized countries, stroke is the most frequent life-threatening neurological disorder. The mortality trend for stroke appears to be similar to that of coronary heart disease (CHD) in different countries. Thus the dietary changes that protect from CHD, may also protect from stroke. The purpose of the present paper is not to review exhaustively the associations between foodstuffs and stroke. It is rather to emphasize a few important relationships that may be conducive to efficient recommendations in Public Health. The intake of saturated fat, considered as the main environmental factor for CHD, does not appear to be also closely related to stroke. It has even been observed in the Framingham prospective study, that saturated fats were associated with a protective effect on stroke. The multivariate analysis of the ecological study reported in the present paper suggests that the villain for stroke could be the high intake of linoleic acid, the main polyunsaturated fatty acid prescribed through the world, to most of the CHD patients. Observation and intervention studies suggest that the fatty acid with the most efficient protective effect on stroke is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) as for CHD clinical manifestations. Also similarly to CHD, fruit, vegetables and folic acid, may have important protective effect on stroke. Finally, at very moderate intake, alcohol may be related to a similar lowering on the risk of stroke as on that of CHD. Nevertheless alcohol, at high intake for intoxication (binge drinking) has been associated with up to a 10 fold increased in the risk of stroke. Finally, the diet recommendations suggested by the present analysis are similar to those used in the Lyon Diet Heart Study and in Finland, in the last 20 years. In both of these intervention studies mortality from CHD, cancer and stroke have been markedly reduced by more than 50 %.

  18. Ketogenic diet in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebhaber, Gisela Maria; Riemann, Edith; Baumeister, Friedrich Albert Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of Rett syndrome with the ketogenic diet has been reported only once and showed positive effects on seizure frequency and behavior. We report a patient with Rett syndrome who was treated with the ketogenic diet for 4 years. The diet was initiated at the age of 8 years owing to the patient's refractory epilepsy and led to a 70% reduction in seizures. Treatment with the ketogenic diet was also associated with improvements in contact and behavior. Diagnosis of Rett syndrome was confirmed by molecular detection of the Ser134Cys mutation in the MECP2 gene, which has previously been described only in classic Rett syndrome. This observation demonstrates that the ketogenic diet has a positive effect on Rett syndrome.

  19. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s) (MCT) ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  20. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  1. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diets that Work (Hormone Health Network) Also in Spanish No-Fad Diet Tips (American Heart Association) Weight ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Also in Spanish Latest News Diet Study Suggests It's Carbs, Not ...

  2. Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Mary C; Hoover, Heidi; Nuttall, Frank Q

    2010-07-29

    We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40) (LoBAG30) decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb) from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our objective in the present 10-week study was to determine: 1) whether the above results could be maintained, or even improved (suggesting a metabolic adaptation) and 2) whether the subjects would accept the diet for this longer time period. In addition, protein balance, and a number of other blood and urine constituents were quantified at 5 and at 10 weeks on the LoBAG30 diet to address metabolic adaptation. Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 10-week period. Blood was drawn and urine was collected over a 24 hour period at the beginning of the study with subjects ingesting a standard diet of 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat, and at the end of 5 and 10 weeks following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet. Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose decreased by 19% at week 5 and 28% at week 10; 24-h total glucose area decreased by 27% at week 5 and 35% at week 10 compared to baseline. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 13% at week 5, 25% at week 10, and was still decreasing linearly, indicating that a metabolic adaptation occurred. Serum NEFA, AAN, uric acid, urea, albumin, prealbumin, TSH, Total T3, free T4, B12, folate, homocysteine, creatinine, growth hormone and renin did not differ between weeks 5 and 10. IGF-1 increased modestly. Urinary glucose decreased; urinary pH and calcium were similar. A LoBAG30 diet resulted in continued improvement in glycemic control. This improvement occurred without significant weight loss, with unchanged insulin and glucagon profiles, and without deterioration in serum lipids, blood pressure or kidney function. Extending the duration of time on a LoBAG30 diet from 5 to 10

  3. Diet traditions in wild orangutans.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-10-01

    This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning.

  4. [Vitamins in rat experimental diets].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer's yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer's yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.

  5. Diet history: Method and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.

  6. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS) has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET) as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10) or HFD (n = 37). After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF), LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group). After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019). In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019), serum insulin (P = 0.022) and TNF-α (P = 0.044). Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021) levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042). Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration. PMID:21899736

  7. Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    to examine how changes in these factors relate to weight loss and weight maintenance over time. PMID:22734914

  8. Are socioeconomic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic disparities in nutrition are well documented. This study tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in nutrient intakes can be accounted for, in part, by diet cost. Methods A representative sample of 1,295 adults in King County (WA) was surveyed in 2008–2009 and usual dietary intakes were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Monetary value of individual diets was estimated using local retail supermarket prices for 384 foods. Nutrients of concern as identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee were fiber, vitamins A, C and E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. A nutrient density score based on all seven nutrients was another dependent measure. General linear models and linear regressions were used to examine associations among education and income, nutrient density measure and diet cost. Analyses were conducted in 2009–2010. Results Controlling for energy and other covariates, higher-cost diets were significantly higher in all seven nutrients and in overall nutrient density. Higher education and income were positively and significantly associated with the nutrient density measure, but these effects were greatly attenuated with the inclusion of the cost variable in the model. Conclusions Socioeconomic differences in nutrient intake can be substantially explained by the monetary cost of the diet. The higher cost of more nutritious diets may contribute to socioeconomic disparities in health and should be taken into account in the formulation of nutrition and public health policy. PMID:21148819

  9. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  10. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  11. Diet and good health (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. A healthy diet is especially important for children since a variety of food is needed for proper development. Other elements of good health include exercise, rest and avoidance of stimulants such as sugar and caffeine.

  12. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  13. Genetic toxicology of the diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, I. )

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During the Smoking and Grilling of Food; Fecal Mutagens as a Function of Diet; Dietary Desmutagens; and Coffee and Cancer.

  14. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  15. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  16. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Treatment and Care Overview Nutrition Post-Surgery Diet ...

  17. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    PubMed

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Teens > Cystic Fibrosis: ... Food Enzyme Supplements Beating the Frustration What Is Cystic Fibrosis? At lunch, Lindsay often gets bored with having ...

  19. Adolescents' Attitudes toward Their Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the results of a nutrition questionnaire administered to students in grades eight, nine, and 10 (N=490). Results suggest a need for nutrition education, particularly concerning the relationships between diet and health. (DS)

  20. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  1. Mineral adequacy of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, J

    1988-09-01

    The bioavailability of a number of minerals may be altered by the special characteristics of vegetarian diets. Concern has centered on both inadequate and high dietary levels of specific minerals as well as reduced bioavailability because of a variety of dietary components. The possibility that plant-based diets may compromise mineral status is briefly reviewed for the following minerals: zinc, calcium, iron, manganese, selenium, and copper.

  2. Diet, gut microbiota and cognition.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Cicely; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity. In addition, long-term consumption of a high fat diet is associated with cognitive decline. It has recently been proposed that the gut microbiota is part of a mechanistic link between the consumption of a high fat diet and the impaired cognition of an individual, termed "microbiota-gut-brain axis". In this complex relationship between the gut, the brain and the gut microbiota, there are several types of gut microbiota and host mechanisms involved. Most of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, this review comprehensively summarizes the current evidence from mainly in vivo (rodent and human) studies of the relationship between diet, gut microbiota and cognition. The possible mechanisms that the diet and the gut microbiota have on cognition are also presented and discussed.

  3. Religion, body satisfaction and dieting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen Hye-Cheon

    2006-05-01

    Western societal pressures of thinness have assigned worth to the ideal body, contributing to body dissatisfaction and increased dieting. A social factor that may serve as an alternative avenue of worth than the body is religion. Survey data from a community sample (n=546) was collected to examine religion's relationships with body satisfaction and dieting. Religion was significantly related to greater body satisfaction and less dieting, and specifically negative aspects of religion were related to lower body satisfaction and greater dieting. Those utilizing more negative religious coping had lower body satisfaction (women: r=-0.47; men: r=-0.58). Self-esteem was a mediator in these relationships. In women, those reporting higher negative congregational social support were more likely to diet than those reporting lower levels (CI: 2.0; 1.2, 3.5). Overall, religion was related to body satisfaction and dieting, with specifically negative aspects of religion having more consistent and stronger relationships than other components of religion.

  4. A trial of reduced carbohydrate diet to improve metabolic outcomes and decrease adiposity in obese peripubertal African American girls: does macronutrient profile matter?

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Krista; Cardel, Michelle; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.; Newton, Anna L.; Wallace, Stephenie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Obesity prevalence among African American (AA) girls is higher than that of other groups. As typical calorie-restriction obesity treatment strategies have had limited success, alterations in macronutrient composition might effectively improve metabolic outcomes in this population and impact future body composition trajectories. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a moderately restricted carbohydrate (CHO) versus a standard CHO diet on weight/fat loss and metabolic parameters in overweight/obese AA girls aged 9–14 years. Methods A total of 26 AA girls (ranging from 92nd BMI percentile and above) were assigned to either a reduced- (SPEC: 42% calories from CHO, n=12) or a standard- (STAN: 55% of calories from CHO, n=14) CHO diet (protein held constant) for 16-weeks. All meals were provided and clinically tailored to meet the estimated energy requirements (REE × 1.2 in eucaloric phase and REE × 1.2 – 1000kcal in energy deficit phase). The first five-weeks encompassed a eucaloric phase evaluating metabolic changes in the absence of weight change. The subsequent 11-weeks were hypocaloric (1000kcal/d deficit) in effort to promote weight/fat loss. Meal tests were performed during the eucaloric phase for metabolic analyses. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to evaluate body composition. Results Both groups had reductions in weight/adiposity but the difference did not reach significance. The solid meal test indicated improved glucose/insulin homeostasis on the SPEC diet up to three hours post-ingestion. In addition, significantly lower triglycerides (p<0.001) were observed on the SPEC diet. Conclusions Dietary CHO reduction favorably influences metabolic parameters but did not result in greater weight/fat loss relative to a standard diet in obese AA girls. Future research is needed to determine long-term effectiveness of a reduced CHO diet on glucose and insulin homeostasis and how it may apply to weight maintenance/fat loss during

  5. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  6. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  7. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  8. Assessing the three types of dieting in the Three-Factor Model of dieting. The Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ashley A; Katterman, Shawn N; Lowe, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    The construct of attempted eating restriction has been measured in a number of ways in recent years. The Three-Factor Model of Dieting suggests that dieting can be subdivided into three types: (1) frequency of past dieting and overeating (i.e., history of dieting), (2) current dieting to lose weight, and (3) weight suppression, or the difference between an individual's current weight and his or her highest previous weight. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe the Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire (DWHQ), a measure that we have used for many years to assess these three dimensions of dieting; (2) provide some recent examples of published research on each type of dieting; (3) discuss some of the nuances of assessing these dieting types; and (4) suggest directions for future research.

  9. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.01). However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  10. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Carmen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-17

    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. However, the conclusion that diet is linked directly to epigenetic alterations and that these epigenetic alterations directly increase or decrease the risk of human cancer is much less certain. We suggest that true and measurable effects of diet or dietary supplements on epigenotype and cancer risk are most likely to be observed in longitudinal studies and at the extremes of the intersection of dietary risk factors and human population variability. Careful analysis of such outlier populations is most likely to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which suspected environmental risk factors drive the process of carcinogenesis.

  11. Long-Term Body Weight Maintenance among StrongWomen–Healthy Hearts Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Miriam E.; Hanson, Karla L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The repeated loss and regain of body weight, referred to as weight cycling, may be associated with negative health complications. Given today's obesity epidemic and related interventions to address obesity, it is increasingly important to understand contexts and factors associated with weight loss maintenance. This study examined BMI among individuals who had previously participated in a 12-week, evidence-based, nationally disseminated nutrition and physical activity program designed for overweight and obese middle-aged and older women. Methods. Data were collected using follow-up surveys. Complete height and weight data were available for baseline, 12-week program completion (post-program) and follow-up (approximately 3 years later) for 154 women (response rate = 27.5%; BMI characteristics did not differ between responders and nonresponders). Results. Mean BMI decreased significantly from baseline to post-program (−0.5, P < 0.001) and post-program to follow-up (−0.7, P < 0.001). Seventy-five percent of survey respondents maintained or decreased BMI post-program to follow-up. Self-efficacy and social support for healthy eating behaviors (but not physical activity) were associated with BMI maintenance or additional weight loss. Conclusions. These findings support the durability of weight loss following participation in a relatively short-term intervention. PMID:28352287

  12. Development and validation of a measure of workplace climate for healthy weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Katherine A

    2013-07-01

    Due to the obesity epidemic, an increasing amount of research is being conducted to better understand the antecedents and consequences of excess employee weight. One construct often of interest to researchers in this area is organizational climate. Unfortunately, a viable measure of climate, as related to employee weight, does not exist. The purpose of this study was to remedy this by developing and validating a concise, psychometrically sound measure of climate for healthy weight. An item pool was developed based on surveys of full-time employees, and a sorting task was used to eliminate ambiguous items. Items were pilot tested by a sample of 338 full-time employees, and the item pool was reduced through item response theory (IRT) and reliability analyses. Finally, the retained 14 items, comprising 3 subscales, were completed by a sample of 360 full-time employees, representing 26 different organizations from across the United States. Multilevel modeling indicated that sufficient variance was explained by group membership to support aggregation, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the hypothesized model of 3 subscale factors and an overall climate factor. Nine hypotheses specific to construct validation were tested. Scores on the new scale correlated significantly with individual-level reports of psychological constructs (e.g., health motivation, general leadership support for health) and physiological phenomena (e.g., body mass index [BMI], physical health problems) to which they should theoretically relate, supporting construct validity. Implications for the use of this scale in both applied and research settings are discussed.

  13. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  14. Long-Term Body Weight Maintenance among StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program Participants.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Folta, Sara C; Nelson, Miriam E; Hanson, Karla L; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-01-01

    Background. The repeated loss and regain of body weight, referred to as weight cycling, may be associated with negative health complications. Given today's obesity epidemic and related interventions to address obesity, it is increasingly important to understand contexts and factors associated with weight loss maintenance. This study examined BMI among individuals who had previously participated in a 12-week, evidence-based, nationally disseminated nutrition and physical activity program designed for overweight and obese middle-aged and older women. Methods. Data were collected using follow-up surveys. Complete height and weight data were available for baseline, 12-week program completion (post-program) and follow-up (approximately 3 years later) for 154 women (response rate = 27.5%; BMI characteristics did not differ between responders and nonresponders). Results. Mean BMI decreased significantly from baseline to post-program (-0.5, P < 0.001) and post-program to follow-up (-0.7, P < 0.001). Seventy-five percent of survey respondents maintained or decreased BMI post-program to follow-up. Self-efficacy and social support for healthy eating behaviors (but not physical activity) were associated with BMI maintenance or additional weight loss. Conclusions. These findings support the durability of weight loss following participation in a relatively short-term intervention.

  15. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  16. Does diet really affect acne?

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, H R; Levin, S

    2010-03-01

    Acne vulgaris has anecdotally been attributed to diet by individuals affected by this skin condition. In a 2009 systematic literature review of 21 observational studies and 6 clinical trials, the association between acne and diet was evaluated. Observational studies, including 2 large controlled prospective trials, reported that cow's milk intake increased acne prevalence and severity. Furthermore, prospective studies, including randomized controlled trials, demonstrated a positive association between a high-glycemic-load diet, hormonal mediators, and acne risk. Based on these findings, there exists convincing data supporting the role of dairy products and high-glycemic-index foods in influencing hormonal and inflammatory factors, which can increase acne prevalence and severity. Studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between acne and other foods.

  17. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  18. Diet and Headache: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent T; Vij, Brinder

    2016-10-01

    The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders. A PubMed search was performed with the following search terms: "monosodium glutamate," "caffeine," "aspartame," "sucralose," "histamine intolerance syndrome," "tyramine," "alcohol," "chocolate," "nitrites," "IgG elimination diets," and "gluten." Each of these search terms was then cross-referenced with "headache" and "migraine" to identify relevant studies. Only studies that were written in English were included in this review. Caffeine withdrawal and administration of MSG (dissolved in liquid) has the strongest evidence for triggering attacks of headache as evidenced by multiple positive provocation studies. Aspartame has conflicting evidence with two positive and two negative provocation studies. Observational studies provide modest evidence that gluten- and histamine-containing foods as well as alcohol may precipitate headaches in subgroups of patients. Two of three randomized controlled trials reported that an elimination diet of IgG positive foods significantly decreased frequency of headache/migraine during the treatment as compared to baseline time period. Certain foods, beverages, and ingredients within foods may trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine in susceptible individuals. Elimination diets can prevent headaches in subgroups of persons with headache disorders. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  19. Low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet quality and higher diet costs in French adults.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo; Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    Low-energy-density diets are often recommended for weight control. Such diets have a higher nutrient content than do high-energy-density diets. This study tested the hypothesis that energy-dense diets have a relatively low monetary cost, whereas less energy-dense diets are more expensive. In this cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of 1,474 French adults (672 men, 802 women), aged 15 to 92 years, were assessed using 7-day diet records. Dietary energy density (kcal/g) was calculated by dividing total dietary energy by the edible weight of foods and caloric beverages consumed. Diet cost ($/7 days or $/2,000 kcal) was estimated using mean national food prices for 895 foods. The relationship between dietary energy density and diet cost was examined in a linear regression model. Within each quintile of energy intakes, the more energy-dense diets were associated with lower diet quality and with lower diet costs (r(2)=0.38 to 0.44). In a regression model, the more energy-dense diets cost less, whereas low-energy-density diets cost substantially more, adjusting for energy intakes, sex, and age. The finding that energy-dense diets cost less per 2,000 kcal may help explain why the highest rates of obesity are observed among groups of limited economic means. The finding that low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet costs suggests that lasting improvements in diet quality may require economic as well as behavioral interventions.

  20. Diet in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mazen; Saeian, Kia

    2011-04-01

    The past few years have seen a great expansion of our understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Much of the progress has been on the genetic basis of disease as well as the role of microbiota. These findings have magnified the role of the environmental component of this rather complex process. Recent advances have emanated from more in-depth, comprehensive, and at times nontraditional inquiry into the potential role of diet through its anti-inflammatory properties and modulation of microbiota. This concise review focuses on the novel aspects of research related to the potential role of diet in IBD.

  1. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake

  2. Diet choice patterns in rodents depend on novelty of the diet, exercise, species, and sex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tiffany; Xu, Wei-Jie; York, Haley; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-03-01

    Prolonged consumption of a palatable, high fat (HF) diet paired with a lack of physical activity can exacerbate the development of obesity. Exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight, possibly though mediating changes in diet preference. Using a two-diet choice and wheel running (WR) paradigm, our laboratory previously demonstrated that WR induces HF diet avoidance with different persistency in male and female rats when HF diet and WR are introduced simultaneously. The aims of this study were to examine whether this behavior is species dependent and to what extent the novelty of the diet affects WR induced HF diet avoidance. Experiment 1 utilized male C57BL6 mice in a two-diet choice and WR paradigm. Results show that all mice preferred HF to chow diet regardless of exercise and the order in which exercise and HF diet were presented. Experiment 2A (diet novelty) utilized Sprague-Dawley rats that were first habituated to a 45% HF diet prior to the simultaneous introduction of WR and a novel high-carbohydrate, low-fat (DK) diet. All rats avoided the novel high-carbohydrate diet and neither male nor female wheel running rats exhibited reduction in HF diet intake or HF diet avoidance. After all rats were returned to a sedentary condition, female rats consumed significantly more of the DK diet than the male rats. In Experiment 2B (diet familiarity), rats remained sedentary and were re-habituated to the DK diet until intake stabilized. Subsequently, a 60% HF diet was introduced for all rats and for running rats, access to the running wheels were provided simultaneously. Consistent with our previous findings, HF diet intake and preference was significantly reduced in all wheel running rats. These data suggest that exercise induced HF diet avoidance is affected by species and the novelty of the diet.

  3. Serum Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increase and Oxidative Stress Decreases with a Protein-Pacing Caloric Restriction Diet in Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Zuo, Li; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes were to compare the effects of a: (1) 12-week P-CR weight loss (WL) diet (Phase 1) between obese men and women and; (2) 52-week modified P-CR (mP-CR) vs. heart healthy (HH) weight maintenance (WM) diet (Phase 2) on serum PCBs and oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC) in 40 obese participants (men, n = 21; women, n = 19). Participants received dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance. PCBs, TBARS, and TAC were assessed at weeks −1 (CON), 12 (WL), and 64 (WM). Following WL (Week 12), concomitant with reductions in TBARS (0.24 ± 0.15 vs. 0.18 ± 0.11 µM; p < 0.01), PCB serum concentrations (86.7 ± 45.6 vs. 115.6 ± 65.9 ng/g lipid; p < 0.01) and TAC (18.9 ± 2.6 vs. 19.9 ± 2.3 nmol/mL; p < 0.02) were increased similarly in men and women. At the end of WM (Week 64), a significant effect of time × group interaction was observed for % change in PCB 170 and 187; whereby mP-CR values were higher compared to HH (PCB170: 19.31% ± 26.48% vs. −6.61% ± 28.88%, p = 0.02; PCB187: −3.04% ± 17.78% vs. −21.4% ± 27.31%, p = 0.04). PCB changes were positively correlated with TBARS levels (r > 0.42, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with body weight, fat mass, and abdominal fat (r < −0.46, p < 0.02). Our results support mobilization of stored PCBs as well as enhanced redox status following a 12-week P-CR WL diet. Additionally, a 52-week mP-CR WM diet demonstrated an advantage in preventing weight gain relapse accompanied by an increase in circulating PCBs compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:28075418

  4. A multifunctional diet improves cardiometabolic-related biomarkers independently of weight changes: an 8-week randomized controlled intervention in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Juscelino; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2016-10-01

    A multifunctional diet (MFD) was previously shown to reduce blood lipids, CRP and blood pressure in a 4-week intervention under weight-maintenance conditions. Here, MFD effects were evaluated in an 8-week intervention with no restriction for weight changes. Healthy subjects consumed MFD (23 subjects) or a control diet (CD) devoid of the functional components (24 subjects) in a "free-living" randomized controlled experiment. MFD included several functional concepts: low-glycemic-impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds and plant stanols. Measured outcomes were fasting blood values of lipids, glucose, insulin, GGT, CRP, HbA1c, PAI-1, GLP-1, GLP-2, body weight, blood pressure and breath hydrogen. At baseline, participants were 51-72 years old, with BMI between 25 and 34 and fasting glycemia  ≤ 6.1 mmol/L. Consumption of both diets resulted in similar weight loss after 8 weeks (-4 %; P  <  0.001). Compared to baseline, consumption of MFD reduced total serum cholesterol (-26 %; P  <  0.0001), LDL cholesterol (-35 %; P  <  0.0001), triglycerides (-16 %; P  < 0.05), LDL/HDL (-27 %; P  <  0.0001) and ApoB/ApoA1 (-15 %; P  <  0.0001). There were important net differences between diets, which remained significant after adjustment for body weight. Reduced systolic blood pressure, circulating GGT, HbA1c and insulin concentrations were observed with both MFD and CD with no difference between diets. The Reynolds cardiovascular risk score was decreased by 36 % (P  <  0.0001) with MFD. MFD increased breath hydrogen levels (120 %; P  <  0.05). Consumption of MFD decreased blood lipids and improved several other aspects of the cardiometabolic risk profile. This effect was not dependent on weight loss.

  5. Serum Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increase and Oxidative Stress Decreases with a Protein-Pacing Caloric Restriction Diet in Obese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Zuo, Li; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2017-01-10

    The purposes were to compare the effects of a: (1) 12-week P-CR weight loss (WL) diet (Phase 1) between obese men and women and; (2) 52-week modified P-CR (mP-CR) vs. heart healthy (HH) weight maintenance (WM) diet (Phase 2) on serum PCBs and oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC) in 40 obese participants (men, n = 21; women, n = 19). Participants received dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance. PCBs, TBARS, and TAC were assessed at weeks -1 (CON), 12 (WL), and 64 (WM). Following WL (Week 12), concomitant with reductions in TBARS (0.24 ± 0.15 vs. 0.18 ± 0.11 µM; p < 0.01), PCB serum concentrations (86.7 ± 45.6 vs. 115.6 ± 65.9 ng/g lipid; p < 0.01) and TAC (18.9 ± 2.6 vs. 19.9 ± 2.3 nmol/mL; p < 0.02) were increased similarly in men and women. At the end of WM (Week 64), a significant effect of time × group interaction was observed for % change in PCB 170 and 187; whereby mP-CR values were higher compared to HH (PCB170: 19.31% ± 26.48% vs. -6.61% ± 28.88%, p = 0.02; PCB187: -3.04% ± 17.78% vs. -21.4% ± 27.31%, p = 0.04). PCB changes were positively correlated with TBARS levels (r > 0.42, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with body weight, fat mass, and abdominal fat (r < -0.46, p < 0.02). Our results support mobilization of stored PCBs as well as enhanced redox status following a 12-week P-CR WL diet. Additionally, a 52-week mP-CR WM diet demonstrated an advantage in preventing weight gain relapse accompanied by an increase in circulating PCBs compared to a traditional HH diet.

  6. Liver fat accumulation in response to overfeeding with a high-fat diet: a comparison between South Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Wulan, Siti N; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Westerterp, Klaas R; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    South Asians were reported to have a higher liver fat content as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. This study compared the increase in liver fat content in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet in South Asian and Caucasian men when matched for body fat percentage. Ten South Asian men (BMI 18-29 kg/m(2)) and 10 Caucasian men (BMI 22-33 kg/m(2)), aged 20-40 y, matched for body fat percentage, were included. A weight maintenance diet was given for 3 days based on the individual energy requirement. Individual energy requirement of the subjects was calculated based on their body composition (measured by hydro densitometry and deuterium dilution) and activity counts (accelerometer). Liver fat content was measured before and after 4 days of overfeeding (50 % excess energy need) with a high fat diet (60 % energy from fat). Fat distribution was measured by anthropometry and an MRI scan of the abdomen while liver fat content using 1H-MRS. While having a similar body fat % (P = 0.58), South Asians had a lower BMI (P = 0.04) than Caucasians. Liver fat content at baseline did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.48) and was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.002, R(2) = 0.56) but not with ethnicity (P = 0.13). Overfeeding with a high fat diet significantly increased liver fat (P = 0.01) but the increase did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.47). There was no difference in the total abdominal fat area (P = 0.37), subcutaneous abdominal fat area (P = 0.18) and visceral fat area (VAT, P = 0.32). However as a percentage of the total abdominal fat area, VAT was higher in South Asians (P = 0.003). Despite a relatively higher percentage of visceral fat area, liver fat increased similarly in South Asian and Caucasian men in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet. The study was registered in the public trial registry www.ccmo.nl No. NL31217.068.10.

  7. Divergence in popular diets relative to diets consumed by Americans, and implications for diet selection.

    PubMed

    Shikany, James M; Barash, Jennifer; Redden, David T; Westfall, Andrew O; Heimburger, Douglas C; Henson, C Suzanne; Allison, David B

    2007-07-09

    Given the seemingly disparate nature of popular weight-loss diets (WLDs), consumers may have a difficult time choosing one. We hypothesized that because most of these diets differ greatly from the way most Americans spontaneously eat, the choice of a WLD may be less critical than the decision to adopt any WLD. To assess the degree of similarity among several popular WLDs and that between average diets of Americans and the WLDs as a whole. One-day menus were randomly selected or constructed from 16 popular diet books (resulting in 17 distinct diets). Usual dietary intakes of individuals were derived from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-96, 1998. Euclidean distances, based on 12 dietary variables, were calculated among the popular WLDs, as well as between the WLDs and intakes from the CSFII. Euclidean distances among the WLDs ranged from 1.99 to 15.24, with a mean of 6.12 +/- 2.83. Mean distance between individuals' intakes from the CSFII and the closest WLD was 3.63 +/- 1.24, while the mean distance between individuals' intakes and the farthest WLD was 10.58 +/- 1.10. Mean distance between individuals' intakes and the WLDs considered together was 6.04 +/- 1.10. While the mean Euclidean distances between individuals' intakes and popular WLDs demonstrated meaningful differences, the differences among the WLDs were slightly greater and, in multivariate space, surrounded the diets consumed by Americans. This may have implications for the selection of a WLD in persons seeking to lose weight.

  8. Divergence in Popular Diets Relative to Diets Consumed by Americans, and Implications for Diet Selection

    PubMed Central

    Shikany, James M.; Barash, Jennifer; Redden, David T.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Heimburger, Douglas C.; Henson, C. Suzanne; Allison, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Context Given the seemingly disparate nature of popular weight-loss diets (WLDs), consumers may have a difficult time choosing one. We hypothesized that because most of these diets differ greatly from the way most Americans spontaneously eat, the choice of a WLD may be less critical than the decision to adopt any WLD. Objective To assess the degree of similarity among several popular WLDs and that between average diets of Americans and the WLDs as a whole. Design One-day menus were randomly selected or constructed from 16 popular diet books (resulting in 17 distinct diets). Usual dietary intakes of individuals were derived from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994–96, 1998. Main Outcome Measures Euclidean distances, based on 12 dietary variables, were calculated among the popular WLDs, as well as between the WLDs and intakes from the CSFII. Results Euclidean distances among the WLDs ranged from 1.99 to 15.24, with a mean of 6.12 ± 2.83. Mean distance between individuals' intakes from the CSFII and the closest WLD was 3.63 ± 1.24, while the mean distance between individuals' intakes and the farthest WLD was 10.58 ± 1.10. Mean distance between individuals' intakes and the WLDs considered together was 6.04 ± 1.10. Conclusions While the mean Euclidean distances between individuals' intakes and popular WLDs demonstrated meaningful differences, the differences among the WLDs were slightly greater and, in multivariate space, surrounded the diets consumed by Americans. This may have implications for the selection of a WLD in persons seeking to lose weight. PMID:18092015

  9. Diet-induced obesity affects expression of adiponutrin/PNPLA3 and adipose triglyceride lipase, two members of the same family.

    PubMed

    Oliver, P; Caimari, A; Díaz-Rúa, R; Palou, A

    2012-02-01

    body weight maintenance and their role in energy metabolism.

  10. ALTERNATIVES TO DUPLICATE DIET METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate Diet (DD) methodology has been used to collect information about the dietary exposure component in the context of total exposure studies. DD methods have been used to characterize the dietary exposure component in the NHEXAS pilot studies. NERL desired to evaluate it...

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  12. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    PubMed

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  13. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  14. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  15. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  16. RANA CATESBEIANA (AMERICAN BULLFROG) DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically
    from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash
    located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  17. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  19. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  20. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  1. Ketogenic diets and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Stephen D

    2004-08-17

    Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  2. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-05-27

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  3. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  4. ALTERNATIVES TO DUPLICATE DIET METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate Diet (DD) methodology has been used to collect information about the dietary exposure component in the context of total exposure studies. DD methods have been used to characterize the dietary exposure component in the NHEXAS pilot studies. NERL desired to evaluate it...

  5. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  6. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  7. Diet and Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Abnet, Christian C.; Corley, Douglas A.; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2015-01-01

    Diet is believed to modulate cancer risk and this relationship has been widely studied in the gastrointestinal tract. Observational epidemiologic studies have provided most of the evidence for the effects of diet on cancer risk, because clinical trials to determine nutritional exposures are often impossible, impractical, or unaffordable. Although a few foods or nutrients are thought to protect against specific types of cancer, it seems clear that the strength and even direction of dietary associations (increasing or decreasing risk) is organ site- and even histology-specific, along the gastrointestinal tract. Although some hypotheses are supported by a substantial body of observational data (drinking hot maté contributes to esophageal cancer), there is not much data to support others. We discuss some highly touted hypotheses and draw interim conclusions about what is known, and what could be done to improve the level of evidence. The complex nature of diet and its associations can be productively investigated with disease-specific studies. However, public health recommendations for normal-risk individuals regarding diet and gastrointestinal cancer should probably emphasize the importance of eating for overall health, rather than eating specific foods to reduce risk for specific cancers. PMID:25680671

  8. BRAT Diet: Recovering from an Upset Stomach

    MedlinePlus

    ... A special diet known as the BRAT diet (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, and Toast) is an effective way ... and has lost due to vomiting and diarrhea. Bananas, for example, are high in the vitamin potassium. ...

  9. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  10. Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2011-05-01

    Age-related cataract is a major cause of morbidity. Previous studies of diet and cataract risk have focused on specific nutrients or healthy eating indexes but not on identifiable dietary groups such as vegetarians. We investigated the association between diet and cataract risk in a population that has a wide range of diets and includes a high proportion of vegetarians. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to study cataract risk in relation to baseline dietary and lifestyle characteristics of 27,670 self-reported nondiabetic participants aged ≥40 y at recruitment in the Oxford (United Kingdom) arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) by using data from the Hospital Episode Statistics in England and Scottish Morbidity Records. There was a strong relation between cataract risk and diet group, with a progressive decrease in risk of cataract in high meat eaters to low meat eaters, fish eaters (participants who ate fish but not meat), vegetarians, and vegans. After multivariable adjustment, incidence rate ratios (95% CIs) for moderate meat eaters (50-99 g meat/d), low meat eaters (<50 g meat/d), fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans compared with high-meat eaters (≥100 g meat/d) were 0.96 (0.84, 1.11), 0.85 (0.72, 0.99), 0.79 (0.65, 0.97), 0.70 (0.58, 0.84), and 0.60 (0.38, 0.96), respectively (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity). Associations between cataract risk and intakes of selected nutrients and foods generally reflected the strong association with diet group. Vegetarians were at lower risk of cataract than were meat eaters in this cohort of health-conscious British residents.

  11. Diet and deprivation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, Paul; Campbell, Doris M; Duthie, Susan; Andrews, Katherine; Hoad, Gwen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; McNeill, Geraldine

    2009-11-01

    Deprivation is associated with poor pregnancy outcome but the role of nutrition as a mediating factor is not well understood. We carried out a prospective cohort study of 1461 singleton pregnancies in Aberdeen, UK during 2000-6. We measured nutrient intake and supplement use, B vitamin and homocysteine status, birth weight, gestational age, neonatal treatment and socio-economic deprivation status. Women in the most deprived deciles were approximately 6 years younger and half as likely to take folic acid supplements periconceptually as the least deprived mothers. Deprivation was associated with low blood folate, high homocysteine and diets low in protein, fibre and many of the vitamins and minerals. The diets of the more deprived women were also characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables and oily fish and higher intakes of processed meat, fried potatoes, crisps and snacks. Deprivation was related to preterm birth (OR 1.14 (95 % CI 1.03, 1.25); P = 0.009) and whether the baby required neonatal treatment (OR 1.07 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.14); P = 0.028). Low birth weight was more common in women consuming diets low in vitamin C (OR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.64, 0.97); P = 0.028), riboflavin (OR 0.77 (95 % CI 0.63, 0.93); P = 0.008), pantothenic acid (OR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.65, 0.97); P = 0.023) and sugars (OR 0.78 (95 % CI 0.64, 0.96); P = 0.017) even after adjustment for deprivation index, smoking, marital status and parity. Deprivation in pregnancy is associated with diets poor in specific nutrients and poor diet appears to contribute to inequalities in pregnancy outcome. Improving the nutrient intake of disadvantaged women of childbearing age may potentially improve pregnancy outcome.

  12. A practical guide to fad diets.

    PubMed

    Porcello, L A

    1984-07-01

    This discussion of fad diets may be concluded by comparing the 14 selected diets with the standards previously outlined for desirable weight reducing plans. Many of the popular diets supply large quantities of saturated fat and cholesterol, which are dietary components that have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Ketogenic diets are not appropriate for athletes because of problems with secondary dehydration and hyponatremia. Almost all of the diets are nutritionally inadequate. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal energy requirement, and activity level of an individual. However, it is expected that weight loss will be excessively rapid if a competitive athlete consumes a diet of less than 1000 calories per day. These hypocaloric diets cannot meet the training demands of athletes and will promote loss of lean body mass and carbohydrate stores. Many of the ketogenic diets do not restrict calories; therefore, weight loss will depend upon individual daily caloric consumption. The Cambridge Diet and starvation diets produce weight loss far in excess of that desired for an athlete in training. Long-term eating patterns to maintain weight loss are not encouraged in any of the 14 selected fad diets. In fact, most of these diets promote patterns of poor nutrition. Not one of the diets provides options or choices for dieters to use in accommodating food preference and lifestyle patterns. Some of the diets are fairly easy to comply with and others require special foods and supplements. None of the 14 diets reviewed fulfull all of the standards for a sound weight reduction diet plan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of an intensive nutrition intervention of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on weight of kidney transplant recipients: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pedrollo, Elis Forcellini; Nicoletto, Bruna Bellincanta; Carpes, Larissa Salomoni; de Freitas, Júlia de Melo Cardoso; Buboltz, Julia Roberta; Forte, Cristina Carra; Bauer, Andrea Carla; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2017-09-06

    Excessive weight gain is commonly observed within the first year after kidney transplantation and is associated with negative outcomes, such as graft loss and cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. We designed a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of a high protein (1.3-1.4 g/kg/day) and low-glycemic index diet versus a conventional diet (0.8-1.0 g/kg/day of protein) on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. A total of 120 eligible patients 2 months after transplantation will be recruited. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate through the modification of diet of renal disease (MDRD) formula < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or urinary albumin excretion > 300 mg/24 h will be excluded. Patients' diets will be allocated through simple sequential randomization. Patients will be followed-up for 12 months with nine clinic appointments with a dietitian and the evaluations will include nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, body composition, and resting metabolic rate) and laboratory tests. The primary outcome is weight maintenance or body weight gain under 5% after 12 months. Secondary outcomes include body composition, resting metabolic rate, satiety sensation, kidney function, and other metabolic parameters. Diets with higher protein content and lower glycemic index may lead to weight loss because of higher satiety sensation. However, there is a concern about the association of high protein intake and kidney damage. Nevertheless, there is little evidence on the impact of high protein intake on long-term kidney function outcome. Therefore, we designed a study to test if a high protein diet with low-glycemic index will be an effective and safe nutritional intervention to prevent weight gain in kidney transplant patients. Clinical

  14. One strike against low-carbohydrate diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is intense controversy over whether low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets are more efficacious for weight management. Using precise methodology, Hall et al. (2015) demonstrated that a low-carbohydrate diet promoted greater fat oxidation than an isocaloric low-fat diet but, in contrast to popular s...

  15. Special Diet May Be Boon for Kids with Crohn's, Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet. The diet is known as the specific carbohydrate diet. No other measures were used to treat ... sugars, except for honey. Those on the specific carbohydrate diet can eat nutrient-rich foods such as ...

  16. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can my diet ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  17. Diet, atherosclerosis, and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Connor, S L

    1990-01-01

    The principal goal of dietary prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the achievement of physiological levels of the plasma total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL. These goals have been well delineated by the National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. Dietary treatment is first accomplished by enhancing LDL receptor activity and at the same time depressing liver synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride. Both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat decrease LDL receptor activity and inhibit the removal of LDL from the plasma by the liver. Saturated fat decreases LDL receptor activity, especially when cholesterol is concurrently present in the diet. The total amount of dietary fat is of importance also. The greater the flux of chylomicron remnants is into the liver, the greater is the influx of cholesterol ester. In addition, factors that affect VLDL and LDL synthesis could be important. These include excessive calories (obesity), which enhance triglyceride and VLDL and hence LDL synthesis. Weight loss and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil depress synthesis of both VLDL and triglyceride in the liver. The optimal diet for the treatment of children and adults to prevent coronary disease has the following characteristics: cholesterol (100 mg/day), total fat (20% of calories, 6% saturated with the balance from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat), carbohydrate (65% of calories, two thirds from starch including 11 to 15 gm of soluble fiber), and protein (15% of calories). This low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can lower the plasma cholesterol 18% to 21%. This diet is also an antithrombotic diet, thrombosis being another major consideration in preventing coronary heart disease. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease through the control of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. The

  18. [Diet therapy in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Vilming, S T

    1995-04-20

    The significance of restrictions on protein for patients with Parkinson's disease is reviewed. Large neutral amino acids and levodopa share the same saturated carrier system through the blood-brain-barrier. Fluctuating patients are sensitive to a decreased supply of levodopa from the blood, and clinical studies show that an increased concentration of large neutral amino acids in the blood decreases mobility and reduces "on-time". A reduction of protein intake to 0.75-0.8 g/kg body weight/day has been recommended. A protein redistribution diet implying that less than 10% of the daily protein is taken in daytime and the rest in the evening, gives best results. However, in the elderly, protein restrictions may lead to a lasting negative nitrogen balance, and even in younger patients the supply of certain minerals and vitamins may become too low or marginally adequate. The diet must therefore be used with caution.

  19. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  20. [The heart-friendly diet].

    PubMed

    Poli, Andrea; Marangoni, Franca; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The importance of proper diet in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention is now quite clear: several recent studies, e.g. on fat and saturated fat intake, on sodium, and on dietary cholesterol, are being discussed by the lay press and by professionals. This paper reviews the most solid published evidence on diet and cardiovascular risk, to provide clinicians (namely, cardiologists) with a useful tool to be discussed with patients. Where evidence was strong enough, we discussed the cardiovascular actions of specific nutrients and of dietary patterns. Particular attention was paid to dietary fat, carbohydrates (in terms of glycemic index), and functional, polyphenol-rich foods. Of note, we critically review the available evidence in light of the Italian dietary patterns, to draw practical conclusions applicable to this country.

  1. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients.

  2. Rearing Chrysoperla externa Larvae on Artificial Diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C E S; Amaral, B B; Souza, B

    2017-02-01

    We tested three artificial diets for rearing larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aiming at reducing the production costs of this predator. Two of the diets come from studies with other species of lacewings, and the third is a modification described in this paper. All diets were based on animal protein and were supplied to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, whereas 1st instar larvae received eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We evaluated the preimaginal duration and survival, adult size, longevity and fecundity, egg hatchability, and predatory capacity of larvae produced. The performance of the diets was followed for seven generations. The diet we describe showed to be the best among the artificial diets tested. Our results show that C. externa can be successfully reared on artificial diets during second and third instars, reducing in 90% the dependency on eggs of A. kuehniella.

  3. Does a vegetarian diet control Wilson's disease?

    PubMed

    Brewer, G J; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V; Dick, R; Wang, Y; Johnson, V

    1993-10-01

    The literature indicates that copper (Cu) is less bioavailable from a vegetarian as compared to mixed diet. Further, several groups, including ours, find rather marginal average Cu intake in the typical American diet. For example, our data indicate that Wilson's disease patients on a typical American diet ingest only about 25% more Cu than is required. This suggests that a vegetarian diet, if it reduced bioavailability by about 25% or more, would be an adequate maintenance therapy for Wilson's disease. Observations in two of our patients, who were on lactovegetarian diets by choice, and who were almost totally noncompliant with anti-Cu therapy, support this view. These observations suggest that vegetarian diets may be a management tool for Wilson's disease. They also further emphasize the marginal Cu intake in American diets, and suggest that some seemingly healthy people, particularly vegetarians, may be at risk for mild Cu deficiency.

  4. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome.

  5. Diet effects on bumblebee health.

    PubMed

    Roger, Nathalie; Michez, Denis; Wattiez, Ruddy; Sheridan, Christopher; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health. We investigate three responses at both colony and individual levels: behavioural, humoral and cellular. Our results show that poor pollen diets decrease larval and pupal masses and increase larval ejection as well as adult constitutive immunity (i.e., prophenoloxidase assays). The susceptibility of bumblebees to disease and infection might therefore be greater after a nutritive stress. These findings raise the importance of available plant hosts, especially floral plant species providing pollen with suitable nutritive quality (i.e., nutrient pollen content) for bumblebees.

  6. Inequalities in diet and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tiffin, Richard; Salois, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    The inequality of nutrition and obesity re-focuses concern on who in society is consuming the worst diet. Identification of individuals with the worst of dietary habits permits for targeting interventions to assuage obesity among the population segment where it is most prevalent. We argue that the use of fiscal interventions does not appropriately take into account the economic, social and health circumstances of the intended beneficiaries of the policy. This paper reviews the influence of socio-demographic factors on nutrition and health status and considers the impacts of nutrition policy across the population drawing on methodologies from both public health and welfare economics. The effects of a fat tax on diet are found to be small and while other studies show that fat taxes saves lives, we show that average levels of disease risk do not change much: those consuming particularly bad diets continue to do so. Our results also suggest that the regressivity of the policy increases as the tax becomes focused on products with high saturated fat contents. A fiscally neutral policy that combines the fat tax with a subsidy on fruit and vegetables is actually more regressive because consumption of these foods tends to be concentrated in socially undeserving households. We argue that when inequality is of concern, population-based measures must reflect this and approaches that target vulnerable populations which have a shared propensity to adopt unhealthy behaviours are appropriate.

  7. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  8. Five-year-old girls’ ideas about dieting are predicted by their mothers’ dieting

    PubMed Central

    ABRAMOVITZ, BETH A.; BIRCH, LEANN L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore 5-year-old girls’ ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Design Girls were asked to define dieting, to describe the behaviors dieting comprised, and were queried about links between dieting, weight control, and body shape. Parents completed questionnaires addressing family health history, demographics, and issues related to food, dieting, and weight control. Subjects/setting Participants were 197 girls aged 5 years and their parents. All girls lived with both biological parents, and were without food allergies or chronic medical problems. Statistical analyses performed For 5 open-ended questions related to dieting, girls were categorized as either having or not having ideas about dieting. These ideas, concepts, and beliefs were categorized, and logistic regression examined predictors of girls’ ideas about dieting. Results Depending on the question, from 34% to 65% of girls aged 5 years had ideas about dieting. Compared to girls whose mothers did not diet, girls whose mothers reported current or recent dieting were more than twice as likely to have ideas about dieting, suggesting that mothers’ dieting behavior is a source of young girls’ ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Among mothers, more than 90% reported recent dieting, and most reported use of both health-promoting and health-compromising dieting behaviors. Applications Women should be informed that weight control attempts may influence their young daughters’ emerging ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Mothers should be encouraged to use health-promoting rather than health-compromising weight control strategies, not only for their own well being, but to reduce the likelihood that daughters will incorporate health-compromising dieting behaviors into their concepts, ideas, and beliefs about dieting. PMID:11043700

  9. Diet and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Stamler, J

    1982-03-01

    This paper reviews key aspects of the relationship of diet to coronary heart disease, as demonstrated in epidemiologic and other research over the last 25 or more years. It summarizes the extensive findings that have demonstrated an etiologically significant association among dietary lipid, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease; between caloric imbalance and two of the major CHD risk factors, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia; on the relationship between habitual diet high in sodium and hypertension. It also reviews the data on the relationship of habitual dietary lipid intake of individuals within a population to the serum cholesterol and CHD risk of individuals, indicating that valid positive findings in this area are consistent with evidence from cross-population epidemiologic studies, controlled experiments on diet change in man, and findings from animal research. It delineates the controlled experiments on diet change in man, and findings from animal research. It delineates the methodological problems that have stood in the way of the sound elucidation of this matter, and of the similar ones making it difficult to fully resolve the issue of the relationship of habitual dietary sodium intake of individuals within a population to their blood pressure. It reviews recent findings on the relationship of diet, particularly dietary lipid and calorie balance, to fractions of plasma total cholesterol, i.e., LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, and summarizes the evidence indicating that recommendations for improved nutrition in the United States--emphasizing sizable reduction in saturated fat and cholesterol intake, moderate decrease in intake of total fat and of refined and processed sugars, and of calories for overweight persons--produce changes in plasma lipidlipoprotein levels that are favorable in all respects. Finally, it summarizes the findings with respect to the marked decline in mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, all

  10. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    PubMed

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  11. Long-Term Effects of a Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing High Protein or High Carbohydrate Weight Loss Diets on Testosterone, SHBG, Erectile and Urinary Function in Overweight and Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lisa J.; Brinkworth, Grant D.; Martin, Sean; Wycherley, Thomas P.; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Lutze, Janna; Clifton, Peter M.; Wittert, Gary A.; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. Aim To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. Methods One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27–40 kg/m2, age 20–65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. Results Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (P<0.001) and the total IIEF increased (P = 0.017) with no differences between diets (P≥0.244). Increases in testosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.001) and improvements in the total IIEF (P = 0.041) occurred from weeks 0–12 with a further increase in testosterone from week 12–52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12–52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P≥0.126). Conclusions In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall

  12. The Ketogenic Diet: Making a Comeback.

    PubMed

    Walczyk, Thomas; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-07-01

    Americans have embraced a large number of diets in an attempt to manage obesity, improve quality of life, and address specific health problems. Among diets developed to address health problems, the ketogenic diet has had a long and variable history. Developed in the 1920s by a faith healer to help children with epilepsy, this diet induces a state that mimics carbohydrate starvation. As medications became available and effectively addressed seizures, the diet fell out of favor. During the last few decades, researchers and clinicians have learned that it can be useful in children and adults with refractory epilepsy and a variety of other conditions. Once again, pharmacists may encounter patients who are employing dietary management of serious health problems. This very high-fat diet almost eliminates carbohydrates from the patient's food selection. The result is the substitution of ketone bodies as a source of energy. Today's ketogenic diet has been modified with scientifically proven adjustments to increase palatability and help with adherence. Effective for some forms of epilepsy, the ketogenic diet also seems to have some utility in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma, and many Americans are using it to lose weight. Consultant pharmacists may field questions about this diet, its potential to correct or alleviate health conditions, and its limitations. The article discusses the ketogenic diet's strengths, limitations, potential mechanisms, and use in a number of conditions with an emphasis on the elderly.

  13. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  14. Mediterranean diet and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Calatayud-Sáez, F M; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, B; Gallego Fernández-Pacheco, J G; González-Martín, C; Alguacil Merino, L F

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bronchial hyperreactivity has increased to one-third of the population in developed countries, which requires the adoption of preventive and therapeutic measures. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of a traditional Mediterranean diet on patients diagnosed with childhood asthma and determine if there is a beneficial effect from this dietary intervention. Prospective before-after comparison study of 50 girls and 54 boys aged 1-5 years, who were enrolled in the 1-year programme "Learning to Eat from the Mediterranean", designed to promote the adoption of a traditional Mediterranean diet. We studied the clinical and therapeutic variables and anthropometric measurements. All studied symptomatic indicators (number and intensity of asthmatic attack, infections and hospital admissions) showed a positive and statistically significant evolution of bronchial hyperreactivity from the first weeks of the intervention onwards. Throughout the treatment, 32.2% of patients remained free of crisis, 35.3% of the patients only had one attack throughout the year and 24.9% had two episodes, compared to 4.73 episodes on average in the previous year. The use of inhaled corticosteroids markedly decreased from 3.92 ± 1.61 to 1.11 ± 1.09 times per patient per year (P<0.001) and that of inhaled bronchodilators decreased from 4.14 ± 1.61 to 1.12 ± 1.40 (P<0.001). As a result, the families involved in the programme reported a high level of satisfaction. The adoption of a traditional Mediterranean diet could contribute significantly to the improvement of patients diagnosed with childhood asthma. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. DIET IN DERMATOLOGY: PRESENT PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, K H; Seemanthini, C; Rashmi, R

    2010-01-01

    Many nutrients are essential for life, and an adequate amount of nutrients in the diet is necessary for providing energy, building and maintaining body organs, and for various metabolic processes. The role of food in the induction of various skin disorders and skin diseases leading to nutritional deficiencies is well known. The photo-protective potential of antioxidants, the effects of micronutrient supplementation on the skin immune system, and the modulating effects of fatty acids on skin disorders are well documented. Skin diseases due to nutritional deficiencies, the dietary role in skin immunity and various skin diseases, and the role of antioxidants and other supplements in skin health have been reviewed. PMID:21063507

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF DIET ON IRON ABSORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Hegsted, D. Mark; Finch, Clement A.; Kinney, Thomas D.

    1949-01-01

    Rats fed a corn grit diet containing large amounts of ferric citrate absorb and deposit excessive amounts of iron in their livers. Undoubtedly various factors are involved in iron absorption, but these studies indicate that the low level of dietary phosphate was primarily responsible. The addition of phosphate salts to this diet has shown that the amount of iron deposited in the liver was inversely related to the phosphorus content of the diet. It is possible to obtain excessive iron deposits in the livers of animals receiving a normal diet, by adding large amounts of iron salts to the diet. This is not associated with losses of body weight in these animals. It is concluded that the absolute amount of iron and/or phosphorus in the diet as well as the iron-phosphorus ratio influences the amount of iron absorbed. PMID:18136194

  17. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span.

  18. [Vegetarian and outsider diets in childhood].

    PubMed

    Lentze, M J

    1992-02-25

    Nutrition of children on vegetarian diet is considered to be adequate and well-balanced when the diet contains dairy products and eggs. A severe or strict vegetarian diet (i.e. vegan or macrobiotic diet) is not suitable for babies or infants. Serious deficiency-states have been described after such regimens i.e. rickets, osteoporosis, anemia and growth retardation. Under ovo-lacto-vegetarian diets growth- and weight-measurements at regular intervals are recommended over the first two years of life. Critical food-components in vegetarians are: energy, protein, calcium, vitamins D and B12 and iron. An ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet provides an adequate supply with these substances with the exception of iron. A benevolent information about eventual deficiency states by the physician aids in keeping children thriving well and assures parents that their children will not incur damages.

  19. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The overall objective of this Discovery Award is to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet ...have examining the impact of the ketogenic diet on mice in which the gene that encodes Kvβ2 has been deleted (Kvβ2 KO mice) using an in vitro model of

  20. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    observation is not reversed by the KD which to some extent supports our initial hypothesis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Epilepsy , Ketogenic Diet, Seizure Disorder...ketogenic diet (KD), which is used to treat epilepsy (primarily in children) exerts a positive effect on seizure activity by regulating neuronal... Epilepsy , Ketogenic Diet, Seizure Disorder, Potassium Channels, Neurophysiology 3. Overall Project Summary: To determine the impact of KD on

  1. Clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Vining, E P

    1999-12-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective alternative therapy used to control intractable seizures. It was originally described in 1921 as a way to duplicate and prolong the beneficial effects that fasting appeared to have on seizure control. It involves consuming a calorie-restricted diet in which the fat:carbohydrate + protein ratio ranges from 2:1 to 5:1. Recent prospective studies in children demonstrate that about 50% of children will continue on the diet for at least a year, with 40-50% of those starting the diet having a >50% reduction in seizures after 12 months. When the diet is discontinued it is usually due to lack of efficacy. The diet is a radical medical therapy and nutritional well-being is a constant concern. Renal stones have occurred in 5-8% of children on the diet; lipids are elevated, but the significance of this is not known. The mechanism of action of the diet remains unknown, and it is difficult to assess which biochemical parameters should be monitored as adjustments are made to the diet.

  2. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  3. Ketogenic diet in Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Charuta N; Greenberg, Cheryl R; Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Salman, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    We report on a young girl with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, as confirmed by mitochondrial polymerase gamma sequencing, who was treated with the classic (4 parts fat:1 part each of carbohydrate and protein) ketogenic diet after she presented with epilepsia partialis continua. She improved clinically, and her electroencephalogram improved dramatically. This is the first detailed report on the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in treating the epileptic encephalopathy of Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome. We present a literature review of the utility of a ketogenic diet in mitochondrial disorders, and speculations as to why the diet may be helpful in Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome.

  4. Dietary factors, Mediterranean diet and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Katherine; Giugliano, Francesco; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Giugliano, Dario

    2010-07-01

    Although epidemiological evidence seems to support a role for lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED), limited data are available suggesting that dietary changes may improve ED. To provide an update on clinical evidence regarding the role of dietary factors in ED. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and other database (EMBASE, SCOPUS) with MeSH terms and keywords for "erectile dysfunction", "diet", "dietary patterns", "Mediterranean diet", and "lifestyle". To examine the data relating to erectile dysfunction with dietary factors, its relationship and the impact of dietary treatment. Only few studies assessed the role or the effect of diet on ED. A dietary pattern which is high in fruit, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and fish but low in red and processed meat and refined grains is more represented in subjects without ED. Mediterranean diet has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern based on evidence that greater adherence to this diet is associated with lower all-cause and disease-specific survival. In type 2 diabetic men, those with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean diet had the lowest prevalence of ED and were more likely to be sexually active. In clinical trials, Mediterranean diet was more effective than a control diet in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. The adoption of a Mediterranean diet may be associated with an improvement of erectile dysfunction.

  5. Pregnancy diets, migration, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Lalitha; Jayaweera, Hiranthi; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-09-01

    Women in low- and middle-income countries are known to make changes to their diets during pregnancy. We set out to explore the subject of traditional pregnancy diets with a view to finding out if migrant women follow these practices, and if such information might help explain differences in birth outcomes between migrant women and destination-country-born women. This review found that traditional pregnancy diets vary from region to region, that migrant women may follow some of these practices, and that there is a dearth of studies looking into the impact of pregnancy diets on birth outcomes.

  6. [Recommended diet for reflux spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Felix, Valter Nilton; Viebig, Ricardo Guilherme

    2003-01-01

    The spectrophotometric probe, which uses bilirubin as a marker for the detection of duodenoesophagic reflux is subject to interference from strongly colored foods, which can cause erroneously high bilirubin absorbance readings. To overcome this problem it is necessary to ingest a diet that is free from such substances. To test the absorbance of 48 different food substances in an in vitro environment. Dry foods were blended with water or milk and non-dry solid foods were blended undiluted. It was utilized the proper calibration recipient to test them. The absorbance of weakly colored foods was usually lesser than the commonly accepted threshold of 0.14, and the absorbance of strongly colored foods was usually above this. Thirty-two from the 48 substances tested are suitable when the absorbance threshold is set at 0.14, but scrambled eggs, lacteous flour mush, green beans, beetroot, carrot, chayote, squash, "baroa" potato, boiled corn, orange, cashew, purple grape, avocado, mango, papaya and peach can alter the results and must be avoided. From the foods evaluated, enough are suitable at the 0.14 threshold to enable a suitable diet to be constructed for most patients during Bilitec studies.

  7. Diet-induced metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Adeva, María M; Souto, Gema

    2011-08-01

    The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function. In response to this state of diet-derived metabolic acidosis, the kidney implements compensating mechanisms aimed to restore the acid-base balance, such as the removal of the non-metabolizable anions, the conservation of citrate, and the enhancement of kidney ammoniagenesis and urinary excretion of ammonium ions. These adaptive processes lower the urine pH and induce an extensive change in urine composition, including hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and nitrogen and phosphate wasting. Low urine pH predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria are risk factors for calcium stone disease. Even a very mild degree of metabolic acidosis induces skeletal muscle resistance to the insulin action and dietary acid load may be an important variable in predicting the metabolic abnormalities and the cardiovascular risk of the general population, the overweight and obese persons, and other patient populations including diabetes and chronic kidney failure. High dietary acid load is more likely to result in diabetes and systemic hypertension and may increase the cardiovascular risk. Results of recent observational studies confirm an association between insulin resistance and metabolic acidosis markers, including low serum bicarbonate, high serum anion gap, hypocitraturia, and low urine pH.

  8. Predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches among adults living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leske, Stuart; Strodl, Esben; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2017-02-20

    There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study. We conducted a prospective study, with two waves of data collection occurring 4 weeks apart. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing constructs drawn from the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy), past behaviour, non-planning, attributions for dieting failure, weight control beliefs, and dieting and non-dieting intentions. We used path modelling to analyse responses. At baseline, 719 adults (52.2% male) aged between 18 and 76 completed the questionnaire. Four weeks later, 64% of participants (n = 461) reported on their dieting and non-dieting behaviour in the past month. Past behaviour, attitude, subjective norm, and self-identity significantly predicted dieting intentions. Dieting intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted dieting behaviour, while non-planning and self-efficacy did not. The model explained 74.8% of the variance in intention and 52.9% of the variance in behaviour. While most findings were similar for the non-dieting model, subjective norms and self-identity did not predict intention, while self-efficacy and self-identity both predicted non-dieting behaviour directly. The non-dieting model explained 58.2% of the variance in intention and 37.5% of the variance in behaviour. The findings from this study provide support for the application of TPB and identity theory constructs in the context of both dieting and non-dieting behaviour. Self-efficacy and self-identity appear more relevant to non-dieting

  9. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CSBM) or CSBM with 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and co...

  10. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily

  11. [Composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years. The second part deals with "healthy" foods. The studies exploring this area are not convincing. The only really rational component of food in relation to atherosclerosis is dietary fibres. Important is a balanced diet combined with regular physical activities. The third part focuses on the composition of macronutrients. It turns out that, considering a low-calorie diet, the effects of high- and low-carbohydrate diets on people with diabetes are similar with regard to weight loss and lowering of HbA1c, however the low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower glycemic variability and a reduced need for anti-diabetic drugs. We do not know how the comparison of the two extreme diets would come out regarding individuals with a high energy diet. Currently it is useful to focus on the quality of individual macronutrients. Choose foods containing carbohydrates with a low glycemic index and high fibre foods, prefer fats that contain a low proportion of saturated fatty acids. The fourth part discusses the recent recommendation of the Czech Diabetes Society regarding the composition of macronutrients in the diabetic diet. As compared with the diet proposed earlier, lower intake of fibre

  12. Fad Diets vs. Healthy Weight Management: A Guide for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... promises they make don’t. Diets such as low-carb diets , the master cleanse, the grapefruit diet, and even ... to you. Tags: diets , healthy eating Related Content Low-Carb Diet Healthy Eating Mindful Eating Is it good to ...

  13. Effect of Low-Fat vs. Other Diet Interventions on Long-Term Weight Change in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Deirdre K.; Chen, Mu; Manson, JoAnn E.; Ludwig, David S.; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of low-fat diets for long-term weight loss has been debated for decades, with dozens of randomized trials (RCTs) and recent reviews giving mixed results. Methods We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of RCTs to estimate the long-term effect of low-fat vs. higher fat dietary interventions on weight loss. Our search included RCTs conducted in adult populations reporting weight change outcomes at ≥1 year, comparing low-fat with higher fat interventions, published through July 2014. The primary outcome measure was mean difference in weight change between interventions. Findings Fifty-three studies met inclusion criteria representing 68,128 participants. In the setting of weight loss trials, low-carbohydrate interventions led to significantly greater weight loss than low-fat interventions (n comparisons=18; weighted mean difference [WMD]=1.15 kg, 95% CI=0.52 to 1.79; I2=10%). Low-fat did not lead to differences in weight change compared with other moderate fat weight loss interventions (n=19; WMD=0.36, 95% CI=-0.66 to 1.37; I2=82%), and were superior only when compared with “usual diet” (n=8; WMD=-5.41, 95% CI=-7.29 to −3.54; I2=68%). Similarly, non-weight loss trials and weight maintenance trials, for which there were no low-carbohydrate comparisons, had similar effects for low-fat vs moderate fat interventions, and were superior compared with “usual diet”. Weight loss trials achieving a greater difference in fat intake at follow-up significantly favored the higher fat dietary interventions, as indicated by difference of ≥5% of calories from fat (n=18; WMD=1.04, 95% CI=0.06 to 2.03; I2=78%) or by difference in change serum triglycerides of ≥5 mg/dL (n=17; WMD=1.38, 95% CI=0.50 to 2.25; I2=62%). Interpretation These findings suggest that the long-term effect of low-fat diets on body weight depends on the intensity of intervention in the comparison group. When compared to dietary interventions of similar intensity

  14. Perceptions of diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health among black daughter-mother pairs in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Emily A; Comeau, Dawn L; Pisa, Pedro T; Stein, Aryeh D; Norris, Shane A

    2016-08-09

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise in South Africa, particularly among females living in urban environments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the emic perspectives of black young adult daughter and mother pairs living in Soweto, South Africa on diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health within their social and cultural context. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit daughters with a normal body mass index (BMI) who have obese mothers. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 daughters (age 24 years) and 15 of their mothers in Soweto, South Africa. Interview questions related to: a) eating and physical activity behaviors and perceptions, b) perceptions of social and community level factors, c) cultural beliefs about diet and body image, and d) intergenerational relationships. Data were analyzed using four-phases of thematic analysis and the constant comparison approach. Daughters and mothers had similar ideas of the definition of healthy food and the importance of eating healthy, but mothers were more likely to report eating healthy because of their age, adverse health experiences, and a desire to live longer. Daughters and mothers engaged in physical activity for reasons related to weight maintenance and feeling better, but mothers reported being more likely to start exercising as a result of a health concern. Daughters and mothers had comparable views of what makes a person healthy. Daughters and mothers relied on each other for food purchasing and food preparation. Daughters and mothers shared some similar perceptions of diet, physical activity, and health that were rooted in their daily life in Soweto. However, mothers generally reported being more likely to exhibit healthy eating and physical activity behaviors despite being obese. The mothers may have adopted these perceptions and behaviors later in life linked to ageing and ill-health. It is possible that through exposure, their

  15. [Diet, nutrition and bone health].

    PubMed

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition is an important "modifiable" factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and in the prevention of osteoporosis. The improvement of calcium intake in prepuberal age translates to gain in bone mass and, with genetic factor, to achievement of Peak Bone Mass (PBM), the higher level of bone mass reached at the completion of physiological growth. Individuals with higher PBM achieved in early adulthood will be at lower risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. Achieved the PBM, it is important maintain the bone mass gained and reduce the loss. This is possible adopting a correct behaviour eating associated to regular physical activity and correct life style. The diet is nutritionally balanced with caloric intake adequate to requirement of individual. This is moderate in protein (1 g/kg/die), normal in fat and the carbohydrates provide 55-60% of the caloric intake. A moderate intake of proteins is associated with normal calcium metabolism and presumably does'nt alter bone turnover. An adequate intake of alkali-rich foods may help promote a favorable effect of dietary protein on the skeleton. Lactose intolerance may determinate calcium malabsorption or may decrease calcium intake by elimination of milk and dairy products. Omega3 fatty acids may "down-regulate" pro-inflammatory cytokines and protect against bone loss by decreasing osteoclast activation and bone reabsorption. The diet is characterized by food containing high amount of calcium, potassium, magnesium and low amount of sodium. If it is impossible to reach the requirement with only diet, it is need the supplement of calcium and vitamin D. Other vitamins (Vit. A, C, E, K) and mineral (phosphorus, fluoride, iron, zinc, copper and boron) are required for normal bone metabolism, thus it is need adequate intake of these dietary components. It is advisable reduce ethanol, caffeine, fibers, phytic and ossalic acid intake. The efficacy of phytoestrogens is actually under investigation. Some

  16. Analysis Extract. AFSC 4D0X1 Diet Therapy (Active Duty)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    87* 22* V0140 Diet(s) exp- Kosher Diet Active Active Active Active AD...98 % 94 % Total in group: 23* 29* 52* 41* 119* V0140 Diet(s) exp- Kosher Diet...13* 8* V0140 Diet(s) exp- Kosher Diet AETC ACC AMC AFMC PACAF USAFE

  17. The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Nicholas R; Caterson, Ian D; Sainsbury, Amanda; Denyer, Gareth; Fong, Mackenzie; Gerofi, James; Baqleh, Katherine; Williams, Kathryn H; Lau, Namson S; Markovic, Tania P

    2015-04-01

    Previously published research that examined the effects of high egg consumption in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) produced conflicting results leading to recommendations to limit egg intake. However, people with T2D may benefit from egg consumption because eggs are a nutritious and convenient way of improving protein and micronutrient contents of the diet, which have importance for satiety and weight management. In this randomized controlled study, we aimed to determine whether a high-egg diet (2 eggs/d for 6 d/wk) compared with a low-egg diet (<2 eggs/wk) affected circulating lipid profiles, in particular high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, in overweight or obese people with prediabetes or T2D. A total of 140 participants were randomly assigned to one of the 2 diets as part of a 3-mo weight maintenance study. Participants attended the clinic monthly and were instructed on the specific types of foods and quantities to be consumed. There was no significant difference in the change in HDL cholesterol from screening to 3 mo between groups; the mean difference (95% CI) between high- and low-egg groups was +0.02 mmol/L (-0.03, 0.08 mmol/L; P = 0.38). No between-group differences were shown for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or glycemic control. Both groups were matched for protein intake, but the high-egg group reported less hunger and greater satiety postbreakfast. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intakes significantly increased from baseline in both groups. High egg consumption did not have an adverse effect on the lipid profile of people with T2D in the context of increased MUFA and PUFA consumption. This study suggests that a high-egg diet can be included safely as part of the dietary management of T2D, and it may provide greater satiety. This trial was registered at the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/) as ACTRN12612001266853. © 2015

  18. Sustainable diets within sustainable food systems.

    PubMed

    Meybeck, Alexandre; Gitz, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social. The nutrition perspective can be easily related to health outcomes. The global sustainability perspective is more difficult to analyse directly. We propose that it be measured as the contribution of a diet to the sustainability of food systems. Such an approach, covering the three dimensions of sustainability, enables identification of interactions and interrelations between food systems and diets. It provides opportunities to find levers of change towards sustainability. Diets are both the results and the drivers of food systems. The drivers of change for those variously involved, consumers and private individuals, are different, and can be triggered by different dimensions (heath, environment, social and cultural). Combining different dimensions and reasons for change can help facilitate the transition to sustainable diets, recognising the food system's specificities. The adoption of sustainable diets can be facilitated and enabled by food systems, and by appropriate policies and incentives.

  19. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice. PMID:8382094

  20. Meeting nutritional needs on a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate; Zeuschner, Carol; Saunders, Angela; Reid, Michelle

    2009-08-01

    A vegetarian is a person who consumes a diet consisting mostly of plant based foods including fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and grains. Some vegetarians also consume eggs and dairy foods. Individuals choose to follow a vegetarian diet for a range of reasons, including animal rights and religion, but two common reasons are the health and environmental benefits of plant based eating.

  1. Intelligence and Phenylketonuria: Effects of Diet Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Elissa; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Trends in intellectual functioning before and after diet termination were examined in 30 children (5-11 years old) with PKU (Phenylketonuria, a metabolic disorder) treated before 6 weeks of age and on a liberal diet for a mean of 3 years since the mean age of 59 months. Journal availability: C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St.…

  2. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a healthy diet. For instance, a gluten-free diet may not provide enough of the nutrients, vitamins, and minerals the body needs, such as fiber, iron, and calcium. Some gluten-free products can be high in calories and sugar. If you think you ...

  3. Safety of low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Crowe, T C

    2005-08-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have re-emerged into the public spotlight and are enjoying a high degree of popularity as people search for a solution to the population's ever-expanding waistline. The current evidence though indicates that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted diets on long-term weight loss and maintenance. Furthermore, a higher rate of adverse side-effects can be attributed to low-carbohydrate dieting approaches. Short-term efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets has been demonstrated for some lipid parameters of cardiovascular risk and measures of glucose control and insulin sensitivity, but no studies have ascertained if these effects represent a change in primary outcome measures. Low-carbohydrate diets are likely effective and not harmful in the short term and may have therapeutic benefits for weight-related chronic diseases although weight loss on such a program should be undertaken under medical supervision. While new commercial incarnations of the low-carbohydrate diet are now addressing overall dietary adequacy by encouraging plenty of high-fibre vegetables, fruit, low-glycaemic-index carbohydrates and healthier fat sources, this is not the message that reaches the entire public nor is it the type of diet adopted by many people outside of the world of a well-designed clinical trial. Health effects of long-term ad hoc restriction of inherently beneficial food groups without a concomitant reduction in body weight remains unanswered.

  4. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is followed for an extended time: Some high-protein diets restrict carbohydrate intake so much that they can result in nutritional deficiencies or insufficient fiber, which can cause problems such as bad breath, headache and constipation. Some high-protein diets include foods such as red meat and ...

  5. Intelligence and Phenylketonuria: Effects of Diet Termination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koff, Elissa; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Trends in intellectual functioning before and after diet termination were examined in 30 children (5-11 years old) with PKU (Phenylketonuria, a metabolic disorder) treated before 6 weeks of age and on a liberal diet for a mean of 3 years since the mean age of 59 months. Journal availability: C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St.…

  6. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. PMID:27713775

  7. LOW CHROMATE DIET IN DERMATOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashimav Deb

    2009-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element found in soil, water, air, and in the biosphere. It is the fourth most common element in the earth's crust, mostly used to manufacture stainless steel and other alloys. Chromate allergy is not uncommon and its prevalence rate is reported to be 6%. Once developed, it tends to persist for a long time. Chromate is present in most of the dietary items. Chromate content in food often varies considerably from place to place. However, certain foods are routinely high in chromate content. Chromate in the diet of a chromate-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low chromate concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of chromate per day. This can influence outcome of the disease, especially chronic vesicular hand eczema due to chromate sensitivity, and can benefit a chromate-sensitive patient. PMID:20161868

  8. Diet, Obesity, and Political Involvement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The views expressed are those of the author and may not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial Board. Abstract: This essay is an opinion article addressed to the busy practitioner. It provides information on nutrition, diet, nutritional science, and obesity to serve as a reference in teaching his patients on these issues. It is composed by a gastroenterologist who has been engaged in clinical gastroenterology and nutrition, research, and teaching in an academic medical center for 35 years. It also relates the information to conclusions on reasonable involvement of the national government in these topics. Finally, its audience might include the interested, well-educated, lay public. Hence, excessive scientific parlance and referencing have been avoided. PMID:26106846

  9. Genetic effects of methylation diets.

    PubMed

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2002-01-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines in CpG dinucleotides can lead to changes in gene expression and function without altering the primary sequence of the DNA. Methylation can be affected by dietary levels of methyl-donor components, such as folic acid. This may be an important mechanism for environmentally induced changes in gene expression. Recent literature supports a role for DNA-methylation changes in a number of adult-onset disorders and during development. These changes may be significant for better understanding certain birth defects (e.g., neural tube defects) and the long-term consequences of early environmental influences on gene expression (metabolic programming). Optimal "methylation diets" should be investigated as part of the prevention and treatment of all these conditions, as well as in disorders such as Rett syndrome, whose primary defects may lie in DNA methylation-dependent gene regulation.

  10. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  11. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet.

  12. High-protein diets and renal health.

    PubMed

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N; Jespersen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority of such diets on human health has been provided.

  13. [Oat products in gluten free diet].

    PubMed

    Lange, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease in patent in different age is increased, but gluten free diet is only way to treat this disease. Diet without gluten cereals: wheat, rye, barley and oats is often low in many minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber, but rich in fat and sugar. Gluten free diet witch is supplemented with oats products may contains more dietary fiber, minerals, thiamine, biotin, tokopherols, tokotrienos, and unsaturated fatty acids. The majority of researches show that inclusion 20-50g/d of oat products to gluten free diet is safe for children and adults with new diagnosed and also in remission state. Simultaneously, some patients with celiac disease may intolerance to avenin. The control and assessment of gluten (wheat, rye, barley) contamination in oat products and also long term introduction of oat products to gluten free diet for patient at different age.

  14. Unconventional diets for dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Michel, Kathryn E

    2006-11-01

    Food plays a far more complex role in daily life than simply serving as sustenance. Social and cultural factors along with individual beliefs govern people's eating behaviors, and it is likely that these same factors influence their choice of diet and feeding practices for their pets. Some people seek alternatives to conventional commercial pet foods, including commercially available "natural" diets, raw food diets, and vegetarian diets, in addition to a variety of home-prepared diets. Exploring a person's knowledge and beliefs about feeding pets can aid in understanding her or his motives for seeking alternative and may help in changing those practices when it is in the best interest of the pet to do so.

  15. Does social class predict diet quality?

    PubMed

    Darmon, Nicole; Drewnowski, Adam

    2008-05-01

    A large body of epidemiologic data show that diet quality follows a socioeconomic gradient. Whereas higher-quality diets are associated with greater affluence, energy-dense diets that are nutrient-poor are preferentially consumed by persons of lower socioeconomic status (SES) and of more limited economic means. As this review demonstrates, whole grains, lean meats, fish, low-fat dairy products, and fresh vegetables and fruit are more likely to be consumed by groups of higher SES. In contrast, the consumption of refined grains and added fats has been associated with lower SES. Although micronutrient intake and, hence, diet quality are affected by SES, little evidence indicates that SES affects either total energy intakes or the macronutrient composition of the diet. The observed associations between SES variables and diet-quality measures can be explained by a variety of potentially causal mechanisms. The disparity in energy costs ($/MJ) between energy-dense and nutrient-dense foods is one such mechanism; easy physical access to low-cost energy-dense foods is another. If higher SES is a causal determinant of diet quality, then the reported associations between diet quality and better health, found in so many epidemiologic studies, may have been confounded by unobserved indexes of social class. Conversely, if limited economic resources are causally linked to low-quality diets, some current strategies for health promotion, based on recommending high-cost foods to low-income people, may prove to be wholly ineffective. Exploring the possible causal relations between SES and diet quality is the purpose of this review.

  16. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Constipation in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Constipation in Children How can a child's ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  17. Vegetarian Diet: Will It Help Me Lose Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifestyle Weight loss If I switch to a vegetarian diet, will I lose weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. Not necessarily. A vegetarian diet is not inherently a weight-loss diet, ...

  18. Diet, inflammation and prediabetes-impact of quality of diet.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, Matti; Schwab, Ursula

    2013-10-01

    Low grade inflammation has been linked to risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Obesity and, in particular, abdominal obesity increase the risk of diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular diseases. One of the mechanisms could be low grade inflammation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. Permanent weight reduction is the first line of treatment both for obese individuals at increased risk of diabetes and for newly onset type 2 diabetes. Weight reduction lowers the level of several inflammatory factors in the body while increasing the level of adiponectin. Besides weight reduction the quality of diet and physical activity also modifies low grade inflammation. Based on the literature survey and our own studies in humans, it is possible to have dietary patterns that reduce inflammatory stress in the body and improves vascular endothelial dysfunction. There is strong evidence to suggest that IL-1 Ra is a very sensitive marker of low grade inflammation in obesity and related phenotypes; however, its level is markedly lowered by weight reduction and by choosing foods that have been shown to reduce inflammatory stress in the body.

  19. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  20. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050.

  1. Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to 3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7–6.1 kg CO2eq./day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO2eq./yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  2. Fad diets in the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D

    2011-04-01

    Use of the term "fad diet" reflects the contentious nature of the debate in the treatment of diabetes and generally targets diets based on carbohydrate restriction, the major challenge to traditional dietary therapy. Although standard low-fat diets more accurately conform to the idea of a practice supported by social pressure rather than scientific data, it is suggested that we might want to give up altogether unscientific terms like "fad" and "healthy." Far from faddish, diets based on carbohydrate restriction have been the historical treatment for diabetes and are still supported by basic biochemistry, and it is argued that they should be considered the "default" diet, the one to try first, in diseases of carbohydrate intolerance or insulin resistance. The barrier to acceptance of low-carbohydrate diets in the past has been concern about saturated fat, which might be substituted for the carbohydrate that is removed. However, recent re-analysis of much old data shows that replacing carbohydrate with saturated fat is, if anything, beneficial. The dialectic of impact of continued hemoglobin A(1c) versus effect of dietary saturated fat in the risk of cardiovascular disease is resolved in direction of glycemic control. Putting biased language behind us and facing the impact of recent results that point to the value of low-carbohydrate diets would offer patients the maximum number of options.

  3. Epigenetic consequences of a changing human diet.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, Paul

    2013-11-01

    The human diet has undergone profound changes over recent generations and this trend is likely to accelerate in the 21st century. Innovations in food technology, new ways of producing and processing foods and the increasing use of artificial vitamins and novel ingredients are changing the human diet in ways that our dietary monitoring systems struggle to keep pace with. There is a growing awareness of the importance of diet, but little understanding of how these changes may affect the health of current and future generations. Epigenetic programming, and specifically the persistence of functional epigenetic states following nutritional exposure, is particularly relevant to the issue of dietary change. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which diet and nutrition can directly influence the genome and there is now considerable evidence for nutritional epigenetic programming of health and the response to diet itself. A number of nutrients and food components that are changing in the human diet have been shown to produce epigenetic states that are stable across different timescales. We need to better understand the nutritional programming of epigenetic states, the persistence of these marks in time and their effect on biological function and the response to diet.

  4. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  5. Smoking and Diet: Impact on Disease Course?

    PubMed

    Cosnes, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The impact of current smoking on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) course has been studied extensively; smoking is deleterious in Crohn's disease (CD), and beneficial in ulcerative colitis (UC). Except for enteral nutrition, there are only limited data regarding the impact of diet on disease course. Current smoking worsens the course of CD, increasing the incidence of flares, the need for steroids, immunosuppressants and re-operations. Conversely, smoking cessation has a rapid beneficial effect on disease course, decreasing the risk of flares and of post-operative recurrences. From 3 months after the quit date, quitters have a disease course similar to that of never smokers. Achieving smoking cessation in CD is thus an important goal of therapy. On the contrary, smoking improves the course of UC and in particular, is associated with a decreased need for colectomy. Smoking cessation increases the risk of flare and the need for steroids or immunosuppressants. However, patients with UC should not be discouraged to quit, because the beneficial effect of smoking for their disease is counterbalanced by the deleterious systemic effects of tobacco. Among dietary interventions, only exclusive enteral nutrition was shown to induce remission and achieve mucosal healing in some patients with CD. The beneficial effect of liquid-defined diet is observed whatever be the type of administration (orally or by tube), the type of diet regarding protein and fat content and resulting alterations in the gut microbiota. In UC, enteral nutrition has no effect. Finally, popularized restrictive diets in IBD as the specific-carbohydrate diet and the gluten-free diet have not been rigorously tested. In a small trial, a semi-vegetarian diet was shown to be effective in maintaining remission over 2 years in CD. Patients with IBD should not smoke and avoid passive smoking. Aside from the defined liquid diets, there is no rationale for advising particular diets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Role of Diet in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Ruemmele, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily in the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. An interesting hypothesis is that environmental (food-) triggered changes of the intestinal microbiome might cause a proinflammatory state preceding the development of IBD. Indeed, an intact intestinal epithelial barrier assuring a normal bacterial clearance of the intestinal surface is crucial to guarantee intestinal homeostasis. Any factors affecting the epithelial barrier function directly or indirectly may impact on this homeostasis, as well as any changes of the intestinal microbial composition. It is intriguing to learn that some frequently used food components impact on the quality of the intestinal barrier, as well as on the composition of the intestinal microbiome. This highlights the close interaction between living conditions, hygiene, food habits and food quality with the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiome and the activation status of the intestinal immune system. There is clear evidence that nutritional therapy is highly successful in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is well established as induction therapy of CD. New diets, such as a CD exclusion diet or defined diets (specific carbohydrate diets, FODMAP diet, Paleolithic diet) are being discussed as treatment options for IBD. Well-designed clinical trials in IBD are urgently required to define the precise role of each of these diets in the prevention or management of IBD. Up to now, the role of diet in IBD is highly undermined by lay and anecdotal reports without sufficient scientific proof. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The Mediterranean diet in a world context.

    PubMed

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    2006-02-01

    To put the debate on the Mediterranean diet in context by highlighting historical and prospective changes in the level and composition of food consumption in the world and key Mediterranean countries. Data from FAO's food balance sheets are used to illustrate historical evolution. Projections to 2030 are presented from FAO's recent and ongoing work on exploring world food and agriculture futures. International. Many developing countries are undergoing diet transitions bringing them closer to the diets prevalent in the richer countries, i.e. with more energy-dense foods. There follows an increase in the incidence of diet-related non-communicable diseases, which are superimposed on the health problems related to undernutrition that still afflict them. In parallel, many low-income countries are making little progress towards raising food consumption levels necessary for good nutrition and food security. Wider adoption of food consumption patterns akin to those of the Mediterranean diet hold promise of contributing to mitigate adverse effects of such diet transitions. However, the evolution of food consumption in the Mediterranean countries themselves is not encouraging, as these countries have also followed the trend towards higher shares of energy-dense foods. Possible policy responses to these problems include measures to raise awareness of the benefits of healthier diets and/or to change relative food prices in favour of such diets (by taxing fattening foods) or, at the extreme, making individuals who follow 'bad' diets, and thus are prone to associated diseases, bear a higher part of the consequent costs borne by the public health systems (tax fat people).

  8. A scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale: the DIET-SE.

    PubMed

    Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-03-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of the 11-item DIET-SE. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 392) and confirmatory factors analysis (N = 124) revealed three internally consistent and reliable factors representing challenges to adhere to a diet (high-caloric food temptations [HCF], social and internal factors [SIF], negative emotional events [NEE]). Convergent validity is established with other measures of dieting self-efficacy, as well as measures of eating disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and weight loss competency. Criterion-related validity is provided through the assessment of goal adherence, and predictive validity is established for dieters' actual food intake (N = 68). The DIET-SE represents a short, reliable, and valid scenario-based measure of dieting self-efficacy.

  9. Are diet-specific compensatory health beliefs predictive of dieting intentions and behaviour?

    PubMed

    Radtke, Theda; Kaklamanou, Daphne; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer; Armitage, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs) - beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for by healthy behaviour - are hypothesised to be activated automatically to help people resolve conflicts between their desires (e.g. eat chocolate) and their long-term goals (e.g. dieting). The aim of the present research was to investigate diet-specific CHBs within the context of a theoretical framework, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), to examine the extent to which diet-specific CHBs contribute to dieting intentions and dietary intake. Seventy-five dieting women were recruited in Switzerland and England and were asked to complete measures of diet-specific CHBs, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and behaviour. Path modelling showed that, overall, diet-specific CHBs were not related to dieting intentions (β=.10) or behaviour (β=.06) over and above variables specified in the HAPA. However, risk perception moderated the relationship between diet-specific CHBs and intention (β=.26). Diet-specific CHBs positively predicted intention in women with high risk perception, but not in women with low risk perception. This positive relationship might be explained by the assumption that CHBs play different roles at different stages of the health-behaviour change process. Future studies should further examine moderators and stage-specific differences of the associations between CHBs, intention and health-behaviour change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ketogenic diet versus gluten free casein free diet in autistic children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    El-Rashidy, Omnia; El-Baz, Farida; El-Gendy, Yasmin; Khalaf, Randa; Reda, Dina; Saad, Khaled

    2017-08-14

    Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group. All patients were assessed in terms of neurological examination, anthropometric measures, as well as Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Test (ATEC) scales before and 6 months after starting diet. Both diet groups showed significant improvement in ATEC and CARS scores in comparison to control group, yet ketogenic scored better results in cognition and sociability compared to GFCF diet group. Depending on the parameters measured in our study, modified Atkins diet and gluten free casein free diet regimens may safely improve autistic manifestations and could be recommended for children with ASD. At this stage, this study is a single center study with a small number of patients and a great deal of additional wide-scale prospective studies are however needed to confirm these results. UMIN-CTR Study Design: trial Number UMIN000021433.

  11. Effects of consuming a high carbohydrate diet after eight weeks of exposure to a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Honors, Mary Ann; Davenport, Brandon M; Kinzig, Kimberly P

    2009-11-19

    Ketogenic diets have been utilized for weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The present experiments examined the effects of returning to a chow diet after prolonged ingestion of a ketogenic diet. Rats were maintained on chow (CH) or a ketogenic diet (KD) for 8 weeks, after which the KD rats were given access to chow only (KD:CH) for 8 additional weeks. Caloric intake, body weight, and plasma leptin, insulin and ghrelin were measured before and after the dietary switch. After 8 weeks of consuming a ketogenic diet, KD rats had increased adiposity and plasma leptin levels, and reduced insulin, as compared to CH controls. One week after the diet switch, fat pad weight and leptin levels remained elevated, and were normalized to CH controls within 8 weeks of the dietary switch. Switching from KD to chow induced a transient hypophagia, such that KD:CH rats consumed significantly fewer calories during the first week after the dietary switch, as compared to calories consumed by CH rats. This hypophagia was despite significantly increased plasma ghrelin in KD:CH rats. Finally, KD:CH rats developed hyperphagia over time, and during weeks 6-8 after the diet switch consumed significantly more calories per day than did CH-fed controls and gained more weight than CH-fed controls. Collectively, these data demonstrate that returning to a carbohydrate-based diet after a period of consuming a ketogenic diet has post-diet effects on caloric intake, body weight gain, and insulin levels.

  12. Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amit, M

    2010-01-01

    A well-balanced vegetarian diet can provide for the needs of children and adolescents. However, appropriate caloric intake should be ensured and growth monitored. Particular attention should be paid to adequate protein intake and sources of essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins B12 and D. Supplementation may be required in cases of strict vegetarian diets with no intake of any animal products. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be appropriately advised to ensure that the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant are adequately met. Recommendations are provided. Adolescents on restricted vegetarian or other such diets should be screened for eating disorders. PMID:21532796

  13. Diet counseling in a multicultural society.

    PubMed

    Kittler, P G; Sucher, K P

    1990-01-01

    Successful diet counseling is dependent on culturally sensitive communication strategies. Health care practitioners can improve cross-cultured counseling through a four-step process. First, they must become familiar with their own cultural heritages. Second, they must become acquainted with the cultural background of each client. Third, through an in-depth cross-cultural interview, they must establish the client's cultural background, food habit adaptations made in the United States, and personal preferences. Fourth, they must modify diets based on unbiased analysis of the dietary data. The best chance for compliance occurs when diets are modified with consideration for client's cultural and personal preferences.

  14. Hyperproteic diet and pregnancy of rat.

    PubMed

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Gambardella, P; D'Aponte, D; Ferrante, P

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of a purified diet enriched with animal protein (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on different stages of rat pregnancy. We observed that hyperproteic diet, especially when administered from the first day of pregnancy, induces morphological alterations of liver, adrenal cortex, heart and kidney. Moreover, haematic dosages, carried out on 15th day of pregnancy, have shown moderate but significant increase of glucose and triglycerides and significant decrease of circulating aldosterone and corticosterone as well. Finally an early administration of hyperproteic diet causes less numerous litters and high mortality rate at birth.

  15. Nutritional Status and Diet in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Bail, Jennifer; Meneses, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    To discuss the relationship between weight management and diet and cancer prevention, current nutritional guidelines, and evidence-based strategies to reduce cancer risk. Current nutritional guidelines, journal articles published between 2012 and 2015, and internet resources. Evidence indicates that attaining and/or maintaining a healthy weight and adopting a diet that is primarily plant-based, low in red and processed meats, simple sugars, and refined carbohydrates, limits alcohol, and relies on food for nutrients can aid in preventing cancer. Nurses can take the lead to educate patients and families about weight management and diet and to promote adherence to nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet and headache. Is there a link?

    PubMed

    Diamond, S; Prager, J; Freitag, F G

    1986-03-01

    Diet has been implicated as a source of migraine since antiquity. Now, diet is thought of as one of many factors that can trigger migraine. Improved understanding of the migraine process and an attempt to delineate the most common causes of diet-precipitated migraine have resulted in a more rational treatment strategy. We recognize that a small group of patients will have migraine after ingesting certain foods with vasoactive properties or by missing a meal; thus, we suggest a nutritional course to limit this influence. The role of allergy in migraine is not yet determined and remains controversial.

  17. Weight-loss dieting behavior: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Odelia

    2012-07-01

    In light of the widespread phenomena of diet failure and excessive dieting, this paper presents a theoretical economic analysis of the decision-making process of weight-loss dieting. The paper incorporates behavioral elements involved in the process of dieting: effort exerted in dieting, influence of social norms concerning body weight, time-inconsistent present biased preferences, and a distinction between naiveté and sophistication. The model explains cyclic dieting and provides interesting insights on the extent of weight-loss dieting. The extent of dieting is an increasing function of initial body weight and a decreasing function of the effort exerted in dieting and the strength of social norms concerning ideal weight. Income and diet strictness have an ambiguous effect. In addition, greater dieting efforts are not necessarily balanced against a slowdown in body metabolism or a higher initial body weight.

  18. Alzheimer's disease and epigenetic diet.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Zeynep; Dincer, Yildiz

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Many efforts have been directed to prevent AD due to its rising prevalence and the lack of an effective curative treatment. Various epigenetic mechanisms are linked to pathogenesis of AD. Epigenetic alterations may occur through external factors and are known for their reversibility. Dietary factors can influence epigenetic mechanisms. Several neuroprotective nutrients have been shown to enhance cognition, memory and other impaired functions seen in AD. Within recent years neuroprotective nutrients have gained more attention in the field of epigenetic. A growing body of evidence suggest that epigenetic changes triggered by dietary nutrients have an important role in health and in prevention of some diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies have shown that folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, zinc, selenium, dietary polyphenols are capable of interacting with epigenetic mechanisms and ultimately gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms resulting in neuronal dysfunction may be modified by diet. Therefore manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms via dietary nutrients may affect influence the vulnerability of neurons to degeneration which is seen in AD. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview about the recent findings related to epigenetic alterations that are linked to AD pathogenesis, and to discuss the bioactive nutrients which can affect these epigenetic mechanisms.

  19. The diet of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Henry, Amanda G; Ungar, Peter S; Passey, Benjamin H; Sponheimer, Matt; Rossouw, Lloyd; Bamford, Marion; Sandberg, Paul; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee

    2012-07-05

    Specimens of Australopithecus sediba from the site of Malapa, South Africa (dating from approximately 2 million years (Myr) ago) present a mix of primitive and derived traits that align the taxon with other Australopithecus species and with early Homo. Although much of the available cranial and postcranial material of Au. sediba has been described, its feeding ecology has not been investigated. Here we present results from the first extraction of plant phytoliths from dental calculus of an early hominin. We also consider stable carbon isotope and dental microwear texture data for Au. sediba in light of new palaeoenvironmental evidence. The two individuals examined consumed an almost exclusive C(3) diet that probably included harder foods, and both dicotyledons (for example, tree leaves, fruits, wood and bark) and monocotyledons (for example, grasses and sedges). Like Ardipithecus ramidus (approximately 4.4 Myr ago) and modern savanna chimpanzees, Au. sediba consumed C(3) foods in preference to widely available C(4) resources. The inferred consumption of C(3) monocotyledons, and wood or bark, increases the known variety of early hominin foods. The overall dietary pattern of these two individuals contrasts with available data for other hominins in the region and elsewhere.

  20. Gut Microbes, Diet, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence supports a role for gut microbes in the etiology of cancer. Previously, the focus was on identifying individual bacterial species that directly initiate or promote gastrointestinal malignancies; however, the capacity of gut microbes to influence systemic inflammation and other downstream pathways suggests that the gut microbial community may also affect risk of cancer in tissues outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Functional contributions of the gut microbiota that may influence cancer susceptibility in the broad sense include (1) harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients and/or sources of energy from the diet (i.e., fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch); (2) metabolism of xenobiotics, both potentially beneficial or detrimental (i.e., dietary constituents, drugs, carcinogens, etc.); (3) renewal of gut epithelial cells and maintenance of mucosal integrity; and (4) affecting immune system development and activity. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome, host immune system, and dietary exposures may help elucidate mechanisms for carcinogenesis and guide future cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24114492

  1. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    PubMed

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  2. Formulation of the Total Western Diet (TWD) as a basal diet for rodent cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E

    2012-07-11

    Rodent cancer studies typically use defined diets with nutrient profiles optimized for rodent health. However, a defined rodent diet that represents typical American nutrition in all aspects, including calorie sources and macro- and micronutrient composition, is not yet available. Thus, a nutrient density approach was used to formulate the new Total Western Diet (TWD) based on NHANES data for macro- and micronutrient intakes. The TWD has fewer calories from protein and carbohydrate sources and twice that from fat as compared to the AIN-93 diet. The new diet contains more saturated and monounsaturated fats, less polyunsaturated fat, fewer complex carbohydrates, and twice the level of simple sugars. The TWD includes less calcium, copper, folate, thiamin, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E, but much more sodium. This newly devised diet that better represents typical American nutrition will be highly useful for studies employing animal models of human disease, including cancer.

  3. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to follow these diet guidelines. When you go Home From the Hospital You will eat only ... thinning hair These symptoms are normal. They should go away as you take in more protein and ...

  4. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  5. The ketogenic diet in Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laux, Linda; Blackford, Robyn

    2013-08-01

    Dravet syndrome is an infantile epilepsy syndrome with intractable pleomorphic seizures, cognitive impairment, and a number of comorbidities including ataxia/gait abnormalities and behavioral issues. Antiseizure medications are only partially effective in controlling seizures. Secondary to the intractable epilepsy, patients are often on multiple antiseizure medications with significant accumulative neurotoxic side effects. Specifically for Dravet syndrome, the medical literature includes both laboratory and clinical research that supports the use of the ketogenic diet. In addition, a review of the children with Dravet syndrome who were treated with the ketogenic diet at our center was undertaken. Thirteen of the 20 children (65%) with Dravet syndrome treated with the ketogenic diet experienced a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency. The ketogenic diet is a good alternative to medication for seizure management in children with Dravet syndrome.

  6. The DASH diet and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Craddick, Shirley R; Elmer, Patricia J; Obarzanek, Eva; Vollmer, William M; Svetkey, Laura P; Swain, Martha C

    2003-11-01

    High blood pressure (also called hypertension) is one of the most important and common risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases. National guidelines recommend that all individuals with blood pressure readings of 120/80 mm Hg or higher adopt healthy lifestyle habits, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, to manage their blood pressure. The DASH diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in fat, has been shown in large, randomized, controlled trials to reduce blood pressure significantly. The DASH diet also has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol and homocysteine levels and to enhance the benefits of antihypertensive drug therapy. The DASH diet should be promoted, along with maintaining healthy weight, reducing sodium intake, increasing regular physical activity, and limiting alcohol intake, for lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk of CVD.

  7. What Is the Diet for PKU?

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content. PKU Clinic - University of Washington, Seattle Home | Contact Us | Site Map PKU Management For Health Care Providers RECIPES about pku UW PKU Clinic News & Events What is PKU? What is the diet ...

  8. Computerized Diet Analysis: Friend or Foe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers some advantages of manual nutrient calculation over computerized calculations, pointing out especially some pitfalls of using computers. It also discusses proper uses of computers in nutritional calculation, such as in computerized diet analysis. (JB)

  9. Diet and breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Papavagelis, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer occurs as a result between genes-diet interactions. Concerning diet, only alcohol is widely recognized for being most consistently associated with breast cancer risk. The purpose of this review is to report through a systematic way the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and diet, through original-research studies published in English language during the last decade, assessing the consumption of specific foodstuffs/food-nutrients in relation to the disease. The available literature suggests that soy food intake seems to be inversely associated with the disease, while no association seems to be reported for dietary carbohydrates and dietary fiber intake. The consumption of dietary fat, is probably suggestive of an increase in breast cancer risk, while studies evaluating the role of fruit/vegetable, meat as well as dietary patterns and breast cancer risk, provide inconsistent results. Diet seems to be modestly associated with the disease, highlighting the need for more studies to be conducted.

  10. Nutrition, Diet, and Weight Control for Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Kathy

    1980-01-01

    Athletes can achieve their full potential and develop good eating habits for the future through proper diet and weight control. The basics of nutrition are as important as the basic skills of the sports in which athletes participate. (CJ)

  11. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use the sharing features on ... when others are eating. When to Call Your Baby's Health Care Provider Call the provider if you ...

  12. Diet and survival after prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Susan E; Barnard, Neal D; Saxe, Gordon A; Ankerberg-Nobis, Trulie

    2007-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men in the United States. Among environmental factors, diet may play a particularly important role in its incidence, progression, and clinical outcome. This article reviews the findings of eight observational studies and 17 intervention or laboratory trials on the effect of plant-based diets and plant nutrients on both the progression and clinical outcome of prostate cancer as well as additional studies examining mechanisms that may explain dietary effects. While additional long-term therapeutic clinical trials are needed to further elucidate the role of diet, these early investigations suggest that a recommendation for individual patients to shift their diets toward plant foods may serve as an important component of the tertiary treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Workplace Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Korre, Maria; Tsoukas, Michael A; Frantzeskou, Elpida; Yang, Justin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies confirm relationships between the consumption of certain foods and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Mediterranean diet patterns have long been associated with a reduced risk of major diseases and many favorable health outcomes. Data from observational, longitudinal, and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that Mediterranean-style diets can improve body mass index and body weight, reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome risk factors, decrease cardiovascular morbidity and coronary heart disease mortality, as well as decrease all-cause mortality. Recently, efforts have attempted to improve dietary habits in the workplace, by modifying food selection, eating patterns, meal frequency, and the sourcing of meals taken during work. Evidence supporting the Mediterranean diet and the potential cardioprotective role of healthier diets in the workplace are reviewed here, and promising strategies to improve metabolic and cardiovascular health outcomes are also provided.

  14. What does Islam say about dieting?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Zakir

    2014-08-01

    Dieting is very important to maintain a healthy and peaceful life. Today, most of the health problems are related with dieting. Thus, the modern health science recommends a number of suggestions regarding dieting for better health such as learning the five basic food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat); eating three times a day; decreasing the amount of fat; increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables and grains; including an adequate amount of iron; and avoiding excessive rich food, salt, sugar, and fat. Religion can also play a vital role for our good health and lifestyle. The main concern of this paper was to present an analytical justification regarding what Islam as a religion advocates about dieting along with the modern food and nutrition sciences.

  15. Atkins – the superior slimming diet?

    PubMed Central

    Rössner, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Four diets of varying composition, from the high-protein Atkins diet to the balanced educational tool LEARN, showed modest one-year weight-loss results but had no adverse effects. None of the four diets reaches the standard figure of at least 5–10% used to evaluate the success of weight loss treatments. It seems reasonable to state that a well-conducted study has shown us that modest weight loss can be achieved in various ways. However, this is no breakthrough demonstrating that one method is superior to any other, and no reason to argue that those in favour of high-protein diets were the first to discover the truth of weight loss programs.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toddler For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, ... 11, 2017 Print Email nambitomo/iStock/Thinkstock Autism Spectrum Disorders, or ASD, is a complex developmental and ...

  17. Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Ernesto; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and features, there are some common mechanisms that could explain the effects of ketogenic diets. These mechanisms are to provide an efficient source of energy for the treatment of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal brain hypometabolism; to decrease the oxidative damage associated with various kinds of metabolic stress; to increase the mitochondrial biogenesis pathways; and to take advantage of the capacity of ketones to bypass the defect in complex I activity implicated in some neurological diseases. These mechanisms will be discussed in this review. PMID:25101284

  18. Learn about gluten-free diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet, you do not eat wheat, rye, and barley. These foods contain gluten, a type of protein. ... you must avoid foods that contain gluten: Wheat Barley (this includes malt, malt flavoring, and malt vinegar) ...

  19. Quality of diet of working college students.

    PubMed

    Gorgulho, Bartira; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Conceição, Adriana Balian da; Steluti, Josiane; Mussi, Marina Hurga; Nagai-Manelli, Roberta; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Luz, Andréa Aparecida da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of studies with young workers and the role of diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, the objective of the study was to assess the quality of diet of working college students. The present study investigated 43 university students, aged between 18 and 25 years old who had systematically being involved in a working activity in the past 6 months, paid or unpaid, at least 6 hours daily, five days a week. Dietary intake measured by seven dietary records covering every day of the week was used to calculate the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (B-HEIR). It was observed a low B-HEIR score (53.43,±7.81) indicating a risk of a poor quality of diet, with high intake of sodium and sugar and low consumption of fruits and whole grains. This poor quality of diet can result in an inadequate nutritional status that may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases.

  20. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Results Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019). High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8–12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0–3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010). Conclusion Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality. PMID:27622518

  2. Monetary Diet Cost, Diet Quality, and Parental Socioeconomic Status in Spanish Youth.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Gomez, Santiago F; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Using a food-based analysis, healthy dietary patterns in adults are more expensive than less healthy ones; studies are needed in youth. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine relationships between monetary daily diet cost, diet quality, and parental socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 3534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2 to 24 years. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-hour recall. Mediterranean diet adherence was measured by the KIDMED questionnaire. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. Monetary daily diet cost was expressed as euros per day (€/d) and euros per day standardized to a 1000kcal diet (€/1000kcal/d). Mean monetary daily diet cost was 3.16±1.57€/d (1.56±0.72€/1000kcal/d). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with monetary daily diet cost and diet quality measured by the KIDMED index (€/d and €/1000kcal/d, p<0.019). High Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED score 8-12) was 0.71 €/d (0.28€/1000kcal/d) more expensive than low compliance (KIDMED score 0-3). Analysis for nonlinear association between the KIDMED index and monetary daily diet cost per1000kcal showed no further cost increases beyond a KIDMED score of 8 (linear p<0.001; nonlinear p = 0.010). Higher monetary daily diet cost is associated with healthy eating in Spanish youth. Higher socioeconomic status is a determinant for higher monetary daily diet cost and quality.

  3. Role of diet in rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Sophia; Micheletti, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Millions of people suffer from rheumatic diseases such as gout, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. These can be incapacitating and detrimental to quality of life. Diet, nutrition, and weight loss have shown promise in alleviating some of this disease burden. These lifestyle changes may give patients a feeling of control and ownership over their disease as well as a nonpharmacologic means of treatment. This article reviews the available research on the effects of diet and nutrition on rheumatoid disease.

  4. Diet and breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Hankin, J H; Rawlings, V

    1978-11-01

    Diet may promote or inhibit human breast cancer through its effects on hormonal systems. In this paper, risk factors with potential dietary components, geographic variations related to diet, experimental studies on diet and mammary tumors, and hormonal hypotheses are reviewed. The associations of early menarche with higher risk, and of early first pregnancy with lower risk suggest that events during teenage years may be determinants of breast cancer. Although data on the association between obesity and mammary cancer are not entirely consistent, it does seem clear that body fatness at menarche and during postmenopausal years may influence hormonal synthesis and metabolism. Published reports based on the Food and Agricultural Organization's food availability data or frequencies of individual foods are inadequate for associating diet with breast cancer incidence or mortality. Also, diets and susceptibility to breast cancer vary among species, and therefore results from rodent experiments should not be extrapolated to humans. Circumstantial evidence suggests that patterns of hormone metabolism in early years of life may be determinants of breast cancer risk. Research concerning the relationship of androgens, prolactin, estrogens, and possibly other hormones to risk factors should be continued. Further, there is a need for data relating dietary factors to hormone synthesis and metabolism. Epidemiological studies among young women in low- and high-risk countries are recommended. Comparisons of diet, body fatness, and hormonal levels could provide further insight about the relationship of diet to breast cancer risk. These same factors should be measured in case-controls studies, along with qualitative estimates of previous diet and possibly weight and height during adolescence. Dietary indices associated with early menarche may be the same as those related to breast cancer. Results of these investigations may provide valuable leads for preventive health programs.

  5. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  6. Effects of a vegetarian diet vs. a vegetarian diet enriched with avocado in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Madrigal, J; Herrera-Abarca, J E; Alvizouri-Muñoz, M; Alvarado-Jimenez, M R; Chavez-Carbajal, F

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effects of a vegetarian diet with avocado as a source of monounsaturated fat on serum lipids, thirteen patients with phenotype II (twelve with IIa and one with IIb) dyslipidemia were included in a prospective, transversal and comparative study in which three four-week diets randomly assigned were assessed. One vegetarian diet (ALVD) was composed of 70% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 20% lipids. Another was composed of 60% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 30% lipids, 75% of which was supplied by avocado (AVD). A third diet was an avocado-added free diet (FDWA). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)) were evaluated. AVD produced a significant decrease in LDL. ALVD did not change TC and LDL, while FDWA increased them slightly. The three diets reduced TG levels, but only ALVD did so significantly. All three diets reduced HDL levels, particularly ALVD, which produced the greatest reduction. Low-fat, carbohydrate-rich vegetarian diets may be harmful to hypercholesterolemic patients. The avocado addition to a vegetarian diet does not correct these undesirable effects. To obtain beneficial effects on lipid profile with avocado, lower amounts of carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids are probably needed.

  7. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    The first three parts of this series of articles covered the basics of some of the more popular low-carbohydrate diets, and the theories behind them. In the fourth and final part of this series, some of the more popular low-fat and low-calorie diets, such as the Ornish diet and Weight Watchers, are covered briefly. Recently, several clinical trials of longer duration that compared low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets have been published. These studies demonstrate that some of the low-carbohydrate diets result in reduced weight in the short-term, but their ability to reduce weight long-term any better than low-fat or other diets has been questioned. Most popular or fad diets have some positive messages contained within them and some preliminary positive short-term results, but overall the compliance rates with any fad diet are very poor over the long-term. The decision to go on any diet should be made with a health professional who can monitor the patient closely.

  8. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Marchie, Augustine; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Augustin, Livia S A; Ludwig, David S; Barnard, Neal D; Anderson, James W

    2003-09-01

    Based on what is known of the components of plant-based diets and their effects from cohort studies, there is reason to believe that vegetarian diets would have advantages in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. At present there are few data on vegetarian diets in diabetes that do not in addition have weight loss or exercise components. Nevertheless, the use of whole-grain or traditionally processed cereals and legumes has been associated with improved glycemic control in both diabetic and insulin-resistant individuals. Long-term cohort studies have indicated that whole-grain consumption reduces the risk of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, nuts (eg, almonds), viscous fibers (eg, fibers from oats and barley), soy proteins, and plant sterols, which may be part of the vegetarian diet, reduce serum lipids. In combination, these plant food components may have a very significant impact on cardiovascular disease, one of the major complications of diabetes. Furthermore, substituting soy or other vegetable proteins for animal protein may also decrease renal hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and renal acid load and in the long term reduce the risk of developing renal disease in type 2 diabetes. The vegetarian diet, therefore, contains a portfolio of natural products and food forms of benefit for both the carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities in diabetes. It is anticipated that their combined use in vegetarian diets will produce very significant metabolic advantages for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.

  9. [The ketogenic diet: an underappreciated therapeutic option?].

    PubMed

    Paoli, A; Canato, M; Toniolo, L; Bargossi, A M; Neri, M; Mediati, M; Alesso, D; Sanna, G; Grimaldi, K A; Fazzari, A L; Bianco, A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in Western countries and is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the constant recommendations of health care organizations regarding the importance of weight control, this goal often fails. Although there is a common agreement about the concept that exercise and diet are two key factors for the control of body weight, the ideal amount and type of exercise and also the ideal diet for weight control are still under debate. A widely accepted nutritional regime is the Mediterranean diet that has evident health benefits although less attention has been paid to see if the effects are due to other lifestyle factors which may contribute to the health benefits perhaps as much as specific food choices. There are several other options available to the physician that may produce good weight loss results in the short/medium term and also for maintenance of the goal achieved. One of these strategies is the ketogenic diet or VLCKD (very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) that has been widely studied in recent years. Most studies show that this diet has a solid physiological and biochemical basis which is able to induce effective weight loss and improvement of several parameters of cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the physiological basis of VLCKD and the main applications together with its strengths and weaknesses compared to common dietary recommendations.

  10. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.

  11. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status.

  12. [Wheat, bread and pasta in Mediterranean diets].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Ruiz Vadillo, Virginia

    2004-06-01

    Cereals in diets have varied along evolution trends in food patterns. Cereals are starchy foods and are the main source of polysacharides in the diet. In Mediterranean countries, cereals have been used in different ways, though they are mainly used as refined cereals. Wheat bread is one of the most commonly used. In the average Spanish diet, considerable changes have taken place since 1961 leading to a significant decrease in percent energy from carbohydrate. At the same time, percent energy from fat has increased as web as protein intake. These changes in the nutritional pattern reflect a continuous decrease in consumption of grains and cereals, pulses and potatoes. In the last decades, consumption of pasta however has increased as web as consumption of processed bakery products and biscuits. Scientific and epidemiological evidence show that cereals should be the main source of energy in the diet, in line with the so-called Mediterranean Diet. Polysacharides should provide 50-55% energy. In order to reach that goal, cereal, legumes and potatoes should be included in the daily diet as 4-6 portions. Whole grain cereales should be preferred or food preparations combining pasta, potatoes or rice with vegetables in order to reduce the glycemic index. Processed bakery products and biscuits should be consumed in moderation.

  13. Biologically available iodine in goitrogenic diets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1985-01-01

    Eight different sources of low-iodine diet (LID) were tested in mice over 14 years. The available iodine in each diet was measured by isotopic equilibration. Commercially prepared Remington diets contained 6.8 to 69.3 ng available iodine/g, and the results were usually different from shipment to shipment. Some samples produced greatly enlarged thyroids. The Remington diets from two sources were occasionally low in iodine but produced little thyroid enlargement. Between 1977 and 1980 only one shipment of Remington diet was found to contain less than 10 ng available I/g, and it resulted in large goiters. Since 1980 other compositions of LID have been used, but they caused additional abnormalities during breeding or chronic feeding. A low-iodine wheat diet produced goiter in mice more readily than in rats. In the course of testing for unavailable forms of dietary iodine, it was found that only 34.2% of thyroxine iodine was available to the thyroid iodine pool of mice. It is concluded that unidentified nutritional deficiency or dietary contaminants can alter the goitrogenic response to restricted iodine intake. Furthermore, at least one natural form of potential dietary iodine is incompletely available to mice.

  14. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christy C; Wang, Yamin; Sacks, Frank M; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Aggarwal, Neelum T

    2015-09-01

    The Mediterranean and dash diets have been shown to slow cognitive decline; however, neither diet is specific to the nutrition literature on dementia prevention. We devised the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet score that specifically captures dietary components shown to be neuroprotective and related it to change in cognition over an average 4.7 years among 960 participants of the Memory and Aging Project. In adjusted mixed models, the MIND score was positively associated with slower decline in global cognitive score (β = 0.0092; P < .0001) and with each of five cognitive domains. The difference in decline rates for being in the top tertile of MIND diet scores versus the lowest was equivalent to being 7.5 years younger in age. The study findings suggest that the MIND diet substantially slows cognitive decline with age. Replication of these findings in a dietary intervention trial would be required to verify its relevance to brain health. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Plant-based diets: a review].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Attila; Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Andrea; Ungár, Tamás; Lászlóné Polyák, Éva; Szekeresné Szabó, Szilvia; Kovács, Réka Erika; Raposa, László Bence; Figler, Mária

    2016-11-01

    Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation. We discuss positive physiological effects of plant-based diet and its possible role in diseases risk reduction. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases developing due to obesity could be prevented by a properly compiled plant-based diet. For patients with cancer minimizing the intake of foods of animal origin - as opposed to plant-based ones - has proved to have positive effects. Our review suggests this diet can be used in a number of diseases and it also provides long-term sustainable solutions for the health care challenges of the newest era. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(47), 1859-1865.

  16. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  17. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health.

  18. Vegetarian and weight-loss diets among young adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, C F; Burke, L E; Wing, R R

    2000-03-01

    Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued. From 428 college students surveyed, four groups were delineated: 1) 59 participants had been following a vegetarian diet but not a weight-loss diet (Vegetarian), 2) 117 participants had tried a weight-loss diet but not a vegetarian diet (Weight Loss), 3) 133 participants had followed both a vegetarian and a weight-loss diet (Both), and 4) 119 participants had not tried either diet (Neither). Differences were examined by comparing the Vegetarian and Weight-Loss groups as well as by comparing the two diets within the Both group. Duration of the vegetarian diet was much greater than the weight-loss diet; most participants in the Vegetarian group (62%) remained on their diet for more than 1 year, whereas the majority of the Weight-Loss participants (61%) followed their diet for 1 to 3 months. Similar results were found when comparing the two diets within the Both group. How strictly the two diets were followed, however, did not differ. Analyses revealed that reasons for discontinuing a diet varied; participants were more likely to cite boredom as a reason for discontinuing a weight-loss diet than a vegetarian diet (53% vs. 5% between groups and 30% vs. 10% within the Both group). The longer duration of the vegetarian diet relative to the weight-loss diet warrants further investigation. Results could possibly be applied to behavioral weight-loss treatment to improve long-term maintenance.

  19. Effect of fructose consumption on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diet-intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Schene, Merle R; Holman, Rebecca; Romijn, Johannes A; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-12-01

    High fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to several features of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, but to our knowledge, no previous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled diet-intervention studies in nondiabetic subjects to determine the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials on the basis of predetermined eligibility criteria. Two investigators independently performed the study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Results were pooled with the use of the generic inverse-variance method with random effects weighting and were expressed as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. Twenty-nine articles that described 46 comparisons in 1005 normal-weight and overweight or obese participants met the eligibility criteria. An energy-matched (isocaloric) exchange of dietary carbohydrates by fructose promoted hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.91; P = 0.04) but had no effect on fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: -0.79 pmol/L; 95% CI: -6.41, 4.84 pmol/L; P = 0.78), the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: 0.13; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.34; P = 0.21), or glucose disposal rates under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: 20.41, 0.41; P = 1.00). Hypercaloric fructose (∼25% excess of energy compared with that of the weight-maintenance control diet) raised fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: 3.38 pmol/L; 95% CI: 0.03, 6.73 pmol/L; P < 0.05) and induced hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.26; P < 0.01) without affecting the HOMA-IR (MD: 0.18; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.39; P = 0.08) or glucose disposal rates (SMD: 0.10; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.40; P = 0.54). Results may have been limited by the low quality, small

  20. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour.

  1. [Is the Atkins diet safe in respect to health?].

    PubMed

    Förster, H

    1978-09-14

    The "Atkins dietary revolution" is a ketogenic diet consisting almost exclusively of food from animal origin. A similar diet was introduced as the "Banting diet" more than a century ago by the English physician Harvey. This carbohydrate-free diet is high in fat, cholesterol and purines. The measurable ketosis is a precondition for the effect of this kind of diet. However, the predictable hyperlipacidemia and ketosis are recognized health risks. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia is to be expected in a greater part of the adherents to such a diet. Even children under ketogenic diet develop hypercholesterolemia within a short time. A similar high-fat diet, known as the Sippy diet for ulcer therapy, was found earlier to cause an increased incidence in coronary heart disease. On the basis of the known facts the Atkins diet seems to be potentially hazardous to health, unless a controlled study is performed. However, considering the risks it seems very problematic to perform such a study.

  2. [Nutritional assessment of gluten-free diet. Is gluten-free diet deficient in some nutrient?].

    PubMed

    Salazar Quero, J C; Espín Jaime, B; Rodríguez Martínez, A; Argüelles Martín, F; García Jiménez, R; Rubio Murillo, M; Pizarro Martín, A

    2015-07-01

    The gluten-free diet has traditionally been accepted as a healthy diet, but there are articles advocating that it may have some nutritional deficiencies. The current study assesses whether there was any change in the contributions of calories, essential elements, proportion of fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and fiber in children who were diagnosed with celiac diseases, comparing the diet with gluten prior one year after diagnosis with the diet without gluten to the year of diagnosis. The level of clinical or analytical impact that nutritional deficits could have was also assessed. A prospective,descriptive, observational study in which information was collected from a dietary survey, anthropometric and analytical data at pre-diagnosis of celiac disease and following a gluten diet and one year after celiac disease diagnosis, under gluten-free diet. A total of 37 patients meet the study criteria. A decrease in the intake of saturated fatty acids was found, with an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the intake of phosphorus in the diet without gluten. A deficient intake of vitamin D was found in both diets. Clinically, at year of gluten-free diet there was an improvement in weight and size. Analytically, there was an improvement in hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone in plasma. The gluten-free diet has minimal deficiencies, similar to those present in the diet with gluten, with an improvement in the lipid profile by increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids to the detriment of saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of two raw diets vs a commercial cooked diet on feline growth.

    PubMed

    Hamper, Beth A; Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine if two raw feline diets were nutritionally adequate for kittens. Methods Twenty-four 9-week-old kittens underwent an Association of American Feed Control Officials' (AAFCO) 10 week growth feeding trial with two raw diet groups and one cooked diet group (eight kittens in each). Morphometric measurements (weight, height and length), complete blood counts, serum chemistry, whole blood taurine and fecal cultures were evaluated. Results Overall, the growth parameters were similar for all diet groups, indicating the two raw diets used in this study supported feline growth, within the limitations of an AAFCO growth feeding trial. Kittens fed the raw diets had lower albumin ( P = 0.010) and higher globulin ( P = 0.04) levels than the kittens fed the cooked diet. These lower albumin levels were not clinically significant, as all groups were still within normal age reference intervals. A red cell microcytosis ( P = 0.001) was noted in the combination raw diet group. Increases in fecal Clostridium perfringens were noted in all groups, along with positive fecal Salmonella serovar Heidelberg and Clostridium difficile toxin in the combination raw diet group. Conclusions and relevance The majority of the parameters for feline growth were similar among all groups, indicating the two raw diets studied passed an AAFCO growth trial. In theory, it is possible to pass an AAFCO growth trial but still have nutrient deficiencies in the long term due to liver and fat storage depots. Some of the raw feeders had elevated globulin and microcytosis, likely associated with known enteropathogenic exposure. Disease risks to both pets and owners are obvious. Additional research in this area is needed to investigate the impact of raw diets on the health of domestic cats.

  4. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  5. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. Methods: A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Results: Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Conclusion: Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings. PMID:28620490

  6. Diet and asthma: looking back, moving forward

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June-Ho; Ellwood, Philippa E; Asher, M Innes

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is an increasing global health burden, especially in the western world. Public health interventions are sought to lessen its prevalence or severity, and diet and nutrition have been identified as potential factors. With rapid changes in diet being one of the hallmarks of westernization, nutrition may play a key role in affecting the complex genetics and developmental pathophysiology of asthma. The present review investigates hypotheses about hygiene, antioxidants, lipids and other nutrients, food types and dietary patterns, breastfeeding, probiotics and intestinal microbiota, vitamin D, maternal diet, and genetics. Early hypotheses analyzed population level trends and focused on major dietary factors such as antioxidants and lipids. More recently, larger dietary patterns beyond individual nutrients have been investigated such as obesity, fast foods, and the Mediterranean diet. Despite some promising hypotheses and findings, there has been no conclusive evidence about the role of specific nutrients, food types, or dietary patterns past early childhood on asthma prevalence. However, diet has been linked to the development of the fetus and child. Breastfeeding provides immunological protection when the infant's immune system is immature and a modest protective effect against wheeze in early childhood. Moreover, maternal diet may be a significant factor in the development of the fetal airway and immune system. As asthma is a complex disease of gene-environment interactions, maternal diet may play an epigenetic role in sensitizing fetal airways to respond abnormally to environmental insults. Recent hypotheses show promise in a biological approach in which the effects of dietary factors on individual physiology and immunology are analyzed before expansion into larger population studies. Thus, collaboration is required by various groups in studying this enigma from epidemiologists to geneticists to immunologists. It is now apparent that this multidisciplinary

  7. Maternal diet programs embryonic kidney gene expression.

    PubMed

    Welham, Simon J M; Riley, Paul R; Wade, Angie; Hubank, Mike; Woolf, Adrian S

    2005-06-16

    Human epidemiological data associating birth weight with adult disease suggest that organogenesis is "programmed" by maternal diet. In rats, protein restriction in pregnancy produces offspring with fewer renal glomeruli and higher systemic blood pressures than controls. We tested the hypothesis that maternal diet alters gene expression in the metanephros, the precursor of the definitive mammalian kidney. We demonstrated that maternal low-protein diet initiated when pregnancy starts and maintained to embryonic day 13, when the metanephros consists of mesenchyme surrounding a once-branched ureteric bud, is sufficient to significantly reduce glomerular numbers in offspring by about 20%. As assessed by representational difference analyses and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions, low-protein diet modulated gene expression in embryonic day 13 metanephroi. In particular, levels of prox-1, the ortholog of Drosophila transcription factor prospero, and cofilin-1, a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, were reduced. During normal metanephrogenesis, prox-1 protein was first detected in mesenchymal cells around the ureteric tree and thereafter in nascent nephron epithelia, whereas cofilin-1 immunolocalized to bud derivatives and condensing mesenchyme. Previously, we reported that low-protein diets increased mesenchymal apoptosis cells when metanephrogenesis began and thereafter reduced numbers of precursor cells. Collectively, these studies prove that the maternal diet programs the embryonic kidney, altering cell turnover and gene expression at a time when nephrons and glomeruli have yet to form. The human implication is that the maternal diet ingested between conception and 5- 6-wk gestation contributes to the variation in glomerular numbers that are known to occur between healthy and hypertensive populations.

  8. [Diabetic diet and reduction diet are worthy of a basic discussion of their paradigms].

    PubMed

    Andel, M; Brunerová, L; Popová, L; Dlouhý, P; Duska, F; Smejkalová, V; Stich, V; Potocková, J; Kraml, P

    2004-05-01

    Present knowledge of etiopathogenesis of various types of diabetes postulate substantial differences between type I and type II diabetes. Whereas type I diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B-cells and subsequent absolute lack of insulin, type II diabetes is connected with insulin resistance and frequently with rather relative lack of sometimes absolutely elevated plasmatic insulin. From the viewpoint of the diet therapy an access to both types of diabetes fairly differs. Whilst in type I diabetes it is necessary to find out relationship among preprandial insulin dose, received carbohydrates, and expected physical activity soon after meal, treatment of type II diabetes is based in an effort to influence insulin resistance and the whole metabolic syndrome. Therefore, on one side carbohydrates with low glycemic index and plenty of fibers are administered in a diet and on the other side monoenic and polyenic fatty acids are preferred to saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids are continuously reduced in a diet. Of course, diets for patients with overweight and for obese patients are low energy. From the viewpoint of the current structure of the diabetic diets it is suitable to differentiate diets for patients with type I and type II diabetes. Instead of the use of a fix proportion of nutrients we have to discuss diets with regard to a qualitative composition of fatty acids in fats, glycemic index of saccharides, and an amount of fibers in the diet.

  9. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  10. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern.

    PubMed

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are identified. Despite its increasing popularity worldwide, adherence to the Mediterranean diet model is decreasing for multifactorial influences - life styles changes, food globalization, economic, and socio-cultural factors. These changes pose serious threats to the preservation and transmission of the Mediterranean diet heritage to present and future generations. Today's challenge is to reverse such trends. A greater focus on the Mediterranean diet's potential as a sustainable dietary pattern, instead than just on its well-documented healthy benefits, can contribute to its enhancement. More cross-disciplinary studies on environmental, economic and socio-cultural, and sustainability dimensions of the Mediterranean diet are foreseen as a critical need.

  11. The Spanish diet: an update.

    PubMed

    Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ruiz, Emma; Valero, Teresa; Avila, José Manuel; del Pozo, Susana

    2013-09-01

    Antecedentes/objetivos: La Encuesta de Consumo de Alimentos, realizada durante 20 años por el Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente (MAGRAMA), es la fuente más fiable de datos para evaluar el consumo de alimentos y patrones dietéticos en España. El objetivo de este artículo fue revisar las tendencias dietéticas en España y su evolución. Se describe la evaluación de la disponibilidad de alimentos per cápita y día, que permite el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes y su comparación con el Consumo Recomendado de Nutrientes para la población española. Además, se han evaluado diferentes marcadores de la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: La muestra consistió en los datos de consumo y distribución, obtenidos de la Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Alimentos para el período 2000-2012. Se aplicó un método de muestreo en dos etapas en el que, en la primera etapa, las unidades que se muestreaban fueron ciudades y entidades locales y, en la segunda, se seleccionaron los hogares que conformaron la muestra final a partir de las entidades locales. Las unidades consistieron en ciudades o entidades locales del territorio nacional. Los datos permitieron el cálculo de consumo de energía y nutrientes utilizando las tablas de Consumo de Alimentos (Moreiras et al., 2013). También se evaluó la calidad de la dieta: la adecuación de la dieta para alcanzar los consumos de energía y nutrientes recomendados; perfil de energía; calidad de la grasa de la dieta; calidad de la proteína de la dieta; densidad de nutrientes; índices de adecuación de la dieta mediterránea. Los datos actuales se compararon con los datos previos obtenidos por nuestro grupo de investigación en 1964, 1981 y 1991. Resultados: Utilizando los datos más recientes, el consumo promedio comprendía: leche y derivados (356 g/persona/día), frutas (323 g/persona/día), verduras y hortalizas (339 g/persona/día), cereales y derivados (197 g/persona/día), carne y productos c

  12. Longer term effects of very low energy diet on obstructive sleep apnoea in cohort derived from randomised controlled trial: prospective observational follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hemmingsson, Erik; Harlid, Richard; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Granath, Fredrik; Rössner, Stephan; Neovius, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether initial improvements in obstructive sleep apnoea after a very low energy diet were maintained after one year in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Design Single centre, prospective observational follow-up study. Setting Outpatient obesity clinic in a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 63 men aged 30-65 with body mass index (BMI) 30-40 and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15 (events/hour), all treated with continuous positive airway pressure. Intervention A one year weight loss programme, consisting of an initial very low energy diet for nine weeks (seven weeks of 2.3 MJ/day and two weeks of gradual introduction of normal food) followed by a weight loss maintenance programme. Main outcome measure Apnoea-hypopnoea index, the main index for severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. Data from all patients were analysed (baseline carried forward for missing data). Results Of 63 eligible patients, 58 completed the very low energy diet period and started the weight maintenance programme and 44 completed the full programme; 49 had complete measurements at one year. At baseline the mean apnoea-hypopnoea index was 36 events/hour. After the very low energy diet period, apnoea-hypopnoea index was improved by −21 events/hour (95% confidence interval −17 to −25) and weight by −18 kg (−16 to −19; both P<0.001). After one year the apnoea-hypopnoea index had improved by −17 events/hour (−13 to −21) and body weight by −12 kg (−10 to −14) compared with baseline (both P<0.001). Patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea at baseline had greater improvements in apnoea-hypopnoea index (−25 events/hour) compared with patients with moderate disease (−7 events/hour, P<0.001). At one year, 30/63 (48%, 95% confidence interval 35% to 60%) no longer required continuous positive airway pressure and 6/63 (10%, 2% to 17%) had total remission of

  13. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  14. Mediterranean diet pyramids: towards the Italian model.

    PubMed

    del Balzo, V; Diolordi, L; Pinto, A; Giusti, A M; Vitiello, V; Cannella, C; Dernini, S; Donini, L M; Berry, E M

    2012-01-01

    There is a long history to the representation of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid which may be seen as a form of cultural--culinary evolution as each country applies the foods best suited to its national diet. Different Mediterranean Diet pyramids have been designed for the population of Greece, Spain and Italy, tailored for their different food habits. These refer variously to portion sizes and frequency of consumption--daily, weekly and monthly and are not standardized. The 3rd CIISCAM Conference held in Parma, Italy was devoted to highlight the overall biodiversity and nutritional well being values and the sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, recognised as one of the healthiest dietary pattern, and to reduce the rapid erosion of "lifestyle and food habits. It is necessary, therefore, to refer more to a Mediterranean Lifestyle of which diet is only a part. It should include physical and social activity, recreation and rest. It may be possible to construct a Mediterranean food lifestyle index both to assess such a holistic aspect and to correlate with improved morbidity & mortality.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  16. Early life events in asthma--diet.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham

    2007-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the recent increase in the prevalence of asthma may, in part, be a consequence of changing diet. There is now increasing interest in the possibility that childhood asthma may be influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and/or diet during early childhood. A number of observational studies and a childhood fish oil supplementation study provide little support for the notion that early childhood intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the development of childhood asthma. Recent work however, suggests that supplementation of maternal diet with fish oil is associated with altered neonatal immune responses to allergens. Further work is required to establish whether this immunological observation is translated into clinical outcomes. Two birth cohorts have now reported reduced maternal intake of vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D during pregnancy to be associated with increased asthma and wheezing outcomes in children up to the age of 5 years. Early life diet could modulate the likelihood of childhood asthma by affecting fetal airway development and/or influencing the initial early life interactions between allergens and the immune system. In animal models, vitamin E, zinc and vitamin D have been shown to modify fetal lung development and vitamin E, zinc, vitamin D and PUFA can modulate T-cell responses. Further research, particularly, early life intervention studies need to be carried out to establish whether early life dietary intervention can be used as a public health measure to reduce the prevalence of childhood asthma.

  17. Low-carbohydrate diets and performance.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Haub, Mark D

    2007-07-01

    Athletes are continually searching for means to optimize their performance. Within the past 20 years, athletes and scientists have reported or observed that consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet may improve performance. The original theories explaining the purported benefits centered on the fact that fat oxidation increases, thereby "sparing" muscle glycogen. More recent concepts that explain the plausibility of the ergogenicity of low-carbohydrate, or high-fat, diets on exercise performance pertain to an effect similar to altitude training. We and others have observed that although fat oxidation may be increased, the ability to maintain high-intensity exercise (above the lactate threshold) seems to be compromised or at least indifferent when compared with consumption of more carbohydrate. That said, clinical studies clearly demonstrate that ad libitum low-carbohydrate diets elicit greater decreases in body weight and fat than energy-equivalent low-fat diets, especially over a short duration. Thus, although low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets appear detrimental or indifferent relative to performance, they may be a faster means to achieve a more competitive body composition.

  18. Tooth wear: diet analysis and advice.

    PubMed

    Young, William George

    2005-04-01

    Diet analysis and advice for patients with tooth wear is potentially the most logical intervention to arrest attrition, erosion and abrasion. It is saliva that protects the teeth against corrosion by the acids which soften enamel and make it susceptible to wear. Thus the lifestyles and diet of patients at risk need to be analysed for sources of acid and reasons for lost salivary protection. Medical conditions which put patients at risk of tooth wear are principally: asthma, bulimia nervosa, caffeine addiction, diabetes mellitus, exercise dehydration, functional depression, gastroesophageal reflux in alcoholism, hypertension and syndromes with salivary hypofunction. The sources of acid are various, but loss of salivary protection is the common theme. In healthy young Australians, soft drinks are the main source of acid, and exercise dehydration the main reason for loss of salivary protection. In the medically compromised, diet acids and gastroesophageal reflux are the sources, but medications are the main reasons for lost salivary protection. Diet advice for patients with tooth wear must: promote a healthy lifestyle and diet strategy that conserves the teeth by natural means of salivary stimulation; and address the specific needs of the patients' oral and medical conditions. Individualised, patient-empowering erosion WATCH strategies; on Water, Acid, Taste, Calcium and Health, are urgently required to combat the emerging epidemic of tooth wear currently being experienced in westernised societies.

  19. Diet in the management of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and characterize successful strategies in maintaining significant weight loss over a 5-year period. Very-low-calorie diets produce a more rapid weight loss but should only be used for fewer than 16 weeks because of clinical adverse effects. Diets that are severely restricted in carbohydrates (3%–10% of total energy intake) and do not emphasize a reduction of energy intake may be effective in reducing weight in the short term, but there is no evidence that they are sustainable or innocuous in the long term because their high saturated-fat content may be atherogenic. Fat restriction in a weight-loss regimen is beneficial, but the optimal percentage has yet to be determined. Longitudinal trials are needed to resolve these issues. In this article I discuss the evidence for and pitfalls of various types of weight-loss diets and identify issues that physicians need to address in weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. PMID:16389240

  20. Diet-induced acidosis and alkali supplementation.

    PubMed

    Della Guardia, Lucio; Roggi, Carla; Cena, Hellas

    2016-11-01

    Western diet, high in protein-rich foods and poor in vegetables, is likely to be responsible for the development of a moderate acid excess leading to metabolism deregulation and the onset or worsening of chronic disturbances. Available findings seem to suggest that diets with high protein/vegetables ratio are likely to induce the development of calcium lithiasis, especially in predisposed subjects. Moreover, some evidence supports the hypothesis of bone metabolism worsening and enhanced bone loss following acid-genic diet consumption although available literature seems to lack direct and conclusive evidence demonstrating pathological bone loss. According to other evidences, diet-induced acidosis is likely to induce or accelerate muscle wasting or sarcopenia, especially among elderlies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological findings highlight a specific role of dietary acid load in glucose metabolism deregulation and insulin resistance. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of acid-genic diets in the development of the mentioned metabolic disorders focusing on the possible clinical improvements exerted by alkali supplementation.

  1. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases?

    PubMed

    Segasothy, M; Phillips, P A

    1999-09-01

    We review the beneficial and adverse effects of vegetarian diets in various medical conditions. Soybean-protein diet, legumes, nuts and soluble fibre significantly decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Diets rich in fibre and complex carbohydrate, and restricted in fat, improve control of blood glucose concentration, lower insulin requirement and aid in weight control in diabetic patients. An inverse association has been reported between nut, fruit, vegetable and fibre consumption, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Patients eating a vegetarian diet, with comprehensive lifestyle changes, have had reduced frequency, duration and severity of angina as well as regression of coronary atherosclerosis and improved coronary perfusion. An inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke has been suggested. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially spinach and collard green, was associated with a lower risk of age-related ocular macular degeneration. There is an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colon and breast cancer as well as prevalence of colonic diverticula and gallstones. A decreased breast cancer risk has been associated with high intake of soy bean products. The beneficial effects could be due to the diet (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, fibre, complex carbohydrate, antioxidant vitamins, flavanoids, folic acid and phytoestrogens) as well as the associated healthy lifestyle in vegetarians. There are few adverse effects, mainly increased intestinal gas production and a small risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  2. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  3. Parent Diet Quality and Energy Intake Are Related to Child Diet Quality and Energy Intake.

    PubMed

    Robson, Shannon M; Couch, Sarah C; Peugh, James L; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E

    2016-06-01

    Parents' diets are believed to influence their children's diets. Previous studies have not adequately and simultaneously assessed the relationship between parent and child total diet quality and energy intakes. Our aim was to investigate whether parent and child diet quality and energy intakes are related. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using baseline dietary intake data from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids study collected in 2007 to 2009. Participants were parents and 6- to 12-year-old children from households in King County (Seattle area), WA, and San Diego County, CA, targeted by Neighborhood Impact on Kids were recruited. Eligible parent-child dyads (n=698) with two or three 24-hour dietary recalls were included in this secondary analysis. Child diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and energy density [for food only]) and energy intake were derived from the dietary recalls using Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between parent diet quality and child diet quality, and the relationship between parent energy intake and child energy intake. In both analyses, we controlled for parent characteristics, child characteristics, household education, and neighborhood type. Parent diet quality measures were significantly related to corresponding child diet quality measures: Healthy Eating Index-2010 (standardized β=.39; P<0.001); Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (β=.33; P<0.001); and energy density (β=.32; P<0.001). Parent daily mean energy intake (1,763±524 kcal) was also significantly related (β=.30; P<0.001) to child daily mean energy intake (1,751±431 kcal). Parent and child intakes were closely related across various metrics of diet quality and for energy intake. Mechanisms of influence are likely to be shared food environments, shared meals, and parent modeling. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by

  4. Parent Diet Quality and Energy Intake Are Related to Child Diet Quality and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Shannon M.; Couch, Sarah C.; Peugh, James L.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents' diets are believed to influence their children's diets. Previous studies have not adequately and simultaneously assessed the relation of parent and child total diet quality and energy intake. Objective To investigate if parent and child diet quality and energy intakes are related. Design A cross-sectional analysis using baseline dietary intake data from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) study collected in 2007-2009. Participants/setting Parents and 6-12 year old children from households in King County (Seattle area), WA and San Diego County, CA, targeted by NIK were recruited. Eligible parent-child dyads (n=698) with two or three 24-hour dietary recalls were included in this secondary analysis. Main Outcome Measures Child diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010 [HEI-2010], Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] score, and energy density (for food-only) and energy intake were derived from the dietary recalls using Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Statistical Analyses Performed Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between parent diet quality and child diet quality, and the relationship between parent energy intake and child energy intake. In both analyses, we controlled for parent characteristics, child characteristics, household education and neighborhood type. Results Parent diet quality measures were significantly related to corresponding child diet quality measures: HEI-2010 (standardized beta [β] = 0.39, p<0.001); DASH score (β = 0.33, p<0.001); energy density (β = 0.32, p<0.001). Parent daily average energy intake (1763 ± 524 kilocalories) also was significantly related (β = 0.30, p<0.001) to child daily average energy intake (1751 ± 431 kilocalories). Conclusion Parent and child intakes were closely related across various metrics of diet quality and for energy intake. Mechanisms of influence are likely to be shared food environments, shared meals, and parent modeling. PMID:27050725

  5. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D; White, Andrea; Hutchins, Heather; Sears, Barry

    2006-05-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets may promote greater weight loss than does the conventional low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. We compared weight loss and biomarker change in adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (KLC) diet or a nonketogenic low-carbohydrate (NLC) diet. Twenty adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 34.4 +/- 1.0] were randomly assigned to the KLC (60% of energy as fat, beginning with approximately 5% of energy as carbohydrate) or NLC (30% of energy as fat; approximately 40% of energy as carbohydrate) diet. During the 6-wk trial, participants were sedentary, and 24-h intakes were strictly controlled. Mean (+/-SE) weight losses (6.3 +/- 0.6 and 7.2 +/- 0.8 kg in KLC and NLC dieters, respectively; P = 0.324) and fat losses (3.4 and 5.5 kg in KLC and NLC dieters, respectively; P = 0.111) did not differ significantly by group after 6 wk. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate in the KLC dieters was 3.6 times that in the NLC dieters at week 2 (P = 0.018), and LDL cholesterol was directly correlated with blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (r = 0.297, P = 0.025). Overall, insulin sensitivity and resting energy expenditure increased and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase concentrations decreased in both diet groups during the 6-wk trial (P < 0.05). However, inflammatory risk (arachidonic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid ratios in plasma phospholipids) and perceptions of vigor were more adversely affected by the KLC than by the NLC diet. KLC and NLC diets were equally effective in reducing body weight and insulin resistance, but the KLC diet was associated with several adverse metabolic and emotional effects. The use of ketogenic diets for weight loss is not warranted.

  6. Effects of consuming a high carbohydrate diet after eight weeks of exposure to a ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ketogenic diets have been utilized for weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The present experiments examined the effects of returning to a chow diet after prolonged ingestion of a ketogenic diet. Methods Rats were maintained on chow (CH) or a ketogenic diet (KD) for 8 weeks, after which the KD rats were given access to chow only (KD:CH) for 8 additional weeks. Caloric intake, body weight, and plasma leptin, insulin and ghrelin were measured before and after the dietary switch. Results After 8 weeks of consuming a ketogenic diet, KD rats had increased adiposity and plasma leptin levels, and reduced insulin, as compared to CH controls. One week after the diet switch, fat pad weight and leptin levels remained elevated, and were normalized to CH controls within 8 weeks of the dietary switch. Switching from KD to chow induced a transient hypophagia, such that KD:CH rats consumed significantly fewer calories during the first week after the dietary switch, as compared to calories consumed by CH rats. This hypophagia was despite significantly increased plasma ghrelin in KD:CH rats. Finally, KD:CH rats developed hyperphagia over time, and during weeks 6-8 after the diet switch consumed significantly more calories per day than did CH-fed controls and gained more weight than CH-fed controls. Conclusion Collectively, these data demonstrate that returning to a carbohydrate-based diet after a period of consuming a ketogenic diet has post-diet effects on caloric intake, body weight gain, and insulin levels. PMID:19925676

  7. Social Determinants and Poor Diet Quality of Energy-Dense Diets of Australian Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Grech, Amanda; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to determine the diet quality and socio-demographic determinants by level of energy-density of diets of Australian young adults. Secondary analysis of the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey-2011/2012 for adults aged 18-34 years (n = 2397) was conducted. Diet was assessed by 24-h recalls. Dietary energy-density was calculated as dietary energy/grams of food (kJ/g) and the Healthy-Eating-Index-for-Australians (HEIFA-2013) was used to assess diet quality (highest score = 100). Dietary energy-density was examined with respect to diet quality and sociodemographic determinants including gender, highest tertiary-education attainment, country-of-birth, age, income, and socio-economic-index-for-area (SEIFA). Higher dietary energy-density was associated with lower diet quality scores (β = -3.71, t (2394) = -29.29, p < 0.0001) and included fewer fruits and vegetables, and more discretionary foods. The mean dietary energy-density was 7.7 kJ/g and 7.2 kJ/g for men and women, respectively. Subpopulations most at risk of consuming high energy-dense diets included those with lower education, Australian and English-speaking countries of birth, and men with low income and women from areas of lower socio-economic status. Young adults reporting low energy-dense diets had higher quality diets. Intensive efforts are needed to reduce the high energy-density of young adults' diets, and should ensure they include populations of lower socio-economic status.

  8. Low-carbohydrate diets: an update on current research.

    PubMed

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Davis, Nichola J

    2009-10-01

    The diabetes and obesity epidemics have stimulated research to assess the benefits and potential risks of low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrate comprises less than 45% of calories in carbohydrate-restricted diets, but very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets may restrict carbohydrate to 20 g initially with variability in the carbohydrate level subsequently. Some research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may achieve better early weight loss than comparison diets higher in carbohydrate. Studies of up to 1 year suggest that weight loss on low-carbohydrate diet is comparable with fat-restricted diets with higher carbohydrate content. Limited research has been conducted to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets in managing type 2 diabetes. Although science continues to advance in this field, current research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets can be a viable option for achieving weight loss and may have beneficial effects on glycemic control, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in some patients.

  9. Rational use of elemental and nonelemental diets in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed Central

    Fairfull-Smith, R; Abunassar, R; Freeman, J B; Maroun, J A

    1980-01-01

    Study A included 30 patients who received immediate postoperative enteral feeding with a nonelemental diet. The nonelemental diet was well tolerated. Study patients rapidly achieved nitrogen equilibrium and had a cumulative nitrogen balance of -11.1 g verus -46.7 g for the control group. In part B, 16 patients with varying degrees of bowel dysfunction received elemental and nonelemental diets in a crossover design. Patients with moderate small bowel impairment tolerated nonelemental better than the elemental diets. In those patients with more severe bowel impairment, the elemental diet was better tolerated. Nitrogen balance for both types of diet was similar in both groups of patients. It is concluded that nonelemental diets are better tolerated in most patients with moderate degrees of small bowel abnormality. In patients with severe bowel abnormality, elemental diets may be better tolerated, but nonelemental diets should still be the initial formula. PMID:7436590

  10. Festival Foods in the Immigrant Diet

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Kristen M.J.; Chen, Edith; Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary acculturation for immigrant groups has largely been attributed to the “Westernization” of indigenous diets, as characterized by an increased consumption of unhealthy American foods (i.e. fast foods, hamburgers). However, acculturation and adoption of western dietary habits may not fully explain new dietary patterns among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. The immigrant diet may change in such a way that it elaborates on specific ethnic traditions in addition to the incorporation of Western food habits. In this paper, we explore the role that festival foods, those foods that were once eaten a few times a year and on special occasions, play in the regular diet of immigrants to the U.S. This paper will focus on the overconsumption of ethnic festival foods, which are often high in carbohydrates, animal protein, sugar and fat, as opposed to Western “junk” food, as an explanation for the increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders among new immigrant groups. PMID:22968231

  11. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Ayelet; Peleg-Weiss, Lilach; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed. PMID:23908829

  12. Diet effects in gut microbiome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; He, Xianzhi; Huang, Jinhai

    2014-04-01

    The 100 trillion microbes in human gut coevolve with the host and exert significant influences on human health. The gut microbial composition presents dynamic changes correlated with various factors including host genotypes, age, and external environment. Effective manipulation of the gut microbiota through diets (both long-term and short-term diet patterns), probiotics and/or prebiotics, and antibiotics has been proved being potential to prevent from metabolic disorders such as obesity in many studies. The dietary regulation exerts influences on microbial metabolism and host immune functions through several pathways, of which may include selectively bacterial fermentation of nutrients, lower intestinal barrier function, overexpression of genes associated with disorders, and disruptions to both innate and adaptive immunity. Discoveries in the interrelationship between diet, intestinal microbiome, and body immune system provide us novel perceptions to the specific action mechanisms and will promote the development of therapeutic approaches for obesity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. An update on the ketogenic diet, 2012.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Ayelet; Peleg-Weiss, Lilach; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child's alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed.

  14. Acne and diet: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder characterized by follicular hyperkeratinization and obstruction of the pilosebaceous follicles, androgen stimulated sebum production, colonization of the follicles by Propionibacterium acne, and inflammation. A large number of epidemiological studies have shown a low incidence of acne in non-Western societies, suggesting that diet might be an important factor in acne pathogenesis, particularly in mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and androgen stimulation in the acne process. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that diet might have a preventive or therapeutic effect in this skin disorder. Since the majority of recent data have not been consistent, the aim of this article is to present current knowledge and scientific assumptions on the relationship between diet and acne.

  15. A Review of the Fundamentals of Diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary recommendations should be individualized for each patient, but certain basic principles apply to most people. A healthful diet should include a wide variety of whole, unprocessed foods that are free of additives and, if possible, grown without the use of pesticides, herbicides, and other potentially toxic agricultural chemicals. For people who do not have specific food intolerances, such a diet generally includes liberal amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes. For most people, animal foods such as eggs, fish, chicken, beef, and dairy products can be healthfully consumed in moderation. It is not necessary to consume animal foods to maintain good health. In fact, compared with omnivores, vegetarians have a lower risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. However, vegetarians must carefully plan their diet so as not to develop nutritional deficiencies. PMID:24381826

  16. Is dieting behaviour decreasing in young adolescents?

    PubMed

    Whittle, Claire R; Yarnell, John W G; Stevenson, Mike; McCay, Naomi; Gaffney, Brian P; Shields, Michael D; Woodside, Jayne V

    2013-05-01

    To report trends in underweight, overweight and obesity in 12-15-year-old adolescents and examine changes in dieting behaviour, which have been less well documented. Comparison of two independent representative cross-sectional surveys. Northern Ireland. Weight and height were objectively measured in 1324 boys and 1160 girls in 1996 and 1274 boys and 1374 girls in 2007. Participants reported whether they were following any particular diet including a self-proposed or prescribed weight-reduction diet. Overweight and obesity increased in girls from 15 % to 23 % and 2 % to 6 %, respectively. Increases were more modest in boys with overweight increasing from 13 % to 18 % and obesity from 3 % to 6 %. The proportion of underweight adolescents decreased from 9 % to 6 % in girls and 8 % to 5 % in boys. Evidence of social disparity was observed in girls from a manual socio-economic background, with overweight/obesity prevalence rates increasing from 21 % to 36 % compared with 15 % to 26 % in girls from a non-manual background. Despite these trends fewer adolescents, in particular girls, reported following weight-reduction diets (14 % of overweight/obese girls in 2007 v. 21 % in 1996; 8 % of boys in 2007 v. 13 % in 1996). Of these girls, the proportion from a manual background following weight-reduction diets decreased from 25 % to 11 %. Overweight and obesity are continuing to increase in adolescents despite government and media awareness strategies. There also appears to be reduced dieting behaviour, despite increasing body weight, particularly in girls from manual socio-economic backgrounds.

  17. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  18. Low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Smart, Neil A; Marshall, Belinda J; Daley, Maxine; Boulos, Elie; Windus, Janelle; Baker, Nadine; Kwok, Nigel

    2011-02-16

    Hypercholesterolaemia, characterised by raised blood cholesterol levels, is not a disease itself but a metabolic derangement that often contributes to many diseases, notably cardiovascular disease. In most cases, elevated cholesterol levels are associated with high-fat diet, especially saturated fat, coupled with an inactive lifestyle. Less commonly, raised cholesterol may be related to an inherited disorder, familial hypercholesterolaemia. This systematic review is only concerned with acquired hypercholesterolaemia. To assess the effects of low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia and to investigate the incidence of adverse effects from low-fat dietary interventions. We planned to compare the relative effectiveness of low-fat diets with calorie-restricted diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia. We also wanted to look into the relative effectiveness of low-fat diets and pharmacological interventions for acquired hypercholesterolaemia. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and databases of ongoing trials. Date of last search was February 2010. Otherwise healthy adults (equal to or greater than 18 years) with acquired (not familial) hypercholesterolaemia. We defined hypercholesterolaemia as either total cholesterol greater than 5.2 mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol greater than 3.0 mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol less than 1.0 mmol/L or a combination thereof, although investigators' definitions were also accepted. We wanted to include any low-fat dietary intervention, like low-fat and low-saturated fat diets, intended to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol or to raise HDL-cholesterol. A low-fat diet was considered as a fat calorie intake less than 20% of the total calories. The minimum duration of the intervention had to be six months. We excluded studies in unhealthy people. Two authors were planned to independently assess risk of bias and extract data. No study met our inclusion criteria. Well designed, adequately

  19. The portfolio diet for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Josse, Andrea R; Wong, Julia M W; Nguyen, Tri H; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2007-12-01

    Prompted by current dietary recommendations for the control of serum cholesterol to new targets to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and by the CHD risk reduction claims made for certain foods or food components, studies are now being undertaken using combinations of cholesterol-lowering foods in one diet (eg, a dietary portfolio) rather than single foods to achieve more effective dietary control of serum cholesterol. This approach has increased the potential relevance of dietary therapy and may yield nutrition strategies that bridge the gap between what is regarded as a good diet and drug therapy.

  20. The association of acne vulgaris with diet.

    PubMed

    Veith, Whitney B; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disorder of the pilosebaceous unit affecting adolescents and adults. The rise in incidence of acne in the United States may relate to the Western diet--which is rich in dairy and refined sugars, and high in glycemic load--and to the obesity epidemic. We reviewed the literature on diet and acne. Evidence exists highlighting the association of acne and high glycemic loads, certain dairy products, and refined sugar product ingestion. Future studies are required to determine if dietary modification will reduce long-term acne burden.