Science.gov

Sample records for reconnaissance imaging spectrometer

  1. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars investigation and data set from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Seelos, F.P.; Hash, C.D.; Humm, D.C.; Malaret, E.; McGovern, J.A.; Choo, T.H.; Seelos, K.D.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Morgan, M.F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Nair, H.; Taylor, H.W.; Patterson, G.W.; Harvel, C.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Arvidson, R. E.; McGuire, P.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.; Titus, T.N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Poulet, F.

    2009-01-01

    The part of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) for Mars investigation conducted during the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO's) primary science phase was a comprehensive investigation of past aqueous environments, structure of the planet's crust, past climate, and current meteorology. The measurements to implement this investigation include over 9500 targeted observations of surface features taken at spatial resolutions of better than 40 m/pixel, monitoring of seasonal variations in atmospheric aerosols and trace gases, and acquisition of a 200 m/pixel map covering over 55% of Mars in 72 selected wavelengths under conditions of relatively low atmospheric opacity. Key results from these data include recognition of a diversity of aqueous mineral-containing deposits, discovery of a widespread distribution of phyllosilicates in early to middle Noachian units, the first definitive detection of carbonates in bedrock, new constraints on the sequence of events that formed Hesperian-aged, sulfate-rich layered deposits, characterization of seasonal polar processes, and monitoring of the 2007 global dust event. Here we describe CRISM's science investigations during the Primary Science Phase, the data sets that were collected and their calibration and uncertainties, and how they have been processed and made available to the scientific community. We also describe the ongoing investigation during MRO's extended science phase. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM): characterization results for instrument and focal plane subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverglate, Peter R.; Heffernan, Kevin J.; Bedini, Peter D.; Boldt, John D.; Cavender, Peter J.; Choo, Tech H.; Darlington, Edward H.; Donald, Erik T.; Fasold, Melissa J.; Fort, Dennis E.; Gurnee, Reid S.; Hayes, Allen T.; Hayes, John R.; Hemler, James B.; Humm, David C.; Izenberg, Noam R.; Lee, Robert E.; Lees, William J.; Lohr, David A.; Murchie, Scott L.; Murphy, Graham A.; Reiter, Ralph A.; Rossano, Edigio; Seagrave, Gordon G.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Strohbehn, Kim; Taylor, Howard W.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Tossman, Barry E.; Wilson, Paul, IV; Robinson, Mark S.; Green, Robert; Mitchell, Steven E.

    2004-10-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will launch in 2005 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, with its primary science objective to characterize sites with aqueous mineral deposits hyperspectrally at high spatial resolution. CRISM"s two Offner relay spectrometers share a single entrance slit with a dichroic beamsplitter. The IR focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) HgCdTe FPA with a 980 nm to 3960 nm spectral bandpass. It is cooled to 110 K to minimize dark current, and coupled to a 28 mm long cold shield to minimize thermal background. The spectrometer housing is cooled to -90 C for the same reason. A three-zone IR filter consisting of two broadband filters and a linear variable filter overlays the IR focal plane, eliminating multiple grating orders and providing additional attenuation of the thermal background. The visible focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) silicon photodiode array, with a 380-1050 nm spectral bandpass occupying approximately 106 rows of the detector. A two-zone filter comprised of two different Schott glasses eliminates multiple grating orders. The two focal planes together cover 544 spectral channels with a dispersion of 6.55 nm/channel in the VNIR and 6.63 nm/channel in the IR. The optics and focal planes are gimbaled, and a pre-programmed slew can be used to remove groundtrack motion while superimposing a scan across a target. CRISM will operate in two basic modes: a scanning, high resolution mode to hyperspectrally map small, targeted areas of high scientific interest, and a fixed, nadir-pointed, lower resolution pixel-binned mode using selected wavelength channels to obtain near-global coverage to find targets. Preliminary performance of the CRISM instrument is presented, and is compared with prior system design predictions.

  3. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  4. Aerosol Particle Size Retrievals from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    During the extended mission of the Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has made periodic limb-viewing geometry observations of the Martian atmosphere. Sufficient radiance is typically available to produce a vertical distribution of dust and water ice aerosols from the surface to approximately 50 km altitude. Radiative transfer modeling is conducted to achieve a best fit between the observed and modeled spectrum. The spherical geometry of the limb-viewing geometry is handled using a pseudo-spherical approximation that is computationally efficient and accurate to within a few percent of a Monte Carlo method for the geometries observed. Different particle sizes of dust and water ice have unique extinction coefficients across the visible and near-infrared portion of the spectrum observed by CRISM. We use a wide range of wavelengths across the CRISM spectrum to conduct the retrieval. Here we provide initial results on the retrieval of dust and water ice particle sizes over the duration of the CRISM limb-viewing observations.

  5. Martian gullies as seen by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; McGovern, A.; Buczkowski, D.; Seelos, K.; Seelos, F.; Murchie, S.; Ehlmann, B.; Science Team, C.

    2008-12-01

    Over 100 high resolution targeted images of martian gullies and debris fans have been obtained by the CRISM instrument currently orbiting Mars aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. A survey of these images provides some new constraints on the origin and evolution of these features. We have found no evidence for the recent formation of hydrated minerals in these features, even the most recent light-toned ones. Ice clouds are sometimes visible in the vicinity of the gullies, but these are seasonal. A wide range of mineralogies is observed and includes phyllosilicates, mafics and sulphates. The distribution of the minerals and their relationship to the underlying rocks suggest that the gully-forming process exposes underlying rocks and moves them downslope. When more than one gully is present on a given slope, both vertical and horizontal stratigraphy within the source region is revealed. The wispy nature of the deposits, especially when specific spectral indicators are examined, suggests that the gullies are the result of many small events. The lack of dust coverage on some of the spectrally distinct gullies could indicate fairly recent activity, although eolian erosion could also be a factor. Many other gullies that are indistinct spectrally from their surroundings could be old and inactive, or could indicate very active dust deposition. The processes dominating the modification of the gullies can be established by combining CRISM observations with other nearby geomorphic indicators.

  6. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  7. Comparison of imaging spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C

    2000-01-09

    Realistic signal to noise performance estimates for the various types of instruments being considered for NGST are compared, based on the point source detection values quoted in the available ISIM final reports. The corresponding sensitivity of the various types of spectrometers operating in a full field imaging mode, for both emission line objects and broad spectral distribution objects, is computed and displayed. For the purpose of seeing the earliest galaxies, or the faintest possible emission line sources, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer emerges superior to all others, by orders of magnitude in speed.

  8. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  10. Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B.; Davies, A. G.; Green, R. O.; Hedman, M. M.; Hibbits, C. A.; Langevin, Y. J.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Soderblom, J. M.; Cable, M. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Kim, W.; Dorsky, L. I.; Strohbehn, K.

    2015-10-01

    The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa(MISE) instrument is designed to be able to unravel the composition of Europa, and to provide new insight into the processes that have in the past and continue to shape Europa, and on the habitability of Europa's ocean. The MISE design is the result of collaboration between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (John Hopkins' University). JPL's Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayan-1 and APL's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) comprise the technical basis for MISE. Internal JPL and APL investments in conjunction with NASA support under the ICEE program has allowed for instrument technology development and testing to achieve a design which would perform in Europa's radiation environment and meet potential sterilization requirements due to planetary protection.

  11. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  12. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  13. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  14. Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Green, Robert; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Cable, Morgan; Ehlmann, Bethany; Haag, Justin; Lamborn, Andrew; McKinley, Ian; Rodriguez, Jose; van Gorp, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a modular visible to short wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer architecture which could be adapted to a variety of mission concepts requiring low mass and low power. Imaging spectroscopy is an established technique to address complex questions of geologic evolution by mapping diagnostic absorption features due to minerals, organics, and volatiles throughout our solar system. At the core of UCIS is an Offner imaging spectrometer using M3 heritage and a miniature pulse tube cryo-cooler developed under the NASA Maturation of Instruments for Solar System Exploration (MatISSE) program to cool the focal plane array. The TRL 6 integrated spectrometer and cryo-cooler provide a basic imaging spectrometer capability that is used with a variety of fore optics to address lunar, mars, and small body science goals. Potential configurations include: remote sensing from small orbiters and flyby spacecraft; in situ panoramic imaging spectroscopy; and in situ micro-spectroscopy. A micro-spectroscopy front end is being developed using MatISSE funding with integration and testing planned this summer.

  15. Convex Diffraction Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A 1:1 Offner mirror system for imaging off-axis objects is modified by replacing a concave spherical primary mirror that is concentric with a convex secondary mirror with two concave spherical mirrors M1 and M2 of the same or different radii positioned with their respective distances d1 and d2 from a concentric convex spherical diffraction grating having its grooves parallel to the entrance slit of the spectrometer which replaces the convex secondary mirror. By adjusting their distances d1 and d2 and their respective angles of reflection alpha and beta, defined as the respective angles between their incident and reflected rays, all aberrations are corrected without the need to increase the spectrometer size for a given entrance slit size to reduce astigmatism, thus allowing the imaging spectrometer volume to be less for a given application than would be possible with conventional imaging spectrometers and still give excellent spatial and spectral imaging of the slit image spectra over the focal plane.

  16. High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Joseph M.; Herring, Mark; Norris, David D.

    1988-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS), related data system, orbit, and mission operations are described. The pushbroom instrument simultaneously images the terrestrial surface in 192 spectral bands from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The swath width is 30 km and spatial resolution is 30 m. It is planned to be launched with the Earth Observing System aboard the Space Station Polar Platform in 1995. Array detectors allow concurrent integration of the signals at 192,000 detector elements.

  17. Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Wide-field imaging systems equipped with objective prisms or gratings have had a long history of utility in groundbased observations of meteors and comets. Deployment of similar instruments from low Earth orbit would allow the first UV observations of meteors. This instrument can be used for comets and Lyman alpha coronae of Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids. A CaF2 prism imaging spectrograph designed for stellar observations was used aboard Skylab to observe Comet Kohoutek (1973f), but its 1300-A cut-off precluded Lyman alpha images and it was not used for observation of meteors. Because the observation of the UV spectrum of a meteor has never been attempted, researchers are denied the opportunity to obtain composition information from spectra at those wavelengths. We propose construction of a flight instrument functioning in the 1100-3200 A spectral range that is suitable for a dedicated satellite ('Quick Star') or as a space-station-attached payload. It can also be an autonomous package in the space shuttle cargo bay.

  18. Ultraviolet imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowiak, T. J.

    Wide-field imaging systems equipped with objective prisms or gratings have had a long history of utility in groundbased observations of meteors and comets. Deployment of similar instruments from low Earth orbit would allow the first UV observations of meteors. This instrument can be used for comets and Lyman alpha coronae of Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids. A CaF2 prism imaging spectrograph designed for stellar observations was used aboard Skylab to observe Comet Kohoutek (1973f), but its 1300-A cut-off precluded Lyman alpha images and it was not used for observation of meteors. Because the observation of the UV spectrum of a meteor has never been attempted, researchers are denied the opportunity to obtain composition information from spectra at those wavelengths. We propose construction of a flight instrument functioning in the 1100-3200 A spectral range that is suitable for a dedicated satellite ('Quick Star') or as a space-station-attached payload. It can also be an autonomous package in the space shuttle cargo bay.

  19. HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2004-08-01

    A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

  20. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  1. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  2. Imaging spectrometer/camera having convex grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reininger, Francis M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging spectrometer has fore-optics coupled to a spectral resolving system with an entrance slit extending in a first direction at an imaging location of the fore-optics for receiving the image, a convex diffraction grating for separating the image into a plurality of spectra of predetermined wavelength ranges; a spectrometer array for detecting the spectra; and at least one concave sperical mirror concentric with the diffraction grating for relaying the image from the entrance slit to the diffraction grating and from the diffraction grating to the spectrometer array. In one embodiment, the spectrometer is configured in a lateral mode in which the entrance slit and the spectrometer array are displaced laterally on opposite sides of the diffraction grating in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction. In another embodiment, the spectrometer is combined with a polychromatic imaging camera array disposed adjacent said entrance slit for recording said image.

  3. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  4. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  5. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  6. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  7. Acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Reyes, George; Rider, David; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    A remote sensing multispectral imaging instrument is being developed that uses a high resolution, fast programmable acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) as the spectral bandpass filter. A compact and fully computer controllable AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that operates in the visible wavelength range (0.5-0.8 microns) has been built and tested with success. A second imaging spectrometer operating in the near-infrared wavelength range (1.2-2.4 microns) is also under experimental investigation. The design criteria meeting various system issues, such as imaging quality, spectral response, and field of view (FOV), are discussed. An experiment using this AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard is described.

  8. Imaging Spectrometer on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Zheng, Xinyu

    2007-01-01

    A proposed visible-light imaging spectrometer on a chip would be based on the concept of a heterostructure comprising multiple layers of silicon-based photodetectors interspersed with long-wavelength-pass optical filters. In a typical application, this heterostructure would be replicated in each pixel of an image-detecting integrated circuit of the active-pixel-sensor type (see figure). The design of the heterostructure would exploit the fact that within the visible portion of the spectrum, the characteristic depth of penetration of photons increases with wavelength. Proceeding from the front toward the back, each successive long-wavelength-pass filter would have a longer cutoff wavelength, and each successive photodetector would be made thicker to enable it to absorb a greater proportion of incident longer-wavelength photons. Incident light would pass through the first photodetector and encounter the first filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength and pass light of longer wavelengths. A large portion of the incident and reflected shorter-wavelength light would be absorbed in the first photodetector. The light that had passed through the first photodetector/filter pair of layers would pass through the second photodetector and encounter the second filter, which would reflect light having wavelengths shorter than its cutoff wavelength while passing light of longer wavelengths. Thus, most of the light reflected by the second filter would lie in the wavelength band between the cutoff wavelengths of the first and second filters. Thus, further, most of the light absorbed in the second photodetector would lie in this wavelength band. In a similar manner, each successive photodetector would detect, predominantly, light in a successively longer wavelength band bounded by the shorter cutoff wavelength of the preceding filter and the longer cutoff wavelength of the following filter.

  9. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-O IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 micron (1000-4000/cm) to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications. One application will be the remote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the same airmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefringent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches to achieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventional Fourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, system architecture and recent experimental progress will be presented.

  10. Electro-optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2005-01-01

    JPL is developing an innovative compact, low mass, Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (E-0IFTS) for hyperspectral imaging applications. The spectral region of this spectrometer will be 1 - 2.5 pm (1000 -4000 cm-') to allow high-resolution, high-speed hyperspectral imaging applications [l-51. One application will be theremote sensing of the measurement of a large number of different atmospheric gases simultaneously in the sameairmass. Due to the use of a combination of birefiingent phase retarders and multiple achromatic phase switches toachieve phase delay, this spectrometer is capable of hyperspectral measurements similar to that of the conventionalFourier transform spectrometer but without any moving parts. In this paper, the principle of operations, systemarchitecture and recent experimental progress will be presen.

  11. Imaging Spectrometers Using Concave Holographic Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradie, J.; Wang, S.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy combines the spatial attributes of imaging with the compositionally diagnostic attributes of spectroscopy. For spacebased remote sensing applications, mass, size, power, data rate, and application constrain the scanning approach. For the first three approaches, substantial savings in mass and size of the spectrometer can be achieved in some cases with a concave holographic grating and careful placement of an order-sorting filter. A hologram etched on the single concave surface contains the equivalent of the collimating, dispersing, and camera optics of a conventional grating spectrometer and provides substantial wavelength dependent corrections for spherical aberrations and a flat focal field. These gratings can be blazed to improve efficiency when used over a small wavelength range or left unblazed for broadband uniform efficiency when used over a wavelength range of up to 2 orders. More than 1 order can be imaged along the dispersion axis by placing an appropriately designed step order-sorting filter in front of the one- or two-dimensional detector. This filter can be shaped for additional aberration corrections. The VIRIS imaging spectrometer based on the broadband design provides simultaneous imaging of the entrance slit from lambda = 0.9 to 2.6 microns (1.5 orders) onto a 128 x 128 HgCdTe detector (at 77 K). The VIRIS spectrometer was used for lunar mapping with the UH 24.in telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The design is adaptable for small, low mass, space based imaging spectrometers.

  12. Improved real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Yu, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that offers several advantages over prior art AOTF imaging spectrometers is presented. The ability to electronically set the bandpass wavelength provides observational flexibility. Various improvements in optical architecture provide simplified magnification variability, improved image resolution and light throughput efficiency and reduced sensitivity to ambient light. Two embodiments of the invention are: (1) operation in the visible/near-infrared domain of wavelength range 0.48 to 0.76 microns; and (2) infrared configuration which operates in the wavelength range of 1.2 to 2.5 microns.

  13. Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Lee, F.D.

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently operating a hyperspectral imager, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (LIFTIRS). This instrument is capable of operating throughout the infrared spectrum from 3 to 12.5 {mu}m with controllable spectral resolution. In this presentation we report on it`s operating characteristics, current capabilities, data throughput and calibration issues.

  14. Spectral calibration of programmable imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guojun; Liao, Zhibo; Jiao, Wenchun; Zong, Xiaoying; He, Xuhua; Wang, Haichao

    2015-10-01

    Programmable imager spectrometer can provide flexible data by changing the spectrum section number, central wavelength, spectral width and spatial resolution in orbit. Spectral calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an important role for acquiring accurate spectrum, two spectral calibration types are in essence: wavelength calibration and Full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). Base on the character of programmable imager spectrometer, designed a set of spectral calibration system. Wavelength calibration realized by utilizing the Monochromatic light of high precision monochromator, during the test, changed output parameters of monochromator according to the spectral bandwidth of imager spectrometer. The FWHM is constructed by a set of variable narrow spectrum lines that is output by tunable laser. Gaussian fitting algorithm is used to determine center wavelength and the FWHM of the characteristic spectrum line, Spectral pixels are calibrated by quadratic polynomial, standard spectroscopic lamp is used to verify wavelength calibration result accuracy. The calibration result indicates that FWHM is better than 2nm, the wavelength uncertainty is less than 0.6nm, meet the calibration requirements of programmable imaging spectrometer.

  15. A novel digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengmin; Zhao, Cong; Zhou, Heqin; Feng, Huanqing

    2006-01-01

    Spectrometer is the essential part of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. It controls the transmitting and receiving of signals. Many commercial spectrometers are now available. However, they are usually costly and complex. In this paper, a new digital spectrometer based on PCI extensions for instrumentation (PXI) architecture is presented. Radio frequency (RF) pulse is generated with the method of digital synthesis and its frequency and phase are continuously tunable. MR signal acquired by receiver coils is processed by digital quadrature detection and filtered to get the k-space data, which avoid the spectral distortion due to amplitude and phase errors between two channels of traditional detection. Compared to the conventional design, the presented spectrometer is built with general PXI platform and boards. This design works in a digital manner with features of low cost, high performance and accuracy. The experiments demonstrate its efficiency.

  16. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  17. Imaging spectrometer for fugitive gas leak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    1999-12-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a very sensitive infrared imaging spectrometer that can perform remote imaging and spectro-radiometry. One of the most exciting applications for this technology is in the remote monitoring of smoke stack emissions and fugitive leaks. To date remote continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems have not been approved by the EPA, however, they are under consideration. If the remote sensing technology is available with the sensitivity to monitor emission at the required levels and man portable it can reduce the cost and improve the reliability of performing such measurements. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) believes that it currently has this technology available to industry. This paper will present results from a field test where gas vapors during a refueling process were imaged and identified. In addition images of propane from a leaking stove will be presented. We at PAT have developed a real time image processing board that enhances the signal to noise ratio of low contrast gases and makes them easily viewable using the Image Multispectral Sensing (IMSS) imaging spectrometer. The IMSS imaging spectrometer is the size of a camcorder. Currently the data is stored in a Notebook computer thus allowing the system to be easily carried into power plants to look for fugitive leaks. In the future the IMSS will have an embedded processor and DSP and will be able to transfer data over an Ethernet link.

  18. Traitement des Images pour la Reconnaissance de Formes EN Presence de Bruit Dependant du Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrillon, Jean-Christophe

    En traitement d'images, tres peu de recherches ont jusqu'a present considere le probleme de la reconnaissance de formes en presence de bruit dependant du signal. L'originalite de ce travail reside d'une part dans l'etude de la reconnaissance de formes par correlation, invariante sous translation et invariante simultanement sous rotation et translation, en presence de bruit dependant du signal et, d'autre part, dans le developpement de nouvelles methodes de traitement d'images qui preservent la reconnaissance en presence du bruit lorsque les methodes existantes ont echoure. Nous considerons principalement le speckle, qui peut se manifester dans les correlateurs optiques operant en eclairement coherent. Les nouvelles methodes que nous proposons consistent en un pre-traitement des images bruitees base sur la theorie de l'estimation. Au moyen de simulations numeriques et d'une analyse statistique, nous montrons les avantages du pre-traitement, en particulier pour la reconnaissance avec les filtres de correlation invariants sous rotation et translation.

  19. Reflecting Schmidt/Littrow Prism Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Page, N. A.; Shack, R. V.; Shannon, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution achieved with wide field of view. Imaging Spectrometer features off-axis reflecting optics, including reflecting "slit" that also serves as field flattener. Only refracting element is prism. By scanning slit across object or scene and timing out signal, both spectral and spatial information in scene are obtained.

  20. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  1. ScanSpec: an imaging FTIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsson, Claes; Lundberg, Frans; Nilsson, Paer; Berglund, Mattias

    2000-07-01

    The demand for hyperspectral imagers for research has increased in order to match the performance of new sensors for military applications. These work in several spectral bands and targets and backgrounds need to be characterized both spatially and spectrally to enable efficient signature analysis. Another task for a hyperspectral research imager is to acquire hyperspectral data to be able to study new hyperspectral signal processing techniques to detect, classify, and identify targets. This paper describes how a hyperspectral IR imager was developed based on an FTIR spectrometer at the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) in Linkoping, Sweden. The system, called ScanSpec, consists of a fast FTIR spectrometer from Bomem (MR254), an image-scanning mirror device with controlling electronics, and software for data collection and image forming. The spectrometer itself has not been modified. The paper also contains a performance evaluation with NESR NEDT, and MRTD analysis. Finally, some examples of hyperspectral results from field trials are presented: maritime background and remote gas detection.

  2. HyTES: Thermal Imaging Spectrometer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Realmuto, Vincent; Lamborn, Andy; Paine, Chris; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES). It is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer based on the Dyson optical configuration. First low altitude test flights are scheduled for later this year. HyTES uses a compact 7.5-12 micrometer m hyperspectral grating spectrometer in combination with a Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) and grating based spectrometer. The Dyson design allows for a very compact and optically fast system (F/1.6). Cooling requirements are minimized due to the single monolithic prism-like grating design. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal science-grade imaging spectroscopy solution for high altitude, lighter-than-air (HAA, LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The QWIP sensor allows for optimum spatial and spectral uniformity and provides adequate responsivity which allows for near 100mK noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) operation across the LWIR passband. The QWIP's repeatability and uniformity will be helpful for data integrity since currently an onboard calibrator is not planned. A calibration will be done before and after eight hour flights to gage any inconsistencies. This has been demonstrated with lab testing. Further test results show adequate NEDT, linearity as well as applicable earth science emissivity target results (Silicates, water) measured in direct sunlight.

  3. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp; Michael P.

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  4. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  5. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY is an instrument which measures backscattered, reflected, and transmitted light from the earth's atmosphere and surface. SCIAMACHY has eight spectral channels which observe simultaneously the spectral region between 240 and 1700 nm and selected windows between 1940 and 2400 nm. Each spectral channel contains a grating and linear diode array detector. SCIAMACHY observes the atmosphere in nadir, limb, and solar and lunar occultation viewing geometries.

  6. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  7. SPIRE: Herschel's Imaging Photometer and Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Vigroux, L.

    2004-05-01

    SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, will be an imaging photometer and spectrometer for ESA's Herschel Space Observatory. Its main scientific goals and design drivers are deep extragalactic and galactic imaging surveys and spectroscopy of star-forming regions in own and nearby galaxies. SPIRE comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 360 and 520 microns, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200-670 microns. The instrument uses feedhorn-coupled NTD spider-web bolometers cooled to 300 mK by a recyclable Helium-3 refrigerator. The photometer has a field of view of 4 x 8 arcminutes which is observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands. The angular resolution is determined by the telescope diffraction limit, with FWHM beam widths of approximately 17, 24 and 35 arcseconds at 250, 360 and 520 microns, respectively. An internal beam steering mirror can be used for spatial modulation of the telescope beam, and large-area survey observations can also be made by scanning the telescope. The FTS has a field of view of 2.6 arcminutes and adjustable spectral resolution of 0.04-2 cm-1 (Lambda/Delta-Lambda = 20 - 1000 at 250 microns). The instrument design, operating modes, and estimated sensitivity will be described.

  8. New imaging spectrometer for auroral research

    SciTech Connect

    Rairden, R.; Swenson, G.

    1994-12-31

    A Loral 1024 x 1024 CCD array with 15-micron pixels has been incorporated as the focal plane detector in a new imaging spectrometer for auroral research. The large format low-noise CCD provides excellent dynamic range and signal to noise characteristics with image integration times on the order of 60 seconds using f/1.4 camera optics. Further signal enhancement is achieved through on-CCD pixel binning. In the nominal binned mode the instrument wavelength resolution varies from 15 to 30 {angstrom} across the 5000 to 8600 {angstrom} spectral range. Images are acquired and stored digitally on a Macintosh computer. This instrument was operated at a field site in Godhavn, Greenland during the past two winters (1993, 1994) to measure the altitude distribution of the various spectral emissions within auroral arcs. The height resolution on an auroral feature 300 km distant is {approximately}1 km. Examples of these measurements are presented here in snapshot and summary image formats illustrating the wealth of quantitative information provided by this new imaging spectrometer.

  9. Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

    NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous

  10. The CONTOUR remote imager and spectrometer (CRISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Jeffery W.; Heffernan, Kevin J.; Conard, Steven J.; Bell, James F., III; Cochran, Anita L.; Boldt, John D.; Bowman, Alice F.; Darlington, E. H.; Deluzio, Anthony; Fiore, Daniel; Fort, Dennis E.; Garcia, David; Grey, Matthew P.; Gotwols, Bruce L.; Harch, Ann P.; Hayes, John R.; Heyler, Gene A.; Howser, Linda M.; Humm, David C.; Izenberg, Noam R.; Kosakowski, Kris E.; Lees, W. J.; Lohr, D. A.; Luther, Holger M.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Murchie, Scott L.; Reiter, R. Alan; Rider, Brian; Rogers, G. D.; Sampath, Deepak; Schaefer, Edward D.; Spisz, Thomas S.; Strohbehn, Kim; Svenson, Scott; Taylor, Howard W.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Veverka, Joseph; Williams, Robert L.; Wilson, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The CONTOUR Remote Imager and Spectrometer (CRISP) was a multi-function optical instrument developed for the Comet Nucleus Tour Spacecraft (CONTOUR). CONTOUR was a NASA Discovery class mission launched on July 3, 2002. This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of CRISP. Unfortunately, the CONTOUR spacecraft was destroyed on August 15, 2002 during the firing of the solid rocket motor that injected it into heliocentric orbit. CRISP was designed to return high quality science data from the solid nucleus at the heart of a comet. To do this during close range (order 100 km) and high speed (order 30 km/sec) flybys, it had an autonomous nucleus acquisition and tracking system which included a one axis tracking mirror mechanism and the ability to control the rotation of the spacecraft through a closed loop interface to the guidance and control system. The track loop was closed using the same images obtained for scientific investigations. A filter imaging system was designed to obtain multispectral and broadband images at resolutions as good as 4 meters per pixel. A near IR imaging spectrometer (or hyperspectral imager) was designed to obtain spectral signatures out to 2.5 micrometers with resolution of better than 100 meters spatially. Because of the high flyby speeds, CRISP was designed as a highly automated instrument with close coupling to the spacecraft, and was intended to obtain its best data in a very short period around closest approach. CRISP was accompanied in the CONTOUR science payload by CFI, the CONTOUR Forward Imager. CFI was optimized for highly sensitive observations at greater ranges. The two instruments provided highly complementary optical capabilities, while providing some degree of functional redundancy.

  11. MERTIS: a highly integrated IR imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, I.; Hirsch, H.; Jahn, H.; Knollenberg, J.; Venus, H.

    2006-08-01

    With a background of several instrument developments in the past the German Aerospace Center in Berlin proposed for ESA's deep space mission BepiColombo an imaging spectrometer which meets the challenges of limited technical resources and a very special operational environment. An 80-channel push broom-type spectrometer has been drafted and it s development has been started under the name MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer). The instrument is dedicated to the mineralogy surface science and thermal characteristics studies of the innermost planet. It is based on modern un-cooled micro-bolometer technology and all-reflective optics design. The operation concept principle is characterised by intermediate scanning of the planet, deep space and black bodies as calibration targets. A miniaturised radiometer is included for low level temperature measurements. Altogether the system shall fit into a CD-package sized cube and weigh less than 3 kg. The paper will present the instrument architecture of MERTIS, its design status and will show the results of first components being built.

  12. Compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer utilizing reflective grating

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-27

    An imaging spectrometer apparatus comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a light means for receiving the light and directing the light, a grating that receives the light from the light means and defracts the light back onto the light means which focuses the light, and a detector that receives the focused light. In one embodiment the light means is a rotationally symmetric ZNSE aspheric lens. In another embodiment the light means comprises two ZNSE aspheric lenses that are coaxial. In another embodiment the light means comprises an aspheric mirror and a ZNSE aspheric lens.

  13. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  14. HIRIS - The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1988-01-01

    The High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a JPL facility instrument designed for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos).It will have 10-nm wide spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns at 30 m spatial resolution over a 30 km swath. The spectral resolution allows identification of many minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, spectral changes associated with plant canopy biochemistry, composition of atmospheric aerosols, and grain size of snow and its contamination by absorbing impurities. The bands wil have 12-bit quantization over a dynamic range suitable for bright targets, such as snow. For targets of low brightness, such as water bodies, image-motion compensation will allow gains up to a factor of eight to increase signal-to-noise ratios. In the 824-km orbit altitude proposed for Eos, the crosstrack pointing capability will allow 4-5 views during a 16-day revisit cycle.

  15. Geometric Calibration of the Clementine UVVIS Camera Using Images Acquired by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Clementine UVVIS camera returned over half a million images while in orbit around the Moon in 1994. Since the Clementine mission, our knowledge of lunar topography, gravity, and the location of features on the surface has vastly improved with the success of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and ongoing Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. In particular, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has returned over a million images of the Moon since entering orbit in 2009. With the aid of improved ephemeris and on-orbit calibration, the LROC team created a series of precise and accurate global maps. With the updated reference frame, older lunar maps, such as those generated from Clementine UVVIS images, are misaligned making cross-mission analysis difficult. In this study, we use feature-based matching routines to refine and recalibrate the interior and exterior orientation parameters of the Clementine UVVIS camera. After applying these updates and rigorous orthorectification, we are able generate precise and accurate maps from UVVIS images to help support lunar science and future cross-mission investigations.

  16. Calibration of the LLNL Imaging Proton Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Hazi, A. U.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2014-10-01

    Ultra intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g. Au foil) produce well collimated, broadband proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields in high-energy-density systems. The Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS) was previously designed and built (H. Chen 2010, RSI) for use with such laser produced proton beams. The IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 250 at 0.5 MeV and 350 at 2 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging direction. In order to better characterize the imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D FEA solver has been used to calculate the magnetic field of the IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to calibrate the imaging axis of the IPS. Experiments using alpha sources will be used to verify the calculated calibration. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840. Work by LLNL was performed under the auspices of U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. The Polaris-H imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Christopher G.; Kaye, Willy R.; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Feng; Jaworski, Jason M.; King, Alexis; Boucher, Y. Andy; He, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Recently, H3D has designed and introduced a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer system named Polaris-H. Polaris-H was designed to perform gamma spectroscopy and imaging throughout nuclear power plants. It integrates a 3D-position-sensitive pixelated CZT detector (20 mm×20 mm×15 mm), associated readout electronics, an embedded computer, a 5-h battery, and an optical camera in a portable water-proof enclosure. The total mass is about 4 kg, and the system startup time is 2 min. Additionally, it has a connection for a tablet, which displays a gamma-ray spectrum and isotope-specific images of the gamma-ray distribution in all directions in real time. List-mode data is saved to an external USB memory stick. Based on pixelated depth-sensing technology, spectroscopy is routinely better than 1.1% FWHM at 662 keV, and imaging efficiency at 662 keV varies less than a factor of two for all directions, except through the battery. Measurements have been performed in contaminated environments, in high radiation fields, and in cramped quarters.

  18. The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Daesoo; Ardanuy, Philip E.

    1989-01-01

    Science requirements for a moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) data system are outlined, as well as the operations concept and system specifications based on these requirements. Two systems are considered - MODIS-N for a 40-channel nadir-viewing scanner and MODIS-T for a 64-channel tiltable scanner. The first system collects data from 15 thermal-infrared channels at all times and from 25 reflected-energy channels during daytime, while MODIS-T will take data from 64 channels on a 100-percent duty cycle during daytime only. Standard data products, data acquisition and processing, and requirements on data are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the interfaces between the science data processing facilities and the scientific users.

  19. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1990-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observing facility on the Earth Observing System (EOS) is composed of two instruments, MODIS-Nadir (N) and MODIS-Tilt (T). MODIS-N has 36 spectral bands between 0.4 and 14.2 micrometers with spatial resolution between 214 and 856 meters. MODIS-T has 32 bands with 10-15 nanometer bandwidths between 0.4 and 0.9 micrometers. MODIS-T scans fore and aft + or - 50 degrees. Both instruments scan cross-track so as to provide daily (MODIS-N) or once every 2 days (MODIS-T) coverage at 705 kilometers altitude. Both instruments are entering into the execution phases of their development in 1990.

  20. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  1. Spectral calibration for convex grating imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Chen, Yuheng; Shen, Weimin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an important role for acquiring target accurate spectrum. There are two spectral calibration types in essence, the wavelength scanning and characteristic line sampling. Only the calibrated pixel is used for the wavelength scanning methods and he spectral response function (SRF) is constructed by the calibrated pixel itself. The different wavelength can be generated by the monochromator. The SRF is constructed by adjacent pixels of the calibrated one for the characteristic line sampling methods. And the pixels are illuminated by the narrow spectrum line and the center wavelength of the spectral line is exactly known. The calibration result comes from scanning method is precise, but it takes much time and data to deal with. The wavelength scanning method cannot be used in field or space environment. The characteristic line sampling method is simple, but the calibration precision is not easy to confirm. The standard spectroscopic lamp is used to calibrate our manufactured convex grating imaging spectrometer which has Offner concentric structure and can supply high resolution and uniform spectral signal. Gaussian fitting algorithm is used to determine the center position and the Full-Width-Half-Maximum(FWHM)of the characteristic spectrum line. The central wavelengths and FWHMs of spectral pixels are calibrated by cubic polynomial fitting. By setting a fitting error thresh hold and abandoning the maximum deviation point, an optimization calculation is achieved. The integrated calibration experiment equipment for spectral calibration is developed to enhance calibration efficiency. The spectral calibration result comes from spectral lamp method are verified by monochromator wavelength scanning calibration technique. The result shows that spectral calibration uncertainty of FWHM and center wavelength are both less than 0.08nm, or 5.2% of spectral FWHM.

  2. Towards establishing compact imaging spectrometer standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Allen, David W.; Resmini, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing science is currently undergoing a tremendous expansion in the area of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology. Spurred largely by the explosive growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), sometimes called Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), or drones, HSI capabilities that once required access to one of only a handful of very specialized and expensive sensor systems are now miniaturized and widely available commercially. Small compact imaging spectrometers (CIS) now on the market offer a number of hyperspectral imaging capabilities in terms of spectral range and sampling. The potential uses of HSI/CIS on UAVs/UASs seem limitless. However, the rapid expansion of unmanned aircraft and small hyperspectral sensor capabilities has created a number of questions related to technological, legal, and operational capabilities. Lightweight sensor systems suitable for UAV platforms are being advertised in the trade literature at an ever-expanding rate with no standardization of system performance specifications or terms of reference. To address this issue, both the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are eveloping draft standards to meet these issues. This paper presents the outline of a combined USGS/NIST cooperative strategy to develop and test a characterization methodology to meet the needs of a new and expanding UAV/CIS/HSI user community.

  3. Imaging Spectrometer Using a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Tomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design.

  4. Artificial intelligence for geologic mapping with imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    This project was a three year study at the Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) within the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The goal of this research was to develop an expert system to allow automated identification of geologic materials based on their spectral characteristics in imaging spectrometer data such as the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). This requirement was dictated by the volume of data produced by imaging spectrometers, which prohibits manual analysis. The research described is based on the development of automated techniques for analysis of imaging spectrometer data that emulate the analytical processes used by a human observer. The research tested the feasibility of such an approach, implemented an operational system, and tested the validity of the results for selected imaging spectrometer data sets.

  5. An acousto-optical imaging spectrometer for astrophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, S. P.; Esipov, V. F.; Molchanov, V. Ya.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Yushkov, K. B.

    2016-07-01

    An optical scheme of an acousto-optical imaging spectrometer for observing extended astrophysical objects with line emission spectra is proposed. The use of an additional prism with a specified angular dispersion makes it possible to separate images of an extended object at different emission lines and images generated by minor maxima of the acousto-optical filter transmission function. A prototype of the imaging spectrometer has been designed.

  6. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging.

  7. Panoramic Imaging Spectroscopy with the Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Mouroulis, P.; Van Gorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Borden, M.; Smith-Dryden, S. D.; Bender, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilson, D.

    2012-12-01

    In Situ imaging spectroscopy provides a way to address complex questions of geological evolution for aqueous, volcanic, and impact processes by mapping mineral composition at the spatial scale of rocks and outcrops. Spectroscopy from 500-2600 nm is an established technique for measuring the mineralogy of sedimentary and igneous rocks, outcrops, and regoliths. Minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, carbonates, clays, and sulfates exhibit absorption features that are highly diagnostic of their structure and composition in this wavelength range. Imaging spectroscopy allows for mineralogy to be mapped at geological important special scales thus allowing for the investigation of the spatial relationship between minerals and compositions and of the geologic and geochemical processes of planets, asteroids, comets, and moons. The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a JPL developed imaging spectrometer suitable for inclusion on a Mars or lunar rover or asteroid lander but packaged for operation at terrestrial ambient conditions. UCIS is an Offner spectrometer using JPL e-beam gratings, HgCdTe detectors with many components having direct heritage from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). UCIS covers the wavelength range from 500-2600 nm with 10 nm sampling/resolution with a 30 deg. field of view with and instantaneous field of view 1.4 mrad (spatial sampling of 4.2 mm at 3 m.) The optical head of the instrument has a mass of < 2 kg on the mass and takes 5.2 W of power (Van Gorp et al. 2011). The instrument has completed calibration and has begun field trials. Initial trials were carried out in the JPL "Mars Yard" robotic testbed. The Mars Yard contains a large number of basaltic boulders and other rocks/soils. Additional rocks and spectrally interesting materials were place in the Mars Yard to fully assess the ability of the instrument to identify spectrally distinct material. To collect data the instrument was mounted with the spectrometer slit oriented in elevation on a

  8. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer for Hinode

    SciTech Connect

    Culhane,J.; Harra, L.; James, A.; Al-Janabi, K.; Bradley, L.; Chaudry, R.; Rees, K.; Tandy, J.; Thomas, P.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode will observe solar corona and upper transition region emission lines in the wavelength ranges 170?-?210 Angstroms and 250?-?290 Angstroms . The line centroid positions and profile widths will allow plasma velocities and turbulent or non-thermal line broadenings to be measured. We will derive local plasma temperatures and densities from the line intensities. The spectra will allow accurate determination of differential emission measure and element abundances within a variety of corona and transition region structures. These powerful spectroscopic diagnostics will allow identification and characterization of magnetic reconnection and wave propagation processes in the upper solar atmosphere. We will also directly study the detailed evolution and heating of coronal loops. The EIS instrument incorporates a unique two element, normal incidence design. The optics are coated with optimized multilayer coatings. We have selected highly efficient, backside-illuminated, thinned CCDs. These design features result in an instrument that has significantly greater effective area than previous orbiting EUV spectrographs with typical active region 2?-?5 s exposure times in the brightest lines. EIS can scan a field of 6x8.5 arc?min with spatial and velocity scales of 1 arc?sec and 25 km?s-1 per pixel. The instrument design, its absolute calibration, and performance are described in detail in this paper. EIS will be used along with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and the X-ray Telescope (XRT) for a wide range of studies of the solar atmosphere.

  9. Medium-resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezy, Jean-Loup; Delwart, Steven; Gourmelon, Georges; Baudin, Gilles; Bessudo, Richard; Sontag, Heinz

    1997-01-01

    The medium imaging spectrometer (MERIS), developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the ENVISAT-1 polar orbit Earth mission, belongs to a new generation of ocean color sensors which will yield a major improvement in the knowledge of such a crucial processes as the ocean contribution to the carbon cycle. MERIS measures the radiance reflected from the Earth's surface in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum. Data are transmitted in fifteen spectral bands of programmable width and location. The instrument features tow spatial resolution and several observation and calibration modes selectable by ground command. The instrument development is currently carried out by an international team led by AEROSPATIALE under ENVISAT prime contractor ship of DORNIER. The development of the instrument has now reached a status where the instrument has been proven to be compliant with the scientific requirements. This paper gives an overview of the instrument, its design with emphasis given to the acquisition and on-board processing chains. A summary of the major performance sand interface budgets is also provided.

  10. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  11. Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

    2012-09-01

    A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

  12. Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS): Imaging and Tracking Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Reisse, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L. J.; Tansock, J. J.; Huppi, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57/cm with a scan duration of approx. 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  13. Alignment and Characterization of High Uniformity Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Geier, Sven; Hochberg, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers require precise adjustments, in some cases at the sub-micrometer level, in order to achieve auniform response over both the spectral and spatial dimensions. We describe a set of measurement techniques and theircorresponding alignment adjustments to achieve the 95% or higher uniformity specifications required for Earthobservingimaging spectrometers. The methods are illustrated with measurements from the Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer system that has been built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Parallel Computing for the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    This software computes the tomographic reconstruction of spatial-spectral data from raw detector images of the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), which enables transient-level, multi-spectral imaging by capturing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot.

  15. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  16. A User Approach To Image Interpretation (II) Keys With Low Altitude, Large-Scale Reconnaissance (LALSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James W.

    1990-02-01

    As new high-detailed imaging systems develop, new keys to interpretation must also be developed, especially when distance and perspective are changed dramatically. Low altitude, large-scale reconnaissance (LALSR) imagery is close enough to the ground to eliminate many of the traditional visual cues that exist in most aerial images. The perspective involved can be compared to looking at rust on wire bristles without seeing the whole brush. Now, individual species of plants are recorded, rather than general types of vegetation. Because of increased surface detail with LALSR, a publication covering image interpretation (II) keys would be too voluminous. For this reason, a user approach to the development of II keys for LALSR appears to be more useful and economical. The user, knowing his needs and environment, can best select and create those keys which apply. The selected keys will be based on the visual cues, perspective, and scales, peculiar to LALSR. Keys of this type can be enhanced by the system operator during flights because of his proximity in the target area. The potential of this system for on-site processing also assists the user in key definition. Example projects are outlined.

  17. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  18. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  19. Compact high performance spectrometers using computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth; Weisberg, Arel

    2016-05-01

    Compressive sensing technology can theoretically be used to develop low cost compact spectrometers with the performance of larger and more expensive systems. Indeed, compressive sensing for spectroscopic systems has been previously demonstrated using coded aperture techniques, wherein a mask is placed between the grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) and multiple measurements are collected with different masks. Although proven effective for some spectroscopic sensing paradigms (e.g. Raman), this approach requires that the signal being measured is static between shots (low noise and minimal signal fluctuation). Many spectroscopic techniques applicable to remote sensing are inherently noisy and thus coded aperture compressed sensing will likely not be effective. This work explores an alternative approach to compressed sensing that allows for reconstruction of a high resolution spectrum in sensing paradigms featuring significant signal fluctuations between measurements. This is accomplished through relatively minor changes to the spectrometer hardware together with custom super-resolution algorithms. Current results indicate that a potential overall reduction in CCD size of up to a factor of 4 can be attained without a loss of resolution. This reduction can result in significant improvements in cost, size, and weight of spectrometers incorporating the technology.

  20. Birefringent Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with a rotating retroreflector.

    PubMed

    Bai, Caixun; Li, Jianxin; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Jianqiang

    2016-08-01

    A birefringent Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with a new lateral shearing interferometer is presented. The interferometer includes a Wollaston prism and a retroreflector. It splits an incident light beam into two shearing parallel parts to obtain interference fringe patterns of an imaging target, which is well established as an aid in reducing problems associated with optical alignment and manufacturing precision. Continuously rotating the retroreflector enables the spectrometer to acquire two-dimensional spectral images without spatial scanning. This technology, with a high work efficiency and low complexity, is inherently compact and robust. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the experimental results. PMID:27472640

  1. Birefringent Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with a rotating retroreflector.

    PubMed

    Bai, Caixun; Li, Jianxin; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Jianqiang

    2016-08-01

    A birefringent Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with a new lateral shearing interferometer is presented. The interferometer includes a Wollaston prism and a retroreflector. It splits an incident light beam into two shearing parallel parts to obtain interference fringe patterns of an imaging target, which is well established as an aid in reducing problems associated with optical alignment and manufacturing precision. Continuously rotating the retroreflector enables the spectrometer to acquire two-dimensional spectral images without spatial scanning. This technology, with a high work efficiency and low complexity, is inherently compact and robust. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the experimental results.

  2. C-III flow measurements with a coherence imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T. R.; Allen, S. L.; Howard, J.

    2012-10-15

    This work describes a coherence imaging spectrometer capable of making spatially resolved CIII flow measurements in the DIII-D lower divertor. The spectrometer exploits a periscope view of the plasma to produce line-of-sight averaged velocity measurements of CIII. From these chord averaged flow measurements, a 2D poloidal cross section of the CIII flow is tomographically reconstructed. Details of the diagnostic setup, acquired data, and data analysis will be presented, along with prospects for future applications.

  3. Method of fabricating an imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcorn, G. E. (Inventor); Burgess, A. S. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A process for fabricating an X-ray spectrometer having imaging and energy resolution of X-ray sources is discussed. The spectrometer has an array of adjoinging rectangularly shaped detector cells formed in a silicon body. The walls of the cells are created by laser drilling holes completely through the silicon body and diffusing n(+) phosphorous doping material therethrough. A thermally migrated aluminum electrode is formed centrally through each of the cells.

  4. Imaging transmission grating spectrometer for magnetic fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojević, B.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2003-03-01

    The Johns Hopkins Plasma Spectroscopy Group is developing a transmission grating based imaging spectrometer for the ultrasoft x-ray [(USXR), 10-300 Å] range. The spectrometer will be integrated into an impurity diagnostic package for magnetic fusion experiments, which provides time and space resolved information about radiation losses, Zeff profiles, and particle transport. The spectrometer has a simple layout, consisting of collimating and space resolving slits, a transmission grating, and a two-dimensional imaging USXR detector. We tested two types of detectors, a CsI coated multichannel plate and a phosphor P45 coated fiber optic plate, both with intensified charge-coupled-device image readout. The performance of the 5000 1/mm, 3:1 bar to open area ratio transmission grating has been evaluated in the laboratory using Kα lines from a Manson source and the emission from a Penning discharge. A prototype spectrometer equiped with the first type detector and optimized for 6 Å spectral resolution has been tested successfully on the CDX-U tokamak at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A spectrometer using the second detector version has been developed for the NSTX spherical torus at Princeton. Spatially resolved spectra have been recorded with 25-250 ms time integration with both spectrometers. In both experiments, spectra are dominated by low-Z impurities, C, N, and O.

  5. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  6. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  7. Multiscale snapshot imaging spectrometer with large FOV and fast speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yiqun; Sasian, Jose; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Jiankang

    2014-11-01

    A novel snapshot imaging spectrometer with large field-of-view (FOV) up to 100° is achieved by taking the advantages of a multiscale fore-optics and a compact Offner imaging spectrograph. Based on the diffraction imaging theory, the multiscale fore-optics composed of a monocentric spherical lens and multi-channel microlens array is designed, over which panchromatic images with small FOV are of uniform image quality. And identical imaging spectrographs with a dimension less than 30 cubic millimeters and with a high spectral resolution of about 2nm are designed correspondingly. The presented imaging spectrometer works at the visible wavelength range which is from 400nm to 780nm. It is of a fast speed about F/2.4 and a compact configuration of only 200mm×300mm×300mm in dimension. But the smile and keystone distortions are negligible.

  8. Design and fabrication of the New Horizons Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, S. J.; Azad, F.; Boldt, J. D.; Cheng, A.; Cooper, K. A.; Darlington, E. H.; Grey, M. P.; Hayes, J. R.; Hogue, P.; Kosakowski, K. E.; Magee, T.; Morgan, M. F.; Rossano, E.; Sampath, D.; Schlemm, C.; Weaver, H. A.

    2005-09-01

    The LOng-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) is an instrument that was designed, fabricated, and qualified for the New Horizons mission to the outermost planet Pluto, its giant satellite Charon, and the Kuiper Belt, which is the vast belt of icy bodies extending roughly from Neptune's orbit out to 50 astronomical units (AU). New Horizons is being prepared for launch in January 2006 as the inaugural mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. This paper provides an overview of the efforts to produce LORRI. LORRI is a narrow angle (field of view=0.29°), high resolution (instantaneous field of view = 4.94 μrad), Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 20.8 cm diameter primary mirror, a focal length of 263 cm, and a three lens field-flattening assembly. A 1024 x 1024 pixel (optically active region), back-thinned, backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) detector (model CCD 47-20 from E2V Technologies) is located at the telescope focal plane and is operated in standard frame-transfer mode. LORRI does not have any color filters; it provides panchromatic imaging over a wide bandpass that extends approximately from 350 nm to 850 nm. A unique aspect of LORRI is the extreme thermal environment, as the instrument is situated inside a near room temperature spacecraft, while pointing primarily at cold space. This environment forced the use of a silicon carbide optical system, which is designed to maintain focus over the operating temperature range without a focus adjustment mechanism. Another challenging aspect of the design is that the spacecraft will be thruster stabilized (no reaction wheels), which places stringent limits on the available exposure time and the optical throughput needed to accomplish the high-resolution observations required. LORRI was designed and fabricated by a combined effort of The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and SSG Precision Optronics Incorporated (SSG).

  9. Cooled Dyson long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer by re-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayin; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yang; Li, Chun; Sun, Qiang; Hu, Xinrong

    2016-05-01

    A cooled long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer with an F-number of 2 was designed based on the Dyson configuration. A three-mirror off-axis aspherical optical system that provided excellent slit-shaped images was selected as the fore telescope objective. The re-imaging method was applied to obtain a cold stop efficiency of 100%, and the corrector lens in traditional Dyson imaging spectrometers was replaced with re-imaging lenses to correct spherical aberrations. The designed imaging spectrometer provided a spectral resolution of 25 nm at a range of 8-12 μm and possessed a relatively small volume.

  10. Large format imaging spectrometers for future hyperspectral Landsat mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silny, John F.; Chrien, Thomas G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a design concept for a Landsat-class imaging spectrometer. The challenge is to match the Landsat data parameters, including a 185 Km swath and a 30 meter ground sample distance (GSD) from a 705 Km sun-synchronous orbit with a sensor that has contiguous spectral coverage of the solar reflected spectrum (400 to 2500 nm). The result is a remote sensing satellite that provides global access imaging spectrometer data at moderate spatial resolution. Key design trades exist for the spectrometer, focal plane array, dispersive element, and calibrator. Recent developments in large format imaging spectrometers at Raytheon are presented in support of a monolithic spectrometer approach. Features of the design include (1) high signal-to-noise ratio, (2) well-corrected spectral fidelity across a 6,000 pixel push-broom field-of-view, (3) straightforward calibration of the data to units of absolute spectral radiance, and (4) real-time simulation of Thematic Mapper bands, vegetation indices, and water vapor maps for direct continuous downlink.

  11. [Design of a Component and Transmission Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-peng; Zhang, Yi; Yue, Jiang; Han, Jing; Bai, Lian-fa

    2015-05-01

    In the reflection-based imaging spectrometer, multiple reflection(diffraction) produces stray light and it is difficult to assemble. To address that, a high performance transmission spectral imaging system based on general optical components was developed. On the basis of simple structure, the system is easy to assemble. And it has wide application and low cost compared to traditional imaging spectrometers. All components in the design can be replaced according to different application situations, having high degree of freedom. In order to reduce the influence of stray light, a method based on transmission was introduced. Two sets of optical systems with different objective lenses were simulated; the parameters such as distortion, MTF and aberration.were analyzed and optimized in the ZEMAX software. By comparing the performance of system with different objective len 25 and 50 mm, it can be concluded that the replacement of telescope lens has little effect on imaging quality of whole system. An imaging spectrometer is developed successfully according design parameters. The telescope lens uses double Gauss structures, which is beneficial to reduce field curvature and distortion. As the craftsmanship of transmission-type plane diffraction grating is mature, it can be used without modification and it is easy to assemble, so it is used as beam-split. component of the imaging spectrometer. In addition, the real imaging spectrometer was tested for spectral resolution and distortion. The result demonstrates that the system has good ability in distortion control, and spectral resolution is 2 nm. These data satisfy the design requirement, and obtained spectrum of deuterium lamp through calibrated system are ideal results.

  12. The MARTE VNIR imaging spectrometer experiment: design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian J; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  13. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  14. Optical design of MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyao; Wang, Yueming; Qian, Liqun; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    MWIR imaging spectrometer is promising in detecting spectral signature of high temperature object such as jet steam, guided missile and explosive gas. This paper introduces an optical design of a MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit sharply reducing the stray radiation from exterior environment and interior structure. The spectrometer is composed of a slit, a spherical prism as disperser, two concentric spheres and a correction lens. It has a real entrance pupil to match the objective and for setting the infrared cold shield near the slit and a real exit pupil to match the cold shield of the focal plane array (FPA). There are two cooled parts, one includes the aperture stop and slit, and the other is the exit pupil and the FPA with two specially positioned cooled shields. A detailed stray radiation analysis is represented which demonstrates the outstanding effect of this system in background radiation restraint.

  15. The Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Coastal Ocean Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; VanGorp, Byron E.; Green, Robert O.; Eastwppd, Michael; Wilson, Daniel W.; Richardson, Brandon; Dierssen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    PRISM is an airborne pushbroom imaging spectrometer intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. Its critical characteristics are high throughput and signal-to-noise ratio, high uniformity of response to reduce spectral artifacts, and low polarization sensitivity. We give a brief overview of the instrument and results from laboratory calibration measurements regarding the spatial, spectral, radiometric and polarization characteristics.

  16. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM): Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Van Gorp, Byron; Green, Robert O.; Eastwood, Michael; Boardman, Joseph; Richardson, Brandon S.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Urquiza, Eugenio; Franklin, Brian D.; Gao, Bo-Cai

    2012-01-01

    We report the characteristics of the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne sensor specifically designed for the challenges of coastal ocean research. PRISM has high signal to noise ratio and uniformity, as well as low polarization sensitivity. Acquisition of high quality data has been demonstrated with the first engineering flight.

  17. Compact Catadioptric Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2006-02-28

    An imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a lens that receives said light and reflects said light, a grating that defracts said light back onto said lens which focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. In one embodiment the grating has rulings immersed into a germanium surface.

  18. Imaging spectrometer based on a acousto-optic tunable filter

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, M.E.; Harrison, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    Characterization of an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) is performed by measuring the filter`s laser line response, tuning relationship, and diffraction efficiency. An imaging spectrometer that utilizes the filter is described. The system is comprised of an optical system, AOTF filter, dual focal plane CCD camera, and a control computer. Data from the system are presented.

  19. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  20. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Summaries of 17 papers presented at the workshop are published. After an overview of the imaging spectrometer program, time was spent discussing AIS calibration, performance, information extraction techniques, and the application of high spectral resolution imagery to problems of geology and botany.

  1. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced Earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuperfman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced Earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from Earth Orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s.

  2. Geometric error analysis for shuttle imaging spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. J.; Ih, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The demand of more powerful tools for remote sensing and management of earth resources steadily increased over the last decade. With the recent advancement of area array detectors, high resolution multichannel imaging spectrometers can be realistically constructed. The error analysis study for the Shuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment system is documented for the purpose of providing information for design, tradeoff, and performance prediction. Error sources including the Shuttle attitude determination and control system, instrument pointing and misalignment, disturbances, ephemeris, Earth rotation, etc., were investigated. Geometric error mapping functions were developed, characterized, and illustrated extensively with tables and charts. Selected ground patterns and the corresponding image distortions were generated for direct visual inspection of how the various error sources affect the appearance of the ground object images.

  3. Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.; Bennett, Charles L.; Bixler, Jay V.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Lewis, Isabella T.

    2005-07-26

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives the light from the second means

  4. Visible Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: Design and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E H; Wurtz, R; Blais-Ouellette, S; Cook, K H; Carr, D; Lewis, I; Grandmont, F; Stubbs, C W

    2002-09-19

    We present details of the design, operation and calibration of an astronomical visible-band imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS). This type of instrument produces a spectrum for every pixel in the field of view where the spectral resolution is flexible. The instrument is a dual-input/dual-output Michelson interferometer coupled to the 3.5 meter telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Imaging performance and interferograms and spectra from calibration sources and standard stars are discussed.

  5. Night reconnaissance for F-16 multirole reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownie, Ralph S.; Larroque, Clement

    2004-08-01

    The Belgian Air Force successfully carried out flight trials of the latest Low Light CCD focal plane technology during December of 2003. Simultaneous imaging of the ground was performed by conventional CCD, Infra Red Linescan and Low Light CCD reconnaissance sensors; provided and integrated by Thales within the Modular Reconnaissance Pod (MRP). This paper reports on the results and compares capability of the technologies.

  6. Radiation characterization analysis of pushbroom longwave infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rongbao; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Jiankang; Shen, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is the key parameter characterizing the detectivity of infrared systems. Our developed pushbroom longwave infrared imaging spectrometer works in a waveband between 8μm to 10.5 μm. Its temperature sensitivity property is not only affected by atmosphere attenuation, transmittance of the optical system and the characteristics of electric circuit, but also restricted by the self-radiation. The NETD accurate calculation formula is derived according to its definition. Radiation analysis model of a pushbroom image spectrometer is set up, and its self-radiation is analyzed and calculated at different temperatures, such as 300K, 150K and 120K. Based on the obtained accurate formula, the relationships between the NETD of imaging spectrometer and atmospheric attenuation, F-number, effective pixel area of detector, equivalent noise bandwidth and CCD detectivity are analyzed in detail, and self-radiation is particularly discussed. The work we have done is to provide the basis for parameters determination in spectrometer system.

  7. Error analysis of large aperture static interference imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Large Aperture Static Interference Imaging Spectrometer is a new type of spectrometer with light structure, high spectral linearity, high luminous flux and wide spectral range, etc ,which overcomes the contradiction between high flux and high stability so that enables important values in science studies and applications. However, there're different error laws in imaging process of LASIS due to its different imaging style from traditional imaging spectrometers, correspondingly, its data processing is complicated. In order to improve accuracy of spectrum detection and serve for quantitative analysis and monitoring of topographical surface feature, the error law of LASIS imaging is supposed to be learned. In this paper, the LASIS errors are classified as interferogram error, radiometric correction error and spectral inversion error, and each type of error is analyzed and studied. Finally, a case study of Yaogan-14 is proposed, in which the interferogram error of LASIS by time and space combined modulation is mainly experimented and analyzed, as well as the errors from process of radiometric correction and spectral inversion.

  8. MAJIS (Moons and Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer): the VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer of the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; MAJIS team

    2016-10-01

    MAJIS is the VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer of JUICE. This ambitious mission of ESA's « cosmic vision » program will investigate Jupiter and its system with a specific focus on Ganymede. After a tour of more than 3 years including 2 fly-bys of Europa and up to 20 flybys of Ganymede and Callisto, the end of the nominal mission will be dedicated to an orbital phase around Ganymede with 120 days in a near-circular, near-polar orbit at an altitude of 5000 km and 130 days in a circular near-polar orbit at an altitude of 500 km. MAJIS will adress 17 of the 19 primary science objectives of JUICE, investigating the surface and exosphere of the Galilean satellites (Ganymede during the orbital phase, Europa and Callisto during close flybys, Io from a minimum distance of 570,000 km), the atmosphere / exosphere of Jupiter, small satellites and rings, and their role as sources and sinks of particles in the Jupiter magnetosphere.The main technical characteristics are the following:Spectral range : 0.5 – 5.7 µm with two overlapping channels (VIS-NIR : 0.5 – 2.35 µm ; IR : 2.25 – 5.7 µm)Spatial resolution : 0.125 to 0.15 mradSpectral sampling (VIS-NIR channel) : 2.9 to 3.45 nmSpectral sampling (IR channel) : 5.4 to 6.45 nmThe spectral and spatial resolution will be finalized in october 2016 after the selection of the MAJIS detectors.Passive cooling will provide operating temperatures < 130 K (VIS-NIR) and < 90 K (IR) so as to limit the impact of dark current on performances.The SNR as determined from the photometric model and the noise model will be larger than 100 over most of the spectral range except for high resolution observations of icy moons at low altitude due to limitations on the integration time even with motion compensation provided by a scanner and for exospheric observations due to intrinsic low signal levels.

  9. Assessment of soil surface BRDF using an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Coburn, C. A.; Ren, X.; Mazumdar, D.; Myshak, S.; Mullin, A.; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    Ground reference data are important for understanding and characterizing angular effects on the images acquired by satellite sensors with off-nadir capability. However, very few studies have considered image-based soil reference data for that purpose. Compared to non-imaging instruments, imaging spectrometers can provide detailed information to investigate the influence of spatial components on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a mixed target. This research reported in this paper investigated soil spectral reflectance changes as a function of surface roughness, scene components and viewing geometries, as well as wavelength. Soil spectral reflectance is of particular interest because it is an essential factor in interpreting the angular effects on images of vegetation canopies. BRDF data of both rough and smooth soil surfaces were acquired in the laboratory at 30° illumination angle using a Specim V10E imaging spectrometer mounted on the University of Lethbridge Goniometer System version 2.5 (ULGS-2.5). The BRDF results showed that the BRDF of the smooth soil surface was dominated by illuminated pixels, whereas the shaded pixels were a larger component of the BRDF of the rough surface. In the blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR), greater BRDF variation was observed for the rough than for the smooth soil surface. For both soil surface roughness categories, the BRDF exhibited a greater range of values in the NIR than in the blue, green, or red. The imaging approach allows the characterization of the impact of spatial components on soil BRDF and leads to an improved understanding of soil reflectance compared to non-imaging BRDF approaches. The imaging spectrometer is an important sensor for BRDF investigations where the effects of individual spatial components need to be identified.

  10. A microwave imaging spectrometer for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirousek, Matthias; Peichl, Markus; Suess, Helmut

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the security of people and critical infrastructures is of increasing interest. Passive microwave sensors in the range of 1 - 100 GHz are suitable for the detection of concealed objects and wide-area surveillance through poor weather and at day and night time. The enhanced extraction of significant information about an observed object is enabled by the use of a spectral sensitive system. For such a spectral radiometer in the microwave range also some depth information can be extracted. The usable frequency range is thereby dependent on the application. For through-wall imaging or detection of covert objects such as for example landmines, the lower microwave range is best suited. On the other hand a high spatial resolution requires higher frequencies or instruments with larger physical dimensions. The drawback of a large system is the required movement of a mirror or a deflecting plate in the case of a mechanical scanner system, or a huge amount of receivers in a fully-electronic instrument like a focal plane array. An innovative technique to overcome these problems is the application of aperture synthesis using a highly thinned array. The combination of spectral radiometric measurements within a wide frequency band, at a high resolution, and requiring a minimum of receivers and only minor moving parts led to the development of the ANSAS instrument (Abbildendes Niederfrequenz-Spektrometer mit Apertursynthese). ANSAS is a very flexible aperture synthesis technology demonstrator for the analysis of main features and interactions concerning high spatial resolution and spectral sensing within a wide frequency range. It consists of a rotated linear thinned array and thus the spatial frequency spectrum is measured on concentric circles. Hence the number of receivers and correlators is reduced considerably compared to a fully two-dimensional array, and measurements still can be done in a reasonable time. In this paper the basic idea of ANSAS and its setup

  11. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Marchuk, O.; Barnsley, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  12. Design and modeling of a compact imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chen; Ahmad, Anees

    1995-11-01

    A novel low-f-number, wide-field-of-view imaging spectrometer has been designed for measuring the day-glow spectrum over the wavelength range of 260 to 870 nm with spectral resolutions of 0.5 and 0.03 nm. The zero-obstruction all-reflective design is an f/2.0 imaging spectrograph using commercial gratings. The field of view along the spatial direction is 6 deg, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 mrad. The spectrometer is designed to work with a commercially available 1037 X 1340 CCD detector with 6.8 X 6.8-micrometers pixel size. The imaging spectrometer optics consists of an aspheric toroidal telescope, a slit, an aspheric toroidal collimator, a planar reflective grating, and three off-axis higher-order aspheric imaging mirrors. Significant improvements in the performance have been achieved by introducing aspheric toroidal elements in the design. The weight and size have been reduced by a factor of 20 as compared to previous similar instruments. A virtual prototype of the instrument has also been modeled by using integrated optical and mechanical design software.

  13. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter

  14. Snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS).

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Smith, R Theodore; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2012-01-01

    We present a snapshot hyperspectral retinal camera with the Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) for eye imaging applications. The resulting system is capable of simultaneously acquiring 48 spectral channel images in the range 470 nm-650 nm with frame rate at 5.2 fps. The spatial sampling of each measured spectral scene is 350 × 350 pixels. The advantages of this snapshot device are elimination of the eye motion artifacts and pixel misregistration problems in traditional scanning-based hyperspectral retinal cameras, and real-time imaging of oxygen saturation dynamics with sub-second temporal resolution. The spectral imaging performance is demonstrated in a human retinal imaging experiment in vivo. The absorption spectral signatures of oxy-hemoglobin and macular pigments were successfully acquired by using this device. PMID:22254167

  15. A visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCord, Thomas (Principal Investigator); Voelker, Mark; Owensby, Pam; Warren, Cris; Mooradian, Greg

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design effort for the construction of a visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions, funded by NASA under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program. The goal was to design and develop a prototype brassboard pushbroom imaging spectrometer covering the 0.35 gm to 2.5 gm spectral region using a simplified optical layout that would minimize the size, mass and parts count of the instrument by using a single holographic grating to disperse and focus light from a single slit onto both the infrared and visible focal plane arrays. Design approaches are presented and analyzed, along with problems encountered and recommended solutions to those problems. In particular, a new type of grating, incorporating two sets of rulings and a filter in a layered structure, is presented for further development.

  16. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-tilt (MODIS-T)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magner, Thomas J.; Huegel, Frederick G.

    1990-01-01

    There will be several state-of-the-art spectrometers in operation on the NASA Polar Oribting Platform (NPOP-1) as part of the Earth Observing System. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) will consist of two imaging spectroradiometric instruments, one nadir-viewing (MODIS-N) and the other tiltable (MODIS-T) for ocean observation and land bidirectional reflectance studies. The MODIS-T instrument is required to cover the wavelength range of 400 to 880 nm in approximately 15 steps, have less than 2.3 percent instrument-induced polarization, be calibrated to an absolute radiometric accuracy of at least 5 percent over the full dynamic range of the instrument, have a 1.1 kilometer square instantaneous field of view at nadir, and be capable of + or - 50-deg along-track tilt.

  17. A mixture neural net for multispectral imaging spectrometer processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Slagle, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    Each spatial region viewed by an imaging spectrometer contains various elements in a mixture. The elements present and the amount of each are to be determined. A neural net solution is considered. Initial optical neural net hardware is described. The first simulations on the component requirements of a neural net are considered. The pseudoinverse solution is shown to not suffice, i.e. a neural net solution is required.

  18. Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings With Accessible Entrance Slit

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit, a catadioptric lens with a mirrored surface, a grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit directs light to the mirrored surface of the catadioptric lens; the mirrored surface reflects the light back through the lens to the grating. The grating receives the light from the catadioptric lens and diffracts the light to the lens away from the mirrored surface. The lens transmits the light and focuses it onto the detector array.

  19. A Compact, Fast, Wide-Field Imaging Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; VanGorp, Byron E.; White, Victor E.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Hebert, Daniel; Feldman, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present test results from a compact, fast (F/1.4) imaging spectrometer system with a 33 degree field of view, operating in the 450-1650 nm wavelength region with an extended response InGaAs detector array. The system incorporates a simple two-mirror telescope and a steeply concave bilinear groove diffraction grating made with gray scale x-ray lithography techniques. High degree of spectral and spatial uniformity (97%) is achieved.

  20. Imaging Spectrometer With Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer constructed from charged-coupled-device video camera; liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF) placed in front of camera lens; and associated digital and analog control, signal-processing, and data-processing circuits. To enable operation of instrument in specific application for which designed (balloon flights in cold weather), camera and LCTF surrounded by electric heating pad. Total operating power, excluding that consumed by heating pad, 16 W. Instrument weighs 4.5 kg.

  1. Transmission Grating Imaging Spectrometer for Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagojevic, B.; Stutman, D.; Vero, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.

    2001-10-01

    The Johns Hopkins Plasma Spectroscopy Group is developing a transmission grating (TG) based imaging spectrometer for the soft and ultrasoft X-ray (USXR) ranges. The spectrometer will be integrated into a multi-purpose impurity diagnostic package for Magnetically Confined Fusion experiments, which will provide time and space resolved information about radiation losses, Zeff profiles and particle transport. The package will also include 2-D filtered USXR diode arrays and atomic physics and impurity transport computational capability. The spectrometer has a very simple layout, consisting of two collimating and space resolving slits, a TG and a 2-D imaging detector. As detector we are developing phosphor (P45) coated fiber optic plates with CCD and intensified CCD image readout. The performance of a test 5000 l/mm, 2:1 bar to open area ratio TG has been evaluated in the laboratory using a K-alpha Manson source and the emission from a Penning Discharge. The incident and diffracted photon flux was recorded in the 10-300 Å range with a gas flow proportional counter. The measurements show that spectral resolution and efficiency agree well with the predicted values. A device optimized for spectral resolution and higher order suppression will be tested on the CDX-U and NSTX tokamak at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Work supported by DoE grant No. DE-FG02-86ER52314ATDoE

  2. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. (Editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  3. Tectonic Mapping of Mare Frigoris Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional wisdom has been that extensional tectonism on the Moon largely ended ~3.6 billion years ago and that contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. New NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) high resolution images are forcing a re-assessment of this view. Mapping in Mare Frigoris and the surrounding area has revealed many tectonic landforms enabling new investigations of the region's structural evolution. Sinuous wrinkle ridges with hundreds of meters of relief are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They have often been associated with lunar mascons identified by positive free-air gravity anomalies where thick basaltic lava causes flexure and subsidence to form ridges. No mascon-like gravity anomaly is associated with Mare Frigoris, yet large ridges deform the mare basalts. Lobate scarps are also found near Frigoris. These asymmetric linear hills inferred to be surface expressions of thrust faults are distributed globally and thought to originate from cooling and radial contraction of the lunar interior. Clusters of meter-scale extensional troughs or graben bounded by normal faults also occur in Frigoris. Tectonic landforms are being mapped in and around Mare Frigoris using LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. Preliminary results show that wrinkle ridges in Frigoris occur both near and distal to the basin perimeter, trend E/W in western and central Frigoris, and form a polygonal pattern in the eastern section. Several complex wrinkle ridges are observed to transition into morphologically simpler lobate scarps at mare/highland boundaries, with the contrast in tectonic morphology likely due to the change from layered (mare) to un-layered (highlands) substrate. Lobate scarps in Frigoris occur primarily in the highlands, tend to strike E/W, and often but not always follow the boundary between mare and highlands. Small graben mapped in Frigoris occur in several clusters adjacent to or atop ridges and scarps, and

  4. Determination of technical readiness for an atmospheric carbon imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobilia, Joseph; Kumer, John B.; Palmer, Alice; Sawyer, Kevin; Mao, Yalan; Katz, Noah; Mix, Jack; Nast, Ted; Clark, Charles S.; Vanbezooijen, Roel; Magoncelli, Antonio; Baraze, Ronald A.; Chenette, David L.

    2013-09-01

    The geoCARB sensor uses a 4-channel push broom slit-scan infrared imaging grating spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of sunlight reflected from the ground in narrow wavelength regions. The instrument is designed for flight at geostationary orbit to provide mapping of greenhouse gases over continental scales, several times per day, with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. The sensor provides multiple daily maps of column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2, CH4, and CO over the regions of interest, which enables flux determination at unprecedented time, space, and accuracy scales. The geoCARB sensor development is based on our experience in successful implementation of advanced space deployed optical instruments for remote sensing. A few recent examples include the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on the geostationary Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS GEO-1) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), along with sensors under development, the Near Infared camera (NIRCam) for James Webb (JWST), and the Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI) for the GOES-R series. The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS), developed in part through the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), provides an important part of the strong technological foundation for geoCARB. The paper discusses subsystem heritage and technology readiness levels for these subsystems. The system level flight technology readiness and methods used to determine this level are presented along with plans to enhance the level.

  5. Overall design of imaging spectrometer on-board light aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongqi, H.; Zhengkui, C.; Changhua, C.

    1996-11-01

    Aerial remote sensing is the earliest remote sensing technical system and has gotten rapid development in recent years. The development of aerial remote sensing was dominated by high to medium altitude platform in the past, and now it is characterized by the diversity platform including planes of high-medium-low flying altitude, helicopter, airship, remotely controlled airplane, glider, and balloon. The widely used and rapidly developed platform recently is light aircraft. Early in the close of 1970s, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology began aerial photography and geophysical survey using light aircraft, and put forward the overall design scheme of light aircraft imaging spectral application system (LAISAS) in 19905. LAISAS is comprised of four subsystem. They are called measuring platform, data acquiring subsystem, ground testing and data processing subsystem respectively. The principal instruments of LAISAS include measuring platform controlled by inertia gyroscope, aerial spectrometer with high spectral resolution, imaging spectrometer, 3-channel scanner, 128-channel imaging spectrometer, GPS, illuminance-meter, and devices for atmospheric parameters measuring, ground testing, data correction and processing. LAISAS has the features of integrity from data acquisition to data processing and to application; of stability which guarantees the image quality and is comprised of measuring, ground testing device, and in-door data correction system; of exemplariness of integrated the technology of GIS, GPS, and Image Processing System; of practicality which embodied LAISAS with flexibility and high ratio of performance to cost. So, it can be used in the fields of fundamental research of Remote Sensing and large-scale mapping for resource exploration, environmental monitoring, calamity prediction, and military purpose.

  6. Towards an Imaging Mid-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, T.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Kostiuk, T.; Villanueva, G.; Roman, P.; Shaw, G. B.; Livengood, T.; Allen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a concept for a compact, low-mass, low-power, mid-infrared (MIR; 5- 12 microns) imaging heterodyne spectrometer that incorporates fiber optic coupling, Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) local oscillator, photomixer array, and Radio Frequency Software Defined Readout (RFSDR) for spectral analysis. Planetary Decadal Surveys have highlighted the need for miniaturized, robust, low-mass, and minimal power remote sensing technologies for flight missions. The drive for miniaturization of remote sensing spectroscopy and radiometry techniques has been a continuing process. The advent of MIR fibers, and MEMS techniques for producing waveguides has proven to be an important recent advancement for miniaturization of infrared spectrometers. In conjunction with well-established photonics techniques, the miniaturization of spectrometers is transitioning from classic free space optical systems to waveguide/fiber-based structures for light transport and producing interference effects. By their very nature, these new devices are compact and lightweight. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) and Quantum Well Infrared Photodiodes (QWIP) arrays for heterodyne applications are also being developed. Bulky electronics is another barrier that precluded the extension of heterodyne systems into imaging applications, and our RFSDR will address this aspect.

  7. The high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Herring, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) designed for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is designed to acquire images in 192 spectral bands simultaneously in the 0.4-2.5-micron wavelength region. HIRIS is a targeting rather than a continuous acquisition instrument and obtains high-spatial- and spectral-resolution images in a 30-km swath with a 30-m ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) in vertical viewing. Pointing will allow image acquisition at -30 to +60 deg along-track and +/-24 deg cross-track. The raw data rate of the instrument is 512 Mbs. The high spectral resolution will make it possible to identify many surficial materials such as rocks, soils, and suspended matter in water directly. HIRIS also offers the possibility of studying biochemical process in vegetation canopies.

  8. Wavelength calibration of imaging spectrometer using atmospheric absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2012-11-01

    Imaging spectrometer is a promising remote sensing instrument widely used in many filed, such as hazard forecasting, environmental monitoring and so on. The reliability of the spectral data is the determination to the scientific communities. The wavelength position at the focal plane of the imaging spectrometer will change as the pressure and temperature vary, or the mechanical vibration. It is difficult for the onboard calibration instrument itself to keep the spectrum reference accuracy and it also occupies weight and the volume of the remote sensing platform. Because the spectral images suffer from the atmospheric effects, the carbon oxide, water vapor, oxygen and solar Fraunhofer line, the onboard wavelength calibration can be processed by the spectral images themselves. In this paper, wavelength calibration is based on the modeled and measured atmospheric absorption spectra. The modeled spectra constructed by the atmospheric radiative transfer code. The spectral angle is used to determine the best spectral similarity between the modeled spectra and measured spectra and estimates the wavelength position. The smile shape can be obtained when the matching process across all columns of the data. The present method is successful applied on the Hyperion data. The value of the wavelength shift is obtained by shape matching of oxygen absorption feature and the characteristics are comparable to that of the prelaunch measurements.

  9. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  10. High resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) images of volcanic terrains from the first 6 months of the Mars reconnaissance orbiter primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.; McEwen, A.; Tornabene, L.; Beyer, R.A.; Dundas, C.; Milazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the first 6 months of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Primary Science Phase, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has returned images sampling the diversity of volcanic terrains on Mars. While many of these features were noted in earlier imaging, they are now seen with unprecedented clarity. We find that some volcanic vents produced predominantly effusive products while others generated mostly pyroclastics. Flood lavas were emplaced in both turbulent and gentle eruptions, producing roofed channels and inflation features. However, many areas on Mars are too heavily mantled to allow meter-scale volcanic features to be discerned. In particular, the major volcanic edifices are extensively mantled, though it is possible that some of the mantle is pyroclastic material rather than atmospheric dust. Support imaging by the Context Imager (CTX) and topographic information derived from stereo imaging are both invaluable in interpreting the HiRISE data. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Solar Imaging UV/EUV Spectrometers Using TVLS Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.

    2003-01-01

    It is a particular challenge to develop a stigmatic spectrograph for UV, EUV wavelengths since the very low normal-incidence reflectance of standard materials most often requires that the design be restricted to a single optical element which must simultaneously provide both reimaging and spectral dispersion. This problem has been solved in the past by the use of toroidal gratings with uniform line-spaced rulings (TULS). A number of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been based on such designs, including SOHO/CDS, Solar-B/EIS, and the sounding rockets Solar Extreme ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) and Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS). More recently, Kita, Harada, and collaborators have developed the theory of spherical gratings with varied line-space rulings (SVLS) operated at unity magnification, which have been flown on several astronomical satellite missions. We now combine these ideas into a spectrometer concept that puts varied-line space rulings onto toroidal gratings. Such TVLS designs are found to provide excellent imaging even at very large spectrograph magnifications and beam-speeds, permitting extremely high-quality performance in remarkably compact instrument packages. Optical characteristics of three new solar spectrometers based on this concept are described: SUMI and RAISE, two sounding rocket payloads, and NEXUS, currently being proposed as a Small-Explorer (SMEX) mission.

  12. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  13. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  14. Compact Image Slicing Spectrometer (ISS) for hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2009-01-01

    An image slicing spectrometer (ISS) for microscopy applications is presented. Its principle is based on the redirecting of image zones by specially organized thin mirrors within a custom fabricated component termed an image slicer. The demonstrated prototype can simultaneously acquire a 140nm spectral range within its 2D field of view from a single image. The spectral resolution of the system is 5.6nm. The FOV and spatial resolution of the ISS depend on the selected microscope objective and for the results presented is 45×45μm2 and 0.45μm respectively. This proof-of-concept system can be easily improved in the future for higher (both spectral and spatial) resolution imaging. The system requires no scanning and minimal post data processing. In addition, the reflective nature of the image slicer and use of prisms for spectral dispersion make the system light efficient. Both of the above features are highly valuable for real time fluorescent-spectral imaging in biological and diagnostic applications. PMID:19654631

  15. The Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) - Interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Boardman, J. W.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Shapiro, A. T.; Barloon, P. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has developed a prototype interactive software system called the Spectral Image Processing System (SIPS) using IDL (the Interactive Data Language) on UNIX-based workstations. SIPS is designed to take advantage of the combination of high spectral resolution and spatial data presentation unique to imaging spectrometers. It streamlines analysis of these data by allowing scientists to rapidly interact with entire datasets. SIPS provides visualization tools for rapid exploratory analysis and numerical tools for quantitative modeling. The user interface is X-Windows-based, user friendly, and provides 'point and click' operation. SIPS is being used for multidisciplinary research concentrating on use of physically based analysis methods to enhance scientific results from imaging spectrometer data. The objective of this continuing effort is to develop operational techniques for quantitative analysis of imaging spectrometer data and to make them available to the scientific community prior to the launch of imaging spectrometer satellite systems such as the Earth Observing System (EOS) High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS).

  16. Optical alignment of the SPICE EUV imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Caldwell, Martin; Eccleston, Paul; Griffin, Doug; Greenway, Paul; Fludra, Andrzej; Middleton, Kevin; Tosh, Ian; Richards, Tony; Phillipon, Anne; Schühle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    SPICE is a high resolution imaging spectrometer operating at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE will address the key science goals of Solar Orbiter by providing the quantitative knowledge of the physical state and composition of the plasmas in the solar atmosphere, in particular investigating the source regions of outflows and ejection processes which link the solar surface and corona to the heliosphere. By observing the intensities of selected spectral lines and line profiles, SPICE will derive temperature, density, flow and composition information for the plasmas in the temperature range from 10,000 K to 10MK. The optical components of the instrument consist of an off axis parabolic mirror mounted on a mechanism with a scan range of 8 arc minutes. This allows the rastering of an image of the spectrometer slit, which is interchangeable defining the instrument resolution, on the sky. A concave toroidal variable line space grating disperses, magnifies, and re-images incident radiation onto a pair of photocathode coated microchannel plate image intensifiers, coupled to active pixel sensors. For the instrument to meet the scientific and engineering objectives these components must be tightly aligned with each other and the mechanical interface to the spacecraft. This alignment must be maintained throughout the environmental exposure of the instrument to vibration and thermal cycling seen during launch, and as the spacecraft orbits around the sun. The built alignment is achieved through a mixture of dimensional metrology, autocollimation, interferometry and imaging tests. This paper shall discuss the requirements and the methods of optical alignment.

  17. Spatial image modulation to improve performance of computed tomography imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having patterns for imposing spatial structure are provided. The pattern may be imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  18. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  19. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers (TWINS)

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Blake, B.; Burch, J.

    1998-11-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is a revolutionary new mission designed to stereoscopically image the magnetosphere in charge exchange neutral atoms for the first time. The authors propose to fly two identical TWINS instruments as a mission of opportunity on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination US Government spacecraft. Because the spacecraft are funded independently, TWINS can provide a vast quantity of high priority science observations (as identified in an ongoing new missions concept study and the Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap) at a small fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. Because stereo observations of the near-Earth space environs will provide a particularly graphic means for visualizing the magnetosphere in action, and because of the dedication and commitment of the investigator team to the principles of carrying space science to the broader audience, TWINS will also be an outstanding tool for public education and outreach.

  20. Laboratory Calibration of a Field Imaging Spectrometer System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Changping; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Feizhou; Tong, Qingxi

    2011-01-01

    A new Field Imaging Spectrometer System (FISS) based on a cooling area CCD was developed. This paper describes the imaging principle, structural design, and main parameters of the FISS sensor. The FISS was spectrally calibrated with a double grating monochromator to determine the center wavelength and FWHM of each band. Calibration results showed that the spectral range of the FISS system is 437–902 nm, the number of channels is 344 and the spectral resolution of each channel is better than 5 nm. An integrating sphere was used to achieve absolute radiometric calibration of the FISS with less than 5% calibration error for each band. There are 215 channels with signal to noise ratios (SNRs) greater than 500 (62.5% of the bands). The results demonstrated that the FISS has achieved high performance that assures the feasibility of its practical use in various fields. PMID:22163746

  1. Laboratory calibration of a field imaging spectrometer system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifu; Huang, Changping; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Feizhou; Tong, Qingxi

    2011-01-01

    A new Field Imaging Spectrometer System (FISS) based on a cooling area CCD was developed. This paper describes the imaging principle, structural design, and main parameters of the FISS sensor. The FISS was spectrally calibrated with a double grating monochromator to determine the center wavelength and FWHM of each band. Calibration results showed that the spectral range of the FISS system is 437-902 nm, the number of channels is 344 and the spectral resolution of each channel is better than 5 nm. An integrating sphere was used to achieve absolute radiometric calibration of the FISS with less than 5% calibration error for each band. There are 215 channels with signal to noise ratios (SNRs) greater than 500 (62.5% of the bands). The results demonstrated that the FISS has achieved high performance that assures the feasibility of its practical use in various fields.

  2. Acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer for NASA applications - Breadboard demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Cheng, Li-Jen; Lambert, Jim

    1990-01-01

    Considerations of performance criteria in image quality, spectral response, programmability, and field-of-view, are presently discussed for a NASA AOTF system. Experimental data obtained with an AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard are presented. Attention is given to the identification of Nd(3+) contained in bastanite rock by means of this imaging spectrometer.

  3. WINKLER - An imaging high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Sandie, W. G.; Kilner, J. R.; Pang, F.; Imai, B. B.

    1991-04-01

    The WINKLER high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer was originally developed to fly on a high-altitude aircraft. Following the discovery of Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud, arrangements were made to perform balloon-borne observations of this event. The instrument was quickly adapted to fit on a gondola furnished by NASA/MSFC in a collaborative effort and was flown in a series of three successful flights from Alice Springs, Australia. The second flight on October 29-31, 1987 resulted in the first high-resolution detection of the 847-keV line emission from the decay of 56Co and provided definitive confirmation of the explosive nucleosynthesis process. WINKLER comprises an array of nine coaxial n-type germanium detectors which are housed in a common vaccuum cryostat and surrounded by an NaI(Tl) scintillator shield that suppresses Compton interactions and gamma-ray background. Gamma-ray images are obtained with a rotational modulation collimator system attached to the spectrometer. Collimator holes in the upper section of the shield define the angular field of view of the instrument to 22 deg FWHM. The energy range of the spectrometer is 20 eV to 8 MeV, and the composite energy resolution from all detectors is 1.5 keV at 100 keV and about 2.5 keV at 1.33 MeV. The total frontal area of the sensor array is 214 cm2 with a volume of 1177 cm3, providing sufficient detection sensitivity for gamma-ray astronomy as well as for land-based applications such as treaty verification monitoring.

  4. High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS): Science and Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1991-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a facility instrument slated for flight on the second of the EOS-A series of platforms. HIRIS is designed to acquire 24-km wide, 30-m pixel images in 192 spectral bands simultaneously in the 0.4-2.45-micrometer wavelength region. With pointing mirrors it can sample any place on Earth, except the poles, every two days. HIRIS operates at the intermediate scale between the human and the global and therefore links studies of Earth surface processes to global monitoring carried out by lower-resolution instruments. So far, over 50 science data products from HIRIS images have been identified in the fields of atmospheric gases, clouds, snow and ice, water, vegetation, and rocks and soils. The key attribute of imaging spectrometry that makes it possible to derive quantitative information from the data is the large number of contiguous spectral bands. Therefore spectrum matching techniques can be applied. Such techniques are not possible with present-day, multispectral scanner data.

  5. Continued Development of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes continued efforts to evaluate a breadboard of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS). The PIFTS breadboard was developed under prior PIDDP funding. That effort is described in the final report for NASA Grant NAG5-6248 and in two conference papers (Sromovsky et al. 2000; Revercomb et al. 2000). The PIFTS breadboard was designed for near-IR (1-5.2 micrometer imaging of planetary targets with spectral resolving powers of several hundred to several thousand, using an InSb detector array providing at least 64x64 pixels imaging detail. The major focus of the development effort was to combine existing technologies to produce a small and low power design compatible with a very low mass flyable instrument. The objective of this grant (NAG5-10729) was further characterization of the breadboard performance, including intercomparisons with the highly accurate non-imaging Advanced Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) (Revercomb et al. 1994; Best et al. 1997).

  6. Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.

  7. Neutron beam imaging at neutron spectrometers at Dhruva

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Rao, Mala N.

    2012-06-05

    A low efficiency, 2-Dimensional Position Sensitive Neutron Detector based on delay line position encoding is developed. It is designed to handle beam flux of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}/s and for monitoring intensity profiles of neutron beams. The present detector can be mounted in transmission mode, as the hardware allows maximum neutron transmission in sensitive region. Position resolution of 1.2 mm in X and Y directions, is obtained. Online monitoring of beam images and intensity profile of various neutron scattering spectrometers at Dhruva are presented. It shows better dynamic range of intensity over commercial neutron camera and is also time effective over the traditionally used photographic method.

  8. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  9. Martian spectral units derived from ISM imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, S.; Mustard, J.; Saylor, R.

    1993-01-01

    Based on results of the Viking mission, the soil layer of Mars has been thought to be fairly homogeneous and to consist of a mixture of as few as two components, a 'dark gray' basaltic material and a 'bright red' altered material. However, near-infrared reflectance spectra measured recently both telescopically and from spacecraft indicate compositional heterogeneity beyond what can be explained by just two components. In particular, data from the ISM imaging spectrometer, which observed much of the equatorial region at a spatial resolution of approximately 22 km, indicate spatial differences in the presence and abundance of Fe-containing phases, hydroxylated silicates, and H2O. The ISM data was used to define, characterize, and map soil 'units' based on their spectral properties. The spatial distribution of these 'units' were compared to morphologic, visible color, and thermal inertia features recognized in Viking data.

  10. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  11. Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; LaPorte, D. D.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program's Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) requires highly accurate radiometric and spectral calibration in order to carry out its mission to provide water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. A calibration concept has been developed for the GIFTS Phase A instrument design. The in-flight calibration is performed using views of two on-board blackbody sources along with cold space. A radiometric calibration uncertainty analysis has been developed and used to show that the expected performance for GIFTS exceeds its top level requirement to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K. For the Phase A GIFTS design, the spectral calibration is established by the highly stable diode laser used as the reference for interferogram sampling, and verified with comparisons to atmospheric calculations.

  12. The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Hibbitts, C.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B., III; Davies, A. G.; Green, R. O.; Hedman, M. M.; Langevin, Y.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Murchie, S. L.; Paranicas, C.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Soderblom, J. M.; Cable, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) investigation was selected by NASA to be part of the next Europa Mission in May 2015. The MISE instrument is designed to enable the identification and mapping of organics, salts, acid hydrates, water ice phases, altered silicates, and radiolytic compounds at global (≤ 10 km), regional (≤ 300 m), and local scales (~ 25 m). Mapping the composition of specific landforms is critical to understanding surface and subsurface geologic processes, including recent or current activity. High spatial resolution compositional mapping is also essential for detecting small outcrops of organics and salts. Distribution maps of astrobiologically relevant compounds and their geologic context can be used to assess whether Europa's ocean is capable of supporting life. MISE could provide fundamental information on where future Europa landers would have the highest probability of detecting evidence of life. The MISE instrument design is for a high-optical throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer that could observe effectively throughout a flyby or in orbit around Europa. MISE would cover a spectral range from 0.8-5 μm at 10 nm/channel, with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 250 μrad/pixel and a swath width of 300 active pixels. The 0.8-2.5 μm region is essential for quantifying hydrates and bulk surface composition, while the 3-5 μm region is required for detecting low abundances of organics, most radiolytic products, and discriminating salts from acid hydrates. These longer wavelengths can also be used to measure thermal emissions from currently active regions. MISE is designed to operate within Europa's challenging radiation environment and deal with both radiation noise and total integrated dose. The MISE design is the result of collaboration between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (John Hopkins' University).

  13. Wide-field imaging spectrometer for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Korniski, Ronald J.; Green, Robert O.; Wilson, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the design, tolerancing, and laboratory breadboard of an imaging spectrometer for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Hyperspectral and Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. The spectrometer is of the Offner type but with a much longer slit than typical designs, with 1600 resolvable spatial elements along the slit for a length of 48 mm. Two such spectrometers cover more than the required swath while maintaining high throughput and signal-to-noise thanks to the large pixel size (30 μm), relatively high speed (F/2.8) and small number of reflections. We also demonstrate a method for measuring smile using a linear array, and use the method to prove the achievement of negligible smile of less than 2% of a pixel over the entire 48 mm slit. Thus we show that this high-heritage, all-spherical mirror design can serve the requirements of the HyspIRI mission.

  14. Detailed characterization of the LLNL imaging proton spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Hazi, A. U.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2016-11-01

    Ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., thin Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields, and density gradients in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built [H. Chen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D314 (2010)] for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis. In order to better characterize the dispersion and imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D finite element analysis solver is used to calculate the magnetic field of the L-IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to determine the dispersion relation of the L-IPS in both energy and angular space.

  15. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  16. Keck Long Wavelength Spectrometer Images of Luminous IR Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barbara; Puetter, Richard C.; Smith, Harding E.; Stein, Wayne A.; Wang, Michael C.; Campbell, Randy

    1998-05-01

    We have used the UCSD/Keck Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS; Jones & Puetter 1993, Proc. S.P.I.E., 1946, 610) in its initial (72 x 64) imaging mode to observe the luminous IR Galaxies Mrk 231, Arp 220, and NGC 7469, as well as NGC 1068 at mid-infrared wavelengths from 8--18\\micron. Pixon-based image reconstruction techniques (Puetter 1995, Int. J. Image Sys. & Tech., 6, 314) have been employed to achieve resolution as high as 50 mas. The mid-infrared emission in Arp 220 is resolved into the two nuclei plus a faint knot of emission 0.5 arcsec SE of the western nucleus. The SEDs show that the the W nucleus dominates at the longest wavelengths and probably in the far-infrared. Silicate absorption at 10\\micron\\ is present in all three components, but is strongest in the E nucleus, suggesting that the emission comes from an optically thick shell around a very compact mid-IR source. The E nucleus is unresolved at 0.2 arcsec resolution. The nucleus of NGC 7469 is marginally resolved at 50mas resolution. On the average the nuclear emission is redder than the surrounding starburst ring; the active nucleus dominates at all mid-infrared wavelengths and the ratio of Nucleus/Starburst increases toward the FIR. Mrk 231 shows a compact, unresolved nucleus with a faint, resolved star-formation ring. These observations will be discussed in terms of the Sanders et al. (1988, ApJ, 325 74) model in which LIGs evolve from Starbursts to AGN. The LWS is being upgraded with a Boeing 128 x 128 BIB array which is expected to be delivered in early summer. A 128 x 128 element multiplexer has been installed and optical performance reverified; further temperature stability tests and signal-to-noise optimization are being performed with an engineering array. The upgraded spectrometer with 11" FOV for imaging and spectroscopic resolutions, R=100 and 1000, is expected to be recommissioned this summer and to be available for scheduling in second semester 1998.

  17. Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometers for Mars Surface Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Blaney, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long term plan for Mars sample collection and return requires a highly streamlined approach for spectrally characterizing a landing site, documenting the mineralogical make-up of the site and guiding the collections of samples which represent the diversity of the site. Ideally, image data should be acquired at hundreds of VIS and IR wavelengths, in order to separately distinguish numerous anticipated species, using principal component analysis and linear unmixing. Cameras with bore-sighted point spectrometers can acquire spectra of isolated scene elements, but it requires 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 2) successive motions and precise relative pointing knowledge in order to create a single data cube which qualifies as a spectral map. These and other competing science objectives have to be accomplished within very short lander/rover operational lifetime (a few sols). True, 2-D imaging spectroscopy greatly speeds up the data acquisition process, since the spectra of all pixels in the scene are collected at once. This task can be accomplished with cameras that use electronically tunable acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) as the optical tuning element. AOTFs made from TeO2 are now a mature technology, and operate at wavelengths from near-UV to about 5 microns. Because of incremental improvements in the last few years, present generation devices are rugged, radiation-hard and operate at temperatures down to at least 150K so they can be safely integrated into the ambient temperature optics of in-situ instruments such as planetary or small-body landers. They have been used for ground-based astronomy, and were also baselined for the ST-4 Champollion IR comet lander experiment (CIRCLE), prior to cancellation of the ST-4 mission last year. AIMS (for Acousto-optic Imaging spectrometer), is a prototype lander instrument which is being built at GSFC with support by the NASA OSS Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies, Mars Instrument Definition and Development Program (MIDP

  18. [Effect of spectrum distortion on modulation transfer function in imaging fiber-optic spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bao; Hong, Yong-Feng

    2011-10-01

    Imaging fiber bundles were introduced to dispersion imaging spectrometer and substituted for slit, connecting the telescope and spectrometer to yield the imaging fiber-optic spectrometer. It is a double sampling system, the misalignment between image of optical fiber and detector pixel has arisen because of the spectrum distortion of spectrometer, which affected the second sampling process, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) therefore degraded. Optical transfer function of sampling process was derived from line spread function. The effect of spectrum distortion on system MTF was analyzed, and a model evaluating the MTF of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer was developed. Compared to the computation model of MTF of slit imaging spectrometer, a MTF item of sampling by optical fiber and a MTF item of misalignment arising from spectrum distortion were added in this model. Employing this, the MTF of an airborne imaging fiber-optic spectrometer for visible near infrared band was evaluated. The approach ro deriving and developing the MTF model has a reference signification for the computation of MTF of double sampling system, which can direct the design of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer also.

  19. Color camera computed tomography imaging spectrometer for improved spatial-spectral image accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having color focal plane array detectors are provided. The color FPA detector may comprise a digital color camera including a digital image sensor, such as a Foveon X3.RTM. digital image sensor or a Bayer color filter mosaic. In another embodiment, the CTIS includes a pattern imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of a color FPA detector and the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  20. Near-infrared imaging spectrometer onboard NEXTSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Sung-Joon; Moon, Bongkon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Youngsik; Kim, Il-Joong; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Lee, Dukhang; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Minjin; Ko, Jongwan; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Chae, Jangsoo; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The NISS (Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history) is the near-infrared instrument optimized to the first next generation of small satellite (NEXTSat-1) in Korea. The spectro-photometric capability in the near-infrared range is a unique function of the NISS. The major scientific mission is to study the cosmic star formation history in local and distant universe. For those purposes, the NISS will perform the large areal imaging spectroscopic survey for astronomical objects and low background regions. We have paid careful attention to reduce the volume and to increase the total throughput. The newly implemented off-axis optics has a wide field of view (2° x 2°) and a wide wavelength range from 0.9 to 3.8μm. The mechanical structure is designed to consider launching conditions and passive cooling of the telescope. The compact dewar after relay-lens module is to operate the infrared detector and spectral filters at 80K stage. The independent integration of relay-lens part and primary-secondary mirror assembly alleviates the complex alignment process. We confirmed that the telescope and the infrared sensor can be cooled down to around 200K and 80K, respectively. The engineering qualification model of the NISS was tested in the space environment including the launch-induced vibration and shock. The NISS will be expected to demonstrate core technologies related to the development of the future infrared space telescope in Korea.

  1. Night vision imaging spectrometer (NVIS) processing and viewing tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simi, Christopher G.; Dixon, Roberta; Schlangen, Michael J.; Winter, Edwin M.; LaSota, Christopher

    2001-08-01

    The US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has developed software tools for processing, viewing, and analyzing hyperspectral data. The tools were specifically developed for use with the U.S. Army's NVESD Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS), but they can also be used to process hyperspectral data in a variety of other formats. The first of these tools is the NVESD Hyperspectral Data Processor, which is used to create a calibrated datacube from raw hyperspectral data files. It can calibrate raw NVIS data to spectral radiance units, perform spectral re-alignment, and can co-register imagery from NVIS's VNIR and SWIR subsystems. The second tool is the NVESD Hyperspectral Viewer, which can display focal plane data, generate images, and compute spatial and temporal statistics, produce data histograms, estimate spectral correlation, compute signal-to-clutter ratios, etc. Additionally, this software tool has recently been modified to utilize the INS/GPS data that is currently embedded into NVIS data as well as the high-resolution imagery (HRI) that is collected simultaneously. Furthering its capabilities, Technical Research Associates (TRA) has added the following detection algorithms to the Viewer: N-FINDR, PC and MNF Transformations, Spectral Angle Mapper, and R-X. The purpose of these software developments is to provide the DoD and other Government agencies with a variety of tools, which are not only applicable to NVIS data but also can be applied to other hyperspectral data.

  2. [Study and design on Dyson imaging spectrometer in spectral broadband with high resolution].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ling-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The paper designs and improves a telecentric imaging spectrometer, the Dyson imaging spectrometer. The optical structure of the imaging spectrometer is simple and compact, which is only composed of a hemispherical lens and a concave grating. Based on the Rowland circle and refraction theory, the broadband anastigmatic imaging condition of Dyson imaging spectrometer which is the ratio of the grating radius and hemispherical lens radius has been analyzed. By imposing this condition for two different wavelengths, the parameters of the optical system presenting low aberrations and excellent imaging quality are obtained. To make the design spectrometer more suitable for the engineering application, the paper studies the method making the detector not to attach the surface of the hemispherical lens. A design example using optimal conditions was designed to prove our theory. The Dyson imaging spectrometer of which the imaging RMS radii are less than 2.5 microm and the advanced spectrometer of which the imaging RMS radii are less than 8 microm, with NA 0.33, waveband 0.38-1.7 microm and the slit length 15 mm, have been obtained. The design method and results are more feasible and predominant, and can be applied in the areas of the industry and remote sensing.

  3. Observation of Comet Siding Spring by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamere, Alan; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah; Heyd, Rodney; Polit, Anjani T.; Schaller , Christian; Zurek, Richard W.; Miilkovich, Sarah M.; Block, Kristin; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Li, Jian_Yang; Farnham, Tony; Lisse, Carey M.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at a distance of about 137,000 km on Oct 19, 2014. The primary observing campaign will be October 17 through October 21. The solar phase angle will be 108 degrees at closest approach. The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) project has dedicated 5 days for comet observation. The MRO/HiRISE telescope has a 50 cm aperture and an instantaneous field of view of one micro-radian per pixel, so the best image have a scale of 140 m/pixel. The CCD detectors are backside illuminated with three broadband color filters. The CCDs are operated at much higher temperatures, 20C to 30C, than those used for astronomical observations, so the exposure time is limited to maximum of about 2.5 seconds. While HiRISE will observe +/-60 hours with respect to closest approach(CA), the prime nucleus data will be obtained +/-2 hours wrt CA. It is expected that the nucleus and inner coma will be detected in both the red and blue-green channels. Preliminary results of the HiRISE observations will be presented.

  4. Calibration of imaging plate for high energy electron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Yabuuchi, Toshinori; Sato, Takashi; Kodama, Ryosuke; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Takahashi, Teruyoshi; Ikeda, Toshiji; Honda, Yoshihide; Okuda, Shuuichi

    2005-01-01

    A high energy electron spectrometer has been designed and tested using imaging plate (IP). The measurable energy range extends from 1to100MeV or even higher. The IP response in this energy range is calibrated using electrons from L-band and S-band LINAC accelerator at energies 11.5, 30, and 100MeV. The calibration has been extended to 0.2MeV using an existing data and Monte Carlo simulation Electron Gamma Shower code. The calibration results cover the energy from 0.2to100MeV and show almost a constant sensitivity for electrons over 1MeV energy. The temperature fading of the IP shows a 40% reduction after 80min of the data taken at 22.5°C. Since the fading is not significant after this time we set the waiting time to be 80min. The oblique incidence effect has been studied to show that there is a 1/cosθ relation when the incidence angle is θ.

  5. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - A progress report (April 1989)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Magner, T.; Barnes, W.; Montgomery, H.; Ostrow, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is a facility instrument to be flown on the first Earth Observing System (scheduled launch in the late 1990s). The MODIS has two components. One component is a 110-deg-scan-angle instrument called MODIS-N (nadir). This instrument has 40 selected bands supporting observations of the land surface, the oceans, and atmosphere in the visible, NIR, short-wave IR (1.0-3.0 microns), and thermal IR (3.0-15.0 microns). The other component is a 90-deg-scan-angle scanning instrument that can tilt fore and aft along the satellite track, called MODIS-T (tilt). Both MODIS-N and MODIS-T are nearing the end of detailed design studies. The driving scientific requirements include absolute calibration accuracy 2 percent, instrument-induced polarization less than 2 percent, SNR reaching 800:1 for observing ocean color at large solar zenith angles, and dynamic range allowing observations of cloud characteristics and snow-covered areas.

  6. MODIS-N - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Richard R.; Thompson, Leslie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Nadir (MODIS-N) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) is intended to provide daily global surveys for the atmosphere, the oceans, and the land. To achieve this capability, MODIS-N requires an at-least 2300-km swath width, and provides geometric-instantaneous-fields-of-view (GIFOVs) that are either 856 m, 428 m, or 214 m in size with reference to a 705 km satellite altitude. The 214 m GIFOV may or may not be used depending on total data rate impact assessments traded with science needs. To achieve the data for the multiplicity of science investigations MODIS-N provides nominally 36 spectral bands that are selected for specific locations and bandpasses in the spectral range from the visible to the long wave infrared. Another driver of this instrument combination is the need for long term spectral and radiometric calibration stability. Specific calibration capabilities are to be built into MODIS-N to achieve calibration knowledge over a 5 year operational life.

  7. Detecting methane plumes with the APEX imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer primarily designed for environmental remote sensing of the land surface but also allows observing atmospheric trace gases. To test if APEX can be used to detect strong methane plumes, the instrument was flown over a coal mining area near Ibbenbürren (Germany). According to the European Point source emission inventory (E-PRTR), emissions from the ventilation shafts of these coal mines are the largest single source of methane in Germany. We present the first measurements of methane ever taken by APEX making use of the absorption features of methane in the short-wave infrared spectral range. Our detection algorithm uses a matched filter to identify the presence of methane. The filter is tested in two spectral windows (1600-1700 nm and 2100-2500 nm) and for different spatial binning of pixels to improve the signal-to-noise. Using this approach, we could clearly identify two meandering methane plumes originating from the ventilation shafts of two coal mines (Bockradener Schacht and Theodor Schacht). The filter performed best for the spectral window from 1600-1700 nm with a binning of 10×10 pixels corresponding to a spatial resolution of about 35×25 m2 In conclusions, we could demonstrate that APEX is able to detect strong methane plumes. The results provide a basis for developing more sophisticated and quantitative methane retrievals.

  8. A Compact Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, K.; Miller, H.; Casement, S.

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a concept for a compact, low weight and power, dual band hyperspectral imaging spectrometer with an integrated cooling system and with performance exceeding that of currently available single focal plane sensors. This instrument operates from 2.5μm to >12μm, enabling key objectives in planetary remote sensing missions, including geological and mineralogical mapping, atmospheric chemistry measurements, and thermal imagery with spectral discrimination of materials and species. These measurements address crucial science goals at diverse targets, including primitive bodies, satellites, and planets. Here we present anticipated sensor performance and preliminary sensor parameters for a subset of possible science goals that can be achieved using this instrument. Our innovative instrument design combines cryocooler concepts which build on proven space-qualified Northrop Grumman cryocooler systems, a unique compact optical design, space qualifiable electronics, and novel Si:As focal plane array technology. This system delivers spatial resolution as well as contiguous, high spectral resolution over a large range of thermal wavelengths with capabilities out to 28μm, and the exact wavelength range and spectral resolution can be tailored to specific mission needs. The engineering design goals include a total mass <30kg and power <45W; the resulting instrument provides smaller, less massive, lower power, and improved performance relative to traditional multi-focal plane instruments.

  9. Computing Global Mosaics of Titan With the VIMS Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Cornet, T.; Rodriguez, S.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini observes the surface of Titan in seven narrow atmospheric windows in the infrared at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.68-2.78, and 4.9-5.1 microns. We have produced a global hyperspectral mosaic of the complete VIMS data set of Titan between T0 (July 2004) and T112 flyby (July 2015), by merging all the data cubes sorted by increasing spatial resolution, with the high resolution images on top of the mosaic and the low resolution images used as background. We filtered out the observing geometry in order to remove the pixels acquired in too extreme illuminating and viewing conditions, which systematically produce atmospheric artifacts. We used thresholds of 80° both on the incidence and emission angles, 100° on the phase angle, and 7 on the airmass. These thresholds corresponds to a trade-off between surface coverage and data quality. The viewing geometry is normalized at first order using a surface photometric function derived from the observation at 5 μm, where the atmospheric scattering is almost negligible. We also use the wings of the atmospheric windows as a proxy to correct for the amount of additive scattering present in the center of these windows, where the surface is seen by VIMS. Various color composites can then be produced using combinations of different wavelengths to emphasize surface heterogeneities. Among these, a RGB composite with red controlled by the 5 μm image, the green by the 2 μm image and the blue by the 1.27 μm, reveals the extent of equatorial dune fields appearing in brownish tones. Bluish areas corresponds to regions possibly enriched in water ice or other organic compounds. Composite of band ratios such as 1.59/1.27 μm, 2.03/1.27 μm and 1.27/1.08 also prove to be more useful to better emphasize surface variations, even if they are also more sensitive to residual artefacts due to atmospheric and geometric effects or calibration residuals.

  10. Long range acoustic imaging of the continental shelf environment: the Acoustic Clutter Reconnaissance Experiment 2001.

    PubMed

    Ratilal, Purnima; Lai, Yisan; Symonds, Deanelle T; Ruhlmann, Lilimar A; Preston, John R; Scheer, Edward K; Garr, Michael T; Holland, Charles W; Goff, John A; Makris, Nicholas C

    2005-04-01

    An active sonar system is used to image wide areas of the continental shelf environment by long-range echo sounding at low frequency. The bistatic system, deployed in the STRATAFORM area south of Long Island in April-May of 2001, imaged a large number of prominent clutter events over ranges spanning tens of kilometers in near real time. Roughly 3000 waveforms were transmitted into the water column. Wide-area acoustic images of the ocean environment were generated in near real time for each transmission. Between roughly 10 to more than 100 discrete and localized scatterers were registered for each image. This amounts to a total of at least 30000 scattering events that could be confused with those from submerged vehicles over the period of the experiment. Bathymetric relief in the STRATAFORM area is extremely benign, with slopes typically less than 0.5 degrees according to high resolution (30 m sampled) bathymetric data. Most of the clutter occurs in regions where the bathymetry is locally level and does not coregister with seafloor features. No statistically significant difference is found in the frequency of occurrence per unit area of repeatable clutter inside versus outside of areas occupied by subsurface river channels.

  11. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  12. Mars reconnaissance orbiter's high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Bridges, N.T.; Hansen, C.J.; Delamere, W.A.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V.C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R.L.; Mellon, M.T.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, N.; Weitz, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The HiRISE camera features a 0.5 m diameter primary mirror, 12 m effective focal length, and a focal plane system that can acquire images containing up to 28 Gb (gigabits) of data in as little as 6 seconds. HiRISE will provide detailed images (0.25 to 1.3 m/pixel) covering ???1% of the Martian surface during the 2-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) beginning November 2006. Most images will include color data covering 20% of the potential field of view. A top priority is to acquire ???1000 stereo pairs and apply precision geometric corrections to enable topographic measurements to better than 25 cm vertical precision. We expect to return more than 12 Tb of HiRISE data during the 2-year PSP, and use pixel binning, conversion from 14 to 8 bit values, and a lossless compression system to increase coverage. HiRISE images are acquired via 14 CCD detectors, each with 2 output channels, and with multiple choices for pixel binning and number of Time Delay and Integration lines. HiRISE will support Mars exploration by locating and characterizing past, present, and future landing sites, unsuccessful landing sites, and past and potentially future rover traverses. We will investigate cratering, volcanism, tectonism, hydrology, sedimentary processes, stratigraphy, aeolian processes, mass wasting, landscape evolution, seasonal processes, climate change, spectrophotometry, glacial and periglacial processes, polar geology, and regolith properties. An Internet Web site (HiWeb) will enable anyone in the world to suggest HiRISE targets on Mars and to easily locate, view, and download HiRISE data products. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. HiRISE: The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Delamere, W. A.; Eliason, E. M.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V. C.; Hansen, C. J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R. L.; Mellon, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    HiRISE, an experiment on the 2005 MRO mission, will provide an unprecedented combination of ground sampling dimension (25-50 cm/pixel), signal-to-noise ratio (greater than 100:1 at all latitudes), swath width (5-10 km), partial 3-color coverage, greater than 2% coverage of Mars at 1 m/pixel or better, and stereo imaging. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. VIRTIS: an Imaging Spectrometer for the ROSETTA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradini, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Drossart, P.; Semery, A.; Arnold, G.; Benkhoff, J.

    1999-09-01

    The Rosetta mission is dedicated to the most primitive solar system bodies: comets and asteroids. The main target of the mission will be the detailed observation comet 46 P/Wirtanen nucleus and the fly-by of the asteroids Siwa and Otawara. Such interest for small bodies of the solar system is due to the fact that their study is crucial to better understand the solar system formation. In particular, the global characterisation of a cometary nucleus and of two asteroids will provide basic information on the origin of the solar system and on the interrelation between solar system and the interstellar dust environment. To achieve the above mentioned scientific goals, the Rosetta payload will perform in situ analysis of comet material and long period of remote sensing of the comet. The combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements will increase the scientific return of the mission. In fact, the ``in situ'' measurements will give relevant ``ground-truth'' for the remote sensing information, and, in turn, the locally collected data will be interpreted in the appropriate scenario provided by remote sensing investigation. The scientific payload of Rosetta includes a Visual InfraRed Spectral and Thermal Spectrometer (VIRTIS) among the instruments housed in the spacecraft orbiting around the comet nucleus. This instrument is designed to map the heterogeneous parts of the nucleus using high spatial resolution imaging and to determine unambiguously the composition of both the surface of the nucleus and the coma using high spectral resolution spectroscopy. In this way, we will be able to identify the nature of the main constituent of the comets. On an other hand, spectroscopic observations performed by VIRTIS during comet approach to Sun will give further information on the surface thermal evolution. The VIRTIS experiment (instrument and science goals) will be presented.

  15. Acousto-optic tunable filter field spectrometer for validation of airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A new concept for a field portable spectrometer designed to meet the needs of the remote sensing community is presented. This instrument uses acoustooptic tunable filters (AOTFs) as wavelength sorters, allowing the design of a rugged, compact, light-weight tool that provides broad spectral coverage, great versatility, and ease of utilization. The spectrometer provides continuous spectral coverage from 0.4 to 2.5 microns with two channels defined by detector technology, while a visible channel covering the 0.4 to 1.0 micron spectral range uses silicon PV photodiodes. The short-wavelength IR channel covers the 0.9 to 2.5 micron special range with thermoelectrically cooled lead sulfide PC detectors.

  16. Optical system design of the Dyson imaging spectrometer based on the Fery prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Linlin; Xiangli, Bin; Lv, Qunbo; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2016-08-01

    Imaging spectrometer has obtained wide development since rich feature information can be obtained by it; now, we focus on its high spectral resolution and miniaturization. In this paper, we design the Dyson imaging spectrometer system based on Fery prism. The average spectral resolution is 4.3 nm and the structure of the total length is 229 mm. It is a small, high-spectrometer imaging system. The front and rear surface of the traditional prism are plane, but the surfaces of the Fery prism are spherical, which can provide some optical power to realize imaging function and produce the dispersion effect. The Fery prism does not need to be placed in the parallel optical path, which simplifies the collimator lens and the imaging lens and are necessary in the prism spectrometer, making it possible to obtain a compact spectrometer. Full-spectrum transmittance of the prism is up to 94 %. Compared to the convex grating, the energy efficiency is greatly improved, and the free spectral range is wider, and its dispersion will not bring higher-order spectral aliasing problem. The small high spectrometer only includes two components. Its spectral range is from 400 to 1000 nm, covering the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared. The various aberrations of the typical spectrum are corrected. The spectrometer is excellent in performance.

  17. [Study on far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with grating dispersion for atmosphere remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Shu-rong; Lin, Guan-yu; Qu, Yi; Wang, Long-qi

    2012-03-01

    The far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with grating dispersion is mainly used in the detection of the ionosphere, thermosphere, auroral zone and glow zone. It is important for the study and application of the remote sensing of atmosphere in China. We designed two optical systems for the far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, and obtained the plane grating structure prototype based on the principles of nadir and limb atmospheric sounding. The prototype working at the waveband of 120-180 nm consists of an off-axis parabolic mirror and an advanced Czerny-Turner spectral imaging system. The far ultraviolet response back-illuminating CCD is adopted as the detector. The corresponding experiment system was built to calibrate the basic performances of the spectrometer prototype. The spectral and spatial resolutions are 2 nm and 0.5 mrad respectively. The far ultraviolet imaging spectrometer prototype plays an important role in the study and application of atmospheric remote sensing. PMID:22582666

  18. Spectral super-resolution reflectance retrieval from remotely sensed imaging spectrometer data.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guorui; Hueni, Andreas; Tao, Dongxing; Geng, Ruonan; Schaepman, Michael E; Zhao, Huijie

    2016-08-22

    Existing atmospheric correction methods retrieve surface reflectance keeping the same nominal spectral response functions (SRFs) as that of the airborne/spaceborne imaging spectrometer radiance data. Since the SRFs vary dependent on sensor type and configuration, the retrieved reflectance of the same ground object varies from sensor to sensor as well. This imposes evident limitations on data validation efforts between sensors at surface reflectance level. We propose a method to retrieve super-resolution reflectance at the surface, by combining the first-principles atmospheric correction method FLAASH (fast line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes) with spectral super-resolution of imaging spectrometer radiance data. This approach is validated by comparing airborne AVIRIS (airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer) and spaceborne Hyperion data. The results demonstrate that the super-resolution reflectance in spectral bands with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) serves as intermediate quantity to cross validate data originating from different imaging spectrometers.

  19. The ITER core imaging x-ray spectrometer: x-ray calorimeter performance.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Clementson, J; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Bitter, M; Feder, R; Hill, K W; Johnson, D; Barnsley, R

    2010-10-01

    We describe the anticipated performance of an x-ray microcalorimeter instrument on ITER. As part of the core imaging x-ray spectrometer, the instrument will augment the imaging crystal spectrometers by providing a survey of the concentration of heavy ion plasma impurities in the core and possibly ion temperature values from the emission lines of different elemental ions located at various radial positions.

  20. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Kerr, S; Magee, E; Nagel, S R; Park, J; Schneider, M B; Stone, G; Williams, G J; Beiersdorfer, P

    2014-11-01

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10(19)-10(20) W/cm(2). He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  1. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  2. Research on algorithm for infrared hyperspectral imaging Fourier transform spectrometer technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lifang; Chen, Yan; Liao, Ningfang; Lv, Hang; He, Shufang; Li, Yasheng

    2015-08-01

    This paper reported the algorithm for Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer Technology. Six different apodization functions are been used and compared, and the phase corrected technologies of Forman is researched and improved, fast fourier transform(FFT)is been used in this paper instead of the linear convolution to reduce the quantity of computation.The interferograms is achieved by the Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer which are corrected and rebuilded by the improved algorithm, this algorithm reduce the noise and accelerate the computing speed with the higher accuracy of spectrometers.

  3. Airborne reconnaissance XV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyn, T.W.; Henkel, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in airborne reconnaissance are reported focusing on reconnaissance requiremnts; image processing and exploitation, image acquisition and recording; and advanced development. Particular attention is given to low-intensity conflict aircraft systems; low-cost, low-risk approach to tactical reconnaissance; mission verification systems for FMS applications; tactical reconnaissance mission survivability requirements; high-bandwidth recording in a hostile environment; direct-drive film magazines; a CCD performance model for airborne reconnaissance, and an Ericsson digital recce management system.

  4. [Study on the characteristics of the imaging spectrometer calibration using diffuser method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Lei; Xiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Using a white diffuser to calibrate the imaging spectrometer has been a new technology developed to calibrate the imaging spectrometer recently. It has characteristics of easy realization and higher calibration accuracy. The expression of the collected signal electron number in each spectral channel of the imaging spectrometer detector pixels was deduced with the slit parallel and perpendicular to the meridional plane according to the principal of the calibration of imaging spectrometer using diffuser method in the present paper. The spectral radiometric calibration characteristics of the imaging spectrometer was numerically analyzed under the two special slit directions. The results indicate that the slit direction has significant effect on the spectral radiometric calibration of the imaging spectrometer. The signal electron number of the same spectral channel collected by the different scene pixels is different when the slit parallels to the meridional plane, and when the pixel is closer to the standard lamp, it collects more signal electrons;the signal electron number of the same spectral channel collected by the different scene pixels doesn't change with the scene pixel position when the slit is perpendicular to the meridional plane.

  5. Recovery of Atmospheric Water Vapor Total Column Abundance from Imaging Spectrometer Data Around 940 nm - Sensitivity Analysis and Application to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, V.; Conel, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Twosimple techniques to retrieve path precipitable water fromthe Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high spectral resolution radiance data (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio, CIBR, and Narrow/Wide Ratio, N/W), using the 940 nm water absorption band, are compared.

  6. Transfer-matrix-based method for an analytical description of velocity-map-imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, M. M.; Cohen, S.; Papalazarou, E.; Lépine, F.; Bordas, C.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a simple and general analytical model describing the operation of a velocity-map-imaging spectrometer. We show that such a spectrometer, possibly equipped with a magnifying lens, can be efficiently modeled by combining analytical expressions for the axial potential distributions along with a transfer matrix method. The model leads transparently to the prediction of the instrument's operating conditions as well as to its resolution. A photoelectron velocity-map-imaging spectrometer with a magnifying lens, built and operated along the lines suggested by the model has been successfully employed for recording images at threshold photoionization of atomic lithium. The model's reliability is demonstrated by the fairly good agreement between experimental results and calculations. Finally, the limitations of the analytical method along with possible generalizations, extensions, and potential applications are also discussed. The model may serve as a guide for users interested in building and operating such spectrometers as well as a tutorial tool.

  7. Optical system design for a short-wave infrared imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng

    2012-11-01

    A short-wave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer with all reflective elements was designed, covering the spectral range 1000-2500nm with a spectral resolution of 10nm. The imaging spectrometer is composed of an off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope and an Offner spectral imaging system with convex grating. The design result shows that the system has compact structure, light weight, wide field of view, small smile and keystone, excellent image quality and practical feasibility. The design method is simple and easy-operating.

  8. Data correction techniques for the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer based on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Shi, Dalian; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Tao; Hu, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to correct the data of the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS). LASIS is a kind of stationary interferometer which compromises flux output and device stability. It acquires a series of interferograms to reconstruct the hyperspectral image cube. Reconstruction precision of the airborne LASIS data suffers from the instability of the plane platform. Usually, changes of plane attitudes, such as yaws, pitches, and rolls, can be precisely measured by the inertial measurement unit. However, the along-track and across-track translation errors are difficult to measure precisely. To solve this problem, we propose a co-optimization approach to compute the translation errors between the interferograms using an image registration technique which helps to correct the interferograms with subpixel precision. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are run on real airborne LASIS data and our results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches.

  9. Theoretical description and numerical simulations of a simplified Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.; Torrington, Geoffrey K.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.

    2002-11-01

    A familiar concept in imaging spectrometry is that of the three dimensional data cube, with one spectral and two spatial dimensions. However, available detectors have at most two dimensions, which generally leads to the introduction of either scanning or multiplexing techniques for imaging spectrometers. For situations in which noise increases less rapidly than as the square root of the signal, multiplexing techniques have the potential to provide superior signal-to-noise ratios. This paper presents a theoretical description and numerical simulations for a new and simple type of Hadamard transform multiplexed imaging spectrometer. Compared to previous types of spatially encoded imaging spectrometers, it increases etendue by eliminating the need for anamorphically compressed re-imaging onto the entrance aperture of a monochromator or spectrophotometer. Compared to previous types of spectrally encoded imaging spectrometers, it increases end-to-end transmittance by eliminating the need for spectral re-combining optics. These simplifications are attained by treating the pixels of a digital mirror array as virtual entrance slits and the pixels of a 2-D array detector as virtual exit slits of an imaging spectrometer, and by applying a novel signal processing technique.

  10. Echelle grating multi-order imaging spectrometer utilizing a catadioptric lens

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P; Bowers, Joel M

    2014-05-27

    A cryogenically cooled imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrometer housing having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An entrance slit is on the first side of the spectrometer housing and directs light to a cross-disperser grating. An echelle immersions grating and a catadioptric lens are positioned in the housing to receive the light. A cryogenically cooled detector is located in the housing on the second side of the spectrometer housing. Light from the entrance slit is directed to the cross-disperser grating. The light is directed from the cross-disperser grating to the echelle immersions grating. The light is directed from the echelle immersions grating to the cryogenically cooled detector on the second side of the spectrometer housing.

  11. Optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

    2011-10-01

    We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is an F/4, wide field (30°) design, covering the spectral range 600-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

  12. Optical Design and Performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Wilson, D. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Sobel, H.; Sellar, R. G.; Blaney, D.; Green, R. O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the optical design and performance of the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) currently under development at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The new instrument demonstrates a low optical bench mass of less than 0.5 kg and compact size that enables Mars Rover or other in situ planetary applications. UCIS is a F/4, wide field (30deg) design, covering the spectral range 500-2600 nm and is enabled by a simple all aluminum two-mirror telescope and Offner spectrometer. We discuss here the optical design and alignment method that enables this compact and low mass imaging spectrometer and demonstrate successful spectrometer alignment with smile and keystone levels at 2-3% of a pixel width.

  13. A Bremsstrahlung spectrometer using k-edge and differential filters with image plate dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C. D.; Porkolab, M.; King, J. A.; Beg, F. N.; Key, M. H.; Chen, H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Freeman, R. R.; Link, A.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2008-10-15

    A Bremsstrahlung spectrometer using k-edge and differential filtering has been used with image plate dosimeters to measure the x-ray fluence from short-pulse laser/target interactions. An electron spectrometer in front of the Bremsstrahlung spectrometer deflects electrons from the x-ray line of sight and simultaneously measures the electron spectrum. The response functions were modeled with the Monte Carlo code INTEGRATED TIGER SERIES 3.0 and the dosimeters calibrated with radioactive sources. An electron distribution with a slope temperature of 1.3 MeV is inferred from the Bremsstrahlung spectra.

  14. A Bremsstrahlung Spectrometer using k-edge and Differential Filters with Image plate dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C; Mackinnon, A; Beg, F; Chen, H; Key, M; King, J A; Link, A; MacPhee, A; Patel, P; Porkolab, M; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Akli, K; Freeman, R

    2008-05-02

    A Bremsstrahlung spectrometer using k-edge and differential filtering has been used with Image Plate dosimeters to measure the x-ray fluence from short-pulse laser/target interactions. An electron spectrometer in front of the Bremsstrahlung spectrometer deflects electrons from the x-ray line of sight and simultaneously measures the electron spectrum. The response functions were modeled with the Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series 3.0 and the dosimeters calibrated with radioactive sources. Electron distributions with slope temperatures in the MeV range are inferred from the Bremsstrahlung spectra.

  15. Calibration of an imaging crystal spectrometer for low x-ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.

    2008-01-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer was designed for the Hanbit magnetic mirror device to observe spectra of heliumlike neon at 13.4474 A. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent mica crystal and an x-ray sensitive vacuum charge coupled device camera. This spectrometer can provide spatially resolved spectra, making it possible to obtain profiles of the ion charge state distribution from line ratios and profiles of the plasma rotation velocity from Doppler shift measurements. The paper describes measurements of spectral resolution of this instrument for low x-ray energies.

  16. Aberration analysis of a concentric imaging spectrometer with a convex grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seo Hyun; Kong, Hong Jin; Chang, Soo

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the ray-optical aberrations in a concentric imaging spectrometer composed of one convex grating and two concave mirrors of different radii. We assume that the system is generally not telecentric. First we derive aberration functions of Seidel and Buchdahl types for a bundle of rays converging to dispersed Gaussian images. Next we discuss the conditions in which the third and fifth-order ray aberrations are balanced. Finally we show that a concentric imaging spectrometer for use with a CCD detector can be optimized effectively in the neighborhood of a stigmatic condition. The stigmatic condition derived here can be useful in rapidly creating an initial design of a concentric imaging spectrometer with minimal aberrations.

  17. Transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for time and space resolved impurity measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael; Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven

    2010-10-01

    A free standing transmission grating based imaging spectrometer in the extreme ultraviolet range has been developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The spectrometer operates in a survey mode covering the approximate spectral range from 30 to 700 Å and has a resolving capability of δλ/λ on the order of 3%. Initial results from space resolved impurity measurements from NSTX are described in this paper.

  18. Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Biedermann, C; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Graf, A; Gu, M F; Hill, K W; Barnsley, R

    2012-06-15

    The parameters of the ITER core plasmas will be measured using the Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (CIXS), a high-resolution crystal spectrometer focusing on the L-shell spectra of highly ionized tungsten atoms. In order to correctly infer the plasma properties accurate atomic data are required. Here, some aspects of the underlying physics are discussed using experimental data and theoretical predictions from modeling.

  19. Using an NMR Spectrometer to Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Wayne E.; Maher, M. Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    A conventional Fourier-transform NMR spectrometer with a triple-axis gradient probe can function as a MRI imager. In this experiment students gain hands-on experience with MRI while they learn about important principles underlying the practice of NMR, such as gradients, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, and relaxation. Students image a biological…

  20. [Full-field and automatic methodology of spectral calibration for PGP imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ci; Bayanheshig; Cui, Ji-cheng; Pan, Ming-zhong; Li, Xiao-tian; Tang, Yu-guo

    2014-08-01

    In order to analyze spectral data quantitatively which is obtained by prism-grating-prism imaging spectrometer, spectral calibration is required in order to determine spectral characteristics of PGP imaging spectrometer, such as the center wavelength of every spectral channel, spectral resolution and spectral bending. A spectral calibration system of full field based on collimated monochromatic light method is designed. Spherical mirror is used to provide collimated light, and a freely sliding and rotating folding mirror is adopted to change the angle of incident light in order to realize full field and automatic calibration of imaging spectrometer. Experiments of spectral calibration have been done for PGP imaging spectrometer to obtain parameters of spectral performance, and accuracy analysis combined with the structural features of the entire spectral calibration system have been done. Analysis results indicate that spectral calibration accuracy of the calibration system reaches 0.1 nm, and the bandwidth accuracy reaches 1.3%. The calibration system has merits of small size, better commonality, high precision and so on, and because of adopting the control of automation, the additional errors which are caused by human are avoided. The calibration system can be used for spectral calibration of other imaging spectrometers whose structures are similar to PGP.

  1. Data processing assessment for the Lunar Geoscience Observer imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irigoyen, R. E.; Liaw, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    On the Lunar Geoscience Observer project, a Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument has been proposed. This instrument will have science data input rates in the hundreds of kilobits per second (kbps) and an average telemetry output data rate of 4 kbps. Techniques that can be used to reduce the throughput of the instrument are editing, summing and averaging, data compression, data preprocessing, pattern recognition and snapshot data taking. Due to instrument limitations in the buffer memory size and processing speeds, a careful selection of the available techniques must be made.

  2. Automated extraction of absorption features from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Seznec, Olivier

    1988-01-01

    Automated techniques were developed for the extraction and characterization of absorption features from reflectance spectra. The absorption feature extraction algorithms were successfully tested on laboratory, field, and aircraft imaging spectrometer data. A suite of laboratory spectra of the most common minerals was analyzed and absorption band characteristics tabulated. A prototype expert system was designed, implemented, and successfully tested to allow identification of minerals based on the extracted absorption band characteristics. AVIRIS spectra for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, have been characterized and the minerals sericite (fine grained muscovite) and dolomite were identified. The minerals kaolinite, alunite, and buddingtonite were identified and mapped for a site at Cuprite, Nevada, using the feature extraction algorithms on the new Geophysical and Environmental Research 64 channel imaging spectrometer (GERIS) data. The feature extraction routines (written in FORTRAN and C) were interfaced to the expert system (written in PROLOG) to allow both efficient processing of numerical data and logical spectrum analysis.

  3. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  4. Radiometric performance results of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LRO/LAMP) UV imaging spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael W.; Slater, David C.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Stern, S. Alan; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Versteeg, Maarten H.; Black, Ronald K.

    2009-08-01

    We describe the pre-flight radiometric performance and calibration results of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LRO/LAMP) flight model. LAMP is a lightweight (6.1 kg), low-power (4.5 W), ultraviolet spectrograph based on the ALICE instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft and NASA's New Horizons spacecraft. Its primary job will be to identify and localize exposed water frost in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), and to characterize landforms and albedos in PSRs. Detailed radiometric performance results of the LAMP flight model are presented and discussed.

  5. An EUV Wide-Field Imager and Spectrometer for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon; Savage, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The Coronal Spectrographic Imager in the EUV, COSIE, combines a wide-field solar coronal EUV imager (EUVC) and an on-disk EUV imaging spectrometer (EUVS). Located on the International Space Station (ISS), the goal of the mission is to enhance our understanding of the dynamics of the Transition Corona (the region in which the coronal magnetic field transitions from closed to open), and to provide improved detection and tracking of solar eruptive events for space weather research.

  6. RecceMan: an interactive recognition assistance for image-based reconnaissance: synergistic effects of human perception and computational methods for object recognition, identification, and infrastructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Ruckhäberle, Martin; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Haelke, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces an interactive recognition assistance system for imaging reconnaissance. This system supports aerial image analysts on missions during two main tasks: Object recognition and infrastructure analysis. Object recognition concentrates on the classification of one single object. Infrastructure analysis deals with the description of the components of an infrastructure and the recognition of the infrastructure type (e.g. military airfield). Based on satellite or aerial images, aerial image analysts are able to extract single object features and thereby recognize different object types. It is one of the most challenging tasks in the imaging reconnaissance. Currently, there are no high potential ATR (automatic target recognition) applications available, as consequence the human observer cannot be replaced entirely. State-of-the-art ATR applications cannot assume in equal measure human perception and interpretation. Why is this still such a critical issue? First, cluttered and noisy images make it difficult to automatically extract, classify and identify object types. Second, due to the changed warfare and the rise of asymmetric threats it is nearly impossible to create an underlying data set containing all features, objects or infrastructure types. Many other reasons like environmental parameters or aspect angles compound the application of ATR supplementary. Due to the lack of suitable ATR procedures, the human factor is still important and so far irreplaceable. In order to use the potential benefits of the human perception and computational methods in a synergistic way, both are unified in an interactive assistance system. RecceMan® (Reconnaissance Manual) offers two different modes for aerial image analysts on missions: the object recognition mode and the infrastructure analysis mode. The aim of the object recognition mode is to recognize a certain object type based on the object features that originated from the image signatures. The

  7. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  8. Compact static imaging spectrometer combining spectral zooming capability with a birefringent interferometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhu, Jingping; Qi, Chun; Zheng, Chuanlin; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Yunyao; Hou, Xun

    2013-04-22

    A compact static birefringent imaging spectrometer (BIS) with spectral zooming capability is presented. It based on two identical Wollaston prisms and has no slit. The most significant advantage of the BIS is that we can conveniently select spectral resolution to adapt to different application requirements and greatly reduce the size of the spectral image data for capturing, saving, transferring, and processing. Also, we show this configuration blend the advantage of a grating spectrometer and a Michelson interferometer: extremely compact, robust, wide free spectral range and very high throughput. PMID:23609723

  9. Decision net, directed graph, and neural net processing of imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki; Barnard, Etienne

    1989-01-01

    A decision-net solution involving a novel hierarchical classifier and a set of multiple directed graphs, as well as a neural-net solution, are respectively presented for large-class problem and mixture problem treatments of imaging spectrometer data. The clustering method for hierarchical classifier design, when used with multiple directed graphs, yields an efficient decision net. New directed-graph rules for reducing local maxima as well as the number of perturbations required, and the new starting-node rules for extending the reachability and reducing the search time of the graphs, are noted to yield superior results, as indicated by an illustrative 500-class imaging spectrometer problem.

  10. RAPID: The imaging energetic particle spectrometer on Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilken, B.; Guettler, W.; Korth, A.; Livi, S.; Weiss, W.; Gliem, F.; Muellers, A.; Rathje, R.; Fritz, T. A.; Fennell, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The RAPID spectrometer for the Cluster mission, an advanced particle detector for the analysis of suprathermal plasma distributions in the energy range from 20 to 400 keV and from 2 keV/nuc to 1500 keV for electrons and ions, respectively, is presented. Novel detector concepts in combination with pinhole acceptance permit the measurement of angular distributions over a range of 180 deg in polar angle for either species. The detection principle for the ionic component is based on a two dimensional analysis of a particle's velocity and energy. Electrons are identified by the well known energy range relationship. The detection techniques are described and selected areas in geospace are used to highlight the scientific objectives of this investigation.

  11. High-performance image deinterlacing using optical flow and artifact post-processing on GPU/CPU for surveillance and reconnaissance tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The necessity to process interlaced images in surveillance, reconnaissance, or further computer vision areas should be a topic of the past. But, for different reasons, it is not. So, there are situations in practice, in which interlaced images have to be processed. Since a lot of algorithms strongly degrade when working with such images directly, a usual method is to double or interpolate image lines in order to discard one of the two enclosed image frames. This is efficient but leads to weak results, in which half of the original information is lost. Alternatively, a lot of valuable computation time has to be spent to solve the highly complex motion compensation task in order to improve the results significantly. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is presented to solve this dilemma. First, the algorithm solves the complex 2-D mapping problem using the best state-of-theart optical flow method that could be found for this purpose. But, of course, for different physical reasons there are regions which cannot properly be handled by optical flow by itself. Therefore, an efficient post-processing method detects and removes remaining artifacts afterwards, which is the main contribution of this paper. This method is based on color interpolation incorporating local image structure. The presented results document the overall performance of the approach with respect to obtained image quality and calculation time. The method is easy to implement and offers a valuable pre-processing for a lot of computer vision tasks.

  12. Depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer based on structured light illumination and Fourier transform interferometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heejin; Wadduwage, Dushan; Matsudaira, Paul T; So, Peter T C

    2014-10-01

    A depth resolved hyperspectral imaging spectrometer can provide depth resolved imaging both in the spatial and the spectral domain. Images acquired through a standard imaging Fourier transform spectrometer do not have the depth-resolution. By post processing the spectral cubes (x, y, λ) obtained through a Sagnac interferometer under uniform illumination and structured illumination, spectrally resolved images with depth resolution can be recovered using structured light illumination algorithms such as the HiLo method. The proposed scheme is validated with in vitro specimens including fluorescent solution and fluorescent beads with known spectra. The system is further demonstrated in quantifying spectra from 3D resolved features in biological specimens. The system has demonstrated depth resolution of 1.8 μm and spectral resolution of 7 nm respectively.

  13. Accurate band-to-band registration of AOTF imaging spectrometer using motion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pengwei; Zhao, Huijie; Jin, Shangzhong; Li, Ningchuan

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the problem of platform vibration induced band-to-band misregistration with acousto-optic imaging spectrometer in spaceborne application. Registrating images of different bands formed at different time or different position is difficult, especially for hyperspectral images form acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer. In this study, a motion detection method is presented using the polychromatic undiffracted beam of AOTF. The factors affecting motion detect accuracy are analyzed theoretically, and calculations show that optical distortion is an easily overlooked factor to achieve accurate band-to-band registration. Hence, a reflective dual-path optical system has been proposed for the first time, with reduction of distortion and chromatic aberration, indicating the potential of higher registration accuracy. Consequently, a spectra restoration experiment using additional motion detect channel is presented for the first time, which shows the accurate spectral image registration capability of this technique.

  14. [Study on an optical system of small ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high resolution in broadband].

    PubMed

    Cong, Hai-Fang; Wang, Chun-Hui; Wang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    An ultraviolet imaging spectrometer was studied based on the principle of the small scale ultraviolet spectral instrument. The scheme composed of an off-axis parabolic mirror telescope and a single toroidal grating spectral imaging system was designed. The optimization of the optical system is the optimum processing for the parameters of the toroidal grating. The optical path function and the aberration equations of the grating were analyzed. The perfect anastigmatism conditions and imaging conditions of the single toroidal grating system were obtained. These two conditions that cannot be satisfied by the algebra calculation method limit the field of view and waveband of the spectrometer. The genetic algorithm was introduced to solve the problem. A solar-blind ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for 200-280 nm was designed to verify the design method. The optimum initial configuration was calculated and simulated. A system with F/# 5.7, focal length 102 mm and high spatial resolution was designed. The modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.65 in the waveband in the required Nyquist frequency (20 1p x mm(-1)). The design results indicate that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high resolution and spectral broadband.

  15. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Månsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-15

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  16. Imaging spectrometer for high resolution measurements of stratospheric trace constituents in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha R.; Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    A high-resolution spectrometer has been developed for studies of minor constituents in the middle atmosphere at ultraviolet wavelengths. In particular, the instrument is intended for observations of upper stratospheric UV bands. The spectrometer has a slit width of 0.08 A obtained by means of an echelle grating and a cross-disperser grating. The image plane detector is an intensified CCD consisting of a high gain proximity focused image intensifier that is fiber optically coupled to a two-dimensional CCD array. An instantaneous bandwidth of 9.2 A is resolved across 488 pixels at 0.018 A/pixel, permitting simultaneous acquisition of multiple lines of selected OH bands and the neighboring background. The spectrometer and the approach have been successfully demonstrated as a technique for measuring the concentration of OH on two high-altitude balloon flights. This paper reports the instrument design and its achieved performance.

  17. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Pape, S L; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R

    2010-05-11

    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution, but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and non-imaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  18. Virtis : an imaging spectrometer for the rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradine, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Drossart, P.; Semery, A.; Arnold, G.; Schade, U.; Angrilli, F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bellucci, G.; Bianchini, G.; Bibring, J. P.; Blanco, A.; Blecka, M.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Bonsignori, R.; Bouye, M.; Bussoletti, E.; Capria, M. T.; Carlson, R.; Carsenty, U.; Cerroni, P.; Colangeli, L.; Combes, M.; Combi, M.; Crovisier, J.; Dami, M.; DeSanctis, M. C.; DiLellis, A. M.; Dotto, E.; Encrenaz, T.; Epifani, E.; Erard, S.; Espinasse, S.; Fave, A.; Federico, C.; Fink, U.; Fonti, S.; Formisano, V.; Hello, Y.; Hirsch, H.; Huntzinger, G.; Knoll, R.; Kouach, D.; Ip, W. H.; Irwin, P.; Kachlicki, J.; Langevin, Y.; Magni, G.; McCord, T.; Mennella, V.; Michaelis, H.; Mondello, G.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Orofino, V.; Orosei, R.; Palumbo, P.; Peter, G.; Pforte, B.; Piccioni, G.; Reess, J. M.; Ress, E.; Saggin, B.; Schmitt, B.; Stefanovitch,; Stern, A.; Taylor, F.; Tiphene, D.; Tozzi, G.

    1998-10-01

    The VIRTIS scientific and technical teams will take advantage of their previous experience in the design and development of spectrometers for space applications. In fact, the various groups contributing to the VIRTIS experiment, from Italy, France and Germany, have been deeply involved in the CASSINI mission, with the experiments VIMS and CIRS. The targets of the ROSETTA mission are the most primi- tive solar system bodies : comets and asteroids. ROSETTA will study in detail a comet nucleus, the prime target of the mission, and will fly by one or two asteroids. The small bodies of the solar system are of great interest for planetary science and their study is crucial to understand the solar system formation. In fact it is believed that comets and, to a lesser extent, asteroids underwent a moderate evolution so that they preserve some pristine solar system material. Comets and asteroids are in close relationship with the plan- etesimals, which formed from the solar nebula 4.6 billion years ago. The global characterisation of one comet nucleus and one or two asteroids will provide basic information on the origin of the solar system and on the interrelation between the solar system and the interstellar dust environment. The ROSETTA mission is designed to obtain the above mentioned scientific goals by : (a) in situ analysis of comet material ; (b) long period of remote sensing of the comet. The combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements will increase the scientific return of the mission. In fact, the "in situ" measurements will give relevant "ground-truth" for the remote sensing information and, in turn, the locally collected data will be interpreted in the appropriate scenario provided by remote sensing investigation. The scientific payload of ROSETTA includes a Visual InfraRed Spectral and Thermal Spectrometer (VIRTIS) among the instrument on board the spacecraft orbiting around the comet. This instrument is fundamental to detect and study the evolution

  19. A Demonstration of Imaging on an NMR Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a simple demonstration that relates the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used in medicine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Included are materials, procedures, and probable results. (KR)

  20. Gallery of Datacubes Obtained with the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, R; Wishnow, E H; Blais-Ouellette, S; Cook, K H; Holden, B P; Carr, D J; Stubbs, C W

    2002-09-12

    We have acquired spatial-spectral datacubes of astronomical objects using the Livermore visible-band imaging Fourier transform spectrometer at Apache Point Observatory. Each raw datacube contains hundreds of thousands of spectral interferograms. We present in-progress demonstrations of these observations.

  1. Imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Montgomery, D. S.; Hall, I. M.; Drake, R. P.

    2011-04-01

    X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is a powerful technique for measuring state variables in dense plasmas. In this paper, we report on the development of a one-dimensional imaging spectrometer for use in characterizing spatially nonuniform, dense plasmas using XRTS. Diffraction of scattered x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal images along a one-dimensional spatial profile while simultaneously spectrally resolving along the other. An imaging spectrometer was fielded at the Trident laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, yielding a FWHM spatial resolution of < 25 μm, spectral resolution of 4 eV, spectral range of 350 eV, and spatial range of > 3 mm. A geometrical analysis is performed yielding a simple analytical expression for the throughput of the imaging spectrometer scheme. The SHADOW code is used to perform a ray tracing analysis on the spectrometer fielded at the Trident Laser Facility understand the alignment tolerances on the spatial and spectral resolutions. The analytical expression for the throughput was found to agree well with the results from the ray tracing.

  2. Imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer employing a single toroidal diffraction grating: the initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huber, M C; Timothy, J G; Morgan, J S; Lemaitre, G; Tondello, G; Jannitti, E; Scarin, P

    1988-08-15

    A high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer employs a concave toroidal grating illuminated at normal incidence in a Rowland circle mounting and has only one reflecting surface. The toroidal grating has been fabricated by a new technique employing an elastically deformable submaster grating which is replicated in a spherical form and then mechanically distorted to produce the desired aspect ratio of the toroidal surface for stigmatic imaging over the selected wavelength range. The fixed toroidal grating used in the spectrometer is then replicated from this surface. Photographic tests and initial photoelectric tests with a 2-D pulse-counting detector system have verified the image quality of the toroidal grating at wavelengths near 600 A. The results of these initial tests are described in detail, and the basic designs of two instruments which could employ the imaging spectrometer for astrophysical investigations in space are briefly described, namely, a high-resolution EUV spectroheliometer for studies of the solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona and an EUV spectroscopic telescope for studies of nonsolar objects. PMID:20539406

  3. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period July 2001 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  4. Solar-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2002-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period August 2002 of the Detailed Design and Development through Launch plus Thirty Days, Phase C/D, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  5. SOLAR-B Mission Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) Instrument Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George A.

    2001-01-01

    This Monthly Progress Report covers the reporting period through June 2001, Phase C/D, Detailed Design and Development Through Launch Plus Thirty Days, for selected components and subsystems of the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument, hereafter referred to as EIS Instrument Components. This document contains the program status through the reporting period and forecasts the status for the upcoming reporting period.

  6. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Tilt (MODIS-T) baseline concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magner, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    There will be several state of the art spectrometers in operation on the NASA Polar Orbiting Platform (NPOP-1) as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) will consist of two imaging spectroradiometric instruments, one nadir viewing (MODIS-N) and the other tiltable (MODIS-T) for ocean observation and land bidirectional reflectance studies. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer-Tilt (MODIS-T) instrument is presently being constructed for flight on the EOS. It is an imaging spectrometer utilizing a grating type, reflecting Schmidt optical design that must provide a 1.1 kilometer spatial resolution at nadir from a spacecraft altitude of 705 kilometers with a 1500 kilometer cross-track swath and a +/- 50 degree forward and aft tilt capability. The instrument is required to cover the wavelength range from 400 to 880 nanometers in approximately 15 nanometer steps with less than 2.3 percent instrument induced polarization. The absolute radiometric accuracy must be at least 5 percent over the full dynamic range of the instrument.

  7. Validation of Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H.; Baloga, S.

    1999-01-01

    We validate 1997 Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) reflectance spectra covering 0.4 meu - 2.4 meu from a stable, flat mineralogically characterized man-made target at Ray Mine, AZ, the site for an EPA/NASA assessment of the utility of remote sensing for monitoring acid drainage from an active open pit mine.

  8. [Manufacture tolerance analysis of solid Mach-Zehnder interferometer in large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Jin-Song; Nie, Yun-Feng; Lü, Qun-Bo

    2014-07-01

    The principle and instrumental structure of large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS) were briefly described in the present paper, the principle of the Mach-Zehnder imaging spectrometer was introduced, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometers' working way in the imaging spectrometer was illustrated. The structure of solid Mach-Zehnder interferometer was analyzed, and discussion was made based on the requirements of field of view (FOV) in image space and single sided interferogram with a small portion around zero path difference (ZPD). The additional optical path difference (OPD) created by manufacturing and matching tolerance of two asymmetrical pentagonal prisms will lead to the displacement of shearing and OPD nonlinearity. It was showed that the additional OPD from non-common optical path structure of solid Mach-Zehnder spectrometer implies more requirements on the manufacture of this element, compared with Sagnac interferometer, for the matching tolerance of two asymmetrical pentagonal prisms to br lower than 0.02 mm. The recovery spectrum error caused by the OPD nonlinearity is lower than 0.2% and can be ignored.

  9. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  10. Advanced astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer in spectral broadband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hai-fang

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports an advanced Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the excellent imaging quality, a cylindrical lens with a wedge angle is used between the focusing mirror and the imaging plane to remove astigmatism in broadband. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrometer in the waveband of 260nm~520nm has been designed to prove our theory. It yields the excellent modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view which are more than 0.75 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20lp/mm).

  11. High performance Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer with aberrations corrected by tilted lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Yuan; Jin, Guang

    2015-03-01

    The design of the high performance imaging spectrometer using low-cost plane grating is researched in this paper. In order to correct the aberrations well, under the guidance of the vector aberration theory, the modification of Czerny-Turner system with inserted tilt lenses is proposed. The novel design of a short-wave infrared imaging spectrometer working at between wavelengths of 1-2.5 μm is shown as an example, whose numerical aperture achieves 0.15 in image space. The aberrations are corrected well and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) performance is the same as the convex gratings systems. The smiles and keystones of the spectral image are acceptable. Advantages of the proposed design with a plane grating are obviously that the diffraction efficiency is high while the cost is very low.

  12. Phase grating design for a dual-band snapshot imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Scholl, James F; Dereniak, Eustace L; Descour, Michael R; Tebow, Christopher P; Volin, Curtis E

    2003-01-01

    Infrared spectral features have proved useful in the identification of threat objects. Dual-band focal-plane arrays (FPAs) have been developed in which each pixel consists of superimposed midwave and long-wave photodetectors [Dyer and Tidrow, Conference on Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 434-440]. Combining dual-band FPAs with imaging spectrometers capable of interband hyperspectral resolution greatly improves spatial target discrimination. The computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) [Descour and Dereniak, Appl. Opt. 34, 4817-4826 (1995)] has proved effective in producing hyperspectral images in a single spectral region. Coupling the CTIS with a dual-band detector can produce two hyperspectral data cubes simultaneously. We describe the design of two-dimensional, surface-relief, computer-generated hologram dispersers that permit image information in these two bands simultaneously.

  13. Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Gallagher, P.; Veronig, A.; Grimm, O.; Sylwester, J.; Orleanski, P.; Arnold, N.; Bednarzik, M.; Farnik, F.; Hurford, G.; Krucker, S.; Limousin, O.; Mann, G.; Vilmer, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Solar Orbiter Mission has been confirmed within ESA's M-class Cosmic Vision plan. Launch date is January 2017 into an orbit that reaches nearly one quarter AU in the perihelion. STIX is one of the 10 instruments selected for close cooperation. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using shading tungsten grids. A total of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors will permit high resolution imaging spectroscopy. The design has passed ESA's Preliminary Design Review and will be finalized by the end of 2012. The instrument specification will be presented and its scientific potential discussed.

  14. Image Stability Requirements For a Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Cantwell, G.; Robinson, R. C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-01-01

    A Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) has been selected for the NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing-3 (EO-3) mission. Our paper will discuss one of the key GIFTS measurement requirements, Field of View (FOV) stability, and its impact on required system performance. The GIFTS NMP mission is designed to demonstrate new and emerging sensor and data processing technologies with the goal of making revolutionary improvements in meteorological observational capability and forecasting accuracy. The GIFTS payload is a versatile imaging FTS with programmable spectral resolution and spatial scene selection that allows radiometric accuracy and atmospheric sounding precision to be traded in near real time for area coverage. The GIFTS sensor combines high sensitivity with a massively parallel spatial data collection scheme to allow high spatial resolution measurement of the Earth's atmosphere and rapid broad area coverage. An objective of the GIFTS mission is to demonstrate the advantages of high spatial resolution (4 km ground sample distance - gsd) on temperature and water vapor retrieval by allowing sampling in broken cloud regions. This small gsd, combined with the relatively long scan time required (approximately 10 s) to collect high resolution spectra from geostationary (GEO) orbit, may require extremely good pointing control. This paper discusses the analysis of this requirement.

  15. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  16. Acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer for NASA applications - System issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jeffrey; Chao, Tien H.; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    A recently developed AOTF operating in the visible, 0.4-0.8 micron bandpass is presently compared with other spectrometer designs, with a view to the advantages it may uniquely offer for prospective NASA missions. Since spectral identification is accomplished by this system through the scanning of a few spectral bands, data storage requirements for spectral image analysis can be significantly reduced. Attention is given to spectral and imaging capabilities and their applicability to defense, remote sensing, and industrial uses.

  17. Cylindrical Crystal Imaging Spectrometer (CCIS) for cosmic X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Taylor, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    A "stigmatic" focusing, Bragg crystal spectrometer was developed and used for high spectral resolution X-ray emission line diagnostics on hot laboratory plasmas. The concept be applied at the focal plane of an orbiting X-ray telescope where it offers several advantages over conventional spectrometers, i.e., mechanical simplicity, high resolving power and sensitivity, simultaneous measurement of an extended segment of spectrum, and good imaging properties. The instrument features a simple, unambiguous, non-scanning spectrum readout that is not adversely affected by either spacecraft pointing error or source extent. The performance of the instrument is estimated in the context of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysical Facility mission.

  18. Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) for In-Situ Planetary Mineralogy: Laboratory and Field Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gorp, Byron; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Blaney, Diana; Wilson, Daniel W.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Richardson, Brandon S.

    2012-01-01

    The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is a miniature telescope and spectrometer system intended for mapping terrain mineralogy over distances from 1.5 m to infinity with spatial sampling of 1.35 mrad over a 33 deg field, and spectral sampling of 10 nm in the 600-2500 nm range. The core of the system has been designed for operation in a Martian environment, but can also be used in a terrestrial environment when placed inside a vacuum vessel. We report the laboratory and field calibration data that include spatial and spectral calibration, and demonstrate the use of the system.

  19. Characterization of Forest Ecosystems by combined Radiative Transfer Modeling for Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetz, B.; Sun, G.; Morsdorf, F.; Rubio, J.; Kimes, D.; Ranson, J.

    2009-04-01

    This research was motivated by the increased information dimensionality provided by current Earth Observation systems measuring the complex and dynamic medium of the vegetated surface of the Earth. Advanced and reliable algorithms that fully exploit this enhanced Earth Observation information are needed to deliver consistent data sets of the Earth vegetation condition describing its spatial distribution and change over time. Spectral observation provided by imaging spectrometers and the waveform from large-footprint LiDAR are now available from space for forest ecosystem studies. The imaging spectrometer data contains information about the biochemical composition of the canopy foliage, and is widely used to estimate biophysical canopy parameters such as LAI and fractional cover. LiDAR responds to the vertical distribution of scatters and permits inferences about the plant structures required to supply water and mechanical support to those surfaces. Various canopy height indices derived from LiDAR waveform have been successfully used to infer forest above-ground biomass and the characterization of canopy structure. The structure parameters derived from LiDAR data can improve the accuracy and robustness of canopy parameter retrieval from imaging spectrometer by reducing uncertainties related to the canopy structure. The specific information content, inherent to the observations of imaging spectrometry and LIDAR, assesses thus different but complementary characteristics of the complex vegetation canopy. The combination of these two information dimensions offers a unique and reliable canopy characterization including information relevant to different aspects of the biochemical and biophysical properties and thus understanding of processes within forest ecosystems. A comprehensive canopy characterization of a forest ecosystem is derived from the combined remote sensing signal of imaging spectrometry and large footprint LIDAR. The inversion of two linked physically based

  20. A Super-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Bacon, Roland

    A cryogenic, near-infrared (Hawaii2 domain) imaging FTS is proposed for a Nasmyth focus of an 8-m VLT, as a unique solution for providing integral field spectroscopy at high spectral resolution (R = 50,000 at 2 μm) over a large field, up to 3 x 3 arcmin FOV. Another mode is proposed behind AO with a smaller field but preserving high spectral resolution.

  1. TeO2 and Te acousto-optic spectrometer imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souilhac, Dominique J.; Billerey, Dominique

    1994-12-01

    An improved TeO2 and Te infrared acoustooptic tuneable spectrometer has been analysed, using infrared fibres, a high speed frequency synthesiser and optimised algorithms. A comparison is made with the next best AOTF infrared materials, Tl3AsSe3, HgCl2 and PbBr2. A design study of the TeO2 and Te AO imaging spectrometer is also presented, operating in the two thermal bands, 1-5micrometers and 6-12micrometers , using an interchangeable fore-optics and a multiplexed electronically scanned infrared array cooled at 77 degrees K. Some initial experimental results indicate that these systems can perform well, an increase in the dynamic range in the 8-12 micrometers and is obtained compared to the 3-5*m band. It can be very useful in chemical process control, medical diagnostics, aerospace and earth remote sensing. Based on recent imaging spectrometer development, a design study of the TeO2 AO imaging spectrometer in the 0.4-1 micrometers band, for simultaneous spectroscopy at every pixel, is presented, using a CCD camera and fast data processing technology.

  2. Miniature spectrometer and multispectral imager as a potential diagnostic aid in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey; Palcic, Branko

    1995-04-01

    A miniature spectrometer system has been constructed for both reflectance and autofluorescence spectral measurements of skin. The system is based on PC plug-in spectrometer, therefore, it is miniature and easy to operate. The spectrometer has been used clinically to collect spectral data from various skin lesions including skin cancer. To date, 48 patients with a total of 71 diseased skin sites have been measured. Analysis of these preliminary data suggests that unique spectral characteristics exist for certain types of skin lesions, i.e. seborrheic keratosis, psoriasis, etc.. These spectral characteristics will help the differential diagnosis in Dermatology practice. In conjunction with the spectral point measurements, we are building and testing a multispectral imaging system to measure the spatial distribution of skin reflectance and autofluorescence. Preliminary results indicate that a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has a weak autofluorescence signal at the edge of the lesion, but a higher autofluorescence signal in the central area.

  3. Method to compensate the dispersion of kinetic energy resolution in a velocity map imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lan, Pengfei; Feng, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-10-01

    Here we present a novel method to improve the kinetic energy resolution of a velocity map imaging(VMI) spectrometer. The main modifications, compared to the original design of Eppink and Parker (1997 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68 3477), are two additional grid electrodes. One of the electrodes is a grounded grid and the other is an arc-shaped grid with negative voltages (or positive voltages for an ions spectrometer). The arc-shaped electrode is axially symmetrical around the spectrometer axis. The field constructed by the two electrodes is to compensate the dispersion of the ‘v’-shaped energy resolution. Simulations by SIMION and reconstructions by the basis set expansion Abel transform method show that the kinetic energy resolution can be improved drastically by our new method. Furthermore, the accuracy in the determination of the kinetic energy of ion/electrons remains unchanged with respect to the original design.

  4. SAFIRE: A Far-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 micrometers-655 micrometers with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200km/s). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors. An engineering prototype of SAFIRE with a small but cutting edge detector array will be available for use during the initial SOFIA operations; further expansion to larger format arrays will be incorporated during SAFIRE's lifetime.

  5. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, James; Rowan, Lawrence; Podwysocki, Melvin; Meyer, David

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data of the Mountain Pass, California carbonatite complex were examined to evaluate the AVIRIS instrument performance and to explore alternative methods of data calibration. Although signal-to-noise estimates derived from the data indicated that the A, B, and C spectrometers generally met the original instrument design objectives, the S/N performance of the D spectrometer was below expectations. Signal-to-noise values of 20 to 1 or lower were typical of the D spectrometer and several detectors in the D spectrometer array were shown to have poor electronic stability. The AVIRIS data also exhibited periodic noise, and were occasionally subject to abrupt dark current offsets. Despite these limitations, a number of mineral absorption bands, including CO3, Al-OH, and unusual rare earth element bands, were observed for mine areas near the main carbonatite body. To discern these bands, two different calibration procedures were applied to remove atmospheric and solar components from the remote sensing data. The two procedures, referred to as the single spectrum and the flat field calibration methods gave distinctly different results. In principle, the single spectrum method should be more accurate; however, additional fieldwork is needed to rigorously determine the degree of calibration success.

  6. AOTF-based near-infrared imaging spectrometer for rapid identification of camouflaged target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhifan; Zeng, Libo; Wu, Qiongshui

    2014-11-01

    Acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is a novel device for spectrometer. The electronic tunability qualifies it with the most compelling advantages of higher wavelength scan rate over the conventional spectrometers that are mechanically tuned, and the feature of large angular aperture makes the AOTF particularly suitable in imaging applications. In this research, an AOTF-based near-infrared imaging spectrometer was developed. The spectrometer consists of a TeO2 AOTF module, a near-infrared imaging lens assembly, an AOTF controller, an InGaAs array detector, an image acquisition card, and a PC. A precisely designed optical wedge is placed at the emergent surface of the AOTF to deal with the inherent dispersion of the TeO2 that may degrade the spatial resolution. The direct digital synthesizer (DDS) techniques and the phase locked loop (PLL) techniques are combined for radio frequency (RF) signal synthesis. The PLL is driven by the DDS to take advantage of both their merits of high frequency resolution, high frequency scan rate and strong spurious signals resistance capability. All the functions relating to wavelength scan, image acquisition, processing, storge and display are controlled by the PC. Calibration results indicate that the spectral range is 898~1670 nm, the spectral resolution is 6.8 nm(@1064 nm), the wavelength separation between frames in the spectral image assembly is 1.0 nm, and the processing time of a single image is less than 1 ms if a TV camera with 640×512 detector is incorporated. A prototype device was assembled to test the capability of differentiating samples with similar appearances, and satisfactory results were achieved. By this device, the chemical compositions and the distribution information can be obtained simultaneously. This system has the most advantages of no moving parts, fast wavelength scan and strong vibration resistance. The proposed imaging spectrometer has a significant application prospect in the area of identification of

  7. Configurable-bandwidth imaging spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Francés, Joan; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier; Muñoz-Mari, Jordi; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Amorós-López, Julia; Ribes-Gómez, Emilio; Durán-Bosch, Vicente

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a new imaging spectrometer called autonomous tunable filtering system. The instrument acquires sequential images at different spectral wavelengths in the visible and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which is driven by a custom radio-frequency (rf) generator based on a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). The DDS allows a high flexibility in terms of acquisition speed and bandwidth selection. The rf power is dynamically controlled to drive the AOTF with the optimum value for each wavelength. The images are formed through a carefully designed optical layout and acquired with a high performance digital camera. The application software controls the instrument and acquires the raw spectral images from the camera. This software optionally corrects the image for the AOTF nonidealities, such as diffraction efficiency variations, spatial nonuniformity, and chromatic aberration, and generates a single multiband image file. Moreover, the software can calculate the reflectance or transmittance of the acquired images. The instrument has been calibrated to give precise and repetitive measurements and has been validated against a high performance point spectrometer. As a case example, the instrument has been successfully used for the mapping of chlorophyll content of plant leaves from their multispectral reflectance images.

  8. Snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density for hyperspectral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Kester, Robert T.; Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A snapshot Image Mapping Spectrometer (IMS) with high sampling density is developed for hyperspectral microscopy, measuring a datacube of dimensions 285 × 285 × 60 (x, y, λ). The spatial resolution is ~0.45 µm with a FOV of 100 × 100 µm2. The measured spectrum is from 450 nm to 650 nm and is sampled by 60 spectral channels with average sampling interval ~3.3 nm. The channel’s spectral resolution is ~8nm. The spectral imaging results demonstrate the potential of the IMS for real-time cellular fluorescence imaging. PMID:20639917

  9. A multiplexed high-resolution imaging spectrometer for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Tony; Chuang, Yi De; Voronov, Dmitriy L; Padmore, Howard A

    2014-07-01

    The optical design of a two-dimensional imaging soft X-ray spectrometer is described. A monochromator will produce a dispersed spectrum in a narrow vertical illuminated stripe (∼2 µm wide by ∼2 mm tall) on a sample. The spectrometer will use inelastically scattered X-rays to image the extended field on the sample in the incident photon energy direction (vertical), resolving the incident photon energy. At the same time it will image and disperse the scattered photons in the orthogonal (horizontal) direction, resolving the scattered photon energy. The principal challenge is to design a system that images from the flat-field illumination of the sample to the flat field of the detector and to achieve sufficiently high spectral resolution. This spectrometer provides a completely parallel resonant inelastic X-ray scattering measurement at high spectral resolution (∼30,000) over the energy bandwidth (∼5 eV) of a soft X-ray absorption resonance.

  10. Radiometric calibration of G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer using GLAMR for satellite sensor intercalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; McCorkel, Joel; Cook, Bruce; Corp, Lawrence A.; Thome, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) facilitates simultaneous measurements beneficial to variety of applications. Of the suite of "off-the shelf" instruments of G-LiHT, the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1 μm. Goddard Space Flight Center's Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere allow a radiance-based calibration for the detectors at reflective solar wavelengths. GLAMR measurements, covering a wavelength range from 0.58 to 0.99 μm were acquired between July 30 to August 2, 2013. In order to account for the large field-of-view (50°), G-LiHT was rotated in 2 degree increments so that the same area of the sphere is viewed by all detectors. Using this data along with the coincident Silicon trap radiometer measurements, the ASR was computed. The derived calibration parameters for G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer are to be transferred to near-simultaneous measurements of Landsat sensors. Calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT is 1-3% depending spectral region and transferring this traceability to coincident satellite sensors has 3-5% depending on spectral region.

  11. Advanced astigmatism-corrected tandem Wadsworth mounting for small-scale spectral broadband imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Lin, Guan-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tandem gratings of double-dispersion mount make it possible to design an imaging spectrometer for the weak light observation with high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution, and high optical transmission efficiency. The traditional tandem Wadsworth mounting is originally designed to match the coaxial telescope and large-scale imaging spectrometer. When it is used to connect the off-axis telescope such as off-axis parabolic mirror, it presents lower imaging quality than to connect the coaxial telescope. It may also introduce interference among the detector and the optical elements as it is applied to the short focal length and small-scale spectrometer in a close volume by satellite. An advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting has been investigated to deal with the situation. The Wadsworth astigmatism-corrected mounting condition for which is expressed as the distance between the second concave grating and the imaging plane is calculated. Then the optimum arrangement for the first plane grating and the second concave grating, which make the anterior Wadsworth condition fulfilling each wavelength, is analyzed by the geometric and first order differential calculation. These two arrangements comprise the advanced Wadsworth mounting condition. The spectral resolution has also been calculated by these conditions. An example designed by the optimum theory proves that the advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting performs excellently in spectral broadband. PMID:23292378

  12. A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; McCubbin, Ian B.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah R.; Sarture, Charles M.; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Bradley, Eliza S.; Roberts, Dar A.; ,

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a method to create color-composite images indicative of thick oil:water emulsions on the surface of clear, deep ocean water by using normalized difference ratios derived from remotely sensed data collected by an imaging spectrometer. The spectral bands used in the normalized difference ratios are located in wavelength regions where the spectra of thick oil:water emulsions on the ocean's surface have a distinct shape compared to clear water and clouds. In contrast to quantitative analyses, which require rigorous conversion to reflectance, the method described is easily computed and can be applied rapidly to radiance data or data that have been atmospherically corrected or ground-calibrated to reflectance. Examples are shown of the method applied to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data collected May 17 and May 19, 2010, over the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. New design method based on sagittal flat-field equipment of Offner type imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yiqun; Xue, Rudong; Xu, Li; Shi, Rongbao; He, Hucheng; Shen, Weimin

    2011-11-01

    Based on the wave aberration theory, a new method of optical design of the planate symmetric Offner type imaging spectrometer is performed. Astigmatism changing with the diffraction angle of the grating, the meridional and saggital focusing characters are all studied. Determination of the initial configurations and optimally design methods of two improved types of Offner imaging spectrometer are discussed in detailed. A design example with the numerical aperture larger than 0.2, and the entrance slit 30mm is given. Its spectral resolution is better than 2nm and MTF is above 0.7@20lp/mm. The smile and keystone are less than 3% and 0.2% of the pixel respectively.

  14. The application of high spectral and spatial resolution imaging spectrometers for locating downed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, James A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Irons, James R.; Robinson, Jon W.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of high-resolution imaging spectrometer data is examined as an aid in locating downed aircraft by using a unique spectral signature while not requiring the extremely high spatial resolution needed to identify an aircraft by shape. Ground spectral measurements of several airplane wings, overflight spectral measurements of aircraft scenes, and the rationale for the chosen spectral signature are presented. It is concluded that imaging spectrometers which can detect and spatially locate a narrow-band spectral signature filling only a few pixels appear to have a utility for search and rescue aircraft or satellite systems as a aid in locating small downed aircraft. This spectral feature would have to be added to the surface coatings applied to aircraft. Proposed for use as such a spectral signature is a significant negative reflectance slope, in the 520 to 580 nm interval.

  15. JPL activities on development of acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    Recent activities of JPL in the development of a new type of imaging spectrometers for earth observation and planetary exploration are reported. This instrument uses the acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as high resolution and fast programmable bandpass filter. AOTF operates in the principle of acousto-optic interaction in an anisotropic medium. This filter can be tuned in sequential, random, and multiwavelength access modes, providing observational flexibility. The diffraction process in the filter generates two diffracted monochromatic beams with polarization orthogonal to each other, creating a unique capability to measure both polarimetric and spectral properties of the incoming light simultaneously with a single instrument. The device gives wide wavelength operations with reasonably large throughput. In addition, it is in a compact solid-state structure without moving parts, providing system reliability. These attractive features give promising opportunities to develop a new generation of airborne/spaceborne and ground, real-time, imaging spectrometer systems for remote sensing applications.

  16. Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS): development of a CubeSat-compatible instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Gross, Johannes; Painter, Thomas; Smith, Christopher D.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Smith, Colin H.; Van Gorp, Byron E.; Eastwood, Michael L.

    2016-05-01

    The Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS) is a fast, high-uniformity, low-polarization sensitivity imaging spectrometer and telescope system designed for integration on a 6U CubeSat platform. Operating in the 350-1700 nm spectral region with 5.7 nm sampling, SWIS is capable of simultaneously addressing the demanding needs of coastal ocean science and snow and ice monitoring. New key technologies that facilitate the development of this instrument include a linear variable anti-reflection (LVAR) detector coating for stray light management, and a single drive on-board calibration mechanism utilizing a transmissive diffuser for solar calibration. We provide an overview of the SWIS instrument design, spacecraft configuration design, and potential science missions.

  17. [Design of airborne dual channel ultraviolet-visible imaging spectrometer with large field of view, wide spectrum, and high resolution].

    PubMed

    Hao, Ai-Hua; Hu, Bing-Liang; Bai, Jia-Guang; Li, Li-Bo; Yu, Tao; Li, Si-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis 200-500 nm) imaging spectrometer is an important part of space remote sensing. Based on special requirements and practical application of the airborne UV-VIS spectrometer, a kind of scanning imaging spectrometer using area array CCD is proposed, which can meet the application requirements of large field of view, wide spectrum and high resolution. It overcomes low spatial resolution of traditional line array CCD scanning imaging spectrometer, and limited field of view of the pushbroom imaging spectrometer. In addition, dual channel was designed to reduce stray light. 400-500 nm band includes two order spectrum for 200-250 nm band, and variation of radiance from earth between the shorter wavelength (<290 nm) and the longer wavelength (>310 nm) is above three orders of magnitude. In the structure design of the system, the imaging spectrometer is composed of a two-mirror concentric telescope and two Czerny-Turner plane grating imaging spectrometers. The whole system doesn't use any additional optical elements in addition to spherical mirrors. The whole system has the advantage of simple structure, excellent performance, and very good feasibility. The modulation transfer function value of full spectrum and full field of view is above 0.6.

  18. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Orleański, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H. J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Howard, A.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Brun, S.; Vilmer, N.; Skup, K. R.; Graczyk, R.; Stolarski, M.; Michalska, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Cichocki, A.; Mosdorf, M.; Seweryn, K.; Białek, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Mann, G.; Önel, H.; Aurass, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bittner, W.; Dionies, F.; Paschke, J.; Plüschke, D.; Popow, E.; Rendtel, J.; Warmuth, A.; Woche, M.; Wolter, D.; Van Beek, H. F.; Farnik, F.; Lin, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Solar Orbiter is a Sun-observing mission led by the European Space Agency, addressing the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. It will carry ten instruments, among them the X-ray imaging spectrometer STIX. STIX will determine the intensity, spectrum, timing, and location of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their bremsstrahlung X-ray emission. This report gives a brief overview of the STIX scientific goals and covers in more detail the instrument design and challenges.

  19. Concept Study Report: Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Solar-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, George, A.; Brown, Charles M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Dere, Kenneth P.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Mariska, John T.; Seely, John F.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a next generation Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) that for the first time combines high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution in a single solar spectroscopic instrument. The instrument consists of a multilayer-coated off-axis telescope mirror and a multilayer-coated grating spectrometer. The telescope mirror forms solar images on the spectrometer entrance slit assembly. The spectrometer forms stigmatic spectra of the solar region located at the slit. This region is selected by the articulated telescope mirror. Monochromatic images are obtained either by rastering the solar region across a narrow entrance slit, or by using a very wide slit (called a slot) in place of the slit. Monochromatic images of the region centered on the slot are obtained in a single exposure. Half of each optic is coated to maximize reflectance at 195 Angstroms; the other half to maximize reflectance at 270 Angstroms. The two Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength bands have been selected to maximize spectral and dynamical and plasma diagnostic capabilities. Spectral lines are observed that are formed over a temperature range from about 0.1 MK to about 20 MK. The main EIS instrument characteristics are: wavelength bands - 180 to 204 Angstroms; 250 to 290 Angstroms; spectral resolution - 0.0223 Angstroms/pixel (34.3km/s at 195 Angstroms and 23.6 km/s at 284 Angstroms); slit dimensions - 4 slits, two currently specified dimensions are 1" x 1024" and 50" x 1024" (the slot); largest spatial field of view in a single exposure - 50" x 1024"; highest time resolution for active region velocity studies - 4.4 s.

  20. Astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer for broadband spectral simultaneity

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Qingsheng

    2011-04-01

    A low-cost, broadband, astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner arrangement with a fixed plane grating is proposed. A wedge cylindrical lens is used to correct astigmatism over a broadband spectral range. The principle and method of astigmatism correction are described in detail. We compare the performance of this modified Czerny-Turner arrangement with that of the traditional Czerny-Turner arrangement by using a practical Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer example.

  1. The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer: An EOS facility instrument candidate for application of data compression methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observing facility will operate on the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the late 1990's. It is estimated that this observing facility will produce over 200 gigabytes of data per day requiring a storage capability of just over 300 gigabytes per day. Archiving, browsing, and distributing the data associated with MODIS represents a rich opportunity for testing and applying both lossless and lossy data compression methods.

  2. High rate data systems. [for High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard B.; Nichols, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of the high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS) and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are described with consideration given to the source of their high data rates. A functional-level description of the end-to-end data flow for HIRIS and SAR is provided. Attention is also given to major technological challenges that must be met in achieving an implementation of the system. Management issues associated with high rate, high volume data are also discussed.

  3. Compact Reflective Imaging Spectrometer Design Utilizing An Immersed Grating And Anamorphic Mirror

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2006-01-10

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit, an anamorphic mirror, a grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit directs light to the anamorphic mirror. The anamorphic mirror receives the light and directs the light to the grating. The grating receives the light from the anamorphic mirror and defracts the light back onto the anamorphic mirror. The anamorphic mirror focuses the light onto a detector array.

  4. The first experimental results from x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.

    2010-10-15

    The x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research has been first applied for the experimental campaign in 2009. The XICS was designed to provide measurements of the profiles of the ion and electron temperatures from the heliumlike argon (Ar XVII) spectra. The basic functions of the XICS are properly working although some satellites lines are not well matched with the expected theoretical values. The initial experimental results from the XICS are briefly described.

  5. The Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment (TIME) CII Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewski, Z.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Brevik, J.; Cooray, A.; Gong, Y.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; O'Brient, R.; Santos, M.; Shirokoff, E.; Silva, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Tomographic Ionized-Carbon Mapping Experiment (TIME) and TIME-Pilot are proposed imaging spectrometers to measure reionization and large scale structure at redshifts 5-9. We seek to exploit the 158 restframe emission of [CII], which becomes measurable at 200-300 GHz at reionization redshifts. Here we describe the scientific motivation, give an overview of the proposed instrument, and highlight key technological developments underway to enable these measurements.

  6. Compact Micro-Imaging Spectrometer (CMIS): Investigation of Imaging Spectroscopy and Its Application to Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staten, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will attempt to answer questions about Mars' geological and biological history. The goal of the CMIS project is to design, construct, and test a capable, multi-spectral micro-imaging spectrometer use in such missions. A breadboard instrument has been constructed with a micro-imaging camera and Several multi-wavelength LED illumination rings. Test samples have been chosen for their interest to spectroscopists, geologists and astrobiologists. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the advantages of isotropic illumination and micro-imaging spectroscopy over spot spectroscopy.

  7. Multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using spatial frequency domain imaging and a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jessie R.; Cuccia, David J.; Johnson, William R.; Bearman, Gregory H.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Hsu, Mike; Lin, Alexander; Binder, Devin K.; Wilson, Dan; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach for rapidly and quantitatively mapping tissue absorption and scattering spectra in a wide-field, noncontact imaging geometry by combining multifrequency spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) with a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). SFDI overcomes the need to spatially scan a source, and is based on the projection and analysis of periodic structured illumination patterns. CTIS provides a throughput advantage by simultaneously diffracting multiple spectral images onto a single CCD chip to gather spectra at every pixel of the image, thus providing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot. The spatial-spectral data set was acquired 30 times faster than with our wavelength-scanning liquid crystal tunable filter camera, even though it is not yet optimized for speed. Here we demonstrate that the combined SFDI-CTIS is capable of rapid, multispectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering in a noncontact, nonscanning platform. The combined system was validated for 36 wavelengths between 650-1000 nm in tissue simulating phantoms over a range of tissue-like absorption and scattering properties. The average percent error for the range of absorption coefficients (μa) was less than 10% from 650-800 nm, and less than 20% from 800-1000 nm. The average percent error in reduced scattering coefficients (μs') was less than 5% from 650-700 nm and less than 3% from 700-1000 nm. The SFDI-CTIS platform was applied to a mouse model of brain injury in order to demonstrate the utility of this approach in characterizing spatially and spectrally varying tissue optical properties.

  8. [Spectral Calibration of Space-born Imaging Spectrometers Using Spectrum-Matching Technique].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min-jie; Si, Fu-qi; Lu, Yi-huai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shi-mei; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Hai-jin; Liu, Wen-qing

    2015-07-01

    Spectral calibration of space-born imaging spectrometers based on spectrum-matching technique is presented, which adopts atmospheric absorption lines as the matching lines, and chooses correlation coefficient method as the criteria. In order to simulation the onboard spectral calibration, the spectrum-matching technique is applied on the imaging spectrometers that after the vibration test. The vibration test is able to simulation the launching. The spectral resolution, center wavelength of two-dimensional pixel is determined during onboard spectral calibration. As the calibration results show, the spectral resolution of imaging spectrometers after the vibration test is 0.40 nm, it is the same comparing to the value before the vibration, the wavelength shifts 0.08 nm towards the long wave for the spectral pixels, and the spectral smile is determined for all spatial elements, which shifts towards the short wave direction, with the max smile value is 0.96 nm, the result is similar to that before the vibration. As a result, the spectrum-matching technique is tested and verified. PMID:26717777

  9. [Spectral Calibration of Space-born Imaging Spectrometers Using Spectrum-Matching Technique].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min-jie; Si, Fu-qi; Lu, Yi-huai; Wang, Yu; Wang, Shi-mei; Jiang, Yu; Zhou, Hai-jin; Liu, Wen-qing

    2015-07-01

    Spectral calibration of space-born imaging spectrometers based on spectrum-matching technique is presented, which adopts atmospheric absorption lines as the matching lines, and chooses correlation coefficient method as the criteria. In order to simulation the onboard spectral calibration, the spectrum-matching technique is applied on the imaging spectrometers that after the vibration test. The vibration test is able to simulation the launching. The spectral resolution, center wavelength of two-dimensional pixel is determined during onboard spectral calibration. As the calibration results show, the spectral resolution of imaging spectrometers after the vibration test is 0.40 nm, it is the same comparing to the value before the vibration, the wavelength shifts 0.08 nm towards the long wave for the spectral pixels, and the spectral smile is determined for all spatial elements, which shifts towards the short wave direction, with the max smile value is 0.96 nm, the result is similar to that before the vibration. As a result, the spectrum-matching technique is tested and verified.

  10. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  11. MODIS: Moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer. Earth observing system, volume 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), as presently conceived, is a system of two imaging spectroradiometer components designed for the widest possible applicability to research tasks that require long-term (5 to 10 years), low-resolution (52 channels between 0.4 and 12.0 micrometers) data sets. The system described is preliminary and subject to scientific and technological review and modification, and it is anticipated that both will occur prior to selection of a final system configuration; however, the basic concept outlined is likely to remain unchanged.

  12. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  13. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  14. A Web-Based Search Service to Support Imaging Spectrometer Instrument Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alexander; Thompson, David R.; Sayfi, Elias; Xing, Zhangfan; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers yield rich and informative data products, but interpreting them demands time and expertise. There is a continual need for new algorithms and methods for rapid first-draft analyses to assist analysts during instrument opera-tions. Intelligent data analyses can summarize scenes to draft geologic maps, searching images to direct op-erator attention to key features. This validates data quality while facilitating rapid tactical decision making to select followup targets. Ideally these algorithms would operate in seconds, never grow bored, and be free from observation bias about the kinds of mineral-ogy that will be found.

  15. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission.

  16. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Alberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Filacchione, Gianrico; Lunine, Jonathan I; Bini, Alessandro; Pasqui, Claudio; Calamai, Luciano; Colosimo, Fedele; Dinelli, Bianca M; Grassi, Davide; Magni, Gianfranco; Moriconi, Maria L; Orosei, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) has been accepted by NASA for inclusion in the New Frontiers mission "Juno," which will launch in August 2011. JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy. It will also analyze jovian hot spots to determine their vertical structure and infer possible mechanisms for their formation. JIRAM will sound the jovian meteorological layer to map moist convection and determine water abundance and other constituents at depths that correspond to several bars pressure. JIRAM is equipped with a single telescope that accommodates both an infrared camera and a spectrometer to facilitate a large observational flexibility in obtaining simultaneous images in the L and M bands with the spectral radiance over the central zone of the images. Moreover, JIRAM will be able to perform spectral imaging of the planet in the 2.0-5.0 microm interval of wavelengths with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm. Instrument design, modes, and observation strategy will be optimized for operations onboard a spinning satellite in polar orbit around Jupiter. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian-made, visual-infrared imaging spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration, such as VIMS-V on Cassini, VIRTIS on Rosetta and Venus Express, and VIR-MS on the Dawn mission. PMID:18680411

  17. [Study on the advanced Schwarzschild imaging spectrometer with high resolution in broadband].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Fang

    2013-08-01

    The Schwarzschild optical structure was studied for the application of imaging spectrometer. The perfect astigmatism-corrected condition was obtained based on the analysis of the astigmatism of the Schwarzschild structure. The structure was advanced in the paper. The Schwarzschild imaging spectrum system is composed of two Schwarzschild structures, which are the collimating mirror-convex mirror and the convex mirror-focusing mirror. The calculation was given to present the parameters of the imaging spectrum system. An example of the imaging spectrum system in the waveband of 340-500 nm was designed and proved our design theory. The solution of the initial optimum structure was designed by our theory and simulated. A system with NA 1.25, of which the modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.58 in the waveband in the required Nyquist frequency (20 lp x mm(-1)), is presented in the paper. The form of the design structure can be changed as C-T system, Ebert-Fastie system and Offner system. The result also certificated that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale imaging spectrometer with high resolution and spectral broadband.

  18. Surface mineral maps of Afghanistan derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data, version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new version of surface mineral maps derived from HyMap imaging spectrometer data collected over Afghanistan in the fall of 2007. This report also describes the processing steps applied to the imaging spectrometer data. The 218 individual flight lines composing the Afghanistan dataset, covering more than 438,000 square kilometers, were georeferenced to a mosaic of orthorectified Landsat images. The HyMap data were converted from radiance to reflectance using a radiative transfer program in combination with ground-calibration sites and a network of cross-cutting calibration flight lines. The U.S. Geological Survey Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to generate two thematic maps of surface minerals: a map of iron-bearing minerals and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the shorter wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range, and a map of carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials, which have their primary absorption features at the longer wavelengths of the reflected solar wavelength range. In contrast to the original version, version 2 of these maps is provided at full resolution of 23-meter pixel size. The thematic maps, MICA summary images, and the material fit and depth images are distributed in digital files linked to this report, in a format readable by remote sensing software and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The digital files can be downloaded from http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/787/downloads/.

  19. Spectrometer-free vibrational imaging by retrieving stimulated Raman signal from highly scattered photons

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chien-Sheng; Wang, Pu; Wang, Ping; Li, Junjie; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Eakins, Gregory; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In vivo vibrational spectroscopic imaging is inhibited by relatively slow spectral acquisition on the second scale and low photon collection efficiency for a highly scattering system. Recently developed multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering techniques have improved the spectral acquisition time down to microsecond scale. These methods using a spectrometer setting are not suitable for turbid systems in which nearly all photons are scattered. We demonstrate vibrational imaging by spatial frequency multiplexing of incident photons and single photodiode detection of a stimulated Raman spectrum within 60 μs. Compared to the spectrometer setting, our method improved the photon collection efficiency by two orders of magnitude for highly scattering specimens. We demonstrated in vivo imaging of vitamin E distribution on mouse skin and in situ imaging of human breast cancerous tissues. The reported work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic imaging in a surgical room and for development of deep-tissue Raman spectroscopy toward molecular level diagnosis. PMID:26601311

  20. A digital sensor simulator of the pushbroom Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dongxing; Jia, Guorui; Yuan, Yan; Zhao, Huijie

    2014-12-11

    Sensor simulators can be used in forecasting the imaging quality of a new hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, and generating simulated data for the development and validation of the data processing algorithms. This paper presents a novel digital sensor simulator for the pushbroom Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, which is widely used in the hyperspectral remote sensing. Based on the imaging process, the sensor simulator consists of a spatial response module, a spectral response module, and a radiometric response module. In order to enhance the simulation accuracy, spatial interpolation-resampling, which is implemented before the spatial degradation, is developed to compromise the direction error and the extra aliasing effect. Instead of using the spectral response function (SRF), the dispersive imaging characteristics of the Offner convex grating optical system is accurately modeled by its configuration parameters. The non-uniformity characteristics, such as keystone and smile effects, are simulated in the corresponding modules. In this work, the spatial, spectral and radiometric calibration processes are simulated to provide the parameters of modulation transfer function (MTF), SRF and radiometric calibration parameters of the sensor simulator. Some uncertainty factors (the stability, band width of the monochromator for the spectral calibration, and the integrating sphere uncertainty for the radiometric calibration) are considered in the simulation of the calibration process. With the calibration parameters, several experiments were designed to validate the spatial, spectral and radiometric response of the sensor simulator, respectively. The experiment results indicate that the sensor simulator is valid.

  1. A Digital Sensor Simulator of the Pushbroom Offner Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Dongxing; Jia, Guorui; Yuan, Yan; Zhao, Huijie

    2014-01-01

    Sensor simulators can be used in forecasting the imaging quality of a new hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, and generating simulated data for the development and validation of the data processing algorithms. This paper presents a novel digital sensor simulator for the pushbroom Offner hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, which is widely used in the hyperspectral remote sensing. Based on the imaging process, the sensor simulator consists of a spatial response module, a spectral response module, and a radiometric response module. In order to enhance the simulation accuracy, spatial interpolation-resampling, which is implemented before the spatial degradation, is developed to compromise the direction error and the extra aliasing effect. Instead of using the spectral response function (SRF), the dispersive imaging characteristics of the Offner convex grating optical system is accurately modeled by its configuration parameters. The non-uniformity characteristics, such as keystone and smile effects, are simulated in the corresponding modules. In this work, the spatial, spectral and radiometric calibration processes are simulated to provide the parameters of modulation transfer function (MTF), SRF and radiometric calibration parameters of the sensor simulator. Some uncertainty factors (the stability, band width of the monochromator for the spectral calibration, and the integrating sphere uncertainty for the radiometric calibration) are considered in the simulation of the calibration process. With the calibration parameters, several experiments were designed to validate the spatial, spectral and radiometric response of the sensor simulator, respectively. The experiment results indicate that the sensor simulator is valid. PMID:25615727

  2. Compact snapshot birefringent imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for remote sensing and endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Chan, Victoria C.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2012-09-01

    The design and implementation of a compact multiple-image Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is presented. Based on the multiple-image FTS originally developed by A. Hirai, the presented device offers significant advantages over his original implementation. Namely, its birefringent nature results in a common-path interferometer which makes the spectrometer insensitive to vibration. Furthermore, it enables the potential of making the instrument ultra-compact, thereby improving the portability of the sensor. The theory of the birefringent FTS is provided, followed by details of its specific embodiment. A laboratory proof of concept of the sensor, designed and developed at the Optical Detection Lab, is also presented. Spectral measurements of laboratory sources are provided, including measurements of light-emitting diodes and gas-discharge lamps. These spectra are verified against a calibrated Ocean Optics USB2000 spectrometer. Other data were collected outdoors and of a rat esophagus, demonstrating the sensor's ability to resolve spectral signatures in both standard outdoor lighting and environmental conditions, as well as in fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  4. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  5. RecceLite tactical reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Bernd

    2001-12-01

    New generation of tactical reconnaissance pod for high performance aircraft. The pod will contain a high resolution multispectral sensor suite for day/night missions, digital solid state recorder and optional data link. The modular structure of the pod is based on the Litening targeting pod and uses the same interface to the aircraft, saving cost for new system integration and certification. The system is designed for medium to low altitude reconnaissance missions. The overall system includes modules for mission planning and image evaluation on ground. RecceLite is an affordable high performance reconnaissance system with state of the art technology. Due to the modular design it provides growth potential and easy integration of future developments.

  6. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  7. Acquiring new technology for reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, Michael F.

    1993-02-01

    This paper presents an academic approach to defining a responsive system concept for reconnaissance. The author outlines a systems approach used to measure the timeliness of the tactical reconnaissance system structure common in 1986. A new systems approach exercises the structure necessary to suggest better ways for successful acquisition of new reconnaissance systems. The method blends the utility of the earlier operational system approach with the new acquisition strategy for future reconnaissance concepts.

  8. Spectrometer Observations Near Mawrth Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This targeted image from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows a region of heavily altered rock in Mars' ancient cratered highlands. The featured region is just south of Mawrth Vallis, a channel cut by floodwaters deep into the highlands.

    CRISM acquired the image at 1216 UTC (8:16 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 2, 2006, near 25.4 degrees north latitude, 340.7 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image, the spatial resolution is as good as 35 meters (115 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers.

    This image includes four renderings of the data, all map-projected. At top left is an approximately true-color representation. At top right is false color showing brightness of the surface at selected infrared wavelengths. In the two bottom views, brightness of the surface at different infrared wavelengths has been compared to laboratory measurements of minerals, and regions that match different minerals have been colored. The bottom left image shows areas high in iron-rich clay, and the bottom right image shows areas high in aluminum-rich clay.

    Clay minerals are important to understanding the history of water on Mars because their formation requires that rocks were exposed to liquid water for a long time. Environments where they form include soils, cold springs, and hot springs. There are many clay minerals, and which ones form depends on the composition of the rock, and the temperature, acidity, and salt content of the water. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, has spectrally mapped Mars at lower spatial resolution and found several regions rich in clay minerals. The Mawrth Vallis region, in particular, was found to contain iron-rich clay. CRISM is observing these regions at several tens of times higher spatial resolution, to correlate the

  9. Analysis of airborne imaging spectrometer data for the Ruby Mountains, Montana, by use of absorption-band-depth images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickey, David W.; Crowley, James K.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) data were obtained for an area of amphibolite grade metamorphic rocks that have moderate rangeland vegetation cover. Although rock exposures are sparse and patchy at this site, soils are visible through the vegetation and typically comprise 20 to 30 percent of the surface area. Channel averaged low band depth images for diagnostic soil rock absorption bands. Sets of three such images were combined to produce color composite band depth images. This relative simple approach did not require extensive calibration efforts and was effective for discerning a number of spectrally distinctive rocks and soils, including soils having high talc concentrations. The results show that the high spectral and spatial resolution of AIS-1 and future sensors hold considerable promise for mapping mineral variations in soil, even in moderately vegetated areas.

  10. The spectrometer telescope for imaging x-rays on board the Solar Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Krucker, S.; Hurford, G. J.; Arnold, N. G.; Orleanski, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Klober, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H. J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Brun, S.; Vilmer, N.; Skup, K. R.; Graczyk, R.; Stolarski, M.; Michalska, M.; Nowosielski, W.; Cichocki, A.; Mosdorf, M.; Seweryn, K.; Przepiórka, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Mrozek, T.; Podgorski, P.; Mann, G.; Aurass, H.; Popow, E.; Onel, H.; Dionies, F.; Bauer, S.; Rendtel, J.; Warmuth, A.; Woche, M.; Plüschke, D.; Bittner, W.; Paschke, J.; Wolker, D.; Van Beek, H. F.; Farnik, F.; Kasparova, J.; Veronig, A. M.; Kienreich, I. W.; Gallagher, P. T.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Piana, M.; Massone, A. M.; Dennis, B. R.; Schwarz, R. A.; Lin, R. P.

    2012-09-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed Mclass mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The status of the instrument reviewed in this paper is based on the design that passed the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in early 2012. Particular emphasis is given to the first light of the detector system called Caliste-SO.

  11. The use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to determine experimentally induced variation in coniferous canopy chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, Nancy A.; Matson, Pamela A.

    1987-01-01

    It was experimentally determined whether induced differences in forest canopy chemical composition can be detected using data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS). Treatments were applied to an even-aged forest of Douglas fir trees. Work to date has stressed wet chemical analysis of foilage samples and correction of AIS data. Plot treatments were successful in providing a range of foliar N2 concentrations. Much time was spent investigating and correcting problems with the raw AIS data. Initial problems with groups of drop out lines in the AIS data were traced to the tape recorder and the tape drive. Custom adjustment of the tape drive led to recovery of most missing lines. Remaining individual drop out lines were replaced using average of adjacent lines. Application of a notch filter to the Fourier transform of the image in each band satisfactorily removed vertical striping. The aspect ratio was corrected by resampling the image in the line direction using nearest neighbor interpolation.

  12. A multi-cone x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, Lan; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Apariccio, L.; Lazerson, S.; Pablant, N.

    2016-11-01

    This article describes a new x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer, which—in combination with a streak camera or a gated strip detector—can be used for time-resolved measurements of x-ray line spectra at the National Ignition Facility and other high power laser facilities. The main advantage of this instrument is that it produces perfect images of a point source for each wavelength in a selectable spectral range and that the detector plane can be perpendicular to the crystal surface or inclined by an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal surface. These unique imaging properties are obtained by bending the x-ray diffracting crystal into a certain shape, which is generated by arranging multiple cones with different aperture angles on a common nodal line.

  13. A multi-cone x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, Lan; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Apariccio, L.; Lazerson, S.; Pablant, N.

    2016-08-26

    This article describes a new x-ray imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer, which—in combination with a streak camera or a gated strip detector—can be used for time-resolved measurements of x-ray line spectra at the National Ignition Facility and other high power laser facilities. The main advantage of this instrument is that it produces perfect images of a point source for each wavelength in a selectable spectral range and that the detector plane can be perpendicular to the crystal surface or inclined by an arbitrary angle with respect to the crystal surface. Furthermore, these unique imaging properties are obtained by bending the x-raymore » diffracting crystal into a certain shape, which is generated by arranging multiple cones with different aperture angles on a common nodal line.« less

  14. Rest-wavelength Fiducials for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Graf, A. T.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute wavelength references are needed to derive the plasma velocities from the Doppler shift of a given line emitted by a moving plasma. We show that such reference standards exist for the strongest x-ray line in neonlike W64+, which has become the line of choice for the ITER (Latin the way) core imaging x-ray spectrometer. Close-by standards are the Hf L3 line and the Ir L2 line, which bracket the W64+ line by 30 eV; other standards are given by the Ir L1 and L2 lines and the Hf L1 and L2 lines, which bracket the W64+ line by 40 and 160 eV, respectively. The reference standards can be produced by an x-ray tube built into the ITER spectrometer. We present spectra of the reference lines obtained with an x-ray microcalorimeter and compare them to spectra of the W64+ line obtained both with an x-ray microcalorimeter and a crystal spectrometer

  15. Rest-wavelength fiducials for the ITER core imaging x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Graf, A T; Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Leutenegger, M A; Porter, F S

    2012-10-01

    Absolute wavelength references are needed to derive the plasma velocities from the Doppler shift of a given line emitted by a moving plasma. We show that such reference standards exist for the strongest x-ray line in neonlike W(64+), which has become the line of choice for the ITER (Latin "the way") core imaging x-ray spectrometer. Close-by standards are the Hf Lβ(3) line and the Ir Lα(2) line, which bracket the W(64+) line by ±30 eV; other standards are given by the Ir Lα(1) and Lα(2) lines and the Hf Lβ(1) and Lβ(2) lines, which bracket the W(64+) line by ±40 and ±160 eV, respectively. The reference standards can be produced by an x-ray tube built into the ITER spectrometer. We present spectra of the reference lines obtained with an x-ray microcalorimeter and compare them to spectra of the W(64+) line obtained both with an x-ray microcalorimeter and a crystal spectrometer.

  16. The spectrometer telescope for imaging X-rays (STIX) on board Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, Nicole; Krucker, Samuel; Karol Seweryn, D..; Orleanski, Piotr; Limousin, Olivier; Meuris, Aline; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grimm, Oliver; Groebelbauer, HansPeter; Rendtel, J.

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is one of 10 instruments on board Solar Orbiter, a confirmed M-class mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Cosmic Vision program scheduled to be launched in 2017. STIX applies a Fourier-imaging technique using a set of tungsten grids (at pitches from 0.038 to 1 mm) in front of 32 pixelized CdTe detectors to provide imaging spectroscopy of solar thermal and non-thermal hard X-ray emissions from 4 to 150 keV. The paper presents the status of the instrument for the Critical Design Review to be held with ESA in June 2014. Particular emphasis is given to the CdTe hybrid detector called Caliste-SO for high resolution hard X-ray spectroscopy from 4 to 150 keV: Characterizations of the first production batch are reported. Caliste-SO spectrometer units could also fulfill the needs for the SORENTO instrument of the Russian Interhelioprobe mission currently in assessment study.

  17. [Design and study of a high resolution vacuum ultraviolet imaging spectrometer carried by satellite].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-yu; Qu, Yi; Wang, Shu-rong; Wang, Long-qi

    2011-12-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet imaging spectrometer prototype carried by satellite applied to the atmosphere detection of particles distribution in 115-300 nm was developed for remote sensing. First, based on the analysis of advanced loads, the optical system including an off-axis parabolic mirror as the telescope and Czerny-Turner structure as the imaging spectrometer was chosen Secondly, the 2-D photon counting detector with MCP was adopted for the characteristic that the radiation is weak in vacuum ultraviolet waveband. Then the geometric method and 1st order differential calculation were introduced to improve the disadvantages that aberrations in the traditional structure can not be corrected homogeneously to achieve perfect broadband imaging based on the aberration theory. At last, an advanced example was designed. The simulation and calculation of results demonstrate that the modulation transfer function (MTF) of total field of view is more than 0.6 in the broadband, and the spectral resolution is 1.23 nm. The structure is convenient and predominant. It proves that the design is feasible.

  18. [Study on the Advanced Czerny-Turner Imaging Spectrometer with High Resolution in Broadband].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ling-wei

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the perfect astigmatism-corrected condition, the Czerny-Turner system has been analyzed and advanced. The basic structure of optical system is still as the traditional form which is composed by the spherical collimating mirror, the plane grating and the spherical focusing mirror. However, an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens is added after the focusing mirror to remove astigmatism differences between the tangential direction and the sagittaI direction. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrum system in the waveband of 380-760 nm has been designed to prove our theory. A system owns that NA equals to 0.05, and the modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.59 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20 lp x mm(-1)). It certificates that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale imaging spectrometer with high resolution in spectral broadband.

  19. Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Kahn, S.M.; Elliott, S.R.; Fraenkel, B.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers is described for implementation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on the ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion-charge state distributions, and impurity transport. These data are derived from observations of the satellite spectra of heliumlike argon, ArthinspXVII, which is the dominant charge state for electron temperatures in the range from 0.4 to 3.0 keV and which is accessible to NSTX. Experiments at the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR) demonstrate that a throughput of 2{times}10{sup 5}thinspphotons/s (corresponding to the count-rate limit of the present detectors) can easily be obtained with small, nonperturbing argon gas puffs of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3}thinspTorrthinspscr(l)/s, so that it is possible to record spectra with a small statistical error and a good time resolution (typically 50 and 1 ms in some cases). Employing a novel design, which is based on the imaging properties of spherically bent crystals, the spectrometers will provide spectrally and spatially resolved images of the plasma for all experimental conditions, which include ohmically heated discharges as well as plasmas with rf and neutral-beam heating. The conceptual design, experimental results on the focusing properties, and relevant spectral data from TEXTOR are presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. [Study on the Advanced Czerny-Turner Imaging Spectrometer with High Resolution in Broadband].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ling-wei

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the Czerny-Turner optical structure which is used for the application in imaging spectrometers. To obtain the perfect astigmatism-corrected condition, the Czerny-Turner system has been analyzed and advanced. The basic structure of optical system is still as the traditional form which is composed by the spherical collimating mirror, the plane grating and the spherical focusing mirror. However, an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens is added after the focusing mirror to remove astigmatism differences between the tangential direction and the sagittaI direction. It makes the advanced optical system presents high resolution over the full bandwidth and decreases the cost. An example of the imaging spectrum system in the waveband of 380-760 nm has been designed to prove our theory. A system owns that NA equals to 0.05, and the modulation transfer functions (MTF) of all fields of view are more than 0.59 over the broadband under the required Nyquist frequency (20 lp x mm(-1)). It certificates that the optical system theory can be applied to the small scale imaging spectrometer with high resolution in spectral broadband. PMID:26601404

  1. Oil Spill Detection along the Gulf of Mexico Coastline based on Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, M. D.; Filippi, A. M.; Guneralp, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico between April and July 2010 demonstrated the importance of synoptic oil-spill monitoring in coastal environments via remote-sensing methods. This study focuses on terrestrial oil-spill detection and thickness estimation based on hyperspectral images acquired along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. We use AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) imaging spectrometer data collected over Bay Jimmy and Wilkinson Bay within Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA during September 2010. We also employ field-based observations of the degree of oil accumulation along the coastline, as well as in situ measurements from the literature. As part of our proposed spectroscopic approach, we operate on atmospherically- and geometrically-corrected hyperspectral AVIRIS data to extract image-derived endmembers via Minimum Noise Fraction transform, Pixel Purity Index-generation, and n-dimensional visualization. Extracted endmembers are then used as input to endmember-mapping algorithms to yield fractional-abundance images and crisp classification images. We also employ Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) for oil detection and mapping in order to enable the number and types of endmembers to vary on a per-pixel basis, in contast to simple Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). MESMA thus better allows accounting for spectral variabiltiy of oil (e.g., due to varying oil thicknesses, states of degradation, and the presence of different oil types, etc.) and other materials, including soils and salt marsh vegetation of varying types, which may or may not be affected by the oil spill. A decision-tree approach is also utilized for comparison. Classification results do indicate that MESMA provides advantageous capabilities for mapping several oil-thickness classes for affected vegetation and soils along the Gulf of Mexico coastline, relative to the conventional approaches tested. Oil thickness-mapping results from MESMA

  2. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2009-05-01

    OPTRA is developing an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  3. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y. Jin, W.; Huang, D. W.; Ding, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhuang, G.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.

    2014-11-15

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  4. Note: A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer for photoelectron imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Zhengbo; Wu Xia; Tang Zichao

    2013-06-15

    A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer (D-TOFMS) has been designed to select anions in the photoelectron imaging measurements. In this instrument, the radiation laser can be triggered precisely to overlap with the selected ion cloud at the first-order space focusing plane. Compared with that of the conventional single channel TOFMS, the in situ mass selection performance of D-TOFMS is significantly improved. Preliminary experiment results are presented for the mass-selected photodetachment spectrum of F{sup -} to demonstrate the capability of the instrument.

  5. First results from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    After engineering flights aboard the NASA U-2 research aircraft in the winter of 1986 to 1987 and spring of 1987, extensive data collection across the United States was begun with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) in the summer of 1987 in support of a NASA data evaluation and technology assessment program. This paper presents some of the first results obtained from AVIRIS. Examples of spectral imagery acquired over Mountain View and Mono Lake, California, and the Cuprite Mining District in western Nevada are presented. Sensor performance and data quality are described, and in the final section of this paper, plans for the future are discussed.

  6. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  7. A photoelectron velocity map imaging spectrometer for experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keeffe, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L.; Moise, A.; Richter, R.; Cautero, G.; Stebel, L.; Sergo, R.; Pravica, L.; Ovcharenko, Y.

    2011-03-15

    A velocity map imaging/ion time-of-flight spectrometer designed specifically for pump-probe experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations is described. The in-house built delay line detector can be used in two modes: the high spatial resolution mode and the coincidence mode. In the high spatial resolution mode a kinetic energy resolution of 6% has been achieved. The coincidence mode can be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the pump-probe experiments either by using a gate to count electrons only when the laser is present or by recording coincidences with the ion formed in the ionization process.

  8. Design of spatio-temporally modulated static infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, WenCong; Liang, JingQiu; Liang, ZhongZhu; Lü, JinGuang; Qin, YuXin; Tian, Chao; Wang, WeiBiao

    2014-08-15

    A novel static medium wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is conceptually proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, the moving mirror in traditional temporally modulated IFTS is replaced by multi-step micro-mirrors to realize the static design. Compared with the traditional spatially modulated IFTS, they have no slit system and are superior with larger luminous flux and higher energy efficiency. The use of the multi-step micro-mirrors can also make the system compact and light.

  9. Analysis of the Advantages and Limitations of Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beecken, Brian P.; Kleinman, Randall R.

    2004-01-01

    New developments in infrared sensor technology have potentially made possible a new space-based system which can measure far-infrared radiation at lower costs (mass, power and expense). The Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) proposed by NASA Langley Research Center, makes use of new detector array technology. A mathematical model which simulates resolution and spectral range relationships has been developed for analyzing the utility of such a radically new approach to spectroscopy. Calculations with this forward model emulate the effects of a detector array on the ability to retrieve accurate spectral features. Initial computations indicate significant attenuation at high wavenumbers.

  10. Enhancing Sensitivity of a Miniature Spectrometer Using a Real-Time Image Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Sabarish; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    A real-time image processing algorithm is developed to enhance the sensitivity of a planar single-mode waveguide miniature spectrometer with integrated waveguide gratings. A novel approach of averaging along the arcs in a curved coordinate system is introduced which allows for collecting more light, thereby enhancing the sensitivity. The algorithm is tested using CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots drop casted on the surface of a single-mode waveguide. Measurements indicate that a monolayer of quantum dots is expected to produce guided mode attenuation approximately 11 times above the noise level.

  11. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Chen, Z Y; Jin, W; Huang, D W; Ding, Y H; Li, J C; Zhang, X Q; Lee, S G; Shi, Y J; Zhuang, G

    2014-11-01

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  12. Single-lens computed tomography imaging spectrometer and method of capturing spatial and spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTISs") employing a single lens are provided. The CTISs may be either transmissive or reflective, and the single lens is either configured to transmit and receive uncollimated light (in transmissive systems), or is configured to reflect and receive uncollimated light (in reflective systems). An exemplary transmissive CTIS includes a focal plane array detector, a single lens configured to transmit and receive uncollimated light, a two-dimensional grating, and a field stop aperture. An exemplary reflective CTIS includes a focal plane array detector, a single mirror configured to reflect and receive uncollimated light, a two-dimensional grating, and a field stop aperture.

  13. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectroscopy from a Space Based Platform -- The Herschel/SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Locke Dean

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), a flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), is comprised of three cryogenically cooled instruments commissioned to explore the far-infrared/submillimetre universe. Herschel's remote orbit at the second Lagrangian point (L2) of the Sun-Earth system, and its cryogenic payload, impose a need for thorough instrument characterization and rigorous testing as there will be no possibility for any servicing after launch. The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) is one of the instrument payloads aboard Herschel and consists of a three band imaging photometer and a two band imaging spectrometer. The imaging spectrometer on SPIRE consists of a Mach-Zehnder (MZ)-Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) coupled with bolometric detector arrays to form an imaging FTS (IFTS). This thesis presents experiments conducted to verify the performance of an IFTS system from a space based platform, Le. the use of the SPIRE IFTS within the Herschel space observatory. Prior to launch, the SPIRE instrument has undergone a series of performance verification tests conducted at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) near Oxford, UK. Canada is involved in the SPIRE project through provision of instrument development hardware and software, mission flight software, and support personnel. Through this thesis project I have been stationed at RAL for a period spanning fifteen months to participate in the development, performance verification, and characterization of both the SPIRE FTS and photometer instruments. This thesis discusses Fourier transform spectroscopy and related FTS data processing (Chapter 2). Detailed discussions are included on the spectral phase related to the FTS beamsplitter (Chapter 3), the imaging aspects of the SPIRE IFTS instrument (Chapter 4), and the noise characteristics of the SPIRE bolometer detector arrays as measured using the SPIRE IFTS (Chapter 5). This thesis presents results from experiments performed

  14. Airborne imaging spectrometer data of the Ruby Mountains, Montana: Mineral discrimination using relative absorption band-depth images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Brickey, D.W.; Rowan, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer data collected in the near-infrared (1.2-2.4 ??m) wavelength range were used to study the spectral expression of metamorphic minerals and rocks in the Ruby Mountains of southwestern Montana. The data were analyzed by using a new data enhancement procedure-the construction of relative absorption band-depth (RBD) images. RBD images, like bandratio images, are designed to detect diagnostic mineral absorption features, while minimizing reflectance variations related to topographic slope and albedo differences. To produce an RBD image, several data channels near an absorption band shoulder are summed and then divided by the sum of several channels located near the band minimum. RBD images are both highly specific and sensitive to the presence of particular mineral absorption features. Further, the technique does not distort or subdue spectral features as sometimes occurs when using other data normalization methods. By using RBD images, a number of rock and soil units were distinguished in the Ruby Mountains including weathered quartz - feldspar pegmatites, marbles of several compositions, and soils developed over poorly exposed mica schists. The RBD technique is especially well suited for detecting weak near-infrared spectral features produced by soils, which may permit improved mapping of subtle lithologic and structural details in semiarid terrains. The observation of soils rich in talc, an important industrial commodity in the study area, also indicates that RBD images may be useful for mineral exploration. ?? 1989.

  15. Radiometric modeling and calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) ground based measurement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  16. Development of a Novel Breast Cancer Detector based on Improved Holography Concave Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer can be detected by B-mode ultrasonic imaging, X-mammography, CT imaging, and MRI. But some drawbacks existed in these methods, their applications was limited in some certain. So, a novel high resolution breast cancer detector (BCD) is developed in this paper. Meanwhile, an improved holography concave grating imaging spectrometer (HCGIS) is designed. In this HCGIS, the holography concave grating is used as the diffraction grating. Additionally, CCD with combined image acquisition (IAQ) card and the 3D scan platform are used as the spectral image acquisition component. This BCD consists of the light source unit, light-path unit, check cavity, splitting-light unit, spectrum acquisition and imaging unit, signal processing unit, computer and data analysis software unit, etc. Experimental results show that the spectral range of the novel BCD can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this system uses the back-split-light technology and the splitting-light structure of holography concave grating. Compared with the other instruments of breast cancer detection, this BCD has many advantages, such as, compacter volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and higher resolution, etc. Therefore, this BCD will have the potential values in the detection of breast disease.

  17. Experimental results from an X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing multi-wire proportional counter for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.

    2016-11-01

    The inconsistency of the first experimental results from the X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device utilizing a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) is clarified after improving the photon-count rate of the data acquisition system for the MWPC and ground loop isolator for the whole spectrometer system. The improved MWPC is successfully applied to pure Ohmic plasmas as well as plasmas with high confinement modes.

  18. Implementation of an imaging spectrometer for localization and identification of radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, H.; Khalil, R. Abou; Amgarou, K.; Angélique, J.-C.; Bonnet, F.; De Toro, D.; Carrel, F.; Giarmana, O.; Gmar, M.; Menaa, N.; Menesguen, Y.; Normand, S.; Patoz, A.; Schoepff, V.; Talent, P.; Timi, T.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial localization of radioactive sources is currently a main issue interesting nuclear industry as well as homeland security applications and can be achieved using gamma cameras. For several years, CEA LIST has been designing a new system, called GAMPIX, with improved sensitivity, portability and ease of use. The main remaining limitation of this system is the lack of spectrometric information, preventing the identification of radioactive materials. This article describes the development of an imaging spectrometer based on the GAMPIX technology. Experimental tests have been carried out according to both spectrometric methods enabled by the pixelated Timepix chip used in the GAMPIX gamma camera. The first method is based on the size of the impacts produced by a gamma-ray energy deposition in the detection matrix. The second one uses the Time over Threshold (ToT) mode of the Timepix chip and deals with time spent by pulses generated by charge preamplifiers over a user-specified threshold. Both energy resolution and sensitivity studies demonstrated the superiority of the ToT approach which will consequently be further explored. Energy calibration, tests of different pixel sizes for the Timepix chip and use of the Medipix3 chip are future milestones to improve performances of the newly implemented imaging spectrometer.

  19. Calibration of Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Lv, Gang; Ma, Yan-hua; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-11-01

    Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) is one of the scientific payloads mounted on "Yutu" rover in Chang'e 3 lunar exploration project. The VNIS is composed with a visible and near-infrared (0.45-0.95 μm) spectral imager and a short waveband (0.9-2.4 μm) spectrometer on basis of Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter. According to the in-situ analysis, a calibration unit was also equipped for high precisely spectral radiance and reflectance inversion by using solar as standard calibration source. The calibration unit was driven by lightweight ultrasonic motor, and it could be located on three fixed position including detection (full-opened), calibration (horizontal) and dust-proof (closed). In this paper, the principle of VNIS, especially calibration unit was described firstly. Then, radiometric correction algorithms on lunar surface based on standard solar spectral irradiance were expounded. Through the analysis of VNIS scientific data, the spectral radiance and reflectance curves of detection area were shown in the end.

  20. Design considerations for the development of a space qualification Short Wavelength Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SWIFTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, R.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document is the final report on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during FY 1992 and 1993 for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to look at problems associated with the design and long term operation of a short wavelength imaging Fourier Transform (FT) spectrometer for use in space. In attempts to answer two fundamental questions: is a FT spectrometer with a resolution of 1 cm{sup {minus}1} covering the silicon detector wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.1 microns feasible in a long life space instrument and, if so, is it the best method of obtaining the desired information? Emphasis has been on identifying methods which minimize reliance on precision mechanical alignment and precise velocity control. An important consideration has also been to develop methods which will be compatible with a variety of self-scanning solid state imaging devices. A breadboard instrument was constructed using cube corner retroreflectors and a laser diode position reference. Some preliminary results are reported. This work is primarily intended to act as an aid to engineers at Sandia who wish to pursue the fabrication of a flight qualified instrument. The theoretical parts are intended to be somewhat tutorial in nature to aid the engineer who is not familiar with FT spectroscopy.

  1. The electronic subsystem design of the interference imaging spectrometer on CE-1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yue-Hong; Wen, De-sheng; Zhao, Bao-chang

    2009-07-01

    The Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIS) is the one of payloads of the Chang'e-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite, which is used to acquire the spectral information and the global distribution information about lunar minerals. In this paper, some information about the electronic subsystem design of the Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIS) is given. First, the technical specifications and requirements, architecture, function and operating modes of the electronic subsystem are described briefly. Secondly, the focus plane assembly (FPA) including CCD, CCD driving circuits, CCD buffering circuits, CCD biasing circuits and low-noise preamp circuits is introduced. Thirdly, the video processing and control assembly including the correlated double sampling(CDS) circuit, the programmable gain amplifier circuit, the active filter circuit, the A/D conversion circuit, digital video signal buffers, the timing module, the output interface circuit is treated. Fourthly, the timing description and logical architecture are given. Finally, some results are supplied. After careful design, thorough analyses and simulation, sufficient debug and test, the design has satisfied the technical requirements and achieved the goal of the one-year on-orbit operation.

  2. Evaluation of the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for mapping subtle lithological variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), flown aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft in 1987 and 1989, used four linear arrays and four individual spectrometers to collect data simultaneously from the 224 bands in a scanned 614 pixel-wide swath perpendicular to the aircraft direction. The research had two goals. One was to evaluate the AVIRIS data. The other was to look at the subtle lithological variation at the two test sites to develop a better understanding of the regional geology and surficial processes. The geometric characteristics of the data, adequacy of the spatial resolution, and adequacy of the spectral sampling interval are evaluated. Geologic differences at the test sites were mapped. They included lithological variation caused by primary sedimentary layering, facies variation, and weathering; and subtle mineralogical differences caused by hydrothermal alterations of igneous and sedimentary rocks. The investigation used laboratory, field, and aircraft spectral measurements; known properties of geological materials; digital image processing and spectrum processing techniques; and field geologic data to evaluate the selected characteristics of the AVIRIS data.

  3. Multi-Beam Approach for Accelerating Alignment and Calibration of HyspIRI-Like Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hochberg, Eric B.; Hein, Randall C.; Kroll, Linley A.; Geier, Sven; Coles, James B.; Meehan, Riley

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes an optical stimulus that produces more consistent results, and can be automated for unattended, routine generation of data analysis products needed by the integration and testing team assembling a high-fidelity imaging spectrometer system. One key attribute of the system is an arrangement of pick-off mirrors that provides multiple input beams (five in this implementation) to simultaneously provide stimulus light to several field angles along the field of view of the sensor under test, allowing one data set to contain all the information that previously required five data sets to be separately collected. This stimulus can also be fed by quickly reconfigured sources that ultimately provide three data set types that would previously be collected separately using three different setups: Spectral Response Function (SRF), Cross-track Response Function (CRF), and Along-track Response Function (ARF), respectively. This method also lends itself to expansion of the number of field points if less interpolation across the field of view is desirable. An absolute minimum of three is required at the beginning stages of imaging spectrometer alignment.

  4. Mineralogical Mapping of Asteroid Itokawa using Calibrated Hayabusa AMICA images and NIRS Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, Lucille; Becker, Kris J.; Reddy, Vishnu; Li, Jian-Yang; Bhatt, Megha

    2016-10-01

    The goal of our work is to restore data from the Hayabusa spacecraft that is available in the Planetary Data System (PDS) Small Bodies Node. More specifically, our objectives are to radiometrically calibrate and photometrically correct AMICA (Asteroid Multi-Band Imaging Camera) images of Itokawa. The existing images archived in the PDS are not in reflectance and not corrected from the effect of viewing geometry. AMICA images are processed with the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) system from USGS, widely used for planetary image analysis. The processing consists in the ingestion of the images in ISIS (amica2isis), updates to AMICA start time (sumspice), radiometric calibration (amicacal) including smear correction, applying SPICE ephemeris, adjusting control using Gaskell SUMFILEs (sumspice), projecting individual images (cam2map) and creating global or local mosaics. The application amicacal has also an option to remove pixels corresponding to the polarizing filters on the left side of the image frame. The amicacal application will include a correction for the Point Spread Function. The last version of the PSF published by Ishiguro et al. in 2014 includes correction for the effect of scattered light. This effect is important to correct because it can add 10% level in error and is affecting mostly the longer wavelength filters such as zs and p. The Hayabusa team decided to use the color data for six of the filters for scientific analysis after correcting for the scattered light. We will present calibrated data in I/F for all seven AMICA color filters. All newly implemented ISIS applications and map projections from this work have been or will be distributed to the community via ISIS public releases. We also processed the NIRS spectrometer data, and we will perform photometric modeling, then apply photometric corrections, and finally extract mineralogical parameters. The end results will be the creation of pyroxene chemistry and olivine

  5. Design and Construction of a Field Capable Snapshot Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arik, Glenda H.

    2005-01-01

    The computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) is a device which captures the spatial and spectral content of a rapidly evolving same in a single image frame. The most recent CTIS design is optically all reflective and uses as its dispersive device a stated the-art reflective computer generated hologram (CGH). This project focuses on the instrument's transition from laboratory to field. This design will enable the CTIS to withstand a harsh desert environment. The system is modeled in optical design software using a tolerance analysis. The tolerances guide the design of the athermal mount and component parts. The parts are assembled into a working mount shell where the performance of the mounts is tested for thermal integrity. An interferometric analysis of the reflective CGH is also performed.

  6. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOEpatents

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  7. Imaging x-ray Thomson scattering spectrometer design and demonstration (invited).

    PubMed

    Gamboa, E J; Huntington, C M; Trantham, M R; Keiter, P A; Drake, R P; Montgomery, D S; Benage, J F; Letzring, S A

    2012-10-01

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  8. Imaging x-ray Thomson scattering spectrometer design and demonstration (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Trantham, M. R.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F.; Letzring, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  9. Discriminating semiarid vegetation using airborne imaging spectrometer data - A preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Randall W.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data for discriminating and characterizing vegetation in a semiarid environment. May and October AIS data sets were acquired over a large alluvial fan in eastern California, on which were found Great Basin desert shrub communities. Maximum likelihood classification of a principal components representation of the May AIS data enabled discrimination of subtle spatial detail in images relating to vegetation and soil characteristics. The spatial patterns in the May AIS classification were, however, too detailed for complete interpretation with existing ground data. A similar analysis of the October AIS data yielded poor results. Comparison of AIS results with a similar analysis of May Landsat Thematic Mapper data showed that the May AIS data contained approximately three to four times as much spectrally coherent information. When only two shortwave infrared TM bands were used, results were similar to those from AIS data acquired in October.

  10. Thermal design and performance of the REgolith x-ray imaging spectrometer (REXIS) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Kevin D.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument is a student collaboration instrument on the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission scheduled for launch in September 2016. The REXIS science mission is to characterize the elemental abundances of the asteroid Bennu on a global scale and to search for regions of enhanced elemental abundance. The thermal design of the REXIS instrument is challenging due to both the science requirements and the thermal environment in which it will operate. The REXIS instrument consists of two assemblies: the spectrometer and the solar X-ray monitor (SXM). The spectrometer houses a 2x2 array of back illuminated CCDs that are protected from the radiation environment by a one-time deployable cover and a collimator assembly with coded aperture mask. Cooling the CCDs during operation is the driving thermal design challenge on the spectrometer. The CCDs operate in the vicinity of the electronics box, but a 130 °C thermal gradient is required between the two components to cool the CCDs to -60 °C in order to reduce noise and obtain science data. This large thermal gradient is achieved passively through the use of a copper thermal strap, a large radiator facing deep space, and a two-stage thermal isolation layer between the electronics box and the DAM. The SXM is mechanically mounted to the sun-facing side of the spacecraft separately from the spectrometer and characterizes the highly variable solar X-ray spectrum to properly interpret the data from the asteroid. The driving thermal design challenge on the SXM is cooling the silicon drift detector (SDD) to below -30 °C when operating. A two-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is located directly beneath the detector to provide active cooling, and spacecraft MLI blankets cover all of the SXM except the detector aperture to radiatively decouple the SXM from the flight thermal environment. This paper describes the REXIS thermal system requirements, thermal design, and analyses, with

  11. Optical simulation for imaging reconnaissance and intelligence sensors OSIRIS: High fidelity sensor simulation test bed; Modified user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, M.F.; Puccetti, M.G.

    1988-01-04

    The OSIRIS program is an imaging optical simulation program which has been developed to predict the output of space-borne sensor systems. The simulation is radiometrically precise and includes highly realistic laser, atmosphere, and earth background models, as well as detailed models of optical components. This system was developed by Rockwell Power Services for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is based upon the LARC (Los Alamos Radiometry Code, also by Rockwell), and uses a similar command structure and 3d coordinate system as LARC. At present OSIRIS runs on the Cray I computer under the CTSS operating s stem, and is stored in the OSIRIS root directory on LANL CTSS mass storage.

  12. Use of AVIRIS data to the definition of optimised specifications for land applications with future spaceborne imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent experience with airborne imaging spectrometers demonstrated the advantages of narrow band sensors over broad band scanners for characterizing the nature, extent, and physical status of typical land surfaces. Information on key spectral features associated with various land surfaces can be obtained from the data of such instruments, which can be used to simulate spaceborne imaging spectrometer data and to assess their information content if comprehensive underpinning is provided by ground data. The collection of such information was an issue of airborne imaging spectrometer campaigns like the NASA MAC-Europe 1991. Airborne and ground data obtained from different test sites in Europe are utilized for a comparative analysis of the spectral signatures of various land surfaces (vegetation, bare soils and rocks, and mixed soil/rock-vegetation) as seen from different imaging spectrometers like Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), GERIS 63 band scanner, and CASI. The following items are discussed: (1) the significance of different spectral regions within the wavelength interval between 0.4 m and 2.5 m for the differentiation of different land units; (2) recommendations on the optimum band selection and band-widths to be used for the application of future satellite-based imaging spectrometers for land applications; (3) the boundaries for the detection of plant features in mixed-soil plant spectra and the influence of different soil properties on the mixture of the spectra; (4) recommendations on the optimum spatial resolution and recording dates for the discrimination of spectral features of various surface types; and (5) evaluation of different data compressing techniques for the optimum extraction of spectral information from imaging spectrometry data.

  13. Infrared imaging spectrometer for measurement of temperature in high-speed events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Mark Franklin

    Munition development has always been driven by the necessity of delivering enough explosives to a targeted object to destroy it. Targets that are protected by steel reinforced concrete housings have become increasingly more difficult to destroy. Improvements must be made in munitions engineering design to either deliver more payload to the target or to make the weapon more potent. In most cases, due to aircraft weight limitations, the delivery of more payload is not an option. Therefore, improving the destructive power of a weapon of a given payload requires the use of more powerful explosives. However, when the potency of an explosive is increased, its sensitivity to premature detonation also increases. The characteristics of the metal casing containing the explosive contribute significantly to the weapon's detonation sensitivity. Casing experience significant heating during weapon penetration. This heating can cause the weapon to detonate before it reaches its target location. In the past, computer codes used to model detonating weapons have not taken heating into account in their performance predictions. Consequently, the theoretical models and the actual field tests are not in agreement. New models, that include temperature information, are currently being developed which are based on work done in the area of computational fluid dynamics. In this research, a remotely located, high-speed, infrared (IR) camera is used to obtain detailed measurements of the passive radiation from an object in an energetic environment. This radiation information is used to determine both the emissivity and the temperature of the surface of an object. However, before the temperature or emissivity was determined, the functional form of the emissivity was calculated to be an Mth degree polynomial with respect to wavelength dependence. With the advent of large, high-speed, IR detector arrays, it has now become possible to realize IR imaging spectrometers that have very high spatial

  14. ARES: a new reflective/emissive imaging spectrometer for terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas; Richter, Rolf; Habermeyer, Martin; Mehl, Harald; Dech, Stefan; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Segl, Karl; Strobl, Peter; Haschberger, Peter; Bamler, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers have a history of about 20 years starting with the operation of AIS in 1982. During the following years, many other instruments were built and successfully operated, e.g., AVIRIS, CASI, DAIS-7915, and HyMap. Since imaging spectrometers cover a spectral region with a large number of narrow contiguous bands they are able to retrieve the spectral reflectance signature of the earth allowing tasks such as mineral identification and abundance mapping, monitoring of vegetation properties, and assessment of water constituents. An essential prerequisite for the evaluation of imaging spectrometer data is a stable spectral and radiometric calibration. Although a considerable progress has been achieved in this respect over the last two decades, this issue is still technically challenging today, especially for low-to-medium cost instruments. This paper introduces a new airborne imaging spectrometer, the ARES (Airborne Reflective Emissive Spectrometer) to be built by Integrated Spectronics, Sydney, Australia, and co-financed by DLR German Aerospace Center and the GFZ GeoResearch Center Potsdam, Germany. The instrument shall feature a high performance over the entire optical wavelength range and will be available to the scientific community from 2006 on. The ARES sensor will provide 150 channels in the solar reflective region (0.47-2.42 μm) and the thermal region (8.1-12.1 μm). It will consist of two co-registered optical systems for the reflective and thermal part of the spectrum. The spectral resolution is intended to be between 12 and 16 nm in the solar wavelength range and should reach 150 nm in the thermal range. ARES will be used mainly for environmental applications in terrestrial ecosystems. The thematic focus is thought to be on soil sciences, geology, agriculture and forestry. Limnologic applications should be possible but will not play a key role in the thematic applications. For all above mentioned key application scenarios, the

  15. MinMap: An imaging spectrometer for high resolution compositional mapping of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Head, James W.; Mccord, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    MinMap has been selected by the Lunar Scout program to characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The instrument will be built as a collaborative effort between Brown University, SETS Technology Inc., and Ball Aerospace Corp. MinMap is a visible to near-infrared imaging spectrometer that contains 192 spectral channels from 0.35-2.4 microns with signal to noise greater than 200 and 256 cross-track spatial elements. The spectrometer design has a 6 deg field of view (FOV) and utilizes grating dispersive elements and two dimensional detectors (no moving parts). An 'image cube' of data is produced that contains two dimensions of spatial information and one dimension of spectral information. All spectral channels and cross-track spatial elements are recorded simultaneously with spacecraft motion scanning the second spatial dimension. The high spectral resolution and continuous spectral range of MinMap are designed to measure the diagnostic absorption features of principal lunar minerals and their lithologic mixtures. Since the optical properties of lunar materials change in a regular manner upon exposure to the space environment, this spectral range is also quite sensitive to variations in exposure history (soil maturity). Nominal measurement stragegy is to obtain full global data of the Moon at 180 m/pixel from a 450 km polar orbit during the first month or two of operation. A 100 km orbit is anticipated for the remaining part of a 1 year mission allowing higher resolution data (approx. 80 m/pixel) to be obtained for targeted regions. MinMap exceeds LE x SWG's measurement recommendations and will provide the highest spatial resolution compositional map of lunar rocks and soils currently planned for orbital missions. Since all spectral channels are co-registered and obtained simultaneously, 'image cube' data swaths will be available for analysis almost immediately.

  16. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  17. The (new) Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Smith, Howard A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Marscher, Alan P.; Tokunaga, Alan; Bergknut, Lars; Bonnet, Morgan; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelly, Michael; Rayner, John; Watanabe, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    The Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) was developed at Boston University and has been in use since 2002 on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), making observations of asteroids, planets, and comets in the 2 - 25 μm wavelength range. Recently the instrument has been unavailable due to electronics issues and the high cost of supplying liquid helium on Maunakea. We have begun a project to upgrade MIRSI to a cryocooler-based system with new array readout electronics and a dichroic and optical camera to simultaneously image the science field for image acquisition and optical photometry. The mechanical cryocooler will enable MIRSI to be continuously mounted on the IRTF multiple instrument mount (MIM) along with the other facility instruments, making it available to the entire community for multi-wavelength imaging and spectral observations. We will propose to use the refurbished MIRSI to measure the 10 μm flux from Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and determine their diameters and albedos through the use of a thermal model. We plan to observe up to 750 NEOs over the course of a three year survey, most of whose diameters will be under 300 meters. Here we present an overview of the MIRSI upgrade and give the current status of the project.This work is funded by the NASA Solar System Observations/NEOO program.

  18. HIRIS, the instrument and its science. [High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for EOS platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Davis, Curtiss O.

    1992-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a facility instrument slated for flight on the second EOS series AM platforms. HIRIS is designed to acquire 24 km wide, 30 m pixel images in 192 spectral bands simultaneously in the 0.4-2.45 micron wavelength region. With pointing mirrors it can sample any place on Earth, except the poles, every 2 days. HIRIS operates at the intermediate scale between the human and the global and therefore links studies of Earth surface processes to global monitoring carried out by lower resolution instruments. So far, over 50 science data products from HIRIS images have been identified in the fields of atmospheric gases, clouds, snow and ice, water, vegetation, and rocks and soils. The key attribute of imaging spectrometry that makes it possible to derive quantitative information from the data is the large number of contiguous, spectral bands. Therefore, spectrum-matching techniques can be applied. Such techniques are not possible with present-day, multispectral scanner data.

  19. HIRIS - NASAS's High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1992-01-01

    Modern Earth science is beginning to examine interactions among the different terrestrial components at all temporal and spatial scales. Such a global perspective requires an integrated remote-sensing program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), which uses instruments throughout the electromagnetic spectrum to collect data about the Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere over a range of selected scales. At the finest scales, we will require instruments capable of detailed sampling both spatially and spectrally. We have designed the High-Resoulution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) to acquire simultaneous images in 192 spectral bands in the dominant wavelengths of the solar spectrum, 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers, at a spectral sampling interval of 10 nm. The ground instantaneous field of view (GIFOV) will be 30 m over a 24 km swath. A pointing capability will allow image acquisition up to +52 deg/-30 deg down track and +/-45 deg or more cross-track. Thus we will be able to study surface spectral bidirectional reflectance properties and variations in atmospheric attenuation with viewing angle. The cross-track pointing will also allow multiple viewing opportunities during one 16-day orbital revisit cycle, so that any part of the Earth may be imaged in a two-day period.

  20. Biological tissue imaging with a hybrid cluster SIMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carado, A.; Kozole, J.; Passarelli, M.; Winograd, N.; Loboda, A.; Bunch, J.; Wingate, J.; Hankin, J.; Murphy, R.

    2008-12-01

    A 20 keV C 60+ ion source was mounted onto a commercial MALDI/electrospray orthogonal ToF mass spectrometer. Cross-sectional mouse brain and lung slices between 5 and 10 μm prepared by cryostat sectioning were successfully imaged using a DC C 60+ primary ion beam at a spot size of 100 μm. Analysis was performed at room temperature following vacuum drying. An abundance of ions were mapped in all samples, many whose identity can only be found using the MS/MS functionality. We have successfully identified and imaged localizations of diacylglycerol (DAG) ions - 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol ( m/ z+ 577.5) and 1,2-dioleoyl-glycerol ( m/ z+ 603.5) - in lung tissue. The mouse brain slice revealed strong, distinct localizations of many ions revealing the potential for this technique for biological imaging. Ions throughout the mass range of m/ z+ 50-800 were collected in sufficient quantities to permit unambiguous chemical mapping. Mass resolutions of 12,000 or greater were routinely obtained allowing for more accurate ion mapping than typically seen with ToF-SIMS image analysis.

  1. Comparison of spectral data gathered from a laboratory spectrometer and TM images with and without shadow correction

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data from field samples were determined with a laboratory spectrometer (Beckman DK-2A). The spectral curves obtained with the spectrometer were correlated with the histograms determined from the images. The tightly defined histograms from the shadow corrected TM provided the best correlation with the rock data. Several units, including the Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff, showed multiple spectral patterns on both images and rock spectra. This difference was evaluated versus geochemistry, hematitic alteration, devitrification, pumice content, and degree of welding. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  3. Development and evaluation of a Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer and a Hadamard transform thermal imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Swift, R.; Wattson, R.; Decker, J.; Paganetti, R.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrometric imager and a thermal imager, which achieve multiplexing by the use of binary optical encoding masks, were developed. The masks are based on orthogonal, pseudorandom digital codes derived from Hadamard matrices. Spatial and/or spectral data is obtained in the form of a Hadamard transform of the spatial and/or spectral scene; computer algorithms are then used to decode the data and reconstruct images of the original scene. The hardware, algorithms and processing/display facility are described. A number of spatial and spatial/spectral images are presented. The achievement of a signal-to-noise improvement due to the signal multiplexing was also demonstrated. An analysis of the results indicates both the situations for which the multiplex advantage may be gained, and the limitations of the technique. A number of potential applications of the spectrometric imager are discussed.

  4. Atmospheric water mapping with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), Mountain Pass, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations are given of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over a desert area in eastern California, derived using a band ratio method and the 940 nm atmospheric water band and 870 nm continuum radiances. The ratios yield total path water from curves of growth supplied by the LOWTRAN 7 atmospheric model. An independent validation of the AVIRIS-derived column abundance at a point is supplied by a spectral hygrometer calibrated with respect to radiosonde observations. Water values conform to topography and fall off with surface elevation. The edge of the water vapor boundary layer defined by topography is thought to have been recovered. The ratio method yields column abundance estimates of good precision and high spatial resolution.

  5. In-Flight Spectral Calibration of the APEX Imaging Spectrometer Using Fraunhofer Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Damm, Aalexander; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    The Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) is an imaging spectrometer which allows to observe atmospheric trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using a high resolution spectrum of solar Fraunhofer lines, APEX measurements collected during flight have been spectrally calibrated for centre wavelength positions (CW) and instrument slit function (ISF) and compared to the laboratory calibration. We find that CWs depend strongly on both across- and along-track position due to spectral smile and CWs dependency on ambient pressure. The width of the ISF is larger than estimated from the laboratory calibration but can be described by a linear scaling of the laboratory values. The ISF width depends on across but not on along-track direction. The results demonstrate the importance of characterizing and monitoring the instrument performance during flight and will be used to improve the Empa APEX NO2 retrieval algorithm.

  6. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Engel, James R.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2008-04-01

    OPTRA and University of North Carolina are developing an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach will be considered as a candidate referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize progress to date and overall system performance projections based on the instrument, spectroscopy, and tomographic reconstruction accuracy. We then present a preliminary optical design of the I-OP-FTIR.

  7. Imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for 3D cloud profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rentz Dupuis, Julia; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Carlson, David; Evans, Thomas; Schundler, Elizabeth; Todd, Lori; Mottus, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    OPTRA has developed an imaging open-path Fourier transform infrared (I-OP-FTIR) spectrometer for 3D profiling of chemical and biological agent simulant plumes released into test ranges and chambers. An array of I-OP-FTIR instruments positioned around the perimeter of the test site, in concert with advanced spectroscopic algorithms, enables real time tomographic reconstruction of the plume. The approach is intended as a referee measurement for test ranges and chambers. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) effort combines the instrumentation and spectroscopic capabilities of OPTRA, Inc. with the computed tomographic expertise of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In this paper, we summarize the design and build and detail system characterization and test of a prototype I-OP-FTIR instrument. System characterization includes radiometric performance and spectral resolution. Results from a series of tomographic reconstructions of sulfur hexafluoride plumes in a laboratory setting are also presented.

  8. Depth profiling and imaging capabilities of an ultrashort pulse laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Moore, Jerry F.; Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (AToF-MS) and associated data acquisition software that permits imaging at micron-scale resolution and sub-micron-scale depth profiling are described. The ion funnel-based source of this instrument can be operated at pressures ranging from 10−8 to ∼0.3 mbar. Mass spectra may be collected and stored at a rate of 1 kHz by the data acquisition system, allowing the instrument to be coupled with standard commercial Ti:sapphire lasers. The capabilities of the AToF-MS instrument are demonstrated on metal foils and semiconductor wafers using a Ti:sapphire laser emitting 800 nm, ∼75 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Results show that elemental quantification and depth profiling are feasible with this instrument. PMID:23020378

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Systematic Noise in Data Acquired with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.

    1985-01-01

    Systematic noise is present in Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected on October 26, 1983 and May 5, 1984 in grating position 0 (1.2 to 1.5 microns). In the October data set the noise occurs as 135 scan lines of low DN's every 270 scan lines. The noise is particularly bad in bands nine through thirty, restricting effective analysis to at best ten of the 32 bands. In the May data the regions of severe noise have been eliminated, but systematic noise is present with three frequencies (3, 106 and 200 scan lines) in all thirty two bands. The periodic nature of the noise in both data sets suggests that it could be removed as part of routine processing. This is necessary before classification routines or statistical analyses are used with these data.

  10. Discrimination of hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages at Virginia City, Nevada, using the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutsinpiller, Amy

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use airborne imaging spectrometer data to discriminate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages associated with silver and gold mineralization at Virginia City, NV. The data is corrected for vertical striping and sample gradients, and converted to flat-field logarithmic residuals. Log residual spectra from areas known to be altered are compared to field spectra for kaolinitic, illitic, sericitic, and propylitic alteration types. The areal distributions of these alteration types are estimated using a spectral matching technique. Both visual examination of spectra and the matching techniques are effective in distinguishing kaolinitic, illitic, and propylitic alteration types from each other. However, illitic and sericitic alteration cannot be separated using these techniques because the spectra of illite and sericite are very similar. A principal components analysis of 14 channels in the 2.14-2.38 micron wavelength region is also successful in discriminating and mapping illitic, kaolinitic, and propylitic alteration types.

  11. The use of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data to differentiate marsh vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) is a high spectral resolution (9.6-nm-wide bands between 0.9 and 2.4 microns) instrument. Analysis of AIS data revealed significant differences in characteristics of the spectral radiance curves of four types of wetland vegetation canopies (trees, broadleaf herbaceous, Spartina alterniflora, and S. patens/Distichlis spicata) in Delaware, enabling them to be distinguished. The single most useful spectral region was that between 1.40 and 1.90 microns. Differences in radiance values at various wavelengths between samples of the same vegetation type could potentially be used to estimate biomass. Thus, high spectral resolution spectrometry appears to have significant value for remote sensing studies of wetland vegetation.

  12. New calibration techniques for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Chovit, Chris; Eastwood, Mike; Faust, Jessica; Hajek, Pavel; Johnson, Howell; Novack, H. Ian; Sarture, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Recent laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) include new methods for the characterization of the geometric, spectral, temporal and radiometric properties of the sensor. New techniques are desired in order to: (1) increase measurement accuracy and precision, (2) minimize measurement time and expense, (3) prototype new field and inflight calibration systems, (4) resolve measurement ambiguities, and (5) add new measurement dimensions. One of the common features of these new methods is the use of the full data collection and processing power of the AVIRIS instrument and data facility. This allows the collection of large amounts of calibration data in a short period of time and is well suited to modular data analysis routines.

  13. The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) science and data system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Han, Daesoo; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) has been designated as a facility instrument on the first NASA polar orbiting platform as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and is scheduled for launch in the late 1990s. The near-global daily coverage of MODIS, combined with its continuous operation, broad spectral coverage, and relatively high spatial resolution, makes it central to the objectives of EOS. The development, implementation, production, and validation of the core MODIS data products define a set of functional, performance, and operational requirements on the data system that operate between the sensor measurements and the data products supplied to the user community. The science requirements guiding the processing of MODIS data are reviewed, and the aspects of an operations concept for the production of data products from MODIS for use by the scientific community are discussed.

  14. MODIS - Advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system. [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Barnes, W.; Montgomery, H.; Ostrow, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a key part of the Earth Observing System planned for the 1990's, is described. The complementary MODIS-T (64 channels) and MODIS-N (40 channels) instruments provide a multispectral observing capability that has application to land, ocean, and atmospheric research. The modules have a 500-1000 meter spatial resolution to accompany a swath width sufficient to provide two-day repeat coverage from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, space-station serviceable platform. High signal-to-noise capability (500/1 or better) and 10-12 bit quantization over the dynamic ranges of the various spectral bands will be provided by the two modules.

  15. Design and Test of a Deployable Radiation Cover for the REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carte, David B.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Jones, Michael P.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument contains a one-time deployable radiation cover that is opened using a shape memory alloy actuator (a "Frangibolt") from TiNi Aerospace and two torsion springs. The door will be held closed by the bolt for several years in cold storage during travel to the target asteroid, Bennu, and it is imperative to gain confidence that the door will open at predicted operational temperatures. This paper briefly covers the main design features of the radiation cover and measures taken to mitigate risks to cover deployment. As the chosen FD04 model Frangibolt actuator has minimal flight heritage, the main focus of this paper is the testing, results and conclusions with the FD04 while discussing key lessons learned with respect to the use of the FD04 actuator in this application.

  16. New scientific results with SpIOMM: a testbed for CFHT's imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SITELLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Alarie, A.; Martin, T.; Lagrois, D.; Rousseau-Nepton, L.; Bilodeau, A.; Robert, C.; Joncas, G.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present new data obtained with SpIOMM, the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer attached to the 1.6-m telescope of the Observatoire du Mont-Megantic in Québec. Recent technical and data reduction improvements have significantly increased SpIOMM's capabilities to observe fainter objects or weaker nebular lines, as well as continuum sources and absorption lines, and to increase its modulation efficiency in the near ultraviolet. To illustrate these improvements, we present data on the supernova remnant Cas A, planetary nebulae M27 and M97, the Wolf-Rayet ring nebula M1-67, spiral galaxies M63 and NGC 3344, as well as the interacting pair of galaxies Arp 84.

  17. Visible and infrared linear detector arrays for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Gary C.

    1987-01-01

    The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument uses four separate focal plane assemblies consisting of line array detectors that are multiplexed to a common J-FET preamp using a FET switch multiplexing (MUX) technique. A 32-element silicon line array covers the spectral range from 0.41 to 0.70 microns. Three additional 64-element indium antimonide (InSb) line arrays cover the spectral range from 0.68 to 2.45 microns. The spectral sampling interval per detector element is nominally 9.8 nm, giving a total of 224 spectral channels. All focal planes operate at liquid nitrogen temperature and are housed in separate dewars. Electrical performance characteristics include a read noise of less than 1000 e(-) in all channels, response and dark nonuniformity of 5 percent peak to peak, and quantum efficiency of greater than 60 percent.

  18. Determining experimentally induced variation in coniferous canopy chemistry with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, N. A.; Matson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental treatments in a Douglas-fir forest in NE New Mexico were carried out to determine whether differences in forest canopy chemistry could be detected using data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS-2). Experimental treatments consisted of nitrogen fertilizer additions, sawdust additions, and control plots. After AIS-2 data were collected, the digital number of a given pixel was extracted from each channel, yielding 128 values that were used to form a spectrum. Four spectra were extracted from each treatment plot. Multiple stepwise linear regressions between first and second difference transformations of AIS-2 spectra and the canopy characteristics of biomass, nitrogen concentration, and nitrogen content were performed. The results showed a coefficient of multiple determination of 0.71 between first-difference AIS-2 spectra and measured nitrogen concentration in foliage, indicating that it may be possible to predict nitrogen concentration in Douglas fir using AIS-2 spectra.

  19. Miniaturization high-resolution NUV-VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer array for FAST SAT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, D.G. |; Zukic, M.; Feng, C.; Ahmad, A.; Swift, W.

    1994-12-31

    The authors report here the design of an instrument needed to study processes relevant to the natural destruction of ozone in the upper atmosphere. They report the design of a miniature Imaging Spectrometer Array (ISA) for observations of the daytime and nighttime mesosphere, capable of operating in a spectral range extending from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR). The instrument comprises an array of f/2 all-reflective imaging spectrometers with a 6{degree} field of view. The design comprises an offset single aspheric toroidal telescope mirror, a slit, an offset aspheric toroidal collimator, a plane reflective grating and a camera with three offset decentered aspheric mirrors. The optical system has a 75 mm effective focal length and ca. 7.5 {micro}m spot size. The slit image curvature distortion for the system is <7.5 {micro}m. Sampling of the image plane is provided by a 1317x1035 spatial x spectral pixel CCD array with 6.8 {micro}m x 6.8 {micro}m pixel size. Three modules of the array cover the wavelength range 260 to 400 and 550 to 870 nm at 0.3 nm spectral resolution. One high resolution module covers the range 306 to 310 at 0.05 nm resolution. The readout electronics software allows the 1317 spatial pixels to be summed into any number of selectable bin sizes incurring a single read per bin. Since much of the full slit sensitivity is attributable to the large (6{degree}) field of view, the slit could be slanted with respect to the vertical, in order to enhance the sensitivity per vertical spatial bin, at the cost of some horizontal smearing. The instrument offers a powerful means for conducting comprehensive spectroscopy studies of the lower thermosphere and mesosphere, since the overall performance is better than that of the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) flown on the ATLAS 1 shuttle mission in 1992. The weight and size reduction from the ISO to the ISA are approximately 270 kg to <15 kg, and 20 cu ft to 1 cu ft respectively.

  20. Positioning a Camera for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Workers at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, position a telescopic camera for installation onto NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on Dec. 11, 2004. Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo., built this camera, called the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, or HiRISE, for the University of Arizona, Tucson, to supply for the mission. The orbiter is scheduled for launch in August 2005 carrying six science instruments.

  1. Column atmospheric water vapor and vegetation liquid water retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Bo-Cai Gao; Goetz, A.F.H. )

    1990-03-20

    High spatial resolution column atmospheric water vapor amounts were derived from spectral data collected by the airborne visible-infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS). The quantitative derivation is made by curve fitting observed spectra with calculated spectra in the 1.14-{mu}m and 0.94-{mu}m water vapor band absorption regions using an atmospheric model, a narrow-band spectral model, and a nonlinear least squares fitting technique. The derivation makes use of the facts that (1) the reflectances of many ground targets vary approximately linearly with wavelength in the 0.94- and 1.14-{mu}m water vapor band absorption regions, (2) the scattered radiation near 1 {mu}m is small compared with the directly reflected radiation when the atmospheric aerosol concentrations are low, and (3) the scattered radiation in the lower part of the atmosphere is subjected to the water vapor absorption. Based on the analyses of an AVIRIS data set that was acquired within an hour of radiosonde launch, it appears that the accuracy approaches the precision. The derived column water vapor amounts are independent of the absolute surface reflectances. It now appears feasible to derive high spatial resolution column water vapor amounts over land areas from satellite altitude with the proposed high resolution imaging spectrometer (HIRIS). Curve fitting of spectra near 1 {mu}m from areas covered with vegetation, using an atmospheric model and a simplified vegetation reflectance model, indicates that both the amount of atmospheric water vapor and the moisture content of vegetation can be retrieved simultaneously because the band centers of liquid water in vegetation and the atmospheric water vapor are offset by approximately 0.05 {mu}m.

  2. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  3. Infrared hyperspectral tunable filter imaging spectrometer for remote leak detection, chemical speciation, and stack/vent analysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2002-02-01

    With support from the Department of Energy, the State of California and the Gas Technology Institute, Pacific Advanced Technology is developing a small field portable infrared imaging spectrometer (Sherlock) based on the advances in hyperspectral tunable filter technology, that will be applied to the detection of fugitive gas leaks. This imaging spectrometer uses the Image Multi-spectral Sensing (IMSS) diffractive optic tunable filter invented by Pacific Advanced Technology . The Sherlock has an embedded digital signal processor for real time detection of the gas leak while surrounded by severe background noise. The infrared sensor engine is a 256 x 320 midwave cooled focal plane array which spans the spectral range from 3 to 5 microns, ideal for most hydrocarbon leaks. The technology is by no means limited to this spectral region, and can just as easily work in the longwave infrared from 8 to 12 microns for chemical detection applications. This paper will present the design of the Sherlock camera as well as processed data collected at a gas processing plant and an instrumented kiln at LSU using the prototype camera. The processed data shows that the IMSS imaging spectrometer, using an all passive approach, has the sensitivity to detect methane gas leaks at short range with a flow rate as low as 0.01 scfm2. In addition, the IMSS imaging spectrometer can measure hot gas plumes at longer ranges. As will be shown in this paper the IMSS can detect and image warm species gas additives of methane and propane in the Kiln exhaust stack. The methane injected gas with a concentration of 72 ppm and the propane with a concentration of 49 ppm (as seen by the IMSS sensor) at a range of 60 meters. The atmospheric path was a stressing environment, being hot and humid, for any imaging infrared spectrometer.

  4. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  5. First results of a cryogenic optical photon-counting imaging spectrometer using a DROID array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Venn, R.; van Dordrecht, A.; Groot, P. J.

    2010-02-01

    Context. We present the first system test in which we demonstrate the concept of using an array of Distributed Read Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) for optical photon detection. Aims: After the successful S-Cam 3 detector, the next step in the development of a cryogenic optical photon counting imaging spectrometer under the S-Cam project is to increase the field of view using DROIDs. With this modification the field of view of the camera has been increased by a factor of five in a given area while keeping the number of readout channels the same. Methods: The test has been performed using the flexible S-Cam 3 system and exchanging the 10 × 12 Superconducting Tunnel Junction array for a 3 × 20 DROID array. The extra data reduction needed with DROIDs is performed offline. Results: We show that, although the responsivity (number of tunnelled quasiparticles per unit of absorbed photon energy, e-/eV) of the current array is too low for direct astronomical applications, the imaging quality is already good enough for pattern detection and will improve further with increasing responsivity. Conclusions: The obtained knowledge can be used to optimise the system for the use of DROIDs.

  6. Optics and mechanisms for the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Solar-B satellite.

    PubMed

    Korendyke, Clarence M; Brown, Charles M; Thomas, Roger J; Keyser, Christian; Davila, Joseph; Hagood, Robert; Hara, Hirohisa; Heidemann, Klaus; James, Adrian M; Lang, James; Mariska, John T; Moser, John; Moye, Robert; Myers, Steven; Probyn, Brian J; Seely, John F; Shea, John; Shepler, Ed; Tandy, Jason

    2006-12-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) is the first of a new generation of normal-incidence, two-optical-element spectroscopic instruments developed for space solar extreme-ultraviolet astronomy. The instrument is currently mounted on the Solar-B satellite for a planned launch in late 2006. The instrument observes in two spectral bands, 170-210 A and 250-290 A. The spectrograph geometry and grating prescription were optimized to obtain excellent imaging while still maintaining readily achievable physical and fabrication tolerances. A refined technique using low ruling density surrogate gratings and optical metrology was developed to align the instrument with visible light. Slit rasters of the solar surface are obtained by mechanically tilting the mirror. A slit exchange mechanism allows selection among four slits at the telescope focal plane. Each slit is precisely located at the focal plane. The spectrograph imaging performance was optically characterized in the laboratory. The resolution was measured using the Mg iii and Ne iii lines in the range of 171-200 A. The He ii line at 256 A and Ne iii lines were used in the range of 251-284 A. The measurements demonstrate an equivalent resolution of ~2 arc sec? on the solar surface, in good agreement with the predicted performance. We describe the EIS optics, mechanisms, and measured performance.

  7. Data processing pipeline for a time-sampled imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David A.; Fulton, Trevor R.; Davis, Peter W.; Chapman, Ian M.; Gom, Brad G.; Spencer, Locke D.; Lindner, John V.; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathan E.; Tahic, Margaret K.; Davis, Gary R.

    2004-10-01

    Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers (IFTS) are becoming the preferred systems for remote sensing spectral imaging applications because of their ability to provide, simultaneously, both high spatial and spectral resolution images of a scene. IFTS can be operated in either step-and-integrate or rapid-scan modes, where it is common practice to sample interferograms at equal optical path difference intervals. The step-and-integrate mode requires a translation stage with fast and precise point-to-point motion and additional external trigger circuitry for the detector focal plane array (FPA), and produces uniformly position-sampled interferograms which can be analyzed using standard FFT routines. In the rapid-scan mode, the translation stage is continuously moving and interferograms are often acquired at the frame-rate of the FPA. Since all translation stages have associated velocity errors, the resulting interferograms are sampled at non-uniform intervals of optical path difference, which requires more sophisticated analysis. This paper discusses the processing pipeline which is being developed for the analysis of the non-uniform rapid-scan data produced by the Herschel/SPIRE IFTS.

  8. RIMAS - Optical Design Development of the Imager/Spectrometer for the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, John

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid IMAger - Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland at College Park, NASA-GSFC and Lowell Observatory designed for use on the 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope at Lowell. The primary science goal of the instrument is the study of gamma-ray burst (ORB) afterglow appearing in the near-infrared. Continuous operation will allow measurements beginning minutes after the prompt emission. We present the results of the RIMAS optical design development. The instrument consists of two arms separated by a dichroic: the first for the Y and J bands (0.9 - 1.35 microns) and the second for the Hand K-bands (1.5 - 1.8 and 2.0 - 2.4 microns). Each arm will be equipped with two broad band filters for imaging, as well as low resolution and echelle grisms. The imaging modes are designed to be diffraction limited, with one pixel corresponding to approx.0.35 arcseconds, while the diffractive modes have resolving powers of approximately 20 and 4,000. With photometric and spectroscopic capabilities, RIMAS will be well positioned to quickly determine redshifts, followed by high resolution spectroscopic studies of ORB afterglow.

  9. A comparison of LOWTRAN-7 corrected Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data with ground spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Peng-Yang; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric correction of imaging spectroscopy data is required for quantitative analysis. Different models were proposed for atmospheric correction of these data. LOWTRAN-7 is a low-resolution model and computer code for predicting atmospheric transmittance and background radiance from 0 to 50,00 cm(sup -1) which was developed by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data used are radiometrically calibrated and include the 28 Sep. 1989 Providence Fan flight line segment 07, California. It includes a dark gravel surface defined as a calibration site by the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE). Several ground measurements of portable spectrometer DAEDALUS AA440 Spectrafax were taken during the GRSFE, July 1989 field campaign. Comparisons of the LOWTRAN-7 corrected AVIRIS data with the ground spectrometer measurement were made.

  10. Fast Imaging Detector Readout Circuits with In-Pixel ADCs for Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D.; Blavier, J-F.; Cunningham, T.; Hancock, B.; Key, R.; Pannell, Z.; Sander, S.; Seshadri, S.; Sun, C.; Wrigley, C.

    2011-01-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high frame rates and many pixels benefit several upcoming Earth science missions including GEO-CAPE, GACM, and ACE by enabling broader spatial coverage and higher spectral resolution. FPAs for the PanFTS, a high spatial resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission are the focus of the developments reported here, but this FPA technology has the potential to enable a variety of future measurements and instruments. The ESTO ACT Program funded the developed of a fast readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on an innovative in-pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC features 60 ?m pixels, a 14-bit ADC in each pixel and operates at a continuous frame rate of 14 kHz consuming only 1.1 W of power. The ROIC outputs digitized data completely eliminating the bulky, power consuming signal chains needed by conventional FPAs. The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC has been fabricated in CMOS and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current version is designed to be hybridized with PIN photodiode arrays via indium bump bonding for light detection in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. However, the ROIC design incorporates a small photodiode in each cell to permit detailed characterization of the ROICperformance without the need for hybridization. We will describe the essential features of the ROIC design and present results of ROIC performance measurements.

  11. Imaging spectrometer measurement of water vapor in the 400 to 2500 nm spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.; Conel, James E.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    The Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) measures the total upwelling spectral radiance from 400 to 2500 nm sampled at 10 nm intervals. The instrument acquires spectral data at an altitude of 20 km above sea level, as images of 11 by up to 100 km at 17x17 meter spatial sampling. We have developed a nonlinear spectral fitting algorithm coupled with a radiative transfer code to derive the total path water vapor from the spectrum, measured for each spatial element in an AVIRIS image. The algorithm compensates for variation in the surface spectral reflectance and atmospheric aerosols. It uses water vapor absorption bands centered at 940 nm, 1040 nm, and 1380 nm. We analyze data sets with water vapor abundances ranging from 1 to 40 perceptible millimeters. In one data set, the total path water vapor varies from 7 to 21 mm over a distance of less than 10 km. We have analyzed a time series of five images acquired at 12 minute intervals; these show spatially heterogeneous changes of advocated water vapor of 25 percent over 1 hour. The algorithm determines water vapor for images with a range of ground covers, including bare rock and soil, sparse to dense vegetation, snow and ice, open water, and clouds. The precision of the water vapor determination approaches one percent. However, the precision is sensitive to the absolute abundance and the absorption strength of the atmospheric water vapor band analyzed. We have evaluated the accuracy of the algorithm by comparing several surface-based determinations of water vapor at the time of the AVIRIS data acquisition. The agreement between the AVIRIS measured water vapor and the in situ surface radiometer and surface interferometer measured water vapor is 5 to 10 percent.

  12. Shuttle and Transfer Orbit Thermal Analysis and Testing of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory CCD Imaging Spectrometer Radiator Shades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Introduction: Chandra X-ray observatory. Advanced CCD imaging spectrometer. (2) LEO and transfer orbit analyses: Geometric modeling in TSS w/specularity. Low earth orbital heating calculations. (3) Thermal testing and LMAC. (4) Problem solving. (5) VDA overcoat analyses. (6) VDA overcoat testing and MSFC. (7) Post-MSFC test evaluation.

  13. Spectrum reconstruction using relative-deviation-based kernel regression in temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fengzhen; Yuan, Yan; Li, Jingzhen; Cao, Jun

    2015-08-01

    During the temporally and spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer push-broom scanning process, the motion state of the spectrometer platform can vary. Thus, the target interferogram obtained from the image sequence deviates from the ideal interferogram obtained using high platform stability. The recovered target spectrum will not reflect the true target characteristics. We adopted target tracking to acquire the target position in the image sequence via a proposed kernel regression, with a relative deviation method for determining the target intensities, and the recovery of the spectrogram using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm. We tested our algorithm on simulated and experimentally obtained aerial images and, from comparison with accurate spectrograms, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. First test results of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuleman, K.; Itten, K.; Schaepman, M.

    2009-04-01

    APEX, ESA-Prodex "Airborne Prism Experiment" comprises the development of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer and has originally been designed as flexible hyperspectral mission simulator and calibrator for existing and upcoming or planned future space missions. The APEX project is co-funded by Switzerland and Belgium and built by a Belgian-Swiss industrial team under the prime RUAG Aerospace (CH), responsible for the total system and the mechanical components, OIP (Oudenaarde, BE) contributing the spectrometer, and Netcetera (Zurich, CH) being responsible for the electronics. RSL (University of Zurich, CH) acts as scientific PI together with the Co-PI VITO (Mol, BE). The APEX sensor is operating between 380 nm and 2500 nm in more than 300 freely configurable bands (up to 512 bands in full spectral mode), by means of two dispersive spectrometer channels. 1000 pixels across track and a total field of view of 28° define the ground pixel size (e.g. 2,5 m from 5000 m AGL). A stabilized platform (Leica PAV-30) reduces major geometric distortions due to aircraft instabilities while a GPS/IMU system (Applanix PosAV 410) measures continuously the sensors' position and orientation allowing direct georeferencing of the acquired data . The system is currently is phase D, the calibration and test phase, and first testflights have been performed on a Do-228 in cooperation of DLR while the acquired data is currently under evaluation. Discussions are ongoing to fly APEX on the new DLR High Altitude Research Aircraft (HALO) as well. The system is currently in phase D, the calibration and test phase, and will deliver first scientific data to users by mid 2009. The APEX processing and archiving facility (PAF) is hosted by VITO in the APEX Operations Center (AOC) at Mol, Belgium . A specific level 0-1 processing software module producing uniform, radiometrically calibrated data has been developed by RSL and is integrated into the PAF by VITO. An APEX Calibration

  15. A Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the NASA Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yen-Hung; Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Rider, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design and development of the Panchromatic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) for the NASA Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission. The PanFTS instrument will advance the understanding of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry by measuring spectrally resolved outgoing thermal and reflected solar radiation. With continuous spectral coverage from the near-ultraviolet through the thermal infrared, this instrument is designed to measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for by the U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey; Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond1. The PanFTS instrument is a hybrid instrument based on spectrometers like the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) that measures thermal emission, and those like the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) that measure scattered solar radiation. Simultaneous measurements over the broad spectral range from IR to UV is accomplished by a two sided interferometer with separate optical trains and detectors for the ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectral domains. This allows each side of the instrument to be independently optimized for its respective spectral domain. The overall interferometer design is compact because the two sides share a single high precision cryogenic optical path difference mechanism (OPDM) and metrology laser as well as a number of other instrument systems including the line-of-sight pointing mirror, the data management system, thermal control system, electrical system, and the mechanical structure. The PanFTS breadboard instrument has been tested in the laboratory and demonstrated the basic functionality for simultaneous measurements in the visible and infrared. It is set to begin operations in the field at the California Laboratory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (CLARS) observatory on Mt. Wilson

  16. Cross-breeding of a BEAR and a TIGER: the ultimate imaging Fourier transform spectrometer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Bacon, Roland

    2000-08-01

    BEAR is a high-resolution imaging FTS in operation on the CFH Telescope, obtained by the coupling of a step-scan FTS and a near IR camera. TIGER is a integral field spectrometer (IFS) for the visible, which was in operation at CFHT, in which a microlens array segments a small entrance field. A new version (OASIS() has been made to be used behind an adaptive optics system, leading to an even smaller field of view. By adapting a TIGER-type field segmentation on an imaging FTS, the instrument remains an IFS more versatile than each instrument taken separately. Such an instrument would be characterized by the access to the same spatial resolution, but on a field larger than with a TIGER instrument, a larger spectral coverage, a continuously chosen spectral resolution as in an FTS, and a better sensitivity than a BEAR instrument. For that, a mosaic of microlens array, made in an IR glass transparent between 1 and 5 microns, is paving one input port of a large field dual-output port interferometer which has a provision for a mirror travel of 5 mm, giving the choice for a resolution up to 104 at 1.7 micrometers . A prism on each output beam disperse the entrance points which are imaged on InSb array. A camera on each output beam records an image at each step of the FTS. This concept can be of interest for the instrumentation of a large ground-based telescope or better for a NGST.

  17. Integration and Evaluation of Microscope Adapter for the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Dryden, S. D.; Blaney, D. L.; Van Gorp, B.; Mouroulis, P.; Green, R. O.; Sellar, R. G.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Petrologic, diagenetic, impact and weathering processes often happen at scales that are not observable from orbit. On Earth, one of the most common things that a scientist does when trying to understand detailed geologic history is to create a thin section of the rock and study the mineralogy and texture. Unfortunately, sample preparation and manipulation with advanced instrumentation may be a resource intensive proposition (e.g. time, power, complexity) in-situ. Getting detailed mineralogy and textural information without sample preparation is highly desirable. Visible to short wavelength microimaging spectroscopy has the potential to provide this information without sample preparation. Wavelengths between 500-2600 nm are sensitive to a wide range of minerals including mafic, carbonates, clays, and sulfates. The Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) has been developed as a low mass (<2.0 kg), low power (~5.2 W) Offner spectrometer, ideal for use on Mars rover or other in-situ platforms. The UCIS instrument with its HgCdTe detector provides a spectral resolution of 10 nm with a range of 500-2600 nm, in addition to a 30 degree field of view and a 1.35 mrad instantaneous field of view. (Van Gorp et al. 2011). To explore applications of this technology for microscale investigations, an f/10 microimaging adapter has been designed and integrated to allow imaging of samples. The spatial coverage of the instrument is 2.56 cm with sampling of 67.5 microns (380 spatial pixels). Because the adapter is slow relative to the UCIS detector, strong sample illumination is required. Light from the lamp box was directed through optical fiber bundles, and directed onto the sample at a high angle of incidence to provide dark field imaging. For data collection, a mineral sample is mounted on the microscope adapter and scanned by the detector as it is moved horizontally via actuator. Data from the instrument is stored as a xyz cube end product with one spectral and two spatial

  18. [Research on an Equal Wavelength Spectrum Reconstruction Method of Interference Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Xie, Pei-yue; Yang, Jian-feng; Xue, Bin; Lü, Juan; He, Ying-hong; Li, Ting; Ma, Xiao-long

    2016-03-01

    Interference imaging spectrometer is one of the most important equipments of Chang'E 1 satellite, which is applied to analysis the material composition and its distribution of the surface on the moon. At present, the spectral resolution of level 2B scientific data obtained by existing methods is 325 cm(-1). If we use the description way of wavelength resolution, various spectrum is different: the first band is 7.6 nm, the last band is 29 nm, which introduces two questions: (1) the spectral resolution description way mismatch with the way of ground spectral library used for calibration and comparison; (2) The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra in the shortwave band is low due to the signal entering narrow band is little. This paper discussed the relationship between wavelength resolution and cut-off function based on the reconstruction model of CE-1 interference imaging spectrometer. It proposed an adjustable cut-off function changing with wavelength or wavelength resolution, while selected the appropriate Sinc function as apodization to realize the reconstruction of arbitrary specified wavelength resolution in the band coverage. Then we used this method to CE-1 on orbit 0B data to get a spectral image of 29 nm wavelength resolution. Finally, by using the signal-to-noise ratio, principal component analysis and unsupervised classification method on the reconstruction results with 2 grade science data from ground application system for comparison, the results showed that: signal-to-noise ratio of the shortwave band increased about 4 times, and the average increased about 2.4 times, the classification based on the spectrum was consistent, and the quality of the data was greatly improved. So, EWSR method has the advantages that: (1) in the case of keeping spectral information steadiness, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of shortwave band spectrum though sacrificed part of spectral resolution; (2) it can achieve the spectral data reconstruction which can set

  19. Calibration and Validation of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.

    2015-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is being constructed by the National Science Foundation and is slated for completion in 2017. NEON is designed to collect data to improve the understanding of changes in observed ecosystems. The observatory will produce data products on a variety of spatial and temporal scales collected from individual sites strategically located across the U.S. including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. Data sources include standardized terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems in addition to three airborne remote sensing observation systems installed into leased Twin Otter aircraft. The Airborne Observation Platforms (AOP) are designed to collect 3-band aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor designed by NASA JPL for ecological applications. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals across the solar-reflective spectral region (380-nm to 2500-nm) in a 34-degree FOV swath. A key uncertainty driver to the derived remote sensing NEON data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. In addition, the calibration and accuracy of the higher-level data product algorithms is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The typical calibration workflow of the NIS consists of the characterizing the focal plane, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. The radiometric calibration is NIST traceable and transferred to the NIS with an integrating sphere calibrated through the use of transfer radiometers. The laboratory calibration is monitored and maintained through

  20. [Research on an Equal Wavelength Spectrum Reconstruction Method of Interference Imaging Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Xie, Pei-yue; Yang, Jian-feng; Xue, Bin; Lü, Juan; He, Ying-hong; Li, Ting; Ma, Xiao-long

    2016-03-01

    Interference imaging spectrometer is one of the most important equipments of Chang'E 1 satellite, which is applied to analysis the material composition and its distribution of the surface on the moon. At present, the spectral resolution of level 2B scientific data obtained by existing methods is 325 cm(-1). If we use the description way of wavelength resolution, various spectrum is different: the first band is 7.6 nm, the last band is 29 nm, which introduces two questions: (1) the spectral resolution description way mismatch with the way of ground spectral library used for calibration and comparison; (2) The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra in the shortwave band is low due to the signal entering narrow band is little. This paper discussed the relationship between wavelength resolution and cut-off function based on the reconstruction model of CE-1 interference imaging spectrometer. It proposed an adjustable cut-off function changing with wavelength or wavelength resolution, while selected the appropriate Sinc function as apodization to realize the reconstruction of arbitrary specified wavelength resolution in the band coverage. Then we used this method to CE-1 on orbit 0B data to get a spectral image of 29 nm wavelength resolution. Finally, by using the signal-to-noise ratio, principal component analysis and unsupervised classification method on the reconstruction results with 2 grade science data from ground application system for comparison, the results showed that: signal-to-noise ratio of the shortwave band increased about 4 times, and the average increased about 2.4 times, the classification based on the spectrum was consistent, and the quality of the data was greatly improved. So, EWSR method has the advantages that: (1) in the case of keeping spectral information steadiness, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of shortwave band spectrum though sacrificed part of spectral resolution; (2) it can achieve the spectral data reconstruction which can set

  1. Future Development Trajectories for Imaging X-rays Spectrometers Based on Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Bandler, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Future development trajectories for imaging x-ray spectrometers based on microcalorimeters. Since their invention 30 years ago, the capability of X-ray microcalorimeters has increased steadily, with continual improvements in energy resolution, speed, and array size. Arrays of up to 1024 pixels have been produced, and resolution better than 1 eV at 1.5 keV has been achieved. These detectors can be optimized for the highest priority science, such as designing for the highest resolving power at low energies at the expense of dynamic range, or the greatest focal-plane coverage at the expense of speed. Three types of X-ray microcalorimeters presently dominate the field, each characterized by the thermometer technology. The first two types use temperature-sensitive resistors: semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a magnetically coupled thermometer, and is at an earlier stage of development than the other two. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2015, will use an array of silicon thermistors with HgTe X-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays. Kilopixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are being produced, and much larger arrays may require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetically coupled thermometers. I will project the development trajectories of these detectors and their read-out technologies and assess what their capabilities and limitations will be 10 - 20 years from now.

  2. ARES: a new reflective/emissive imaging spectrometer for terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas A.; Richter, Rolf; Habermeyer, Martin; Mehl, Harald; Dech, Stefan; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Segl, Karl; Strobl, Peter; Haschberger, Peter; Bamler, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A new airborne imaging spectrometer introduced: the ARES (Airborne Reflective Emissive Spectrometer) to be built by Integrated Spectronics, Sydney, Australia, financed by DLR German Aerospace Center and the GFZ GeoResearch Center Potsdam, Germany, and will be available to the scientific community from 2003/2004 on. The ARES sensor will provide 160 channels in the solar reflective region (0.45-2.45 μm) and the thermal region (8-13 μm). It will consists of two separate coregistered optical systems for the reflective and thermal part of the spectrum. The spectral resolution is intended to be between 12 and 15 nm in the solar wavelength range and should reach 150nm in the thermal. ARES will be used mainly for environmental applications in terrestrial ecosystems. The thematic focus is thought to be on soil sciences, geology, agriculture and forestry. Limnologic applications should be possible but will not play a key role in the thematic applications. For all above mentioned key application scenarios the spectral response of soils, rocks, and vegetation as well as their mixtures contain the valuable information to be extracted and quantified. The radiometric requirements for the instrument have been modelled based on realistic application scenarios and account for the most demanding requirements of the three application fields: a spectral bandwidth of 15 nm in the 0.45-1.8 μm region, and 12 nm in the 2 - 2.45 μm region. The required noise equivalent radiance is 0.005, 0.003, and 0.003 mWcm-2sr-1μm-1 for the spectral regions 0.45-1 μm, 1 - 1.8 μm, and 2 - 2.45 μm, respectively.

  3. AIMS: Acousto-optic imaging spectrometer for spectral mapping of solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenar, David A.; Blaney, Diana L.; Hillman, John J.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, two-channel acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) camera is being built at GSFC as a candidate payload instrument for future Mars landers or small-body rendezvous missions. This effort is supported by the NASA Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP), Office of Space Science Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies. Acousto-optic Imaging Spectrometer (AIMS) is electronically programmable and provides arbitrary spatial and spectral selection from 0.48 to 2.4 μm. The geometric throughput of AOTF's are well matched to the requirements for lander mounted cameras since (I) they can be made very compact, (II) "slow" (f/14-f/18) optics required for large depth-of-field fall well within the angular aperture limit of AOTF's, and (III) they operate at low ambient temperatures. A breadboard of the AIMS short-wavelength channel is now being used for spectral imaging of high-interest Mars analog materials (iron oxides, carbonates, sulfates and sedimentary basalts) as part of the initial instrument validation exercises.

  4. Modeling the expected performance of the REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Niraj K.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hong, Jae Sub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-09-01

    OSIRIS-REx is the third spacecraft in the NASA New Frontiers Program and is planned for launch in 2016. OSIRIS-REx will orbit the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, characterize it, and return a sample of the asteroid's regolith back to Earth. The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is an instrument on OSIRIS-REx designed and built by students at MIT and Harvard. The purpose of REXIS is to collect and image sun-induced fluorescent X-rays emitted by Bennu, thereby providing spectroscopic information related to the elemental makeup of the asteroid regolith and the distribution of features over its surface. Telescopic reflectance spectra suggest a CI or CM chondrite analog meteorite class for Bennu, where this primitive nature strongly motivates its study. A number of factors, however, will influence the generation, measurement, and interpretation of the X-ray spectra measured by REXIS. These include: the compositional nature and heterogeneity of Bennu, the time-variable solar state, X-ray detector characteristics, and geometric parameters for the observations. In this paper, we will explore how these variables influence the precision to which REXIS can measure Bennu's surface composition. By modeling the aforementioned factors, we place bounds on the expected performance of REXIS and its ability to ultimately place Bennu in an analog meteorite class.

  5. REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) Aboard NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, JaeSub; Allen, Branden; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Masterson, Rebecca; Inamdar, Niraj K; Chodas, Mark; Smith, Matthew W; Bautz, Mark W.; Kissel, Steven E; Villasenor, Jesus Noel; Oprescu, Antonia

    2014-06-01

    The REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is a student-led instrument being designed, built, and operated as a collaborative effort involving MIT and Harvard. It is a part of NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission, which is scheduled for launch in September of 2016 for a rendezvous with, and collection of a sample from the surface of the primitive carbonaceous chondrite-like asteroid 101955 Bennu in 2019. REXIS will determine spatial variations in elemental composition of Bennu's surface through solar-induced X-ray fluorescence. REXIS consists of four X-ray CCDs in the detector plane and an X-ray mask. It is the first coded-aperture X-ray telescope in a planetary mission, which combines the benefit of high X-ray throughput of wide-field collimation with imaging capability of a coded-mask, enabling detection of elemental surface distributions at approximately 50-200 m scales. We present an overview of the REXIS instrument and the expected performance.

  6. Preliminary results of equation of state measurements using imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Theobald, Wolfgang; Keiter, Paul; Collins, Timothy; Bonino, Mark; Kozlowski, Pawel; Drake, Paul; University of Michigan Team; LaboratoryLaser Energetics Team; University of Oxford Team

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the equation of state of materials under shocked conditions is important for laboratory astrophysics and high-energy-density physics experiments. The goal of the experiments discussed here is to create a platform for equation of state measurements in shocked foams on Omega EP. The target of interest for these experiments is shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde foam with an initial density of 0.34 g/cc. Lasers irradiate an ablator, driving a shock into the foam. Plasma conditions ahead of the shock, at the shock and behind the shock are diagnosed using the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS). The IXTS is capable of spectrally resolving the scattered x-ray beam while imaging in one spatial dimension. Preliminary results from these experiments will be shown. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0000850, and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  7. Equation-of-State Measurements of Resorcinol Formaldehyde Foam Using Imaging X-Ray Thomson Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Theobald, W.; Keiter, P. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Kozlowski, P.; Drake, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the equation of state of materials under shocked conditions is important for laboratory astrophysics and high-energy-density physics experiments. This talk will focus on experiments dedicated to developing a platform for measuring the equation of state of shocked foams on OMEGA EP. The foam used in the development of this platform is resorcinol formaldehyde foam with an initial density of 0.34 g/cc. One OMEGA EP beam drives a shock into the foam, while the remaining three beams irradiate a nickel foil to create the x-ray backlighter. The primary diagnostic for this platform, the imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS), spectrally resolves the scattered x-ray beam while imaging in one spatial dimension. The IXTS is ideally suited to measure plasma conditions upstream, downstream and at the shock front in the foam. Preliminary results from these experiments will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas DE-NA0001840, and by the National Laser User Facility Program DE-NA0000850.

  8. Spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging of the cornea using a rapid scanning terahertz time domain spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Quan, Liu; Yuan-Fu, Lu; Guo-Hua, Jiao; Xian-Feng, Chen; Zhi-Sheng, Zhou; Rong-Bin, She; Jin-Ying, Li; Si-Hai, Chen; Yu-Ming, Dong; Jian-Cheng, Lv

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging of the cornea are carried out by using a rapid scanning terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. A voice coil motor stage based optical delay line (VCM-ODL) is developed to provide a rather simple and robust structure with both the high scanning speed and the large delay length. The developed system is used for THz spectroscopic measurements and imaging of the corneal tissue with different amounts of water content, and the measurement results show the consistence with the reported results, in which the measurement time using VCM-ODL is a factor of 360 shorter than the traditional motorized optical delay line (MDL). With reducing the water content a monotonic decrease of the complex permittivity of the cornea is observed. The two-term Debye relaxation model is employed to explain our experimental results, revealing that the fast relaxation time of a dehydrated cornea is much larger than that of a hydrated cornea and its dielectric behavior can be affected by the presence of the biological macromolecules. These results demonstrate that our THz spectrometer may be a promising candidate for tissue hydration sensing and practical application of THz technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205101), the Shenzhen Municipal Research Foundation, China (Grant Nos. GJHZ201404171134305 and JCYJ20140417113130693), and the Marie Curie Actions-International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES) (Grant No. FP7 PIRSES-2013-612267).

  9. Imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of a turbulent nonpremixed jet flame.

    PubMed

    Harley, Jacob L; Rankin, Brent A; Blunck, David L; Gore, Jay P; Gross, Kevin C

    2014-04-15

    This work presents recent measurements of a CH4/H2/N2 turbulent nonpremixed jet flame using an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS). Spatially resolved (128×192 pixels, 0.72  mm/pixel) mean radiance spectra were collected between 1800  cm(-1)≤ν˜≤4500  cm(-1) (2.22  μm≤λ≤5.55  μm) at moderate spectral resolution (δν=16  cm(-1), δλ=20  nm) spanning the visible flame. Higher spectral-resolution measurements (δν=0.25  cm(-1), δλ=0.3  nm) were also captured on a smaller window (8×192) at 20, 40, and 60 diameters above the jet exit and reveal the rotational fine structure associated with various vibrational transitions in CH4, CO2, CO, and H2O. These new imaging measurements compare favorably with existing spectra acquired at select flame locations, demonstrating the capability of IFTS for turbulent combustion studies.

  10. Spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging of the cornea using a rapid scanning terahertz time domain spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Quan, Liu; Yuan-Fu, Lu; Guo-Hua, Jiao; Xian-Feng, Chen; Zhi-Sheng, Zhou; Rong-Bin, She; Jin-Ying, Li; Si-Hai, Chen; Yu-Ming, Dong; Jian-Cheng, Lv

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging of the cornea are carried out by using a rapid scanning terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. A voice coil motor stage based optical delay line (VCM-ODL) is developed to provide a rather simple and robust structure with both the high scanning speed and the large delay length. The developed system is used for THz spectroscopic measurements and imaging of the corneal tissue with different amounts of water content, and the measurement results show the consistence with the reported results, in which the measurement time using VCM-ODL is a factor of 360 shorter than the traditional motorized optical delay line (MDL). With reducing the water content a monotonic decrease of the complex permittivity of the cornea is observed. The two-term Debye relaxation model is employed to explain our experimental results, revealing that the fast relaxation time of a dehydrated cornea is much larger than that of a hydrated cornea and its dielectric behavior can be affected by the presence of the biological macromolecules. These results demonstrate that our THz spectrometer may be a promising candidate for tissue hydration sensing and practical application of THz technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205101), the Shenzhen Municipal Research Foundation, China (Grant Nos. GJHZ201404171134305 and JCYJ20140417113130693), and the Marie Curie Actions-International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES) (Grant No. FP7 PIRSES-2013-612267).

  11. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): A new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Porreca, G.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.; Huters, A. F.; Maccallum, C. J.; Stang, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is a relatively new field that holds great promise for further understanding of high energy astrophysical processes. When the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer (GRSE) was removed from the GRO payload, a balloon program was initiated to permit continued development and improvement of instrumentation in this field, as well as continued scientific observations. The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) is one of the experiments selected as part of this program. The instrument contains a number of new and innovative features that are expected to produce a significant improvement in source location accuracy and sensitivity over previous balloon and satellite experiments.

  12. Remote sensing of Earth's atmosphere and surface using a digital array scanned interferometer: A new type of imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Peterson, David L.; Smith, William Hayden

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of the digital array scanned interferometer (DASI) class of instruments for measuring terrestrial radiation fields over the visible to mid-infrared are evaluated. DASI's are capable of high throughput, sensitivity and spectral resolution and have the potential for field-of-view spatial discrimination (an imaging spectrometer). The simplicity of design and operation of DASI's make them particularly suitable for field and airborne platform based remote sensing. The long term objective is to produce a versatile field instrument which may be applied toward a variety of atmospheric and surface studies. The operation of DASI and its advantages over other spectrometers are discussed.

  13. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Monticello, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H

    2010-07-29

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose concept was tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is being designed for LHD. This instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of < 2 cm and ≥ 10 ms. The stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES, will be used for the tomographic inversion of the spectral data. The spectrometer layout and instrumental features are largely determined by the magnetic field structure of LHD.

  14. Enhanced Analysis Techniques for an Imaging Neutron and Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Amanda C.

    The presence of gamma rays and neutrons is a strong indicator of the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The imaging Neutron and gamma ray SPECTrometer (NSPECT) developed by the University of New Hampshire and Michigan Aerospace corporation detects the fast neutrons and prompt gamma rays from fissile material, and the gamma rays from radioactive material. The instrument operates as a double scatter device, requiring a neutron or a gamma ray to interact twice in the instrument. While this detection requirement decreases the efficiency of the instrument, it offers superior background rejection and the ability to measure the energy and momentum of the incident particle. These measurements create energy spectra and images of the emitting source for source identification and localization. The dual species instrument provides superior detection than a single species alone. In realistic detection scenarios, few particles are detected from a potential threat due to source shielding, detection at a distance, high background, and weak sources. This contributes to a small signal to noise ratio, and threat detection becomes difficult. To address these difficulties, several enhanced data analysis tools were developed. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) helps set instrumental alarm thresholds as well as to identify the presence of a source. Analysis of a dual-species ROC curve provides superior detection capabilities. Bayesian analysis helps to detect and identify the presence of a source through model comparisons, and helps create a background corrected count spectra for enhanced spectroscopy. Development of an instrument response using simulations and numerical analyses will help perform spectra and image deconvolution. This thesis will outline the principles of operation of the NSPECT instrument using the double scatter technology, traditional analysis techniques, and enhanced analysis techniques as applied to data from the NSPECT instrument, and an

  15. A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron?ion and ion?ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Rolles, D.; Pesic, Z.D.; Perri, M.; Bilodeau, R.C.; Ackerman, G.D.; Rude, B.S.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Bozek, J.D.; Berrah, N.

    2007-04-27

    We have built a velocity imaging (VMI) spectrometer optimized for angle-resolved photoionization experiments with synchrotron radiation (SR) in the VUV and soft X-tay range. The spectrometer is equiped with four electrostatic lenses that focus the charged photoionization products onto a position-sensitive multi-hit delay-line anode. The use of two additional electrostatic lens elements as compared to the standard design of Eppink and Parker [T.J.B. Eppink and D.H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68 (1997) 3477]provides better focusing of an extended interaction region, which is crucial for most SR applications. Furthermore, the apparatus is equipped with a second micro-channel plate detector opposite to the VMI spectrometer, enabling electron-ion coincidence experiments and thereby mass-resolved ion spectroscopy independent of the time structure of the synchrotron radiation. First results for the photofragmentation of CO2 molecules are presented.

  16. Evidence for beamed electrons in a limb X-ray flare observed by Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, Eberhard; Elwert, Gerhard

    1986-01-01

    The limb flare of November 18, 1980, 14:51 UT, was investigated on the basis of X-ray images taken by the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) and of X-ray spectra from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) aboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The impulsive burst was also recorded at microwave frequencies between 2 and 20 GHz whereas no optical flare and no radio event at frequencies below 1 GHz were reported. The flare occurred directly at the SW limb of the solar disk. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution of HXIS images, the time evolution of the X-radiation originating from relatively small source regions can be studied. Using Monte Carlo computations of the energy distribution of energetic electrons traversing the solar plasma, the bremsstrahlung spectra produced by the electrons were derived.

  17. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  18. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  19. Commissioning and in-flight calibration results of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LRO/LAMP) UV imaging spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael W.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Versteeg, Maarten H.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Stern, S. Alan; Parker, Joel Wm.; Steffl, Andrew J.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Slater, David C.

    2011-09-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is a lightweight (6.1 kg), low-power (4.5 W), ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft and NASA's New Horizons spacecraft. Its primary job on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is to identify and localize exposed water frost in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the Moon's poles, and to characterize landforms and albedos in PSRs. In this paper we describe the in-flight radiometric performance and commissioning results and compare them to ground calibration measurements.

  20. Cryogenic optical systems for the rapid infrared imager/spectrometer (RIMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, John I.; Content, David A.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Toy, Vicki L.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (RIMAS) is designed to perform follow-up observations of transient astronomical sources at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (0.9 - 2.4 microns). In particular, RIMAS will be used to perform photometric and spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows to compliment the Swift satellite's science goals. Upon completion, RIMAS will be installed on Lowell Observatory's 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The instrument's optical design includes a collimator lens assembly, a dichroic to divide the wavelength coverage into two optical arms (0.9 - 1.4 microns and 1.4 - 2.4 microns respectively), and a camera lens assembly for each optical arm. Because the wavelength coverage extends out to 2.4 microns, all optical elements are cooled to ~70 K. Filters and transmission gratings are located on wheels prior to each camera allowing the instrument to be quickly configured for photometry or spectroscopy. An athermal optomechanical design is being implemented to prevent lenses from loosing their room temperature alignment as the system is cooled. The thermal expansion of materials used in this design have been measured in the lab. Additionally, RIMAS has a guide camera consisting of four lenses to aid observers in passing light from target sources through spectroscopic slits. Efforts to align these optics are ongoing.

  1. ORBS: A data reduction software for the imaging Fourier transform spectrometers SpIOMM and SITELLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Drissen, L.; Joncas, G.

    2012-09-01

    SpIOMM (Spectromètre-Imageur de l'Observatoire du Mont Mégantic) is still the only operational astronomical Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a field of view of 12 arc-minutes. Even if it has been designed to work with both outputs of the Michelson interferometer, up to now only one output has been used. Here we present ORBS (Outils de Réduction Binoculaire pour SpIOMM/SITELLE), the reduction software we designed in order to take advantage of the two output data. ORBS will also be used to reduce the data of SITELLE (Spectromètre-Imageur pour l' Étude en Long et en Large des raies d' Émissions) { the direct successor of SpIOMM, which will be in operation at the Canada-France- Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in early 2013. SITELLE will deliver larger data cubes than SpIOMM (up to 2 cubes of 34 Go each). We thus have made a strong effort in optimizing its performance efficiency in terms of speed and memory usage in order to ensure the best compliance with the quality characteristics discussed with the CFHT team. As a result ORBS is now capable of reducing 68 Go of data in less than 20 hours using only 5 Go of random-access memory (RAM).

  2. Bright soil units on Mars determined from ISM imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John

    1993-01-01

    The lithology of bright Martian soil provides evidence for chemical and physical processes that have modified the planet's surface. Data from the ISM imaging spectrometer, which observed much of the equatorial region at a spatial resolution of approximately 22 km, cover the NIR wavelength range critical to ascertaining the presence and abundance of Fe-containing phases, hydroxylated silicates, and H2O in the bright soil. ISM data previously have revealed spatial variations in depth of the 3.0-microns H2O absorption suggesting differences in water content, a weak absorption at 2.2 microns indicative of metal-OH in phyllosilicate, and variations in the 1-micron Fe absorption indicative of differences in Fe mineralogy. This paper summarizes first results of a systematic investigation of spectral heterogeneity in bright soils observed by ISM. At least seven 'units' with distinctive properties were discriminated. Comparison of their spatial distributions with Viking data shows that they generally correspond with previously recognized morphologic, color, and thermal features. These correspondences and the units' spectral attributes provide evidence for lithologic differences between the soils in different geologic settings.

  3. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  4. Composite analysis of dust impacts on African easterly waves in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.; Santiago, Myrna J.

    2010-08-01

    This study examines the synoptic scale impacts of African dust on easterly waves in the tropical northeast Atlantic. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer aerosol optical depth (AOD), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration products, and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis fields in the Atlantic main hurricane development region (MDR) form the basis for statistical analysis of a limited set of cases objectively selected for the 2000-2008 hurricane seasons when thresholds are exceeded for sea surface temperature (SST), easterly wind shear, cyclonic vorticity, and upward motion. After ranking African easterly waves by AOD, the top (dusty) and bottom (clean) cases are studied as composite differences. African dust and subsidence cause temperatures to warm ˜3°C in the 700 hPa layer, while SSTs cause temperatures to cool, stabilizing the atmosphere. Increased AOD and strong (10 m s-1) 600 hPa easterly winds limit cloud efficiency through shear and oversupply of condensation nuclei. Vertical section composites demonstrate that warm dry subsident air coincides with the African dust plume in the latitudes 18°N-30°N. Hurricane reanalysis data indicate that higher AOD in the MDR reduces chances for the intensification of African easterly waves.

  5. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) design evolution and associated development and verification of data product efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is a key observing facility to be flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS). The facility is composed of two instruments called MODIS-N (nadir) and MODIS-T (tilt). The MODIS-N is being built under contract to NASA by the Santa Barbara Research Center. The MODIS-T is being fabricated by the Engineering Directorate at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The MODIS Science Team has defined nearly 40 biogeophysical data products for studies of the ocean and land surface and properties of the atmosphere including clouds that can be expected to be produced from the MODIS instruments shortly after the launch of EOS. The ocean, land, atmosphere, and calibration groups of the MODIS Science Team are now proceeding to plan and implement the operations and facilities involving the analysis of data from existing spaceborne, airborne, and in-situ sensors required to develop and validate the algorithms that will produce the geophysical data products. These algorithm development and validation efforts will be accomplished wherever possible within the context of existing or planned national and international experiments or programs such as those in the World Climate Research Program.

  6. MODIS - Advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system. [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barnes, W. L.; Maymon, Peter W.; Montgomery, Harry E.; Ostrow, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) is discussed as an earth-viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled to begin functioning in the mid-1990s. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors that cover a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete two-day global coverage from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, serviceable platform. High signal-to-noise ratios are to be provided, e.g., 500 to 1 or greater with 10-12-bit quantization over the dynamic ranges of the spectral bands. MODIS' lifetime is expected to be about ten years. One of the MODIS sensors is termed MODIS-N, where N signifies nadir-viewing. The companion to MODIS-N is MODIS-T, where T signifies a tiltable field-of-view. The development of the MODIS facility from conceptual design studies (Phase-A) into detailed design studies (Phase-B) is discussed.

  7. Laboratory calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for the Solar-B satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, James; Kent, Barry J.; Paustian, Wolfgang; Brown, Charles M.; Keyser, Christian; Anderson, Mark R.; Case, Giles C. R.; Chaudry, Rahil A.; James, Adrian M.; Korendyke, Clarence M.; Pike, C. David; Probyn, Brian J.; Rippington, David J.; Seely, John F.; Tandy, Jason A.; Whillock, Matthew C. R

    2006-12-01

    The laboratory end-to-end testing of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) for the Solar-B satellite is reported. A short overview of the EIS, which observes in two bands in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength range, is given. The calibration apparatus is described, including details of the light sources used.The data reduction and analysis procedure are outlined. The wavelength calibration using a Penning source to illuminate the aperture fully is presented. We discuss the aperture determination using a radiometrically calibrated hollow-cathode-based source. We then give an account of the predicted and measured efficiencies from consideration of the efficiencies of individual optical elements in first order, an account of efficiencies out of band when radiation incident in one band is detected in the other, and efficiencies in multiple orders. The efficiencies measured in first order for in band and out of band are compared with the predictions and the sensitivity, and its uncertainties are derived. Application of the radiometric calibration is discussed.

  8. Laboratory calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for the Solar-B satellite.

    PubMed

    Lang, James; Kent, Barry J; Paustian, Wolfgang; Brown, Charles M; Keyser, Christian; Anderson, Mark R; Case, Giles C R; Chaudry, Rahil A; James, Adrian M; Korendyke, Clarence M; Pike, C David; Probyn, Brian J; Rippington, David J; Seely, John F; Tandy, Jason A; Whillock, Matthew C R

    2006-12-01

    The laboratory end-to-end testing of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) for the Solar-B satellite is reported. A short overview of the EIS, which observes in two bands in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength range, is given. The calibration apparatus is described, including details of the light sources used. The data reduction and analysis procedure are outlined. The wavelength calibration using a Penning source to illuminate the aperture fully is presented. We discuss the aperture determination using a radiometrically calibrated hollow-cathode-based source. We then give an account of the predicted and measured efficiencies from consideration of the efficiencies of individual optical elements in first order, an account of efficiencies out of band when radiation incident in one band is detected in the other, and efficiencies in multiple orders. The efficiencies measured in first order for in band and out of band are compared with the predictions and the sensitivity, and its uncertainties are derived. Application of the radiometric calibration is discussed.

  9. Plasma distribution in Mercury's magnetosphere derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-04-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10 months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of ~3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  10. Measurement of the spectral absorption of liquid water in melting snow with an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. We present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation, the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  11. Detecting X-ray Emission from Cometary Atmospheres Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Bodewits, D; Porter, F S; Ezoe, Y; Hamaguchi, K; Hanya, M; Itoh, M; Kilbourne, C A; Kohmura, T; Maeda, Y; Negoro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Urata, Y

    2009-11-16

    The Suzaku X-ray imaging spectrometer has been used to observe the X-ray emission from comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C and 8P/Tuttle. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C was observed during May and June of 2006, while it was near perihelion and passed within 0.1 AU of the Earth. Comet 8P/Tuttle was observed during January of 2008 when it was at its closest approach to the Earth at 0.25 AU, and again near perihelion at a distance of 0.5 Au from Earth. In the case of comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3C, the XIS spectra show line emission from highly charged oxygen and carbon ions as well as emission from what is most likely L-shell transitions from Mg, Si, and S ions. This line emission is caused by charge exchange recombination between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals, and can be used as a diagnostic of the solar wind. Here we present some of the results of the observation of the comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C.

  12. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  13. Evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for remote sensing of forest stand conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Charles E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Five pairs of plots were established in forest stands with one of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from reaching the tree roots. High winds and falling limbs destroyed the covers on three of the plots. The two remaining plots were in a red pine plantation and in a natural stand of sugar maple. Trees in both plots developed levels of moisture stress more than nine bars higher than control trees on the dates of overflights with the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) and the Collins' Airborne Spectroradiometer (CAS). Hemispherical reflectance from stressed and control trees was measured with a Beckman DK2A spectrophotometer. On the day of the AIS overflight, stressed maple foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1300 nm, but more reflective at wavelengths longer than 1300 nm. Pine foliage was less reflective than the control from 1000 to 1600 nm, but the difference was small at wavelengths longer than 1350 nm. AIS data collected showed brightness values for both maple and pine to be lower than for the controls from 1000 to 1300 nm. CAS data were used to determine the gain in species identification accuracy obtainable with high spectral resolution data.

  14. Momentum imaging spectrometer for molecular fragmentation dynamics induced by pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Wang, EnLiang; Shan, Xu; Shi, YuFeng; Tang, YaGuo; Chen, XiangJun

    2013-12-01

    A momentum imaging spectrometer has been built for studying the electron impact molecular fragmentation dynamics. The setup consists of a pulsed electron gun and a time of flight system as well as a two-dimensional time and position sensitive multi-hit detector. The charged fragments with kinetic energy up to 10 eV can be detected in 4π solid angles and their three-dimensional momentum vectors can be reconstructed. The apparatus is tested by electron impact ionization of Ar and dissociative ionization of CO2. By analyzing the ion-ion coincidence spectra, the complete and incomplete Coulomb fragmentation channels for CO2(2+) and CO2(3+) are identified. The kinetic energy release (KER) and angular correlation for the two-body breakup channel CO2(2+*) → O(+) + CO(+) are reported. The peak value of total KER is found to be 6.8 eV which is consistent with the previous photoion-photoion coincidence studies, and the correlation angle of O(+) and CO(+) is also explicitly determined to be 172.5°. PMID:24387423

  15. Development and Application of a High-Resolution Imaging Mass Spectrometer for the Study of Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Kozuka, Toshiaki; Anegawa, Aya; Nagatani, Akira; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2015-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) or imaging mass spectrometry (imaging MS) has been a powerful tool to map the spatial distribution of molecules on the surface of biological materials. This technique has frequently been applied to animal tissue slices for the purpose of mapping proteins, peptides, lipids, sugars or small metabolites to find disease-specific biomarkers or to study drug metabolism. Recently, it has also been applied to intact plant tissues or thin slices thereof using commercial mass spectrometers. The present work is concerned with the refinement of MALDI/laser desorption/ionization (LDI)-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MS incorporating certain specific features namely, ultra-high mass resolution (>100,000), ultra-high molecular mass accuracy (<1 p.p.m.) and high spatial resolution (<10 µm) for imaging MS of plant tissues. Employing an in-house built mass spectrometer, the imaging MS analysis of intact Arabidopsis thaliana tissues, namely etiolated seedlings and roots of seedlings, glued to a small transparent ITO (indium tin oxide)-coated conductive glass was performed. A matrix substance was applied to the vacuum-dried intact tissues by sublimation prior to the imaging MS analysis. The images of various small metabolites representing their two-dimensional distribution on the dried intact tissues were obtained with or without different matrix substances. The effects of MALDI matrices on the ionization of small metabolites during imaging MS acquisition are discussed.

  16. Total ozone column distribution over peninsular Malaysia from scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography (SCIAMACHY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing of atmospheric ozone concentrations have received great attention around the whole because of its characteristic, in order to degrade air quality and brings hazard to human health and ecosystems. Ozone, one of the most pollutants source and brings a variety of adverse effects on plant life and human being. Continuous monitoring on ozone concentrations at atmosphere provide information and precautions for the high ozone level, which we need to be established. Satellite observation of ozone has been identified that it can provide the precise and accurate data globally, which sensitive to the small regional biases. We present measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) included on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT, launched on 1st of March 2002. Main objective of this study is to examine the ozone distribution over Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY level-2 of total ozone column WFMD version 1.0 with spatial resolution 1° x 1.25°. Maps of time averaged (yearly, tri-monthly) ozone was generated and analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for the year 2003 using PCI Geomatica 10.3 image processing software. It was retrieved using the interpolation technique. The concentration changes within boundary layer at all altitude levels are equally sensitive through the SCIAMACHY nearinfrared nadir observations. Hence, we can make observation of ozone at surface source region. The results successfully identify the area with highest and lowest concentration of ozone at Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY data. Therefore, the study is suitable to examine the distribution of ozone at tropical region.

  17. Mapping of methane from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2012-11-01

    Among all the greenhouse gases, methane is the most dynamic and abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The global concentrations of atmospheric methane has increased more than doubled since pre-industrial times, with a current globally-averaged mixing ratio of ~ 1750 ppbv. Due to its high growth rate, methane brings significant effects on climate and atmospheric chemistry. There has a significant gap for variables between anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of methane. Satellite observation of methane has been identified that it can provide the precise and accurate data globally, which sensitive to the small regional biases. We present measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) included on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT, launched on 1st of March 2002. Main objective of this study is to examine the methane distribution over Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY level-3 data. They are derived from the near-infrared nadir observations of the SCIAMACHY at the University of Bremen through scientific WFM-DOAS retrieval algorithm version 2.0.2.Maps of time averaged (yearly, tri-monthly) methane was generated and analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for the year 2003 using PCI Geomatica 10.3 image processing software. The maps show dry-air column averaged mixing ratios of methane (denoted XCH4). It was retrieved using the interpolation technique. The concentration changes within boundary layer at all altitude levels are equally sensitive through the SCIAMACHY near-infrared nadir observations. Hence, we can make observation of methane at surface source region. The results successfully identify the area with highest and lowest concentration of methane at Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY data. Therefore, the study is suitable to examine the distribution of methane at tropical region.

  18. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth-viewing sensor being developed as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) to be launched in the late 1990s. MODIS consists of two separate instruments that scan a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. Of primary interest for studies of atmospheric physics is the MODIS-N (nadir) instrument which will provide images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resoulutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean and atmosperhic processes. The intent of this lecture is to describe the current status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning radiometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micrometers, and to describe the physical principles behind the development of MODIS for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties. Primary emphasis will be placed on the main atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles form spectral-reflection and thermal-emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be utilized for the determination of the total precipitable water vapor over land and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described herein.

  19. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  20. SAFARI new and improved: extending the capabilities of SPICA's imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, Peter; Giard, Martin; Najarro, Francisco; Wafelbakker, Kees; Jellema, Willem; Jackson, Brian; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Audard, Marc; Doi, Yasuo; di Giorgio, Anna; Griffin, Matthew; Helmich, Frank; Kamp, Inga; Kerschbaum, Franz; Meyer, Michael; Naylor, David; Onaka, Takashi; Poglitch, Albrecht; Spinoglio, Luigi; van der Tak, Floris; Vandenbussche, Bart

    2014-08-01

    The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, aims to provide astronomers with a truly new window on the universe. With a large -3 meter class- cold -6K- telescope, the mission provides a unique low background environment optimally suited for highly sensitive instruments limited only by the cosmic background itself. SAFARI, the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument SAFARI, is a Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment. The SAFARI consortium, comprised of European and Canadian institutes, has established an instrument reference design based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer stage with outputs directed to three extremely sensitive Transition Edge Sensor arrays covering the 35 to 210 μm domain. The baseline instrument provides R > 1000 spectroscopic imaging capabilities over a 2' by 2' field of view. A number of modifications to the instrument to extend its capabilities are under investigation. With the reference design SAFARI's sensitivity for many objects is limited not only by the detector NEP but also by the level of broad band background radiation - the zodiacal light for the shorter wavelengths and satellite baffle structures for the longer wavelengths. Options to reduce this background are dedicated masks or dispersive elements which can be inserted in the optics as required. The resulting increase in sensitivity can directly enhance the prime science goals of SAFARI; with the expected enhanced sensitivity astronomers would be in a better position to study thousands of galaxies out to redshift 3 and even many hundreds out to redshifts of 5 or 6. Possibilities to increase the wavelength resolution, at least for the shorter wavelength bands, are investigated as this would significantly enhance SAFARI's capabilities to study star and planet formation in our own galaxy.

  1. Imaging spectrometer trade studies: a detailed comparison of the Offner-Chrisp and reflective triplet optical design forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Lacy G.; Silny, John F.

    2010-08-01

    High quality imaging spectroscopy data is useful for both military and civilian applications. Current state-of-the-art imaging spectrometers typically rely on the Offner-Chrisp (OC) optical form. Making use of a spherically concentric, axially symmetric, and telecentric design, the OC imaging spectrometer provides excellent spectral-spatial uniformity but with many regrets: (1) no real-entrance pupil, (2) relatively slow optical speeds, (3) required convex diffraction grating, (4) narrow field-of-view, and (5) limited scalability. Recently, the Raytheon patented Reflective Triplet (RT) optical design form has produced extremely large format imaging spectrometers of exceptional quality. The RT optical design provides spectral-spatial uniformity comparable to the OC form, but with a number of advantages: (1) extremely large fields-of-view, (2) faster optical speeds, (3) a real-entrance pupil for optimal cold shielding and calibration, (4) use of either a prism or flat diffraction grating operating in collimated space (with an option for both simultaneously in a 2- channel device), and (5) extremely wide spectral range using common reflective optics and multiple focal plane arrays, dispersive elements, and entrance slits. This paper presents a number of detailed designs exemplifying the differences between the OC and RT forms.

  2. Impact of data compression on reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William F.

    1990-11-01

    Technology to implement very high speed digital signal processing has experienced rapid growth during the last decade. Techniques using this technology to reduce the data channel width required by an imaging reconnaissance system to achieve the timely transmission of data from sensor subsystems to remote exploitation subsystems are being developed at an increasing rate. The incorporation of these techniques into imaging reconnaissance systems promises payoffs in performance and co-operability with other collection systems within the restrictions imposed by existing and near-term projected data channels. This paper presents a summary overview of techniques available to designers using current technology. An analysis performed on a hypothetical system is used to illustrate the sensitivities of various algorithms to characteristics of and errors in individual system components; an analysis of the impact of the techniques considered on system performance. The techniques treated are restricted to lossy algorithms which preserve the essential imaging nature of the system to the end user i.e., the system output is in image form, not alphanumeric. Performance is defined as the ability of th system to collect and reconstruct scene image information. DPCM, ADPCM, and DCT compression techniques will be considered in the detailed treatment.

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...

  4. A Novel Miniaturised Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for the Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, A. H.

    2012-04-01

    A novel, ultra-compact Static Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer, SIFTS, with no moving parts has been developed for the remote and in-situ detection of atmospheric gases. This technique has previously been demonstrated in the visible spectral region (400 to 1100nm) using a CCD detector. This paper the author presents the results of the infrared version of the SIFTS instrument, which uses an uncooled microbolometer detector array to measure infrared spectra (7 to 14μm) with a resolution of up 4 cm-1 and temporal resolution of 30Hz. The technique is based on a static optical configuration whereby light is split into two paths and made to recombine along a focal plane producing an interference pattern. The spectral information is returned using a detector array to digitally capture the interferogram which can then be processed into a spectrum by the application of a Fourier transform. The novel optical design has reduced the optics required to only 3 optical components and the detector array, to generate and measure the interferogram. The experimental performance of the SIFTS instrument has verified the theoretical models, which has shown that the spectral resolution is for the infrared instrument is 4cm-1. The Connes advantage, inherent to the Michelson spectrometer Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), whereby the spectral wavelength accuracy is referenced to a stabilised laser has also been demonstrated in the SIFTS instrument. This has been implemented through the use of an expanded internal laser diode with Distributed Bragg Reflector (DFB) which acts as the calibration source used to maintain the wavelength stability of the SIFTS instrument. As there are no moving components, the instrument is compact, light and insensitive to mechanical vibration, additionally the speed of measurement is determined by the frame rate of the detector array. Thus, this instrument has a temporal advantage over common Michelson FTIR instruments. For example, this technique has

  5. Optical design of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tilt (MODIS-T) for the Earth Observing System (Eos)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maymon, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (Eos) scheduled to begin functioning in the late 1990's. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors one of which is MODIS-T, where 'T' signifies a tiltable along-track field of view. MODIS-T is a 32 channel imaging spectrometer with a required 10 nm to 15 nm spectral resolution (FWHM) in the 400 nm to 880 nm spectral range with less than 2.3 percent instrument induced linear polarization. The instrument provides at nadir a 33 km by 1500 km swath with a 1.1 km spatial resolution and an along-track pointing capability of +/- 50 deg about nadir. The heart of the optical design consists of a f/3 grating-type reflecting Schmidt camera.

  6. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E.; Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P.; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-15

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  7. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles M; Seely, John F; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E; Weaver, James L; Obenschain, Steven P; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-01

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at 23 the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm(2) square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm(2) photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10(-7) J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm(2) and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  8. Observation of Accumulated Metal Cation Distribution in Fish by Novel Stigmatic Imaging Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Jun; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of radioactive substances in biological organisms is a matter of great concern since the incident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. We have developed a novel technique for observing the distribution of accumulated metal cations in fish that employs a new imaging mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG2. Distributions of 133Cs and 88Sr in a sliced section of medaka (Oryzias latipes) are obtained with spatial resolution of µm-scale.

  9. TIRCIS: Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Imaging Using a Small-Satellite Compliant Fourier-Transform Imaging Spectrometer, for Natural Hazard Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Crites, S.; Garbeil, H.; Wood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Many natural hazards, including wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and, from the perspective of climate-related hazards, urban heat islands, could be better quantified via the routine availability of hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing data from orbit. However, no sensors are currently in operation that provide such data at high-to-moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat-class resolution). In this presentation we will describe a prototype instrument, developed using funding provided by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, that can make these important measurements. Significantly, the instrument has been designed such that its size, mass, power, and cost are consistent with its integration into small satellite platforms, or deployment as part of small satellite constellations. The instrument, TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data cubes. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. Neither the focal plane nor the optics need to be cooled, and the instrument has a mass of <10 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm × 22 cm. Although the prototype has four moving parts, this can easily be reduced to one. The current optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 90 spectral samples are possible, by varying the physical design of the interferometer. Our performance model indicates signal-to-noise ratios of the order of about 200 to 300:1. In this presentation we will provide an overview of the instrument design, fabrication, results from our initial laboratory characterization, and some of the application areas in which small-satellite-ready instruments such as TIRCIS could make a valuable contribution to the study of natural hazards.

  10. Automated ambient desorption-ionization platform for surface imaging integrated with a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Vidová, Veronika; Kruppa, Gary; Kobliha, Václav; Novák, Petr; Lemr, Karel; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Havlícek, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2009-10-15

    A fully automated atmospheric pressure ionization platform has been built and coupled with a commercial high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) instrument. The outstanding performance of this instrument allowed screening on the basis of exact masses in imaging mode. The main novel aspect was in the integration of the atmospheric pressure ionization imaging into the current software for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging, which allows the user of this commercial dual-source mass spectrometer to perform MALDI-MS and different ambient MS imaging from the same user interface and to utilize the same software tools. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) were chosen to test the ambient surface imaging capabilities of this new ionization platform. Results of DESI imaging experiments performed on brain tissue sections are in agreement with previous MS imaging reports obtained by DESI imaging, but due to the high resolution and mass accuracy of the FTICR instrument it was possible to resolve several ions at the same nominal mass in the DESI-MS spectra of brain tissue. These isobaric interferences at low resolution are due to the overlap of ions from different lipid classes with different biological relevance. It was demonstrated that with the use of high-resolution MS fast imaging screening of lipids can be achieved without any preseparation steps. DAPPI, which is a relatively new and less developed ambient ionization technique compared to DESI, was used in imaging mode for the first time ever. It showed promise in imaging of phytocompounds from plant leaves, and selective ionization of a sterol lipid was achieved by DAPPI from a brain tissue sample.

  11. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  12. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  13. ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-07-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  14. A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Seelos, F.P.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wray, J.J.; Swayze, G.; Clark, R.N.; Des Marais, D.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral images covering the 0.4-3.9 ??m wavelength range, coordinated with higher-spatial resolution HiRISE and Context Imager images. MRO's new high-resolution measurements, combined with earlier data from Thermal Emission Spectrometer; Thermal Emission Imaging System; and Observatoire pour la Min??ralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activiti?? on Mars Express, indicate that aqueous minerals are both diverse and widespread on the Martian surface. The aqueous minerals occur in 9-10 classes of deposits characterized by distinct mineral assemblages, morphologies, and geologic settings. Phyllosilicates occur in several settings: in compositionally layered blankets hundreds of meters thick, superposed on eroded Noachian terrains; in lower layers of intracrater depositional fans; in layers with potential chlorides in sediments on intercrater plains; and as thousands of deep exposures in craters and escarpments. Carbonate-bearing rocks form a thin unit surrounding the Isidis basin. Hydrated silica occurs with hydrated sulfates in thin stratified deposits surrounding Valles Marineris. Hydrated sulfates also occur together with crystalline ferric minerals in thick, layered deposits in Terra Meridiani and in Valles Marineris and together with kaolinite in deposits that partially infill some highland craters. In this paper we describe each of the classes of deposits, review hypotheses for their origins, identify new questions posed by existing measurements, and consider their implications for ancient habitable environments. On the basis of current data, two to five classes of Noachian-aged deposits containing phyllosilicates and carbonates may have formed in aqueous environments with pH and water activities suitable for life. Copyright 2009 by the American

  15. Dual charge-coupled device /CCD/, astronomical spectrometer and direct imaging camera. II - Data handling and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, D.; Ricker, G. R.

    The data collection system for the MASCOT (MIT Astronomical Spectrometer/Camera for Optical Telescopes) is described. The system relies on an RCA 1802 microprocessor-based controller, which serves to collect and format data, to present data to a scan converter, and to operate a device communication bus. A NOVA minicomputer is used to record and recall frame images and to perform refined image processing. The RCA 1802 also provides instrument mode control for the MASCOT. Commands are issued using STOIC, a FORTH-like language. Sufficient flexibility has been provided so that a variety of CCDs can be accommodated.

  16. Design and analysis of a depolarizer for the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectrometer-tilt (MODIS-T)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Maymon, Peter W.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-01-01

    The design and analysis of a depolarizer for the NASA MODIS-T spectrometer is presented. The theory of spatial pseudodepolarizer operation and its effect on linear polarization sensitivity is described. Details of the HV depolarizer design and issues of depolarizer location and material are discussed. The image doubling and aberrations induced by the depolarizer and the trade-offs between increased polarization performance and decreased image quality are also addressed. The issues considered apply directly to depolarizer design for other remote sensing instruments.

  17. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antier, S.; Ferrando, P.; Limousin, O.; Caroli, E.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Blondel, C.; Chipaux, R.; Honkimaki, V.; Horeau, B.; Laurent, P.; Maia, J. M.; Meuris, A.; Del Sordo, S.; Stephen, J. B.

    2015-06-01

    Since the initial exploration of the X- and soft γ-ray sky in the 60's, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars, black holes, and Active Galactic Nuclei are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical processes in these high energy sources, allowing the discrimination between competing models which may otherwise all be consistent with other types of measurement. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the few tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability, in this energy range, is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The compact hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of "Caliste" module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe crystal, the other one on a CdZnTe crystal, which have been exposed to linearly polarized beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). These results, obtained at 200 and 300 keV, demonstrate the capability of these modules to detect Compton events and to give an accurate determination of the polarization parameters (polarization angle and fraction) of the incoming beam. For example, applying an optimized selection to our data set, equivalent to select 90° Compton scattered interactions in the detector plane, we find a modulation factor Q of 0.78 ± 0.06 in the 200-300 keV range. The polarization angle and fraction are derived with accuracies of approximately 1° and 5 % respectively for both CdZnTe and CdTe crystals. The

  18. Computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D reflective grating for ultraviolet to long-wave infrared detection especially useful for surveying transient events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for rapidly occurring events it is also useful for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

  19. Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) with 2D Reflective Grating for Ultraviolet to Long-Wave Infrared Detection Especially Useful for Surveying Transient Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Mouroulis, Pantazis Z. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The optical system of this invention is an unique type of imaging spectrometer, i.e. an instrument that can determine the spectra of all points in a two-dimensional scene. The general type of imaging spectrometer under which this invention falls has been termed a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS). CTIS's have the ability to perform spectral imaging of scenes containing rapidly moving objects or evolving features, hereafter referred to as transient scenes. This invention, a reflective CTIS with an unique two-dimensional reflective grating, can operate in any wavelength band from the ultraviolet through long-wave infrared. Although this spectrometer is especially useful for events it is also for investigation of some slow moving phenomena as in the life sciences.

  20. Measurements of ion and electron temperature profiles on NSTX with an X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2005-10-01

    The prototype of a new X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been installed on NSTX to measure profiles of the ion and electron temperatures from spatially resolved dielectronic satellite spectra of ArXVII in the wavelength range from 3.9 to 4.0 A [1]. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent 110-quartz crystal, with a radius of curvature of 389 cm and a diameter of 10 cm, and a 10 cm x 30 cm, two-dimensional, position-sensitive, multi-wire proportional counter. It projects an image of a large area of the plasma with an extension of +/- 40 cm below and above the horizontal mid-plane of NSTX onto the detector with a demagnification of 2.5. The resolution in the plasma is solely determined by the Bragg angle, the height of the crystal and its distance from the plasma; and it is about 3 cm, if the crystal is fully opened. The concept of this new spectrometer is also of interest for ion temperature measurements on ITER [2]. The paper will present results from profile measurements of the ion and electron temperature from NSTX discharges with pure ohmic heating as well as RF and neutral-beam heating. [1] M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum.75, 3660 (2004); [2] R. Barnsley et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum.75, 3743 (2004).

  1. Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the global ozone monitoring experiment and the scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Burrows, John P.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) are diode based spectrometers that will make atmospheric constituent and aerosol measurements from European satellite platforms beginning in the mid 1990's. GOME measures the atmosphere in the UV and visible in nadir scanning, while SCIAMACHY performs a combination of nadir, limb, and occultation measurements in the UV, visible, and infrared. A summary is presented of the sensitivity studies that were performed for SCIAMACHY measurements. As the GOME measurement capability is a subset of the SCIAMACHY measurement capability, the nadir, UV, and visible portion of the studies is shown to apply to GOME as well.

  2. Ultra-low kinetic energy photoelectron angular distribution measurements in He and Ne using a Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, A. M.; Redt, E.; Hoenert, M.; Hoyos-Campo, L. M.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Aguilar, A.

    2009-11-01

    We present photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in Helium and Neon for electrons with excess energies between 5 and 100 meV. These ultra-low kinetic energy PAD measurements were obtained with a modified Velocity Map Imaging spectrometer (VMI) and VUV light from the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron radiation source. The efficiency and reliability of the spectrometer at this ultra-low kinetic energy range has been tested by determining the variation with energy of the asymmetry, β, parameter of photoelectrons from the s-shell direct ionization in Helium. For Neon, we determined the energy dependent asymmetry parameters across the "s" and "d" autoionizing resonances between the P3/2 and P1/2 ionic states. Furthermore, we measured the asymmetry parameter for photoelectrons produced from the n = 2 to n = 6 satellite states of He. These measurements were performed at values of excess kinetic energy previously unexplored.

  3. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST.

    PubMed

    Lyu, B; Wang, F D; Pan, X Y; Chen, J; Fu, J; Li, Y Y; Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Pablant, N; Lee, S G; Shi, Y J; Ye, M Y; Wan, B N

    2014-11-01

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm(2), a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  4. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, B. Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y.; Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.; Ye, M. Y.

    2014-11-15

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  5. Measuring Curved Crystal Performance for a High Resolution, Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Haugh and Richard Stewart

    2010-06-07

    This paper describes the design, crystal selection, and crystal testing for a vertical Johann spectrometer operating in the 13 keV range to measure ion Doppler broadening in inertial confinement plasmas. The spectrometer is designed to use thin, curved, mica crystals to achieve a resolving power of E/ΔE>2000. A number of natural mica crystals were screened for flatness and X-ray diffraction width to find samples of sufficient perfection for use in the instrument. Procedures to select and mount high quality mica samples are discussed. A diode-type X-ray source coupled to a dual goniometer arrangement was used to measure the crystal reflectivity curve. A procedure was developed for evaluating the goniometer performance using a set of diffraction grade Si crystals. This goniometer system was invaluable for identifying the best original crystals for further use and developing the techniques to select satisfactory curved crystals for the spectrometer.

  6. Velocity Fields in H II Regions Using High Resolution Imaging Fabry-Perot Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seema, P.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis comprises of two parts: I. Instrumentation II. Observations, results and discussion. An imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer (IFPS) is designed and constructed for the studies on kinematics of extended astronomical objects (Seema et al., 1992). IFPS comprises of a field aperture, collimating lens and a two dimensional imaging sensor called Imaging Photon Detector (IPD). It is the first time that IPD which uses a resistive anode for position determination is being used in the spectroscopic studies of astronomical objects. Observations were made on Orion and Trifid nebula covering a wide field of view using a 35cm Celestron-14 telescope (f/11 cassegrain) at Gurushikhar, Mt.Abu, India. Orion Nebula: Observations were made in [OIII] 5007A, line with a spectral resolution of 6 km/sec and spatial resolution of 4" covering a field of view of 10.5', to study (i) general velocity flow (ii) high velocity flow and (iii)random motions. Line profiles generated for about 2000 positions showed an asymmetric shape with (a)a narrow component 20 +- 3 km/sec and (b) a broad component 50 +- 3 km/sec. The two components could be interpreted in terms of the interaction of the ionized gas (from the trapezium stars) with the condensations present in the nebula, resulting in the secondary flows. The iso-velocity contour map generated for both the components showed velocity flow in agreement with the champagne flow model (Tenorio-Tagle 1982). A model emission line profile constructed assuming a champagne flow in [OIII] 5007A, line for a position 2' away from theta-1 C Ori showed a reasonably good agreement with the narrow component of the observed profile. Certain high velocity flow (~50 km/s) regions are observed to be superimposed on the main flow of the narrow component. These flows are either radiation pressure driven stellar winds or jets generated during the formation phase of Young stellar objects. The radial velocity was found to be low with no high velocity flow regions in

  7. Signal chain for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunn, James S., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The AVIRIS instrument has a separate dedicated analog signal processing chain for each of its four spectrometers. The signal chains amplify low-level focal-plane line array signals (5 to 10 mV full-scale span) in the presence of larger multiplexing signals (approx 150 mV) providing the data handling system a ten-bit digital word (for each spectrometer) each 1.3 microns. This signal chain provides automatic correction for the line array dark signal nonuniformity (which can approach the full-scale signal span).

  8. Application Of Biocular Viewers To Airborne Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Herman G.

    1984-12-01

    Biocular viewers permit magnification of small areas without optical distortion and produce an image that can be viewed with both eyes. Current applications range from biocular viewing of driftsights, image intensifiers, or FLIR displays while in a moving vehicle, to quick scanning of reconnaissance imagery in ground based photointerpreter facilities. Other potential applications include allowing the use of space-saving devices available only in small formats, such as liquid crystal video displays. Advantages include absence of facial contact, no diopter adjustment necessary, operator may wear glasses incorporating astigmatic corrections, and wide angle viewing (45-degree field of view) to allow correct perspective presentation. The lack of distortion reduces eye fatigue and reduces the likelihood of nausea while viewing in an unstable environment. Distortion inherent in certain image intensifier tubes can be partially corrected with a biocular viewer.

  9. Discriminating phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) in the coastal ocean using the inversion algorithm PHYDOTax and airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Schafer, C. B.; Broughton, J.; Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  10. Discriminating Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) in the Coastal Ocean Using the Inversion Algorithm Phydotax and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Schafer, Chris; Broughton, Jennifer; Guild, Liane S.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  11. A fast smoothing algorithm for post-processing of surface reflectance spectra retrieved from airborne imaging spectrometer data.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Liu, Ming

    2013-10-14

    Surface reflectance spectra retrieved from remotely sensed hyperspectral imaging data using radiative transfer models often contain residual atmospheric absorption and scattering effects. The reflectance spectra may also contain minor artifacts due to errors in radiometric and spectral calibrations. We have developed a fast smoothing technique for post-processing of retrieved surface reflectance spectra. In the present spectral smoothing technique, model-derived reflectance spectra are first fit using moving filters derived with a cubic spline smoothing algorithm. A common gain curve, which contains minor artifacts in the model-derived reflectance spectra, is then derived. This gain curve is finally applied to all of the reflectance spectra in a scene to obtain the spectrally smoothed surface reflectance spectra. Results from analysis of hyperspectral imaging data collected with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data are given. Comparisons between the smoothed spectra and those derived with the empirical line method are also presented.

  12. Expert system-based mineral mapping in northern Death Valley, California/Nevada, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.; Dietz, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Integrated analysis of imaging spectrometer data and field spectral measurements were used in conjunction with conventional geologic field mapping to characterize bedrock and surficial geology at the northern end of Death Valley, California and Nevada. A knowledge-based expert system was used to automatically produce image maps showing the principal surface mineralogy from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Linear spectral unmixing of the AVIRIS data allowed further determination of relative mineral, abundances and identification of mineral assemblages and mixtures. The imaging spectrometer data show the spatial distribution of spectrally distinct minerals occurring both as primary rockforming minerals and as alteration and weathering products. Field spectral measurements were used to verify the mineral maps and field mapping was used to extend the remote sensing results. Geographically referenced image maps produced from these data form new base maps from which to develop improved understanding of the processes of deposition and erosion affecting the present land surface.

  13. Characterizing Geology and Mineralization at High Latitudes in Alaska Using Airborne and Field-Based Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, G. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Buchhorn, M.; Johnson, M. R.; Hubbard, B. E.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Prakash, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive optical remote sensing of high latitude regions faces many challenges including a short acquisition season and poor illumination. Identification of surface minerals can be complicated by steep terrain and vegetation cover. In July 2014, the HyMap* imaging spectrometer was flown over two study areas in Alaska. Contemporaneously, field spectra and samples of geologic units were collected, including altered and unaltered parts of intrusions hosting mid-Cretaceous porphyry copper deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek in the eastern Alaska Range. The HyMap radiance data were converted to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer correction program and reflectance spectra of calibration sites. Reflectance data were analyzed with the Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA), a module of USGS PRISM (Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements; speclab.cr.usgs.gov). Large areas of abundant epidote/chlorite, muscovite/illite, calcite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and (or) pyrophyllite were mapped, which are minerals typically formed during alteration of host rocks surrounding porphyry copper deposits. A map showing the wavelength position of the muscovite/illite absorption feature was made. Shifts in wavelength position have been related to the aluminum composition of micas and areas of high metal concentrations in past studies. In July 2015, rock and spectral sampling was continued in areas with surface exposures of copper- and molybdenum-bearing sulfides. Also, high-spatial resolution (~6 cm pixel size) imaging spectrometer data were collected at the Orange Hill deposit using the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) HySpex imaging spectrometer (www.hyperspectral.alaska.edu). Laboratory, field, and airborne spectra are being examined to define indicators of mineralization. The study results will be used to assess the effectiveness of spectroscopic remote sensing for geologic mapping and exploration targeting in Alaska and

  14. Level 0 to 1 processing of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Neubert, T.; Ribalda, R.; Sha, M. K.; Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Ebersoldt, A.; Kretschmer, E.; Latzko, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.

    2014-03-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer that is capable of operating on various high altitude research aircraft. It measures the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared spectral region in limb and nadir geometry. GLORIA consists of a classical Michelson interferometer combined with an infrared camera. The infrared detector has a usable range of 128 × 128 pixels, measuring up to 16 384 interferograms simultaneously. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers impose a number of challenges with respect to instrument calibration and algorithm development. The innovative optical setup with extremely high optical throughput requires the development of new methods and algorithms for spectral and radiometric calibration. Due to the vast amount of data there is a high demand for scientifically intelligent optimisation of the data processing. This paper outlines the characterisation and processing steps required for the generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra. Methods for performance optimisation of the processing algorithm are presented. The performance of the data processing and the quality of the calibrated spectra are demonstrated for measurements collected during the first deployments of GLORIA on aircraft.

  15. Level 0 to 1 processing of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Neubert, T.; Ribalda, R.; Sha, M. K.; Ungermann, J.; Blank, J.; Ebersoldt, A.; Kretschmer, E.; Latzko, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer that is capable of operating on various high-altitude research aircraft. It measures the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared spectral region in limb and nadir geometry. GLORIA consists of a classical Michelson interferometer combined with an infrared camera. The infrared detector has a usable area of 128 × 128 pixels, measuring up to 16 384 interferograms simultaneously. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers impose a number of challenges with respect to instrument calibration and algorithm development. The optical setup with extremely high optical throughput requires the development of new methods and algorithms for spectral and radiometric calibration. Due to the vast amount of data there is a high demand for scientifically intelligent optimisation of the data processing. This paper outlines the characterisation and processing steps required for the generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra. Methods for performance optimisation of the processing algorithm are presented. The performance of the data processing and the quality of the calibrated spectra are demonstrated for measurements collected during the first deployments of GLORIA on aircraft.

  16. Ground-Based Measurement Experiment and First Results with Geosynchronous-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer Engineering Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Bingham, Gail E.; Huppi, Ronald J.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Zollinger, Lori J.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Tansock, Joseph J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Hooker, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 x 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57 cm(exp -1) with a scan duration of approximately 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  17. Sun-induced fluorescence - a new probe of photosynthesis: First maps from the imaging spectrometer HyPlant.

    PubMed

    Rascher, U; Alonso, L; Burkart, A; Cilia, C; Cogliati, S; Colombo, R; Damm, A; Drusch, M; Guanter, L; Hanus, J; Hyvärinen, T; Julitta, T; Jussila, J; Kataja, K; Kokkalis, P; Kraft, S; Kraska, T; Matveeva, M; Moreno, J; Muller, O; Panigada, C; Pikl, M; Pinto, F; Prey, L; Pude, R; Rossini, M; Schickling, A; Schurr, U; Schüttemeyer, D; Verrelst, J; Zemek, F

    2015-12-01

    Variations in photosynthesis still cause substantial uncertainties in predicting photosynthetic CO2 uptake rates and monitoring plant stress. Changes in actual photosynthesis that are not related to greenness of vegetation are difficult to measure by reflectance based optical remote sensing techniques. Several activities are underway to evaluate the sun-induced fluorescence signal on the ground and on a coarse spatial scale using space-borne imaging spectrometers. Intermediate-scale observations using airborne-based imaging spectroscopy, which are critical to bridge the existing gap between small-scale field studies and global observations, are still insufficient. Here we present the first validated maps of sun-induced fluorescence in that critical, intermediate spatial resolution, employing the novel airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. HyPlant has an unprecedented spectral resolution, which allows for the first time quantifying sun-induced fluorescence fluxes in physical units according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth Principle that exploits solar and atmospheric absorption bands. Maps of sun-induced fluorescence show a large spatial variability between different vegetation types, which complement classical remote sensing approaches. Different crop types largely differ in emitting fluorescence that additionally changes within the seasonal cycle and thus may be related to the seasonal activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery. We argue that sun-induced fluorescence emission is related to two processes: (i) the total absorbed radiation by photosynthetically active chlorophyll; and (ii) the functional status of actual photosynthesis and vegetation stress. PMID:26146813

  18. Sun-induced fluorescence - a new probe of photosynthesis: First maps from the imaging spectrometer HyPlant.

    PubMed

    Rascher, U; Alonso, L; Burkart, A; Cilia, C; Cogliati, S; Colombo, R; Damm, A; Drusch, M; Guanter, L; Hanus, J; Hyvärinen, T; Julitta, T; Jussila, J; Kataja, K; Kokkalis, P; Kraft, S; Kraska, T; Matveeva, M; Moreno, J; Muller, O; Panigada, C; Pikl, M; Pinto, F; Prey, L; Pude, R; Rossini, M; Schickling, A; Schurr, U; Schüttemeyer, D; Verrelst, J; Zemek, F

    2015-12-01

    Variations in photosynthesis still cause substantial uncertainties in predicting photosynthetic CO2 uptake rates and monitoring plant stress. Changes in actual photosynthesis that are not related to greenness of vegetation are difficult to measure by reflectance based optical remote sensing techniques. Several activities are underway to evaluate the sun-induced fluorescence signal on the ground and on a coarse spatial scale using space-borne imaging spectrometers. Intermediate-scale observations using airborne-based imaging spectroscopy, which are critical to bridge the existing gap between small-scale field studies and global observations, are still insufficient. Here we present the first validated maps of sun-induced fluorescence in that critical, intermediate spatial resolution, employing the novel airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. HyPlant has an unprecedented spectral resolution, which allows for the first time quantifying sun-induced fluorescence fluxes in physical units according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth Principle that exploits solar and atmospheric absorption bands. Maps of sun-induced fluorescence show a large spatial variability between different vegetation types, which complement classical remote sensing approaches. Different crop types largely differ in emitting fluorescence that additionally changes within the seasonal cycle and thus may be related to the seasonal activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery. We argue that sun-induced fluorescence emission is related to two processes: (i) the total absorbed radiation by photosynthetically active chlorophyll; and (ii) the functional status of actual photosynthesis and vegetation stress.

  19. Reconnaissance invariante d'objets 3-D et correlation SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels. La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee. Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace. Nos resultats numeriques montrent un taux de classement atteignant 98% sur une banque d'images composee de 5 vehicules militaires. La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales (SONG) traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images. Nous presentons

  20. Measurement of the electron and ion temperatures by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on joint Texas experimental tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Jin, W.; Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J.; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-11-01

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been developed on joint Texas experimental tokamak for the measurement of electron and ion temperatures from the Kα spectra of helium-like argon and its satellite lines. A two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter has been applied to detect the spectra. The electron and ion temperatures have been obtained from the Voigt fitting with the spectra of helium-like argon ions. The profiles of electron and ion temperatures show the dependence on electron density in ohmic plasmas.

  1. Geometric and radiometric preprocessing of airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data in rugged terrain for quantitative data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Peter; Green, Robert O.; Staenz, Karl; Itten, Klaus I.

    1994-01-01

    A geocoding procedure for remotely sensed data of airborne systems in rugged terrain is affected by several factors: buffeting of the aircraft by turbulence, variations in ground speed, changes in altitude, attitude variations, and surface topography. The current investigation was carried out with an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene of central Switzerland (Rigi) from NASA's Multi Aircraft Campaign (MAC) in Europe (1991). The parametric approach reconstructs for every pixel the observation geometry based on the flight line, aircraft attitude, and surface topography. To utilize the data for analysis of materials on the surface, the AVIRIS data are corrected to apparent reflectance using algorithms based on MODTRAN (moderate resolution transfer code).

  2. Calibration of the OHREX high-resolution imaging crystal spectrometer at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, N.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    We report the calibration of the Orion High-Resolution X-ray (OHREX) imaging crystal spectrometer at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at Livermore. Two such instruments, dubbed OHREX-1 and OHREX-2, are fielded for plasma diagnostics at the Orion laser facility in the United Kingdom. The OHREX spectrometer can simultaneously house two spherically bent crystals with a radius of curvature of r = 67.2 cm. The focusing properties of the spectrometer allow both for larger distance to the source due to the increase in collected light and for observation of extended sources. OHREX is designed to cover a 2.5°-3° spectral range at Bragg angles around 51.3°. The typically high resolving powers at these large Bragg angles are ideally suited for line shape diagnostics. For instance, the nominal resolving power of the instrument (>10 000) is much higher than the effective resolving power associated with the Doppler broadening due to the temperature of the trapped ions in EBIT-I. The effective resolving power is only around 3000 at typical EBIT-I conditions, which nevertheless is sufficient to set up and test the instrument's spectral characteristics. We have calibrated the spectral range for a number of crystals using well known reference lines in the first and second order and derived the ion temperatures from these lines. We have also made use of the 50 μm size of the EBIT-I source width to characterize the spatial focusing of the spectrometer.

  3. In Situ Visible to Short Wavelength Imaging Spectroscopy with the Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS): Case Studies from the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaney, D.; Mouroulis, P.; Green, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Sellar, G.; Van Gorp, B.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Situ imaging spectroscopy provides a way to address complex questions of geological evolution for both aqueous and igneous processes by mapping mineral composition at the spatial scale of rocks and outcrops. Examination of locations studied by the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity can provide examples of the potential utility and define the needed measurement requirements. A compact instrument is needed to be able to adequately address these science questions from a rover platform. The Ultra Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) is an instrument designed to address the science need and implementation constraints.

  4. Design of a novel multi-spectral imaging spectrometer for breast cancer detector based on VHT grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Wu, Yan; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen; Zeng, Lvming

    2011-06-01

    The ultrasonic imaging, X-mammography, CT imaging and MRI can be applied into the breast cancer diagnosis(BCD). But some factors such as the spatial resolution, contrast and price-performance ratio (PPR) limit their applications. So, a novel BCD technology, that is, multi-spectral imaging is adopted into this paper. It can get more information of the breast tumor and higher identity because it combines the advantages of the spectroscopy and the imaging technology. And in this paper, the multi-spectral light source induced the breast cancer imaging detector(BCID) is designed, the spectrum can cover from the UV to NIR. Meanwhile, a custom-built multi-spectral imaging spectrometer (MSIS) is also developed. And, in order to overcome the stray-light of the light-route system and improve the resolution and light-passing efficiency of the system, the novel volume holography transmissive (VHT) grating instead of the plane or concave grating is used as the diffraction grating in this MSIS. Experimental result show that the novel BCD technology is feasible, it can offer not only the spectral information but also the image of the tumor. The spectrum resolution of the MSIS for BCID based on VHT grating can reach 2nm. Compared with the others, this BCID has more compact structure, faster speed, higher PPR and higher resolution and accuracy. Therefore, this BCID has the potential value in the field of the BCD.

  5. Ceres composition as inferred by the VIR-Dawn imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardo, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    The NASA's Dawn spacecraft [1] is orbiting around Ceres since early 2015. The Dawn mission to Ceres is divided in five stages, characterized by different altitudes above the Ceres mean surface. These five stages correspond with the different phases of the mission,, i.e. Approach, Rotational Characterization, Survey, High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO). Each phase is characterized by an increasing spatial resolution linked with the spacecraft altitude. The VIR imaging spectrometer [2] on board the Dawn spacecraft is providing a huge amount of data and giving an essential contribution to understand the Ceres composition and to give constraint about its evolution. VIR observations revealed that Ceres is a dark body, with an average albedo of 0.08 measured at 1.2 mm [3]. However, specific features seen at the local scale may show substantially higher albedo (i.e. greater than 0.2), especially in Occator, Haulani and Oxo craters [4]. VIR data reveal that the Ceres visible and near-infrared spectra (wavelength range from 0.25 to 5 mm) are mainly characterized by the following absorptions: - 2.7 mm band, ascribed to OH-bearing materials [5] and distributed across the Ceres surface; - 3.05 mm band, ascribed to NH4-bearing materials [5] and also ubiquitous on the Ceres surface; - 3.3-3.5 mm complex and 3.9 mm band, ascribed to carbonates [4] and observed only at some locations [6]. The presence of these features, in particular the 3.05 mm band, indicate widespread occurrence of ammoniated phyllosilicates [5], which could be mixed with carbonates in specific regions. The phyllosilicates composition is basically homogeneous across the Ceres surface, as suggested by the low variation of 2.7 mm and 3.05 mm band centers [7]. The presence of ammonia suggests the presence of outer Solar System materials, which could have been brought in the Main Asteroid Belt and accreted during the Ceres formation [8]. Alternatively, Ceres itself could have

  6. Comparison of laboratory calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at the beginning and end of the first flight season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Reimer, John H.; Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral and radiometric calibrations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) were performed in the laboratory in June and November, 1987, at the beginning and end of the first flight season. Those calibrations are described along with changes in instrument characteristics that occurred during the flight season as a result of factors such as detachment of the optical fibers to two of the four AVIRIS spectrometers, degradation in the optical alignment of the spectrometers due to thermally-induced and mechanical warpage, and breakage of a thermal blocking filter in one of the spectrometers. These factors caused loss of signal in three spectrometers, loss of spectral resolution in two spectrometers, and added uncertainty in the radiometry of AVIRIS. Results from in-flight assessment of the laboratory calibrations are presented. A discussion is presented of improvements made to the instrument since the end of the first flight season and plans for the future. Improvements include: (1) a new thermal control system for stabilizing spectrometer temperatures, (2) kinematic mounting of the spectrometers to the instrument rack, and (3) new epoxy for attaching the optical fibers inside their mounting tubes.

  7. Development of a Compact Imaging Spectrometer Using Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica A; Biswas, Abhijit; Bearman, Gregory H.; Chrien, Thomas; Miller, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid crystal tunable filters are useful in building compact multi-spectral instruments. The system is portable and adaptable for use in a variety of fields of study in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum.We will present data from calibration targets and some applications, results of the spectral calibration of a spectrometer system, and results of environmental (vibration, radiation, shock, and thermal) testing. Data acquisition and system design are also discussed.

  8. Radiometric Modeling and Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)Ground Based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere s thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for vegetation analysis in the Klamath National Forest of northeastern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Avila, F. X.

    1985-01-01

    The experiences and results associated with a project entitled Preliminary Evaluation of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Vegetation Analysis is documented. The primary goal of the project was to provide ground truth, manual interpretation, and computer processing of data from an experimental flight of the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIS) to determine the extent to which high spectral resolution remote sensing could differentiate among plant species, and especially species of conifers, for a naturally vegetated test site. Through the course of the research, JPL acquired AIS imagery of the test areas in the Klamath National Forest, northeastern California, on two overflights of both the Dock Well and Grass Lake transects. Over the next year or so, three generations of data was also received: first overflight, second overflight, and reprocessed second overflight. Two field visits were made: one trip immediately following the first overflight to note snow conditions and temporally-related vegetation states at the time of the sensor overpass; and a second trip about six weeks later, following acquisition of prints of the images from the first AIS overpass.

  10. First Results From The New High Resolution Imaging X-ray Crystal Spectrometer On Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince-Cushman, Alexander; Rice, John; Bitter, Manfred; Reinke, Mathew; Hill, Kenneth; Scott, Steven

    2007-11-01

    In an effort to improve the diagnostic capabilities for measuring plasma rotation on Alcator C-Mod, an imaging x-ray spectrometer has been designed and installed. This instrument utilizes a spherically bent quartz crystal and a set of 2D x-ray detectors to image the entire plasma cross section with a spectral resolving power of approximately 10,000 with vertical spatial resolution of about 1cm. Line emission from highly ionized states of argon and molybdenum are measured at frame rates up to 200Hz. Using spectral tomographic techniques the line integrated spectra can be inverted to determine impurity density, velocity and temperature profiles. An overview of the instrument, analysis and example profiles are presented. Work supported by USDoE Coop. Agree. No. DE-FC02-99ER54512 & DE-AC02-76CH03073.

  11. Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 micron water vapor band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    1993-01-01

    Using special images acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at 20 km altitude, we show that wavelengths close to the center of the strong 1.38 micron water vapor band are useful for detecting thin cirrus clouds. The detection makes use of the fact that cirrus clouds are located above almost all the atmospheric water vapor. Because of the strong water vapor absorption in the lower atmosphere, AVIRIS channels near 1.38 micron receive little scattered solar radiance from the surface of low level clouds. When cirrus clouds are present, however, these channels receive large amounts of scattered solar radiance from the cirrus clouds. Our ability to determine cirrus cloud cover using space-based remote sensing will be improved if channels near the center of the 1.38 micron water vapor band are added to future satellites.

  12. Recovery of atmospheric water vapor total column abundance from imaging spectrometer data around 940 nm - Sensitivity analysis and application to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique; Conel, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Two simple techniques (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio, CIBR, and Narrow/Wide ratio, N/W) to retrieve path precipitable water from AVIRIS high spectral resolution radiance data using the 940 nm water absorption band are compared. A sensitivity analysis was performed using the radiative transfer code LOWTRAN 7 to determine which one of these two approaches will provide a better estimate over land and water areas. The CIBR proved to be the technique less sensitive to perturbing effects, except for errors in visibility estimate. Both techniques were applied to AVIRIS radiance data acquired over Salton Sea, California. Resulting images confirmed that the use of a constant gray reflectance in the model led to a higher overestimation of the amount of water retrieved for N/W over vegetated areas. Validation was performed through comparison between an independent estimate of water vapor from concurrent Reagan sunphotometer measurements and AVIRIS estimates. Amounts retrieved using the N/W approach match more closely in situ measurements, even after adjusting model parameters for background reflectance, viewing geometry, and type of aerosol at the site.

  13. Spherical grating spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  14. 3D surface scan of biological samples with a Push-broom Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-08-01

    The food industry is always on the lookout for sensing technologies for rapid and nondestructive inspection of food products. Hyperspectral imaging technology integrates both imaging and spectroscopy into unique imaging sensors. Its application for food safety and quality inspection has made significant progress in recent years. Specifically, hyperspectral imaging has shown its potential for surface contamination detection in many food related applications. Most existing hyperspectral imaging systems use pushbroom scanning which is generally used for flat surface inspection. In some applications it is desirable to be able to acquire hyperspectral images on circular objects such as corn ears, apples, and cucumbers. Past research describes inspection systems that examine all surfaces of individual objects. Most of these systems did not employ hyperspectral imaging. These systems typically utilized a roller to rotate an object, such as an apple. During apple rotation, the camera took multiple images in order to cover the complete surface of the apple. The acquired image data lacked the spectral component present in a hyperspectral image. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for a 3-D surface scan of biological samples. The new instrument is based on a pushbroom hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the sample. The system is suitable for whole surface hyperspectral imaging of circular objects. In addition to its value to the food industry, the system could be useful for other applications involving 3-D surface inspection.

  15. New microwave spectrometer/imager has possible applications for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    Microwave imager forms thermal-emissivity image of solid portion of planet Venus and provides data on the planet's atmosphere, surface, terminator, and temperature changes. These thermally produced multifrequency microwaves for image production of temperature profiles can be applied to water pollution monitoring, agriculture, and forestry survey.

  16. 3-D surface scan of biological samples with a push-broom imaging spectrometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food industry is always on the lookout for sensing technologies for rapid and nondestructive inspection of food products. Hyperspectral imaging technology integrates both imaging and spectroscopy into unique imaging sensors. Its application for food safety and quality inspection has made signifi...

  17. A split imaging spectrometer for temporally and spatially resolved titanium absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hager, J D; Lanier, N E; Kline, J L; Flippo, K A; Bruns, H C; Schneider, M; Saculla, M; McCarville, T

    2014-11-01

    We present a temporally and a spatially resolved spectrometer for titanium x-ray absorption spectroscopy along 2 axial symmetric lines-of-sight. Each line-of-sight of the instrument uses an elliptical crystal to acquire both the 2p and 3p Ti absorption lines on a single, time gated channel of the instrument. The 2 axial symmetric lines-of-sight allow the 2p and 3p absorption features to be measured through the same point in space using both channels of the instrument. The spatially dependent material temperature can be inferred by observing the 2p and the 3p Ti absorption features. The data are recorded on a two strip framing camera with each strip collecting data from a single line-of-sight. The design is compatible for use at both the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility. The spectrometer is intended to measure the material temperature behind a Marshak wave in a radiatively driven SiO2 foam with a Ti foam tracer. In this configuration, a broad band CsI backlighter will be used for a source and the Ti absorption spectrum measured. PMID:25430177

  18. A split imaging spectrometer for temporally and spatially resolved titanium absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, J. D. Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Bruns, H. C.; Schneider, M.; Saculla, M.; McCarville, T.

    2014-11-15

    We present a temporally and a spatially resolved spectrometer for titanium x-ray absorption spectroscopy along 2 axial symmetric lines-of-sight. Each line-of-sight of the instrument uses an elliptical crystal to acquire both the 2p and 3p Ti absorption lines on a single, time gated channel of the instrument. The 2 axial symmetric lines-of-sight allow the 2p and 3p absorption features to be measured through the same point in space using both channels of the instrument. The spatially dependent material temperature can be inferred by observing the 2p and the 3p Ti absorption features. The data are recorded on a two strip framing camera with each strip collecting data from a single line-of-sight. The design is compatible for use at both the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility. The spectrometer is intended to measure the material temperature behind a Marshak wave in a radiatively driven SiO{sub 2} foam with a Ti foam tracer. In this configuration, a broad band CsI backlighter will be used for a source and the Ti absorption spectrum measured.

  19. Remote gas plume sensing and imaging with NASA's Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hulley, Glynn; Hook, Simon J.

    2014-05-01

    The hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer was developed under NASA's instrument incubator program and has now completed three deployments. The scan head uses a state-of-the-art Dyson spectrometer cooled to 100K coupled to a quantum well infrared photodetector array held at 40K. The combination allows for 256 spectral channels between 7.5μm and 12μm with 512 cross track spatial pixels. Spectral features for many interesting gases fall within the instrument passband. We first review the pre-flight calibration and validation process for HyTES using a suite of instrumentation. This includes a smile measurement at two wavelengths (8.18μm and 10.6μm) as well as a concentration determination using large aperture gas cells. We then show positive gas plume detection at ranges >1000m for various cases: Ammonia gas detection from Salton Sea fumaroles, Methane detection from staged releases points in Wyoming as well as naturally occurring methane hot spots off the coast of Santa Barbara.

  20. Depth enhancement in spectral domain optical coherence tomography using bidirectional imaging modality with a single spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jeon, Mansik; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-07-01

    A method for depth enhancement is presented using a bidirectional imaging modality for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Two precisely aligned sample arms along with two reference arms were utilized in the optical configuration to scan the samples. Using exemplary images of the optical resolution target, Scotch tape, a silicon sheet with two needles, and a leaf, we demonstrated how the developed bidirectional SD-OCT imaging method increases the ability to characterize depth-enhanced images. The results of the developed system were validated by comparing the images with the standard OCT configuration (single-sample arm setup). Given the advantages of higher resolution and the ability to visualize deep morphological structures, this method can be utilized to increase the depth dependent fall-off in samples with limited thickness. Thus, the proposed bidirectional imaging modality is apt for cross-sectional imaging of entire samples, which has the potential capability to improve the diagnostic ability.

  1. [Research of dual-photoelastic-modulator-based beat frequency modulation and Fourier-Bessel transform imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yao-Li; Huang, Yan-Fei; Chen, You-Hua; Wang, Li-Fu; Yang, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    As the existing photoelastic-modulator(PEM) modulating frequency in the tens of kHz to hundreds of kHz between, leading to frequency of modulated interference signal is higher, so ordinary array detector cannot effectively caprure interference signal..A new beat frequency modulation method based on dual-photoelastic-modulator (Dual-PEM) and Fourier-Bessel transform is proposed as an key component of dual-photoelastic-modulator-based imaging spectrometer (Dual-PEM-IS) combined with charge coupled device (CCD). The dual-PEM are operated as an electro-optic circular retardance modulator, Operating the PEMs at slightly different resonant frequencies w1 and w2 respectively, generates a differential signal at a much lower heterodyne frequency that modulates the incident light. This method not only retains the advantages of the existing PEM, but also the frequency of modulated photocurrent decreased by 2-3 orders of magnitude (10-500 Hz) and can be detected by common array detector, and the incident light spectra can be obtained by Fourier-Bessel transform of low frequency component in the modulated signal. The method makes the PEM has the dual capability of imaging and spectral measurement. The basic principle is introduced, the basic equations is derived, and the feasibility is verified through the corresponding numerical simulation and experiment. This method has' potential applications in imaging spectrometer technology, and analysis of the effect of deviation of the optical path difference. This work provides the necessary theoretical basis for remote sensing of new Dual-PEM-IS and for engineering implementation of spectra inversion.

  2. High spatial resolution imaging of methane and other trace gases with the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Duren, Riley M.; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Hook, Simon J.; Vance, Nick; Guillevic, Pierre; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Mihaly, Jonathan M.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Chazanoff, Seth L.; Staniszewski, Zak K.; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Rivera, Gerardo; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Miller, Charles E.; Malakar, Nabin K.; Sánchez Tomás, Juan M.; Holmes, Kendall T.

    2016-06-01

    Currently large uncertainties exist associated with the attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases such as methane across large regions and key economic sectors. In this study, data from the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) have been used to develop robust and reliable techniques for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and diverse environmental conditions with high spatial resolution that permits direct attribution to sources. HyTES is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer with high spectral resolution (256 bands from 7.5 to 12 µm), wide swath (1-2 km), and high spatial resolution (˜ 2 m at 1 km altitude) that incorporates new thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technologies. In this study we introduce a hybrid clutter matched filter (CMF) and plume dilation algorithm applied to HyTES observations to efficiently detect and characterize the spatial structures of individual plumes of CH4, H2S, NH3, NO2, and SO2 emitters. The sensitivity and field of regard of HyTES allows rapid and frequent airborne surveys of large areas including facilities not readily accessible from the surface. The HyTES CMF algorithm produces plume intensity images of methane and other gases from strong emission sources. The combination of high spatial resolution and multi-species imaging capability provides source attribution in complex environments. The CMF-based detection of strong emission sources over large areas is a fast and powerful tool needed to focus on more computationally intensive retrieval algorithms to quantify emissions with error estimates, and is useful for expediting mitigation efforts and addressing critical science questions.

  3. The future of space reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Richelson, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the warming of US - Soviet relations, the US will still need to conduct extensive satellite reconnaissance, as will the Soviets. Besides monitoring advances in military technology and compliance with arms-control treaties, satellites have additional targets to examine. As demonstrated by recent events in the Persian Gulf, regional hot spots present constant threats. Targeting weaponry or listening in on an enemy's military communications from space is feasible form any nation operating a spy satellite. But, at the same time, satellites will also enable nations to gauge threats accurately and thus possibly circumvent potential hostilities. In any event, a multitude of orbiting eyes and ears from various countries - hostile, friendly and neutral - will affect international affairs for some time to come. Much of the surveillance technology other countries will use, however, will not match that of the US. Unclassified documents, military experts and former intelligence officials reveal that US satellite reconnaissance, having been an established and accepted component of intelligence operations for more than 30 years, has now reached a pinnacle of high technology. Indeed, analysts think the US may budget as much as $5 billion on space reconnaissance each year; the Department of Defense has already spent an estimated $100 billion since 1960, when the US began launching its photoreconnaissance satellites.

  4. Intercomparison of EMCCD- and sCMOS-based imaging spectrometers for biomedical applications in low-light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Palacios, J.; Randeberg, L. L.

    2012-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides means for characterizing large biological samples with microscopic spatial resolution and a narrow spectral sampling interval. However, this approach requires having a measurable light signal in each spectral band. Overcoming the limitations imposed by working with biological samples requires the use of a highly sensitive sensor to detect weak signals. For this study we have built and compared the performance of two imaging spectrometers using optimized for low light environments: an electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) and a scientific CMOS (sCMOS). Both systems have been designed to lower the risk of damaging photosensitive samples, delay the bleaching of fluorophores and detect weak fluorescence signals. The cameras work within the VNIR spectral region (400 nm - 900 nm) with a spectral sampling lower than 4 nm. The produced images have scene pixel sizes smaller than 25 μm and a field of view larger than 25 mm. The systems have been tested side to side measuring the diffusion front of a fluorescent tag in samples of porcine skin in challenging light conditions. The study aimed to show the advantages and limitations of each approach. Preliminary results show good performance of the EMCCD for fluorescence applications, whereas more experimental results are needed to be able to conclude on the performance of the sCMOS sensor. However, the sCMOS appears promising for imaging scenes with high dynamics in low light settings.

  5. Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, N. G.; Paul, D.; Gura, A.; Laurent, G.; De, S.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Ahn, B.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, T. K.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Cocke, C. L.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Kim, D.; Kling, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    A novel design for a velocity-map imaging (VMI) spectrometer with high resolution over a wide energy range surpassing a standard VMI design is reported. The main difference to a standard three-electrode VMI is the spatial extension of the applied field using 11 electrodes forming a thick-lens. This permits measurements of charged particles with higher energies while achieving excellent resolving power over a wide range of energies. Using SIMION simulations, the thick-lens VMI is compared to a standard design for up to 360 eV electrons. The simulations also show that the new spectrometer design is suited for charged-particle detection with up to 1 keV using a repeller-electrode voltage of -30 kV. The experimental performance is tested by laser-induced ionization of rare gases producing electrons up to about 70 eV. The thick-lens VMI is useful for a wide variety of studies on atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in intense laser fields and high-photon-energy fields from high-harmonic-generation or free-electron lasers.

  6. Proceedings of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Performance Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was the assessment of data quality by the AVIRIS project. Summaries of 16 of the presentations are published. The AVIRIS performance evaluation period began in June 87 with flight data collection in the eastern U.S., and continued in the west until Oct. 87, after which the instrument was returned for post flight calibration. At the beginning, the sensor met all of the spatial, spectral and radiometric performance requirements except in spectrometer D, where the signal to noise ratio was below the required value. By the end, sensor performance had deteriorated due to failure of 2 critical parts and to some design deficiences. The independent assessment by the NASA investigators confirmed the assessment by the AVIRIS project. Some scientific results were derived and are presented. These include the mapping of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water, detection of shift in chlorophyll red, and mineral identification.

  7. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Inflight radiometric calibration and the determination of surface reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Vane, G.; Green, R. O.; Alley, R. E.; Carere, V.; Gabell, A.; Bruegge, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The inflight radiometric performance of AVIRIS is presented together with a comparison of methods of recovering surface spectral reflectance from the data. Performance is evaluated by comparing radiance predicted from AVIRIS with radiance generated from the LOWIRAN 6 atmospheric model and measured surface reflectance. Comparisons show apparent agreement to within a few percent between 1800 and 2450 nm. Between 600 and 1800 nm the response of AVIRIS is systematically low by as much as 70 percent, and between 400 and 600 nm it is higher than expected. These problems are traced to thermal distortions of the instrument, and to detachment during flight of optical fibers connecting foreoptics to two of four spectrometers in the instrument. Of three methods studied, an empirical one involving calibration curves constructed from field reflectance measurements returns accurate predictions of the surface reflectance independent of the actual radiometric significance of the flight data.

  8. Satellite observations of snow and ice with an imaging passive microwave spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A. D.; Ledsham, B. L.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Staelin, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The scanning microwave spectrometer (SCAMS) on the Nimbus-6 satellite continuously maps the terrestrial surface with a resolution of about 150 km at 22.235 and 31.400 GHz. SCAMS observes at six angles besides nadir, yielding brightness temperatures which are a function of the distribution and character of various types of snow and ice, including microstructure and subsurface profiles in refractive index, loss (moisture or salinity), and temperature. Spectral signatures exhibiting interesting topographical structure have been observed. To aid in the interpretation of these data, a model was developed to describe the propagation of microwave intensity in a scattering medium characterized by three-dimensional random fluctuations of refractive index in addition to nonrandom variations in permittivity, temperature, and loss. The model combines Maxwell's equations in the Born approximation with radiative-transfer theory; this approach yields the variation of intensity with polarization, direction, and position.

  9. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Tanre, Didier D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning spectrometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micron. They review the various methods being developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles from spectral reflection and thermal emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be used for determining the total precipitable water vapor and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products are described, together with an example of their application to aircraft and/or satellite measurements.

  10. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  11. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A. S.; Guymer, T. M.; Morton, J.; Bentley, C.; Stevenson, M.; Kline, J. L.; Taccetti, M.; Lanier, N. E.; Workman, J.; Peterson, B.; Mussack, K.; Cowan, J.; Prasad, R.; Richardson, M.; Burns, S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Hsing, W.

    2012-10-15

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors it records 16 time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000 eV with 100 ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300 eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and vacuum ultraviolet beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, evidence a <100 {mu}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10 eV at photon energies of 300 eV.

  12. Use of high spectral resolution airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer data for geologic mapping: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1991-01-01

    Specific examples of the use of AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) high spectral resolution data for mapping, alteration related to ore deposition and to hydrocarbon seepage, and alluvial fans are presented. Correction for atmospheric effects was performed using flat field correction, log residuals, and radiative transfer modeling. Minerals of interest (alunite, kaolinite, gypsum, carbonate iron oxides, etc.) were mapped based upon the wavelength position, depth and width of characteristic absorption features. Results were checked by comparing to existing maps, results from other sensors (Thematic Mapper (TM) and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner)), and laboratory spectra of samples collected in the field. Alteration minerals were identified and mapped. The signal to noise ratio of acquired AVIRIS data, long to 2.0 microns, was insufficient to map minerals of interest.

  13. A dual charge-coupled device /CCD/, astronomical spectrometer and direct imaging camera. I - Optical and detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, S. S.; Ricker, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The MASCOT (MIT Astronomical Spectrometer/Camera for Optical Telescopes), an instrument capable of simultaneously performing both direct imaging and spectrometry of faint objects, is examined. An optical layout is given of the instrument which uses two CCD's mounted on the same temperature regulated detector block. Two sources of noise on the signal are discussed: (1) the CCD readout noise, which results in a constant uncertainty in the number of electrons collected from each pixel; and (2) the photon counting noise. The sensitivity of the device is limited by the sky brightness, the overall quantum efficiency, the resolution, and the readout noise of the CCD. Therefore, total system efficiency is calculated at about 15%.

  14. Self-referenced, accurate and sensitive optical frequency comb spectroscopy with a virtually imaged phased array spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin F; Paradowska, Magdalena; Borkowski, Mateusz; Ablewski, Piotr; Wójtewicz, Szymon; Stec, Kamila; Lisak, Daniel; Fermann, Martin E; Trawiński, Ryszard S; Masłowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    We present a cavity-enhanced direct optical frequency comb spectroscopy system with a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) spectrometer and either a dither or a Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) locking scheme used for stable transmission of the comb through the cavity. A self-referenced scheme for frequency axis calibration is shown along with an analysis of its accuracy. A careful comparison between both locking schemes is performed based on near-IR measurements of the carbon monoxide ν=3←0 band P branch transitions in a gas sample with known composition. The noise-equivalent absorptions (NEA) for the PDH and dither schemes are 9.9×10(-10) cm(-1) and 5.3×10(-9) cm(-1), respectively.

  15. Moon Mineral Mapper (M3): A High Uniformity and High Precision Science Imaging Spectrometer in the Solar Reflected Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, Carle; Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2006-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was selected as a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity in February 2005. At the core of this mission is an imaging spectrometer instrument with high spectral-spatial uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio for the expected illumination conditions. The spectral range of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper is from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling. The radiometric range is from 0 to maximum expected radiance with 14 bit sampling. The spatial swath is nominally 40 Ian with 70 m spatial sampling. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper has both a global and target mode of data acquisition. In global spectral and spatial resolution full coverage of the Moon will be acquired. Target mode will be used to examine selected areas a full spectral and spatial resolution. The science objectives and mission and instrument characteristics are presented.

  16. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a)...

  17. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  18. Spatial Resolution Requirements for MODIS-N. [Polar Platform Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.; Markham, B. L.; Briggs, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    An empirical investigation of the required spatial resolution for MODIS-N is outlined. It is based on 5 LANDSAT multispectral scanner system images of the normalized difference vegetation index degraded to resolutions between 250 m and 4000 m. Pairs of images from different dates were registered and difference images were generated. Fourier analysis indicates that resolutions finer than 1 km are highly desirable for change detection. A sensor with a resolution of 500 m is recommended as providing the best compromise between detail of changes detected and the size of the resultant data volume, but other options are also suggested.

  19. Observations of the plasma torus of Jupiter with a Fabry-Perot/charge-coupled device /CCD/ imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, F. L.; Scherb, F.; Oliversen, R.; Jaehnig, K.; Williams, T.; York, D. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the use of a CCD imaging spectrometer which has been employed at a 2.1 m telescope to obtain monochromatic images in the red and near infrared. The system studied was Jupiter's plasma torus which circles the planet with radial extent about 5 RJ and 7 RJ (RJ is the radius of Jupiter). In ground based measurements the torus has been observed in the forbidden emission lines of S(plus) at 6716 A and 6731 A and S(plus plus) at 9531 A. Attention is given to aspects of instrumentation, observations, and performance. It is felt that the particular significance of the obtained results from the instrumental point of view is the demonstration that the CCD is an excellent detector for monochromatic imaging in the near infrared out to at least 10830 A and that pixel binning before readout can produce significantly improved S/N ratios for the study of faint, diffuse sources in cases where readout noise is dominant.

  20. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks in the Northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada and California with the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1987-01-01

    Seven flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were analyzed for an area of hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum, and an automated procedure was used to produce a color coded image displaying absorption band information. Individual spectra were extracted from the AIS images to determine the detailed mineralogy. Two alteration types were mapped based upon mineralogy identified using the AIS data. The primary alteration type is quartz sericite pyrite alteration which occurs in northwest-trending zones in quartz monzonite porphyry. The AIS data allow identification of sericite (muscovite) based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 micron and weaker absorption features near 2.35 and 2.45 micron. The second alteration type occurs as a zone of argillic alteration associated with a granitic intrusion. Montmorillonite was identified based on a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.2 micron and the absence of the two absorption features at longer wavelengths characteristic of sericite. Montmorillonite could be identified only where concentrations of sericite did not mask the montmorillonite spectrum.