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Sample records for reconnaissance orbiter miniature

  1. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...

  2. Moving the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In late October 2004, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was moved from the High Bay 100,000-class clean room at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, to the facility's Reverberant Acoustic Lab, where system environmental testing will continue through March 2005. Shown here are technicians guiding the spacecraft as it is lowered onto its transporter interface ring prior to installation of the shipping-container lid.

  3. Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

  4. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  5. Artist's Concept of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, depicted above Mars in this artist's concept illustration, is scheduled for launch in 2005. The orbiter will carry cameras to zoom in for extreme close-up photography of the martian surface, use a sounder to find subsurface water and look for safe and scientifically worthy landing sites for future exploration.

  6. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Navigation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Rivers

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), with emphasis on the navigation and plans for the mission. The objective of the LRO mission is to conduct investigations that will be specifically target to prepare for and support future human exploration of the Moon. There is a review of the scientific instruments on board the LRO and an overview of the phases of the planned trajectory.

  8. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  9. Mission Design for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will be the first mission under NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. LRO will fly in a low 50 km mean altitude lunar polar orbit. LRO will utilize a direct minimum energy lunar transfer and have a launch window of three days every two weeks. The launch window is defined by lunar orbit beta angle at times of extreme lighting conditions. This paper will define the LRO launch window and the science and engineering constraints that drive it. After lunar orbit insertion, LRO will be placed into a commissioning orbit for up to 60 days. This commissioning orbit will be a low altitude quasi-frozen orbit that minimizes stationkeeping costs during commissioning phase. LRO will use a repeating stationkeeping cycle with a pair of maneuvers every lunar sidereal period. The stationkeeping algorithm will bound LRO altitude, maintain ground station contact during maneuvers, and equally distribute periselene between northern and southern hemispheres. Orbit determination for LRO will be at the 50 m level with updated lunar gravity models. This paper will address the quasi-frozen orbit design, stationkeeping algorithms and low lunar orbit determination.

  10. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Interplanetary Cruise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung-Han; Graat, Eric; Halsell, Allen; Highsmith, Dolan; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Demcak, Stuart; Higa, Earl; Mottinger, Neil; Jah, Moriba

    2007-01-01

    Carrying six science instruments and three engineering payloads, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the first mission in a low Mars orbit to characterize the surface, subsurface, and atmospheric properties with unprecedented detail. After a seven-month interplanetary cruise, MRO arrived at Mars executing a 1.0 km/s Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver. MRO achieved a 430 km periapsis altitude with the final orbit solution indicating that only 10 km was attributable to navigation prediction error. With the last interplanetary maneuver performed four months before MOI, this was a significant accomplishment. This paper describes the navigation analyses and results during the 210-day interplanetary cruise. As of August 2007 MRO has returned more than 18 Terabits of scientific data in support of the objectives set by the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). The robust and exceptional interplanetary navigation performance paved the way for a successful MRO mission.

  11. Stationkeeping for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Lamb, Rivers

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is scheduled to launch in 2008 as the first mission under NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Following several weeks in a quasi-frozen commissioning orbit, LRO will fly in a 50 km mean altitude lunar polar orbit. During the one year mission duration, the orbital dynamics of a low lunar orbit force LRO to perform periodic sets of stationkeeping maneuvers. This paper explores the characteristics of low lunar orbits and explains how the LRO stationkeeping plan is designed to accommodate the dynamics in such an orbit. The stationkeeping algorithm used for LRO must meet five mission constraints. These five constraints are to maintain ground station contact during maneuvers, to control the altitude variation of the orbit, to distribute periselene equally between northern and southern hemispheres, to match eccentricity at the beginning and the end of the sidereal period, and to minimize stationkeeping deltaV. This paper addresses how the maneuver plan for LRO is designed to meet all of the above constraints.

  12. Stationkeeping for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Lamb, Rivers

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is scheduled to launch in 2008 as the first mission under NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Follo wing several weeks in a quasi-frozen commissioning orbit, LRO will fl y in a 50 km mean altitude lunar polar orbit. During the one year mis sion duration, the orbital dynamics of a low lunar orbit force LRO to perform periodic sets of stationkeeping maneuvers. This paper explor es the characteristics of low lunar orbits and explains how the LRO s tationkeeping plan is designed to accommodate the dynamics in such an orbit. The stationkeeping algorithm used for LRO must meet five miss ion constraints. These five constraints are to maintain ground statio n contact during maneuvers, to control the altitude variation of the orbit, to distribute periselene equally between northern and southern hemispheres, to match eccentricity at the beginning and the end of the sidereal period, and to minimize stationkeeping (Delta)V. This pape r addresses how the maneuver plan for LRO is designed to meet all of the above constraints.

  13. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in High Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and technicians at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, are building the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA. Assembly and testing of the spacecraft are underway in preparation for launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in August 2005 aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle. In late October 2004, the spacecraft was moved from the High Bay clean room (shown here) into the Reverberant Acoustic Lab, where system environmental testing will continue through March 2005. The testing includes modal survey (which involves measuring spacecraft modes and frequencies), electronic compatibility testing, acoustic testing (which simulates sound vibrations that the spacecraft will experience during launch), shock and deployment tests, and thermal vacuum testing.

  14. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Roars Away

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Atlantic Ocean as a backdrop, an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, roars away from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 7:43 a.m. EDT. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  15. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Lifts Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    At 7:43 a.m. EDT an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, lifts off the pad on Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  16. Editorial Introduction: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, Noah E.; Keller, John W.; Gaddis, Lisa R.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission has shifted our understanding of the history of the Moon. The seven instruments on LRO each have contributed to creating new paradigms for the evolution of the Moon by providing unprecedented measurements of the surface, subsurface, and lunar environment. In this second volume of the LRO Special Issue, we present 21 papers from a broad range of the areas of investigation from LRO, from the volatile inventory, to the shape of the Moons surface, to its rich volcanic history, and the interactions between the lunar surface and the space environment. These themes provide rich science for the instrument teams, as well as for the broader science community who continue to use the LRO data in their research.

  17. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Rowlands, David; McGarry, Jan; Neumann, Gregory; Chinn, Douglas; Mazarico, Erwan; Torrence, Mark

    The U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission will be launched in October 2008, and will carry out a detailed mapping of the Moon using a science payload of multiple instruments, including the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) (Chin, 2007). One of the primary goals of the LRO mission is develop a geodetic grid for the planet. A subsidiary goal is the improvement of the lunar gravity field. The environment for POD on LRO is especially challenging. The spacecraft will orbit the Moon at a mean altitude of 50 km, and the expected error from the Lunar Prospector series of gravity models (to degree 100 or to degree 150) can be expected to be hundreds of meters. LRO will be tracked by S Band Doppler from White Sands, New Mexico, and Dongara, Australia, as well as by one-way laser ranging from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking stations on the Earth. However, unlike the Japanese lunar mission SELENE (Kaguya), no direct tracking will be available while the spacecraft is over the lunar farside. We review the status of orbit modelling for LRO, for both the geopotential modelling and the nonconservative force models, as well as anticipated improvements. We discuss the modelling for the one-way laser ranging observable, and how the data from the one-way laser ranging (LR) system will be acquired from selected stations of the global stations of the SLR network. We discuss the orbit determination strategies which we expect to implement on this mission, including the use of altimeter crossovers from the LOLA instrument to supplement the Earth-based tracking and we review the projected orbit determination accuracies that will be attainable.

  18. Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and began aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO used aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft passed through the atmosphere briefly on each orbit; during each pass the spacecraft was slowed by atmospheric drag, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, most affected by aeroheating, was the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. A companion paper describes the development of this thermal model. This model has been correlated against many sets of flight data. Several maneuvers were performed during the cruise to Mars, such as thruster calibrations, which involve large abrupt changes in the spacecraft orientation relative to the sun. The data obtained from these maneuvers allowed the model to be well-correlated with regard to thermal mass, conductive connections, and solar response well before arrival at the planet. Correlation against flight data for both in-cruise maneuvers and drag passes was performed. Adjustments made to the model included orientation during the drag pass, solar flux, Martian surface temperature, through-array resistance, aeroheating gradient due to angle of attack, and aeroheating accommodation coefficient. Methods of correlation included comparing the model to flight temperatures, slopes, temperature deltas between sensors, and solar and planet direction vectors. Correlation and model accuracy over 400 aeroheating drag passes were determined, with overall model accuracy better than 5 C.

  19. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Accelerometer Experiment Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Zurek, R. W.; Blanchard, R. C.; Tolson, R. H.; Murphy, J. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, designed for aerobraking, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that safely used the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 400 orbits. MRO periapsis precessed from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis was brought dramatically from 40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) August 30, 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers established the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 400 plus aerobraking orbits provided a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (greater than 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extended vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both near the surface and in the upper atmosphere. Thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may both be critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: winter polar warming, planetary scale

  20. Editorial Introduction: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah E.; Keller, John W.; Gaddis, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission has shifted our understanding of the history of the Moon. The seven instruments on LRO each have contributed to creating new paradigms for the evolution of the Moon by providing unprecedented measurements of the surface, subsurface, and lunar environment. In this second volume of the LRO Special Issue, we present 21 papers from a broad range of the areas of investigation from LRO, from the volatile inventory, to the shape of the Moon's surface, to its rich volcanic history, and the interactions between the lunar surface and the space environment. These themes provide rich science for the instrument teams, as well as for the broader science com- munity who continue to use the LRO data in their research. Each paper uses publicly available data from one or more instruments on LRO, illustrating the value of a robust spacecraft. For example, the production of high-resolution topographic data products from the LRO Camera Narrow Angle Camera (Henriksen et al., pp. 122-137, this issue) rely on the accurate geodetic grid produced by the LOLA instrument (Mao et al., pp. 55-69, this issue; Smith et al., pp. 70-91, this issue). Additionally, analysis of LRO data coupled with other spacecraft data, such as LADEE (Hurley et al., pp. 31-37, this issue) and GRAIL (e.g., Jozwiak et al., pp. 224-231, this issue) illustrate the utility of merging not only data from multiple instruments, but also multiple orbital platforms. These synergistic studies show the value of the inter-team approach adopted by the LRO mission. This second volume represents the culmination of an extensive effort to highlight the high-quality science still being produced by the LRO instrument teams, even after more than seven years in orbit at the Moon.

  1. Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschimmel, M.; Robinson, M. S.; Humm, D. C.; Denevi, B. W.; Lawrence, S. J.; Brylow, S.; Ravine, M.; Ghaemi, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) onboard the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft consists of three cameras: the Wide-Angle Camera (WAC) and two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC-L, NAC-R). The WAC is push-frame imager with 5 visible wavelength filters (415 to 680 nm) at a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel and 2 UV filters (315 and 360 nm) with a resolution of 400 m/pixel. In addition to the multicolor imaging the WAC can operate in monochrome mode to provide a global large- incidence angle basemap and a time-lapse movie of the illumination conditions at both poles. The WAC has a highly linear response, a read noise of 72 e- and a full well capacity of 47,200 e-. The signal-to-noise ratio in each band is 140 in the worst case. There are no out-of-band leaks and the spectral response of each filter is well characterized. Each NAC is a monochrome pushbroom scanner, providing images with a resolution of 50 cm/pixel from a 50-km orbit. A single NAC image has a swath width of 2.5 km and a length of up to 26 km. The NACs are mounted to acquire side-by-side imaging for a combined swath width of 5 km. The NAC is designed to fully characterize future human and robotic landing sites in terms of topography and hazard risks. The North and South poles will be mapped on a 1-meter-scale poleward of 85.5° latitude. Stereo coverage can be provided by pointing the NACs off-nadir. The NACs are also highly linear. Read noise is 71 e- for NAC-L and 74 e- for NAC-R and the full well capacity is 248,500 e- for NAC-L and 262,500 e- for NAC- R. The focal lengths are 699.6 mm for NAC-L and 701.6 mm for NAC-R; the system MTF is 28% for NAC-L and 26% for NAC-R. The signal-to-noise ratio is at least 46 (terminator scene) and can be higher than 200 (high sun scene). Both NACs exhibit a straylight feature, which is caused by out-of-field sources and is of a magnitude of 1-3%. However, as this feature is well understood it can be greatly reduced during ground

  2. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Uplink Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; Hwang, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    This software analyzes Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) orbital geometry with respect to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) contact windows, and is the first tool of its kind designed specifically to support MRO-MER interface coordination. Prior to this automated tool, this analysis was done manually with Excel and the UNIX command line. In total, the process would take approximately 30 minutes for each analysis. The current automated analysis takes less than 30 seconds. This tool resides on the flight machine and uses a PHP interface that does the entire analysis of the input files and takes into account one-way light time from another input file. Input flies are copied over to the proper directories and are dynamically read into the tool s interface. The user can then choose the corresponding input files based on the time frame desired for analysis. After submission of the Web form, the tool merges the two files into a single, time-ordered listing of events for both spacecraft. The times are converted to the same reference time (Earth Transmit Time) by reading in a light time file and performing the calculations necessary to shift the time formats. The program also has the ability to vary the size of the keep-out window on the main page of the analysis tool by inputting a custom time for padding each MRO event time. The parameters on the form are read in and passed to the second page for analysis. Everything is fully coded in PHP and can be accessed by anyone with access to the machine via Web page. This uplink tool will continue to be used for the duration of the MER mission's needs for X-band uplinks. Future missions also can use the tools to check overflight times as well as potential site observation times. Adaptation of the input files to the proper format, and the window keep-out times, would allow for other analyses. Any operations task that uses the idea of keep-out windows will have a use for this program.

  3. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini RF System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozette, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) system is manifested on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) as a technology demonstration and an extended mission science instrument. Mini-RF represents a significant step forward in space-borne RF technology and architecture. It combines synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at two wavelengths (S and X band) and two resolutions (150 m and 30 m) with interferometric and communications functionality in one lightweight (16kg) package. Previous radar observations (Earth-based, and one bistatic data set from Clementine) of the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles seem to indicate areas of high circular polarization ratio (CPR) consistent with volume scattering from volatile deposits (e.g. water ice) buried at shallow (0.1-1 m) depth, but only at unfavorable viewing geometries, and with inconclusive results (ref. 1-5). The LRO Mini-RF utilizes new wide band hybrid polarization architecture to measure the Stokes parameters of the reflected signal. These data will help to differentiate “true” volumetric ice reflections from ”false” returns due to angular surface regolith (ref. 6) . Additional lunar science investigations (e.g. pyroclastic deposit characterization) will also be attempted during the LRO extended mission. LRO’s lunar operations will be contemporaneous with India’s Chandrayaan-1, which carries the Forerunner Mini-SAR (S band wavelength and 150-m resolution). On orbit calibration procedures for LRO Mini RF have been validated using Chandrayaan 1 and ground based facilities (Arecibo and Greenbank Radio Observatories). References: 1) Nozette S. et al. (1996) Science 274, 1495. 2) Simpson R. and Tyler L. (1999) JGR 104, 3845. 3) Nozette S. et al. (2001) JGR 106, 23253. 4) Campbell D. et al., (2006) Nature 443, 835. 5) Feldman W. et al., (2001) JGR 106, 23231. 6) Raney R.K. (2007) IEEE Trans Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 3397

  4. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  5. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking Daily Operations and Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Stacia M.; You, Tung-Han; Halsell, C. Allen; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Demcak, Stuart W.; Graat, Eric J.; Higa, Earl S.; Highsmith, Dolan E.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Jah, Moriba K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reached Mars on March 10, 2006 and performed a Mars orbit insertion maneuver of 1 km/s to enter into a large elliptical orbit. Three weeks later, aerobraking operations began and lasted about five months. Aerobraking utilized the atmospheric drag to reduce the large elliptical orbit into a smaller, near circular orbit. At the time of MRO aerobraking, there were three other operational spacecraft orbiting Mars and the navigation team had to minimize the possibility of a collision. This paper describes the daily operations of the MRO navigation team during this time as well as the collision avoidance strategy development and implementation.

  6. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Contamination Sensitivity Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    The following packet is a contamination control training intended for personnel handling or coming to contact with Lunar Reconnaissance Or biter (LRO) flight hardware. This training is being implemented to f amiliarize personnel, coming into contact with LRO hardware, what its contamination sensitivities are and what can be done by all to maint ain its cleanliness levels.

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Sun Safe Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft designed and built at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, was launched on June 18, 2009 from Cape Canaveral. It is currently in orbit about the Moon taking detailed science measurements and providing a highly accurate mapping of the suface in preparation for the future return of astronauts to a permanent moon base. Onboard the spacecraft is a complex set of algorithms designed by the attitude control engineers at GSFC to control the pointig for all operational events, including anomalies that require the spacecraft to be put into a well known attitude configuration for a sufficiently long duration to allow for the investigation and correction of the anomaly. GSFC level requirements state that each spacecraft s control system design must include a configuration for this pointing and lso be able to maintain a thermally safe and power positive attitude. This stable control algorithm for anomalous events is commonly referred to as the safe mode and consists of control logic thatwill put the spacecraft in this safe configuration defined by the spacecraft s hardware, power and environment capabilities and limitations. The LRO Sun Safe mode consists of a coarse sun-pointing set of algorithms that puts the spacecraft into this thermally safe and power positive attitude and can be achieved wihin a required amount of time from any initial attitude, provided that the system momentum is within the momentum capability of the reaction wheels. On LRO the Sun Safe mode makes use of coarse sun sensors (CSS), an inertial reference unit (IRU) and reaction wheels (RW) to slew the spacecraft to a solar inertial pointing. The CSS and reaction wheels have some level of redundancy because of their numbers. However, the IRU is a single-point-failure piece of hardware. Without the rate information provided by the IRU, the Sun Safe control algorithms could not

  8. Automated Maneuver Design and Checkout for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    International Space Station LAMP Lyman alpha mapping project LEND lunar exploration neutron detector LOLA lunar orbiter laser altimeter LRO Lunar...Planetary Data System S/C spacecraft TRACE Transition Region And Coronal Explorer UV ultraviolet V&V validation and verification xiv THIS...cost metrics. This objective of this thesis is to explore the application of optimal control theory to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO

  9. The Mars Climate Sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleese, D.; Taylor, F.; Schofield, J.; Calcutt, S.

    2003-04-01

    There remains a need for an intensive effort to obtain a climatology of the martian atmosphere. This objective was to have been accomplished with the Mars Observer and with the Mars Climatology Orbiter, both of which failed at Mars. In 2005, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will carry the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) to aquire the necessary measurements of the vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, dust and condensates. This paper describes the climate objectives and measurement approach of MCS.

  10. Probabilistic Thermal Analysis During Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for performing a probabilistic thermal analysis during aerobraking has been developed. The analysis is performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter solar array during aerobraking. The methodology makes use of a response surface model derived from a more complex finite element thermal model of the solar array. The response surface is a quadratic equation which calculates the peak temperature for a given orbit drag pass at a specific location on the solar panel. Five different response surface equations are used, one of which predicts the overall maximum solar panel temperature, and the remaining four predict the temperatures of the solar panel thermal sensors. The variables used to define the response surface can be characterized as either environmental, material property, or modeling variables. Response surface variables are statistically varied in a Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation produces mean temperatures and 3 sigma bounds as well as the probability of exceeding the designated flight allowable temperature for a given orbit. Response surface temperature predictions are compared with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flight temperature data.

  11. flexplan: Mission Planning System for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    flexplan is a mission planning and scheduling (MPS) tool that uses soft algorithms to define mission scheduling rules and constraints. This allows the operator to configure the tool for any mission without the need to modify or recompile code. In addition, flexplan uses an ID system to track every output on the schedule to the input from which it was generated. This allows flexplan to receive feedback as the schedules are executed, and update the status of all activities in a Web-based client. flexplan outputs include various planning reports, stored command loads for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), ephemeris loads, and pass scripts for automation.

  12. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, R. R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Petro, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. Having marked the two-year anniversary, we will review here the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for an extended science phase out to 2014.

  13. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Navigation During the Primary Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Dolan; You, Tung-Han; Demcak, Stuart; Graat, Eric; Higa, Earl; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Mottinger, Neil; Halsell, Allen; Peralta, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter began science operations in November 2006, with a suite of seven instruments and investigations, some of which required navigation accuracies much better than previous Mars missions. This paper describes the driving performance requirements levied on Navigation and how well those requirements have been met thus far. Trending analyses that have a direct impact on the Navigation performance, such as atmospheric bias determination, are covered in detail, as well as dynamic models, estimation strategy, tracking data reduction techniques, and residual noise.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John; Chin, Gordon; Garvin, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was implemented to facilitate scientific and engineering-driven mapping of the lunar surface at new spatial scales and with new remote sensing methods, identify safe landing sites, search for in situ resources, and measure the space radiation environment. After its successful launch on June 18,2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments with associated science and exploration investigations, and a telecommunications/radar technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a compact, dual-frequency, hybrid polarity synthetic aperture radar instrument (Mini-RF). LRO observations also support the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V (401) launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science's report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science and exploration community.

  15. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: orbit quality and gravity field estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mao, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of the Precision Orbit Determination work undertaken by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Science Team for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, in order to meet the position knowledge accuracy requirements (50-m total position) and to precisely geolocate the LRO datasets. In addition to the radiometric tracking data, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth stations and the spacecraft are made possible by a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. The LOLA timing system enables 5-s LR normal points with precision better than 10cm. Other types of geodetic constraints are derived from the altimetric data itself. The orbit geometry can be constrained at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). Due to the Moon's slow rotation, orbit solutions and normal equations including altimeter crossovers are processed and created in one month batches. Recent high-resolution topographic maps near the lunar poles are used to produce a new kind of geodetic constraints. Purely geometric, those do not necessitate actual groundtrack intersections. We assess the contributions of those data types, and the quality of our orbits. Solutions which use altimetric crossover meet the horizontal 50-m requirement, and perform usually better (10-20m). We also obtain gravity field solutions based on LRO and historical data. The various LRO data are accumulated into normal equations, separately for each one month batch and for each measurement type, which enables the final weights to be adjusted during the least-squares inversion step. Expansion coefficients to degree and order 150 are estimated, and a Kaula rule is still needed to stabilize the farside field. The gravity field solutions are compared to previous solutions (GLGM-3, LP150Q, SGM100h) and the geopotential predicted from the latest LOLA spherical harmonic expansion.

  16. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Jackson, Glenn B.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Riris, Haris; Sun, Xiaoli; Zellar, Ronald S.; Coltharp, Craig; Connelly, Joseph; Katz, Richard B.; Kleyner, Igor; Liiva, Peter; Matuszeski, Adam; Mazarico, Erwan M.; McGarry, Jan F.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Ott, Melanie N.; Peters, Carlton; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.; Ramsey, Lawrence; Rowlands, David D.; Schmidt, Stephen; Scott, V. Stanley; Shaw, George B.; Smith, James C.; Swinski, Joseph-Paul; Torrence, Mark H.; Unger, Glenn; Yu, Anthony W.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) is an instrument on the payload of NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO) (Chin et al., in Space Sci. Rev. 129:391-419, 2007). The instrument is designed to measure the shape of the Moon by measuring precisely the range from the spacecraft to the lunar surface, and incorporating precision orbit determination of LRO, referencing surface ranges to the Moon’s center of mass. LOLA has 5 beams and operates at 28 Hz, with a nominal accuracy of 10 cm. Its primary objective is to produce a global geodetic grid for the Moon to which all other observations can be precisely referenced.

  17. Engineering a Successful Mission: Lessons from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Schedule pressure is common in the commercial world, where late delivery of a product means delayed income and loss of profit. 12 Research spacecraft developed by NASA, on the other hand, tend to be driven by the high cost of launch vehicles and the public scrutiny of failure-- the primary driver is ensuring proper operation in space for a system that cannot be retrieved for repair. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) development faced both schedule pressure and high visibility. The team had to balance the strong push to meet a launch date against the need to ensure that this first mission for Exploration succeeded. This paper will provide an overview of the mission from concept through its first year of operation and explore some of the challenges the systems engineering team faced taking a mission from preliminary design review to pre-ship review in 3 years.

  18. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Plans for the Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Rice, James; Garvin, James

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), which was launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's primary objectives included the search for resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. This phase of the mission was completed on September 15,2010 when the operational responsibility for LRO was transferred from ESMD to NASA's Science Mission directorate (SMD). Under SMD, the mission focuses on a new set of goals related to the history of the Moon, its current state and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System.

  19. Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry, Steve; Campion, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) tracking data certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN) complement of tracking stations consisting of the NASA White Sands 1 antenna (WS1), and the commercial provider Universal Space Network (USN) antennas at South Point, Hawaii; Dongara Australia; Weilheim, Germany; and Kiruna, Sweden. Certification assessment required the cooperation and coordination of parties not under the control of either the LRO project or ground stations as uplinks on cooperating spacecraft were necessary. The LRO range-tracking requirement of 10m 1 sigma could be satisfactorily demonstrated using any typical spacecraft capable of range tracking. Though typical Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) spacecraft may be adequate for range certification, their measurement dynamics and noise would be unacceptable for proper Doppler certification of 1-3mm/sec 1 sigma. As LRO will orbit the Moon, it was imperative that a suitable target spacecraft be utilized which can closely mimic the expected lunar orbital Doppler dynamics of +/-1.6km/sec and +/-1.5m/sq sec to +/-0.15m/sq sec, is in view of the ground stations, supports coherent S-Band Doppler tracking measurements, and can be modeled by the FDF. In order to meet the LRO metric tracking data specifications, the SCN ground stations employed previously uncertified numerically controlled tracking receivers. Initial certification testing revealed certain characteristics of the units that required resolution before being granted certification.

  20. Observing Mode Attitude Controller for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Garrick, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is the first of a series of lunar robotic spacecraft scheduled for launch in Fall 2008. LRO will spend at least one year in a low altitude polar orbit around the Moon, collecting lunar environment science and mapping data to enable future human exploration. The LRO employs a 3-axis stabilized attitude control system (ACS) whose primary control mode, the "Observing mode", provides Lunar Nadir, off-Nadir, and Inertial fine pointing for the science data collection and instrument calibration. The controller combines the capability of fine pointing with that of on-demand large angle full-sky attitude reorientation into a single ACS mode, providing simplicity of spacecraft operation as well as maximum flexibility for science data collection. A conventional suite of ACS components is employed in this mode to meet the pointing and control objectives. This paper describes the design and analysis of the primary LRO fine pointing and attitude re-orientation controller function, known as the "Observing mode" of the ACS subsystem. The control design utilizes quaternion feedback, augmented with a unique algorithm that ensures accurate Nadir tracking during large angle yaw maneuvers in the presence of high system momentum and/or maneuver rates. Results of system stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the observing mode controller can meet fine pointing and maneuver performance requirements.

  1. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Results and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Petro, Noah; McLanahan, Timothy; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, James

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years. In that time it has been a witness to, and participant in, a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift is taking place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  2. Atmospheric structure from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter accelerometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G.; Bougher, S.; Theriot, M.; Zurek, R.; Blanchard, R.; Tolson, R.; Murphy, J.

    Designed for aerobraking, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that will safely use the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 500 orbits. MRO periapsis precesses from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis is brought dramatically from ˜40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) mid September 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers will establish the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 500 plus aerobraking orbits provides a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (> 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extends vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both the lower atmosphere and the upper atmosphere, thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may be equally critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO will help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: polar vortices, winter polar

  3. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  4. Free space laser communication experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in lunar orbit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R; Hoffman, Evan D; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S; Davidson, Frederic M; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2013-01-28

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  5. Planetary protection implementation on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Witte, J.

    2008-09-01

    In August 2005 NASA launched a large orbiting science observatory, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), for what is scheduled to be a 5.4-year mission. High resolution imaging of the surface is a principal goal of the mission. One consequence of this goal however is the need for a low science orbit. Unfortunately this orbit fails the required 20-year orbit life set in NASA Planetary Protection (PP) requirements [NASA. Planetary protection provisions for robotic extraterrestrial missions, NASA procedural requirements NPR 8020.12C, NASA HQ, Washington, DC, April 2005.]. So rather than sacrifice the science goals of the mission by raising the science orbit, the MRO Project chose to be the first orbiter to pursue the bio-burden reduction approach. Cleaning alone for a large orbiter like MRO is insufficient to achieve the bio-burden threshold requirement in NASA PP requirements. The burden requirement for an orbiter includes spores encapsulated in non-metallic materials and trapped in joints, as well as located on all internal and external surfaces (the total spore burden). Total burden estimates are dominated by the mated and encapsulated burden. The encapsulated burden cannot be cleaned. The total burden of a smaller orbiter (e.g., Mars Odyssey) likely could not have met the requirement by cleaning; for the large MRO it is clearly impossible. Of course, a system-level partial sterilization, with its attendant costs and system design issues, could have been employed. In the approach taken by the MRO Project, hardware which will burn up (completely vaporize or ablate) before reaching the surface or will at least attain high temperature (500 °C for 0.5 s or more) due to entry heating was exempt from burden accounting. Thus the bio-burden estimate was reduced. Lockheed Martin engineers developed a process to perform what is called breakup and burn-up (B&B) analysis.Lockheed Martin Corporation.2 The use of the B&B analysis to comply with the spore burden requirement is

  6. An Overview of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the latest addition to the suite of missions on or orbiting Mars as part of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. Launched on 12 August 2005, the orbiter successfully entered Mars orbit on 10 March 2006 and finished aerobraking on 30 August 2006. Now in its near-polar, near-circular, low-altitude (approximately 300 km), 3 p.m. orbit, the spacecraft is operating its payload of six scientific instruments throughout a one-Mars-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) of global mapping, regional survey, and targeted observations. Eight scientific investigations were chosen for MRO, two of which use either the spacecraft accelerometers or tracking of the spacecraft telecom signal to acquire data needed for analysis. Six instruments, including three imaging systems, a visible-near infrared spectrometer, a shallow-probing subsurface radar, and a thermal-infrared profiler, were selected to complement and extend the capabilities of current working spacecraft at Mars. Whether observing the atmosphere, surface, or subsurface, the MRO instruments are designed to achieve significantly higher resolution while maintaining coverage comparable to the current best observations. The requirements to return higher-resolution data, to target routinely from a low-altitude orbit, and to operate a complex suite of instruments were major challenges successfully met in the design and build of the spacecraft, as well as by the mission design. Calibration activities during the seven-month cruise to Mars and limited payload operations during a three-day checkout prior to the start of aerobraking demonstrated, where possible, that the spacecraft and payload still had the functions critical to the science mission. Two critical events, the deployment of the SHARAD radar antenna and the opening of the CRISM telescope cover, were successfully accomplished in September 2006. Normal data collection began 7 November 2006 after solar conjunction. As part of its science

  7. Launch and Commissioning of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip; Garrick, Joseph; Hsu, Oscar; Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. LRO, designed, built, and operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. To date, the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem has operated nominally and met all requirements. However, during the early phase of the mission, the GN&C Team encountered some anomalies. For example, during the Solar Array and High Gain Antenna deployments, one of the safing action points tripped, which was not expected. Also, the spacecraft transitioned to its safe hold mode, SunSafe, due to encountering an end of file for an ephemeris table. During the five-day lunar acquisition, one of the star trackers triggered the spacecraft to transition into a safe hold configuration, the cause of which was determined. These events offered invaluable insight to better understand the performance of the system they designed. An overview of the GN&C subsystem will be followed by a mission timeline. Then, interesting flight performance as well as anomalies encountered by the GN&C Team will be discussed in chronological order.

  8. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Rapid Thermal Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Cottingham, Christine; Garrison, Matthew; Melak, Tony; Peabody, Sharon; Powers, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) project had a rapid development schedule starting with project conception in spring of 2004, instrument and launch vehicle selection late in 2005 and then launch in early 2009. The lunar thermal environment is one of the harshest in our solar system with the heavy infrared loading of the moon due to low albedo, lack of lunar atmosphere, and low effective regolith conduction. This set of constraints required a thermal design which maximized performance (minimized radiator area and cold control heater power) and minimized thermal hardware build at the orbiter level (blanketing, and heater service). The orbiter design located most of the avionics on an isothermalized heat pipe panel called the IsoThermal Panel (ITP). The ITP was coupled by dual bore heat pipes to an Optical Solar Reflector (OSR) covered heat pipe radiator. By coupling all of the avionics to one system, the hardware was simplified. The seven instruments were mainly heritage instruments which resulted in their desired radiators being located by their heritage design. This minimized instrument redesigns and therefore allowed them to be delivered earlier, though it resulted in a more complex orbiter level blanket and heater service design. Three of the instruments were mounted on a tight pointing M55J optical bench that needed to be covered in heaters to maintain pointing. Two were mounted to spacecraft controlled radiators. One was mounted to the ITP Dual Bores. The last was mounted directly to the bus structure on the moon facing panel. The propulsion system utilized four-20 pound insertion thrusters and eight-5 pound attitude control thrusters (ACS) in addition to 1000 kg of fuel in two large tanks. The propulsion system had a heater cylinder and a heated mounting deck for the insertion thrusters which coupled most of the propulsion design together simplifying the heater design. The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) and Solar Array System (SAS) used dual axis

  9. Pre-flight and On-orbit Geometric Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.; Licht, A.; Thomas, P. C.; Becker, K.; Anderson, J.; Brylow, S. M.; Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) consists of two imaging systems that provide multispectral and high resolution imaging of the lunar surface. The Wide Angle Camera (WAC) is a seven color push-frame imager with a 90∘ field of view in monochrome mode and 60∘ field of view in color mode. From the nominal 50 km polar orbit, the WAC acquires images with a nadir ground sampling distance of 75 m for each of the five visible bands and 384 m for the two ultraviolet bands. The Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) consists of two identical cameras capable of acquiring images with a ground sampling distance of 0.5 m from an altitude of 50 km. The LROC team geometrically calibrated each camera before launch at Malin Space Science Systems in San Diego, California and the resulting measurements enabled the generation of a detailed camera model for all three cameras. The cameras were mounted and subsequently launched on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on 18 June 2009. Using a subset of the over 793000 NAC and 207000 WAC images of illuminated terrain collected between 30 June 2009 and 15 December 2013, we improved the interior and exterior orientation parameters for each camera, including the addition of a wavelength dependent radial distortion model for the multispectral WAC. These geometric refinements, along with refined ephemeris, enable seamless projections of NAC image pairs with a geodetic accuracy better than 20 meters and sub-pixel precision and accuracy when orthorectifying WAC images.

  10. Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven; Lowe, Jonathan; Woodburn, James

    2015-01-01

    Orbit determination (OD) analysis results are presented for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) using a commercially available Extended Kalman Filter, Analytical Graphics' Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK). Process noise models for lunar gravity and solar radiation pressure (SRP) are described and OD results employing the models are presented. Definitive accuracy using ODTK meets mission requirements and is better than that achieved using the operational LRO OD tool, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Results demonstrate that a Vasicek stochastic model produces better estimates of the coefficient of solar radiation pressure than a Gauss-Markov model, and prediction accuracy using a Vasicek model meets mission requirements over the analysis span. Modeling the effect of antenna motion on range-rate tracking considerably improves residuals and filter-smoother consistency. Inclusion of off-axis SRP process noise and generalized process noise improves filter performance for both definitive and predicted accuracy. Definitive accuracy from the smoother is better than achieved using GTDS and is close to that achieved by precision OD methods used to generate definitive science orbits. Use of a multi-plate dynamic spacecraft area model with ODTK's force model plugin capability provides additional improvements in predicted accuracy.

  11. Experiences Supporting the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: the Devops Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, A.; Estes, N. M.; Bowman-Cisnesros, E.; Hanger, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for instrument targeting, product processing, and archiving [1]. The LROC SOC maintains over 1,000,000 observations with over 300 TB of released data. Processing challenges compound with the acquisition of over 400 Gbits of observations daily creating the need for a robust, efficient, and reliable suite of specialized software. Development Environment: The LROC SOC's software development methodology has evolved over time. Today, the development team operates in close cooperation with the systems administration team in a model known in the IT industry as DevOps. The DevOps model enables a highly productive development environment that facilitates accomplishment of key goals within tight schedules[2]. The LROC SOC DevOps model incorporates industry best practices including prototyping, continuous integration, unit testing, code coverage analysis, version control, and utilizing existing open source software. Scientists and researchers at LROC often prototype algorithms and scripts in a high-level language such as MATLAB or IDL. After the prototype is functionally complete the solution is implemented as production ready software by the developers. Following this process ensures that all controls and requirements set by the LROC SOC DevOps team are met. The LROC SOC also strives to enhance the efficiency of the operations staff by way of weekly presentations and informal mentoring. Many small scripting tasks are assigned to the cognizant operations personnel (end users), allowing for the DevOps team to focus on more complex and mission critical tasks. In addition to leveraging open source software the LROC SOC has also contributed to the open source community by releasing Lunaserv [3]. Findings: The DevOps software model very efficiently provides smooth software releases and maintains team momentum. Scientists prototyping their work has proven to be very efficient

  12. Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Richard A.; Matthews, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The parameters and restrictions for a horizontal flow ISO Class 6 Clean room to support the assembly of the new LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) were unusual. The project time line was critical. A novel Clean room design was developed and built within the time restraints. This paper describes the design criteria, timing, successful performance, and future benefits of this unique Clean room project.

  13. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars investigation and data set from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Seelos, F.P.; Hash, C.D.; Humm, D.C.; Malaret, E.; McGovern, J.A.; Choo, T.H.; Seelos, K.D.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Morgan, M.F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Nair, H.; Taylor, H.W.; Patterson, G.W.; Harvel, C.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Arvidson, R. E.; McGuire, P.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.; Titus, T.N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Poulet, F.

    2009-01-01

    The part of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) for Mars investigation conducted during the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO's) primary science phase was a comprehensive investigation of past aqueous environments, structure of the planet's crust, past climate, and current meteorology. The measurements to implement this investigation include over 9500 targeted observations of surface features taken at spatial resolutions of better than 40 m/pixel, monitoring of seasonal variations in atmospheric aerosols and trace gases, and acquisition of a 200 m/pixel map covering over 55% of Mars in 72 selected wavelengths under conditions of relatively low atmospheric opacity. Key results from these data include recognition of a diversity of aqueous mineral-containing deposits, discovery of a widespread distribution of phyllosilicates in early to middle Noachian units, the first definitive detection of carbonates in bedrock, new constraints on the sequence of events that formed Hesperian-aged, sulfate-rich layered deposits, characterization of seasonal polar processes, and monitoring of the 2007 global dust event. Here we describe CRISM's science investigations during the Primary Science Phase, the data sets that were collected and their calibration and uncertainties, and how they have been processed and made available to the scientific community. We also describe the ongoing investigation during MRO's extended science phase. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Solar Array Disturbances to Spacecraft Pointing During the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), the first spacecraft to support NASA s return to the Moon, launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle. It was initially inserted into a direct trans-lunar trajectory to the Moon. After a five day transit to the Moon, LRO was inserted into the Lunar orbit and successfully lowered to a low altitude elliptical polar orbit for spacecraft commissioning. Successful commissioning was completed in October 2009 when LRO was placed in its near circular mission orbit with an approximate altitude of 50km. LRO will spend at least one year orbiting the Moon, collecting lunar environment science and mapping data, utilizing a suite of seven instruments to enable future human exploration. The objective is to provide key science data necessary to facilitate human return to the Moon as well as identification of opportunities for future science missions. LRO's instrument suite will provide the high resolution imaging data with sub-meter accuracy, highly accurate lunar cartographic maps, mineralogy mapping, amongst other science data of interest. LRO employs a 3-axis stabilized attitude control system (ACS) whose primary control mode, the "Observing Mode", provides Lunar nadir, off-nadir, and inertial fine pointing for the science data collection and instrument calibration. This controller combines the capability of fine pointing with on-demand large angle full-sky attitude reorientation. It provides simplicity of spacecraft operation as well as additional flexibility for science data collection. A conventional suite of ACS components is employed in the Observing Mode to meet the pointing and control objectives. Actuation is provided by a set of four reaction wheels developed in-house at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Attitude feedback is provided by a six state Kalman filter which utilizes two SELEX Galileo Star Trackers for attitude updates, and a single Honeywell Miniature

  15. Mafic Materials in Scott Crater? A Test for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Clementine 750 nm and multispectral ratio data, along with Lunar Orbiter and radar data, were used to study the crater Scott in the lunar south polar region. The multispectral data provide evidence for mafic materials, impact melts, anorthositic materials, and a small pyroclastic deposit. High-resolution radar data and Lunar Orbiter photography for this area show differences in color and surface texture that correspond with the locations of the hypothesized mafic and anorthositic areas on the crater floor. This region provides a test case for the upcoming Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Verification of the existence of a mafic deposit at this location is relevant to future lunar resource utilization planning.

  16. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Navigation Strategy for Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Telecommunication Relay Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jessica L.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Demcak, Stuart W.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is an orbiting asset that performs remote sensing observations in order to characterize the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars. To support upcoming NASA Mars Exploration Program Office objectives, MRO will be used as a relay communication link for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission during the MSL Entry, Descent and Landing sequence. To do so, MRO Navigation must synchronize the MRO Primary Science Orbit (PSO) with a set of target conditions requested by the MSL Navigation Team; this may be accomplished via propulsive maneuvers. This paper describes the MRO Navigation strategy for and operational performance of MSL EDL relay telecommunication support.

  17. Demonstration of Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using One-Way Laser Ranging Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We used one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) for a demonstration of orbit determination. In the one-way setup, the state of LRO and the parameters of the spacecraft and all involved ground station clocks must be estimated simultaneously. This setup introduces many correlated parameters that are resolved by using a priori constraints. More over the observation data coverage and errors accumulating from the dynamical and the clock modeling limit the maximum arc length. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the arc length, the dynamical and modeling accuracy and the observation data coverage on the accuracy of the results. We analyzed multiple arcs using lengths of 2 and 7 days during a one-week period in Science Mission phase 02 (SM02,November2010) and compared the trajectories, the post-fit measurement residuals and the estimated clock parameters. We further incorporated simultaneous passes from multiple stations within the observation data to investigate the expected improvement in positioning. The estimated trajectories were compared to the nominal LRO trajectory and the clock parameters (offset, rate and aging) to the results found in the literature. Arcs estimated with one-way ranging data had differences of 5-30 m compared to the nominal LRO trajectory. While the estimated LRO clock rates agreed closely with the a priori constraints, the aging parameters absorbed clock modeling errors with increasing clock arc length. Because of high correlations between the different ground station clocks and due to limited clock modeling accuracy, their differences only agreed at the order of magnitude with the literature. We found that the incorporation of simultaneous passes requires improved modeling in particular to enable the expected improvement in positioning. We found that gaps in the observation data coverage over 12h (approximately equals 6

  18. Demonstration of orbit determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter using one-way laser ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Dirkx, D.; Mao, D.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    We used one-way laser ranging data from International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) ground stations to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) for a demonstration of orbit determination. In the one-way setup, the state of LRO and the parameters of the spacecraft and all involved ground station clocks must be estimated simultaneously. This setup introduces many correlated parameters that are resolved by using a priori constraints. Moreover the observation data coverage and errors accumulating from the dynamical and the clock modeling limit the maximum arc length. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the arc length, the dynamical and modeling accuracy and the observation data coverage on the accuracy of the results. We analyzed multiple arcs using lengths of 2 and 7 days during a one-week period in Science Mission phase 02 (SM02, November 2010) and compared the trajectories, the post-fit measurement residuals and the estimated clock parameters. We further incorporated simultaneous passes from multiple stations within the observation data to investigate the expected improvement in positioning. The estimated trajectories were compared to the nominal LRO trajectory and the clock parameters (offset, rate and aging) to the results found in the literature. Arcs estimated with one-way ranging data had differences of 5-30 m compared to the nominal LRO trajectory. While the estimated LRO clock rates agreed closely with the a priori constraints, the aging parameters absorbed clock modeling errors with increasing clock arc length. Because of high correlations between the different ground station clocks and due to limited clock modeling accuracy, their differences only agreed at the order of magnitude with the literature. We found that the incorporation of simultaneous passes requires improved modeling in particular to enable the expected improvement in positioning. We found that gaps in the observation data coverage over 12 h (≈6 successive LRO orbits

  19. Introduction to Special Section on Results of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. The analyses of the LRO data sets have overturned previous beliefs and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This introduction to the special section describes the LRO mission and summarizes some of the science results in the papers that follow.

  20. Integration and Testing of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Jim; Badgley, Jason; McCaughey, Ken; Brown, Kristen; Calhoun, Philip; Davis, Edward; Garrick, Joseph; Gill, Nathaniel; Hsu, Oscar; Jones, Noble; Oritz-Cruz, Gerardo; Raymond, Juan; Roder, Russell; Shah, Neerav; Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Integration and Testing (I&T) phase of the project, the Attitude Control System (ACS) team completed numerous tests on each hardware component in ever more flight like environments. The ACS utilizes a select group of attitude sensors and actuators. This paper chronicles the evolutionary steps taken to verify each component was constantly ready for flight as well as providing invaluable trending experience with the actual hardware. The paper includes a discussion of each ACS hardware component, lessons learned of the various stages of I&T, a discussion of the challenges that are unique to the LRO project, as well as a discussion of work for future missions to consider as part of their I&T plan. LRO ACS sensors were carefully installed, tested, and maintained over the 18 month I&T and prelaunch timeline. Care was taken with the optics of the Adcole Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS) to ensure their critical role in the Safe Hold mode was fulfilled. The use of new CSS stimulators provided the means of testing each CSS sensor independently, in ambient and vacuum conditions as well as over a wide range of thermal temperatures. Extreme bright light sources were also used to test the CSS in ambient conditions. The integration of the two SELEX Galileo Star Trackers was carefully planned and executed. Optical ground support equipment was designed and used often to check the performance of the star trackers throughout I&T in ambient and thermal/vacuum conditions. A late discovery of potential contamination of the star tracker light shades is discussed in this paper. This paper reviews how each time the spacecraft was at a new location and orientation, the Honeywell Miniature Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU) was checked for data output validity. This gyro compassing test was performed at several key testing points in the timeline as well as several times while LRO was on the launch pad. Sensor alignment tests were completed several

  1. Development, Qualification and Integration of the Optical Fiber Array Assemblies for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Fiber Optics Team in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Applied Engineering and Technology Directorate, designed, developed and integrated the space flight optical fiber array hardware for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The two new assemblies that were designed and manufacturing at GSFC for the LRO exist in configurations that are unique in the world for the application of ranging and LIDAR. Described here is an account of the journey and the lessons learned from design to integration for the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and the Laser Ranging Application on the LRO.

  2. A simulation study of multi-beam altimetry for lunar reconnaissance orbiter and other planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Luthcke, S. B.

    2009-08-01

    The combined use of altimetry, Earth-based Doppler and Earth-based range measurements in the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) mission (Chin et al. in Space Sci Rev 129:391-419, 2007) has been examined in a simulation study. It is found that in the initial phases of the mission orbit and altimeter geolocation accuracies should be better than 10 m in the radial component and 60 m overall. It is demonstrated that LRO’s precise 1-way laser range measurement from Earth-based stations (Smith et al. in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Ranging Workshop, Canberra, Australia, October 15-20, 2006) will be useful for gravity recovery. The advantages of multiple laser beams are demonstrated for altimeter calibration, orbit determination and gravity recovery in general planetary settings as well as for LRO.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Ka Band Radio Science Experiments and the Effect of the Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Morabito, David

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the possibilities of utilizing the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and polarization of radio signals to investigate, specifically for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)mission utilizes X-band coherent (uplink and downlink) carrier Doppler and range for its gravity investigation Gravity team will also take advantage of Ka-band downlink signal Tropospheric calibration data from Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) will be used. The calibration of the received Ka band signal for the effect of the troposphere is discussed.

  4. Thermal Modeling of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Solar Panel and Instruments during Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft s design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.

  5. Lunar atmospheric H2 detections by the LAMP UV spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Cook, Jason C.; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the detection of H2 as seen in our analysis of twilight observations of the lunar atmosphere observed by the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Using a large amount of data collected on the lunar atmosphere between September 2009 and March 2013, we have detected and identified, the presence of H2 in the native lunar atmosphere, for the first time. We derive a surface density for H2 of 1.2 ± 0.4 × 103 cm-3 at 120 K. This is about 10 times smaller than originally predicted, and several times smaller than previous upper limits from the Apollo era data.

  6. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Six Years of Science and Exploration at the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Since entering lunar orbit on June 23, 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. These measurements provide new information regarding the physical properties of the lunar surface, the lunar environment, and the location of volatiles and other resources. Scientific interpretation of these observations improves our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Scientific results from LRO observations overturned existing paradigms and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This paper summarizes the capabilities, measurements, and some of the science and exploration results of the first six years of the LRO mission.

  7. Aeroheating Analysis for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with Comparison to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2007-01-01

    The aeroheating environment of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been analyzed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo and free-molecular techniques. The results of these analyses were used to develop an aeroheating database to be used for the preflight planning and the in-flight operations support for the aerobraking phase of the MRO mission. The aeroheating predictions calculated for the MRO include the heat transfer coefficient (CH) over a range of angles-of-attack, sideslip angles, and number densities. The effects of flow chemistry, surface temperature, and surface grid resolution were also investigated to determine the aeroheating database uncertainties. Flight heat flux data has been calculated from surface temperature sensor data returned to Earth from the MRO in orbit around Mars during the aerobraking phase of its mission. The heat flux data have been compared to the aeroheating database and agree favorably.

  8. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission - Six years of science and exploration at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2016-07-01

    Since entering lunar orbit on June 23, 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has made comprehensive measurements of the Moon and its environment. The seven LRO instruments use a variety of primarily remote sensing techniques to obtain a unique set of observations. These measurements provide new information regarding the physical properties of the lunar surface, the lunar environment, and the location of volatiles and other resources. Scientific interpretation of these observations improves our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Scientific results from LRO observations overturned existing paradigms and deepened our appreciation of the complex nature of our nearest neighbor. This paper summarizes the capabilities, measurements, and some of the science and exploration results of the first six years of the LRO mission.

  9. Topography of the Lunar Poles and Application to Geodesy with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rowlands, David D.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) [1] onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) [2] has been operating continuously since July 2009 [3], accumulating approx.5.4 billion measurements from 2 billion on-orbit laser shots. LRO s near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, which are each sampled every 2h. With more than 10,000 orbits, high-resolution maps can be constructed [4] and studied [5]. However, this requires careful processing of the raw data, as subtle errors in the spacecraft position and pointing can lead to visible artifacts in the final map. In other locations on the Moon, ground tracks are subparallel and longitudinal separations are typically a few hundred meters. Near the poles, the track intersection angles can be large and the inter-track spacing is small (above 80 latitude, the effective resolution is better than 50m). Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of the LRO spacecraft [6] was performed to satisfy the LOLA and LRO mission requirements, which lead to a significant improvement in the orbit position knowledge over the short-release navigation products. However, with pixel resolutions of 10 to 25 meters, artifacts due to orbit reconstruction still exist. Here, we show how the complete LOLA dataset at both poles can be adjusted geometrically to produce a high-accuracy, high-resolution maps with minimal track artifacts. We also describe how those maps can then feedback to the POD work, by providing topographic base maps with which individual LOLA altimetric measurements can be contributing to orbit changes. These direct altimetry constraints improve accuracy and can be used more simply than the altimetric crossovers [6].

  10. The Laser Ranging Experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five Years of Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; Golder, James E.; Barker, Michael K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 hours of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 centimeter precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 centimeter after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nomi- nally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of approximately 50 meters in total position, and approximately 20 centimeters in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to approximately 15 centimeters. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 milliseconds over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  11. The laser ranging experiment of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Five years of operations and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Rowlands, David D.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Horvath, Julie E.; Golder, James E.; Barker, Michael K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the results of the Laser Ranging (LR) experiment carried out from June 2009 to September 2014 in order to make one-way time-of-flight measurements of laser pulses between Earth-based laser ranging stations and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the Moon. Over 4,000 h of successful LR data are obtained from 10 international ground stations. The 20-30 cm precision of the full-rate LR data is further improved to 5-10 cm after conversion into normal points. The main purpose of LR is to utilize the high accuracy normal point data to improve the quality of the LRO orbits, which are nominally determined by the radiometric S-band tracking data. When independently used in the LRO precision orbit determination process with the high-resolution GRAIL gravity model, LR data provide good orbit solutions, with an average difference of ∼50 m in total position, and ∼20 cm in radial direction, compared to the definitive LRO trajectory. When used in combination with the S-band tracking data, LR data help to improve the orbit accuracy in the radial direction to ∼15 cm. In order to obtain highly accurate LR range measurements for precise orbit determination results, it is critical to closely model the behavior of the clocks both at the ground stations and on the spacecraft. LR provides a unique data set to calibrate the spacecraft clock. The LRO spacecraft clock is characterized by the LR data to a timing knowledge of 0.015 ms over the entire 5 years of LR operation. We here present both the engineering setup of the LR experiments and the detailed analysis results of the LR data.

  12. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  13. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  14. Link Design and Planning for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ka-band (32 GHz) Telecom Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Davarian, Faramaz; Morabito, David

    2004-01-01

    NASA is planning an engineering telemetry demonstration with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Capabilities of Ka-band (32 GHz) for use with deep space mission are demonstrated using the link optimization algorithms and weather forecasting. Furthermore, based on the performance of previous deep space missions with Ka-band downlink capabilities, experiment plans are developed for telemetry operations during superior solar conjunction. A general overview of the demonstration is given followed by a description of the mission planning during cruise, the primary science mission and superior conjunction. As part of the primary science mission planning the expected data return for various data optimization methods is calculated. These results indicate that, given MRO's data rates, a link optimized to use of at most two data rates, subject to a minimum availability of 90%, performs almost as well as a link with no limits on the number of data rates subject to the same minimum availability.

  15. Aeroheating Analysis for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter with Comparison to Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2006-01-01

    The aeroheating environment of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been analyzed using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and free-molecular techniques. The results of these analyses were used to develop an aeroheating database to be used for the pre-flight planning and the in-flight operations support for the aerobraking phase of the MRO mission. The aeroheating predictions calculated for the MRO include the heat transfer coefficient (C(H)) over a range of angles-of-attack, side-slip angles, and number densities. The effects of flow chemistry were also investigated. Flight heat flux data deduced from surface temperature sensors have been compared to pre-flight predictions and agree favorably.

  16. The Impact of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Canipe, M.; Wenger, M.; Hsu, B.; Jones, A.; Hessen, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Education and Public Outreach Program includes Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) held at several sites throughout the U.S. and a large public engagement program, International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). Program evaluation has revealed that LWEs result in growth in participants' knowledge related to current lunar discoveries and exploration of the Moon. Teachers learn about misconceptions about the Moon and ways to teach about lunar science and exploration to address students' misconceptions. The LWEs also impact the teaching practices of some participants more broadly to incorporate inquiry and other teaching techniques modeled in the workshops. InOMN events are social experiences in which visitors reported the value of seeing their children learning new things, being moved by seeing beautiful and valuable objects, and gaining information and knowledge. Each program has met the goal of engaging participants in the excitement of lunar exploration.

  17. Regularization of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM along-track oversampled hyperspectral imaging observations of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisch, C. D.; O'Sullivan, J. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Politte, D. V.; He, L.; Stein, N. T.; Finkel, J.; Guinness, E. A.; Wolff, M. J.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral image data have been acquired in an along-track oversampled (ATO) mode with the intent of processing the data to better than the nominal ∼18 m/pixel ground resolution. We have implemented an iterative maximum log-likelihood method (MLM) that utilizes the instrument spectral and spatial transfer functions and includes a penalty function to regularize the data. Products are produced both in sensor space and as projected hyperspectral image cubes at 12 m/pixel. Preprocessing steps include retrieval of surface single scattering albedos (SSA) using the Hapke Function and DISORT-based radiative modeling of atmospheric gases and aerosols. Resultant SSA cubes are despiked to remove extrema and tested to ensure that the remaining data are Poisson-distributed, an underlying assumption for the MLM algorithm implementation. Two examples of processed ATO data sets are presented. ATO0002EC79 covers the route taken by the Curiosity rover during its initial ascent of Mount Sharp in Gale Crater. SSA data are used to model mineral abundances and grain sizes predicted to be present in the Namib barchan sand dune sampled and analyzed by Curiosity. CRISM based results compare favorably to in situ results derived from Curiosity's measurement campaign. ATO0002DDF9 covers Marathon Valley on the Cape Tribulation rim segment of Endeavour Crater. SSA spectra indicate the presence of a minor component of Fe3+ and Mg2+ smectites on the valley floor and walls. Localization to 12 m/pixel provided the detailed spatial information needed for the Opportunity rover to traverse to and characterize those outcrops that have the deepest absorptions. The combination of orbital and rover-based data show that the smectite-bearing outcrops in Marathon Valley are impact breccias that are basaltic in composition and that have been isochemically altered in a low water to rock environment.

  18. The Optical Fiber Array Bundle Assemblies for the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Switzer, Rob; Thomes, William Joe; Chuska, Richard; LaRocca, Frank; MacMurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Fiber Optics Team in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Applied Engineering and Technology Directorate, designed, developed and integrated the space flight optical fiber array hardware assemblies for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The two new assemblies that were designed and manufactured at NASA GSFC for the LRO exist in configurations that are unique in the world for the application of ranging and lidar. These assemblies were developed in coordination with Diamond Switzerland, and the NASA GSFC Mechanical Systems Division. The assemblies represent a strategic enhancement for NASA's Laser Ranging and Laser Radar (LIDAR) instrument hardware by allowing light to be moved to alternative locations that were not feasible in past space flight implementations. An account will be described of the journey and the lessons learned from design to integration for the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and the Laser Ranging Application on the LRO. The LRO is scheduled to launch end of 2008.

  19. Interplanetary space weather effects on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter avalanche photodiode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, E. B.; Carlton, A. K.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Sun, X.; Cahoy, K.

    2016-05-01

    Space weather is a major concern for radiation-sensitive space systems, particularly for interplanetary missions, which operate outside of the protection of Earth's magnetic field. We examine and quantify the effects of space weather on silicon avalanche photodiodes (SiAPDs), which are used for interplanetary laser altimeters and communications systems and can be sensitive to even low levels of radiation (less than 50 cGy). While ground-based radiation testing has been performed on avalanche photodiode (APDs) for space missions, in-space measurements of SiAPD response to interplanetary space weather have not been previously reported. We compare noise data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) SiAPDs with radiation measurements from the onboard Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument. We did not find any evidence to support radiation as the cause of changes in detector threshold voltage during radiation storms, both for transient detector noise and long-term average detector noise, suggesting that the approximately 1.3 cm thick shielding (a combination of titanium and beryllium) of the LOLA detectors is sufficient for SiAPDs on interplanetary missions with radiation environments similar to what the LRO experienced (559 cGy of radiation over 4 years).

  20. Mission Life Thermal Analysis and Environment Correlation for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matthew B.; Peabody, Hume

    2012-01-01

    Standard thermal analysis practices include stacking worst-case conditions including environmental heat loads, thermo-optical properties and orbital beta angles. This results in the design being driven by a few bounding thermal cases, although those cases may only represent a very small portion of the actual mission life. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Branch developed a procedure to predict the flight temperatures over the entire mission life, assuming a known beta angle progression, variation in the thermal environment, and a degradation rate in the coatings. This was applied to the Global Precipitation Measurement core spacecraft. In order to assess the validity of this process, this work applies the similar process to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. A flight-correlated thermal model was exercised to give predictions of the thermal performance over the mission life. These results were then compared against flight data from the first two years of the spacecraft s use. This is used to validate the process and to suggest possible improvements for future analyses.

  1. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - recent results and plans for an exteneded mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah; McClanahan, Timothy

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter(LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years during a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift has taken place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles

  2. Interplanetary Space Weather Effects on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Avalanche Photodiode Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, E. B.; Carlton, A. K.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Sun, X.; Cahoy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a major concern for radiation-sensitive space systems, particularly for interplanetary missions, which operate outside of the protection of Earth's magnetic field. We examine and quantify the effects of space weather on silicon avalanche photodiodes (SiAPDs), which are used for interplanetary laser altimeters and communications systems and can be sensitive to even low levels of radiation (less than 50 cGy). While ground-based radiation testing has been performed on avalanche photodiode (APDs) for space missions, in-space measurements of SiAPD response to interplanetary space weather have not been previously reported. We compare noise data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) SiAPDs with radiation measurements from the onboard Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) instrument. We did not find any evidence to support radiation as the cause of changes in detector threshold voltage during radiation storms, both for transient detector noise and long-term average detector noise, suggesting that the approximately 1.3 cm thick shielding (a combination of titanium and beryllium) of the LOLA detectors is sufficient for SiAPDs on interplanetary missions with radiation environments similar to what the LRO experienced (559 cGy of radiation over 4 years).

  3. A Modified Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) High Gain Antenna (HGA) Controller Based on Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched on June 18, 2009 and is currently in a 50 km mean altitude polar orbit around the Moon. LRO was designed and built by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized via the attitude control system (ACS), which is composed of various control modes using different sets of sensors and actuators. In addition to pointing the spacecraft, the ACS is responsible for pointing LRO s two appendages, the Solar Array (SA) and the High Gain Antenna (HGA). This study reviews LRO s HGA control system. Starting with an overview of the HGA system, the paper delves into the single input single output (SISO) linear analysis followed by the controller design. Based on flight results, an alternate control scheme is devised to address inherent features in the flight control system. The modified control scheme couples the HGA loop with the spacecraft pointing control loop, and through analysis is shown to be stable and improve transient performance. Although proposed, the LRO project decided against implementing this modification.

  4. Insight into gully formation on Mars with CRISM on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, J. I.; Barnouin, O. S.; McGovern, A.; Seelos, F. P.; Seelos, K. D.; Buczkowski, D.; Murchie, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Gullies are widespread on Mars, with most occurrences found in the southern hemisphere. Indicative of recent downslope movement, multiple alternative models have been proposed for their formation, including groundwater release, melting of snow or near-surface ground ice, dry granular flows, or different CO2-lubricated flows. Ongoing morphological changes to gully channels and aprons observed with the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) over intervals as short as one Martian year have indicated seasonal activity consistent with models for gully formation driven by CO2 frost sublimation as well as dry granular flow. To determine if compositional information could provide additional insight into the mechanics of gully formation and seasonal activity, we have analyzed over 100 images of gullies and their apron deposits taken with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) over multiple Martian years. Newly processed prototype Map-projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) hyperspectral image cubes were used to identify and extract spectral information. Additional Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and HiRISE DTM data were used to obtain topographical information. Most gullies observed are spectrally indistinct from their surroundings, most likely due to dust coatings. Where spectral contrast was observed, gullies predominantly exposed and transported underlying mafic material downslope. Rarely were hydrated minerals or alteration products observed in place within these gullies or within their apron deposits, indicating very limited chemical reaction with liquid water. Where detected, hydrated minerals include phyllosilicates and sulfates, and usually occur in a pre-existing layer that is exposed and subsequently transported downslope. Gullies do not show evidence for in situ precipitation or alteration as a result of long lived water-rock interactions. Finally, spectral evidence for

  5. Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Using an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven; Lowe, Jonathan; Woodburn, James

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the FDF has performed daily OD for LRO using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). GTDS is a batch least-squares (BLS) estimator. The tracking data arc for OD is 36 hours. Current operational OD uses 200 x 200 lunar gravity, solid lunar tides, solar radiation pressure (SRP) using a spherical spacecraft area model, and point mass gravity for the Earth, Sun, and Jupiter. LRO tracking data consists of range and range-rate measurements from: Universal Space Network (USN) stations in Sweden, Germany, Australia, and Hawaii. A NASA antenna at White Sands, New Mexico (WS1S). NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) stations. DSN data was sparse and not included in this study. Tracking is predominantly (50) from WS1S. The OD accuracy requirements are: Definitive ephemeris accuracy of 500 meters total position root-mean-squared (RMS) and18 meters radial RMS. Predicted orbit accuracy less than 800 meters root sum squared (RSS) over an 84-hour prediction span.

  6. Investigation of small scale roughness properties of Martian terrains using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Rossi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Studies of layered terrains in polar regions as well as inside craters and other areas on Mars often require knowledge of local topography at much finer resolution than global MOLA topography allows. For example, in the polar layered deposits spatial relationships are important to understand unconformities that are observed on the edges of the layered terrains [15,3]. Their formation process is not understood at this point, yet fine scale topography, joint with ground penetrating radar like SHARAD and MARSIS may shed light on their 3D structure. Landing site analysis also requires knowledge of local slopes and roughness at scales from 1 to 10 m [1,2]. Mars Orbiter Camera [13] has taken stereo images at these scales, however interpretation was difficult due to unstable behavior of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during image take (wobbling effect). Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is much better stabilized, since it is required for optimal operation of its high resolution camera. In this work we have utilized data from MRO sensors (CTX camera [11] and HIRISE camera [12] in order to derive digital elevation models (DEM) from images targeted as stereo pairs. We employed methods and approaches utilized for the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) stereo data [4,5]. CTX data varies in resolution and stereo pairs analyzed in this work can be derived at approximately 10m scale. HIRISE images allow DEM post spacing at around 1 meter. The latter are very big images and our computer infrastructure was only able to process either reduced resolution images, covering larger surface or working with smaller patches at the original resolution. We employed stereo matching technique described in [5,9], in conjunction with radiometric and geometric image processing in ISIS3 [16]. This technique is capable of deriving tiepoint co-registration at subpixel precision and has proven itself when used for Pathfinder and MER operations [8]. Considerable part of this work was to accommodate CTX and

  7. Challenges of In-Flight Calibrations for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xaypraseuth, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is the most complex spacecraft that has ever been sent to investigate the Red Planet. A major part of what makes this mission so complex is the suite of instruments that were selected. The instruments on MRO vary from a simple imaging system, not much larger than a pocket knife to the largest camera ever flown to another planet. Not only does the size of the instruments vary, so do the scientific investigations associated with each instrument. In order to ensure that this payload suite would be able to satisfy all of its science objectives, a major effort was put forth by the MRO Project to ensure these instruments were well calibrated prior to the start of the Primary Science Phase. The in-flight calibration plan for MRO proved to be quite challenging, given the often conflicting requirements due to the varying capability of each of the instruments and the desire to constrain the workload on the Mission Operations personnel. The quality of data returned by MRO since the start of the Primary Science Phase is a tribute to the effort that was put forth to characterize the in-flight performance of the instruments. This paper will describe the challenges associated with the planning and implementation of the various calibration events on MRO, and will exhibit some of the results from those calibrations.

  8. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - Six Years of Science and Exploration at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John W.; Petro, Noah E.; McClanahan, Timothy P.; Vondrak, Richard R.

    2015-11-01

    The LRO mission, currently in an extended mission phase, is producing a remotely sensed dataset that is unrivaled in planetary science. With an ever-increasing baseline of measurements the LRO data has revealed the Moon’s surface and environment to be dynamic, with new craters and distal ejecta, variations in volatiles at and near the surface, a variable exosphere, and a surface that responds to variations in the flux of radiation from the Sun. Taken together the LRO dataset has significant value in forming how we understand airless bodies work in the Solar System and how planets evolve. We will discuss recent observations from the mission including, geologically recent volcanism, contemparay impacts, and polar volatiles.We will also discuss the mission's support of future exploration of the Moon. As initially conceived, one of the primary objectives for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was to identify safe landing sites for future human and robotic exploration, and LRO mission remains capable of targeted high resolution observations to support the planning of future robotic missions to the Moon. The LRO team seeks to engage with mission planners to discuss LRO's enabaling capabilities.

  9. A High Power Density Power System Electronics for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, A.; Stone, R.; Travis, J.; Kercheval, B.; Alkire, G.; Ter-Minassian, V.

    2009-01-01

    A high power density, modular and state-of-the-art Power System Electronics (PSE) has been developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. This paper addresses the hardware architecture and performance, the power handling capabilities, and the fabrication technology. The PSE was developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is the central location for power handling and distribution of the LRO spacecraft. The PSE packaging design manages and distributes 2200W of solar array input power in a volume less than a cubic foot. The PSE architecture incorporates reliable standard internal and external communication buses, solid state circuit breakers and LiIon battery charge management. Although a single string design, the PSE achieves high reliability by elegantly implementing functional redundancy and internal fault detection and correction. The PSE has been environmentally tested and delivered to the LRO spacecraft for the flight Integration and Test. This modular design is scheduled to flight in early 2009 on board the LRO and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecrafts and is the baseline architecture for future NASA missions such as Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS).

  10. Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustafson, J. Olaf; Bell, James F.; Gaddis, Lisa R.R.; Hawke, B. Ray Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    We used a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) global monochrome Wide-angle Camera (WAC) mosaic to conduct a survey of the Moon to search for previously unidentified pyroclastic deposits. Promising locations were examined in detail using LROC multispectral WAC mosaics, high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, and Clementine multispectral (ultraviolet-visible or UVVIS) data. Out of 47 potential deposits chosen for closer examination, 12 were selected as probable newly identified pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits were generally found in settings similar to previously identified deposits, including areas within or near mare deposits adjacent to highlands, within floor-fractured craters, and along fissures in mare deposits. However, a significant new finding is the discovery of localized pyroclastic deposits within floor-fractured craters Anderson E and F on the lunar farside, isolated from other known similar deposits. Our search confirms that most major regional and localized low-albedo pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the Moon down to ~100 m/pix resolution, and that additional newly identified deposits are likely to be either isolated small deposits or additional portions of discontinuous, patchy deposits.

  11. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter In-flight Anomalies and Lessons Learned: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission has as its primary objectives: advance our understanding of the current Mars climate, the processes that have formed and modified the surface of the planet and the extent to which water has played a role in surface processes; identify sites of possible aqueous activity indicating environments that may have been or are conducive to biological activity; and thus identify and characterize sites for future landed missions; and provide forward and return relay services for current and future Mars landed assets. MRO's crucial role in the long term strategy for Mars exploration requires a high level of reliability during its 5.4 year mission. This requires an architecture which incorporates extensive redundancy and cross-strapping. Because of the distances and hence light-times involved, the spacecraft itself must be able to utilize this redundancy in responding to time-critical failures. For cases where fault protection is unable to recognize a potentially threatening condition, either due to known limitations or software flaws, intervention by ground operations is required. These aspects of MRO's design were discussed in a previous paper [Ref. 1]. This paper provides an update to the original paper, describing MRO's significant in-flight anomalies over the past year, with lessons learned for redundancy and fault protection architectures and for ground operations.

  12. Global documentation of gullies with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera and implications for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tanya N.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Jones, Eriita

    2015-05-01

    Hypotheses ranging from fluvial processes and debris flows to CO2 frost-lubricated or entirely dry flows have been proposed for the formation of martian gullies. In order to constrain these potential formation mechanisms, we mapped the global distribution of gullies on Mars using >54,000 images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) covering ∼85% of the martian surface at a resolution of ∼6 m/pixel. The results of this mapping effort confirm the results of studies using lower resolution and/or less areally extensive datasets that gullies are confined to the martian mid- to high-latitudes (∼30-80° in both hemispheres). We also find a clear transition in gully orientation with increasing latitude, going from poleward-facing to equator-facing preference. In general, gullies are more developed on poleward-facing walls, and mid-latitude gullies are more developed than those at higher latitudes. Gullies are also found to be strongly correlated with regions of distinct thermophysical properties of sand- to pebble-sized grains, low albedo, and higher thermal inertia. These observations all point to climate, insolation, and thermal properties of the substrate playing key factors in gully formation on Mars, supporting either a melting ground ice or snowpack hypothesis as the source for water involved in gully formation.

  13. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observation of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamppari, L.; Zurek, R. W.; Cantor, B. A.; Delamere, W. A.; Egan, A.; Humm, D. C.; Kass, D. M.; McEwen, A. S.; McGovern, A.; Phillips, R. J.; Restano, M.; Seu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars orbiting spacecraft, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, will observe Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) for 5 days around the comet-Mars closest approach, Oct. 19, 2014. MRO carries 7 investigations, of which 6 will be used to observe the comet or search for comet particle effects on Mars. MRO focuses on three science objectives for Comet Siding Spring observations. First, MRO will observe the comet nucleus near the comet-Mars closest approach (131,000 ± 3,000 km) to attempt to determine nucleus size, rotation, and shape. This objective utilizes the HiRISE (high-resolution) camera which has 131 m/pixel at closest approach. The CRISM instrument (VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer) with >8 km/pixel, and the Context camera (CTX) with >3 km/pixel will also take measurements. Second, MRO will observe the comet coma and tail with the intent of gaining information on composition and morphology utilizing spectral and spatial coverage of the same three instruments. In particular, HiRISE covers 0.4-1.0 μm in 3 bands, with 1 microrad/pixel, CRISM which covers 0.4-3.9 μm at 6.55 nm/channel and 2.1 deg field-of-view, and CTX which has an almost 6 deg field-of-view, covering 0.5-0.8 μm. Third, MRO will observe the Mars atmosphere and ionosphere to detect potential atmospheric heating or cloud formation and changes in total electron column density, using the MCS (atmospheric profiling instrument), the MARCI (weather camera), and the SHARAD (shallow radar instrument, sensitive to ionospheric total electron count). The preliminary results of the Comet C/2013 A1 MRO observations will be presented.

  14. Simultaneous Laser Ranging and Communication from an Earth-Based Satellite Laser Ranging Station to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S.; Davidson, Frederic M.; Fong, Wai H.; Krainak, Michael A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    We report a free space laser communication experiment from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit through the on board one-way Laser Ranging (LR) receiver. Pseudo random data and sample image files were transmitted to LRO using a 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal format. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to achieve error free data transmission at a moderate coding overhead rate. The signal fading due to the atmosphere effect was measured and the coding gain could be estimated.

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Command and Data Handling Flight Electronics Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang; Yuknis, William; Haghani, Noosha; Pursley, Scott; Haddad, Omar

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a high-performance, modular, and state-of-the-art Command and Data Handling (C&DH) system developed for use on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. This system implements a complete hardware C&DH subsystem in a single chassis enclosure that includes a processor card, 48 Gbytes of solid-state recorder memory, data buses including MIL-STD-1553B, custom RS-422, SpaceWire, analog collection, switched power services, and interfaces to the Ka-Band and S-Band RF communications systems. The C&DH team capitalized on extensive experience with hardware and software with PCI bus design, SpaceWire networking, Actel FPGA design, digital flight design techniques, and the use of VxWorks for the real-time operating system. The resulting hardware architecture was implemented to meet the LRO mission requirements. The C&DH comprises an enclosure, a backplane, a low-voltage power converter, a single-board computer, a communications interface board, four data storage boards, a housekeeping and digital input/output board, and an analog data acquisition board. The interfaces between the C&DH and the instruments and avionics are connected through a SpaceWire network, a MIL-STD-1553 bus, and a combination of synchronous and asynchronous serial data transfers over RS-422 and LVDS (low-voltage differential-signaling) electrical interfaces. The C&DH acts as the spacecraft data system with an instrument data manager providing all software and internal bus scheduling, ingestion of science data, distribution of commands, and performing science operations in real time.

  16. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Professional Development Workshop Series: Example of an Excellent Mechanism of Scientific Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Millham, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Institute for Educators pilot workshop was held at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD in July of 2010. At this workshop, educators of grades 6-12 learned about lunar science, exploration, and how our understanding of the Moon has changed since the Apollo missions. The workshop exposed teachers to science results from recent lunar missions, particularly LRO, through presentations and discussions with lunar scientists. It allowed them to explore real LRO data, participate in hands-on lunar science activities, and learn how to incorporate these data and activities into their classrooms. Other workshop activities focused on mitigating student, and teacher, misconceptions about the Moon. As a result of the workshop, educators reported feeling a renewed excitement about the Moon, and more confidence in teaching lunar science to their students. Quarterly follow-up professional development sessions will monitor the progress of the workshop participants throughout the year, and provide additional support to the teachers, as needed. Evaluations from the 2010 pilot program are being used to improve LRO workshops as they expand contextually and geographically in the coming years. Ten workshops will be held across the United States in 2011 and 2012. Areas that have been underserved, with respect to NASA workshops, will be specifically targeted. Educator professional development workshops such as this one are an excellent mechanism for scientists to disseminate the latest discoveries from their missions and research to educators across the country and to get real data in the hands of students, further strengthening the students’ interest and understanding of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) content and careers. Making a model: educators construct topographic maps of Play-Doh volcanoes.

  17. Characterization of space weathering from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera ultraviolet observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark S.; Boyd, Aaron K.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Hawke, B. Ray

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the effects of space weathering at ultraviolet wavelengths using a near-global seven-band (321-689 nm) mosaic from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). We confirm that for moderate- to high-iron compositions (≳ 5 wt % FeO), the steeply positive UV slope at wavelengths <415 nm shallows with increasing exposure to space weathering. We measure these differences in LROC WAC data as variations in the 321/415 nm ratio, which has low values for fresh craters in the mare and moderate-iron highlands. For low-iron highland compositions, the break in slope occurs at shorter wavelengths, and it is instead the 321/360 nm ratio that increases with exposure to the space-weathering environment, whereas the 321/415 nm ratio appears to be largely controlled by the degree of shock experienced during the impact. The effects of shock may be more important at highland craters because modest shock pressures result in the solid-state transformation of plagioclase to its glass equivalent, maskelynite, and can help distinguish between primary shocked ejecta and locally exposed fresh material in rays. While all of the "fresh" craters we examined have UV spectral properties consistent with substantial alteration due to space weathering, the UV spectra of lunar swirls (magnetically shielded from the solar wind) are consistent with exposure of immature, crystalline material. Together these results suggest that lunar space weathering is dominated by the solar wind and "saturates" in the UV at Is/FeO values of ~40 (submature).

  18. Lunar Atmospheric H2 Detections by the LAMP UV Spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Jason C.; Stern, S.; Chaufray, J.; Feldman, P. D.; Gladstone, G.; Retherford, K. D.; LAMP Sciecne Team

    2013-10-01

    H2 in the lunar atmosphere was predicted by Hodges (1973), who theorized that the low H upper limit derived from Apollo 17 Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) (Fastie et al., 1973; Feldman and Morrison, 1991) suggested that the bulk of solar wind protons must become neutralized and form H2 on the lunar surface. By balancing the H thermal escape rate with the impact rate, Hodges (1973) predicted a night time surface density of N(H2) = 1.2 x 104 cm-3. However, measurements from UVS observations yielded only an upper limit of < 9000 H2 molecules cm-3 (Feldman and Morrison 1991). After reflected energetic neutral hydrogen was detected by IBEX (McComas et al., 2009) and Chandrayaan-1 (Wieser et al., 2009), Hodges (2011) revisited the H2 issue. Based on Hodges (2011) model, the solar wind protons exit the lunar surface as neutral H (98.5%) and protons (1%) at escape speeds. The remaining 0.5% are bound to the lunar atmosphere as neutral H with a H surface density that is compatible with Apollo 17 observations (< 17 cm-3 Feldman and Morrison, 1991). Here we report the detection of H2 seen in twilight observations of the lunar atmosphere observed by the LAMP (Lyman Alpha Mapping Project) instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Using millions of seconds of lunar atmospheric integration time collected between September 2009 and March 2013, we have identified the presence of H2 for the first time using ultraviolet spectroscopy. We derive an H2 surface density of (1.2 ± 0.4) x 103 cm-3 at 120 K. This is 10 times smaller than originally predicted, and several times below previous upper limits. We point out that our result is consistent with the prediction made by Wurz et al. (2012), who estimated a surface density between 1050 and 2100 cm-3, depending on how readily atmospheric H2 escapes.

  19. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; Petro, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18,2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  20. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5

  1. Exploring the Moon at High-Resolution: First Results From the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Mark; Hiesinger, Harald; McEwen, Alfred; Jolliff, Brad; Thomas, Peter C.; Turtle, Elizabeth; Eliason, Eric; Malin, Mike; Ravine, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, Ernest

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched on an Atlas V 401 rocket from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 41 on June 18, 2009. After spending four days in Earth-Moon transit, the spacecraft entered a three month commissioning phase in an elliptical 30×200 km orbit. On September 15, 2009, LRO began its planned one-year nominal mapping mission in a quasi-circular 50 km orbit. A multi-year extended mission in a fixed 30×200 km orbit is optional. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and two Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera, which images the Moon at 100 and 400 m/pixel in the visible and UV, respectively, while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers with 0.5 m/pixel spatial resolution. LROC was specifically designed to address two of the primary LRO mission requirements and six other key science objectives, including 1) assessment of meter-and smaller-scale features in order to select safe sites for potential lunar landings near polar resources and elsewhere on the Moon; 2) acquire multi-temporal synoptic 100 m/pixel images of the poles during every orbit to unambiguously identify regions of permanent shadow and permanent or near permanent illumination; 3) meter-scale mapping of regions with permanent or near-permanent illumination of polar massifs; 4) repeat observations of potential landing sites and other regions to derive high resolution topography; 5) global multispectral observations in seven wavelengths to characterize lunar resources, particularly ilmenite; 6) a global 100-m/pixel basemap with incidence angles (60° -80° ) favorable for morphological interpretations; 7) sub-meter imaging of a variety of geologic units to characterize their physical properties, the variability of the regolith, and other key science questions; 8) meter-scale coverage overlapping with Apollo-era panoramic images (1-2 m/pixel) to document

  2. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Thruster Control Mode Design and Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Oscar C.

    2010-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, designed, built, tested, and launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 18, 2009. The LRO spacecraft is the first operational spacecraft designed to support NASA s return to the Moon, as part of the Vision for Space Exploration. LRO was launched aboard an Atlas V 401 launch vehicle into a direct insertion trajectory to the Moon. Twenty-four hours after separation the propulsion system was used to perform a mid-course correction maneuver. Four days after the mid-course correction a series of propulsion maneuvers were executed to insert LRO into its commissioning orbit. The commission period lasted eighty days and this followed by a second set of thruster maneuvers that inserted LRO into its mission orbit. To date, the spacecraft has been gathering invaluable data in support of human s future return to the moon. The LRO Attitude Control Systems (ACS) contains two thruster based control modes: Delta-H and Delta-V. The design of the two controllers are similar in that they are both used for 3-axis control of the spacecraft with the Delta-H controller used for momentum management and the Delta-V controller used for orbit adjust and maintenance maneuvers. In addition to the nominal purpose of the thruster modes, the Delta-H controller also has the added capability of performing a large angle slew maneuver. A suite of ACS components are used by the thruster based control modes, for both initialization and control. For initialization purposes, a star tracker or the Kalman Filter solution is used for providing attitude knowledge and upon entrance into the thruster based control modes attitude knowledge is provided via rate propagation using a inertial reference unit (IRU). Rate information for the controller is also supplied by the IRU. Three-axis control of the spacecraft in the thruster modes is provided by eight 5

  3. Toward a Unified View of the Moon's Polar Volatiles from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific basis for the possibility of water and other volatiles in the cold traps of the lunar polar regions was developed in the 1960's and '70's [1,2], only recently have the data become available to test the theories in detail. Furthermore, comparisons with other planetary bodies, particularly Mercury, have revealed surprising differences that may point to inconsistencies or holes in our understanding of the basic processes involving volatiles on airless bodies [3]. Addressing these gaps in understanding is critical to the future exploration of the Moon, for which water is an important scientific and engineering resource [4]. Launched in 2009, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been acquiring data from lunar orbit for more than six years. All seven of the remote sensing instruments on the payload have now contributed significantly to advancing understanding of volatiles on the Moon. Here we present results from these investigations, and discuss attempts to synthesize the disparate information to create a self-consistent model for lunar volatiles. In addition to the LRO data, we must take into account results from earlier missions [5,6], ground-based telescopes [7], and sample analyses [8]. The results from these inter-comparisons show that water is likely available in useful quantities, but key additional measurements may be required to resolve remaining uncertainties. [1] Watson, K., Murray, B. C., & Brown, H. (1961), J. Geophys. Res., 66(9), 3033-3045. [2] Arnold, J. R. (1979), J. Geophys. Res. (1978-2012), 84(B10), 5659-5668. [3] Paige, D. A., Siegler, M. A., Harmon, J. K., Neumann, G. A., Mazarico, E. M., Smith, D. E., ... & Solomon, S. C. (2013), Science, 339(6117), 300-303. [4] Hayne, P. O., et al. (2014), Keck Inst. Space Studies Report. [5] Nozette, S., Lichtenberg, C. L., Spudis, P., Bonner, R., Ort, W., Malaret, E., ... & Shoemaker, E. M. (1996), Science, 274(5292), 1495-1498. [6] Pieters, C. M., Goswami, J. N., Clark, R. N

  4. Optical Fiber Array Assemblies for Space Flight on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Jelanie; Matuszeski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Custom fiber optic bundle array assemblies developed by the Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center were an enabling technology for both the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and the Laser Ranging (LR) Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) currently in operation. The unique assembly array designs provided considerable decrease in size and weight and met stringent system level requirements. This is the first time optical fiber array bundle assemblies were used in a high performance space flight application. This innovation was achieved using customized Diamond Switzerland AVIM optical connectors. For LOLA, a five fiber array was developed for the receiver telescope to maintain precise alignment for each of the 200/220 micron optical fibers collecting 1,064 nm wavelength light being reflected back from the moon. The array splits to five separate detectors replacing the need for multiple telescopes. An image illustration of the LOLA instrument can be found at the top of the figure. For the laser ranging, a seven-optical-fiber array of 400/440 micron fibers was developed to transmit light from behind the LR receiver telescope located on the end of the high gain antenna system (HGAS). The bundle was routed across two moving gimbals, down the HGAS boom arm, over a deployable mandrel and across the spacecraft to a detector on the LOLA instrument. The routing of the optical fiber bundle and its end locations is identified in the figure. The Laser Ranging array and bundle is currently accepting light at a wavelength of 532 nm sent to the moon from laser stations at Greenbelt MD and other stations around the world to gather precision ranging information from the Earth to the LRO spacecraft. The LR bundle assembly is capable of withstanding temperatures down to -55 C at the connectors, and 20,000 mechanical gimbal cycles at temperatures as cold as -20 C along the length of the seven-fiber bundle (that is packaged into the gimbals). The total

  5. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Ka-band (32 GHz) Demonstration: Cruise Phase Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shambayati, Shervin; Morabito, David; Border, James S.; Davarian, Faramaz; Lee, Dennis; Mendoza, Ricardo; Britcliffe, Michael; Weinreb, Sander

    2006-01-01

    The X-band (8.41 GHz) frequency currently used for deep space telecommunications is too narrow (50 MHz) to support future high rate missions. Because of this NASA has decided to transition to Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies. As weather effects cause much larger fluctuations on Ka-band than on X-band, the traditional method of using a few dBs of margin to cover these fluctuations is wasteful of power for Ka-band; therefore, a different operations concept is needed for Ka-band links. As part of the development of the operations concept for Ka-band, NASA has implemented a fully functioning Ka-band communications suite on its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). This suite will be used during the primary science phase to develop and refine the Ka-band operations concept for deep space missions. In order to test the functional readiness of the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network's (DSN) readiness to support the demonstration activities a series of passes over DSN 34-m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas were scheduled during the cruise phase of the mission. MRO was launched on August 12, 2005 from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA and went into Mars Orbit on March 10, 2006. A total of ten telemetry demonstration and one high gain antenna (HGA) calibration passes were allocated to the Ka-band demonstration. Furthermore, a number of "shadow" passes were also scheduled where, during a regular MRO track over a Ka-band capable antenna, Ka-band was identically configured as the X-band and tracked by the station. In addition, nine Ka-band delta differential one way ranging ((delta)DOR) passes were scheduled. During these passes, the spacecraft and the ground system were put through their respective paces. Among the highlights of these was setting a single day record for data return from a deep space spacecraft (133 Gbits) achieved during one 10-hour pass; achieving the highest data rate ever from a planetary mission (6 Mbps) and successfully demonstrating Ka-band DDOR

  6. Two Years of Digital Terrain Model Production Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K.; Robinson, M. S.; Speyerer, E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    One of the primary objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is to gather stereo observations with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). These stereo observations are used to generate digital terrain models (DTMs). The NAC has a pixel scale of 0.5 to 2.0 meters but was not designed for stereo observations and thus requires the spacecraft to roll off-nadir to acquire these images. Slews interfere with the data collection of the other instruments, so opportunities are currently limited to four per day. Arizona State University has produced DTMs from 95 stereo pairs for 11 Constellation Project (CxP) sites (Aristarchus, Copernicus crater, Gruithuisen domes, Hortensius domes, Ina D-caldera, Lichtenberg crater, Mare Ingenii, Marius hills, Reiner Gamma, South Pole-Aitkin Rim, Sulpicius Gallus) as well as 30 other regions of scientific interest (including: Bhabha crater, highest and lowest elevation points, Highland Ponds, Kugler Anuchin, Linne Crater, Planck Crater, Slipher crater, Sears Crater, Mandel'shtam Crater, Virtanen Graben, Compton/Belkovich, Rumker Domes, King Crater, Luna 16/20/23/24 landing sites, Ranger 6 landing site, Wiener F Crater, Apollo 11/14/15/17, fresh craters, impact melt flows, Larmor Q crater, Mare Tranquillitatis pit, Hansteen Alpha, Moore F Crater, and Lassell Massif). To generate DTMs, the USGS ISIS software and SOCET SET° from BAE Systems are used. To increase the absolute accuracy of the DTMs, data obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) is used to coregister the NAC images and define the geodetic reference frame. NAC DTMs have been used in examination of several sites, e.g. Compton-Belkovich, Marius Hills and Ina D-caldera [1-3]. LROC will continue to acquire high-resolution stereo images throughout the science phase of the mission and any extended mission opportunities, thus providing a vital dataset for scientific research as well as future human and robotic exploration. [1] B.L. Jolliff (2011) Nature

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Cameras: Laboratory and Initial Flight Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.; Denevi, B. W.; Lawrence, S.; Mahanti, P.; Tran, T. N.; Thomas, P. C.; Eliason, E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs). Each NAC is a monochrome pushbroom scanner, providing images with a pixel scale of 50 cm from a 50-km orbit. A single NAC image has a swath width of 2.5 km and a length of up to 26 km. The NACs are mounted to acquire side-by-side imaging for a combined swath width of 5 km. The NAC is designed to fully characterize future human and robotic landing sites in terms of scientific and resource merit, trafficability, and hazards. The North and South poles will be mapped at 1-meter-scale poleward of 85.5 degrees latitude. Stereo coverage is achieved by pointing the NACs off-nadir, which requires planning in advance. Read noise is 91 and 93 e- and the full well capacity is 334,000 and 352,000 e- for NAC-L and NAC-R respectively. Signal-to-noise ranges from 42 for low-reflectance material with 70 degree illumination to 230 for high-reflectance material with 0 degree illumination. Longer exposure times and 2x binning are available to further increase signal-to-noise with loss of spatial resolution. Lossy data compression from 12 bits to 8 bits uses a companding table selected from a set optimized for different signal levels. A model of focal plane temperatures based on flight data is used to command dark levels for individual images, optimizing the performance of the companding tables and providing good matching of the NAC-L and NAC-R images even before calibration. The preliminary NAC calibration pipeline includes a correction for nonlinearity at low signal levels with an offset applied for DN>600 and a logistic function for DN<600. Flight images taken on the limb of the Moon provide a measure of stray light performance. Averages over many lines of images provide a measure of flat field performance in flight. These are comparable with laboratory data taken with a diffusely reflecting uniform panel.

  8. NESC Independent Review of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Contamination Thermal/Vacuum (T/V) Anomaly Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Panda, Binayak; Piascik, Robert S.; Muirhead, Brian K.; Peeler, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The NESC eras requested by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to conduct an independent review of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Thermal/Vacuum (T/V) Anomaly Assessment. Because the anomaly resulted in the surface contamination of the MRO, selected members of the Materials Super Problem Resolution Team (SPRT) and the NASA technical community having technical expertise relative to contamination issues were chosen for the independent review. The consultation consisted of a review of the MRO Project's reported response to the assessment findings, a detailed review of JPL technical assessment final report, and detailed discussions with the JPL assessment team relative to their findings.

  9. Characterizing Geometric Distortion of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E.; Wagner, R.; Robinson, M. S.; Becker, K. J.; Anderson, J.; Thomas, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Each month the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) provides 100 m scale images of nearly the entire Moon, each month with different range of lighting conditions [1]. Pre-flight calibration efforts provided a baseline for correcting the geometric distortion present in the WAC. However, residual errors of 1-2 pixels existed with this original model. In-flight calibration enables the derivation of a precise correction for geometric distortion to provide sub-pixel map projection accuracy. For the in-flight calibration, we compared WAC images to high-resolution (0.5 - 2.0 meter scale) images provided by the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). Since the NAC has very narrow field of view (2.86°) its geometric accuracy is well characterized. The additions of the WAC-derived 100 m/pixel digital terrain model (GLD100) [2] and refined ephemeris provided by LOLA [3] have improved our efforts to remove small distortion artifacts in the WAC camera model. Since the NAC field of view is always in the same cross-track location in the WAC frame, NAC and WAC images of the same regions, under similar lighting conditions, were map projected. Hundreds of NAC (truth image) and WAC images were then co-registered using an automatic registration algorithm in ISIS [4]. This output was fed into a second ISIS program (fplanemap) that converted the registration offsets to focal plane coordinates for the distorted (original) and undistorted (corrected location derived from the truth image) pixel [4]. With this dataset, offsets in the WAC distortion model were identified and accounted for with a new 2D Taylor series function that has been added to the existing radial model. This technique improves the accurate placement of each pixel across the sensor in target space. We have applied this correction to the 643 nm band and will derive the coefficients for the remaining bands. Once this study is complete, a new camera model, instrument kernel (IK), and frames kernel (FK) will be

  10. The search for Ar in the lunar atmosphere using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LAMP instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer, LACE, first measured mass 40 particles in the lunar atmosphere, and over a nine-month period, detected variations correlated with the lunar day (Hoffman et al., 1973, LPSC, 4, 2865). LACE detected a high particle density at dusk (0.6-1.0x104 cm-3), decreasing through the lunar night to a few hundred cm-3, then increasing rapidly before dawn to levels 2-4 times greater than at dusk. No daytime measurements were made due to instrument saturation. Given the LACE measurements' periodic nature, and the Ar abundance in lunar regolith samples (Kaiser, 1972, EPSL, 13, 387), it was concluded that mass 40 was likely due to Ar. Benna et al. (2014, LPSC, 45, 1535) recently reported that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) aboard LADEE also detected Ar (mass 40) with similar diurnal profiles. We report on UV spectra of the lunar atmosphere as obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Aboard LRO is the UV-spectrograph, LAMP (Lyman Alpha Mapping Project), spanning the spectral range 575 to 1965 Å. LAMP is typically oriented toward the surface and has been mapping the Moon since September 2009. LAMP also observes the tenuous lunar atmosphere when the surface is in darkness, but the atmospheric column below LRO is illuminated. We have previously used nadir oriented twilight observations to examine the sparse lunar atmosphere (Feldman et al., 2012, Icarus, 221, 854; Cook et al., 2013, Icarus, 225, 681; Stern et al., 2013, Icarus, 226, 1210; Cook & Stern 2014, Icarus, 236, 48). In Cook et al., 2013, we reported an upper limit for Ar of 2.3x104 cm-3. Since then, we have collected additional data and refined our search method by focusing on the regions (near equator) and local times (dawn and dusk) where Ar has been reported previously. We have carefully considered effective area calibration and g-factor accuracies and find these to be unlikely explanations for the order of magnitude differences. We will report new results, which provide much

  11. Subsurface structure of Planum Boreum from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Shallow Radar soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Holt, John W.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Carter, Lynn M.; Egan, Anthony F.; Bernardini, Fabrizio; Safaeinili, Ali; Seu, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    We map the subsurface structure of Planum Boreum using sounding data from the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Radar coverage throughout the 1,000,000-km 2 area reveals widespread reflections from basal and internal interfaces of the north polar layered deposits (NPLD). A dome-shaped zone of diffuse reflectivity up to 12 μs (˜1-km thick) underlies two-thirds of the NPLD, predominantly in the main lobe but also extending into the Gemina Lingula lobe across Chasma Boreale. We equate this zone with a basal unit identified in image data as Amazonian sand-rich layered deposits [Byrne, S., Murray, B.C., 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5044, 12 pp. doi:10.1029/2001JE001615; Fishbaugh, K.E., Head, J.W., 2005. Icarus 174, 444-474; Tanaka, K.L., Rodriguez, J.A.P., Skinner, J.A., Bourke, M.C., Fortezzo, C.M., Herkenhoff, K.E., Kolb, E.J., Okubo, C.H., 2008. Icarus 196, 318-358]. Elsewhere, the NPLD base is remarkably flat-lying and co-planar with the exposed surface of the surrounding Vastitas Borealis materials. Within the NPLD, we delineate and map four units based on the radar-layer packets of Phillips et al. [Phillips, R.J., and 26 colleagues, 2008. Science 320, 1182-1185] that extend throughout the deposits and a fifth unit confined to eastern Gemina Lingula. We estimate the volume of each internal unit and of the entire NPLD stack (821,000 km 3), exclusive of the basal unit. Correlation of these units to models of insolation cycles and polar deposition [Laskar, J., Levrard, B., Mustard, J.F., 2002. Nature 419, 375-377; Levrard, B., Forget, F., Montmessin, F., Laskar, J., 2007. J. Geophys. Res. 112, E06012, 18 pp. doi:10.1029/2006JE002772] is consistent with the 4.2-Ma age of the oldest preserved NPLD obtained by Levrard et al. [Levrard, B., Forget, F., Montmessin, F., Laskar, J., 2007. J. Geophys. Res. 112, E06012, 18 pp. doi:10.1029/2006JE002772]. We suggest a dominant layering mechanism of dust-content variation during

  12. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Simpson, James; Shah, Neerav

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle and into a direct insertion trajectory to the oon. LRO, which was designed, built, and operated by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. The mission has a nominal life of 1 year as its seven instruments find safe landing sites, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment, and test new technology. To date, LRO has been operating well within the bounds of its requirements and has been collecting excellent science data images taken from the LRO Camera Narrow Angle Camera of the Apollo landing sites appeared on cable news networks. A significant amount of information on LRO s science instruments is provided at the LRO mission webpage. LRO s Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem is made up of an onboard attitude control system (ACS) and a hardware suite of sensors and actuators. The LRO onboard ACS is a collection of algorithms based on high level and derived requirements, and reflect the science and operational events throughout the mission lifetime. The primary control mode is the Observing mode, which maintains the lunar pointing orientation and any offset pointing from this baseline. It is within this mode that all science instrument calibrations, slews and science data is collected. Because of a high accuracy requirement for knowledge and pointing, the Observing mode makes use of star tracker (ST) measurement data to determine an instantaneous attitude pointing. But even the star trackers alone do not meet the tight requirements, so a six-state Kalman Filter is employed to improve the noisy measurement data. The Observing mode obtains its rate information from an inertial reference unit (IRU) and in the

  13. A General Closed-Form Solution for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Antenna Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Chen, J. Roger; Hashmall, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V launch vehicle into a direct insertion trajectory to the Moon LRO, designed, built, and operated by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. During the mission s nominal life of one year its six instruments and one technology demonstrator will find safe landing site, locate potential resources, characterize the radiation environment and test new technology. To date, LRO has been operating well within the bounds of its requirements and has been collecting excellent science data images taken from the LRO Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) of the Apollo landing sites have appeared on cable news networks. A significant amount of information on LRO s science instruments is provided at the LRO mission webpage. LRO s Attitude Control System (ACS), in addition to controlling the orientation of the spacecraft is also responsible for pointing the High Gain Antenna (HGA). A dual-axis (or double-gimbaled) antenna, deployed on a meter-long boom, is required to point at a selected Earth ground station. Due to signal loss over the distance from the Moon to Earth, pointing precision for the antenna system is very tight. Since the HGA has to be deployed in spaceflight, its exact geometry relative to the spacecraft body is uncertain. In addition, thermal distortions and mechanical errors/tolerances must be characterized and removed to realize the greatest gain from the antenna system. These reasons necessitate the need for an in-flight calibration. Once in orbit around the moon, a series of attitude maneuvers was conducted to provide data needed to determine optimal parameters to load onboard, which would account for the environmental and mechanical errors at any

  14. Tectonic Mapping of Mare Frigoris Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Banks, M. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional wisdom has been that extensional tectonism on the Moon largely ended ~3.6 billion years ago and that contractional deformation ended ~1.2 billion years ago. New NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) high resolution images are forcing a re-assessment of this view. Mapping in Mare Frigoris and the surrounding area has revealed many tectonic landforms enabling new investigations of the region's structural evolution. Sinuous wrinkle ridges with hundreds of meters of relief are interpreted as folded basalt layers overlying thrust faults. They have often been associated with lunar mascons identified by positive free-air gravity anomalies where thick basaltic lava causes flexure and subsidence to form ridges. No mascon-like gravity anomaly is associated with Mare Frigoris, yet large ridges deform the mare basalts. Lobate scarps are also found near Frigoris. These asymmetric linear hills inferred to be surface expressions of thrust faults are distributed globally and thought to originate from cooling and radial contraction of the lunar interior. Clusters of meter-scale extensional troughs or graben bounded by normal faults also occur in Frigoris. Tectonic landforms are being mapped in and around Mare Frigoris using LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images. Preliminary results show that wrinkle ridges in Frigoris occur both near and distal to the basin perimeter, trend E/W in western and central Frigoris, and form a polygonal pattern in the eastern section. Several complex wrinkle ridges are observed to transition into morphologically simpler lobate scarps at mare/highland boundaries, with the contrast in tectonic morphology likely due to the change from layered (mare) to un-layered (highlands) substrate. Lobate scarps in Frigoris occur primarily in the highlands, tend to strike E/W, and often but not always follow the boundary between mare and highlands. Small graben mapped in Frigoris occur in several clusters adjacent to or atop ridges and scarps, and

  15. Near Real-Time Astrometry for Spacecraft Navigation with the VLBA: A Demonstration with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, W.; Brisken, W. F.; Romney, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    We present a demonstration of near real-time spacecraft astrometry with the VLBA. We detect the X-band downlink signal from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Odyssey with the VLBA and transmit the data over the internet for correlation at the VLBA correlator in near real-time. Quasars near Mars in the plane of the sky are used as position references. In the demonstration we were able to obtain initial position measurements within about 15 minutes of the start of the observation. The measured positions differ from the projected ephemerides by a few milliarcseconds, and the repeatability of the measurement is better than 0.3 milliarcseconds as determined from measurements from multiple scans. We demonstrate that robust and repeatable offsets are obtained even when removing half of the antennas. These observations demonstrate the feasibility of astrometry with the VLBA with a low latency and sub-milliarcsecond repeatability.

  16. A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Seelos, F.P.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wray, J.J.; Swayze, G.; Clark, R.N.; Des Marais, D.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral images covering the 0.4-3.9 ??m wavelength range, coordinated with higher-spatial resolution HiRISE and Context Imager images. MRO's new high-resolution measurements, combined with earlier data from Thermal Emission Spectrometer; Thermal Emission Imaging System; and Observatoire pour la Min??ralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activiti?? on Mars Express, indicate that aqueous minerals are both diverse and widespread on the Martian surface. The aqueous minerals occur in 9-10 classes of deposits characterized by distinct mineral assemblages, morphologies, and geologic settings. Phyllosilicates occur in several settings: in compositionally layered blankets hundreds of meters thick, superposed on eroded Noachian terrains; in lower layers of intracrater depositional fans; in layers with potential chlorides in sediments on intercrater plains; and as thousands of deep exposures in craters and escarpments. Carbonate-bearing rocks form a thin unit surrounding the Isidis basin. Hydrated silica occurs with hydrated sulfates in thin stratified deposits surrounding Valles Marineris. Hydrated sulfates also occur together with crystalline ferric minerals in thick, layered deposits in Terra Meridiani and in Valles Marineris and together with kaolinite in deposits that partially infill some highland craters. In this paper we describe each of the classes of deposits, review hypotheses for their origins, identify new questions posed by existing measurements, and consider their implications for ancient habitable environments. On the basis of current data, two to five classes of Noachian-aged deposits containing phyllosilicates and carbonates may have formed in aqueous environments with pH and water activities suitable for life. Copyright 2009 by the American

  17. Experiment LEND of the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for high-resolution mapping of neutron emission of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Golovin, D V; Litvak, M L; Konovalov, A A; Kozyrev, A S; Malakhov, A V; Mokrousov, M I; Tretyakov, V I; Troshin, V S; Uvarov, V N; Varenikov, A B; Vostrukhin, A A; Shevchenko, V V; Shvetsov, V N; Krylov, A R; Timoshenko, G N; Bobrovnitsky, Y I; Tomilina, T M; Grebennikov, A S; Kazakov, L L; Sagdeev, R Z; Milikh, G N; Bartels, A; Chin, G; Floyd, S; Garvin, J; Keller, J; McClanahan, T; Trombka, J; Boynton, W; Harshman, K; Starr, R; Evans, L

    2008-08-01

    The scientific objectives of neutron mapping of the Moon are presented as 3 investigation tasks of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. Two tasks focus on mapping hydrogen content over the entire Moon and on testing the presence of water-ice deposits at the bottom of permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles. The third task corresponds to the determination of neutron contribution to the total radiation dose at an altitude of 50 km above the Moon. We show that the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) will be capable of carrying out all 3 investigations. The design concept of LEND is presented together with results of numerical simulations of the instrument's sensitivity for hydrogen detection. The sensitivity of LEND is shown to be characterized by a hydrogen detection limit of about 100 ppm for a polar reference area with a radius of 5 km. If the presence of ice deposits in polar "cold traps" is confirmed, a unique record of many millions of years of lunar history would be obtained, by which the history of lunar impacts could be discerned from the layers of water ice and dust. Future applications of a LEND-type instrument for Mars orbital observations are also discussed.

  18. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Opportunity observations of the Burns formation: crater hopping at Meridiani Planum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R.E. Arvidson,; Bell, J.F.; Catalano, J.G.; Clark, B. C.; Fox, V.K.; Gellert, Ralf; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, A.H.; Lapotre, M.G.A.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Powell, K. E.; Smith, M.D.; Squyres, S. W.; Wolff, M.J.; J.J. Wray,

    2015-01-01

    Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral (1.0–2.65 µm) along-track oversampled observations covering Victoria, Santa Maria, Endeavour, and Ada craters were processed to 6 m/pixel and used in combination with Opportunity observations to detect and map hydrated Mg and Ca sulfate minerals in the Burns formation. The strongest spectral absorption features were found to be associated with outcrops that are relatively young and fresh (Ada) or preferentially scoured of dust, soil, and coatings by prevailing winds. At Victoria and Santa Maria, the scoured areas are on the southeastern rims and walls, opposite to the sides where wind-blown sands extend out of the craters. At Endeavour, the deepest absorptions are in Botany Bay, a subdued and buried rim segment that exhibits high thermal inertias, extensive outcrops, and is interpreted to be a region of enhanced wind scour extending up and out of the crater. Ada, Victoria, and Santa Maria outcrops expose the upper portion of the preserved Burns formation and show spectral evidence for the presence of kieserite. In contrast, gypsum is pervasive spectrally in the Botany Bay exposures. Gypsum, a relatively insoluble evaporative mineral, is interpreted to have formed close to the contact with the Noachian crust as rising groundwaters brought brines close to and onto the surface, either as a direct precipitate or during later diagenesis. The presence of kieserite at the top of the section is hypothesized to reflect precipitation from evaporatively concentrated brines or dehydration of polyhydrated sulfates

  19. Reconnaissance of the HR 8799 Exosolar System. II. Astrometry and Orbital Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, L.; Soummer, R.; Hoffmann, J.; Oppenheimer, R.; Graham, J. R.; Zimmerman, N.; Zhai, C.; Wallace, J. K.; Vescelus, F.; Veicht, A.; Vasisht, G.; Truong, T.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Shao, M.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Roberts, J. E.; Rice, E.; Parry, I. R.; Nilsson, R.; Lockhart, T.; Ligon, E. R.; King, D.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hale, D.; Dekany, R.; Crepp, J. R.; Cady, E.; Burruss, R.; Brenner, D.; Beichman, C.; Baranec, C.

    2015-04-01

    We present an analysis of the orbital motion of the four substellar objects orbiting HR 8799. Our study relies on the published astrometric history of this system augmented with an epoch obtained with the Project 1640 coronagraph with an integral field spectrograph (IFS) installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. We first focus on the intricacies associated with astrometric estimation using the combination of an extreme adaptive optics system (PALM-3000), a coronagraph, and an IFS. We introduce two new algorithms. The first one retrieves the stellar focal plane position when the star is occulted by a coronagraphic stop. The second one yields precise astrometric and spectrophotometric estimates of faint point sources even when they are initially buried in the speckle noise. The second part of our paper is devoted to studying orbital motion in this system. In order to complement the orbital architectures discussed in the literature, we determine an ensemble of likely Keplerian orbits for HR 8799bcde, using a Bayesian analysis with maximally vague priors regarding the overall configuration of the system. Although the astrometric history is currently too scarce to formally rule out coplanarity, HR 8799d appears to be misaligned with respect to the most likely planes of HR 8799bce orbits. This misalignment is sufficient to question the strictly coplanar assumption made by various authors when identifying a Laplace resonance as a potential architecture. Finally, we establish a high likelihood that HR 8799de have dynamical masses below 13 MJup, using a loose dynamical survival argument based on geometric close encounters. We illustrate how future dynamical analyses will further constrain dynamical masses in the entire system.

  20. Geomorphic knobs of Candor Chasma, Mars: New Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data and comparisons to terrestrial analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, M.A.; Ormo, J.; Murchie, S.; Okubo, C.H.; Komatsu, G.; Wray, J.J.; McGuire, P.; McGovern, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery and digital elevation models of the Candor Chasma region of Valles Marineris, Mars, reveal prominent and distinctive positive-relief knobs amidst light-toned layers. Three classifications of knobs, Types 1, 2, and 3, are distinguished from a combination of HiRISE and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) images based on physical expressions (geometries, spatial relationships), and spectral data from Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Type 1 knobs are abundant, concentrated, topographically resistant features with their highest frequency in West Candor, which have consistent stratigraphic correlations of the peak altitude (height). These Type 1 knobs could be erosional remnants of a simple dissected terrain, possibly derived from a more continuous, resistant, capping layer of pre-existing material diagenetically altered through recrystallization or cementation. Types 2 and 3 knobs are not linked to a single stratigraphic layer and are generally solitary to isolated, with variable heights. Type 3 are the largest knobs at nearly an order of magnitude larger than Type 1 knobs. The variable sizes and occasional pits on the tops of Type 2 and 3 knobs suggest a different origin, possibly related to more developed erosion, preferential cementation, or textural differences from sediment/water injection or intrusion, or from a buried impact crater. Enhanced color HiRISE images show a brown coloration of the knob peak crests that is attributable to processing and photometric effects; CRISM data do not show any detectable spectral differences between the knobs and the host rock layers, other than albedo. These intriguing knobs hold important clues to deducing relative rock properties, timing of events, and weathering conditions of Mars history. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrated silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Pelkey, S.M.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Milliken, R.E.; Grant, J. A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Poulet, F.; Bishop, J.; Dobrea, E.N.; Roach, L.; Seelos, F.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wiseman, S.; Green, R.; Hash, C.; Humm, D.; Malaret, E.; McGovern, J.A.; Seelos, K.; Clancy, T.; Clark, R.; des Marais, D.; Izenberg, N.; Knudson, A.; Langevin, Y.; Martin, T.; McGuire, P.; Morris, Robert; Robinson, M.; Roush, T.; Smith, M.; Swayze, G.; Taylor, H.; Titus, T.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Phyllosilicates, a class of hydrous mineral first definitively identified on Mars by the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activitie??) instrument, preserve a record of the interaction of water with rocks on Mars. Global mapping showed that phyllosilicates are widespread but are apparently restricted to ancient terrains and a relatively narrow range of mineralogy (Fe/Mg and Al smectite clays). This was interpreted to indicate that phyllosilicate formation occurred during the Noachian (the earliest geological era of Mars), and that the conditions necessary for phyllosilicate formation (moderate to high pH and high water activity) were specific to surface environments during the earliest era of Mars's history. Here we report results from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of phyllosilicate-rich regions. We expand the diversity of phyllosilicate mineralogy with the identification of kaolinite, chlorite and illite or muscovite, and a new class of hydrated silicate (hydrated silica). We observe diverse Fe/Mg-OH phyllosilicates and find that smectites such as nontronite and saponite are the most common, but chlorites are also present in some locations. Stratigraphic relationships in the Nili Fossae region show olivine-rich materials overlying phyllosilicate-bearing units, indicating the cessation of aqueous alteration before emplacement of the olivine-bearing unit. Hundreds of detections of Fe/Mg phyllosilicate in rims, ejecta and central peaks of craters in the southern highland Noachian cratered terrain indicate excavation of altered crust from depth. We also find phyllosilicate in sedimentary deposits clearly laid by water. These results point to a rich diversity of Noachian environments conducive to habitability. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrated silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument.

    PubMed

    Mustard, John F; Murchie, S L; Pelkey, S M; Ehlmann, B L; Milliken, R E; Grant, J A; Bibring, J-P; Poulet, F; Bishop, J; Dobrea, E Noe; Roach, L; Seelos, F; Arvidson, R E; Wiseman, S; Green, R; Hash, C; Humm, D; Malaret, E; McGovern, J A; Seelos, K; Clancy, T; Clark, R; Marais, D D; Izenberg, N; Knudson, A; Langevin, Y; Martin, T; McGuire, P; Morris, R; Robinson, M; Roush, T; Smith, M; Swayze, G; Taylor, H; Titus, T; Wolff, M

    2008-07-17

    Phyllosilicates, a class of hydrous mineral first definitively identified on Mars by the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activitié) instrument, preserve a record of the interaction of water with rocks on Mars. Global mapping showed that phyllosilicates are widespread but are apparently restricted to ancient terrains and a relatively narrow range of mineralogy (Fe/Mg and Al smectite clays). This was interpreted to indicate that phyllosilicate formation occurred during the Noachian (the earliest geological era of Mars), and that the conditions necessary for phyllosilicate formation (moderate to high pH and high water activity) were specific to surface environments during the earliest era of Mars's history. Here we report results from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of phyllosilicate-rich regions. We expand the diversity of phyllosilicate mineralogy with the identification of kaolinite, chlorite and illite or muscovite, and a new class of hydrated silicate (hydrated silica). We observe diverse Fe/Mg-OH phyllosilicates and find that smectites such as nontronite and saponite are the most common, but chlorites are also present in some locations. Stratigraphic relationships in the Nili Fossae region show olivine-rich materials overlying phyllosilicate-bearing units, indicating the cessation of aqueous alteration before emplacement of the olivine-bearing unit. Hundreds of detections of Fe/Mg phyllosilicate in rims, ejecta and central peaks of craters in the southern highland Noachian cratered terrain indicate excavation of altered crust from depth. We also find phyllosilicate in sedimentary deposits clearly laid by water. These results point to a rich diversity of Noachian environments conducive to habitability.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Opportunity observations of the Burns formation: Crater hopping at Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Catalano, J. G.; Clark, B. C.; Fox, V. K.; Gellert, R.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Guinness, E. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Knoll, A. H.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Murchie, S. L.; Powell, K. E.; Smith, M. D.; Squyres, S. W.; Wolff, M. J.; Wray, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral (1.0-2.65 μm) along-track oversampled observations covering Victoria, Santa Maria, Endeavour, and Ada craters were processed to 6 m/pixel and used in combination with Opportunity observations to detect and map hydrated Mg and Ca sulfate minerals in the Burns formation. The strongest spectral absorption features were found to be associated with outcrops that are relatively young and fresh (Ada) or preferentially scoured of dust, soil, and coatings by prevailing winds. At Victoria and Santa Maria, the scoured areas are on the southeastern rims and walls, opposite to the sides where wind-blown sands extend out of the craters. At Endeavour, the deepest absorptions are in Botany Bay, a subdued and buried rim segment that exhibits high thermal inertias, extensive outcrops, and is interpreted to be a region of enhanced wind scour extending up and out of the crater. Ada, Victoria, and Santa Maria outcrops expose the upper portion of the preserved Burns formation and show spectral evidence for the presence of kieserite. In contrast, gypsum is pervasive spectrally in the Botany Bay exposures. Gypsum, a relatively insoluble evaporative mineral, is interpreted to have formed close to the contact with the Noachian crust as rising groundwaters brought brines close to and onto the surface, either as a direct precipitate or during later diagenesis. The presence of kieserite at the top of the section is hypothesized to reflect precipitation from evaporatively concentrated brines or dehydration of polyhydrated sulfates, in both scenarios as the aqueous environment evolved to very arid conditions.

  4. Observation of Comet Siding Spring by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamere, Alan; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah; Heyd, Rodney; Polit, Anjani T.; Schaller , Christian; Zurek, Richard W.; Miilkovich, Sarah M.; Block, Kristin; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Li, Jian_Yang; Farnham, Tony; Lisse, Carey M.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at a distance of about 137,000 km on Oct 19, 2014. The primary observing campaign will be October 17 through October 21. The solar phase angle will be 108 degrees at closest approach. The NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) project has dedicated 5 days for comet observation. The MRO/HiRISE telescope has a 50 cm aperture and an instantaneous field of view of one micro-radian per pixel, so the best image have a scale of 140 m/pixel. The CCD detectors are backside illuminated with three broadband color filters. The CCDs are operated at much higher temperatures, 20C to 30C, than those used for astronomical observations, so the exposure time is limited to maximum of about 2.5 seconds. While HiRISE will observe +/-60 hours with respect to closest approach(CA), the prime nucleus data will be obtained +/-2 hours wrt CA. It is expected that the nucleus and inner coma will be detected in both the red and blue-green channels. Preliminary results of the HiRISE observations will be presented.

  5. Failure of Harmonic Gears During Verification of a Two-Axis Gimbal for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.; Gehling, Russ; Head, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft has three two-axis gimbal assemblies that support and move the High Gain Antenna and two solar array wings. The gimbal assemblies are required to move almost continuously throughout the mission's seven-year lifetime, requiring a large number of output revolutions for each actuator in the gimbal assemblies. The actuator for each of the six axes consists of a two-phase brushless dc motor with a direct drive to the wave generator of a size-32 cup-type harmonic gear. During life testing of an actuator assembly, the harmonic gear teeth failed completely, leaving the size-32 harmonic gear with a maximum output torque capability less than 10% of its design capability. The investigation that followed the failure revealed limitations of the heritage material choices that were made for the harmonic gear components that had passed similar life requirements on several previous programs. Additionally, the methods used to increase the stiffness of a standard harmonic gear component set, while accepted practice for harmonic gears, is limited in its range. The stiffness of harmonic gear assemblies can be increased up to a maximum stiffness point that, if exceeded, compromises the reliability of the gear components for long life applications.

  6. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: Seven Years at the Moon - Accomplishments, Data, and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, Noah; Keller, John

    2016-07-01

    The LRO Spacecraft has been orbiting the Moon for over 7 years (~91 lunations), and in that time data from the seven instruments has contributed to a revolution in our understanding of the Moon. Since launch the mission goals and instruments science questions have evolved, from the initial characterization of the lunar surface and its environment to studying the variability of surface hydration and measuring the flux of new craters that have formed during LRO's time in lunar orbit. The growing LRO dataset in the PDS presents a unique archive that allows for an unprecedented opportunity to study how an airless body changes over time. The LRO instrument suite [1] is performing nominally, with no significant performance issues since the mission entered the current extended mission. The Mini-RF instrument team is investigating new methods for collecting bistatic data using an Earth-based X-band transmitter [2] during a possible upcoming extended mission starting in September 2016, pending NASA approval. The LRO spacecraft has been in an elliptical, polar orbit with a low perilune over the South Pole since December 2011. This orbit minimizes annual fuel consumption, enabling LRO to use fuel to maximize opportunities for obtaining unique science (e.g., lunar eclipse measurements from Diviner, measuring spacecraft impacts by GRAIL and LADEE). The LRO instrument teams deliver data to the PDS every three months, data that includes raw, calibrated, and gridded/map products [3]. As of January, over 681TB has been archived. These higher-level data products include a number of resources that are useful for mission planners, in addition to planetary scientists. A focus of the mission has been on the South Pole, therefore a number of special products (e.g., illumination maps, high resolution topography, hydration maps) are available. Beyond the poles, high-resolution (~1-2 m spatial resolution) topographic products are available for select areas, as well as maps of rock abundance

  7. Estimating Background and Lunar Contribution to Neutrons Detected by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Chin, G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The fraction of hydrogen-bearing species embedded in planetary regolith can be determined from the ratio between measured epithermal neutron leakage flux and the flux measured from similar dry regolith. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft is equipped with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument to measure embedded hydrogen in the Moon's polar regions and elsewhere. We have investigated the relative contribution of lunar and non-lunar (spacecraft-sourced) neutrons by modeling maps of the measured count rate from three of the LEND detector systems using linear combinations of maps compiled from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and the LEND detectors, demonstrating that the two systems are compatible and enabling reference signal to be inferred to enable detecting hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing volatiles. The pole-to-equator contrast ratio in epithermal neutrons indicates that the average concentration of hydrogen in the Moon's polar regolith above 80° north or south latitude is ~110 ppmw, or 0.10±0.01 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Above 88° north or south, the concentration increases to ~140 ppmw, or 0.13±0.02 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Nearly identical suppression of neutron flux at both the north and south poles, despite differences in topography and distribution of permanently-shadowed regions, supports the contention that hydrogen is broadly distributed in the polar regions and increasingly concentrated approaching the poles. Similarity in the degree of neutron suppression in low-energy and high-energy epithermal neutrons suggests that the hydrogen fraction is relatively uniform with depth down to ~1 m; the neutron leakage flux is insensitive to greater depth.

  8. Study of phyllosilicates and carbonates from the Capri Chasma region of Valles Marineris on Mars based on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (MRO-CRISM) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Nirmala; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-04-01

    Spectral reflectance data from the MRO-CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) of Capri Chasma, a large canyon within Valles Marineris on Mars, have been studied. Results of this analysis reveal the presence of minerals, such as, phyllosilicates (illite, smectite (montmorillonite)) and carbonates (ankerite and manganocalcite). These minerals hint of the aqueous history of Noachian time on Mars. Phyllosilicates are products of chemical weathering of igneous rocks, whereas carbonates could have formed from local aqueous alteration of olivine and other igneous minerals. Four different locations within the Capri Chasma region were studied for spectral reflectance based mineral detection. The study area also shows the spectral signatures of iron-bearing minerals, e.g. olivine with carbonate, indicating partial weathering of parent rocks primarily rich in ferrous mineral. The present study shows that the minerals of Capri Chasma are characterized by the presence of prominent spectral absorption features at 2.31 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.22 μm, 2.48 μm and 2.52 μm wavelength regions, indicating the existence of hydrous minerals, i.e., carbonates and phyllosilicates. The occurrence of carbonates and phyllosilicates in the study area suggests the presence of alkaline environment during the period of their formation. Results of the study are important to understand the formation processes of these mineral assemblages on Mars, which may help in understanding the evolutionary history of the planet.

  9. The rate and causes of lunar space weathering: Insights from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera ultraviolet observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Hawke, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera global ultraviolet and visible imaging provides a unique opportunity to examine the rate and causes of space weathering on the Moon. Silicates typically have a strong decrease in reflectance toward UV wavelengths (<~450 nm) due to strong bands at 250 nm and in the far UV. Metallic iron is relatively spectrally neutral, and laboratory spectra suggest that its addition to mature soils in the form of submicroscopic iron (also known as nanophase iron) flattens silicate spectra, significantly reducing spectral slope in the ultraviolet. Reflectance at ultraviolet wavelengths may be especially sensitive to the surface coatings that form due to exposure to space weathering because scattering from the surfaces of grains contributes a larger fraction to the reflectance spectrum at short wavelengths. We find that the UV slope (as measured by the 320/415 nm ratio) is a more sensitive measure of maturity than indexes based on visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Only the youngest features (less than ~100 Ma) retain a UV slope that is distinct from mature soils of the same composition. No craters >20 km have UV slopes that approach those observed in laboratory spectra of fresh lunar materials (powdered lunar rocks). While the 320/415 nm ratio increases by ~18% from powdered rocks to mature soils in laboratory samples, Giordano Bruno, the freshest large crater, only shows a 3% difference between fresh and mature materials. At the resolution of our UV data (400 m/pixel), we observe some small (<5 km) craters that show a ~14% difference in 320/415 nm ratio from their mature surroundings. UV observations show that Reiner Gamma has had significantly lower levels of space weathering than any of the Copernican craters we examined, and was the only region we found with a UV slope that approached laboratory values for fresh powdered rock samples. This is consistent with the hypothesis that its high albedo is due to magnetic shielding from

  10. Evidence for exposed water ice in the Moon's south polar regions from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter ultraviolet albedo and temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Hendrix, Amanda; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Siegler, Matthew A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.

    2015-07-01

    We utilize surface temperature measurements and ultraviolet albedo spectra from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to test the hypothesis that exposed water frost exists within the Moon's shadowed polar craters, and that temperature controls its concentration and spatial distribution. For locations with annual maximum temperatures Tmax greater than the H2O sublimation temperature of ∼110 K, we find no evidence for exposed water frost, based on the LAMP UV spectra. However, we observe a strong change in spectral behavior at locations perennially below ∼110 K, consistent with cold-trapped ice on the surface. In addition to the temperature association, spectral evidence for water frost comes from the following spectral features: (a) decreasing Lyman-α albedo, (b) decreasing "on-band" (129.57-155.57 nm) albedo, and (c) increasing "off-band" (155.57-189.57 nm) albedo. All of these features are consistent with the UV spectrum of water ice, and are expected for water ice layers >∼100 nm in thickness. High regolith porosity, which would darken the surface at all wavelengths, cannot alone explain the observed spectral changes at low temperatures. Given the observed LAMP off-band/on-band albedo ratios at a spatial scale of 250 m, the range of water ice concentrations within the cold traps with Tmax < 110 K is ∼0.1-2.0% by mass, if the ice is intimately mixed with dry regolith. If pure water ice is exposed instead, then up to ∼10% of the surface area on the 250-m scale of the measurements may be ice-covered. The observed distribution of exposed water ice is highly heterogeneous, with some cold traps <110 K having little to no apparent water frost, and others with a significant amount of water frost. As noted by Gladstone et al. (Gladstone, G.R. et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 117(E12)), this heterogeneity may be a consequence of the fact that the net supply rate of H2O molecules to the lunar poles is very similar to the net destruction rate within the cold

  11. Effects of the passage of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) observed by the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restano, Marco; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Gim, Yonggyu; Nunes, Daniel; Bernardini, Fabrizio; Egan, Anthony; Seu, Roberto; Phillips, Roger J.

    2015-06-01

    The close passage of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) to Mars provided a unique opportunity to observe the interaction of cometary materials with the Martian ionosphere and atmosphere using the sounding radar SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. In two nightside observations, acquired in the 10 h following the closest approach, the SHARAD data reveal a significant increase of the total electron content (TEC). The observed TEC values are typical for daylight hours just after dawn or before sunset but are unprecedented this deep into the night. Results support two predictions indicating that cometary pickup O+ ions, or ions generated from the ablation of cometary dust, are responsible for the creation of an additional ion layer.

  12. High resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) images of volcanic terrains from the first 6 months of the Mars reconnaissance orbiter primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.; McEwen, A.; Tornabene, L.; Beyer, R.A.; Dundas, C.; Milazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the first 6 months of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Primary Science Phase, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has returned images sampling the diversity of volcanic terrains on Mars. While many of these features were noted in earlier imaging, they are now seen with unprecedented clarity. We find that some volcanic vents produced predominantly effusive products while others generated mostly pyroclastics. Flood lavas were emplaced in both turbulent and gentle eruptions, producing roofed channels and inflation features. However, many areas on Mars are too heavily mantled to allow meter-scale volcanic features to be discerned. In particular, the major volcanic edifices are extensively mantled, though it is possible that some of the mantle is pyroclastic material rather than atmospheric dust. Support imaging by the Context Imager (CTX) and topographic information derived from stereo imaging are both invaluable in interpreting the HiRISE data. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. A system for generating multi-resolution Digital Terrain Models of Mars based on the ESA Mars Express and NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershov, V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a processing system for generating multiresolution digital terrain models (DTM) of Mars within the the iMars project of the European Seventh Framework Programme. This system is based on a non-rigorous sensor model for processing highresolution stereoscopic images obtained fromthe High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. The system includes geodetic control based on the polynomial fit of the input CTX images with respect to to a reference image obtained from the ESA Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The input image processing is based on the Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) and the NASA Ames stereo pipeline. The accuracy of the produced CTX DTM is improved by aligning it with the reference HRSC DTMand the altimetry data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The higher-resolution HiRISE imagery data are processed in the the same way, except that the reference images and DTMs are taken from the CTX results obtained during the first processing stage. A quality assessment of image photogrammetric registration is demonstrated by using data generated by the NASA Ames stereo pipeline and the BAE Socet system. Such DTMs will be produced for all available stereo-pairs and be displayed asWMS layers within the iMarsWeb GIS.

  14. Activation of mu-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral orbital cortex inhibits the GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rats.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chao-Ling; Huo, Fu-Quan; Huang, Fen-Sheng; Tang, Jing-Shi

    2015-04-10

    Previous studies have indicated that mu-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) are involved in antinociception in tail flick tests and GABAergic neurons or terminals express mu-opioid receptors in the VLO. The current study examined the effect of selective mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO on the GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in the VLO in rats using the whole-cell patch clamp. The results demonstrated that 5 μM DAMGO application into the rat VLO slices significantly reduced the GABAergic mIPSCs frequency, without any effect on its amplitude, and this effect of DAMGO was reversed by pretreatment with selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist 1 μM CTOP. Importantly, application of CTOP alone into the VLO slices did not produce any effect on the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic mIPSCs. These results indicate a presynaptic effect of mu-opioid receptor activation on the GABAergic neurons in the VLO. The current data suggests that a presynaptic inhibition of the GABA release may contribute to the mu-opioid receptor mediated effects in the VLO and provides novel electrophysiological evidence for the underlying mechanisms of mu-opioid receptors in the VLO.

  15. Cartography of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and surface archive TV-panoramas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kozlova, N. A.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Oberst, J.; Haase, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Plescia, J. B.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) system consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). NAC images (∼0.5 to 1.7 m/pixel) reveal details of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area. We derived a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and an orthomosaic for the study region using photogrammetric stereo processing techniques with NAC images. The DEM and mosaic allowed us to analyze the topography and morphology of the landing site area and to map the Lunokhod-2 rover route. The total range of topographic elevation along the traverse was found to be less than 144 m; and the rover encountered slopes of up to 20°. With the orthomosaic tied to the lunar reference frame, we derived coordinates of the Lunokhod-2 landing module and overnight stop points. We identified the exact rover route by following its tracks and determined its total length as 39.16 km, more than was estimated during the mission (37 km), which until recently was a distance record for planetary robotic rovers held for more than 40 years.

  16. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Observations with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND): Neutron Suppression Regions (NSR) and Polar Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Evans, L. G.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Shevchenko, V.; Shvetsov, V.; Smith, D.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Zuber, M.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital detection of neutrons has become the dominant remote sensing technique for detecting and inferring H concentrations and its spatial distribution beneath planetary surfaces [Lawrence et al, (2010) Icarus, 205, pp. 195-209, Mitrofanov et al (2007) Science 297(5578), 78-81]. Indications for the presence of localized and relatively high water content was provided by LRO and LCROSS. LEND identified Cabeus, as the most promising LCROSS impact site [Mitrofanov I. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483], and instruments onboard LRO and LCROSS have measured signatures of water, H2 and other volatiles in the impact plume [Colaprete A. et al. (2010) Science, 339,463, Gladstone R. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 472].

  17. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Dynamic Moon: Five Years of Operations in Lunar Orbit - An Overview of the Mission, Key Science Results, Data Products, and Future Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.; Keller, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been orbiting the Moon for over five years. In that time, data from the seven instruments onboard the spacecraft have made significant advances in our understanding of the Moon and its environment. In September 2014 LRO completed its first Extended Science Mission (ESM) and began a second ESM (pending NASA approval). During the ESM and the second ESM, LRO has been in a quasi-stable, eccentric orbit of ~30 x 180 km with a periapse near the South Pole. This orbit enabled high-resolution measurements around the South Pole. LRO's seven instruments are operating nominally, and have experienced no significant degradation since beginning the ESM. The spacecraft has performed exceptionally well, with 98.4% uptime during the mission. LRO retains sufficient fuel so that its current orbit can be maintained for at least 8 years. LRO's science teams have been extremely productive, focusing on the distribution of volatiles, evidence for early differentiation, measuring the lunar impact record, and the Moon's interactions with its external environment. Three of the most exciting findings by LRO have been the identification of LRO-era impacts, global tectonic features, and the transient nature of some volatiles at the surface. These findings are areas of study for future LRO measurements. LRO's data is released to the PDS every 3 months, as of Aug. 2014 528.75 TB of data have been delivered by LRO. Many of the teams have delivered higher-level data products as part of their routine PDS deliveries (e.g., mosaics, maps, derived products). These products are intended to act as useful resources for the science community. Some higher-level LRO data products are of interest for future lunar landers. These products include illumination maps, meter-scale digital elevation models, roughness maps, and 50cm per pixel images of a range of possible landing sites. All of these products are available either from the PDS [1] or individual teams websites

  18. Present-day activity, monitoring, and documentation of gullies with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tanya N.; Malin, Michael C.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2009-10-01

    Covering up to 9390 km2 in a single image, CTX provides large areal coverage at a resolution (6 m/pixel) capable of observing > 95% of the middle- and high-latitude gullies on Mars. We use CTX to cover entire gullied landforms (craters, pits, etc.) to remove the sampling bias in previous Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) coverage, allowing relations between gully occurrence and insolation, geographic location, and climate influences to be addressed. The gullies are imaged during appropriate illumination and seasonal conditions for maximum visibility. We acquire CTX stereopairs to aid in quantitative geomorphic studies, and we recommend targets for higher-resolution (0.3 m/pixel) imaging by the MRO HiRISE based on our previous decade of observations of these landforms. CTX is used to routinely monitor 617 locations to look for changes in gullies. From these efforts, we found further evidence that some gullies are active today, with 6 new gully flows discovered using CTX (adding to the 2 found by MOC) that formed since 2001. Examination of HiRISE images of these 6 landforms indicates a debris flow origin (requiring liquid); this interpretation is based on the patterns of flow around obstacles, ponding in and subsequent overtopping of topographic depressions, super-elevation of deposits on channel banks where the channels change direction, anastomoses in distal reaches, and lobate terminations. Of the 6 new flows, 3 have formation dates constrained to within a single Mars year; these 3 formed during autumn to early spring, demonstrating that summer warming is not participating in creating the liquid involved in their formation. We have also found similar gully flow features for which there is no "before" image; these are interpreted to be relatively recent but we cannot constrain their age. All gullied locations imaged by MOC and CTX have been cataloged; as of July 2009, > 43% of Mars has been imaged and > 4,000 separate gullied landform sites (tens of

  19. Emission Measurements of Lunar Analogues Measured in a Simulated Lunar Environment for Interpretation of Data Returned from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    A lunar thermal environment simulator has been constructed, in order to measure emission spectra of lunar analogue minerals in the same thermal environment as is present on the surface of the Moon. This data is directly comparable to measurements made by the Diviner instrument, currently in orbit around the Moon onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), allowing the composition of the Moon’s surface to be further determined, as part of the Diviner Compositional Investigation[1]. Diviner is a nine-channel infrared mapping radiometer, currently making high resolution (~160m per pixel) observations of the lunar surface from a ~50km lunar orbit[2]. The instrument’s filters are designed to map the temperature, mineralogy, albedo, rock abundance and bulk thermal properties of the surface regolith (soil)[2]. Three channels, located around 8µm, are capable of determining the spectral location of the Christiansen Feature (CF)[3], the primary spectral feature observed in mid-infrared measurements of the Moon[4,5]. Four other channels, from 13 to 400µm, are capable of mapping variations in emissivity of the lunar surface. The CF of a feldspathic mineral is located at a shorter wavelength than a mafic mineral, hence this emissivity maximum can be used as a compositional indicator[6,7]. It is observed as an emissivity maximum, and is enhanced by the lunar environment. In the top few hundreds of microns, at low to mid-latitudes during the daytime, large thermal gradients are induced due to very low heat transport within the lunar regolith[8,9,10,11]. The surface is cooled as it radiates to cold space, but soil transparency in the spectra around the CF region causes radiation to be emitted from the deeper, hotter layers, producing an emission maximum. Regolith grain size, mixing ratios, and the lack of atmosphere on the Moon also affect the shape and location of the CF[6,7,9,12]. The lunar thermal environment simulator creates an equivalent thermal gradient in lunar

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Observations Relating to Science and Landing Site Selection in South Pole-Aitken Basin for a Robotic Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Petro, N. E.; Lawrence, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is a high priority target for Solar System exploration, and sample return from SPA is a specific objective in NASA's New Frontiers program. Samples returned from SPA will improve our understanding of early lunar and Solar System events, mainly by placing firm timing constraints on SPA formation and the post-SPA late-heavy bombardment (LHB). Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images and topographic data, especially Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) scale (1-3 mpp) morphology and digital terrain model (DTM) data are critical for selecting landing sites and assessing landing hazards. Rock components in regolith at a given landing site should include (1) original SPA impact-melt rocks and breccia (to determine the age of the impact event and what materials were incorporated into the melt); (2) impact-melt rocks and breccia from large craters and basins (other than SPA) that represent the post-SPA LHB interval; (3) volcanic basalts derived from the sub-SPA mantle; and (4) older, "cryptomare" (ancient buried volcanics excavated by impact craters, to determine the volcanic history of SPA basin). All of these rock types are sought for sample return. The ancient SPA-derived impact-melt rocks and later-formed melt rocks are needed to determine chronology, and thus address questions of early Solar System dynamics, lunar history, and effects of giant impacts. Surface compositions from remote sensing are consistent with mixtures of SPA impactite and volcanic materials, and near infrared spectral data distinguish areas with variable volcanic contents vs. excavated SPA substrate. Estimating proportions of these rock types in the regolith requires knowledge of the surface deposits, evaluated via morphology, slopes, and terrain ruggedness. These data allow determination of mare-cryptomare-nonmare deposit interfaces in combination with compositional and mineralogical remote sensing to establish the types and relative proportions of materials

  1. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  2. Orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  3. Proceedings of airborne reconnaissance 14

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, P.A. ); LaGasse, F.R.; Schurter, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: HDTV/High-Resolution Video Overview; Image Acquisition and Recording; Image Processing and Exploitation; Reconnaissance Requirements; Reconnaissance Platforms; and Advanced Development.

  4. Miniature Earthmover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    International Machinery Corporation (IMC) developed a miniature earthmover, the 1/8 scale Caterpillar D11N Track-type Tractor, with trademark product approval and manufacturing/marketing license from Caterpillar, Inc. Through Marshall Space Flight Center assistance, the company has acquired infrared remote control technology, originally developed for space exploration. The technology is necessary for exports because of varying restrictions on radio frequency in foreign countries. The Cat D11N weighs only 340 pounds and has the world's first miniature industrial internal combustion engine. The earthmover's uses include mining, construction and demolition work, and hazardous environment work. IMC also has designs of various products for military use and other Caterpillar replicas.

  5. Miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator concept demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, R. E.; Rauschenbach, H. S.

    High concentration ratio photovoltaic systems for space applications have generally been considered impractical because of perceived difficulties in controlling solar cell temperatures to reasonably low values. A miniaturized concentrator system is now under development which surmounts this objection by providing acceptable solar cell temperatures using purely passive cell cooling methods. An array of identical miniaturized, rigid Cassegrainian optical systems having a low f-number with resulting short dimensions along their optical axes are rigidly mounted into a frame to form a relatively thin concentrator solar array panel. A number of such panels, approximately 1.5 centimeters thick, are wired as an array and are folded against one another for launch in a stowed configuration. Deployment on orbit is similar to the deployment of conventional planar honeycomb panel arrays or flexible blanket arrays. The miniaturized concept was conceived and studied in the 1978-80 time frame. Progress in the feasibility demonstration to date is reported.

  6. The Future of Airborne Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    biplanes to the worldwide Cold War missions of the U - 2 and SR-71, airborne reconnaissance has become an indispensable tool to the intelligence community...Reconnaissance Operations (SRO) procedures, such as the U - 2 , RC- 135, and the EP-3, and traditional theater/fleet tactical reconnaissance systems like...upgraded sensor package on the U -2.14 The Army Staffs argument centers around command and control of the asset. The Army agreed that the U - 2 ’s

  7. Miniaturized Plasma and Neutral Diagnostics for JIMO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHarg, M. G.; Enloe, C. L.; Krause, L. A.; Herrero, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a miniaturized suite of instruments which provides both bulk energy resolved plasma properties and coarse neutral mass spectroscopy suitable for measurements on the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The suite is comprised of two instruments; the Miniaturized Electro-Static Analyzer (MESA), and the Flat Plasma Spectrometer (FLAPS), designed to measure the near earth environment on the Air Force Academy small satellite missions Falconsat-2 and 3.

  8. Airborne reconnaissance VIII; Proceedings of the meeting, San Diego, CA, August 21, 22, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, P.; Lagesse, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    Various papers on sensors and ancillary equipment, technological advances, development and testing, and intelligence extraction and exploitation in airborne reconnaissance are presented. The topics discussed include: the CA-810 modern trilens camera, PC-183B standoff imaging system, ruggedized MMW radiometer sensor for surveillance applications, application of biocular viewers to airborne reconnaissance, KA-102 film/EO standoff system, KS-146A camera development and flight test results, electrooptical imaging for film cameras, and new generation advanced IR linescan sensor system. Also addressed are: evolution of real time airborne reconnaissance, computer-controlled operation of reconnaissance cameras, miniature focus sensor, microprocessor-controller autofocus system, camera flight tests and image evaluation, LM-230A cost-effective test system, information management for tactical reconnaissance, performance modeling of infrared linescanners and FLIRs, USAF tactical reconnaissance - Grenada, sensor control and film annotation for long-range standoff reconnaissance, laser beam recording on film, meteorological effects on image quality, and optimization of photographic information transfer by CRT.

  9. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  10. Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    REPORT Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi ...Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance Report Title ABSTRACT Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile...equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile ad-hoc network. Algorithms are developed to take advantage of the distributed processing

  11. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: Systems Engineering Challenges on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Glen G.

    2007-01-01

    MRO project is a system of systems requiring system engineering team to architect, design, integrate, test, and operate these systems at each level of the project. The challenge of system engineering mission objectives into a single mission architecture that can be integrated tested, launched, and operated. Systems engineering must translate high-level requirements into integrated mission design. Systems engineering challenges were overcome utilizing a combination by creative designs built into MRO's flight and ground systems: a) Design of sophisticated spacecraft targeting and data management capabilities b) Establishment of a strong operations team organization; c) Implementation of robust operational processes; and d) Development of strategic ground tools. The MRO system has met the challenge of its driving requirements: a) MRO began its two-year primary science phase on November 7, 2006, and by July 2007, met it minimum requirement to collect 15 Tbits of data after only eight months of operations. Currently we have collected 22 Tbits. b) Based on current performance, mission data return could return 70 Tbits of data by the end of the primary science phase in 2008.

  12. Miniaturized autonomous robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Many projects developing the miniaturized autonomous robot have been carried out in the whole world. This paper deals with our challenges developing a miniaturized autonomous robot. The miniaturized autonomous robot is defined as the miniaturized closed-loop system with micro processor, microactuators and microsensors. We have developed the micro autonomous robotic system (MARS) consisting of the microprocessor, microsensors, microactuators, communication units and batteries. The MARS controls itself by the downloaded program supplied through the IR communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate several performance of the MARS, and discuss the properties of the miniaturized autonomous robot.

  13. National Reconnaissance Almanac

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    span of five hours. Apr. 26: U.S.S.R. launched Zenit-2 under designator Kosmos 4, the first Soviet photoreconnaissance test satellite to orbit; it...The U.S.S.R. launched Zenit-2 ( Kosmos 7) which orbited for 10 days and provided Soviets with the first clear photorecon- naissance images from...23: NASA’s Lunar Orbiter 1 satellite took first pictures of Earth from the moon using Samos camera. 1967 Jun. 26: The U.S.S.R. launched Kosmos -189

  14. Family of Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time.

    All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet.

    Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  15. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  16. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  17. Miniature propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John G.

    1992-07-01

    Miniature solenoid valves, check valves and a hydrazine gas generator typify the miniaturization used in the liquid propulsion system for the Army Light Weight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP). The pressure control subsystem uses a solenoid valve weighing 24 grams to control flow of helium to pressurize the propellant tanks. The attitude control subsystem uses a gas generator weighing 71 grams to produce decomposed hydrazine as the gaseous propellant for miniature 1 lbf ACS thrusters weighing 5.4 grams. The successful use of these miniature components in development tests and a hover test of the LEAP is described.

  18. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of <1 m. Such tight tolerances cannot be achieved easily by conventional machining of high-aspect-ratio structures like those of scroll-pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  19. Interannual Comparison of Temporal and Spatial Structure in the Martian Thermosphere from Atmospheric Accelerometer Measurements of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during Aerobraking and Stellar Occultation Measurements from the SPICAM Ultraviolet Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer of Mars Express (MEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theriot, Michael; Keating, G.; Blanchard, R.; Bougher, S.; Zurek, R.; Tolson, R.; Murphy, J.; Forget, F.; Bertaux, J.

    2006-09-01

    Before MRO's arrival at Mars, during Mars Express orbits 17 to 2888, SPICAM obtained 617 stellar occultation measurements of density and temperature structure from 40km to 140km. SPICAM measurements give global atmospheric structure over an entire Martian year. Where SPICAM derived atmospheric profiles overlap MRO aerobraking altitudes from 100km to 140km, we have made interannual comparisons with in situ MRO accelerometer derived atmospheric profiles for matching season, local solar time, latitude, longitude and altitude. Designed for aerobraking, MRO launched August 12, 2005, and achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI) March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. Using small propulsive changes to apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude was adjusted to the necessary density surfaces for safe aerobraking. MRO periapsis precessed from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis dramatically shrank from 40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) mid-September 2006. Then, a few small propulsive maneuvers established the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities as requested by The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin, enabling good signal-to-noise-ratios up to at least 170km, critical for upper atmospheric science. Each of the 500+ MRO aerobraking orbits provides a distribution of density, scale-height, and temperature along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (> 100 km) processes. Characterization of key temporal and spatial cycles including: polar vortices, winter polar warming, dust storms, planetary scale waves, gravity waves, and gravitational tides associated with topography, validates and constrains both

  20. Next-generation robotic planetary reconnaissance missions: A paradigm shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Dohm, James M.; Tarbell, Mark A.; Hare, Trent M.; Baker, Victor R.

    2005-12-01

    A fundamentally new scientific mission concept for remote planetary surface and subsurface reconnaissance will soon replace the engineering and safety constrained mission designs of the past, allowing for optimal acquisition of geologic, paleohydrologic, paleoclimatic, and possible astrobiologic information of Mars and other extraterrestrial targets. Traditional missions have performed local ground-level reconnaissance through rovers and immobile landers, or global mapping performed by an orbiter. The former is safety and engineering constrained, affording limited detailed reconnaissance of a single site at the expense of a regional understanding, while the latter returns immense datasets, often overlooking detailed information of local and regional significance. A "tier-scalable" paradigm integrates multi-tier (orbit⇔atmosphere⇔ground) and multi-agent (orbiter⇔blimps⇔rovers/sensorwebs) hierarchical mission architectures, not only introducing mission redundancy and safety, but enabling and optimizing intelligent, unconstrained, and distributed science-driven exploration of prime locations on Mars and elsewhere, allowing for increased science return, and paving the way towards fully autonomous robotic missions.

  1. Chemistry "en Miniature"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesky, Herbert W.

    1997-04-01

    By using the video camera projector system we are improving the techniques which are employed in various schools. This is an important reason for employing "Chemistry en Miniature", as this method provides a new means of demonstrating chemical experiments in a lecture hall.

  2. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  3. Geothermal reconnaissance of northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbani, F. )

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of Venezuela has been covered by a reconnaissance geothermal survey that includes geologic and water geochemical studies. The information is stored in a computerized data bank that holds data from 361 geothermal localities. The subsurface reservoir temperatures of the geothermal systems have been estimated using chemical geothermometry and mixing models and in many cases conceptual geothermal modes have been postulated. Preliminary assessments of the northeastern Venezuelan geothermal systems indicate that the most promising system is Las Minas near El Pilar in the state of Sucre, with an estimated deep reservoir temperature of 200-220{sup 0}C. Further studies are intended to evaluate its potential for electricity generation. Based on present data, other medium and low temperature systems in Venezuela appear useful for direct applications.

  4. Simulation of parafoil reconnaissance imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.; Sutkus, Linas; Troast, Douglas; Kisatsky, Paul; Charles, Alain M.

    1995-08-01

    Reconnaissance from unmanned platforms is currently of interest to DoD and civil sectors concerned with drug trafficking and illegal immigration. Platforms employed vary from motorized aircraft to tethered balloons. One appraoch currently under evaluation deploys a TV camera suspended from a parafoil delivered to the area of interest by a cannon launched projectile. Imagery is then transmitted to a remote monitor for processing and interpretation. This paper presents results of imagery obtained from simulated parafoil flights in which software techniques were developed to process-in image degradation caused by atmospheric obscurants and perturbations in the normal parafoil flight trajectory induced by wind gusts. The approach to capturing continuous motion imagery from captive flight test recordings, the introduction of simulated effects, and the transfer of the processed imagery back to video tape is described.

  5. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  6. Miniaturization in Biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The use of biocatalysts for the production of both consumer goods and building blocks for chemical synthesis is consistently gaining relevance. A significant contribution for recent advances towards further implementation of enzymes and whole cells is related to the developments in miniature reactor technology and insights into flow behavior. Due to the high level of parallelization and reduced requirements of chemicals, intensive screening of biocatalysts and process variables has become more feasible and reproducibility of the bioconversion processes has been substantially improved. The present work aims to provide an overview of the applications of miniaturized reactors in bioconversion processes, considering multi-well plates and microfluidic devices, update information on the engineering characterization of the hardware used, and present perspective developments in this area of research. PMID:20479988

  7. Miniature interferometer terminals for earth surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    A system of miniature radio interferometer terminals was proposed for the measurement of vector baselines with uncertainties ranging from the millimeter to the centimeter level for baseline lengths ranging, respectively, from a few to a few hundred kilometers. Each terminal would have no moving parts, could be packaged in a volume of less than 0.1 cu m, and would operate unattended. These units would receive radio signals from low-power (10 w) transmitters on earth-orbiting satellites. The baselines between units could be determined virtually instantaneously and monitored continuously as long as at least four satellites were visible simultaneously.

  8. Miniaturized photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Robinson, Alex; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul J.

    2016-08-09

    A low-power miniaturized photoacoustic sensor uses an optical microphone made by semiconductor fabrication techniques, and optionally allows for all-optical communication to and from the sensor. This allows integration of the photoacoustic sensor into systems with special requirements, such as those that would be reactive in an electrical discharge condition. The photoacoustic sensor can also be operated in various other modes with wide application flexibility.

  9. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  10. Miniature Airflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kershner, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Miniature flow-angle and airspeed sensor quickly mounted on light aircraft wing with two-sided tape since conventional sensors are restricted to large aircraft. Sensor operates as free-trailing wind vane selfalineing in airstream through two independent axes. Vane attached to wing surface through hollow mounting boom that fits on mounting plate attached to wing with two-sided neoprene-foam tape. Method shown strong enough for loads of low-speed flight.

  11. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag.

  12. Reconnaissance and Autonomy for Small Robots (RASR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-29

    Reconnaissance and Autonomy for Small Robots (RASR) Final Report Solicitation Number : FA5209-11-T-0116 NSN : AJ11-AO-ARD-MAGI...29 JUN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 25-05-2011 to 24-05-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi- Robot Teaming - MAGIC 2010 Third...Place-Reconnaissance and Autonomy for Small Robots (RASR) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA520911P0169 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  13. Strategy for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    goals. In short, intent balances the ends, ways, and means of ISR operations and facilitates leaders’ efforts to integrate intelligence and... Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Air University Air FOrCe reseArCH institUe strategy for intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance

  14. Miniature Robotic Spacecraft for Inspecting Other Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven; Abbott, Larry; Duran, Steve; Goode, Robert; Howard, Nathan; Jochim, David; Rickman, Steve; Straube, Tim; Studak, Bill; Wagenknecht, Jennifer; Lemke, Matthew; Wade, Randall; Wheeler, Scott; Baggerman, Clinton

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)-- a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. The Mini AERCam is a successor to the AERCam Sprint -- a prior miniature robotic inspection spacecraft that was demonstrated in a space-shuttle flight experiment in 1997. The prototype of the Mini AERCam is a demonstration unit having approximately the form and function of a flight system. The Mini AERCam is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 7.5 in. (.19 cm) and a weight of about 10 lb (.4.5 kg), yet it has significant additional capabilities, relative to the 14-in. (36-cm), 35-lb (16-kg) AERCam Sprint. The Mini AERCam includes miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high-resolution still camera. The Mini AERCam is designed for either remote piloting or supervised autonomous operations, including station keeping and point-to-point maneuvering. The prototype has been tested on an air-bearing table and in a hardware-in-the-loop orbital simulation of the dynamics of maneuvering in proximity to the International Space Station.

  15. The Miniature Radio Frequency instrument's (Mini-RF) global observations of Earth's Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Thomson, B. J.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Neish, Catherine D.; Lopez, Norberto R.; Turner, F. Scott; Aldridge, T.; McAdam, M.; Meyer, H. M.; Raney, R. K.; Carter, L. M.; Spudis, P. D.; Hiesinger, H.; Pasckert, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Radar provides a unique means to analyze the surface and subsurface physical properties of geologic deposits, including their wavelength-scale roughness, the relative depth of the deposits, and some limited compositional information. The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument has enabled these analyses on the Moon at a global scale. Mini-RF has accumulated ∼67% coverage of the lunar surface in S-band (12.6 cm) radar with a resolution of 30 m/pixel. Here we present new Mini-RF global orthorectified uncontrolled S-band maps of the Moon and use them for analysis of lunar surface physical properties. Reported here are readily apparent global- and regional-scale differences in lunar surface physical properties that suggest three distinct terranes, namely: a (1) Nearside Radar Dark Region; (2) Orientale basin and continuous ejecta; and the (3) Highlands Radar Bright Region. Integrating these observations with new data from LRO's Diviner Radiometer rock abundance maps, as well Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived compositional values show multiple distinct lunar surface terranes and sub-terranes based upon both physical and compositional surface properties. Previous geochemical investigations of the Moon suggested its crust is best divided into three to four basic crustal provinces or terranes (Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (-An and -Outer), Procellarum KREEP Terrane, and South Pole Aitken Terrane) that are distinct from one another. However, integration of these geochemical data sets with new geophysical data sets allows us to refine these terranes. The result shows a more complex view of these same crustal provinces and provides valuable scientific and hazard perspectives for future targeted human and robotic exploration.

  16. The Miniature Radio Frequency Instruments (Mini-RF) Global Observations of Earth's Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Thomson, B. J.; Patterson, G. Wesley; Bussey, D. Benjamin J.; Neish, Catherine D.; Lopez, Norberto R.; Turner, F. Scott; Aldridge, T.; McAdam, M.; Meyer, H. M.; Raney, R. K.; Carter, L. M.; Spudis, P. D.; Hiesinger, H.; Pasckert, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Radar provides a unique means to analyze the surface and subsurface physical properties of geologic deposits, including their wavelength-scale roughness, the relative depth of the deposits, and some limited compositional information. The NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument has enabled these analyses on the Moon at a global scale. Mini-RF has accumulated 67% coverage of the lunar surface in S-band (12.6 cm) radar with a resolution of 30 m/pixel. Here we present new Mini-RF global orthorectified uncontrolled S-band maps of the Moon and use them for analysis of lunar surface physical properties. Reported here are readily apparent global- and regional-scale differences in lunar surface physical properties that suggest three distinct terranes, namely: a (1) Nearside Radar Dark Region; (2) Orientale basin and continuous ejecta; and the (3) Highlands Radar Bright Region. Integrating these observations with new data from LRO's Diviner Radiometer rock abundance maps, as well Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived compositional values show multiple distinct lunar surface terranes and sub-terranes based upon both physical and compositional surface properties. Previous geochemical investigations of the Moon suggested its crust is best divided into three to four basic crustal provinces or terranes (Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (-An and -Outer), Procellarum KREEP Terrane, and South Pole Aitken Terrane) that are distinct from one another. However, integration of these geochemical data sets with new geophysical data sets allows us to refine these terranes. The result shows a more complex view of these same crustal provinces and provides valuable scientific and hazard perspectives for future targeted human and robotic exploration.

  17. Miniature Heat Transport System for Nanosatellite Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Donya M,

    1999-01-01

    The scientific understanding of key physical processes between the Sun and the Earth require simultaneous measurements from many vantage points in space. Nano-satellite technologies will enable a class of constellation missions for the NASA Space Science Sun-Earth Connections. This recent emphasis on the implementation of smaller satellites leads to a requirement for development of smaller subsystems in several areas. Key technologies under development include: advanced miniaturized chemical propulsion; miniaturized sensors; highly integrated, compact electronics; autonomous onboard and ground operations; miniatures low power tracking techniques for orbit determination; onboard RF communications capable of transmitting data to the ground from far distances; lightweight efficient solar array panels; lightweight, high output battery cells; lightweight yet strong composite materials for the nano-spacecraft and deployer-ship structures. These newer smaller systems may have higher power densities and higher thermal transport requirements than seen on previous small satellites. Furthermore, the small satellites may also have a requirement to maintain thermal control through extended earth shadows, possibly up to 8 hours long. Older thermal control technology, such as heaters, thermostats, and heat pipes, may not be sufficient to meet the requirements of these new systems. Conversely, a miniature two-phase heat transport system (Mini-HTS) such as a Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) or Loop Heat Pipe (LBP) is a viable alternative. A Mini-HTS can provide fine temperature control, thermal diode action, and a highly efficient means of heat transfer. The Mini-HTS would have power capabilities in the range of tens of watts or less and provide thermal control over typical spacecraft ranges. The Mini-HTS would allow the internal portion of the spacecraft to be thermally isolated from the external radiator, thus protecting the internal components from extreme cold temperatures during an

  18. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  19. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  20. Miniature electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Casper, Robert F.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature coaxial cable electrical connector includes an annular compressible gasket in a receptacle member, the gasket having a generally triangular cross section resiliently engaging and encircling a conically tapered outer surface of a plug member to create an elongated current leakage path at their interface; means for preventing rotation of the plug relative to the receptacle; a metal sleeve forming a portion of the receptacle and encircling the plug member when interconnected; and a split ring in the plug having outwardly and rearwardly projecting fingers spaced from and encircling a portion of a coaxial cable and engageable with the metal sleeve to interlock the receptacle and plug.

  1. Miniaturized optical wavelength sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Helen Ling-Ning

    Recently semiconductor processing technology has been applied to the miniaturization of optical wavelength sensors. Compact sensors enable new applications such as integrated diode-laser wavelength monitors and frequency lockers, portable chemical and biological detection, and portable and adaptive hyperspectral imaging arrays. Small sensing systems have trade-offs between resolution, operating range, throughput, multiplexing and complexity. We have developed a new wavelength sensing architecture that balances these parameters for applications involving hyperspectral imaging spectrometer arrays. In this thesis we discuss and demonstrate two new wavelength-sensing architectures whose single-pixel designs can easily be extended into spectrometer arrays. The first class of devices is based on sampling a standing wave. These devices are based on measuring the wavelength-dependent period of optical standing waves formed by the interference of forward and reflected waves at a mirror. We fabricated two different devices based on this principle. The first device is a wavelength monitor, which measures the wavelength and power of a monochromatic source. The second device is a spectrometer that can also act as a selective spectral coherence sensor. The spectrometer contains a large displacement piston-motion MEMS mirror and a thin GaAs photodiode flip-chip bonded to a quartz substrate. The performance of this spectrometer is similar to that of a Michelson in resolution, operating range, throughput and multiplexing but with the added advantages of fewer components and one-dimensional architecture. The second class of devices is based on the Talbot self-imaging effect. The Talbot effect occurs when a periodic object is illuminated with a spatially coherent wave. Periodically spaced self-images are formed behind the object. The spacing of the self-images is proportional to wavelength of the incident light. We discuss and demonstrate how this effect can be used for spectroscopy

  2. Miniature cold gas thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzibziak, R. J., Sr.

    1992-07-01

    Cold gas thrusters provide a safe, inexpensive, lightweight and reliable means of propulsive control for small satellites, projectiles and maneuvering control systems. Moog Inc. has designed and developed a family of miniature cold gas thrusters for use on Strategic Defense Iniative flight simulation experiments, sounding rockets, small satellite applications, astronaut control systems, and close proximity maneuvering systems for Space System. Construction features such as coil assembly, core assembly, armature assembly, external housing and valve body are discussed. The design approach, performance characteristics and functional description of cold gas thrusters designed for various applications are presented.

  3. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  4. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  5. Miniature snapshot multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Ashe, Philip R.; Tan, Songsheng

    2011-03-01

    We present a miniature snapshot multispectral imager based on using a monolithic filter array that operates in the short wavelength infrared spectral region and has a number of defense and commercial applications. The system is low-weight, portable with a miniature platform, and requires low power. The imager uses a 4×4 Fabry-Pérot filter array operating from 1487 to 1769 nm with a spectral bandpass ~10 nm. The design of the filters is based on using a shadow mask technique to fabricate an array of Fabry-Pérot etalons with two multilayer dielectric mirrors. The filter array is installed in a commercial handheld InGaAs camera, replacing the imaging lens with a custom designed 4×4 microlens assembly with telecentric imaging performance in each of the 16 subimaging channels. We imaged several indoor and outdoor scenes. The microlens assembly and filter design is quite flexible and can be tailored for any wavelength region from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared, and the spectral bandpass can also be customized to meet sensing requirements. In this paper we discuss the design and characterization of the filter array, the microlens optical assembly, and imager and present imaging results.

  6. Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharoo, Inderdeep; Peshko, Igor; Goldenberg, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, basic principles of the design and implementation of a portable, multi-functional scientific instrument, operating from a robotic reconnaissance mobile platform are discussed. The current version of the instrument includes a multi-gas laser sensor, multi-functional spectrometer, isotopes identifier, cameras, and rangefinder. An additional set of sensors monitors temperature, pressure, humidity, and background radiation. All components are installed on a mini-robotic platform, which provides data acquisition, processing, and transmittance. The design focuses on the development of calibration-free, reliable, low power-consumption devices. To create a highly survivable, accurate, and reliable instrument, a concept of an inhomogeneous sensory network has been developed. Such a network combines non-identical sensors and provides cross-use of information received from different sensors to describe environmental conditions, to choose appropriate algorithms of data processing, and to achieve high accuracy gas-concentration measurements. The system uses the same lasers to operate different optical devices such as sensors, rangefinders, spectrometers, and isotopes identifiers. Among the innovative elements described in this paper, are a calibration-free, laser multi-gas sensor with range-finding option; a high signal/noise ratio transmittance spectrometer; a single-frequency laser with nano-selector; and low repetition-rate femtosecond fiber lasers operating in near- and middle- infrared spectral ranges. New detailed analyses of absorption spectroscopy theoretical approximations made it possible to achieve high-accuracy gas-concentration measurements with miniature optical sensors.

  7. Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders

    SciTech Connect

    Matharoo, Inderdeep; Peshko, Igor; Goldenberg, Andrew

    2011-11-15

    In this paper, basic principles of the design and implementation of a portable, multi-functional scientific instrument, operating from a robotic reconnaissance mobile platform are discussed. The current version of the instrument includes a multi-gas laser sensor, multi-functional spectrometer, isotopes identifier, cameras, and rangefinder. An additional set of sensors monitors temperature, pressure, humidity, and background radiation. All components are installed on a mini-robotic platform, which provides data acquisition, processing, and transmittance. The design focuses on the development of calibration-free, reliable, low power-consumption devices. To create a highly survivable, accurate, and reliable instrument, a concept of an inhomogeneous sensory network has been developed. Such a network combines non-identical sensors and provides cross-use of information received from different sensors to describe environmental conditions, to choose appropriate algorithms of data processing, and to achieve high accuracy gas-concentration measurements. The system uses the same lasers to operate different optical devices such as sensors, rangefinders, spectrometers, and isotopes identifiers. Among the innovative elements described in this paper, are a calibration-free, laser multi-gas sensor with range-finding option; a high signal/noise ratio transmittance spectrometer; a single-frequency laser with nano-selector; and low repetition-rate femtosecond fiber lasers operating in near- and middle- infrared spectral ranges. New detailed analyses of absorption spectroscopy theoretical approximations made it possible to achieve high-accuracy gas-concentration measurements with miniature optical sensors.

  8. Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders.

    PubMed

    Matharoo, Inderdeep; Peshko, Igor; Goldenberg, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, basic principles of the design and implementation of a portable, multi-functional scientific instrument, operating from a robotic reconnaissance mobile platform are discussed. The current version of the instrument includes a multi-gas laser sensor, multi-functional spectrometer, isotopes identifier, cameras, and rangefinder. An additional set of sensors monitors temperature, pressure, humidity, and background radiation. All components are installed on a mini-robotic platform, which provides data acquisition, processing, and transmittance. The design focuses on the development of calibration-free, reliable, low power-consumption devices. To create a highly survivable, accurate, and reliable instrument, a concept of an inhomogeneous sensory network has been developed. Such a network combines non-identical sensors and provides cross-use of information received from different sensors to describe environmental conditions, to choose appropriate algorithms of data processing, and to achieve high accuracy gas-concentration measurements. The system uses the same lasers to operate different optical devices such as sensors, rangefinders, spectrometers, and isotopes identifiers. Among the innovative elements described in this paper, are a calibration-free, laser multi-gas sensor with range-finding option; a high signal/noise ratio transmittance spectrometer; a single-frequency laser with nano-selector; and low repetition-rate femtosecond fiber lasers operating in near- and middle- infrared spectral ranges. New detailed analyses of absorption spectroscopy theoretical approximations made it possible to achieve high-accuracy gas-concentration measurements with miniature optical sensors.

  9. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  10. Miniature spectrally selective dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. R.; MacConochie, I. O.; Poole, B. D., Jr.

    1980-10-01

    A miniature spectrally selective dosimeter capable of measuring selected bandwidths of radiation exposure on small mobile areas is described. This is achieved by the combination of photovoltaic detectors, electrochemical integrators (E-cells) and filters in a small compact case which can be easily attached in close proximity to and substantially parallel to the surface being measured. In one embodiment two photovoltaic detectors, two E-cells, and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a safety pin. In another embodiment, two detectors, one E-cell, three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a clip to clip over a side piece of an eye glass frame.

  11. Miniature drag force anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature drag force anemometer is described which is capable of measuring dynamic velocity head and flow direction. The anemometer consists of a silicon cantilevered beam 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, and 0.25 mm thick with an integrated diffused strain gage bridge, located at the base of the beam, as the force measuring element. The dynamics of the beam are like that of a second order system with a natural frequency of about 42 kHz and a damping coefficient of 0.007. The anemometer can be used in both forward and reversed flow. Measured flow characteristics up to Mach 0.6 are presented along with application examples including turbulence measurements.

  12. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  13. Miniature spectrally selective dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. R.; Macconochie, I. O.; Poole, B. D., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A miniature spectrally selective dosimeter capable of measuring selected bandwidths of radiation exposure on small mobile areas is described. This is achieved by the combination of photovoltaic detectors, electrochemical integrators (E-cells) and filters in a small compact case which can be easily attached in close proximity to and substantially parallel to the surface being measured. In one embodiment two photovoltaic detectors, two E-cells, and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a safety pin. In another embodiment, two detectors, one E-cell, three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a clip to clip over a side piece of an eye glass frame.

  14. Miniaturized fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliss, Christine; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Flynn, John T.; Pratisto, Hans S.; Niederer, Peter F.

    2003-07-01

    We present a miniaturized version of a fundus camera. The camera is designed for the use in screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). There, but also in other applications a small, light weight, digital camera system can be extremely useful. We present a small wide angle digital camera system. The handpiece is significantly smaller and lighter then in all other systems. The electronics is truly portable fitting in a standard boardcase. The camera is designed to be offered at a compatible price. Data from tests on young rabbits' eyes is presented. The development of the camera system is part of a telemedicine project screening for ROP. Telemedical applications are a perfect application for this camera system using both advantages: the portability as well as the digital image.

  15. Miniature Latching Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. David; Benson, Glendon M.

    2008-01-01

    A miniature latching valve has been invented to satisfy a need for an electrically controllable on/off pneumatic valve that is lightweight and compact and remains in the most recently commanded open or closed state when power is not supplied. The valve includes a poppet that is moved into or out of contact with a seat to effect closure or opening, respectively, of the flow path. Motion of the poppet is initiated by electrical heating of one of two opposing pairs of nickel/titanium shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires above their transition temperature: heated wires contract to their remembered length, applying tension to pull the poppet toward or away from the seat. A latch consisting mainly of a bistable Belleville washer (a conical spring) made of a hardened stainless steel operates between two stable positions corresponding to the fully closed or fully open state, holding the poppet in one of these positions when power is not applied to either pair of SMA wires. To obtain maximum actuation force and displacement, the SMA wires must be kept in tension. The mounting fixtures at the ends of the wires must support large tensile stresses without creating stress concentrations that would limit the fatigue lives of the wires. An earlier design provided for each wire to be crimped in a conical opening with a conical steel ferrule that was swaged into the opening to produce a large, uniformly distributed holding force. In a subsequent design, the conical ferrule was replaced with a larger crimped cylindrical ferrule depicted in the figure. A major problem in designing the valve was to protect the SMA wires from a bake-out temperature of 300 C. The problem was solved by incorporating the SMA wires into an actuator module that is inserted into a barrel of the valve body and is held in place by miniature clip rings.

  16. The Whole new world of miniature technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-07-01

    In the past ten years, miniaturization of both electrical and mechanical parts has significantly increased. Documentation of the design and production capabilities of miniaturization in the electronics industry is well-defined. Literature on the subject of miniaturization of metal piece parts, however, is hard to find. Some of the current capabilities in the manufacture of miniature metal piece parts or miniature features in larger piece parts are discussed.

  17. Miniature Chemical Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew C. R. Pipino

    2004-12-13

    A new chemical detection technology has been realized that addresses DOE environmental management needs. The new technology is based on a variant of the sensitive optical absorption technique, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Termed evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS), the technology employs a miniature solid-state optical resonator having an extremely high Q-factor as the sensing element, where the high-Q is achieved by using ultra-low-attenuation optical materials, ultra-smooth surfaces, and ultra-high reflectivity coatings, as well as low-diffraction-loss designs. At least one total-internal reflection (TIR) mirror is integral to the resonator permitting the concomitant evanescent wave to probe the ambient environment. Several prototypes have been designed, fabricated, characterized, and applied to chemical detection. Moreover, extensions of the sensing concept have been explored to enhance selectivity, sensitivity, and range of application. Operating primarily in the visible and near IR regions, the technology inherently enables remote detection by optical fiber. Producing 11 archival publications, 5 patents, 19 invited talks, 4 conference proceedings, a CRADA, and a patent-license agreement, the project has realized a new chemical detection technology providing >100 times more sensitivity than comparable technologies, while also providing practical advantages.

  18. Miniaturized Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a low-volume, low-mass free-flying camera system . AERCam project team personnel recently initiated development of a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam. The Mini AERCam target design is a spherical "nanosatellite" free-flyer 7.5 inches in diameter and weighing 1 0 pounds. Mini AERCam is building on the success of the AERCam Sprint STS-87 flight experiment by adding new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving enhanced capability in a smaller package depends on applying miniaturization technology across virtually all subsystems. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion system , rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides beneficial on-orbit views unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by EVA crewmembers.

  19. Tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    The continuous development on the field of electro-optics has certainly a big influence on the field of military vehicles. The same way it increases the own visual and thereby the operational range, it also increases the danger of detection by enemy forces. This conflict between the enhancement of sensor performance on one side and the minimization of vehicle signature by design on the other side is the major issue in the field of battlefield reconnaissance. The understanding of the interaction between the theoretical sensor performance, its limitation caused by atmospheric effects and the constructive limitations in the vehicle's signature minimization is mandatory for a realistic assessment of sensor systems. This paper describes the tasks and tools for battlefield reconnaissance at the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Weapons and Ammunition (WTD 91) in Meppen (DEU).

  20. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  1. Operational Reconnaissance: Identifying the Right Problems in a Complex World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Operational Reconnaissance: Identifying the Right Problems in a Complex World A Monograph by MAJ Donald Erickson United States...Operational Reconnaissance: Identifying the Right Problems in a Complex World 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...proposes a model for the development of an operational reconnaissance force and explores its development and conceptual usage in World War II and the

  2. Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Mission Command and Centralized Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    reconnaissance support by World War I artillerymen, whose views on organic control echo current dialogue on UAS employment. This monograph concludes by...Mission Command, Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance, ISR, Helmuth Von Moltke, J.E.B. Stuart, World War I, artillery, centralized...reconnaissance and modern airborne ISR operations. This monograph also highlights the experiences of World War I artillerymen and their pursuit of

  3. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  5. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  6. Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager on New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Weaver, H. A.; Conard, S. J.; Morgan, M. F.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Boldt, J. D.; Cooper, K. A.; Darlington, E. H.; Grey, M. P.; Hayes, J. R.; Kosakowski, K. E.; Magee, T.; Rossano, E.; Sampath, D.; Schlemm, C.; Taylor, H. W.

    2008-10-01

    The LOng-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) is the high-resolution imaging instrument for the New Horizons mission to Pluto, its giant satellite Charon, its small moons Nix and Hydra, and the Kuiper Belt, which is the vast region of icy bodies extending roughly from Neptune’s orbit out to 50 astronomical units (AU). New Horizons launched on January 19, 2006, as the inaugural mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program. LORRI is a narrow-angle (field of view=0.29°), high-resolution (4.95 μrad pixels), Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 20.8-cm diameter primary mirror, a focal length of 263 cm, and a three-lens, field-flattening assembly. A 1,024×1,024 pixel (optically active region), thinned, backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) detector is used in the focal plane unit and is operated in frame-transfer mode. LORRI provides panchromatic imaging over a bandpass that extends approximately from 350 nm to 850 nm. LORRI operates in an extreme thermal environment, situated inside the warm spacecraft with a large, open aperture viewing cold space. LORRI has a silicon carbide optical system, designed to maintain focus over the operating temperature range without a focus adjustment mechanism. Moreover, the spacecraft is thruster-stabilized without reaction wheels, placing stringent limits on the available exposure time and the optical throughput needed to satisfy the measurement requirements.

  7. Heavy Brigade Offensive Reconnaissance Operations: A Systems Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    execute operational decisions. Systems theorist have developed a technique called ’ systems thinking ’ to gain perspective on such difficult problems...This monograph will determine if systems thinking can identify the source of the reconnaissance problem. The Army began to recognize the reconnaissance

  8. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  9. Status of the GAF Tornado reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Eva; Hochenbleicher, Gerhard

    1996-11-01

    The development of the new reconnaissance pod for the German Air Force is continuing according to schedule. A first flight is planned for the end of 1996. Carried on the centerline station of the IDS Tornado, the pod contains two daylight film cameras and one infra-red linescanner system. The infra-red image is recorded on a digital tape recorder and will also be displayed on the TV-Tabs. The modular structure of the pod exhibits a high flexibility for incorporation of various sensor systems on other payloads.

  10. An opposition class piloted mission to Mars using telerobotics for landing site reconnaissance and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Philip J.; Fredrickson, Steven E.; Magruder, Darby F.; Rask, John D.

    2001-02-01

    The authors propose a new architecture for a first piloted mission to Mars. A crew travels to and from Mars in the same type of vehicle as will be used for the first piloted landing mission. Two or three surface rovers travel to Mars separately. The rovers land at widely separated potential human landing sites within a single hemisphere. The piloted vehicle (orbiter) achieves an orbit around Mars with a period equal to one Martian day (sol), so that continuous line-of-sight communications exists between the orbiter and the rovers. The crew operates the rovers from orbit using telerobotics and telepresence technology. The rovers, which have traverse ranges measured in kilometers per day, perform extensive landing site reconnaissance, weather observations, and geological sample collection and analysis, including water detection experiments. The mission lasts approximately 40 days in Mars orbit. Major objectives include rigorous flight test of the piloted vehicle, precision landing site characterization and selection at a level of detail unattainable from orbit, and predeployment of the teleoperated rovers for later use as robotic assistants during human surface missions. All of these objectives can reduce the risk to the first crew to land on Mars. Such a mission could be launched at least one synodic period ahead of the earliest planned piloted landing. .

  11. Orbital cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  12. Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Predator B in flight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  13. A small, cheap, and portable reconnaissance robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Samuel H.; Creary, D.; Thi, Dan; Maynard, Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    While there is much interest in human-carriable mobile robots for defense/security applications, existing examples are still too large/heavy, and there are not many successful small human-deployable mobile ground robots, especially ones that can survive being thrown/dropped. We have developed a prototype small short-range teleoperated indoor reconnaissance/surveillance robot that is semi-autonomous. It is self-powered, self-propelled, spherical, and meant to be carried and thrown by humans into indoor, yet relatively unstructured, dynamic environments. The robot uses multiple channels for wireless control and feedback, with the potential for inter-robot communication, swarm behavior, or distributed sensor network capabilities. The primary reconnaissance sensor for this prototype is visible-spectrum video. This paper focuses more on the software issues, both the onboard intelligent real time control system and the remote user interface. The communications, sensor fusion, intelligent real time controller, etc. are implemented with onboard microcontrollers. We based the autonomous and teleoperation controls on a simple finite state machine scripting layer. Minimal localization and autonomous routines were designed to best assist the operator, execute whatever mission the robot may have, and promote its own survival. We also discuss the advantages and pitfalls of an inexpensive, rapidly-developed semi-autonomous robotic system, especially one that is spherical, and the importance of human-robot interaction as considered for the human-deployment and remote user interface.

  14. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  15. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  16. Toward a miniaturized fundus camera.

    PubMed

    Gliss, Christine; Parel, Jean-Marie; Flynn, John T; Pratisto, Hans; Niederer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) describes a pathological development of the retina in prematurely born children. In order to prevent severe permanent damage to the eye and enable timely treatment, the fundus of the eye in such children has to be examined according to established procedures. For these examinations, our miniaturized fundus camera is intended to allow the acquisition of wide-angle digital pictures of the fundus for on-line or off-line diagnosis and documentation. We designed two prototypes of a miniaturized fundus camera, one with graded refractive index (GRIN)-based optics, the other with conventional optics. Two different modes of illumination were compared: transscleral and transpupillary. In both systems, the size and weight of the camera were minimized. The prototypes were tested on young rabbits. The experiments led to the conclusion that the combination of conventional optics with transpupillary illumination yields the best results in terms of overall image quality.

  17. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  18. Organic photodiodes for biosensor miniaturization.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Jason R; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Yamaguchi, Mariko Y; Füreder, Erwin; Pieler, Roland; Schamesberger, Martin; Winder, Christoph; Prall, Hans Jürgen; Sonnleitner, Max; Ligler, Frances S

    2009-05-01

    Biosensors have successfully demonstrated the capability to detect multiple pathogens simultaneously at very low levels. Miniaturization of biosensors is essential for use in the field or at the point of care. While microfluidic systems reduce the footprint for biochemical processing devices and electronic components are continually becoming smaller, optical components suitable for integration--such as LEDs and CMOS chips--are generally still too expensive for disposable components. This paper describes the integration of polymer diodes onto a biosensor chip to create a disposable device that includes both the detector and the sensing surface coated with immobilized capture antibody. We performed a chemiluminescence immunoassay on the OPD substrate and measured the results using a hand-held reader attached to a laptop computer. The miniaturized biosensor with the disposable slide including the organic photodiode detected Staphylococcal enterotoxin B at concentrations as low as 0.5 ng/mL.

  19. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  20. Organic Photodiodes for Biosensor Miniaturization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    1 pW/mm2. Using this system, sandwich immunoassays were performed on the OPD substrate for detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Results...demonstrated the capability to detect multiple pathogens simultaneously at very low levels. Miniaturization of biosensors is essential for use in the field or...the sensing surface coated with immobilized capture antibody. We performed a chemiluminescence immunoassay on the OPD substrate and measured the results

  1. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.

  2. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  3. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Mahaffy, P.; Fairbrother, D.; de Pater, I.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pitman, J.

    2007-08-01

    same time made us aware of how little we understand about these bodies. For example, the source, and/or recycling mechanism, of methane in Titan's atmosphere is still puzzling. Indeed, river beds (mostly dry) and lakes have been spotted, and occasional clouds have been seen, but the physics to explain the observations is still mostly lacking, since our "image" of Titan is still sketchy and quite incomplete. Enceladus, only 500 km in extent, is even more puzzling, with its fiery plumes of vapor, dust and ice emanating from its south polar region, "feeding" Saturn's E ring. Long term variability of magnetospheric plasma, neutral gas, E-ring ice grain density, radio emissions, and corotation of Saturn's planetary magnetic field in response to Enceladus plume activity are of great interest for Saturn system science. Both Titan and Enceladus are bodies of considerable astrobiological interest in view of high organic abundances at Titan and potential subsurface liquid water at Enceladus. We propose to develop a new mission to Titan and Enceladus, the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES), to address these questions using novel new technologies. TOAMES is a multi-faceted mission that starts with orbit insertion around Saturn using aerobraking with Titan's extended atmosphere. We then have an orbital tour around Saturn (for 1-2 years) and close encounters with Enceladus, before it goes into orbit around Titan (via aerocapture). During the early reconnaissance phase around Titan, perhaps 6 months long, the orbiter will use altimetry, radio science and remote sensing instruments to measure Titan's global topography, subsurface structure and atmospheric winds. This information will be used to determine where and when to release the Aerorover, so that it can navigate safely around Titan and identify prime sites for surface sampling and analysis. In situ instruments will sample the upper atmosphere which may provide the seed population for the complex

  4. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, J.; Mahaffy, P.; Fairbrother D.; dePater, I.; Schultze-Makuch, D.; Pitman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini and Huygens have made exciting discoveries at Titan and Enceladus, and at the same time made us aware of how little we understand about these bodies. For example, the source, and/or recycling mechanism, of methane in Titan's atmosphere is still puzzling. Indeed, river beds (mostly dry) and lakes have been spotted, and occasional clouds have been seen, but the physics to explain the observations is still mostly lacking, since our "image" of Titan is still sketchy and quite incomplete. Enceladus, only -500 km in extent, is even more puzzling, with its fiery plumes of vapor, dust and ice emanating from its south polar region, "feeding" Saturn's E ring. Long term variability of magnetospheric plasma, neutral gas, E-ring ice grain density, radio emissions, and corotation of Saturn's planetary magnetic field in response to Enceladus plume activity are of great interest for Saturn system science. Both Titan and Enceladus are bodies of considerable astrobiological interest in view of high organic abundances at Titan and potential subsurface liquid water at Enceladus. We propose to develop a new mission to Titan and Enceladus, the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission with Enceladus Science (TOAMES), to address these questions using novel new technologies. TOAMES is a multi-faceted mission that starts with orbit insertion around Saturn using aerobraking with Titan's extended atmosphere. We then have an orbital tour around Saturn (for 1-2 years) and close encounters with Enceladus, before it goes into orbit around Titan (via aerocapture). During the early reconnaissance phase around Titan, perhaps 6 months long, the orbiter will use altimetry, radio science and remote sensing instruments to measure Titan's global topography, subsurface structure and atmospheric winds. This information will be used to determine where and when to release the Aerorover, so that it can navigate safely around Titan and identify prime sites for surface sampling and analysis. In situ instruments

  5. Development of Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensors (MOSS) for space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of space plasma sensors is high for several reasons: (1) Most are one-of-a-kind and state-of-the-art, (2) the cost of launch to orbit is high, (3) ruggedness and reliability requirements lead to costly development and test programs, and (4) overhead is added by overly elaborate or generalized spacecraft interface requirements. Possible approaches to reducing costs include development of small 'sensors' (defined as including all necessary optics, detectors, and related electronics) that will ultimately lead to cheaper missions by reducing (2), improving (3), and, through work with spacecraft designers, reducing (4). Despite this logical approach, there is no guarantee that smaller sensors are necessarily either better or cheaper. We have previously advocated applying analytical 'quality factors' to plasma sensors (and spacecraft) and have begun to develop miniaturized particle optical systems by applying quantitative optimization criteria. We are currently designing a Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensor (MOSS) in which miniaturized electronics (e.g., employing new power supply topology and extensive us of gate arrays and hybrid circuits) are fully integrated with newly developed particle optics to give significant savings in volume and mass. The goal of the SwRI MOSS program is development of a fully self-contained and functional plasma sensor weighing 1 lb and requiring 1 W. MOSS will require only a typical spacecraft DC power source (e.g., 30 V) and command/data interfaces in order to be fully functional, and will provide measurement capabilities comparable in most ways to current sensors.

  6. Miniaturization of flight deflection measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodale, Robert (Inventor); Hampton, Herbert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A flight deflection measurement system is disclosed including a hybrid microchip of a receiver/decoder. The hybrid microchip decoder is mounted piggy back on the miniaturized receiver and forms an integral unit therewith. The flight deflection measurement system employing the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be used in a wind tunnel. In particular, the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be employed in a spin measurement system due to its small size and can retain already established control surface actuation functions.

  7. Controlling the autonomy of a reconnaissance robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Dufourd, Delphine; Filliat, David

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we present our research on the control of a mobile robot for indoor reconnaissance missions. Based on previous work concerning our robot control architecture HARPIC, we have developed a man machine interface and software components that allow a human operator to control a robot at different levels of autonomy. This work aims at studying how a robot could be helpful in indoor reconnaissance and surveillance missions in hostile environment. In such missions, since a soldier faces many threats and must protect himself while looking around and holding his weapon, he cannot devote his attention to the teleoperation of the robot. Moreover, robots are not yet able to conduct complex missions in a fully autonomous mode. Thus, in a pragmatic way, we have built a software that allows dynamic swapping between control modes (manual, safeguarded and behavior-based) while automatically performing map building and localization of the robot. It also includes surveillance functions like movement detection and is designed for multirobot extensions. We first describe the design of our agent-based robot control architecture and discuss the various ways to control and interact with a robot. The main modules and functionalities implementing those ideas in our architecture are detailed. More precisely, we show how we combine manual controls, obstacle avoidance, wall and corridor following, way point and planned travelling. Some experiments on a Pioneer robot equipped with various sensors are presented. Finally, we suggest some promising directions for the development of robots and user interfaces for hostile environment and discuss our planned future improvements.

  8. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  9. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H.

    1981-11-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  10. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  11. Deployable reconnaissance from a VTOL UAS in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Shane; Bird, John; Culhane, Andrew; Sharkasi, Adam; Reinholtz, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Reconnaissance collection in unknown or hostile environments can be a dangerous and life threatening task. To reduce this risk, the Unmanned Systems Group at Virginia Tech has produced a fully autonomous reconnaissance system able to provide live video reconnaissance from outside and inside unknown structures. This system consists of an autonomous helicopter which launches a small reconnaissance pod inside a building and an operator control unit (OCU) on a ground station. The helicopter is a modified Bergen Industrial Twin using a Rotomotion flight controller and can fly missions of up to one half hour. The mission planning OCU can control the helicopter remotely through teleoperation or fully autonomously by GPS waypoints. A forward facing camera and template matching aid in navigation by identifying the target building. Once the target structure is identified, vision algorithms will center the UAS adjacent to open windows or doorways. Tunable parameters in the vision algorithm account for varying launch distances and opening sizes. Launch of the reconnaissance pod may be initiated remotely through a human in the loop or autonomously. Compressed air propels the half pound stationary pod or the larger mobile pod into the open portals. Once inside the building, the reconnaissance pod will then transmit live video back to the helicopter. The helicopter acts as a repeater node for increased video range and simplification of communication back to the ground station.

  12. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  13. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  14. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  15. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  16. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  17. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  18. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  19. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  20. Environmental study of miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnik, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    Investigation studied the long term operation of miniature slip ring assembles in high vacuum of space and included the influence of ring, brush, and insulator materials on electrical noise and mechanical wear. Results show that soft metal vapor plating and niobium diselenide miniature slip rings are beneficial.

  1. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  2. Miniature reaction chamber and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-10-17

    The present invention generally relates to miniaturized devices for carrying out and controlling chemical reactions and analyses. In particular, the present invention provides devices which have miniature temperature controlled reaction chambers for carrying out a variety of synthetic and diagnostic applications, such as PCR amplification, nucleic acid hybridization, chemical labeling, nucleic acid fragmentation and the like.

  3. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  4. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  5. NASA/USRA high altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Michael; Gudino, Juan; Chen, Kenny; Luong, Tai; Wilkerson, Dave; Keyvani, Anoosh

    1990-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from approximately 80,000 to 130,000+ feet which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum of a 6,000 mile range. The low Mach number, payload, and long cruising time are all constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. A pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements, a joined-wing, a bi-plane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The techniques used have been deemed reasonable within the limits of 1990 technology. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  6. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1955-01-01

    During the summer of 1953 the areas investigated for radioactive deposits in Alaska were on Nikolai Creek near Tyonek and on Likes Creek near Seward in south-central Alaska where carnotite-type minerals had been reported; in the headwaters of the Peace River in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula and at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River in east-central Alaska, where uranothorianite occurs in places associated with base metal sulfides and hematite; in the vicinity of Port Malmesbury in southeastern Alaska to check a reported occurrence of pitchblende; and, in the Miller House-Circle Hot Springs area of east-central Alaska where geochemical studies were made. No significant lode deposits of radioactive materials were found. However, the placer uranothorianite in the headwaters of the Peace River yet remains as an important lead to bedrock radioactive source materials in Alaska. Tundra cover prevents satisfactory radiometric reconnaissance of the area, and methods of geochemical prospecting such as soil and vegetation sampling may ultimately prove more fruitful in the search for the uranothorianite-sulfide lode source than geophysical methods.

  7. Miniaturization of a Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Jones, Evan O.; Dagle, Robert A.; Xia, Gordon; Cao, Chunshe; Wang, Yong

    2005-09-01

    The development of a miniaturized hydrogen plant is discussed. The micro-scale system is capable of producing 1-5 sccm hydrogen that could be used as a fuel supply in a small fuel cell to produce <1 W power. The paper describes the developmental approach, significant unit operations, material selection, and reactor design. The final microscale fuel processing system is composed of a catalytic combustor, catalytic methanol reformer, selective methanation reactor, and the necessary vaporizers and heat exchangers. The fuel processing system is less than 0.3 cm3 and less than 1 gram mass. Thermal efficiencies as high as 33% for hydrogen production were achieved. When a methanation reactor was incorporated into the system, a carbon monoxide level of less than 100 ppm was reached, but at a reduced system efficiency. Further development work includes increasing efficiency through improved system integration.

  8. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, Jr., David N.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  9. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  10. Overview of the miniaturization technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, Robert O., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This overview paper will cover the miniaturization technologies as applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) or micromanufacturing. Technologies reviewed will include bulk and surface micromachining of silicon, the high-aspect ratio technologies including deep X-ray lithography (LIGA) and photo sensitive polyimide, and the complementary processes which include micro-drilling, milling, turning, and electrical discharge machining, laser based micromachining and focussed ion beam micromachining. Examples of each of the process technologies will be given and a capabilities comparison among the technologies will be presented. A historical comparison of MEMS with the vlsi industry will be made and the current status and market forecast for these technologies will be presented. A brief comparison of US research with current research in Japan and Europe will be made along with comments about the status of US research, including current research projects at the Institute for Micromanufacturing.

  11. Miniature drag-force anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature drag-force anemometer is described which is capable of measuring dynamic velocity head and flow direction. The anemometer consists of a silicon cantilever beam 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, and 0.25 mm thick with an integrated diffused strain-gage bridge, located at the base of the beam, as the force measuring element. The dynamics of the beam are like those of a second-order system with a natural frequency of about 42 kHz and a damping coefficient of 0.007. The anemometer can be used in both forward and reversed flow. Measured flow characteristics up to Mach 0.6 are presented along with application examples including turbulence measurements.

  12. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  13. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  14. Miniature laser ignited bellows motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renfro, Steven L.; Beckman, Tom M.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature optically ignited actuation device has been demonstrated using a laser diode as an ignition source. This pyrotechnic driven motor provides between 4 and 6 lbs of linear force across a 0.090 inch diameter surface. The physical envelope of the device is 1/2 inch long and 1/8 inch diameter. This unique application of optical energy can be used as a mechanical link in optical arming systems or other applications where low shock actuation is desired and space is limited. An analysis was performed to determine pyrotechnic materials suitable to actuate a bellows device constructed of aluminum or stainless steel. The aluminum bellows was chosen for further development and several candidate pyrotechnics were evaluated. The velocity profile and delivered force were quantified using an non-intrusive optical motion sensor.

  15. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    DOEpatents

    Abel, Philip [Overland Park, KS; Watterson, Carl [Kansas City, MO

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  16. Miniaturization of planar horn motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-04-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of a stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2×2×2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of 3 × 3 × 0.2 cm.

  17. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  18. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  19. Study on the shipboard radar reconnaissance equipment azimuth benchmark method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenxing; Jiang, Ning; Ma, Qian; Liu, Songtao; Wang, Longtao

    2015-10-01

    The future naval battle will take place in a complex electromagnetic environment. Therefore, seizing the electromagnetic superiority has become the major actions of the navy. Radar reconnaissance equipment is an important part of the system to obtain and master battlefield electromagnetic radiation source information. Azimuth measurement function is one of the main function radar reconnaissance equipments. Whether the accuracy of direction finding meets the requirements, determines the vessels successful or not active jamming, passive jamming, guided missile attack and other combat missions, having a direct bearing on the vessels combat capabilities . How to test the performance of radar reconnaissance equipment, while affecting the task as little as possible is a problem. This paper, based on radar signal simulator and GPS positioning equipment, researches and experiments on one new method, which povides the azimuth benchmark required by the direction-finding precision test anytime anywhere, for the ships at jetty to test radar reconnaissance equipment performance in direction-finding. It provides a powerful means for the naval radar reconnaissance equipments daily maintenance and repair work[1].

  20. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    GPS Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) – e.g.,DSCS/ UFO / INMARSAT Grading Factors (1–4 shown as colors) Sensitivity Analysis Observations Notes: 10Persistent...SWaP/Manpack Not Voice Capable Voice Capable Image Capable Video Capable Acquisition Cost > $50M $10M – $50M $1M – $10M < $1M Flying Hr Cost > $20K $5K...GPS Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) – e.g.,DSCS/ UFO / INMARSAT Grading Factors (1–4 shown as colors) Sensitivity Analysis Observations Notes: 12Persistent

  1. The Performance of a Miniature Plant Cultivation System Designed for Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, Gerard; Kliss, Mark; Blackford, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    Constraints in both launch opportunities and the availability of in-flight resources for Shuttle and Space Station life science habitat facilities has presented a compelling impetus to improve the operational flexibility, efficiency and miniaturization of many of these systems. Such advances would not only invigorate the level of research being conducted in low Earth orbit but also present the opportunity to expand life science studies to outer space and planetary bodies. Work has been directed towards the development of a miniature plant cultivation module (PCM) capable of supporting the automated and controlled growth and spectral monitoring of small plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. This paper will present data on the operational performance and efficiency of the cultivation module, and the extent to which such a system may be used to support plant growth studies in low Earth orbit and beyond.

  2. Development of a Miniaturized Hollow-Waveguide Gas Correlation Radiometer for Trace Gas Measurements in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, E. M.; Blalock, G. W.; Marx, C. T.; Heaps, W. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present preliminary results in the development of a miniaturized gas correlation radiometer (GCR) for column trace gas measurements in the Martian atmosphere. The GCR is designed as an orbiting instrument capable of mapping multiple trace gases and identifying active regions on the Mars surface.

  3. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  4. Contact stresses calculated for miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, F. G.; Domerest, K. E.; Horton, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Using mathematical formulations to plot the graphs of the contact preload versus the Hertzian load, calculations of unit loading of the preloaded brushes on slip rings can be made. This optimizes the design of contact brushes and miniature slip rings.

  5. Using Miniature Landforms in Teaching Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, James F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the uses of true landform miniatures and small-scale analogues and suggests ways to teach geomorphological concepts using small-scale relief features as illustrative examples. (JDH)

  6. Miniature infrared data acquisition and telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. H.; Ward, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Miniature Infrared Data Acquisition and Telemetry (MIRDAT) Phase 1 study was performed to determine the technical and commercial feasibility of producing a miniaturized electro-optical telemetry system. This system acquires and transmits experimental data from aircraft scale models for realtime monitoring in wind tunnels. During the Phase 1 study, miniature prototype MIRDAT telemetry devices were constructed, successfully tested in the laboratory and delivered to the user for wind tunnel testing. A search was conducted for commercially available components and advanced hybrid techniques to further miniaturize the system during Phase 2 development. A design specification was generated from laboratory testing, user requirements and discussions with component manufacturers. Finally, a preliminary design of the proposed MIRDAT system was documented for Phase 2 development.

  7. Miniature robots can assist in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Oleynikov, D; Rentschler, M; Hadzialic, A; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Farritor, S

    2005-04-01

    Laparoscopy reduces patient trauma but eliminates the surgeon's ability to directly view and touch the surgical environment. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain constrained by the entry incision. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. This article focuses on developing miniature in vivo robots to assist surgeons during laparoscopic surgery by providing an enhanced field of view from multiple angles and dexterous manipulators not constrained by the abdominal wall fulcrum effect. Miniature camera robots were inserted through a small incision into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. Trocar insertion and other laparoscopic tool placements were then viewed with these robotic cameras. The miniature robots provided additional camera angles that improved surgical visualization during a cholecystectomy. These successful prototype trials have demonstrated that miniature in vivo robots can provide surgeons with additional visual information that can increase procedural safety.

  8. Metamaterials for Miniaturization of Optical Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-24

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0226 METAMATERIALS FOR MINIATURIZATION OF OPTICAL COMPONENTS Aleksandr Figotin UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE Final Report 09/24...8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 10/09/2014 Final 30/06/2011-30/06/2014 METAMATERIALS FOR MINIATURIZATION OF OPTICAL COMPONENTS FA9550-11-1...relativistic and spinorial aspects of our neoclassical electromagnetic theory. Metamaterials , fundamentals of electromagnetic theory, dissipation, magnetic

  9. Miniature Electrostatic Ion Thruster With Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A miniature electrostatic ion thruster is proposed that, with one exception, would be based on the same principles as those of the device described in the previous article, "Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster". The exceptional feature of this thruster would be that, in addition to using electric fields for linear acceleration of ions and electrons, it would use a magnetic field to rotationally accelerate slow electrons into the ion stream to neutralize the ions.

  10. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  11. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  12. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  13. Miniature electrically operated diaphragm valve

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Wong, Chungnin C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Fischer, Gary J.; Hesketh, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a miniature electrically operated valve that can stand off significant pressures, that can be inexpensively produced, and that can be made to operate without continuous electrical power. A valve according to the present invention comprises a housing and a beam mounted with the housing. A diaphragm mounted with the housing forms a sealed fluid volume. An electromagnetic energy source, such as an electromagnetic coil, mounts with the housing and when energized urges the beam in one direction. The beam can be urged in the opposing direction by passive means or by reversing the polarity of the electromagnetic energy source or by a second electromagnetic energy source. Two fluid ports mount with the housing. A first fluid port mounts so that, as the beam is urged in one direction or the opposite, the beam urges the diaphragm to move between engaging and substantially sealing the fluid port and disengaging and not substantially sealing the fluid port. A seat can be mounted with the diaphragm to aid in sealing the fluid port. Latching mechanisms such as permanent magnets can be mounted so that the valve remains in the open or closed positions without continuous electrical power input. Fluid can flow through the housing between the two fluid ports when the diaphragm does not seal the first fluid port, but can be prevented from flowing by urging the beam so that the diaphragm seals the first fluid port. Various embodiments accommodate various latching mechanisms, electromagnetic energy sources, number of fluid ports, and diaphragm design considerations.

  14. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-04

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  15. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  16. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  17. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  18. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  19. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  20. Optical Disc Utilized As A Data Storage System For Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Donald G.

    1984-01-01

    Electra-optic and Radar sensing reconnaissance systems have many advantages including remote transmission and image data processing that conventional film camera systems do not have. However, data storage and retrieval that was naturally and easily accomplished with film must now be accommodated by other techniques. The optical disc data storage and retrieval systems offer significant advantage towards fulfilling this need. This paper will provide an overview description of the technology, some of the fundamental alternatives of configuration approach, and some examples of where it may be considered in the reconnaissance system. Silver halide film has been and still is the work horse of the image based reconnaissance field. It will not be replaced in the near future either, but rather a gradual transition to total electronic systems is expected. It is not the intent of this paper to debase film, because in fact it has its advantages. We have learned to optimize its advantages and minimize its disadvantages. However optical disc systems have a definite role to play in the reconnaissance field.

  1. Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) and Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Michael G.

    2013-05-01

    An examination of the potentialities, benefits and challenges of the confluence, integration and operation of Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) capabilities, products and techniques within the larger context of the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) arena, particularly in regards to persistent surveillance and Full Motion Video (FMV).

  2. A PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGES OF ASIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MULDER, J.W.; STUART, DON G.

    THE PRESENT PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE OF THE LANGUAGE OF ASIA WAS INTENDED TO PROVIDE A GENERAL BASIC REFERENCE WORK FOR THE GUIDANCE AND ORIENTATION OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, EDUCATORS, AND OTHERS CHARGED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITY OF DEVELOPING RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF THE SO-CALLED NEGLECTED LANGUAGES. EXCLUDED FROM THIS WORK WERE…

  3. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  4. Calorimetric Thermometry of Meteoritic Troilite: Early Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Gooding, J. L.

    1993-07-01

    are the consequence of different thermal histories. Multiple samples of Del Norte troilite were used to determine the influence of laboratory-scale thermal histories on DSC signatures by heating and cooling each sample under different programmed conditions. In reconnaissance experiments, maximum temperature achieved during heat treatment appears to be more influential than does either the time maintained at temperature or the heating/cooling rate. The experimentally measured alpha/beta onset temperature shows a systematic decline with maximum temperature achieved during prior heating, suggesting that high onset temperatures are indicative of low maximum temperatures in the natural histories of the troilite samples. That trend is at least qualitatively consistent with the petrologic rankings of the meteorites in which troilite from the relatively unmetamorphosed L3 chondrite shows a higher onset temperature than does troilite from either the highly metamorphosed L7 chondrite or the octahedrite. Additional work should define the limits of a quantitative calibration that might ultimately permit derivation of meteorite thermal histories by calorimetric thermometry of troilite. Samples were kindly provided by E. R. D. Scott (Mundrabilla), C. B. Moore (Del Norte), and the Meteorite Working Group (PAT91501; EET83213 powder from E. Jarosewich). References: [1] Chase M. W. Jr. et al. (1985) JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3rd ed., 1194. [2] Robie R. A. et al. (1979) Geol. Surv. Bull. 1452, 125. [3] Allton J. H. and Gooding J. L. (1993) LPS XXIV, 21-22. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the thermodynamics of troilite alpha/beta phase transformations measured by DSC during first-heat cycles.

  5. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffy, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; Acuna, M.; Allen, M.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Farrell, W.; Burchell, M. J.; Burger, M.; Chin, G.; Coates, A. J.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Gerlach, B.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Im, Eastwood; Jennings, D.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. One could also use aerobraking to put spacecraft into orbit around Saturn first for an Enceladus phase of the mission and then later use aerocapture to put spacecraft into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 1000 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  6. A Laser Interferometric Miniature Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Dustin W., PhD.; Baldwin, Patrick C.; Milburn, Howard; Robinson, David

    2011-09-12

    This is the second year of a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract geared towards the development of a new seismic sensor. Ground-based seismic monitoring systems have proven to be very capable in identifying nuclear tests, and can provide somewhat precise information on the location and yield of the explosive device. Making these measurements, however, currently requires very expensive and bulky seismometers that are difficult to deploy in places where they are most needed. A high performance, compact device can enable rapid deployment of large scale arrays, which can in turn be used to provide higher quality data during times of critical need. The use of a laser interferometer-based device has shown considerable promise, while also presenting significant challenges. The greatest strength of this optical readout technique is the ability to decouple the mechanical design from the transducer, thus enabling a miniaturized design that is not accessible with conventional sensing techniques. However, the nonlinearity in the optical response must be accounted for in the sensor output. Previously, we had proposed using a force-feedback approach to position the sensor at a point of maximum linearity. However, it can be shown that the combined nonlinearities of the optical response and the force-feedback curve necessarily results in a significant amount of unwanted noise at low frequencies. Having realized this, we have developed a new approach that eliminates force feedback, allowing the proof mass to move freely at all times. This takes advantage of some advanced optical spatial filtering that was developed at Symphony Acoustics for other types of sensors, and was recently adapted to this work. After processing the signals in real time, the digital output of the device is intrinsically linear, and the sensor can operate at any orientation with the same level of resolution, while instantly adapting to significant changes in orientation. Ultimately, we

  7. Reconnaissance of the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanet system in the Lyman-α line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D.; Wheatley, P. J.; Bolmont, E.; Gillon, M.; de Wit, J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Jehin, E.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.

    2017-02-01

    The TRAPPIST-1 system offers the opportunity to characterize terrestrial, potentially habitable planets orbiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star. We performed a four-orbit reconnaissance with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to study the stellar emission at Lyman-α, to assess the presence of hydrogen exospheres around the two inner planets, and to determine their UV irradiation. We detect the Lyman-α line of TRAPPIST-1, making it the coldest exoplanet host star for which this line has been measured. We reconstruct the intrinsic line profile, showing that it lacks broad wings and is much fainter than expected from the stellar X-ray emission. TRAPPIST-1 has a similar X-ray emission as Proxima Cen but a much lower Ly-α emission. This suggests that TRAPPIST-1 chromosphere is only moderately active compared to its transition region and corona. We estimated the atmospheric mass loss rates for all planets, and found that despite a moderate extreme UV emission the total XUV irradiation could be strong enough to strip the atmospheres of the inner planets in a few billions years. We detect marginal flux decreases at the times of TRAPPIST-1b and c transits, which might originate from stellar activity, but could also hint at the presence of extended hydrogen exospheres. Understanding the origin of these Lyman-α variations will be crucial in assessing the atmospheric stability and potential habitability of the TRAPPIST-1 planets.

  8. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  9. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds

    PubMed Central

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A.; Chen, Annie V.; Kiszonas, Alecia M.; Lutskas, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic) (P > 0.05). When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement. PMID:27403455

  10. Superamphiphobic miniature boat fabricated by laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kai; Dong, Xinran; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Cong; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-03-01

    We fabricated a superamphiphobic miniature boat with marked drag reduction and excellent loading capacity using femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The as-prepared superamphiphobic surface of the boat exhibited apparent contact angles larger than 150° toward both water and oil. Miniature boats with the superamphiphobic surface slid effortlessly on both water and oil-polluted water surfaces, with an increase in sliding distance by up to 52% and load increase of up to 27% compared with those of a boat with an untreated surface. A potential mechanism that explains the excellent performance of the superamphiphobic miniature boat was also discussed. This work provides a simple and economically viable strategy to obtain advanced surfaces for use in microfluidics and marine engineering.

  11. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  12. Compact Miniaturized Antenna for 210 MHz RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Chun, Kue

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a miniaturized square-ring antenna. The miniaturized antenna, with overall dimensions of approximately one tenth of a wavelength (0.1 ), was designed to operate at around 210 MHz, and was intended for radio-frequency identification (RFID) application. One unique feature of the design is the use of a parasitic element to improve the performance and impedance matching of the antenna. The use of parasitic elements to enhance the gain and bandwidth of patch antennas has been demonstrated and reported in the literature, but such use has never been applied to miniaturized antennas. In this work, we will present simulation results and discuss design parameters and their impact on the antenna performance.

  13. Acral mutilation syndrome in a miniature pinscher.

    PubMed

    Bardagí, M; Montoliu, P; Ferrer, L; Fondevila, D; Pumarola, M

    2011-01-01

    Acral mutilation syndrome (AMS) is a rare canine hereditary sensory neuropathy that results in progressive mutilation of the distal extremities and which has been reported only in German short-haired pointers, English pointers, English springer spaniels and French spaniels. The present report describes a case of AMS in an 18-month-old female miniature pinscher with progressive self-mutilation of the hind feet. The dog did not respond to any treatment and was humanely destroyed at the age of 30 months. Microscopical findings post mortem were restricted to the nervous system and were compatible with AMS. This is the first case of AMS described in a miniature pinscher. It is not known if the disease was the result of a point mutation in this particular dog or if the miniature pinscher breed will evolve to become a breed predisposed to AMS.

  14. Fabrication method for miniature plastic gripper

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1998-07-21

    A miniature plastic gripper is described actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or dosed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis. 8 figs.

  15. Miniature plastic gripper and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, Milton A.; Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or closed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis.

  16. Fabrication method for miniature plastic gripper

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, Milton A.; Folta, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or dosed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis.

  17. Miniature plastic gripper and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1997-03-11

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same are disclosed. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or closed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis. 8 figs.

  18. Method and system for assembling miniaturized devices

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Klingmann, Jeffrey L.; Seugling, Richard M.

    2013-03-12

    An apparatus for assembling a miniaturized device includes a manipulator system including six manipulators operable to position and orient components of the miniaturized device with submicron precision and micron-level accuracy. The manipulator system includes a first plurality of motorized axes, a second plurality of manual axes, and force and torque and sensors. Each of the six manipulators includes at least one translation stage, at least one rotation stage, tooling attached to the at least one translation stage or the at least one rotation stage, and an attachment mechanism disposed at a distal end of the tooling and operable to attach at least a portion of the miniaturized device to the tooling. The apparatus also includes an optical coordinate-measuring machine (OCMM) including a machine-vision system, a laser-based distance-measuring probe, and a touch probe. The apparatus also includes an operator control system coupled to the manipulator system and the OCMM.

  19. FY 2005 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Sliger, William A.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical and chromatic aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional bistatic LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  20. Presynaptic miniature GABAergic currents in developing interneurons.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Bouhours, Brice; Rostaing, Philippe; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Triller, Antoine; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain

    2010-04-29

    Miniature synaptic currents have long been known to represent random transmitter release under resting conditions, but much remains to be learned about their nature and function in central synapses. In this work, we describe a new class of miniature currents ("preminis") that arise by the autocrine activation of axonal receptors following random vesicular release. Preminis are prominent in gabaergic synapses made by cerebellar interneurons during the development of the molecular layer. Unlike ordinary miniature postsynaptic currents in the same cells, premini frequencies are strongly enhanced by subthreshold depolarization, suggesting that the membrane depolarization they produce belongs to a feedback loop regulating neurotransmitter release. Thus, preminis could guide the formation of the interneuron network by enhancing neurotransmitter release at recently formed synaptic contacts.

  1. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed. PMID:24605161

  2. Jarvik 2000 pump technology and miniaturization.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Blood-pump miniaturization has made amazing progress, reducing the pump diameter to one-tenth of the size of previous positive displacement pumps. In particular, axial-flow-pump technology allows tiny pumps running at high speeds to deliver from 2 to 10 L/min. A review of the background inventions of the Jarvik 2000 technology is presented, together with the reason that making pumps smaller than demanded by the particular application for which they are designed is counterproductive. Pump miniaturization is nearing its practical limit. The optimization of performance and patient outcomes should remain our primary design goal.

  3. Batch fabrication of precision miniature permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.; Garino, Terry J.; Venturini, Eugene L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes for fabrication of precision miniature rare earth permanent magnets is disclosed. Such magnets typically have sizes in the range 0.1 to 10 millimeters, and dimensional tolerances as small as one micron. Very large magnetic fields can be produced by such magnets, lending to their potential application in MEMS and related electromechanical applications, and in miniature millimeter-wave vacuum tubes. This abstract contains simplifications, and is supplied only for purposes of searching, not to limit or alter the scope or meaning of any claims herein.

  4. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  5. Miniature biotelemeter gives multichannel wideband biomedical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carraway, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    A miniature biotelemeter was developed for sensing and transmitting multiple channels of biomedical data over a radio link. The design of this miniature, 10-channel, wideband (5 kHz/channel), pulse amplitude modulation/ frequency modulation biotelemeter takes advantage of modern device technology (e.g., integrated circuit operational amplifiers, complementary symmetry/metal oxide semiconductor logic, and solid state switches) and hybrid packaging techniques. The telemeter is being used to monitor 10 channels of neuron firings from specific regions of the brain in rats implanted with chronic electrodes. Design, fabrication, and testing of an engineering model biotelemeter are described.

  6. Reconnaissance invariante d'objets 3-D et correlation SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels. La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee. Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace. Nos resultats numeriques montrent un taux de classement atteignant 98% sur une banque d'images composee de 5 vehicules militaires. La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales (SONG) traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images. Nous presentons

  7. In Situ Mineral Identification for Mars: Results From a Miniature X-ray Diffractometer Deployed on the Marsokhod Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. R.; Bratton, C.; Keaten, R.; Seward, C.; Koppel, L.

    1996-03-01

    A miniature diffractometer has been demonstrated on the Russian Marsokhod rover at NASA Ames. It was deployed at the end of the rover's manipulator arm where it conducted rock and sand analyses without sample acquisition or preparation. It was able to conform to mass, volume, power, and data-processing constraints imposed by the mobile platform. By combining engineering procedures with new analytical techniques, the device will operate in a dual mode, able to provide both rapid, cursory analyses for site reconnaissance, and detailed analyses of selected samples. Design upgrades will provide combined XRD and XRF capability. Instrument development was jointly supported by NASA's PIDDP and Exobiology Programs. Robotics and Marsokhod technologies were provided by Ames Computational Sciences Division.

  8. Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.

  9. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  10. A miniature origami biofuel cell based on a consumed cathode.

    PubMed

    Yu, You; Han, Yujie; Lou, Baohua; Zhang, Lingling; Han, Lei; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-11-10

    Considerable interest has been focused on miniature biofuel cells (BFCs) because of their portability and possibility to be implantable. Origami devices with hollow channels will provide novel insight into the assembly methods of miniature BFCs. Herein a miniature origami BFC has been fabricated from a MnO2-graphite flake consumed solid-state cathode. For further practical applications, miniature origami BFCs can directly generate energy from soft drinks.

  11. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  12. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section... Miniature pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A miniature pressure transducer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure the pressure between a device and soft tissue by converting mechanical...

  13. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section... Miniature pressure transducer. (a) Identification. A miniature pressure transducer is a device intended for medical purposes to measure the pressure between a device and soft tissue by converting mechanical...

  14. Field reconnaissance of the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolakis, Georgios; Qu, Bing; Ecemis, Nurhan; Dogruel, Seda

    2007-12-01

    As part of the 2007 Tri-Center Field Mission to Japan, a reconnaissance team comprised of fourteen graduate students and three faculty members from three U.S. earthquake engineering research centers, namely, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), Mid-America Earthquake Center (MAE), and Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), undertook a reconnaissance visit to the affected area shortly after the 2007 Niigata-Chuetsu Oki earthquake. This mission provided an opportunity to review the nature of the earthquake damage that occurred, as well as to assess the significance of the damage from an educational perspective. This paper reports on the seismological characteristics of the earthquake, preliminary findings of geotechnical and structural damage, and the causes of the observed failures or collapses. In addition, economic and socio-economic considerations and experiences to enhance earthquake resilience are presented.

  15. Miniature Housings for Electronics With Standard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.; Alhorn, Dean C.

    2006-01-01

    A family of general-purpose miniature housings has been designed to contain diverse sensors, actuators, and drive circuits plus associated digital electronic readout and control circuits. The circuits contained in the housings communicate with the external world via standard RS-485 interfaces.

  16. The technology of miniature acoustic element arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bom, N.; Lancee, C. T.; Ridder, J.; Ligtvoet, C.; Roelandt, J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of miniature element array construction are discussed. Some initial results on optimization of lateral resolution with a special focusing technique in linear array design is presented, together with the constructional details. Furthermore the construction of a catheter tip array is treated in detail.

  17. Miniaturization of a biomedical gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Mirtaheri, Peyman; Omtveit, Tore; Klotzbuecher, Thomas; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Orjan G; Tønnessen, Tor Inge

    2004-12-01

    In a previous study, we concluded that a conductivity based PCO2 sensor is an attractive solution for early detection of ischemia and presented two design geometries. For organ surface measurements, the planar design was suitable but it was difficult to insert the sensor into the tissue. A cylindrical design solution was favored for insertion due to the large membrane contact area and easy placement in a medical catheter. Since the previous cylindrical prototype was large and could damage the tissue, a more miniaturized sensor was needed. In the current paper, we present a miniaturized sensor with an outer diameter of 1 mm. The applied technology for manufacturing the sensor was a combination of mechanical turning, excimer laser drilling and conventional molding technique. The materials applied were PEEK (polyetherether ketone), PI (polyimide) with gold layers and polysiloxane. The membrane had to be gas permeable while acting as a barrier for ion transport, and was made of polysiloxane and had a thickness of 100-150 microm. The miniaturized sensor was tested for calibration, response time, drifting and pressure sensitivity. The results show that the miniaturized PCO2 sensor is capable of rapid and stable measurements both in vitro and ex vivo. The result from this study will be applied for the industrial manufacturing of such a biomedical sensor as a clinical product.

  18. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  19. Miniature Paintings: Small Size, Big Impact!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a miniature painting project that allows students to research a master painter and then replicate the work on a smaller scale. This lesson focuses on the students' ability to learn to identify style, subject matter, themes, and content in painting through the study of historical paintings, and the application of various…

  20. Miniature Marimbas: Migrant Workers' Memories of Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Three Mexican migrant workers attending classes at Geneseo (New York) Migrant Center used leftover art materials to represent their home village in miniature. A spontaneous artistic expression, the objects allowed the men an opportunity to reminisce and reinforce cultural and interpersonal ties, and gave insight about their background and culture…

  1. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Installation and Operation of the Automated Route Reconnaissance Kit (ARRK)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Fairley , Jeffrey L. Williamson, James C. Ray, Terry R. Stanton, T. C. Falls, Benjamin T. Webb, Jeffrey L. Crockett, and Jeff F. Powell December...December 2005 Installation and Operation of the Automated Route Reconnaissance Kit (ARRK) Larry N. Lynch, Jill M. Jackson, Katie Fairley , Jeffrey...Mses. Jill M. Jackson and Katie Fairley , Messrs. Jeffrey L. Williamson, James C. Ray, Terry R. Stanton, T. C. Falls, and Benjamin T. Webb, and MAJ

  3. Dynamic Exploration of Helicopter Reconnaissance Through Agent-Based Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Multi - Agent System modeling to develop a simulation of tactical helicopter performance while conducting armed reconnaissance. It focuses on creating a model to support planning for the Test and Evaluation phas of the Comanche helicopter acquisition cycle. The model serves as an initial simulation laboratory for scenario planning, requirements forecasting, and platform comparison analyses. The model implements adaptive tactical movement with agent sensory and weaponry system characteristics. Agents are able to determine their movement direction and paths based on

  4. Reconnaissance Report for Hydropower, Lock and Dam 8, Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Further detailed studies are necessary to quantify existing resources that might be affected, better predict the type and magnitude of potential ...decision to proceed with a study should be based on a finding that a potentially viable project can be developed. Therefore, the reconnaissance study is a...study) is warranted subject to assessment of potentially critical issues. STUDY AND AUTHORITY Recognizing the importance of continued and successful

  5. Geologic Reconnaissance and Lithologic Identification by Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing in geologic reconnaissance for purposes of tunnel site selection was studied further and a test case was undertaken to evaluate this geological application. Airborne multispectral scanning (MSS) data were obtained in May, 1972, over a region between Spearfish and Rapid City, South Dakota. With major effort directed toward the analysis of these data, the following geologic features were discriminated: (1) exposed rock areas, (2) five separate rock groups, (3) large-scale structures. This discrimination was accomplished by ratioing multispectral channels.

  6. An Unmanned Aircraft for Dropwindsonde Deployment and Hurricane Reconnaissance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, John S.; Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1993-03-01

    The prototype of a remotely piloted aircraft designed for research and operational reconnaissance of tropical cyclones has been developed and successfully test flown. Using modern aerodynamic and materials technology, the operational aircraft will by 1994 be capable of sustained operations at altitudes up to 20 km and of deploying large numbers of frangible dropwindsondes. We discuss the potential of such vehicles for making significant improvements of hurricane forecasts and for enhancing the database used in operational weather forecasts, atmospheric research, and climate monitoring.

  7. For and from Cyberspace: Conceptualizing Cyber Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Conceptualizing Cyber Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute (AFRI),155 N. Twining...Street,Maxwell AFB,AL,36112 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  8. A History of Satellite Reconnaissance. Volume 3A - GAMBIT (REDACTED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    characteristics, numbers, and placement of operational BYE 17017-74 ii handle via Byeman/ Talen Keyhole C.7..rtrois Only -TOP-SECRET NRO APPROVED FOR...contract between the Director, Special Projects, National Reconnaissance Office (Director, Program A), and Technology Service Corporation, of Santa Monica...flight histories in 1972, in association with Robert A . Butler, a consultant to Technology Service Corporation. At various times, parts of the

  9. Hydrologic reconnaissance of western Arctic Alaska, 1976 and 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.; Loeffler, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Reconnaissance water-resource investigations were conducted on the western Alaskan Arctic Slope during April 1976 and August 1977; these months are times of winter and summer low flow. The information gathered is important for coordinated development in the area. Such development has been spurred by oil and gas discoveries on the North Slope, most notably at Prudhoe Bay. Little water resources information is currently available. The study area extended from the Colville River to the vicinity of Kotzebue. It included the western Arctic Slope and the western foothills of the Brooks Range. Nine springs, nine lakes and eleven rivers were sampled during the April 1976 reconnaissance trip. Its purpose was to locate winter flow and describe its quantity and quality. Field water-quality measurements made at these sites were: ice thickness, water depth, discharge (spring and streams), specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity (bicarbonate, HOC3), and pH. A followup summer trip was made in August 1977 to determine flood characteristics of twenty selected streams. Bankfull and maximum evident flood-peak discharges were determined by measuring channel geometry and estimating channel roughness. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at springs and flood survey sites visited during both reconnaissance trips. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  11. Multi-Temporal Analysis of WWII Reconnaissance Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, P.; Eckstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    There are millions of aerial photographs from the period of the Second Wold War available in the Allied archives, obtained by aerial photo reconnaissance, covering most of today's European countries. They are spanning the time from 1938 until the end of the war and even beyond. Photo reconnaissance provided intelligence information for the Allied headquarters and accompanied the bombing offensive against the German homeland and the occupied territories. One of the initial principal targets in Bohemia were the synthetized fuel works STW AG (Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG) in Zaluzi (formerly Maltheuren) near Most (formerly Brück), Czech Republic. The STW AG synthetized fuel plant was not only subject to bombing raids, but a subject to quite intensive photo reconnaissance, too - long before the start of the bombing campaign. With a multi-temporal analysis of the available imagery from international archives we will demonstrate the factory build-up during 1942 and 1943, the effects of the bombing raids in 1944 and the struggle to keep the plant working in the last year of the war. Furthermore we would like to show the impact the bombings have today, in form of potential unexploded ordnance in the adjacent area of the open cast mines.

  12. Reconnaissance examination of selected oil-sand outcrops in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ver Ploeg, A.

    1986-08-01

    Numerous surface occurrences of oil sands and oil seeps have been reported in the geologic literature for Wyoming. Seventy-eight reported occurrences are listed in Wyoming Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-5. Most of the listed deposits are taken from old references with vague descriptions and locations. Field reconnaissance examinations of selected oil-sand occurrences were conducted to describe them better and to assess their potential economic importance. A reconnaissance geologic map of each examined deposit was constructed, and the deposits were sampled and described. Ten occurrences were described during the 1984 and 1985 field seasons. The oil-sand occurrences were all sandstone reservoirs ranging from Pennsylvanian to Tertiary. Based on these reconnaissance examinations, only three occurrences appeared to be potentially significant. The Rattlesnake Hills occurrence, west of Casper, is an asymmetrical anticline with oil-impregnated sands in the Mesaverde Formation, Frontier Formation, and, most extensively, the Muddy Sandstone. Other formations in the structure contain minor amounts of oil staining. The Muddy Creek occurrence, southwest of Rawlins, contains oil-impregnated sandstones in the lower Wasatch Formation. This stratigraphically controlled trap dips to the west into the Washakie basin. The Conant Creek occurrence, southeast of Riverton, includes stratigraphically controlled oil sands in the relatively flat Wagon Bed Formation.

  13. Miniature Grating for Spectrally-Encoded Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongkyun; Martinez, Ramses V.; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is an ultraminiature endoscopy technology that acquires high-definition images of internal organs through a sub-mm endoscopic probe. In SEE, a grating at the tip of the imaging optics diffracts the broadband light into multiple beams, where each beam with a distinctive wavelength is illuminated on a unique transverse location of the tissue. By encoding one transverse coordinate with the wavelength, SEE can image a line of the tissue at a time without using any beam scanning devices. This feature of the SEE technology allows the SEE probe to be miniaturized to sub-mm dimensions. While previous studies have shown that SEE has the potential to be utilized for various clinical imaging applications, the translation of SEE for medicine has been hampered by challenges in fabricating the miniature grating inherent to SEE probes. This paper describes a new fabrication method for SEE probes. The new method uses a soft lithographic approach to pattern a high-aspect-ratio grating at the tip of the miniature imaging optics. Using this technique, we have constructed a 500-μm-diameter SEE probe. The miniature grating at the tip of the probe had a measured diffraction efficiency of 75%. The new SEE probe was used to image a human finger and formalin fixed mouse embryos, demonstrating the capability of this device to visualize key anatomic features of tissues with high image contrast. In addition to providing high quality imaging SEE optics, the soft lithography method allows cost-effective and reliable fabrication of these miniature endoscopes, which will facilitate the clinical translation of SEE technology. PMID:23503940

  14. Empirical Photometric Normalization for the Seven Band UV-VIS Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.; Nuno, R. G.; Sato, H.

    2014-12-01

    We present results on a near-global (80°S to 80°N) seven color Wide Angle Camera (WAC) photometric normalization and color analysis. Over 100,000 WAC color observations were calibrated to reflectance (radiance factor: IoF), and photometric angles (i,e,g), latitude, and longitude were calculated and stored for each WAC pixel. Photometric angles were calculated using the WAC GLD100 [1], and a six-dimensional data set (3 spatial and 3 photometric) was reduced to three by photometrically normalizing the IoF with a global wavelength-dependent, 3rd-order multivariate polynomial. The multispectral mosaic was normalized to a standard viewing geometry (incidence angle=30°, emission angle=0°, phase angle=30°).The WAC has a 60° cross-track field-of-view in color mode, which allows the acquisition of a near global data set each month; however, the phase angle can change by as much as 60° across each image. These large changes in viewing geometry present challenges to the required photometric normalization. In the ratio of the 321 nm and 689 nm wavelengths, the Moon has a standard deviation less than 3% in the highlands and 7% globally; thus to allow confident identification of true color differences, the photometric normalization must be precise. Pyroclastic deposits in Marius Hills, Sinus Aestuum, and Mare Serenitatis are among the least reflective materials, with 643 nm normalized reflectance values less than 0.036.Low-reflectance deposits are generally concentrated close to the equator on the nearside, whereas high-reflectance materials are dispersed globally. The highest reflectance materials occur at Giordano Bruno and Virtanen craters and are attributed to exposure of immature materials. Immature ejecta has shallower spectral slope compared to the mean highlands spectra (321 nm to 689 nm), and UV weathering characteristics can be seen when comparing different aged Copernican ejecta [2]. Copernican ejecta is found to have 643 nm reflectance values greater than 0.36 in some areas. The range of reflectance on the Moon is 10x from the least to most reflective.The new empirical normalized reflectance presented here correlates with an independent Hapke model based normalization [3] with an R-squared value of 0.985.[1] Scholten et al. LPSC XVII (2011) [2] Denevi et al. JGR Planets (2014) [3] Sato et al. JGR Planets (2014)

  15. The New View of the Moon: Redefining Future Surface Exploration Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Stopar, J. D.; Speyerer, E. J.; Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Petro, N. E.; Gaddis, L.; Gruener, J.; Draper, D.; Thomson, B. J.; Ostrach, L. R.

    2016-05-01

    The profound importance of LRO past and future observations to future Exploration is discussed, as well as the best destinations for surface exploration to achieve core planetary science and human exploration goals.

  16. Mars reconnaissance orbiter's high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Bridges, N.T.; Hansen, C.J.; Delamere, W.A.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V.C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R.L.; Mellon, M.T.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, N.; Weitz, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    The HiRISE camera features a 0.5 m diameter primary mirror, 12 m effective focal length, and a focal plane system that can acquire images containing up to 28 Gb (gigabits) of data in as little as 6 seconds. HiRISE will provide detailed images (0.25 to 1.3 m/pixel) covering ???1% of the Martian surface during the 2-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) beginning November 2006. Most images will include color data covering 20% of the potential field of view. A top priority is to acquire ???1000 stereo pairs and apply precision geometric corrections to enable topographic measurements to better than 25 cm vertical precision. We expect to return more than 12 Tb of HiRISE data during the 2-year PSP, and use pixel binning, conversion from 14 to 8 bit values, and a lossless compression system to increase coverage. HiRISE images are acquired via 14 CCD detectors, each with 2 output channels, and with multiple choices for pixel binning and number of Time Delay and Integration lines. HiRISE will support Mars exploration by locating and characterizing past, present, and future landing sites, unsuccessful landing sites, and past and potentially future rover traverses. We will investigate cratering, volcanism, tectonism, hydrology, sedimentary processes, stratigraphy, aeolian processes, mass wasting, landscape evolution, seasonal processes, climate change, spectrophotometry, glacial and periglacial processes, polar geology, and regolith properties. An Internet Web site (HiWeb) will enable anyone in the world to suggest HiRISE targets on Mars and to easily locate, view, and download HiRISE data products. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Operational Demonstration of Ka-Band Telecommunications for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townes, S. A.; Breidenthal, J. C.; Moyd, K. I.; Patterson, J. E.; Shambayati, S.; Amoozegar, F.; Morabito, D.; Border, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the operational demonstration are to verify that the anticipated benefits of the higher carrier frequency can actually be realized under realistic operating conditions, and if possible to provide a significant enhancement to scientific data return.

  18. HiRISE: The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Delamere, W. A.; Eliason, E. M.; Grant, J. A.; Gulick, V. C.; Hansen, C. J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Kirk, R. L.; Mellon, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    HiRISE, an experiment on the 2005 MRO mission, will provide an unprecedented combination of ground sampling dimension (25-50 cm/pixel), signal-to-noise ratio (greater than 100:1 at all latitudes), swath width (5-10 km), partial 3-color coverage, greater than 2% coverage of Mars at 1 m/pixel or better, and stereo imaging. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. The Luna-Glob Candidate Landing Region: Geological Mapping Based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Dickson, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mazarico, E.; Neish, C. D.; Bussey, D. B. J.

    2012-03-01

    The new regional detailed geologic map was made using recent LRO data for the Luna-Glob mission. The most probable unit that could be sampled by the lander is a feldspathic Imbrian highland plains-forming material, resembling the Cayley Formation.

  20. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  1. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    mechanical energy and back. Such an electrostatic tweeter type excitation of a mechanical resonator will be tested at 5 MHz. Finite element calculation will be applied to resonator design for the desired resonator frequency and optimum configuration. The experiment consists of the sapphire resonator sandwiched between parallel electrodes. A DC+AC voltage can be applied to generate a force to act on a sapphire resonator. With the frequency of the AC voltage tuned to the sapphire resonator frequency, a resonant condition occurs and the sapphire Q can be measured with a high-frequency impedance analyzer. To achieve high Q values, many experimental factors such as vacuum seal, gas damping effects, charge buildup on the sapphire surface, heat dissipation, sapphire anchoring, and the sapphire mounting configuration will need attention. The effects of these parameters will be calculated and folded into the resonator design. It is envisioned that the initial test configuration would allow for movable electrodes to check gap spacing dependency and verify the input impedance prediction. Quartz oscillators are key components in nearly all ground- and space-based communication, tracking, and radio science applications. They play a key role as local oscillators for atomic frequency standards and serve as flywheel oscillators or to improve phase noise in high performance frequency and timing distribution systems. With ultra-stable performance from one to three seconds, an Earth-orbit or moon-based MSAR can enhance available performance options for spacecraft due to elimination of atmospheric path degradation.

  2. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Allman, Steve L.; Johansson, Alicia; Boisen, Anja

    2007-05-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors (probably tens of sensors) in a sensor package to achieve selective detection. In order to keep the overall detector unit small, miniature sensors with sufficient sensitivity of detection will be needed. We report sensitive detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a stimulant for the nerve agents, using a miniature sensor unit based on piezoresistive microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications.

  3. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  4. Miniature Reversal Electron-Attachment Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    1994-01-01

    Miniature reversal electron-attachment detector (miniREAD) enables direct injection of air or vapor at atmospheric pressure from monitored area into mass-spectrometric instrument to detect explosives, narcotics, or other substances, vapors of which suspected of being present in low concentrations. In comparison with older reversal electron-attachment detector, miniREAD simpler in design; more rugged; and easier to build, repair, and maintain. In addition, probably more sensitive.

  5. Miniature, Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilski, Steve; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Miniature Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope (MVS-CMG) was designed for small satellites (mass from less than 1 kg up to 500 kg). Currently available CMGs are too large and heavy, and available miniature CMGs do not provide sufficient control authority for use on practical satellites. This primarily results from the need to greatly increase the speed of rotation of the flywheel in order to reduce the flywheel size and mass. This goal was achieved by making use of a proprietary, space-qualified, high-speed (100,000 rpm) motor technology to spin the flywheel at a speed ten times faster than other known miniature CMGs under development. NASA is supporting innovations in propulsion, power, and guidance and navigation systems for low-cost small spacecraft. One of the key enabling technologies is attitude control mechanisms. CMGs are particularly attractive for spacecraft attitude control since they can achieve higher torques with lower mass and power than reaction wheels, and they provide continuous torque capability that enables precision pointing (in contrast to on-off thruster control). The aim of this work was to develop a miniature, variable-speed CMG that is sized for use on small satellites. To achieve improved agility, these spacecraft must be able to slew at high rate, which requires attitude control actuators that can apply torques on the order of 5 N-m. The MVS-CMG is specifically designed to achieve a high-torque output with a minimum flywheel and system mass. The flywheel can be run over a wide range of speeds, which is important to help reduce/eliminate potential gimbal lock, and can be used to optimize the operational envelope of the CMG.

  6. Degenerative myelopathy in an adult miniature poodle.

    PubMed

    Matthews, N S; de Lahunta, A

    1985-06-01

    Degenerative myelopathy was diagnosed at necropsy of an adult Miniature Poodle with a 33-month history of progressive pelvic limb ataxia and proprioceptive deficit. Microscopic examination of the cord revealed diffuse degenerative myelopathy. Degenerative myelopathy is usually seen in adult, large-breed dogs and progresses over a period of months. In this case, the myelopathy progressed slowly and the degree of paralysis became more extensive than usually seen.

  7. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  8. Sub miniaturized laser doppler velocimeter sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gharib, Morteza (Inventor); Modaress, Darius (Inventor); Taugwalder, Frederic (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A miniaturized laser Doppler velocimeter is formed in a housing that is preferably 3 mm in diameter or less. A laser couples light to a first diffractive optical element that is formed on the fiber end. The light is coupled to a lens that also includes a diffractive optical element. The same lens is also used to collect receive light, and receives includes another diffractive optical element to collect that received light.

  9. High Q Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated high Q measurements in a room temperature Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator (MSAR). Initial measurements of bulk acoustic modes in room temperature sapphire at 39 MHz have demonstrated a Q of 8.8 x 10(exp 6). The long term goal of this work is to integrate such a high Q resonator with small, low noise quartz oscillator electronics, providing a fractional frequency stability better than 1 x 10(exp -14) @ 1s.

  10. Aerosol Particle Size Retrievals from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    During the extended mission of the Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has made periodic limb-viewing geometry observations of the Martian atmosphere. Sufficient radiance is typically available to produce a vertical distribution of dust and water ice aerosols from the surface to approximately 50 km altitude. Radiative transfer modeling is conducted to achieve a best fit between the observed and modeled spectrum. The spherical geometry of the limb-viewing geometry is handled using a pseudo-spherical approximation that is computationally efficient and accurate to within a few percent of a Monte Carlo method for the geometries observed. Different particle sizes of dust and water ice have unique extinction coefficients across the visible and near-infrared portion of the spectrum observed by CRISM. We use a wide range of wavelengths across the CRISM spectrum to conduct the retrieval. Here we provide initial results on the retrieval of dust and water ice particle sizes over the duration of the CRISM limb-viewing observations.

  11. Strain controlled cyclic tests on miniaturized specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, R.; Džugan, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper is dealing with strain controlled cyclic tests using a non-contact strain measurement based on digital image correlation techniques on proportional sizes of conventional specimens. The cyclic behaviour of 34CrNiMo6 high-strength steel was investigated on miniaturized round specimens with diameter of 2mm that were compared with specimens in accordance with ASTM E606 standards. The cycle asymmetry coefficient was R= -1. This application is intended to be used for life time assessment of in service components in future work which enables to carried out a group of mechanical tests from a limited amount of the experimental material. The attention was paid to confirm the suitability of the proposed size miniaturization geometry, testing set up and procedure. The test results obtained enabled to construct Manson-Coffin curves and assess fatigue parameters. The purpose of this study is to present differences between cyclic curves and cyclic parameters which have been evaluated based on conventional and miniaturized specimens.

  12. Miniature standoff Raman probe for neurosurgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Oliver A. C.; Hutchings, Joanne; Gray, William; Vincent, Rosa Louise; Day, John C.

    2016-08-01

    Removal of intrinsic brain tumors is a delicate process, where a high degree of specificity is required to remove all of the tumor tissue without damaging healthy brain. The accuracy of this process can be greatly enhanced by intraoperative guidance. Optical biopsies using Raman spectroscopy are a minimally invasive and lower-cost alternative to current guidance methods. A miniature Raman probe for performing optical biopsies of human brain tissue is presented. The probe allows sampling inside a conventional stereotactic brain biopsy system: a needle of length 200 mm and inner diameter of 1.8 mm. By employing a miniature stand-off Raman design, the probe removes the need for any additional components to be inserted into the brain. Additionally, the probe achieves a very low internal silica background while maintaining good collection of Raman signal. To illustrate this, the probe is compared with a Raman probe that uses a pair of optical fibers for collection. The miniature stand-off Raman probe is shown to collect a comparable number of Raman scattered photons, but the Raman signal to background ratio is improved by a factor of five at Raman shifts below ˜500 cm-1. The probe's suitability for use on tissue is demonstrated by discriminating between different types of healthy porcine brain tissue.

  13. Orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  14. Team Reconnaissance: A Process for Involving Teachers in the Preplanning of Experiential Education Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielsmeier, Jim

    Too often inadequate preparation in facilitating an outdoor experience is the rule and the subsequent group experience suffers. In an organization like Outward Bound where areas are used repeatedly, an evolutionary form of reconnaissance is often adequate. However, for school groups, this form of reconnaissance is not practical since too few of…

  15. A Tasking Construct for Non-Traditional Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    The concept of using traditional strike platforms to collect intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance ( ISR ) data is called non-traditional...strike aircraft with a system of collecting ISR data is a concept that supports intelligence and strike objectives at tactical, operational, and... Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) can be collected using a variety of platforms including space, airborne , and ground-based assets

  16. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Hӓge 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  17. Miniature Loop Heat Pipe (MLHP) Thermal Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2004-01-01

    The MLHP Thermal Management System consists of a loop heat pipe (LHP) with multiple evaporators and condensers, thermal electrical coolers, and deployable radiators coated with variable emittance coatings (VECs). All components are miniaturized. It retains all the performance characteristics of state-of-the-art LHPs and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, versatility, and reliability of the system, including flexible locations of instruments and radiators, a single interface temperature for multiple instruments, cooling the on instruments and warming the off instruments simultaneously, improving. start-up success, maintaining a constant LHP operating temperature over a wide range of instrument powers, effecting automatic thermal switching and thermal diode actions, and reducing supplemental heater powers. It can fully achieve low mass, low power and compactness necessary for future small spacecraft. Potential applications of the MLHP thermal technology for future missions include: 1) Magnetospheric Constellation; 2) Solar Sentinels; 3) Mars Science Laboratory; 4) Mars Scouts; 5) Mars Telecom Orbiter; 6) Space Interferometry Mission; 7) Laser Interferometer Space Antenna; 8) Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter; 9) Terrestrial Planet Finder; 10) Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory, and 11) Exploration Missions. The MLHP Thermal Management System combines the operating features of a variable conductance heat pipe, a thermal switch, a thermal diode, and a state-of-the-art LHP into a single integrated thermal system. It offers many advantages over conventional thermal control techniques, and can be a technology enabler for future space missions. Successful flight validation will bring the benefits of MLHP technology to the small satellite arena and will have cross-cutting applications to both Space Science and Earth Science Enterprises.

  18. Summary of reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska, 1955

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Freeman, Val L.

    1957-01-01

    Reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska during 1955 included airborne radiometric traverses, examination of radioactivity anomalies found during the airborne traverses, examination of prospector leads, and examination of areas that seems geologically favorable for the occurrence of uranium. The airborne radiometric traverses in central Alaska revealed 33 anomalies considered worth examining. The ground examinations of a few of these anomalies indicated that they were due to radiation of from accessory minerals in intrusive granitic rocks. The examination of prospector leads revealed several radioactivity anomalies of interest and one, near Bokan Mountain on prince of Wales Island, of possible commercial importance.

  19. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  20. Energy Efficiency for Military Aircraft and Operations: Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Tanker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    JET & TURBO-PROP 4.1. Tanker & Surveillance Aircraft, General Overview 4.2. Bomber Aircraft, General Overview 5. TANKERS 5.1. Analysis Method 5.2...A400M MRTT 5.9. Tanker Performance Comparisons (Turbo-jet / Turbo-fan / Turbo-prop) 6. RECONNAISSANCE / SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFT 6.1. General 6.2...Boeing / Northrop Grumman E-8C (JSTARS) 6.10. Boeing 737-AEW �Wedgetail� 6.11. Comparisons 7. BOMBERS 7.1. General 7.2. B-1B & TU-160 7.3. B-52

  1. In Brief: Mineral sensors in orbit around Mars guide Opportunity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    As NASA's Mars rover Opportunity travels around the red planet, researchers are using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to guide the rover to interesting geology. This is the first time orbital mineral sensing has been used to determine where the rover should go, researchers said at the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting. The Opportunity rover is now near the edge of the 22-kilometer-wide Endeavor crater. CRISM has identified clay minerals in the region. The presence of clay minerals suggests that a less acidic, wet environment existed in the past. Some CRISM observations point to mineral clays that may be types that Opportunity has not investigated before.

  2. Interpreting Radar View near Mars' North Pole, Orbit 1512

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A radargram from the Shallow Subsurface Radar instrument (SHARAD) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is shown in the upper-right panel and reveals detailed structure in the polar layered deposits of the north pole of Mars (with blowups shown in the upper-left panels). The sounding radar collected the data presented here during orbit 1512 of the mission, on Nov. 22, 2006.

    The horizontal scale in the radargram is distance along the ground track. It can be referenced to the ground track map shown in the lower right. The radar traversed from about 83.5 degrees to 80.5 degrees north latitude, or about 180 kilometers (110 miles). The ground track map shows elevation measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Green indicates low elevation; reddish-white indicates higher elevation. The traverse is from the high elevation of the plateau formed by the layers to the lowlands below.

    The vertical scale on the radargram is time delay of the radar signals reflected back to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the surface and subsurface. For reference, using an assumed velocity of the radar waves in the subsurface, time is converted to depth below the surface in two places: about 600 meters (2,000 feet) to the lowest of an upper series of bright reflectors and about 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) to the base of the polar layered deposits. The color scale of the radargram varies from black for weak reflections to bright yellow for strong reflections.

    The lower-left panel is a image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on Mars Global Surveyor showing exposed polar layering in the walls of a canyon near the north pole. The layering is divided into a finely structured upper unit (labeled 'Upper PLD') and less-well-defined stratigraphy in the lower unit (labeled 'Lower PLD'). The radargram clearly reveals the complexity of the layering in the upper unit, additional reflections from the lower unit, and the base of the entire stack of

  3. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Paczkowski, B.; Vance, S.; Goldstein, B.; Magner, T. J.; Cooke, B.

    2014-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate to search for a present-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has engaged a Science Definition Team (SDT) to define a strategy to advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. A mission architecture is defined where a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit would make many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. The spacecraft trajectory would permit ~45 flybys at a variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's surface. This concept is known as the Europa Clipper. The SDT recommended three science objectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean--Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition--Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; Geology--Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The SDT also considered implications of the recent HST detection of plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential future exploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Clipper should provide the capability to perform reconnaissance. In consultation with NASA Headquarters, the SDT developed a reconnaissance goal: Characterize Scientifically Compelling Sites, and Hazards, for a Potential Future Landed Mission to Europa. This leads to two objectives: Site Safety--Assess the distribution of surface hazards, the load-bearing capacity of the surface, the structure of the subsurface, and the regolith thickness; Science Value--Assess the composition of surface materials, the geologic context of the surface, the potential for geological activity, the proximity of near surface water, and the potential for active

  4. Objectives for Mars Orbital Missions in the 2020s: Report from a MEPAG Science Analysis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Campbell, B. A.; Diniega, S.; Lock, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Headquarters is looking at possible missions to Mars to follow the proposed 2020 Mars rover mission currently in development. One option being considered is a multi-functional orbiter, launched in the early 2020's, whose capabilities could address objectives in the following areas: • Replenishment of the telecommunications and reconnaissance infrastructure presently provided by the aging Mars Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiters; • Scientific and technical progress on the NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey priorities, updated MEPAG Goals, and/or follow-up of new discoveries; • Location and quantification of in situ resources for utilization by future robotic and human surface-based missions; and • Data needed to address Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs), again for possible human missions. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) was asked to prepare an analysis of possible science objectives and remote sensing capabilities that could be implemented by such a multi-purpose Mars orbiter launched in the 2022/24 timeframe. MEPAG conducted this analysis through formation of a Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEX-SAG), which was chartered jointly by the NASA Science and Human Exploration Directorates. The SAG was asked to conduct this study within a range of mission capabilities, including the possible first use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) in the Mars system. SEP could provide additional power enabling new payload components and possible changes in orbit (e.g., orbital inclination change) that permit different mission observational campaigns (e.g., polar and non-polar). Special attention was paid towards identifying synergies between science investigations, reconnaissance, and resource/SKG needs. We will present the findings and conclusions of this NEX-SAG regarding possible objectives for the next NASA Orbiter to Mars.

  5. Orbital Winch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert (Inventor); Slostad, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Frank, Scott (Inventor); Barnes, Ian M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Orbital winch having: lower and upper frames; spool having upper and lower flanges with lower flange attached to lower frame; axial tether guide mounted to upper frame; secondary slewing ring coaxial with spool and rotatably mounted to upper frame, wherein secondary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; upper tether guide mounted to inner surface of secondary slewing ring; linear translation means having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted on lower frame; primary slewing ring rotatably mounted within linear translation means allowing translation axially between flanges, wherein primary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; lower tether guide mounted on primary slewing ring's inner surface; pinion rod having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted to lower frame, wherein pinion rod's teeth engage primary and secondary slewing rings' outer surface teeth; and tether passing through axial, upper, and lower tether guides and winding around spool.

  6. Reconnaissance for uranium and thorium in Alaska, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1957-01-01

    During 1954 reconnaissance investigations to locate minable deposits of uranium and thorium in Alaska were unsuccessful. Areas examined, from which prospectors had submitted radioactive samples, include Cap Yakataga, Kodiak Island, and Shirley Lake. Unconcentrated gravels from the beach at Cape Yakataga average about 0.001 percent equivalent uranium. Uranothorianite has been identified by X-ray diffraction data and is the principal source of radioactivity in the Cape Yakataga beach sands studied; but the zircon, monazite, and uranothorite are also radioactive. The black, opaque uranothorianite generally occurs as minute euhedral cubs, the majority of which will pass through a 100-mesh screen. The bedrock source of the radioactive samples from Kodiak Island was not found; the maximum radioactivity of samples from the Shirley Lake area was equivalent to about 0.02 percent uranium. Radiometric traverses of the 460-foot level of the Garnet shaft of the Nixon Fork mine in the Nixon Fork mining district indicated a maximum of 0.15 mr/hr. In the Hot Springs district, drill hole concentrates of gravels examined contained a maximum of 0.03 percent equivalent uranium. A radioactivity anomaly noted during the Survey's airborne reconnaissance of portions of the Territory during 1954 is located in the Fairhaven district. A ground check disclosed that the radioactivity was due to accessory minerals in the granitic rock.

  7. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the eastern North Slope, Alaska, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Sloan, C.E.; Meckel, J.P.; Nauman, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The part of the Arctic coast of Alaska between the Colville River and the Canadian boundary was visited in April, August, and November 1975. The study area is characterized by its cold climate and is largely uninhabited, but oil and gas discoveries have spurred development of parts of the area. Sensible, coordinated development requires information about water resources. The purpose of the April reconnaissance was to locate winter streamflow and describe its quantity and quality. A followup summer trip was made in August to determine the flood characteristics of selected streams by measuring channel geometry in relation to bankfull discharge and the maximum evident flood and by estimating channel roughness. In addition, one lake was sampled, the discharge of a few springs was measured, and samples of spring water were taken. Because streamflow in August was assumed to be representative of normal summer flow, water quality was examined in streams for which flood surveys had been made. Samples of aquatic invertebrate populations were taken from most sites on the April and August trips. Another reconnaissance trip from Prudhoe Bay east to Canada was made in November to measure discharge in selected streams and springs, to measure ice thickness and water depth in selected lakes, and to collect water samples for water-quality analyses. Tables of data, photographs, and maps are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. The advanced linked extended reconnaissance and targeting technology demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, James; de Villers, Yves; Maheux, Jean; Edwards, Mark; Gains, David; Rea, Terry; Banbury, Simon; Gauthier, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing key operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. We discuss concepts for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as beyond line-of-sight systems such as a mini-UAV and unattended ground sensors. The authors address technical issues associated with the use of fully digital IR and day video cameras and discuss video-rate image processing developed to assist the operator to recognize poorly visible targets. Automatic target detection and recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images have been investigated to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The machine generated information display requirements are presented with the human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment, with a view to establishing user trust in the automation. The paper concludes with a summary of achievements to date and steps to project completion.

  9. Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in eastern Alaska, 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Arthur Edward; West, Walter S.; Matzko, John J.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance for radioactive deposits was conducted in selected areas of eastern Alaska during 1952. Examination of copper, silver, and molybdenum occurrences and of a reported nickel prospect in the Slana-Nabesna and Chisana districts in the eastern Alaska Range revealed a maximum radioactivity of about 0.003 percent equivalent uranium. No appreciable radioactivity anomolies were indicated by aerial and foot traverses in the area. Reconnaissance for possible lode concentrations of uranium minerals in the vicinity of reported fluoride occurrences in the Hope Creek and Miller House-Circle Hot Springs areas of the Circle quadrangle and in the Fortymile district found a maximum of 0.055 percent equivalent uranium in a float fragment of ferruginous breccia in the Hope Creek area; analysis of samples obtained in the vicinity of the other fluoride occurrences showed a maximum of only 0.005 percent equivalent uranium. No uraniferous loads were discovered in the Koyukuk-Chandalar region, nor was the source of the monazite, previously reported in the placer concentrates from the Chandalar mining district, located. The source of the uranotheorianite in the placers at Gold Bench on the South Fork of the Koyukuk River was not found during a brief reconaissance, but a placer concentrate was obtained that contains 0.18 percent equivalent uranium. This concentrate is about ten times more radioactive than concentrates previously available from the area.

  10. Personnel protection through reconnaissance robotics at Superfund remedial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, U.; Esposito, C.; Sullivan, D.

    1992-01-01

    Investigation, mitigation, and clean-up of hazardous materials at Superfund sites normally require on-site workers to perform hazardous and sometimes potentially dangerous functions. Such functions include site surveys and the reconnaissance for airborne and buried toxic environmental contaminants. Workers conducting on-site air monitoring risk dermal, ocular and inhalation exposure to hazardous chemicals, while those performing excavations also risk in addition the potential exposure to fire, explosion, and other physical injury. EPA's current efforts to protect its workers and mitigate these risks include the use of robotic devices. Using robots offers the ultimate in personnel protection by removing the worker from the site of potential exposure. The paper describes the demonstration of a commercially-available robotic platform modified and equipped for air monitoring and the ongoing research for the development of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) system to detect buried chemical waste drums. These robotic devices can be ultimately routinely deployed in the field for the purpose of conducting inherently safe reconnaissance activities during Superfund/SARA remedial operations.

  11. Miniature loops in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczynski, K.; Peter, H.; Savage, S. L.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Magnetic loops filled with hot plasma are the main building blocks of the solar corona. Usually they have lengths of the order of the barometric scale height in the corona that is 50 Mm. Aims: Previously it has been suggested that miniature versions of hot loops exist. These would have lengths of only 1 Mm barely protruding from the chromosphere and spanning across just one granule in the photosphere. Such short loops are well established at transition region temperatures (0.1 MK), and we investigate if such miniature loops also exist at coronal temperatures (>1 MK). Methods: We used extreme UV (EUV) imaging observations from the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) at an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.3'' to 0.4''. Together with EUV imaging and magnetogram data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) data from Hinode we investigated the spatial, temporal and thermal evolution of small loop-like structures in the solar corona above a plage region close to an active region and compared this to a moss area within the active region. Results: We find that the size, motion and temporal evolution of the loop-like features are consistent with photospheric motions, suggesting a close connection to the photospheric magnetic field. Aligned magnetograms show that one of their endpoints is rooted at a magnetic concentration. Their thermal structure, as revealed together with the X-ray observations, shows significant differences to moss-like features. Conclusions: Considering different scenarios, these features are most probably miniature versions of hot loops rooted at magnetic concentrations at opposite sides of a granule in small emerging magnetic loops (or flux tubes).

  12. Fabrication of miniaturized electrostatic deflectors using LIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.H.; Khan-Malek, C.; Muray, L.P.

    1997-04-01

    Miniaturized electron beam columns ({open_quotes}microcolumns{close_quotes}) have been demonstrated to be suitable candidates for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), e-beam lithography and other high resolution, low voltage applications. In the present technology, microcolumns consist of {open_quotes}selectively scaled{close_quotes} micro-sized lenses and apertures, fabricated from silicon membranes with e-beam lithography, reactive ion beam etching and other semiconductor thin-film techniques. These miniaturized electron-optical elements provide significant advantages over conventional optics in performance and ease of fabrication. Since lens aberrations scale roughly with size, it is possible to fabricate simple microcolumns with extremely high brightness sources and electrostatic objective lenses, with resolution and beam current comparable to conventional e-beam columns. Moreover since microcolumns typically operate at low voltages (1 KeV), the proximity effects encountered in e-beam lithography become negligible. For high throughput applications, batch fabrication methods may be used to build large parallel arrays of microcolumns. To date, the best reported performance with a 1 keV cold field emission cathode, is 30 nm resolution at a working distance of 2mm in a 3.5mm column. Fabrication of the microcolumn deflector and stigmator, however, have remained beyond the capabilities of conventional machining operations and semiconductor processing technology. This work examines the LIGA process as a superior alternative to fabrication of the deflectors, especially in terms of degree of miniaturization, dimensional control, placement accuracy, run-out, facet smoothness and choice of suitable materials. LIGA is a combination of deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, and injection molding processes which allow the fabrication of microstructures.

  13. Development of Californium-252 Miniature Source Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Notspecified, N. A.

    2007-06-26

    The purpose of this CRADA between ORNL and lsotron, Inc. is to develop miniature californium-252 sources configured for remote handling that can be used in neutron brachytherapy for treatment of cancer. Brachytherapy places the · radioactive source at or near the site of the tumor, using a catheter. The CRADA ran from late 1999 through November 2005. The heart of a Cf-252 source is the radioactive core wire, which is sealed inside a metallic source capsule. Previous Cf-252 medical sources were based on a cermet wire with californium oxide dispersed in palladium, typically >1-mm diameter and <0.1% Cf-252 by weight. Previously, the standard medical source in the U.S. was the Applicator Tube (AT) source. 23-mm long, 2.8-mm diameter, with ~30 {micro}g of Cf-252, and which required manual loading into patients by medical staff. The goal of this work was to develop capabilities and technology to fabricate higher-intensity Cf-252 sources attached to a positioning cable, with overall diameter approaching that of exist ing photon (iridium-192) brachytherapy sources (i.e., ~1.1 mm). This work was successful in developing and demonstrating new technologies and procedures for the fabrication of miniaturized Cf-252 sources. CRADA-designed equipment reduced the wire diameters significantly (patent pending). Short wire segments were cut and successfully welded inside capsules meeting the miniaturization goals. A batch of seven prototype sources was prepared that met fabrication specifications. Although their neutron emissions were not maximized, they were still several times more intense than the previous AT sources. Very robust source-to-cable attachment methods were demonstrated (patent issued). A shipping canister was designed and built to contain the completed source assembly. lsotron designed and built a computer-controlled remote afterloader system to deliver the new sources for treatments.

  14. Miniaturized Mid-Infrared Sensor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Young, C; Mizaikoff, B

    2007-08-16

    Fundamental vibrational and rotational modes associated with most inorganic and organic molecules are spectroscopically accessible within the mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 {micro}m) regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The interaction between MIR photons and organic molecules provides particularly sharp transitions, which - despite the wide variety of organic molecules - provide unique MIR absorption spectra reflecting the molecularly characteristic arrangement of chemical bonds within the probed molecules via the frequency position of the associated vibrational and rotational transitions. Given the inherent molecular selectivity and achievable sensitivity, MIR spectroscopy provides an ideal platform for optical sensing applications. Despite this potential, early MIR sensing applications were limited to localized applications due to the size of the involved instrumentation, and limited availability of appropriately compact MIR optical components including light sources, detectors, waveguides, and spectrometers. During the last decades, engineering advances in photonics and optical engineering have facilitated the translation of benchtop-style MIR spectroscopy into miniaturized optical sensing schemes providing a footprint compatible with portable instrumentation requirements for field deployable analytical tools. In this trend article, we will discuss recent advances and future strategies for miniaturizing MIR sensor technology. The Beer-Lambert law implies that achievable limit of detection (LOD) for any optical sensor system improves by increasing the interaction length between photons and target analyte species such as e.g., folding the optical path multiple times as in multi-pass gas phase sensing; however, this governing paradigm naturally leads to an increase in system dimensions. Hence, miniaturization of optical sensing system requires scaling down of each optical component, yet improving the performance of each optical element within a smaller form factor for

  15. Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance Missions for Autonomous Exploration and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Climate Change with Particular Application to Glaciers and their Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, W.; Tarbell, M. A.; Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Spatio-temporal monitoring of climate change and its impacts is needed globally and thus requires satellite-based observations and analysis. However, needed ground truth can only be obtained in situ. In situ exploration of extreme and often hazardous environments can pose a significant challenge to human access. We propose the use of a disruptive exploration paradigm that has earlier been introduced with autonomous robotic space exploration, termed Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance (PSS 2005; SCIENCE 2010). Tier-scalable reconnaissance utilizes orbital, aerial, and surface/subsurface robotic platforms working in concert, enabling event-driven and integrated global to regional to local reconnaissance capabilities. We report on the development of a robotic test bed for Tier-scalable Reconnaissance at the University of Arizona and Caltech (SCIENCE 2010) for distributed and science-driven autonomous exploration, mapping, and spatio-temporal monitoring of climate change in hazardous or inaccessible environments. We focus in particular on glaciers and their environs, especially glacier lakes. Such glacier lakes can pose a significant natural hazard to inhabited areas and economies downstream. The test bed currently comprises several robotic surface vehicles: rovers equipped with cameras, and boats equipped with cameras and side-scanning sonar technology for bathymetry and the characterization of subsurface structures in glacier lakes and other water bodies. To achieve a fully operational Tier-scalable Reconnaissance test bed, aerial platforms will be integrated in short order. Automated mapping and spatio-temporal monitoring of glaciers and their environs necessitate increasing degrees of operational autonomy: (1) Automatic mapping of an operational area from different vantages (i.e., airborne, surface, subsurface); (2) automatic sensor deployment and sensor data gathering; (3) automatic feature extraction and region-of-interest/anomaly identification within the mapped

  16. A Novel Miniature Wide-band Radiometer for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykulska-Lawrence, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Design, development and testing of a novel miniaturised infrared radiometer is described. The instrument opens up new possibilities in planetary science of deployment on smaller platforms - such as unmanned aerial vehicles and microprobes - to enable study of a planet's radiation balance, as well as terrestrial volcano plumes and trace gases in planetary atmospheres, using low-cost long-term observations. Thus a key enabling development is that of miniaturised, low-power and well-calibrated instrumentation.The paper reports advances in miniature technology to perform high accuracy visible / IR remote sensing measurements. The infrared radiometer is akin to those widely used for remote sensing for earth and space applications, which are currently either large instruments on orbiting platforms or medium-sized payloads on balloons. We use MEMS microfabrication techniques to shrink a conventional design, while combining the calibration benefits of large (>1kg) type radiometers with the flexibility and portability of a <10g device. The instrument measures broadband (0.2 to 100um) upward and downward radiation fluxes, with built-in calibration capability, incorporating traceability to temperature standards such as ITS-90.The miniature instrument described here was derived from a concept developed for a European Space Agency study, Dalomis (Proc. of 'i-SAIRAS 2005', Munich, 2005), which involved dropping multiple probes into the atmosphere of Venus from a balloon to sample numerous parts of the complex weather systems on the planet. Data from such an in-situ instrument would complement information from a satellite remote sensing instrument or balloon radiosonde. Moreover, the addition of an internal calibration standard facilitates comparisons between datasets.One of the main challenges for a reduced size device is calibration. We use an in-situ method whereby a blackbody source is integrated within the device and a micromirror switches the input to the detector between

  17. A pareto-optimal characterization of miniaturized distributed occulter/telescope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Adam W.; D'Amico, Simone; Macintosh, Bruce; Titus, Charles J.

    2015-09-01

    Distributed occulter/telescope systems hold great promise in the field of direct exoplanet imaging. However, proposed missions using this concept such as the New Worlds Observer or Exo-S (NASA) are exceptionally large with occulter diameters of tens of meters and inter-spacecraft separations of tens of megameters, requiring deployment in deep space. The estimated costs associated with these missions are in the billions of dollars. In order to reduce the risk associated with these missions, it is desirable to first deploy a low-cost technology demonstrator mission to prove that the distributed occulter telescope concept is valid. To that end, this work assesses the feasibility of miniaturizing the optics of the distributed occulter/telescope to enable deployment on micro- or nano-satellites in earth orbit. A variant of the convex optimization formulation introduced by previous authors is used to generate a pareto-optimal characterization between the achievable occulter contrast and a set of critical design variables (occulter radius, inner working angle, science spectrum, etc). This characterization is performed for two different sets of engineering constraints, corresponding to different levels of design complexity. The results of this study are compared to the performance requirements for imaging targets of scientific interest, namely exozodiacal dust disks, in order to identify promising design envelopes. The result of this work is a comprehensive trade of the capabilities of miniaturized, binary, petal-shaped occulters. This research demonstrates that there exist miniaturized occulter geometries compatible with micro- or nano-satellites in earth orbit suitable for imaging exozodiacal dust disks. In addition, this study provides a valuable methodology and performance guidelines for future distributed occulter/telescope designs.

  18. A miniature tactical Rb frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, T. M.; Dagle, R.; Debley, W.; Dellamano, H.; Hahn, T.; Horste, J.; Lam, L. K.; Magnuson, R.; Mcclelland, T.

    1984-01-01

    Work on an innovative design for miniature rubidium frequency standards has reached the pre-production demonstration stage at Litton Guidance and Control Systems. Pre-production units were built and tested under contract to the Rome Air Development Center of the U.S. Air Force Systems Command. The units, which are designed for use in tactical military applications, feature fast warm-up, low power consumption, and vibration insensitivity. The output stability under vibration is maintained without the need for external shock-mounts. The design objectives and test results are discussed.

  19. Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

  20. Endocrine alopecia in a miniature poodle.

    PubMed

    Allan, F J; Jones, B R; Purdie, E C

    1995-06-01

    Hypothyroidism and concurrent sex hormone imbalance associated with alopecia was diagnosed in a 5 year-old entire male Miniature Poodle. The dog had a 3-year history of alopecia, seborrhoea and recurrent superficial pyoderma. Abnormal thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test results supported a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Partial hair regrowth occurred after interstitial cell tumours, which were present in both testicles, were removed by castration. Complete hair regrowth, however, occurred only after thyroid hormone supplementation. This case highlighted difficulties which may be encountered when interpreting serum hormone concentrations and endocrine function tests.

  1. Miniaturized bendable 400 MHz artificial magnetic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presse, Anthony; Tarot, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    A bendable artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with a resonant frequency of 400 MHz is proposed. The dimensions of the unit cell are 50 × 50 mm2 or 0.07 × 0.07 λ0. The miniaturization is achieved with closely coupled patches printed on each side of a 0.127-mm-thick dielectric substrate. This last one is stacked on a flexible 3-mm-thick silicone over a ground plane. An AMC prototype is simulated and manufactured. Also, a printed inverted-F antenna is used to highlight the bandwidth of the AMC.

  2. Miniature ruggedized optical correlator for flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karins, James P.; Mills, Stuart A.; Szegedi, N. J.; Ryan, James R.; Kelly, Louis G., Jr.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Augustus, Eric P.; Wangler, Richard J.

    1994-03-01

    An electro-optic processor (EOP) incorporating a miniature ruggedized optical correlator (MROC) has been fabricated for use on a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The EOP consists of a single-board computer for system control, a MaxVideo 20 card for interfacing to the sensor and performing image processing functions, and an MROC module. The MROC and associated electronics (SLM drive electronics, CCD readout electronics, laser controller, preprocessor, and controller) are configured in a chassis that is placed into an RPV with a visible camera for signal input and a telemetry system for output of the optical processor to the ground.

  3. Surface-micromachined miniature rf switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fangmin; Lai, Zongsheng; Zhu, Ziqiang; Fan, Zhong; Long, Yongfu; Yang, Gen Q.; Ge, Xiaohong; Chen, Siqin; Xie, Jianfang

    2001-09-01

    A surface micromachined miniature switch has been made on silicon substrate using an electroplated gold micro-beam as the cantilevered arm, a chromium-to-gold electrical contact, and electrostatic actuation as the switching mechanism. The switch has an electrical isolation of -30dB in the 'off' state and an insertion loss of 4-7dB form 1 to 10 Ghz with a return loss of -15dB in the 'on' state. The high insertion loss has attributed to generation of parasitic current in low resistivity of the silicon substrate.

  4. A plasma-shielded, miniature Rogowski probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, E.; Furno, I.; Intrator, T.; Hemsing, E.

    2003-12-01

    The design and first results from an electrically isolated and plasma-shielded Rogowski probe, used in the reconnection scaling experiment (RSX), are presented. The probe is designed to withstand extreme thermal shock, plasma corrosion, and be vacuum sanitary, which is accomplished with a machinable boron nitride shell. The novel miniature design, with an inner detecting area of 0.79 cm2, allows accurate position detection of plasma current channels with ≈2 cm radius and to measure local current density profiles. The temporal resolution (<1 μs) is sufficiently high to resolve the dynamic evolution of RSX plasma current channels.

  5. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  6. A Miniaturized Class IV Flextensional Ultrasonic Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Andrew; Tweedie, Andrew; Mathieson, Andrew; Lucas, Margaret

    The class V transducer has found popularity in a diverse range of applications such as surgical and underwater projection systems, where high vibration amplitude for relatively low piezoceramic volume is generated. The class IV transducer offers the potential to attain even higher performance per volume than the class V. In this research, a miniaturized class IV power ultrasonic flextensional transducer is proposed. Simulations were performed using PZFlex finite element analysis, and electrical impedance analysis and experimental modal analysis were conducted for validation, where a high correlation between simulation and experiment has been demonstrated.

  7. Miniaturized detection system for handheld PCR assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, James B.; Benett, William J.; Stratton, Paul; Hadley, Dean R.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    2000-12-01

    We have developed and delivered a four chamber, battery powered, handheld instrument referred to as the HANAA which monitors the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process using a TaqMan based fluorescence assay. The detection system differs form standard configurations in two essential ways. First, the size is miniaturized, with a combined cycling and optics plug-in module for a duplex assay begin about the size of a small box of matches. Second, the detection/analysis system is designed to call a positive sample in real time.

  8. A miniature chemiresistor sensor for carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Srinives, Sira; Sarkar, Tapan; Hernandez, Raul; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-05-18

    A carpet-like nanostructure of polyaniline (PANI) nanothin film functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine), PEI, was used as a miniature chemiresistor sensor for detection of CO2 at room temperature. Good sensing performance was observed upon exposing the PEI-PANI device to 50-5000 ppm CO2 in presence of humidity with negligible interference from ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen dioxide. The sensing mechanism relied on acid-base reaction, CO2 dissolution and amine-catalyzed hydration that yielded carbamates and carbonic acid for a subsequent pH detection. The sensing device showed reliable results in detecting an unknown concentration of CO2 in air.

  9. Interpreting Radar View near Mars' South Pole, Orbit 1334

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A radargram from the Shallow Subsurface Radar instrument (SHARAD) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is shown in the upper-right panel and reveals detailed structure in the polar layered deposits of the south pole of Mars.

    The sounding radar collected the data presented here during orbit 1334 of the mission, on Nov. 8, 2006.

    The horizontal scale in the radargram is distance along the ground track. It can be referenced to the ground track map shown in the lower right. The radar traversed from about 75 to 85 degrees south latitude, or about 590 kilometers (370 miles). The ground track map shows elevation measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Green indicates low elevation; reddish-white indicates higher elevation. The traverse proceeds up onto a plateau formed by the layers.

    The vertical scale on the radargram is time delay of the radar signals reflected back to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the surface and subsurface. For reference, using an assumed velocity of the radar waves in the subsurface, time is converted to depth below the surface at one place: about 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) to one of the deeper subsurface reflectors. The color scale varies from black for weak reflections to white for strong reflections.

    The middle panel shows mapping of the major subsurface reflectors, some of which can be traced for a distance of 100 kilometers (60 miles) or more. The layers are not all horizontal and the reflectors are not always parallel to one another. Some of this is due to variations in surface elevation, which produce differing velocity path lengths for different reflector depths. However, some of this behavior is due to spatial variations in the deposition and removal of material in the layered deposits, a result of the recent climate history of Mars.

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar was provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its

  10. Interpreting Radar View near Mars' South Pole, Orbit 1360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A radargram from the Shallow Subsurface Radar instrument (SHARAD) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is shown in the upper-right panel and reveals detailed structure in the polar layered deposits of the south pole of Mars.

    The sounding radar collected the data presented here during orbit 1360 of the mission, on Nov. 10, 2006.

    The horizontal scale in the radargram is distance along the ground track. It can be referenced to the ground track map shown in the lower right. The radar traversed from about 74 degrees to 85 degrees south latitude, or about 650 kilometers (400 miles). The ground track map shows elevation measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Green indicates low elevation; reddish-white indicates higher elevation. The traverse proceeds up onto a plateau formed by the layers.

    The vertical scale on the radargram is time delay of the radar signals reflected back to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the surface and subsurface. For reference, using an assumed velocity of the radar waves in the subsurface, time is converted to depth below the surface at one place: about 800 meters (2,600 feet) to one of the strongest subsurface reflectors. This reflector marks the base of the polar layered deposits. The color scale varies from black for weak reflections to white for strong reflections.

    The middle panel shows mapping of the major subsurface reflectors, some of which can be traced for a distance of 100 kilometers (60 miles) or more. The layering manifests the recent climate history of Mars, recorded by the deposition and removal of ice and dust.

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar was provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its data are analyzed by a joint U.S.-Italian science team. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science

  11. Detection of the lunar body tide by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Mazarico, Erwan; Barker, Michael K; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2014-04-16

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft collected more than 5 billion measurements in the nominal 50 km orbit over ∼10,000 orbits. The data precision, geodetic accuracy, and spatial distribution enable two-dimensional crossovers to be used to infer relative radial position corrections between tracks to better than ∼1 m. We use nearly 500,000 altimetric crossovers to separate remaining high-frequency spacecraft trajectory errors from the periodic radial surface tidal deformation. The unusual sampling of the lunar body tide from polar lunar orbit limits the size of the typical differential signal expected at ground track intersections to ∼10 cm. Nevertheless, we reliably detect the topographic tidal signal and estimate the associated Love number h2 to be 0.0371 ± 0.0033, which is consistent with but lower than recent results from lunar laser ranging.

  12. Lunar Lava Tubes - The Promise of New Orbital Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2009-01-01

    The basaltic plains of the Moon contain lava channels on scales of tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers. Many of these channels are segmented, strongly suggesting that some portions include covered lava tubes. Lunar lava tubes are expected to provide unique environments below the harsh lunar surface, maintaining near-isothermal conditions and substantial shielding from solar and galactic radiation. A lava tube has often been suggested as natural shelter for a future human outpost. Previous searches for lunar lava tubes have been limited by a combination of image resolution and completeness of coverage. The five robotic Lunar Orbiter spacecraft combined to photograph essentially the entire lunar surface with a resolution of 60 m, and covered selected sites with resolutions as high as 2 m. The highest-resolution Apollo images, from the mapping and panoramic cameras, covered swaths totaling 16% of the lunar surface, at resolutions of approximately 5 m. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter -- launched in June 2009 to a polar orbit -- carries a suite of instruments that will revolutionize lunar remote sensing, including the identification and characterization of lava tubes. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) system includes a multi-spectral wide-angle camera with a resolution of 70 m, allowing a comprehensive survey of the entire lunar surface. The LROC narrow-angle camera is providing targeted images at resolutions of 0.5 - 2 m, including stereo coverage, which should allow detection of tube entrances and breakdown structures. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter is producing a global topographic map with a vertical resolution of 1 m and a horizontal resolution of 50 m. These data will be critical to understanding lava dynamics and tube emplacement.

  13. Recent advances in miniaturization of infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.; Bodkin, W. Andrew; Stevenson, William A.; White, David A.

    2000-03-01

    In the past ten years, a number of miniature spectrometers covering the visible and near infrared wavelengths out to 2.5 microns wavelength have been developed and are now commercially available. These small but high performance instruments have taken advantage of continuing advances in high sensitivity detectors--both CCD's and diode arrays, improvements in holographic gratings, and the availability of low-loss optical materials both in bulk and fiber form that transmit at these wavelengths and that can readily be formed into monolithic shapes for complex optical structures. More recently, a number of researchers have addressed the more intractable problems of extending these miniaturization innovations to spectrometers capable of operation in the mid-infrared wavelengths from 3 microns to 12 microns and beyond. Key enabling technologies for this effort include the recent development of high D*, uncooled thermopile and micro-bolometer detector arrays, new low- mass, high-efficiency pulsed infrared sources, and the design and fabrication of novel monolithic optical structures and waveguides using high index infrared optical materials. This paper reviews the development of these innovative infrared spectrometers and, in particular, the development of the `wedge' spectrometer by Foster-Miller, Inc. and the MicroSpecTM, a MEMS-based solid state spectrograph, by Ion Optics, Inc.

  14. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-05-25

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development.

  15. Modular injection systems for miniature engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Mike

    1992-07-01

    Mission requirements for Kinetic Energy Weapons will require miniaturization of current vehicle propulsion systems for future Space Defence Iniative Programs. A modular injection system (MIS) valve is presented which will decrease cost, size and weight of miniaturized storable bipropellant rocket engines and features two poppet-type propellant valve modules pneumatically linked to a pilot solenoid module. A prototype modular injection valve sized for 100lbf thrust was designed and is being tested to show lower costs, fewer moving parts and a reduction in weight and size. Results show that this valve meets objectives of one-half weight, one-half cost and one-fifth the envelopment of current production valves. Studies indicate that a cruciform configuration of four nominal 100lbf thrust engines can be controlled by four modular injection valve systems in a single housing of less than 1.0 m3. Following further development and correlation of results this concept may be scaled to control four higher thrust engines.

  16. Miniature Linear Actuator for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Cliff E.; Hill, Stuart W.

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the development of a kit of mechanisms intended for use aboard future spacecraft having masses between 10 and 100 kg. The report focuses mostly on two prototypes of one of the mechanisms: a miniature linear actuator based on a shape-memory-alloy (SMA) wire. In this actuator, as in SMA-wire actuators described previously in NASA Tech Briefs, a spring biases a moving part toward one limit of its stroke and is restrained or pulled toward the other limit of the stroke by an SMA wire, which assumes a slightly lesser or greater "remembered" length, depending on whether or not an electric current is applied to the wire to heat it above a transition temperature. Topics addressed in the report include the need to develop mechanisms like these, the general approach to be taken in designing SMA actuators, tests of the two prototypes of the miniature linear actuators, and improvements in the second prototype over the first prototype resulting in reduced mass and increased stroke. The report also presents recommendations for future development, briefly discusses problems of tolerances and working with small parts, states a need for better understanding of behaviors of SMAs, and presents conclusions.

  17. Miniaturization in sample treatment for environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, L; Ramos, J J; Brinkman, U A Th

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for faster, more cost-effective and environmentally friendly analytical methods is a major incentive to improve the classical procedures used for sample treatment in environmental analysis. In most classical procedures, the use of rapid and powerful instrumental techniques for the final separation and detection of the analytes contrasts with the time-consuming and usually manual methods used for sample preparation, which slows down the total analytical process. The efforts made in this field in the past ten years have led to the adaptation of existing methods and the development of new techniques to save time and chemicals, and improve overall performance. One route has been to develop at-line or on-line and, frequently, automated systems. In these approaches, miniaturization has been a key factor in designing integrated analytical systems to provide higher sample throughput and/or unattended operation. Selected examples of novel developments in the field of miniaturized sample preparation for environmental analysis are used to evaluate the merits of the various techniques on the basis of published data on real-life analyses of trace-level organic pollutants. Perspectives and trends are briefly discussed.

  18. Maximizing strain in miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosset, Samuel; Araromi, Oluwaseun; Shea, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    We present a theoretical model to optimise the unidirectional motion of a rigid object bonded to a miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), a configuration found for example in AMI's haptic feedback devices, or in our tuneable RF phase shifter. Recent work has shown that unidirectional motion is maximized when the membrane is both anistropically prestretched and subjected to a dead load in the direction of actuation. However, the use of dead weights for miniaturized devices is clearly highly impractical. Consequently smaller devices use the membrane itself to generate the opposing force. Since the membrane covers the entire frame, one has the same prestretch condition in the active (actuated) and passive zones. Because the passive zone contracts when the active zone expands, it does not provide a constant restoring force, reducing the maximum achievable actuation strain. We have determined the optimal ratio between the size of the electrode (active zone) and the passive zone, as well as the optimal prestretch in both in-plane directions, in order to maximize the absolute displacement of the rigid object placed at the active/passive border. Our model and experiments show that the ideal active ratio is 50%, with a displacement twice smaller than what can be obtained with a dead load. We expand our fabrication process to also show how DEAs can be laser-post-processed to remove carefully chosen regions of the passive elastomer membrane, thereby increasing the actuation strain of the device.

  19. Miniaturization of Chip-Scale Photonic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamek, Steve

    Chip-scale photonic circuits promise to alleviate some fundamental physical barriers encountered in many areas of the life sciences and information technologies. This work investigates routes to miniaturization of chip-scale optical devices. Two new techniques and devices based thereon are introduced for the first time. One technique makes use of integrated metallic mirrors to construct reflectors which are by an order of magnitude smaller than their counterparts. Another technique is based on folding of chip-scale devices to fit long structures into small area on a chip. Although both techniques are demonstrated on some specific examples, the developed toolkit is applicable to a wide range of chip-scale devices including modulators, filters, channel add-drop multiplexers, detectors, and others. The major part of this Thesis focuses on miniaturization of waveguide reflectors and the devices based thereon. Fitting long waveguide Bragg gratings into a small area on a chip is demonstrated based on curved waveguide Bragg gratings; theory and analytical model of such structures is developed. In the second part of the Thesis, integrated metallic mirrors are proposed as reflectors with properties complementary to Bragg gratings - low polarization sensitivity, high reflectivity for different transverse modes, and good manufacturability. The feasibility of the proposed ideas is tested in both simulations and experiments. The demonstrated devices including biochemical sensors, micro-resonators, and inline filters are promising for applications in the life sciences and information technologies.

  20. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  1. Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

  2. Miniature and Molecularly Specific Optical Screening Technologies for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    05-1-0363 TITLE: Miniature and Molecularly Specific Optical Screening Technologies for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...and Molecularly Specific Optical Screening Technologies for Breast Cancer Duke University Durham, NC 27705 Nirmala Ramanujam The goal of this...proposal is to harness the power of light to create “miniature and molecularly specific optical technologies” for breast cancer diagnosis and

  3. Miniature spinning as a fiber quality assessment tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miniature spinning has long been used to assess cotton varieties in a timely manner. It has been an accepted fact that the quality of miniature spinning is less than optimal, but that it allows a direct comparison between cottons during varietal studies. Recently, researchers have made processing ...

  4. Automatic Orbital Welding Head for Shipboard Use where Accessibility is Limited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    reverse elde, it necesayand Identify by block rnumber) Automatic Orbital Welding Automatic Pipe Welding Pulsed Current GTA Welding 20. ABSTRACT...demonstrated that state-of-the-art automatic pipe /tube welding techniques can be miniaturized to weld hard-to-reach joints. Plans to continue with a full...making pipe /tube welds with the prototype. (3) Private industry has the ability to produce specific automatic orbital welding heads for space limited

  5. A miniaturized artificial mastoid using a skull simulator.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, S P; Håkansson, B E

    1998-01-01

    A miniaturized artificial mastoid of size and weight that allow calibration and measurement of bone conduction hearing aids in a conventional audiometric soundproof box has been developed. Its level of mechanical impedance corresponds to the standard IEC 373 (1990) within the frequency range 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The miniaturized artificial mastoid consists of three parts: coupler, skull simulator (TU-1000), and an external electrical correction filter. The coupler is a highly damped mass-spring system designed to give the miniaturized artificial mastoid mechanical impedance in accordance with the standard IEC 373 (1990). It was found that the miniaturized artificial mastoid yielded results that are in correspondence with results obtained with the Brüel & Kjaer type 4930 artificial mastoid for frequencies above 450 Hz. Thus, at these frequencies, the miniaturized artificial mastoid can be used for audiometer calibration as well as measurement of bone conduction hearing aids.

  6. Reconnaissance for uranium in the southeastern states, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Henry S.

    1953-01-01

    During the last quarter of 1952 and most of 1953 the U.S. Geological Survey carried on a program of reconnaissance for radioactive material in the southeastern states on behalf to the Atomic Energy Commission. In the course of the study 111 localities were examined and 43 samples were taken for radioactivity measurements at the Survey's Trace Elements laboratory in Denver, Colo. No economic deposits of uranium were found as a result of this work, but weak radioactivity was noted at the Tungsten Mining Coperation property near Townsville, N. C.; the Comolli granite quarry near Elberton, Ga.; in the Beech and Cranberry granite near Roan Mountain, Tenn.; and in several shales in the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateau provinces. Devonian through Pennsylvanian rocks in these two provinces probably constitute the most favorable ground for new discoveries of uranium in the Southeast.

  7. Processing and analysis of radiometer measurements for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Helmut

    1990-11-01

    Thi8 paper describes selected results of airborne, radiometric imaging measurements at 90 GHz and 140 GHz relevant for the application in reconnaissance. Using a temperature resolution below 0.5 K and an angular resolution of about 1 degree high quality images show the capability of discriminating between many brightness temperature classes within our natural environment and man-made objects. Measurement examples are given for cloud and fog penetration at 90 GHz, for the detection of vehicles on roads, and for the detection and classification of airports and airplanes. The application of different contour enhancement methods (Marr-Hildreth and Canny) shows the possibility of extracting lines and shapes precisely in order to improve automatic target recognition. The registration of the passive images with corresponding X-band synthetic aperture images from the same area is carried out and the high degree of correlation is dicussed.

  8. Processing and analysis of radiometer measurements for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes selected results of airborne, radiometric imaging measurements at 90 GHz and 140 GHz relevant for the application in reconnaissance. Using a temperature resolution below 0.5 K and an angular resolution of about 1-degree high-quality images show the capability of discriminating between many brightness temperature classes within our natural environment and man-made objects. Measurement examples are given for cloud and fog penetration at 90 GHz, for the detection of vehicles on roads, and for the detection and classification of airports and airplanes. The application of different contour enhancement methods (Marr-Hildreth and Canny) shows the possibility of extracting lines and shapes precisely in order to improve automatic target recognition. The registration of the passive images with corresponding X-band synthetic aperture images from the same area is carried out and the high degree of correlation is discussed.

  9. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  10. Survey of Fena Reservoir, Island of Guam; limnological reconnaissance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    During the limnological reconnaissance of Fena Reservoir, samples of the water columns and bottom sediment were obtained and analyzed at five locations within the reservoir. Major ion analyses of filtered surface water indicated that calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant cation and anion in the reservoir. Thermal stratification was recorded at all five locations. Temperature data indicated a distinct hypolimnion at three of the sampling locations below a depth of 8 meters. Vertical profiles of pH exhibited changes with depth as did conductivity. Marked clinograde distributions of dissolved osygen were evident at all but the shallowest locations. Inverse clinograde distributions of total phosphorus, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite and dissolved ammonia were observed at the two deepest stations. Total organic carbon had no distinct profile and had an average concentration of 13.8 milligrams per liter. Data are also provided for nutrient analysis of the sediment. (USGS)

  11. THe high altitude reconnaissance platform (HARP) and its capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rusk, D.; Rose, R.L.; Gibeau, E.

    1996-10-01

    The High Altitude Reconnaissance Platform (HARP), a Learjet 36A, is a multi-purpose, long-range, high-altitude aircraft specially modified to serve as a meteorological observation platform. Its instrument suite includes: particle probes, Ka-band radar, two-color lidar, infrared spectroradiometer, thermometer, hygrometer, liquid water probe, and a gust probe. Aeromet scientists have developed software and hardware systems that combine data using sensor fusion concepts, providing detailed environmental information. The HARP answers the need for defining and predicting meteorological conditions throughout large atmospheric volumes particularly in areas where conventional surface and upper-air observations are not available. It also fills the need for gathering and predicting meteorological conditions along an optical sensor`s line of sight or a missile`s reentry path. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  13. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  14. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  15. HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2004-08-01

    A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

  16. Design and fabrication of the New Horizons Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, S. J.; Azad, F.; Boldt, J. D.; Cheng, A.; Cooper, K. A.; Darlington, E. H.; Grey, M. P.; Hayes, J. R.; Hogue, P.; Kosakowski, K. E.; Magee, T.; Morgan, M. F.; Rossano, E.; Sampath, D.; Schlemm, C.; Weaver, H. A.

    2005-09-01

    The LOng-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) is an instrument that was designed, fabricated, and qualified for the New Horizons mission to the outermost planet Pluto, its giant satellite Charon, and the Kuiper Belt, which is the vast belt of icy bodies extending roughly from Neptune's orbit out to 50 astronomical units (AU). New Horizons is being prepared for launch in January 2006 as the inaugural mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. This paper provides an overview of the efforts to produce LORRI. LORRI is a narrow angle (field of view=0.29°), high resolution (instantaneous field of view = 4.94 μrad), Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 20.8 cm diameter primary mirror, a focal length of 263 cm, and a three lens field-flattening assembly. A 1024 x 1024 pixel (optically active region), back-thinned, backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) detector (model CCD 47-20 from E2V Technologies) is located at the telescope focal plane and is operated in standard frame-transfer mode. LORRI does not have any color filters; it provides panchromatic imaging over a wide bandpass that extends approximately from 350 nm to 850 nm. A unique aspect of LORRI is the extreme thermal environment, as the instrument is situated inside a near room temperature spacecraft, while pointing primarily at cold space. This environment forced the use of a silicon carbide optical system, which is designed to maintain focus over the operating temperature range without a focus adjustment mechanism. Another challenging aspect of the design is that the spacecraft will be thruster stabilized (no reaction wheels), which places stringent limits on the available exposure time and the optical throughput needed to accomplish the high-resolution observations required. LORRI was designed and fabricated by a combined effort of The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and SSG Precision Optronics Incorporated (SSG).

  17. Multi-Tier Multi-Agent Autonomous Robotic Planetary Surface/Subsurface Reconnaissance for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, W.; Dohm, J. M.; Tarbell, M. A.; Hare, T. M.; Baker, V. R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Furfaro, R.; Fairén, A. G.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Miyamoto, H.; Komatsu, G.; Mahaney, W. C.

    2006-03-01

    Tier-scalable autonomous reconnaissance enables intelligent, unconstrained, and distributed science-driven exploration of prime locations on Venus, Mars, Io, Europa, Titan, and elsewhere, allowing for increased science return and the search for life.

  18. Miniature Ring-Shaped Peristaltic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2004-01-01

    An experimental miniature peristaltic pump exploits piezoelectrically excited flexural waves that travel around a ring: A fluid is carried in the containers formed in the valleys between the peaks of the flexural waves, What sets the present pump apart from other pumps that exploit piezoelectrically excited flexural waves is the ring shape, which makes it possible to take advantage of some of the desirable characteristics of previously developed piezoelectric rotary motors. A major advantage of the circular (in contradistinction to a straight-line) wave path is that the flexural waves do not come to a stop and, instead, keep propagating around the ring. Hence, a significant portion of the excitation energy supplied during each cycle is reused during the next cycle, with the result that the pump operates more effectively than it otherwise would.

  19. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-02-18

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  20. Self-folding miniature elastic electric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Tolley, Michael T.; Wood, Robert J.; Rus, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive strain sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature elasticity, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive strain sensor.

  1. Portable, miniaturized, fibre delivered, multimodal CARS exoscope.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brett; Naji, Majid; Murugkar, Sangeeta; Alarcon, Emilio; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter; Anis, Hanan

    2013-07-15

    We demonstrate for the first time, a portable multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope (exoscope) for minimally invasive in-vivo imaging of tissues. This device is based around a micro-electromechanical system scanning mirror and miniaturized optics with light delivery accomplished by a photonic crystal fibre. A single Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser is used as the light source to produce CARS, two photon excitation fluorescence and second harmonic generation images. The high resolution and distortion-free images obtained from various resolution and bio-samples, particularly in backward direction (epi) successfully demonstrate proof of concept, and pave the path towards future non or minimally-invasive in vivo imaging.

  2. A miniaturized fibrinolytic assay for plasminogen activators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Damron, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a micro-clot lysis assay (MCLA) for evaluating fibrinolytic activity of plasminogen activators (PA). Fibrin clots were formed in wells of microtiter plates. Lysis of the clots by PA, indicated by change in turbidity (optical density, OD), was monitored with a microplate reader at five minutes intervals. Log-log plots of PA dilution versus endpoint, the time at which the OD value was halfway between the maximum and minimum value for each well, were linear over a broad range of PA concentrations (2-200 International units/ml). The MCLA is a modification and miniaturization of well established fibrinolytic methods. The significant practical advantages of the MCLA are that it is a simple, relatively sensitive, non-radioactive, quantitative, kinetic, fibrinolytic micro-technique which can be automated.

  3. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawless, W.N.; Cross, L.E.; Steyert, W.A.

    1985-05-07

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described. 9 figs.

  4. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawless, William N.; Cross, Leslie E.; Steyert, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described.

  5. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong; Goldsten, John

    2002-10-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband.

  6. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  7. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

  8. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  9. Power Electronics for a Miniaturized Arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1997-01-01

    A 0.3 kW Power Processing Unit (PPU) was designed, tested on resistive loads, and then integrated with a miniaturized arcjet. The main goal of the design was to minimize size and mass while maintaining reasonable efficiency. In order to obtain the desired reductions in mass, simple topologies and control methods were considered. The PPU design incorporates a 50 kHz, current-mode-control, pulse-width-modulated (PWM), push-pull topology. An input voltage of 28 +/- 4V was chosen for compatibility with typical unregulated low voltage busses anticipated for smallsats. An efficiency of 0.90 under nominal operating conditions was obtained. The component mass of the PPU was 0.475 kg and could be improved by optimization of the output filter design. The estimated mass for a flight PPU based on this design is less than a kilogram.

  10. Miniaturized attitude control system for nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candini, Gian Paolo; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2012-12-01

    A miniaturized attitude control system suitable for nanosatellites, developed using only commercial off-the-shelf components, is described in the paper. It is a complete and independent system to be used on board nanosatellites, allowing automated attitude control. To integrate this system into nanosatellites such as Cubesats its size has been reduced down to a cube of side about 5 cm. The result is a low cost attitude control system built with terrestrial components, integrating three micro magnetotorquers, three micro reaction wheels, three magnetometers and redundant control electronics, capable of performing automatics operations on request from the ground. The system can operate as a real time maneuvering system, executing commands sent from the ground or as a standalone attitude control system receiving the solar array status from a hosting satellite and the satellite ephemeris transmitted from the ground station. The main characteristics of the developed system and test results are depicted in this paper.

  11. Miniature aerosol lidar for automated airborne application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthey, Renaud; Mitev, Valentin; Mileti, Gaetano; Makarov, Vladislav S.; Turin, Alexander V.; Morandi, Marco; Santacesaria, Vincenzo

    2000-09-01

    The Russian Mjasishchev 55 (M-55) <> high altitude aircraft is dedicated to atmospheric science research. It carries onboard a set of mutually complementary instruments for in- situ and remote sensing. The Green Miniature Aerosol Lidar (GMAL) has been developed to operate automatically on this platform. It is a short-range, zenith-looking, depolarization elastic-backscatter lidar based on a 532 nm micro-chip Nd-YAG laser. Compact, low-power consuming, it stands in a 27-litre isolating and warmed hermetic box. The device participated successfully to an extended test campaign in Italy during December 1998 and January 1999, and to the APE/THESEO campaign in the Indian Ocean during February-March 1999. It also showed capabilities for unattended measurement of the low troposphere from the ground. Description of the instrument and preliminary results are presented.

  12. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-02-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  13. A highly miniaturized NDIR methane sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayerden, N. P.; de Graaf, Ger; Enoksson, Peter; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2016-04-01

    The increasing demand for handheld systems for absorption spectroscopy has triggered the development of microspectrometers at various wavelength ranges. Several MEMS implementations of the light source, interferometer/optical filter, and detector have already been reported in the literature. However, the size of microspectrometers is still limited by the required absorption path length in the sample gas cell. This paper presents a compact MEMS linear-variable optical filter (LVOF) where the resonator cavity of the filter is also used as a sample gas cell to measure the absorption of methane at 3392nm wavelength. The physical resonator cavity length is elongated 62.2-fold, using multiple reflections from highly reflective Bragg mirrors to achieve a sufficiently long effective optical absorption path. Although the LVOF would in principle enable operation as a robust portable microspectrometer, here it is used in a miniaturized NDIR methane sensor for wavelength selection and calibration.

  14. Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.

  15. Miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Radan; Brynda, Eduard; Homola, Jiri; Ctyroky, Jiri

    1999-01-01

    A novel design of surface plasmon resonance fiber optic sensor is reported which leads to a compact, highly miniaturized sensing element with excellent sensitivity. The sensing device is based on a side-polished single-mode optical fiber with a thin metal overlayer supporting surface plasmon waves. The strength of interaction between a fiber mode and a surface plasmon wave depends strongly on the refractive index near the sensing surface. Therefore, refractive index changes associated with biospecific interaction between antibodies immobilized on the sensor and antigen molecules can be monitored by measuring light intensity variations. Detection of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) of the concentration of 100 ng/ml has been accomplished using the fiber optic sensor with a matrix of monoclonal antibodies against HRP immobilized on the sensor surface.

  16. A miniaturized pointing mount for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, C. G.; Howell, T., Jr.; Nicaise, P. D.; Parker, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Miniaturized Pointing Mount (MPM) for Spacelab missions is defined and simulation results are described. This mount is proposed to complement the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It uses the same mount isolator concept as the Spacelab IPS but is much more efficient and economical for the accommodation of small shuttle payloads. The MPM is built from star tracker assemblies left over from the Apollo Telescope Mount program thereby assuring low cost and development risk. Simulation results indicate a high level of instrument stability can be expected. The short development time of the MPM would permit it to serve as a precursor to the Spacelab IPS for verifying critical new concepts such as the mount isolation and hold down mechanisms.

  17. Miniature linear-to-rotary motion actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorokach, Michael R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A miniature hydraulic actuation system capable of converting linear actuator motion to control surface rotary motion has been designed for application to active controls on dynamic wind tunnel models. Due to space constraints and the torque requirements of an oscillating control surface at frequencies up to 50 Hertz, a new actuation system was developed to meet research objectives. This new actuation system was designed and developed to overcome the output torque limitations and fluid loss/sealing difficulties associated with an existing vane type actuator. Static control surface deflections and dynamic control surface oscillations through a given angle are provided by the actuation system. The actuator design has been incorporated into a transonic flutter model with an active trailing edge flap and two active spoilers. The model is scheduled for testing in the LaRC 16 Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel during Summer 1993. This paper will discuss the actuation system, its design, development difficulties, test results, and application to aerospace vehicles.

  18. Miniaturization of a SWIR hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Christopher P.; Pfister, William; Even, Detlev; Velasco, Arleen; Yee, Selwyn; Breitwieser, David; Naungayan, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    A new approach for the design and fabrication of a miniaturized SWIR Hyperspectral imager is described. Previously, good results were obtained with a VNIR Hyperspectral imager, by use of light propagation within bonded solid blocks of fused silica. These designs use the Offner design form, providing excellent, low distortion imaging. The same idea is applied to the SWIR Hyperspectral imager here, resulting in a microHSITM SWIR Hyperspectral sensor, capable of operating in the 850-1700 nm wavelength range. The microHSI spectrometer weighs 910 g from slit input to camera output. This spectrometer can accommodate custom foreoptics to adapt to a wide range of fields-of-view (FOV). The current application calls for a 15 degree FOV, and utilizes an InGaAs image sensor with a spatial format of 640 x 25 micron pixels. This results in a slit length of 16 mm, and a foreoptics focal length of 61 mm, operating at F# = 2.8. The resulting IFOV is 417 μrad for this application, and a spectral dispersion of 4.17 nm/pixel. A prototype SWIR microHSI was fabricated, and the blazed diffraction grating was embedded within the optical blocks, resulting in a 72% diffraction efficiency at the wavelength of 1020 nm. This spectrometer design is capable of accommodating slit lengths of up to 25.6 mm, which opens up a wide variety of applications. The microHSI concepts can be extended to other wavelength regions, and a miniaturized LWIR microHSI sensor is in the conceptual design stage.

  19. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  20. Miniaturized spectral imager for Aalto-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Näsilä, Antti; Praks, Jaan; Saari, Heikki; Antila, Jarkko

    2011-11-01

    The Aalto-1 is a 3U-cubesat project coordinated by Aalto University. The satellite, Aalto-1, will be mainly built by students as project assignments and thesis works. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland will develop the main Earth observation payload, a miniaturized spectral imager, for the satellite. It is a novel highly miniaturized tunable filter type spectral imager. Mass of the spectral imager will be less than 400 grams, and dimensions will be approximately 80 mm x 80 mm x 45 mm. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by an RGB CMOS image sensor. The FPI consists of two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap and it is based either on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) or piezo-actuated structure. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force. Benefits of the MEMS FPI are low mass and small size. However, large aperture (2-10 mm) MEMS FPIs are currently under development, thus it is not yet known if their performance is adequate. The piezo-actuated FPI uses three piezo-actuators and is controlled in a closed capacitive feedback loop. The drawback of the piezo-actuated FPI is its higher mass. However, it has a large aperture which enables a shorter exposure times. Selection of the FPI type will be done after thorough evaluation. Depending on the selected FPI type, the spectral resolution of the imager will be 5 - 10 nm at full width at half maximum and it will operate in the visible and/or near infrared range.

  1. Reconnaissance Study for the Western Lake Huron Basin, Watershed Study, Michigan, Section 905(b)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    benefits in the oxbow area. Further, the Corps Section 506 (Great Lakes Fishery and Ecosystem Restoration (GLFER)) program could potentially be used to...Section 905(b) Reconnaissance Study Final Report Western Lake Huron Basin Watershed Study, Michigan May 2012...Reconnaissance Study for the Western Lake Huron Basin Watershed Study, Michigan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, K.W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhfer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity

  3. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  4. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  5. Sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2006-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl referred for orbital cellulitis was found to have a right orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass occupying the inferotemporal orbit, extending into the maxillary sinus. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation. She was successfully treated with prednisone.

  6. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs

    PubMed Central

    SOHN, Jungmin; YUN, Sookyung; LEE, Jeosoon; CHANG, Dongwoo; CHOI, Mincheol; YOON, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly. PMID:27594274

  7. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  8. A MEMS-based miniature DNA analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Northrup, M.A.; Gonzalez, C.; Hadley, D.

    1995-04-25

    We detail the design and development of a miniature thermal cycling instrument for performing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that uses microfabricated, silicon-based reaction chambers. The MEMS-based, battery-operated instrument shows significant improvements over commercial thermal cycling instrumentation. Several different biological systems have been amplified and verified with the miniature PCR instrument including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus; both cloned and genomic DNA templates of {beta} globin; and the genetic disease, Cystic Fibrosis from human DNA. The miniaturization of a PCR thermal cycler is the initial module of a fully-integrated portable, low-power, rapid, and highly efficient bioanalytical instrument.

  9. Miniature in vivo robotics and novel robotic surgical platforms.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin C; Buettner, Shelby L; Lehman, Amy C; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2009-05-01

    Robotic surgical systems, such as the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California), have revolutionized laparoscopic surgery but are limited by large size, increased costs, and limitations in imaging. Miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are inserted entirely into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgical (NOTES) procedures. In the future, miniature camera robots and microrobots should be able to provide a mobile viewing platform. This article discusses the current state of miniature robotics and novel robotic surgical platforms and the development of future robotic technology for general surgery and urology.

  10. A new miniaturized fiber positioning node for LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Gu, Yonggang; Shen, Yuran; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    To distribute more fiber positioning nodes on the LAMOST focal plate, two steps are proposed to miniaturize the fiber positioning node in this paper. The first step is to miniaturize the mechanical device of the fiber positioning node. The second step is to redesign the entire wireless driving board using smaller and performance-higher devices. As a result, the size of the new miniaturized fiber positioning node has to be reduced by above 40% and the dense of fiber positioning nodes on focal plate increases by 20% at least.

  11. Orbital fractures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

    2011-01-01

    This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

  12. Miniaturized, Portable Sensors Monitor Metabolic Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to measure astronauts' metabolic rates in space, Glenn Research Center partnered with Case Western University and the Cleveland Clinic to develop the Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis (PUMA). Cleveland-based Orbital Research licensed and then modified PUMA to help the US Navy assess pilot oxygen problems and is now designing a device that can be used in hospitals.

  13. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  14. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  15. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  16. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  17. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  18. Miniature LIMS System for In Situ Detection of Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M. B.; Wurz, P.

    2016-05-01

    The current measurement capabilities of our miniature Laser Ablation Ionization Mass Spectrometer for sensitive and quantitative in situ chemical analyses (element, isotope and molecular) of solids on planetary surfaces will be presented.

  19. Miniature Tractor Pull Helps Teach Mechanical Power Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.

    1996-01-01

    A miniature tractor pull was developed as a high school activity, enabling students to assess a tractor's pulling capabilities and determine subsequent horsepower. The activity takes the textbook concept of horsepower and makes it come alive. (JOW)

  20. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  1. Ultrasonographic assessment of fetal growth in miniature "Shiba" goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor fetal growth in relation to gestational stage to generate formulae which could be used to estimate fetal age in goats. Eight miniature Shiba goats (Capra hircus) were examined weekly by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound scanning during the gestation period between Day 21 and 126 days of gestation. For accurate judgment, all fetometric parameters were measured at least three times per one examination for each animal. Quantification of the growth of the fetus allowed the development of a number of predictors of fetal age. Low correlations were associated with measurement of the chest diameter (R(2)=0.869), trunk diameter (R(2)=0.8969), tibia length (R(2)=0.8662) and placentome diameter (R(2)=0.8999). Moderate correlation was assessed by calculation of the length of six successive lumbar vertebrae (R(2)=0.9296), femur length (R(2)=0.9278), heart axis length (R(2)=0.9382 and 0.9589; for the longitudinal and transverse axis, respectively), occipitonasal length (R(2)=0.9527), umbilical cord diameter (R(2)=0.9119) and orbit diameter (R(2)=0.9239). A high correlation was estimated in investigating the length of six successive thoracic vertebrae (R(2)=0.9674), braincase diameter (R(2)=0.9831) and crown rump length (R(2)=0.9848). In conclusion, the intrauterine fetal biometry estimation through ultrasound might be useful to predict the accurate gestational age in miniature goats.

  2. Transforming Mechanized Reconnaissance: How the Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) Cavalry Squadron Should be Structured for Reconnaissance and Security Operations in the Near Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    Surveillance versus reconnaissance an entropy based model. Masters, Department of the Air Force Air University. 130 Dooley, Matthew A. 2006. Ignoring...targeting capabilities and challenges. Counterproliferation papers: Future warfare series. No. 22. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL. Scott, Charles L

  3. Optimum contact conditions for miniaturized surface acoustic wave linear motor

    PubMed

    Takasaki; Kurosawa; Higuchi

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the successful operation of a 70 MHz driving surface acoustic wave (SAW) linear motor with a miniaturized stator transducer. This paper also deals with an investigation into an optimized slider design for the miniaturized SAW linear motor. The performance of three silicon type sliders, with different projection size, was compared. Output forces of the three sliders were measured with change of pre-load. It was found that the slider with smaller projection tended to produce greater output force.

  4. Computer-Aided High Precision Verification Of Miniature Spring Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bow, Sing T.; Wang, Da-hao; Chen, Tsung-sheng; Newell, Darrell E.

    1990-01-01

    A system is proposed for the high precision on-line verification of the minia-ture spring structure, including overall height, diameters of various coils as well as pitches between neighboring coils of the miniature conical springs. High preci-sion measurements without physical contact and short processing time are achieved. Deformations of any kind on the conical springs can be identified even from the worst viewing direction.

  5. Miniaturized biological and electrochemical fuel cells: challenges and applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Ghobadian, Sasan; Goodrich, Payton J; Montazami, Reza; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-09-14

    This paper discusses the fundamentals and developments of miniaturized fuel cells, both biological and electrochemical. An overview of microfluidic fuel cells, miniaturized microbial fuel cells, enzymatic biofuel cells, and implanted biofuel cells in an attempt to provide green energy and to power implanted microdevices is provided. Also, the challenges and applications of each type of fuel cell are discussed in detail. Most recent developments in fuel cell technologies such as novel catalysts, compact designs, and fabrication methods are reviewed.

  6. A mineral reconnaissance of the Jabal Khida quadrangle, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse William

    1968-01-01

    Reconnaissance of the Jabal Khida quadrangle shows that granite and granodiorite (unit gg), biotite and hornblende granite (unit gr) and alkalic and paralkalic granit (unit gp) divisions for granites seems valid, but that two ages of metamorphic and extrusive rocks are mapped as the Halaben formation (unit ha/hc). Semiquantitative analyses of 113 samples collected in the quadrangle were made spectrographically on minus 30 plus 80 mesh wadi sand for 27 elements, and chemically on concentrates of heavy minerals and magnetite from wadi sand. Anomalous amounts of silver, beryllium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, cobalt, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, titanium, and vanadium are found in the sand samples, but the anomalies are low. Anomalous tungsten is present in some concentrates from wadi sand. A small alkalic and paralkalic granite (gp) at the west side of the quadrangle contains tin, niobium, and a low anomaly of lead. The area should be studied for commercial tin and niobium. Beryllium is in the granite and granodiorite (gg) adjacent to the alkalic granite. Concentrates from wadi sand derived from two alkalic granite (gp) bodies in the north-central part of the quadrangle contain 330 ppm tungsten.

  7. Water-resources reconnaissance of Isle de la Gonave, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troester, J.W.; Turvey, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Isle de la Gonave is a 750-km2 island off the coast of Haiti. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 m in the Eocene and Upper Miocene limestones to over 60 m in the 300-m-thick Quaternary limestone. Annual precipitation ranges from 800-1,400 mm. Most precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration and there is virtually no surface water. Roughly estimated from chloride mass balance, about 4% of the precipitation recharges the karst aquifer. Cave pools and springs are a common source for water. Hand-dug wells provide water in coastal areas. Few productive wells have been drilled deeper than 60 m. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that groundwater in the interior is a calcium-bicarbonate type, whereas water at the coast is a sodium-chloride type that exceeds World Health Organization recommended values for sodium and chloride. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in cave pools, hand-dug wells, and most springs, indicating bacterial contamination of most water sources. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 110,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 L per person per day.

  8. Large-area ALON windows for reconnaissance and armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Richard; Foti, Robyn; Smith, Mark; Sastri, Suri A.

    2009-05-01

    The demand for large ALON® windows has continued to increase since the material transitioned to Surmet Corporation for commercialization. Two applications which represent opposite ends of the requirements spectrum in terms of required optical performance and cost sensitivity are Reconnaissance windows and transparent armor. Consequently, the approaches to producing large area windows for both applications are quite different. While Recce applications require windows of the highest possible optical quality and stringent refractive index homogeneity across the large aperture sizes of Recce sensors, the optical requirements for transparent armor windows are substantially looser. Furthermore, optical performance is paramount for Recce applications while transparent armor applications are more strongly driven by cost considerations. Surmet has developed processes for producing large (i.e., up to ~17x30-in) ALON® window blanks of extremely high optical quality and refractive index homogeneity, for Recce applications. This material has been optically fabricated into finished windows and characterized for transmitted wavefront and homogeneity. Recent results will be presented. Large area transparent armor windows have been produced using a tiling approach. Since transparent armor laminates consist of multiple layers (i.e., ALON/Glass/Polycarbonate) Smaller ALON® tiles can be face bonded onto the underlying glass and polycarbonate layers to produce very large windows. Excellent ballistic results have been obtained using a tiled configuration. Recent results will be presented.

  9. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of Poro Point and vicinity, Luzon Island, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worts, George Frank

    1964-01-01

    In 1961 a reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of Poro Point, on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, was made on behalf of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Poro Point, which marks the northern end of Lingayen Gulf, is about half a mile wide and projects northwestward about 2 miles into the China Sea. The point is underlain by coralline limestone of probable Pleistocene age. The aquifer system consists of a fresh-water lens floating on salt water within the coralline limestone. Several tube wells obtain fresh water from the lens, but in May, at the end of the 6-month dry season during which rainfall totals only 40 inches, the water becomes brackish. 'Skimming wells' are considered the best method of obtaining fresh water from the lens, whose annual range in average thickness is probably 25 to 40 feet. Recharge is about 2,000-3,000 acre-feet per year and is derived wholly from precipitation during the 6-month wet season in which rainfall totals about 92 inches. The approximate amount of ground water stored in the fresh-water lens ranges from about 3,000 acre-feet at the end of the dry season to about 5,000 acre-feet at the end of the wet season. Most of the ground water is discharged through seeps and submarine springs around Poro Point; pumpage in 1961 was only about 100 acre-feet.

  10. Reconnaissance amplitude versus offset techniques in the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.; Gullette, K.

    1996-08-01

    Reconnaissance AVO (amplitude vs. offset) techniques have been invaluable in allowing the analyses and mapping of AVO on large-volume data sets in the Nigerian Niger Delta. Forward modelling of rock properties derived from well data on the shelf and regional ties of common depth point gathers to well control show that a shale on hydrocarbon bearing sand typically generates increasing amplitude with offset [Class 2 and Class 3 type anomalies of the Rutherford and Williams (1989) classification]. Consequently, processing and display techniques have been developed that distinguish the increasing amplitude with offset response associated with hydrocarbon bearing sands from the flatter AVO response of background water wet sands and shales. Attributes are created from angle stacks rather than by analyses of individual common depth point gathers over an entire data set. We show examples of a new AVO attribute which we call the Enhanced Restricted Gradient that highlights Class 2 and Class 3 type AVO anomalies more clearly than some of the standard AVO attributes used in the industry. The techniques described here provide a cost-effective and practical way of evaluating AVO character on large volume 2D and 3D data sets and should also be useful in other areas worldwide where hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs generate increasing amplitude with offset.

  11. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  12. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  13. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  14. Fitting modular reconnaissance systems into modern high-performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroot, Jacquelyn R.; Pingel, Leslie L.

    1990-11-01

    The installation of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) in the F/A-18D(RC) presented a complex set of design challenges. At the time of the F/A-18D(RC) ATARS option exercise, the design and development of the ATARS subsystems and the parameters of the F/A-18D(RC) were essentially fixed. ATARS is to be installed in the gun bay of the F/A-18D(RC), taking up no additional room, nor adding any more weight than what was removed. The F/A-18D(RC) installation solution required innovations in mounting, cooling, and fit techniques, which made constant trade study essential. The successful installation in the F/A-18D(RC) is the result of coupling fundamental design engineering with brainstorming and nonstandard approaches to every situation. ATARS is sponsored by the Aeronautical Systems Division, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The F/A-18D(RC) installation is being funded to the Air Force by the Naval Air Systems Command, Washington, D.C.

  15. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  16. Development of a Prototype Miniature Silicon Microgyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Chen, Shuling; Wang, Shourong

    2009-01-01

    A miniature vacuum-packaged silicon microgyroscope (SMG) with symmetrical and decoupled structure was designed to prevent unintended coupling between drive and sense modes. To ensure high resonant stability and strong disturbance resisting capacity, a self-oscillating closed-loop circuit including an automatic gain control (AGC) loop based on electrostatic force feedback is adopted in drive mode, while, dual-channel decomposition and reconstruction closed loops are applied in sense mode. Moreover, the temperature effect on its zero bias was characterized experimentally and a practical compensation method is given. The testing results demonstrate that the useful signal and quadrature signal will not interact with each other because their phases are decoupled. Under a scale factor condition of 9.6 mV/°/s, in full measurement range of ± 300 deg/s, the zero bias stability reaches 15°/h with worse-case nonlinearity of 400 ppm, and the temperature variation trend of the SMG bias is thus largely eliminated, so that the maximum bias value is reduced to one tenth of the original after compensation from -40 °C to 80 °C. PMID:22408543

  17. Miniaturized Amperometric Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; Hammond, J. W.; Ward, B.; Lukco, D.; Lampard, P.; Artale, M.; Androjna, D.

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor using Na3Z r2Si2PO12 (NASICON) as a solid electrolyte has been fabricated and de monstrated. Microfabrication techniques were used for sensor fabricat ion to yield a sensing area around 1.0 mm x 1.1 mm. The NASICON solid electrolyte and the Na2CO3/BaCO3 (1:1.7 molar ratio) auxiliary elect rolyte were deposited by sputtering in between and on top of the inte rdigitated finger-shaped platinum electrodes. This structure maximize s the length of the three-phase boundary (electrode, solid electrolyt e, and auxiliary electrolyte), which is critical for gas sensing. The robust CO2 sensor operated up to 600 C in an amperometric mode and a ttempts were made to optimize sensor operating parameters. Concentrat ions of CO2 between 0.02% and 4% were detected and the overall sensor performance was evaluated. Linear response of sensor current output to ln[CO2 concentration] ranging from 0.02% to 1% was achieved.

  18. Miniaturized technology for DNA typing: cassette PCR.

    PubMed

    Manage, Dammika P; Pilarski, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    With the smaller size, low cost, and rapid testing capabilities, miniaturized lab-on-a-chip devices can change the way medical diagnostics are currently performed in the health-care system. We have demonstrated such a device that is self-contained, simple, disposable, and inexpensive. It is capable of performing DNA amplification on an inexpensive instrument suitable for near point of care settings. This technology will enable on the spot evaluation of patients in the clinic for faster medical decision-making and more informed therapeutic choices. Our device, a gel capillary cassette, termed cassette PCR, contains capillary reaction units each holding a defined primer set, with arrays of capillary reaction units for simultaneously detecting multiple targets. With the exception of the sample to be tested, each capillary reaction unit holds all the reagents needed for PCR in a desiccated form that can be stored at room temperature for up to 3 months and even longer in colder conditions. It relies on capillary forces for sample delivery of microliter volumes through capillaries, hence avoiding the need for pumps or valves. In the assembled cassette, the wax architecture supporting the capillaries melts during the PCR and acts as a vapor barrier as well as segregating capillaries with different primer sets. No other chip sealing techniques are required. Cassette PCR accepts raw samples such as urine, genital swabs, and blood. The cassette is made with off-the-shelf components and contains integrated positive and negative controls.

  19. Antenna Miniaturization Using Koch Snowflake Fractal Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minal, Dhama, Nitin

    2010-11-01

    The Wireless Industry is witnessing an volatile emergence today in present era. Also requires the performance over several frequency bands or are reconfigurable as the demands on the system changes. This Paper Presents Rectangular, Koch Fractal Patch Antennas on Single and Multilayer Substrate With and Without Air-Gap using Advanced Design System Simulator (ADS). Fractal Antenna provides Miniaturization over conventional microstrip Antennas. The Antennas Have Been Designed on FR4 substrate with ∈ = 4.2, h = 1.53 and the initial Dimension of the simple Rectangular Patch is 36.08 * 29.6 mm. The experimental Resonant Frequencies of the Fractal Patch with 1st, 2nd & 3rd are observed 2.22, 2.14 & 2.02 GHz Respectively in comparison to Rectangular Patch with 2.43 GHz. The reduced Impedance bandwidth of the Fractal Patch has been improved by designing the patch over multilayer substrate with varying Air-gap between two Substrate. As we increase the air- gap between the two substrate layer further enhancement in impedance bandwidth of Fractal antenna has been Obtained. The Radiation pattern of Koch Fractal antenna is as similar to rectangular patch antenna but with better H-plane Cross Polarization for fractal patch. The all simulated Results are in close Agreement with experimental Results.

  20. Miniaturized Technologies for Enhancement of Motor Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Moorjani, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the damaged brain can functionally reorganize itself – so when one part fails, there lies the possibility for another to substitute – is an exciting discovery of the twentieth century. We now know that motor circuits once presumed to be hardwired are not, and motor-skill learning, exercise, and even mental rehearsal of motor tasks can turn genes on or off to shape brain architecture, function, and, consequently, behavior. This is a very significant alteration from our previously static view of the brain and has profound implications for the rescue of function after a motor injury. Presentation of the right cues, applied in relevant spatiotemporal geometries, is required to awaken the dormant plastic forces essential for repair. The focus of this review is to highlight some of the recent progress in neural interfaces designed to harness motor plasticity, and the role of miniaturization in development of strategies that engage diverse elements of the neuronal machinery to synergistically facilitate recovery of function after motor damage. PMID:27148525

  1. Computational investigation of miniature trailing edge effectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae

    Miniature trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are small flaps (typically 1% to 5% chord) actuated with deflection angles of up to 90 degrees. The small size, combined with little required power and good control authority, enables the device to be used for high bandwidth control as well as conventional attitude control. However, some of the aerodynamic characteristics of these devices are complex and poorly understood. This research investigated the aerodynamics of MiTEs using incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solvers, INS2D and INS3D. To understand the flow structure and establish a parametric database, two dimensional steady-state computations were performed for MiTEs with various geometries and flow conditions. Time accurate computations were used to resolve the unsteady characteristics including transient response and vortex shedding phenomena. The frequency response was studied to fully identify the dynamics of MiTEs. Three dimensional computations show the change in control effectiveness with respect to the spanwise length of MiTEs as well as the spanwise lift distribution induced by these devices. Based on the CFD results, an approximate vortex panel model was developed for design purposes that reproduces the key characteristics of MiTEs. Two application areas for MiTEs were explored. Flutter suppression was demonstrated by combining a finite element structural model with the vortex panel model. The application of MiTEs to augment maximum lift and improve the post stall behavior of an airfoil was also investigated.

  2. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    PubMed

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  3. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-11-25

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m.

  4. A new miniaturized atomic magnetic gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Dong; Perry, Abigail; Krzyzewski, Sean; Geller, Shawn; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2016-05-01

    We report the development of a new miniaturized magnetic gradiometer using alkali atoms. The gradiometer, with the length of 5 cm and cross section diameter of 11 mm, is made of two chip-scale atomic magnetometers placed on a printed optical bench with a defined separation. Both magnetometers work in the spin-exchange relaxation free regime, share the same beam for pumping and probing to reduce the common mode noises from the lasers, and atom temperature is independently controlled by heating beams at telecom wavelength. With 2 cm baseline, 1 mW pumping beam power, and less than 400 mW input heating beam power, we measure a noise level of 15 fT/ Hz1/2 from the subtraction of two magnetometer outputs, which corresponds to a gradient field sensitivity of 7.5 fT/ Hz1/2/cm. The maximum common mode magnetic field noise rejection is up to 1000 within the gradiometer bandwidth. This device is useful in many fields that require both sensitive gradient field information and high common mode noise cancellation. We are also developing a new hybrid system based on this device to improve its dynamical range.

  5. Recent Advances in Miniaturized Optical Gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Olio, F.; Tatoli, T.; Ciminelli, C.; Armenise, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    Low-cost chip-scale optoelectronic gyroscopes having a resolution ≤ 10 °/h and a good reliability also in harsh environments could have a strong impact on the medium/high performance gyro market, which is currently dominated by well-established bulk optical angular velocity sensors. The R&D activity aiming at the demonstration of those miniaturized sensors is crucial for aerospace/defense industry, and thus it is attracting an increasing research effort and notably funds. In this paper the recent technological advances on the compact optoelectronic gyroscopes with low weight and high energy saving are reviewed. Attention is paid to both the so-called gyroscope-on-a-chip, which is a novel sensor, at the infantile stage, whose optical components are monolithically integrated on a single indium phosphide chip, and to a new ultra-high Q ring resonator for gyro applications with a configuration including a 1D photonic crystal in the resonant path. The emerging field of the gyros based on passive ring cavities, which have already shown performance comparable with that of optical fiber gyros, is also discussed.

  6. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.

    1997-11-18

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

  7. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

  8. Miniature Videoprobe Hockey Stick Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Lester R.; McMurry, Kyle M.

    1998-06-18

    The present invention is a miniature videoprobe system having a probe termination box, a strong back, and a videoprobe housing. The videoprobe system is able to obtain images from a restricted space at least as small as 0.125 inches while producing a high quality image. The strong back has a hockey stick shape with the probe termination box connecting to the top of the handle-like portion of the hockey stick and the videoprobe housing attaching to the opposite end or nose of the hockey stick shape. The videoprobe housing has a roughly arrowhead shape with two thin steel plates sandwiching the internal components there between. The internal components are connected in series to allow for a minor dimension of the videoprobe housing of 0.110 inches. The internal components include an optics train, a CCD chip, and an electronics package. An electrical signal is transmitted from the electronics package through wiring within an internal channel of the strong back to the probe termination box. The strong back has milled into it multiple internal channels for facilitating the transfer of information, items, or devices between the probe termination box and the videoprobe housing.

  9. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  10. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  11. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  12. Development of a miniaturized deformable mirror controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Lynch, Dana; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Belikov, Ruslan; Klamm, Benjamin; Hyde, Elizabeth; Mumm, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    High-Performance Adaptive Optics systems are rapidly spreading as useful applications in the fields of astronomy, ophthalmology, and telecommunications. This technology is critical to enable coronagraphic direct imaging of exoplanets utilized in ground-based telescopes and future space missions such as WFIRST, EXO-C, HabEx, and LUVOIR. We have developed a miniaturized Deformable Mirror controller to enable active optics on small space imaging mission. The system is based on the Boston Micromachines Corporation Kilo-DM, which is one of the most widespread DMs on the market. The system has three main components: The Deformable Mirror, the Driving Electronics, and the Mechanical and Heat management. The system is designed to be extremely compact and have lowpower consumption to enable its use not only on exoplanet missions, but also in a wide-range of applications that require precision optical systems, such as direct line-of-sight laser communications, and guidance systems. The controller is capable of handling 1,024 actuators with 220V maximum dynamic range, 16bit resolution, and 14bit accuracy, and operating at up to 1kHz frequency. The system fits in a 10x10x5cm volume, weighs less than 0.5kg, and consumes less than 8W. We have developed a turnkey solution reducing the risk for currently planned as well as future missions, lowering their cost by significantly reducing volume, weight and power consumption of the wavefront control hardware.

  13. The allometry of brain miniaturization in ants.

    PubMed

    Seid, Marc A; Castillo, Armando; Wcislo, William T

    2011-01-01

    Extensive studies of vertebrates have shown that brain size scales to body size following power law functions. Most animals are substantially smaller than vertebrates, and extremely small animals face significant challenges relating to nervous system design and function, yet little is known about their brain allometry. Within a well-defined monophyletic taxon, Formicidae (ants), we analyzed how brain size scales to body size. An analysis of brain allometry for individuals of a highly polymorphic leaf-cutter ant, Atta colombica, shows that allometric coefficients differ significantly for small (<1.4 mg body mass) versus large individuals (b = 0.6003 and 0.2919, respectively). Interspecifically, allometric patterns differ for small (<0.9 mg body mass) versus large species (n = 70 species). Using mean values for species, the allometric coefficient for smaller species (b = 0.7961) is significantly greater than that for larger ones (b = 0.669). The smallest ants had brains that constitute ∼15% of their body mass, yet their brains were relatively smaller than predicted by an overall allometric coefficient of brain to body size. Our comparative and intraspecific studies show the extent to which nervous systems can be miniaturized in taxa exhibiting behavior that is apparently comparable to that of larger species or individuals.

  14. Miniature Microwave Frequency Standard with Trapped 171Yb+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, Peter; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Casias, Adrian; Serkland, Darwin; Manginell, Ronald; Moorman, Matthew; Prestage, John; Yu, Nan; Kellogg, James; Boschen, Dan; Kosvin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    We report the development of a low-power, miniature 171Yb trapped ion clock at Sandia National Laboratories. The ultimate goal of this development effort is to construct a frequency standard that has a frequency stability comparable to a commercial Cs beam standard, but with 100 to 1000 times smaller size and power consumption. The 171Yb ion has a ground state hyperfine splitting of 12.6 GHz that we use as the ``clock'' transition, and the linewidth of the clock resonance is expected to be less than 10-3 Hz, which leads to a very high-Q clock resonance. An atomic clock using trapped ions is an excellent candidate for miniaturization because ions are well isolated from the environment independent of the size of the trap. We have successfully developed miniature ion-trap vacuum packages with sizes ranging from 1 to 10 cubic centimeters. A few microTorr of He buffer gas is introduced into each of our miniature vacuum packages for collisional cooling of the trapped ions. The vacuum packages are sealed and passively pumped by non-evaporable getters. Using a sealed 3 cm3 ion-trap vacuum package in combination with miniaturized lasers, optics, and electronics, we constructed a miniature clock prototype that demonstrated excellent long-term stability reaching the 10-14 range after a few days of integration.

  15. Design, fabrication and delivery of a miniature Cassegrainian concentrator solar array system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruer, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    The optical design of the miniature Cassegrainian concentrator (MCC) element was improved for both offpoint and onpoint power capability. The cell stack design has shown no losses under the high short term thermal stresses imposed by component level test and is projected to be capable of greater than five years thermal cycle life in low Earth orbit. The structural design met all requirements for stiffness and flatness and requires adjustable inserts for fine tuning of the GFRP structure to meet flatness goals. The completed, fully populated small and large MCC panels deliverable under this contract perform electrically as expected. A solid acceptance inspection program to guarantee quality of all purchased parts, and continued manufacturing process improvements will make the MCC design a viable low cost alternative to standard flat panel technology. Minor improvements to the cell stack design of the MCC element can make significant improvements in both the performance and manufacturability of the MCC system.

  16. Design, fabrication and delivery of a miniature Cassegrainian concentrator solar array system. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    The optical design of the miniature Cassegrainian concentrator (MCC) element was improved for both offpoint and onpoint power capability. The cell stack design has shown no losses under the high short term thermal stresses imposed by component level test and is projected to be capable of greater than five years thermal cycle life in low Earth orbit. The structural design met all requirements for stiffness and flatness and requires adjustable inserts for fine tuning of the GFRP structure to meet flatness goals. The completed, fully populated small and large MCC panels deliverable under this contract perform electrically as expected. A solid acceptance inspection program to guarantee quality of all purchased parts, and continued manufacturing process improvements will make the MCC design a viable low cost alternative to standard flat panel technology. Minor improvements to the cell stack design of the MCC element can make significant improvements in both the performance and manufacturability of the MCC system.

  17. Miniature Low-Noise G-Band I-Q Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Pukala, David M.; Gaier, Todd C.; Tanner, Alan B.; O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Lai, Richard; Mei, Xiaobing

    2010-01-01

    Weather forecasting, hurricane tracking, and atmospheric science applications depend on humidity sounding of atmosphere. Current instruments provide these measurements from groundbased, airborne, and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites by measuring radiometric temperature on the flanks of the 183-GHz water vapor line. Miniature, low-noise receivers have been designed that will enable these measurements from a geostationary, thinned array sounder, which is based on hundreds of low-noise receivers that convert the 180-GHz signal directly to baseband in-phase and in-quadrature signals for digitization and correlation. The developed receivers provide a noise temperature of 450 K from 165 to 183 GHz (NF = 4.1 dB), and have a mass of 3 g while consuming 24 mW of power. These are the most sensitive broadband I-Q receivers at this frequency range that operate at room temperature, and are significantly lower in mass and power consumption than previously reported receivers.

  18. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kilogram mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is more suitable for COTS based moment exchange actuators; a mode that uses the torque amplification of CMGs for rapid retargeting and direct torque capabilities of the flywheel motors for precision pointing. A simulation is provided to demonstrate on-orbit slew and pointing performance.

  19. A miniature microcontroller curve tracing circuit for space flight testing transistors.

    PubMed

    Prokop, N; Greer, L; Krasowski, M; Flatico, J; Spina, D

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a novel miniature microcontroller based curve tracing circuit, which was designed to monitor the environmental effects on Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SiC JFET) device performance, while exposed to the low earth orbit environment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as a resident experiment on the 7th Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE7). Specifically, the microcontroller circuit was designed to operate autonomously and was flown on the external structure of the ISS for over a year. This curve tracing circuit is capable of measuring current vs. voltage (I-V) characteristics of transistors and diodes. The circuit is current limited for low current devices and is specifically designed to test high temperature, high drain-to-source resistance SiC JFETs. The results of each I-V data set are transmitted serially to an external telemetered communication interface. This paper discusses the circuit architecture, its design, and presents example results.

  20. Periodic orbits, manifolds and heteroclinic connections in the gravity field of a rotating homogeneous dumbbell-shaped body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangyu; Gao, Ai; Qiao, Dong

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies local and global motion in the vicinity of a rotating homogeneous dumbbell-shaped body through the polyhedron model. First, a geometric model of dumbbell-shaped bodies is established. The equilibria points and stabilities thereof are analyzed under different parameters. Then, local motion around equilibrium points is investigated. Based on the continuation method and bifurcation theory, several families of periodic orbits are found around these equilibria. Finally, to better understand the global orbital dynamics of particles around a dumbbell-shaped body, the invariant manifolds associated with periodic orbits are discussed. Four heteroclinic connections are found between equilibria. Using Poincaré sections, trajectories are designed for transfers between different periodic orbits. Those trajectories allow for low-energy global transfer around a dumbbell-shaped body and can be references for designing reconnaissance orbits in future asteroid-exploration missions.