Science.gov

Sample records for reconnected flux tubes

  1. Particle acceleration in three-dimensional reconnection of flux-tube disconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Z.; Hosseinpour, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    "Flux-tube disconnection" is a type of steady-state three-dimensional magnetic reconnection with O-point at the origin of the resistive diffusion region. Magnetic reconnection is accepted as a potential mechanism for particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares. By using the static magnetic and electric fields for flux-tube disconnection, features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona are investigated. We show that a proton injected close to origin of the diffusion region can be accelerated to a very high kinetic energy along the magnetic field lines. The efficient acceleration takes place at the radial point where the electric drift velocity has its maximum magnitude. However, a proton injected at radial distances far away from the origin is not accelerated efficiently and even may be trapped in the field lines. The final kinetic energy of the particle depends significantly on the amplitude of the electric field rather than the amplitude of magnetic field.

  2. Reconnecting Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; van Compernolle, Bart

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are due to helical currents and form a dense carpet of arches on the surface of the sun. Occasionally one tears loose as a coronal mass ejection and its rope structure is detected by satellites close to the earth. Current sheets can tear into filaments and these are nothing other than flux ropes. Ropes are not static, they exert mutual JxB forces causing them to twist about each other and merge. Kink instabilities cause them to violently smash into each other and reconnect at the point of contact. We report on experiments done in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA (L=17m,dia=60cm,0.3<=B0z<=2.5kG,n˜2x10^12cm-3)on three dimensional flux ropes. Two, three or more magnetic flux ropes are generated from initially adjacent pulsed current channels in a background magnetized plasma. The currents and magnetic fields form exotic shapes with no ignorable direction and no magnetic nulls. Volumetric space-time data show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL), a tool to understand 3D reconnection without null points. In our experiment the QSL is a narrow ribbon-like region(s) that twists between field lines. Within the QSL(s) field lines that start close to one another rapidly diverge as they pass through one or more reconnection regions. When the field lines are tracked they are observed to slip along the QSL when reconnection occurs. The Heating and other co-existing waves will be presented.

  3. Laboratory Experiment of Magnetic Reconnection between Merging Flux Tubes with Strong Guide FIeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomoto, M.; Kamio, S.; Kuwahata, A.; Ono, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection governs variety of energy release events in the universe, such as solar flares, geomagnetic substorms, and sawtooth crash in laboratory nuclear fusion experiments. Differently from the classical steady reconnection models, non-steady behavior of magnetic reconnection is often observed. In solar flares, intermittent enhancement of HXR emission is observed synchronously with multiple ejection of plammoids [1]. In laboratory reconnection experiments, the existence of the guide field, that is perpendicular to the reconnection field, makes significant changes on reconnection process. Generally the guide field will slow down the reconnection rate due to the increased magnetic pressure inside the current sheet. It also brings about asymmetric structure of the separatrices or effective particle acceleration in collisionless conditions. We have conducted laboratory experiments to study the behavior of the guide-field magnetic reconnection using plasma merging technique (push reconnection). Under substantial guide field even larger than the reconnection field, the reconnection generally exhibits non-steady feature which involves intermittent detachment of X-point and reconnection current center[2]. Transient enhancement of reconnection rate is observed simultaneously with the X-point motion[3]. We found two distinct phenomena associated with the guide-field non-steady reconnection. The one is the temporal and localized He II emission from X-point region, suggesting the production of energetic electrons which could excite the He ions in the vicinity of the X-point. The other is the excitation of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves which have similar properties with kinetic Alfven waves, whose amplitude show positive correlation with the enhancement of the reconnection electric field[4]. Electron beam instability caused by the energetic electrons accelerated to more than twice of the electron thermal velocity could be a potential driver of the

  4. Eruption of a Multiple-Turn Helical Magnetic Flux Tube in a Large Flare: Evidence for External and Internal Reconnection that Fits the Breakout Model of Solar Magnetic Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Moore, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    We present observations and an interpretation of a unique multiple-turn spiral flux tube eruption from active region 10030 on 2002 July 15. The TRACE C IV observations clearly show a flux tube that is helical and erupting from within a sheared magnetic field. These observations are interpreted in the context of the breakout model for magnetic field explosions. The initiation of the helix eruption. as determined by a linear backward extrapolation, starts 25 s after the peak of the flare's strongest impulsive spike of microwave gyrosynchrotron radiation early in the flare s explosive phase, implying that the sheared core field is not the site of the initial reconnection. Within the quadrupolar configuration of the active region, the external and internal reconnection sites are identified in each of two consecutive eruptive flares that produce a double coronal mass ejection (CME). The first external breakout reconnection apparently releases an underlying sheared core field and allows it to erupt, leading to internal reconnection in the wake of the erupting helix. This internal reconnection releases the helix and heats the two-ribbon flare. These events lead to the first CME and are followed by a second breakout that initiates a second and larger halo CME. The strong magnetic shear in the region is compatible with the observed rapid proper motion and evolution of the active region. The multiple-turn helix originates from above a sheared-field magnetic inversion line within a filament channel. and starts to erupt only after fast breakout reconnection has started. These observations are counter to the standard flare model and support the breakout model for eruptive flare initiation.

  5. Slip Running Reconnection in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W. N.; Van Compernolle, B.; Vincena, S. T.; De Hass, T.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are due to helical currents and form a dense carpet of arches on the surface of the sun. Occasionally one tears loose as a coronal mass ejection and its rope structure can be detected by satellites close to the earth. Current sheets can tear into filaments and these are nothing other than flux ropes. Ropes are not static, they exert mutual ěc{J}×ěc{B} forces causing them to twist about each other and eventually merge. Kink instabilities cause them to violently smash into each other and reconnect at the point of contact. We report on experiments on two adjacent ropes done in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA ( ne ˜ 1012, Te ˜ 6 eV, B0z=330G, Brope}\\cong{10G,trep=1 Hz). The currents and magnetic fields form exotic shapes with no ignorable direction and no magnetic nulls. Volumetric space-time data (70,600 spatial locations) show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL), a tool to understand and visualize 3D magnetic field lines reconnection without null points is introduced. Three-dimensional measurements of the QSL derived from magnetic field data are presented. Within the QSL field lines that start close to one another rapidly diverge as they pass through one or more reconnection regions. The motion of magnetic field lines are traced as reconnection proceeds and they are observed to slip through the regions of space where the QSL is largest. As the interaction proceeds we double the current in the ropes. This accompanied by intense heating as observed in uv light and plasma flows measured by Mach probes. The interaction of the ropes is clearly seen by vislaulizng magnetic field data , as well as in images from a fast framing camera. Work supported by the Dept. of Energy and The National Science Foundation, done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility at UCLA.Magnetic Field lines (measured) of three flux ropes and the plasma currents associated with them

  6. Flux transfer events: Reconnection without separators. [magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Schindler, K.

    1989-01-01

    A topological analysis of a simple model magnetic field of a perturbation at the magnetopause modeling an apparent flux transfer event is presented. It is shown that a localized perturbation at the magnetopause can in principle open a closed magnetosphere by establishing magnetic connections across the magnetopause. Although the model field exhibits neutral points, these are not involved in the magnetic connection of the flux tubes. The topological substructure of a localized perturbation is analyzed in a simpler configuration. The presence of both signs of the magnetic field component normal to the magnetopause leads to a linkage of topologically different flux tubes, described as a flux knot, and a filamentary substructure of field lines of different topological types which becomes increasingly complicated for decreasing magnetic shear at the magnetopause.

  7. Plasma-depleted Flux Tubes in the Saturnian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.; Jia, Y. D.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Similar to Io's mass loading in the jovian magnetosphere, Saturn's moon, Enceladus, provides 100s of kilograms of water group neutrals and plasma to the planet's magnetosphere every second. The newly added plasma, being accelerated and convecting outward due to the centrifugal force, is then lost through magnetic reconnection in the tail. To conserve the total magnetic flux established by the internal dynamo, the 'empty' reconnected magnetic flux must return from the tail back to the inner magnetosphere. At both Jupiter and Saturn, flux tubes with enhanced field strength relative to their surroundings have been detected and are believed to be taking the role of returning the magnetic flux. However, at Saturn, flux tubes with depressed field strength are also reported. To reveal the relationship between the two kinds of flux tubes, we have systematically surveyed all the available 1-sec magnetic field data measured by Cassini and studied their statistical properties. The spatial distributions show that enhanced-field flux tubes are concentrated near the equator and closer to the planet while depressed-field flux tubes are distributed in a larger latitudinal region and can be detected at larger distances. In addition, we find that for both types of flux tubes, their occurrence rates vary with the local time in the same pattern and their magnetic flux is in the same magnitude. Therefore, the two types of flux tubes are just different manifestations of the same phenomenon: near the equator with high ambient plasma density, the flux tubes convecting in from the tail are compressed, resulting in increased field strength; off the equator, these flux tubes expand slightly, resulting in decreased field strength. Here we also present the lifecycle of the enhanced-field flux tubes: they gradually break into smaller ones when convecting inward and become indistinguishable from the background inside an L-value of about 4.

  8. Turbulence generated by flux tube instabilities in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörös, Zoltan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Sasunov, Jury; Semenov, Vladimir; Bruno, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic flux tubes represent basic structures on the Sun and in the solar wind. Flux tubes of solar origin can become magnetically twisted at photospheric, chromospheric or coronal levels and transported into interplanetary space. Twisted or untwisted flux tubes can also be generated by magnetic reconnection in the solar wind. We show here that flux tube instabilities, such as the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the kink instabilities, may significantly contribute to the local generation of turbulence, reconnection and dissipation in the solar wind. The associated "fresh" turbulence may change the field and plasma conditions supporting different local dissipation mechanisms at their characteristic wavenumbers. Recent analytical and numerical calculations show that twisted tubes embedded into twisted external magnetic fields are Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable even for sub-Alfvenic flows. Moving tubes with strong twists are unstable against the kink instability resulting in magnetic reconnection and dissipation. Vörös et al., ApJL, 797:L10, 2014. Zaqarashvili et al., A&A, 561, A62, 2014. Zaqarashvili et al., ApJL, 783:L19, 2014.

  9. Flux Rope Acceleration and Enhanced Magnetic Reconnection Rate

    SciTech Connect

    C.Z. Cheng; Y. Ren; G.S. Choe; Y.-J. Moon

    2003-03-25

    A physical mechanism of flares, in particular for the flare rise phase, has emerged from our 2-1/2-dimensional resistive MHD simulations. The dynamical evolution of current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection and flux-rope acceleration subject to continuous, slow increase of magnetic shear in the arcade are studied by employing a non-uniform anomalous resistivity in the reconnecting current sheet under gravity. The simulation results directly relate the flux rope's accelerated rising motion with an enhanced magnetic reconnection rate and thus an enhanced reconnection electric field in the current sheet during the flare rise phase. The simulation results provide good quantitative agreements with observations of the acceleration of flux rope, which manifests in the form of SXR ejecta or erupting filament or CMEs, in the low corona. Moreover, for the X-class flare events studied in this paper the peak reconnection electric field is about O(10{sup 2} V/m) or larger, enough to accelerate p articles to over 100 keV in a field-aligned distance of 10 km. Nonthermal electrons thus generated can produce hard X-rays, consistent with impulsive HXR emission observed during the flare rise phase.

  10. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, Paolo; Cosmai, Leonardo; Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU (3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm˜eq 1.6/√{σ } and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T c , the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube "evaporation" above T c has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  11. Fan-Spine Topology Formation Through Two-Step Reconnection Driven by Twisted Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, T.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Reeves, K. K.; Golub, L.

    2009-10-01

    We address the formation of three-dimensional nullpoint topologies in the solar corona by combining Hinode/X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of a small dynamic limb event, which occurred beside a non-erupting prominence cavity, with a three-dimensional (3D) zero-β magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. To this end, we model the boundary-driven "kinematic" emergence of a compact, intense, and uniformly twisted flux tube into a potential field arcade that overlies a weakly twisted coronal flux rope. The expansion of the emerging flux in the corona gives rise to the formation of a nullpoint at the interface of the emerging and the pre-existing fields. We unveil a two-step reconnection process at the nullpoint that eventually yields the formation of a broad 3D fan-spine configuration above the emerging bipole. The first reconnection involves emerging fields and a set of large-scale arcade field lines. It results in the launch of a torsional MHD wave that propagates along the arcades, and in the formation of a sheared loop system on one side of the emerging flux. The second reconnection occurs between these newly formed loops and remote arcade fields, and yields the formation of a second loop system on the opposite side of the emerging flux. The two loop systems collectively display an anenome pattern that is located below the fan surface. The flux that surrounds the inner spine field line of the nullpoint retains a fraction of the emerged twist, while the remaining twist is evacuated along the reconnected arcades. The nature and timing of the features which occur in the simulation do qualititatively reproduce those observed by XRT in the particular event studied in this paper. Moreover, the two-step reconnection process suggests a new consistent and generic model for the formation of anemone regions in the solar corona.

  12. FAN-SPINE TOPOLOGY FORMATION THROUGH TWO-STEP RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY TWISTED FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Toeroek, T.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Reeves, K. K.; Golub, L.

    2009-10-10

    We address the formation of three-dimensional nullpoint topologies in the solar corona by combining Hinode/X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of a small dynamic limb event, which occurred beside a non-erupting prominence cavity, with a three-dimensional (3D) zero-beta magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation. To this end, we model the boundary-driven 'kinematic' emergence of a compact, intense, and uniformly twisted flux tube into a potential field arcade that overlies a weakly twisted coronal flux rope. The expansion of the emerging flux in the corona gives rise to the formation of a nullpoint at the interface of the emerging and the pre-existing fields. We unveil a two-step reconnection process at the nullpoint that eventually yields the formation of a broad 3D fan-spine configuration above the emerging bipole. The first reconnection involves emerging fields and a set of large-scale arcade field lines. It results in the launch of a torsional MHD wave that propagates along the arcades, and in the formation of a sheared loop system on one side of the emerging flux. The second reconnection occurs between these newly formed loops and remote arcade fields, and yields the formation of a second loop system on the opposite side of the emerging flux. The two loop systems collectively display an anenome pattern that is located below the fan surface. The flux that surrounds the inner spine field line of the nullpoint retains a fraction of the emerged twist, while the remaining twist is evacuated along the reconnected arcades. The nature and timing of the features which occur in the simulation do qualititatively reproduce those observed by XRT in the particular event studied in this paper. Moreover, the two-step reconnection process suggests a new consistent and generic model for the formation of anemone regions in the solar corona.

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION INVOLVING MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Gekelman, W.; Van Compernolle, B.; Lawrence, E.

    2012-07-10

    Two and three magnetic flux ropes are created and studied in a well-diagnosed laboratory experiment. The twisted helical bundles of field lines rotate and collide with each other over time. In the two rope case, reverse current layers indicative of reconnection are observed. Using a high spatial and temporal resolution three-dimensional volume data set in both cases, quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) are identified in the magnetic field. Originally developed in the context of solar magnetic reconnection, QSLs are thought to be preferred sites for reconnection. This is verified in these studies. In the case of three flux ropes there are multiple QSLs, which come and go in time. The divergence of the field lines within the QSLs and the field line motion is presented. In all cases, it is observed that the reconnection is patchy in space and bursty in time. Although it occurs at localized positions it is the result of the nonlocal behavior of the flux ropes.

  14. A magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the formation of magnetic flux tubes at the earth's dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogino, Tatsuki; Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1989-01-01

    Dayside magnetic reconnection was studied by using a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. Two different mechanisms were found for the formation of magnetic flux tubes at the dayside magnetopause, which depend on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dayside magnetic flux tubes occur only when the IMF has a southward component. A strongly twisted and localized magnetic flux tube similar to magnetic flux ropes appears at the subsolar magnetopause when the IMF has a large B(y) component. When the B(y) component is small, twin flux tubes appear at the dayside magnetopause. Both types of magnetic flux tube are consistent with several observational features of flux transfer events and are generated by antiparallel magnetic reconnection.

  15. The magnetic topology of the plasmoid flux rope in a MHD-simulation of magnetotail reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of a 3D MHD simulation, the magnetic topology of a plasmoid that forms by a localized reconnection process in a magnetotail configuration (including a net dawn-dusk magnetic field component B sub y N is discussed. As a consequence of B sub y N not equalling 0, the plasmoid assumes a helical flux rope structure rather than an isolated island or bubble structure. Initially all field lines of the plasmoid flux rope remain connected with the earth, while at later times a gradually increasing amount of flux tubes becomes separated, connecting to either the distant boundary or to the flank boundaries. In this stage, topologically different flux tubes become tangled and wrapped around each other, consistent with predictions on the basis of an ad hoc plasmoid model.

  16. Magnetotail Reconnection and Flux Circulation: Jupiter and Saturn Compared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, C. M.; Vogt, M. F.; Slavin, J. A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Boardsen, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Jovian magnetosphere has been visited by eight spacecraft, and the magnetometer data have been used to identify dozens of plasmoids and 250 field dipolarizations associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail [e.g. Vogt et al., 2010]. Since the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn in 2004, the magnetometer instrument has also been used to identify reconnection signatures. The deepest magnetotail orbits were in 2006, and during this time 34 signatures of plasmoids were identified. In this study we compare the statistical properties of plasmoids at Jupiter and Saturn such as duration, size, location, and recurrence period. Such parameters can be influenced by many factors, including the different Dungey cycle timescales and cross-magnetospheric potential drops at the two planets. We present superposed epoch analyses of plasmoids at the two planets to determine their average properties and to infer their role in the reconfiguration of the nightside of the magnetosphere. We examine the contributions of plasmoids to the magnetic flux transfer cycle at both planets. At Jupiter, there is evidence of an extended interval after reconnection where the field remains northward (analogous to the terrestrial post-plasmoid plasma sheet). At Saturn we see a similar feature, and calculate the amount of flux closed on average in reconnection events, leading us to an estimation of the recurrence rate of plasmoid release.

  17. The structure of photospheric flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Basic physical mechanisms for producing the observed intense magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere are reviewed. The mechanism of flux expulsion by convective cells can concentrate magnetic flux up to the equipartition field strength, which is only about 200 G at the solar surface for the observed granular convection. Other mechanisms that partially evacuate the flux tube are needed to produce further concentration of magnetic flux to the observed values of 1000-1500 G. Two such mechanisms are discussed: concentration by convective collapse of a vertical flux tube in the superadiabatic layer just below the solar surface, and concentration by a siphon flow in an arched, isolated flux tube.

  18. THERMAL SIGNATURES OF TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTIONS IN PRE-ERUPTION CORONAL FLUX ROPES: HOT CENTRAL VOIDS IN CORONAL CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.

    2012-10-10

    Using a three-dimensional MHD simulation, we model the quasi-static evolution and the onset of eruption of a coronal flux rope. The simulation begins with a twisted flux rope emerging at the lower boundary and pushing into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. At a chosen time the emergence is stopped with the lower boundary taken to be rigid. Then the coronal flux rope settles into a quasi-static rise phase during which an underlying, central sigmoid-shaped current layer forms along the so-called hyperbolic flux tube (HFT), a generalization of the X-line configuration. Reconnections in the dissipating current layer effectively add twisted flux to the flux rope and thus allow it to rise quasi-statically, even though the magnetic energy is decreasing as the system relaxes. We examine the thermal features produced by the current layer formation and the associated 'tether-cutting' reconnections as a result of heating and field aligned thermal conduction. It is found that a central hot, low-density channel containing reconnected, twisted flux threading under the flux rope axis forms on top of the central current layer. When viewed in the line of sight roughly aligned with the hot channel (which is roughly along the neutral line), the central current layer appears as a high-density vertical column with upward extensions as a {sup U-}shaped dense shell enclosing a central hot, low-density void. Such thermal features have been observed within coronal prominence cavities. Our MHD simulation suggests that they are the signatures of the development of the HFT topology and the associated tether-cutting reconnections, and that the central void grows and rises with the reconnections, until the flux rope reaches the critical height for the onset of the torus instability and dynamic eruption ensues.

  19. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper considers steady siphon flows in isolated thin magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas, with plasma beta greater than or equal to 1, appropriate for conditions in the solar photosphere. The cross-sectional area of the flux tube varies along the tube in response to pressure changes induced by the siphon flow. Consideration is also given to steady isothermal siphon flows in arched magnetic flux tubes in a stratified atmosphere. Applications of the results to intense magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere and to the photospheric Evershed flow in a sunspot penumbra are addressed.

  20. Frozen flux violation, electron demagnetization and magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2015-10-01

    We argue that the analogue in collisionless plasma of the collisional diffusion region of magnetic reconnection is properly defined in terms of the demagnetization of the plasma electrons that enable "frozen flux" slippage to occur. This condition differs from the violation of the "frozen-in" condition, which only implies that two fluid effects are involved, rather than the necessary slippage of magnetic flux as viewed in the electron frame. Using 2D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, this approach properly finds the saddle point region of the flux function. Our demagnetization conditions are the dimensionless guiding center approximation expansion parameters for electrons which we show are observable and determined locally by the ratio of non-ideal electric to magnetic field strengths. Proxies for frozen flux slippage are developed that (a) are measurable on a single spacecraft, (b) are dimensionless with theoretically justified threshold values of significance, and (c) are shown in 2D simulations to recover distinctions theoretically possible with the (unmeasurable) flux function. A new potentially observable dimensionless frozen flux rate, ΛΦ, differentiates significant from anecdotal frozen flux slippage. A single spacecraft observable, ϒ, is shown with PIC simulations to be essentially proportional to the unobservable local Maxwell frozen flux rate. This relationship theoretically establishes electron demagnetization in 3D as the general cause of frozen flux slippage. In simple 2D cases with an isolated central diffusion region surrounded by separatrices, these diagnostics uniquely identify the traditional diffusion region (without confusing it with the two fluid "ion-diffusion" region) and clarify the role of the separatrices where frozen flux violations do occur but are not substantial. In the more complicated guide and asymmetric 2D cases, substantial flux slippage regions extend out along, but inside of, the preferred separatrices, demonstrating that

  1. Frozen flux violation, electron demagnetization and magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Daughton, W.

    2015-10-15

    We argue that the analogue in collisionless plasma of the collisional diffusion region of magnetic reconnection is properly defined in terms of the demagnetization of the plasma electrons that enable “frozen flux” slippage to occur. This condition differs from the violation of the “frozen-in” condition, which only implies that two fluid effects are involved, rather than the necessary slippage of magnetic flux as viewed in the electron frame. Using 2D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, this approach properly finds the saddle point region of the flux function. Our demagnetization conditions are the dimensionless guiding center approximation expansion parameters for electrons which we show are observable and determined locally by the ratio of non-ideal electric to magnetic field strengths. Proxies for frozen flux slippage are developed that (a) are measurable on a single spacecraft, (b) are dimensionless with theoretically justified threshold values of significance, and (c) are shown in 2D simulations to recover distinctions theoretically possible with the (unmeasurable) flux function. A new potentially observable dimensionless frozen flux rate, Λ{sub Φ}, differentiates significant from anecdotal frozen flux slippage. A single spacecraft observable, ϒ, is shown with PIC simulations to be essentially proportional to the unobservable local Maxwell frozen flux rate. This relationship theoretically establishes electron demagnetization in 3D as the general cause of frozen flux slippage. In simple 2D cases with an isolated central diffusion region surrounded by separatrices, these diagnostics uniquely identify the traditional diffusion region (without confusing it with the two fluid “ion-diffusion” region) and clarify the role of the separatrices where frozen flux violations do occur but are not substantial. In the more complicated guide and asymmetric 2D cases, substantial flux slippage regions extend out along, but inside of, the preferred separatrices

  2. Decay of mesoscale flux transfer events during quasi-continuous spatially extended reconnection at the magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, H.; Kitamura, N.; Saito, Y.; Nagai, T.; Shinohara, I.; Yokota, S.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Kreisler, S.; Paterson, W. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Coffey, V.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T. E.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Le, G.; Oka, M.; Phan, T. D.; Lavraud, B.; Zenitani, S.; Hesse, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations on 2 October 2015 when the Geotail spacecraft, near the Earth's equatorial plane, and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, at midsouthern latitudes, simultaneously encountered southward jets from dayside magnetopause reconnection under southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. The observations show that the equatorial reconnection site under modest solar wind Alfvén Mach number conditions remained active almost continuously for hours and, at the same time, extended over a wide range of local times (≥4 h). The reconnection jets expanded toward the magnetosphere with distance from the reconnection site. Geotail, closer to the reconnection site, occasionally encountered large-amplitude mesoscale flux transfer events (FTEs) with durations about or less than 1 min. However, MMS subsequently detected no or only smaller-amplitude corresponding FTE signatures. It is suggested that during quasi-continuous spatially extended reconnection, mesoscale FTEs decay as the jet spatially evolves over distances between the two spacecraft of ≥350 ion inertial lengths.

  3. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; Carroll, Evan; Kamikawa, Yu; Lavine, Eric; Vereen, Keon; You, Setthivoine

    2013-10-01

    Canonical flux tubes are defined by tracing areas of constant magnetic and fluid vorticity flux. This poster will present the theory for canonical flux tubes and current progress in the construction of an experiment designed to observe their evolution. In the zero flow limit, canonical flux tubes are magnetic flux tubes, but in full form, present the distinct advantage of reconciling two-fluid plasma dynamics with familiar concepts of helicity, twists and linkages. The experiment and the DCON code will be used to investigate a new MHD stability criterion for sausage and kink modes in screw pinches that has been generalized to magnetic flux tubes with skin and core currents. Camera images and a 3D array of ˙ B probes will measure tube aspect-ratio and ratio of current-to-magnetic flux, respectively, to trace these flux tube parameters in a stability space. The experiment's triple electrode planar gun is designed to generate azimuthal and axial flows. These diagnostics together with a 3D vector tomographic reconstruction of ion Doppler spectroscopy will be used to verify the theory of canonical helicity transport. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  4. Investigation of the viscous reconnection phenomenon of two vortex tubes through spectral simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsell, Guillaume; Dufresne, Louis; Dumas, Guy

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to shed further light on the viscous reconnection phenomenon. To this end, we propose a robust and efficient method in order to quantify the degree of reconnection of two vortex tubes. This method is used to compare the evolutions of two simple initial vortex configurations: orthogonal and antiparallel. For the antiparallel configuration, the proposed method is compared with alternative estimators and it is found to improve accuracy since it can account properly for the formation of looping structures inside the domain. This observation being new, the physical mechanism for the formation of those looping structures is discussed. For the orthogonal configuration, we report results from simulations that were performed at a much higher vortex Reynolds number (ReΓ ≡ circulation/viscosity = 104) and finer resolution (N3 = 10243) than previously presented in the literature. The incompressible Navier-stokes equations are solved directly (Direct Numerical Simulation or DNS) using a Fourier pseudospectral algorithm with triply periodic boundary conditions. The associated zero-circulation constraint is circumvented by solving the governing equations in a proper rotating frame of reference. Using ideas similar to those behind our method to compute the degree of reconnection, we split the vorticity field into its reconnected and non-reconnected parts, which allows to create insightful visualizations of the evolving vortex topology. It also allows to detect regions in the vorticity field that are neither reconnected nor non-reconnected and thus must be associated to internal looping structures. Finally, the Reynolds number dependence of the reconnection time scale Trec is investigated in the range 500 ≤ ReΓ ≤ 10 000. For both initial configurations, the scaling is generally found to vary continuously as ReΓ is increased from T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 to T rec ˜ R eΓ - 1 / 2 , thus providing quantitative support for previous claims that the reconnection

  5. Spatial distribution of Mercury's flux ropes and reconnection fronts: MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W. J.; Fu, S. Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Zong, Q. G.; Poh, G. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    We perform a statistical study of flux ropes and reconnection fronts based on MErcury Surface, Space ENviroment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field and plasma observations to study the implications for the spatial distribution of reconnection sites in Mercury's near magnetotail. The results show important differences of temporal and spatial distributions as compared to Earth. We have surveyed the plasma sheet crossings between -2 RM and -3 RM downtail from the planet, i.e., the location of Near-Mercury Neutral Line (NMNL). Plasma sheets were defined to be regions with β ≥ 0.5. Using this definition, 39 flux ropes and 86 reconnection fronts were identified in the plasma sheet. At Mercury, the distributions of flux ropes and reconnection fronts show clear dawn-dusk asymmetry with much higher occurrence rate on the dawnside plasma sheet than on the duskside. This suggests that magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetotail occurs more frequently in the dawnside than in the duskside plasma sheet, which is different than the observations in Earth's magnetotail showing more reconnection signatures in the duskside plasma sheet. The distribution of plasma sheet thickness shows that plasma sheet near the midnight is the thinnest part and does not show obvious asymmetry. Thus, the reasons that cause magnetic reconnection to preferentially occur on the dawnside of the magnetotail at Mercury may not be the plasma sheet thickness and require further study. The peak occurrence rates of flux ropes and reconnection fronts in Mercury's plasma sheet are ~ 60 times higher than that of Earth's values, which we interpret to be due to the highly variable magnetospheric conditions at Mercury. Such higher occurrence rate of magnetic reconnection would generate more plasma flows in the dawnside plasma sheet than in the duskside. These plasma flows would mostly brake and initiate the substorm dipolarization on the postmidnight sector at Mercury rather than the

  6. Effective string description of confining flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Bastian B.; Meineri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    We review the current knowledge about the theoretical foundations of the effective string theory for confining flux tubes and the comparison of the predictions to pure gauge lattice data. A concise presentation of the effective string theory is provided, incorporating recent developments. We summarize the predictions for the spectrum and the profile/width of the flux tube and their comparison to lattice data. The review closes with a short summary of open questions for future research.

  7. Dynamics of flux tubes in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, E. T.; Duncan, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The study of magnetized plasmas in astrophysics is complicated by a number of factors, not the least of which is that in considering magnetic fields in stars or accretion disks, we are considering plasmas with densities well above those we can study in the laboratory. In particular, whereas laboratory plasmas are dominated by the confining magnetic field pressure, stars, and probably accretion disks, have magnetic fields whose beta (ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field pressure) is much greater than 1. Observations of the Sun suggest that under such circumstances the magnetic field breaks apart into discrete flux tubes with a small filling factor. On the other hand, theoretical treatments of MHD turbulence in high-beta plasmas tend to assume that the field is more or less homogeneously distributed throughout the plasma. Here we consider a simple model for the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent medium. We discuss the mechanism by which small inhomogeneities evolve into discrete flux tubes and the size and distribution of such flux tubes. We then apply the model to accretion disks. We find that the fibrilation of the magnetic field does not enhance magnetic buoyancy. We also note that the evolution of an initially diffuse field in a turbulent medium, e.g., any uniform field in a shearing flow, will initially show exponential growth as the flux tubes form. This growth saturates when the flux tube formation is complete and cannot be used as the basis for a self-sustaining dynamo effect. Since the typical state of the magnetic field is a collection of intense flux tubes, this effect is of limited interest. However, it may be important early in the evolution of the galactic magnetic field, and it will play a large role in numerical simulations. Finally, we note that the formation of flux tubes is an essential ingredient in any successful dynamo model for stars or accretion disks.

  8. Ion-scale secondary island flux-ropes in magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection on the dayside magnetopause of the Earth's magnetosphere leads to the formation of flux transfer events (FTEs), whose primary signature is a bipolar variation in the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the magnetopause plane. Many FTEs exhibit a flux rope type structure, and several different formation mechanisms have been proposed, including: as a consequence of patchy reconnection; bursty reconnection at a single X-line; or multiple X-line reconnection. Here we present new observations from the four-spacecraft Magnetospheric MultiScale mission of FTE-type structure observed at the dayside magnetopause. These FTE structures last only a few seconds, and are embedded in a reconnection jet that is close to a reconnection X-line. They are identified as flux rope type islands produced by secondary reconnection processes. We examine the structure and properties of the flux ropes using multispacecraft techniques applied to the MMS data where the spacecraft were separated by only 10 km. Measurements of the ion and electron from the Fast Plasma Instrument are used to calculate the flux rope current density and this is compared with current densities calculated from the four-point magnetic field measurements. The velocity moments together with measurements of the electric and magnetic field are also used to examine the sub-structure of the flux rope and assess differences in the ion and electron behaviour inside the flux rope on ion-scales and below. This reveals flux-rope sub-structure in new detail which is compared with the output of particle-in-cell simulation.

  9. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    DOE PAGES

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-03-23

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form amore » narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. Furthermore, these results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.« less

  10. CURRENT BUILDUP IN EMERGING SERPENTINE FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Pariat, E.; Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.

    2009-08-20

    The increase of magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere during active-region formation involves the transport of the magnetic field from the solar convection zone through the lowest layers of the solar atmosphere, through which the plasma {beta} changes from >1 to <1 with altitude. The crossing of this magnetic transition zone requires the magnetic field to adopt a serpentine shape also known as the sea-serpent topology. In the frame of the resistive flux-emergence model, the rising of the magnetic flux is believed to be dynamically driven by a succession of magnetic reconnections which are commonly observed in emerging flux regions as Ellerman bombs. Using a data-driven, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation of flux emergence occurring in active region 10191 on 2002 November 16-17, we study the development of 3D electric current sheets. We show that these currents buildup along the 3D serpentine magnetic-field structure as a result of photospheric diverging horizontal line-tied motions that emulate the observed photospheric evolution. We observe that reconnection can not only develop following a pinching evolution of the serpentine field line, as usually assumed in two-dimensional geometry, but can also result from 3D shearing deformation of the magnetic structure. In addition, we report for the first time on the observation in the UV domain with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) of extremely transient loop-like features, appearing within the emerging flux domain, which link several Ellermam bombs with one another. We argue that these loop transients can be explained as a consequence of the currents that build up along the serpentine magnetic field.

  11. Sausage Instabilities on top of Kinking Lengthening Current-Carrying Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments involve fast topological change beyond MHD reconnection. Recent experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities coupling disparate plasma scales could be responsible for this fast topological change by accessing two-fluid and kinetic scales. This study will explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Current driven flux tubes evolve over a wide range of aspect ratios k and current to magnetic flux ratios λ . An analytical stability criterion and numerical investigations, based on applying Newcomb's variational approach to idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents, indicate a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k - λ trajectory of the flux tubes. A triple electrode planar plasma gun (Mochi.LabJet) is designed to generate flux tubes with discrete core and skin currents. Measurements from a fast-framing camera and a high resolution magnetic probe are being assembled into stability maps of the k - λ space of flux tubes. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  12. The propagation of torsion along flux tubes subject to dynamical nonequilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that the dynamical nonequilibrium of close-packed flux tubes is driven by the torsion in the individual tubes. Because of this, whenever tubes with the same sense of twisting come into contact, there is reconnection of their azimuthal field components. The reconnection consumes the local torsion, and this causes the propagation of torsional Alfven waves into the region from elsewhere along the tubes. The formal problem of the propagation of the torsion along twisted flux tubes is presented, along with some of the basic physical properties worked out in the limit of small torsion. It is noted that in tubes with finite twisting the propagation of torsional Alfven waves can be a more complicated phenomenon. Application to the sun suggests that the propagation of torsion from below the visible surface up into the corona is an important energy supply to the corona for a period of perhaps 10-20 hours after the emergence of the flux tubes through the surface of the sun, bringing up torsion from depths of 10,000 km or more. Torsion is of course continually furnished by the manipulation and shuffling of the field by the convection.

  13. Plans for a 3D reconnection experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plasma-filled, current-carrying magnetic flux tubes are the essence of tokamaks, RFP's, spheromaks, solar coronal loops, and astrophysical jets. Relevant behaviors/issues are magnetic helicity content and injection, motion of the tube axis (hoop force, kinking), plasma confinement (balance between hydrodynamic pressure and pinch force), axial jet flows (acceleration and stagnation), waves, particle orbits, reconnection, and open v. closed field lines. These behaviors/issues and their mutual interaction are being investigated via Alfven time-scale imaging and conventional diagnostics in highly reproducible experiments having the simplest relevant geometry. High-speed movies clearly show flux tube kinking, motion of the flux tube axis due to hoop force, axial jet flows, an unusual particle orbit associated with flows counter to the electrical current, and reconnection between adjacent co- or counter-helicity flux tubes. A new experiment now under construction will have two slightly offset plasma-filled, current carrying flux tubes locally reconnect in 3D to form a single long flux tube. The setup requires two floating power supplies to drive the pre-reconnection currents as post-reconnection the power supplies become series-connected. A means for overcoming the topologically unavoidable mutual repulsion between the pre-reconnection currents is also required. It is anticipated that Alfven waves will radiate from the 3D localized reconnection region.

  14. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. 3: The equilibrium path of the flux tube arch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.; Montesinis, Benjamin

    1989-01-01

    The arched equilibrium path of a thin magnetic flux tube in a plane-stratified, nonmagnetic atmosphere is calculated for cases in which the flux tube contains a steady siphon flow. The large scale mechanical equilibrium of the flux tube involves a balance among the magnetic buoyancy force, the net magnetic tension force due to the curvature of the flux tube axis, and the inertial (centrifugal) force due to the siphon flow along curved streamlines. The ends of the flux tube are assumed to be pinned down by some other external force. Both isothermal and adiabatic siphon flows are considered for flux tubes in an isothermal external atmosphere. For the isothermal case, in the absence of a siphon flow the equilibrium path reduces to the static arch calculated by Parker (1975, 1979). The presence of a siphon flow causes the flux tube arch to bend more sharply, so that magnetic tension can overcome the additional straightening effect of the inertial force, and reduces the maximum width of the arch. The curvature of the arch increases as the siphon flow speed increases. For a critical siphon flow, with supercritical flow in the downstream leg, the arch is asymmetric, with greater curvature in the downstream leg of the arch. Adiabatic flow have qualitatively similar effects, except that adiabatic cooling reduces the buoyancy of the flux tube and thus leads to significantly wider arches. In some cases the cooling is strong enough to create negative buoyancy along sections of the flux tube, requiring upward curvature of the flux tube path along these sections and sometimes leading to unusual equilibrium paths of periodic, sinusoidal form.

  15. Concerning the Motion and Orientation of Flux Transfer Events Produced by Component and Antiparallel Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Lin, R.-Q.

    2011-01-01

    We employ the Cooling et al. (2001) model to predict the location, orientation, motion, and signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs) generated at the solstices and equinoxes along extended subsolar component and high ]latitude antiparallel reconnection curves for typical solar wind plasma conditions and various interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strengths and directions. In general, events generated by the two mechanisms maintain the strikingly different orientations they begin with as they move toward the terminator in opposite pairs of magnetopause quadrants. The curves along which events generated by component reconnection form bow toward the winter cusp. Events generated by antiparallel reconnection form on the equatorial magnetopause during intervals of strongly southward IMF orientation during the equinoxes, form in the winter hemisphere and only reach the dayside equatorial magnetopause during the solstices when the IMF strength is very large and the IMF points strongly southward, never reach the equatorial dayside magnetopause when the IMF has a substantial dawnward or duskward component, and never reach the equatorial flank magnetopause during intervals of northward and dawnward or duskward IMF orientation. Magnetosheath magnetic fields typically have strong components transverse to events generated by component reconnection but only weak components transverse to the axes of events generated by antiparallel reconnection. As a result, much stronger bipolar magnetic field signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause should accompany events generated by component reconnection. The results presented in this paper suggest that events generated by component reconnection predominate on the dayside equatorial and flank magnetopause for most solar wind conditions.

  16. QCD flux tubes and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chi

    2013-07-01

    We apply the Callan-Harvey anomaly-inflow mechanism to the study of QCD (chromoelectric) flux tubes, quark (pair) creation, and the chiral magnetic effect, using new variables from the Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition of the gauge potential. A phenomenological description of chromoelectric flux tubes is obtained by studying a gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio effective Lagrangian, derived from the original QCD Lagrangian. At the quantum level, quark condensates in the QCD vacuum may form a vortexlike structure in a chromoelectric flux tube. Quark zero modes trapped in the vortex are chiral and lead to a two-dimensional gauge anomaly. To cancel it, an effective Chern-Simons coupling is needed and, hence, a topological charge density term naturally appears.

  17. On the Role of Repetitive Magnetic Reconnections in Evolution of Magnetic Flux Ropes in Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Joshi, Bhuwan; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    Parker's magnetostatic theorem, extended to astrophysical magnetofluids with large magnetic Reynolds number, supports ceaseless regeneration of current sheets and, hence, spontaneous magnetic reconnections recurring in time. Consequently, a scenario is possible where the repeated reconnections provide an autonomous mechanism governing emergence of coherent structures in astrophysical magnetofluids. In this work, such a scenario is explored by performing numerical computations commensurate with the magnetostatic theorem. In particular, the computations explore the evolution of a flux rope governed by repeated reconnections in a magnetic geometry resembling bipolar loops of solar corona. The revealed morphology of the evolution process—including onset and ascent of the rope, reconnection locations, and the associated topology of the magnetic field lines—agrees with observations, and thus substantiates physical realizability of the advocated mechanism.

  18. Flux Transfer Events Simultaneously Observed by Polar and Cluster: Flux Rope in the Subsolar Region and Flux Tube Addition to the Polar Cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Zheng, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Lin, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Parks, G.; Wilber, M.; Petrinec, S. M.; Lucek, E. A.; Reme, H.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon called flux transfer events (FTEs) is widely accepted as the manifestation of time-dependent reconnection. In this paper, we present observational evidence of a flux transfer event observed simultaneously at low-latitude by Polar and at high-latitude by Cluster. This event occurs on March 21, 2002, when both Cluster and Polar are located near local noon but with a large latitudinal separation. During the event, Cluster is moving outbound from the polar cusp to the magnetosheath, and Polar is in the magnetosheath near the equatorial magnetopause. The observations show that a flux transfer event occurs between the equator and the northern cusp. Polar and Cluster observe the FTE s two open flux tubes: Polar encounters the southward moving flux tube near the equator; and Cluster the northward moving flux tube at high latitude. The low latitude FTE appears to be a flux rope with helical magnetic field lines as it has a strong core field and the magnetic field component in the boundary normal direction exhibits a strong bi-polar variation. Unlike the low-latitude FTE, the high-latitude FTE observed by Cluster does not exhibit the characteristic bi-polar perturbation in the magnetic field. But the plasma data clearly reveal its open flux tube configuration. It shows that the magnetic field lines have straightened inside the FTE and become more aligned to the neighboring flux tubes as it moves to the cusp. Enhanced electrostatic fluctuations have been observed within the FTE core, both at low- and high-latitudes. This event provides a unique opportunity to understand high-latitude FTE signatures and the nature of time-varying reconnection.

  19. MMS observations of large guide field symmetric reconnection between colliding reconnection jets at the center of a magnetic flux rope at the magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Haggerty, C.; Shay, M. A.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gershman, D. J.; Drake, J. F.; Fujimoto, M.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.; Oka, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Wang, S.; Chen, L. J.; Swisdak, M.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Fuselier, S. A.; Lavraud, B.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Saito, Y.; Avanov, L. A.; Paterson, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Malakit, K.

    2016-06-01

    We report evidence for reconnection between colliding reconnection jets in a compressed current sheet at the center of a magnetic flux rope at Earth's magnetopause. The reconnection involved nearly symmetric inflow boundary conditions with a strong guide field of two. The thin (2.5 ion-skin depth (di) width) current sheet (at ~12 di downstream of the X line) was well resolved by MMS, which revealed large asymmetries in plasma and field structures in the exhaust. Ion perpendicular heating, electron parallel heating, and density compression occurred on one side of the exhaust, while ion parallel heating and density depression were shifted to the other side. The normal electric field and double out-of-plane (bifurcated) currents spanned almost the entire exhaust. These observations are in good agreement with a kinetic simulation for similar boundary conditions, demonstrating in new detail that the structure of large guide field symmetric reconnection is distinctly different from antiparallel reconnection.

  20. Conservation of writhe helicity under anti-parallel reconnection

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Christian E.; Ricca, Renzo L.; Sumners, De Witt L.

    2015-01-01

    Reconnection is a fundamental event in many areas of science, from the interaction of vortices in classical and quantum fluids, and magnetic flux tubes in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, to the recombination in polymer physics and DNA biology. By using fundamental results in topological fluid mechanics, the helicity of a flux tube can be calculated in terms of writhe and twist contributions. Here we show that the writhe is conserved under anti-parallel reconnection. Hence, for a pair of interacting flux tubes of equal flux, if the twist of the reconnected tube is the sum of the original twists of the interacting tubes, then helicity is conserved during reconnection. Thus, any deviation from helicity conservation is entirely due to the intrinsic twist inserted or deleted locally at the reconnection site. This result has important implications for helicity and energy considerations in various physical contexts. PMID:25820408

  1. Observational studies of reconnection in the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, David E.

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, observational studies of the corona have shifted focus. Where they were once purely qualitative morphological explorations seeking to support the presence of reconnection, more investigations are providing empirical estimates of the physical conditions in the reconnecting corona. These studies are enabled and enhanced by orbiting telescopes with high angular and temporal resolution. In this article, some recent findings about the empirical quantities are reviewed, including recent estimates of the flux transferred in individual patchy reconnection episodes, the size distribution of post-reconnection flux tubes, and the energy released by the flux tubes as they shrink.

  2. The flux tube paradigm and its role in MHD turbulence in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Osman, K.; Ruffolo, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Descriptions of magnetic field and plasma structures in terms of flux tubes, plasmoids and other bundles of magnetic field lines are familiar in the vocabulary of observational and theoretical space physics. "Spaghetti models" and flux ropes are well known examples. Flux tubes and families of field lines can also be defined in a medium that admits magnetic fluctuations, including strong MHD turbulence, but their behavior can become complicated. In 3D fluctuations the smooth flux tube description itself becomes in some sense unstable, as nearby field lines diverge and flux surfaces shred. This lends complexity to the structure of flux tubes, and can give rise to temporarily trapped field lines and charged test particle trajectories, with immediate implications for transport, e.g., of solar energetic particles. The properties of the turbulent magnetic field can also be strongly influenced by the dynamics of turbulence. Large scale self organizing behavior, or inverse cascade, can enhance very long wavelength structure, favoring Bohm scaling of diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile smaller scale flux tube structures are integral features of the inertial range of turbulence, giving rise to a cellularization of the plasma due to rapid dynamical relaxation processes. These drive the turbulent system locally towards low-acceleration states, including Alfvenic, Beltrami and force-free states. Cell boundaries are natural positions for formation of near discontinuous boundaries, where dynamical activity can be enhanced. A primary example is appearance of numerous discontinuities and active reconnection sites in turbulence, which appear to support a wide distribution of reconnection rates associated with coherent current structures. These discontinuities are also potential sites of enhanced heating, as expected in Kolmogorov's Refined Similarity Hypothesis. All of these features are related to self organization, cascade and intermittency of the turbulence. Examples of these

  3. NONLINEAR MULTISCALE SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Ragot, B. R.

    2011-10-20

    A new method for the full nonlinear computation of sets of turbulent field lines has recently been introduced that allows inclusion of the equivalent of more than four decades of turbulent scales with a fully three-dimensional distribution of wavevectors. The integration scheme is here detailed, which, through transformation of the set of differential equations into mappings, compounds the efficiency and accuracy of the method. The potential of the method is then demonstrated with multiscale simulations of magnetic flux tubes ranging over nearly four decades of length scales both along and across the background field. Magnetic flux tubes of various sizes are computed for a turbulence spectrum typical of the quiet slow solar wind near 1 AU. Implications of the simulation results for the transport of energetic particles, and in particular, for the interpretation of impulsive solar-energetic-particle and upstream ion-event observations are discussed.

  4. Magnetic reconnection in 3D magnetosphere models: magnetic separators and open flux production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple competing definitions of magnetic reconnection in 3D (e.g., Hesse and Schindler [1988], Lau and Finn [1990], and Boozer [2002]). In this work we focus on separator reconnection. A magnetic separator can be understood as the 3D analogue of a 2D x line with a guide field, and is defined by the line corresponding to the intersection of the separatrix surfaces associated with the magnetic nulls. A separator in the magnetosphere represents the intersection of four distinct magnetic topologies: solar wind, closed, open connected to the northern hemisphere, and open connected to the southern hemisphere. The integral of the parallel electric field along the separator defines the rate of open flux production, and is one measure of the reconnection rate. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the BATS-R-US code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to IMF clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity, for two clock angles. We also examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  5. Generation of flux tube waves in stellar convection zones. 1: Longitudinal tube waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Rosner, R.; Ulmschneider, P.

    1987-01-01

    The source functions and the energy fluxes are derived for wave generation in magnetic flux tubes embedded in an otherwise magnetic- field free, turbulent, and compressible fluid. Specific results for the generation of longitudinal tube waves are presented.

  6. Super-Alfvénic propagation of substorm reconnection signatures and Poynting flux.

    PubMed

    Shay, M A; Drake, J F; Eastwood, J P; Phan, T D

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of reconnection signatures and their associated energy are examined using kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and Cluster satellite observations. It is found that the quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field near the separatrices is associated with a kinetic Alfvén wave. For magnetotail parameters, the parallel propagation of this wave is super-Alfvénic (V(∥) ∼ 1500-5500 km/s) and generates substantial Poynting flux (S ∼ 10(-5)-10(-4) W/m(2)) consistent with Cluster observations of magnetic reconnection. This Poynting flux substantially exceeds that due to frozen-in ion bulk outflows and is sufficient to generate white light aurora in Earth's ionosphere. PMID:21902330

  7. On the holographic width of flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giataganas, Dimitrios; Irges, Nikos

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the width of the flux tube between heavy static quark charges. Using the gauge/gravity duality, we find the properties of the minimal connected surface related to the width of the bound state. We show that in the confining phase, the logarithmic broadening predicted by the effective string description and observed in lattice simulations is a generic property of all confining backgrounds. We also study the transverse fluctuations of the string connecting two static quarks in curved backgrounds. Our formalism is applied to AdS space where we compute the expectation value of the square of transverse deviations of the string, a quantity related to the width.

  8. Patchy reconnection in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, Silvina Esther

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection in plasmas, a process characterized by a change in connectivity of field lines that are broken and connected to other ones with different topology, owes its usefulness to its ability to unify a wide range of phenomena within a single universal principle. There are newly observed phenomena in the solar corona that cannot be reconciled with two-dimensional or steady-state standard models of magnetic reconnection. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) descending from reconnection regions toward solar post-flare arcades seem to be two different observational signatures of retracting, isolated reconnected flux tubes with irreducible three-dimensional geometries. This dissertation describes work in refining and improving a novel model of patchy reconnection, where only a small bundle of field lines is reconnected across a current sheet (magnetic discontinuity) and forms a reconnected thin flux tube. Traditional models have not been able to explain why some of the observed SADs appear to be hot and relatively devoid of plasma. The present work shows that plasma depletion naturally occurs in flux tubes that are reconnected across nonuniform current sheets and slide trough regions of decreasing magnetic field magnitude. Moreover, through a detailed theoretical analysis of generalized thin flux tube equations, we show that the addition to the model of pressure-driven parallel dynamics, as well as temperature-dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity is essential for self-consistently producing gas-dynamic shocks inside reconnected tubes that heat and compress plasma to observed temperatures and densities. The shock thickness can be as long as the entire tube and heat can be conducted along tube's legs, possibly driving chromospheric evaporation. We developed a computer program that solves numerically the thin flux tube equations that govern the retraction of reconnected tubes. Simulations carried out

  9. Method for limiting heat flux in double-wall tubes

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Jaw-Yeu

    1982-01-01

    A method of limiting the heat flux in a portion of double-wall tubes including heat treating the tubes so that the walls separate when subjected to high heat flux and supplying an inert gas mixture to the gap at the interface of the double-wall tubes.

  10. Kink Wave Propagation in Thin Isothermal Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopin, I. P.; Nagorny, I. G.; Nippolainen, E.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the propagation of kink waves in thin and isothermal expanding flux tubes in cylindrical geometry. By using the method of radial expansion for fluctuating variables we obtained a new kink wave equation. We show that including the radial component of the tube magnetic field leads to cutoff-free propagation of kink waves along thin flux tubes.

  11. The relation between reconnected flux, the parallel electric field, and the reconnection rate in a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, D. E.; Olson, D. K.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Adrian, M. L.; Aunai, N.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W.

    2013-12-15

    We investigate the distribution of parallel electric fields and their relationship to the location and rate of magnetic reconnection in a large particle-in-cell simulation of 3D turbulent magnetic reconnection with open boundary conditions. The simulation's guide field geometry inhibits the formation of simple topological features such as null points. Therefore, we derive the location of potential changes in magnetic connectivity by finding the field lines that experience a large relative change between their endpoints, i.e., the quasi-separatrix layer. We find a good correspondence between the locus of changes in magnetic connectivity or the quasi-separatrix layer and the map of large gradients in the integrated parallel electric field (or quasi-potential). Furthermore, we investigate the distribution of the parallel electric field along the reconnecting field lines. We find the reconnection rate is controlled by only the low-amplitude, zeroth and first–order trends in the parallel electric field while the contribution from fluctuations of the parallel electric field, such as electron holes, is negligible. The results impact the determination of reconnection sites and reconnection rates in models and in situ spacecraft observations of 3D turbulent reconnection. It is difficult through direct observation to isolate the loci of the reconnection parallel electric field amidst the large amplitude fluctuations. However, we demonstrate that a positive slope of the running sum of the parallel electric field along the field line as a function of field line length indicates where reconnection is occurring along the field line.

  12. Ion‐scale secondary flux ropes generated by magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS

    PubMed Central

    Phan, T. D.; Cassak, P. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Haggerty, C.; Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Mistry, R.; Øieroset, M.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Argall, M. R.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Chen, L. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Wang, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small‐scale (~7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 10 km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (~22 kWb). The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. Intercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non‐frozen‐in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle‐in‐cell simulation. It is concluded that these small‐scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection.

  13. Ion-scale secondary flux ropes generated by magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Cassak, P. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Haggerty, C.; Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Mistry, R.; Øieroset, M.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Argall, M. R.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Chen, L. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Wang, S.

    2016-05-01

    New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small-scale (~7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 10 km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (~22 kWb). The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. Intercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non-frozen-in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle-in-cell simulation. It is concluded that these small-scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection.

  14. Ion‐scale secondary flux ropes generated by magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS

    PubMed Central

    Phan, T. D.; Cassak, P. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Haggerty, C.; Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Mistry, R.; Øieroset, M.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Argall, M. R.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Chen, L. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Wang, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small‐scale (~7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 10 km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (~22 kWb). The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. Intercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non‐frozen‐in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle‐in‐cell simulation. It is concluded that these small‐scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection. PMID:27635105

  15. Flux Tube Oscillations and Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.; Karami, K.; Nasiri, S.

    2003-05-01

    Wave transmission in low beta magnetic flux tubes has, mathematically, the same structure as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in optical fibers. In both cases the problem is reducible to a single wave equation for the longitudinal component of the perturbed field along the fiber/tube axis. We derive this equation, solve the dispersion relation associated with it, and assign three wave numbers to each mode. In cylindrical coordinates (r, phi, z), for a given phi-wave number, the plane of the r- and z- wave numbers is divided into one ``mode zone" in which each grid point is a possible mode of the system and one ``forbidden zone" in which no mode may dwell. The cutoff line, the boundary of the two zones, is given both analytically and numerically. Next we introduce weak resistive and viscous dissipation to the system, solve for the decay time of each mode and for the densities of heat generation rates by each dissipative process. The two densities have identical spatial dependencies, but different magnitudes. The resistive heat rate is inversely proportional to the Lundquist number, S, and the viscous one to the Reynolds number, R. The time decay exponent is proportional to the sum (1/S + 1/R).

  16. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II - Adiabatic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point.

  17. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. II. Adiabatic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Montesinos, B.; Thomas, J.H.

    1989-02-01

    This paper extends the study of steady siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas to the case of adiabatic flows. The basic equations governing steady adiabatic siphon flows in a thin, isolated magnetic flux tube are summarized, and qualitative features of adiabatic flows in elevated, arched flux tubes are discussed. The equations are then cast in nondimensional form and the results of numerical computations of adiabatic siphon flows in arched flux tubes are presented along with comparisons between isothermal and adiabatic flows. The effects of making the interior of the flux tube hotter or colder than the surrounding atmosphere at the upstream footpoint of the arch is considered. In this case, is it found that the adiabatic flows are qualitatively similar to the isothermal flows, with adiabatic cooling producing quantitative differences. Critical flows can produce a bulge point in the rising part of the arch and a concentration of magnetic flux above the bulge point. 15 references.

  18. The effects of plasmaspheric plumes on dayside reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, J. E.; Lyon, J. G.; Brambles, O. J.; Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize the results of a study on the impact of plasmaspheric plumes on dayside reconnection using a three-dimensional magnetospheric simulation code. We find that the mass loading of magnetospheric flux tubes slows local reconnection rates, though not as much as predicted by Borovsky et al. (2013) due to differences in how well the Cassak-Shay theory matches magnetospheric configurations with and without plasmaspheric plumes. Additionally, we find that in some circumstances reconnection activity is enhanced on either side of the plumes, which moderates its impact on the total dayside reconnection rate. These results provide evidence that plasmaspheric plumes have both local- and global-scale effects on dayside reconnection.

  19. SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION TRIGGERING A SOLAR ERUPTION OF A TRIANGLE-SHAPED FLAG FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-08-10

    We report the first simultaneous activities of the slipping motion of flare loops and a slipping eruption of a flux rope in 131 Å and 94 Å channels on 2014 February 2. The east hook-like flare ribbon propagated with a slipping motion at a speed of about 50 km s{sup –1}, which lasted about 40 minutes and extended by more than 100 Mm, but the west flare ribbon moved in the opposite direction with a speed of 30 km s{sup –1}. At the later phase of flare activity, there was a well developed ''bi-fan'' system of flare loops. The east footpoints of the flux rope showed an apparent slipping motion along the hook of the ribbon. Simultaneously, the fine structures of the flux rope rose up rapidly at a speed of 130 km s{sup –1}, much faster than that of the whole flux rope. We infer that the east footpoints of the flux rope are successively heated by a slipping magnetic reconnection during the flare, which results in the apparent slippage of the flux rope. The slipping motion delineates a ''triangle-shaped flag surface'' of the flux rope, implying that the topology of a flux rope is more complex than anticipated.

  20. The Effect of Reconnection on the Structure of the Sun's Open–Closed Flux Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontin, D. I.; Wyper, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    Global magnetic field extrapolations are now revealing the huge complexity of the Sun's corona, and in particular the structure of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux. Moreover, recent developments indicate that magnetic reconnection in the corona likely occurs in highly fragmented current layers, and that this typically leads to a dramatic increase in the topological complexity beyond that of the equilibrium field. In this paper we use static models to investigate the consequences of reconnection at the open–closed flux boundary (“interchange reconnection”) in a fragmented current layer. We demonstrate that it leads to efficient mixing of magnetic flux (and therefore plasma) from open and closed field regions. This corresponds to an increase in the length and complexity of the open–closed boundary. Thus, whenever reconnection occurs at a null point or separator of this open–closed boundary, the associated separatrix arc of the so-called S-web in the high corona becomes not a single line but a band of finite thickness within which the open–closed boundary is highly structured. This has significant implications for the acceleration of the slow solar wind, for which the interaction of open and closed field is thought to be important, and may also explain the coronal origins of certain solar energetic particles. The topological structures examined contain magnetic null points, separatrices and separators, and include a model for a pseudo-streamer. The potential for understanding both the large scale morphology and fine structure observed in flare ribbons associated with coronal nulls is also discussed.

  1. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. IV - Critical flows with standing tube shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.H.; Montesinos, B. Mees Observatory, NY Oxford, University )

    1991-07-01

    Critical siphon flows in arched, isolated magnetic flux tubes are studied within the thin flux tube approximation, with a view toward applications to intense magnetic flux concentrations in the solar photosphere. The results of calculations of the strength and position of the standing tube shock in the supercritical downstream branch of a critical siphon flow are presented, as are calculations of the flow variables all along the flux tube and the equilibrium path of the flux tube in the surrounding atmosphere. It is suggested that arched magnetic flux tubes, with magnetic field strength increased by a siphon flow, may be associated with some of the intense, discrete magnetic elements observed in the solar photosphere. 37 refs.

  2. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. IV - Critical flows with standing tube shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.; Montesinos, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Critical siphon flows in arched, isolated magnetic flux tubes are studied within the thin flux tube approximation, with a view toward applications to intense magnetic flux concentrations in the solar photosphere. The results of calculations of the strength and position of the standing tube shock in the supercritical downstream branch of a critical siphon flow are presented, as are calculations of the flow variables all along the flux tube and the equilibrium path of the flux tube in the surrounding atmosphere. It is suggested that arched magnetic flux tubes, with magnetic field strength increased by a siphon flow, may be associated with some of the intense, discrete magnetic elements observed in the solar photosphere.

  3. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. III - The equilibrium path of the flux-tube arch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.; Montesinos, Benjamin

    1990-01-01

    It is shown how to calculate the equilibrium path of a thin magnetic flux tube in a stratified, nonmagnetic atmosphere when the flux tube contains a steady siphon flow. The equilbrium path of a static thin flux tube in an infinite stratified atmosphere generally takes the form of a symmetric arch of finite width, with the flux tube becoming vertical at either end of the arch. A siphon flow within the flux tube increases the curvature of the arched equilibrium path in order that the net magnetic tension force can balance the inertial force of the flow, which tries to straighten the flux tube. Thus, a siphon flow reduces the width of the arched equilibrium path, with faster flows producing narrower arches. The effect of the siphon flow on the equilibrium path is generally greater for flux tubes of weaker magnetic field strength. Examples of the equilibrium are shown for both isothemal and adiabatic siphon flows in thin flux tubes in an isothermal external atmosphere.

  4. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. III. The equilibrium path of the flux-tube arch

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.H.; Montesinos, B. C.E. Kenneth Mees Observatory, NY Oxford Univ. )

    1990-08-01

    It is shown how to calculate the equilibrium path of a thin magnetic flux tube in a stratified, nonmagnetic atmosphere when the flux tube contains a steady siphon flow. The equilbrium path of a static thin flux tube in an infinite stratified atmosphere generally takes the form of a symmetric arch of finite width, with the flux tube becoming vertical at either end of the arch. A siphon flow within the flux tube increases the curvature of the arched equilibrium path in order that the net magnetic tension force can balance the inertial force of the flow, which tries to straighten the flux tube. Thus, a siphon flow reduces the width of the arched equilibrium path, with faster flows producing narrower arches. The effect of the siphon flow on the equilibrium path is generally greater for flux tubes of weaker magnetic field strength. Examples of the equilibrium are shown for both isothemal and adiabatic siphon flows in thin flux tubes in an isothermal external atmosphere. 19 refs.

  5. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. 3. The equilibrium path of the flux tube arch. Annual report, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.H.; Montesinis, B.

    1989-09-01

    The arched equilibrium path of a thin magnetic flux tube in a plane-stratified, nonmagnetic atmosphere is calculated for cases in which the flux tube contains a steady siphon flow. The large scale mechanical equilibrium of the flux tube involves a balance among the magnetic buoyancy force, the net magnetic tension force due to the curvature of the flux tube axis, and the inertial (centrifugal) force due to the siphon flow along curved streamlines. The ends of the flux tube are assumed to be pinned down by some other external force. Both isothermal and adiabatic siphon flows are considered for flux tubes in an isothermal external atmosphere. For the isothermal case, in the absence of a siphon flow the equilibrium path reduces to the static arch calculated by Parker (1975, 1979). The presence of a siphon flow causes the flux tube arch to bend more sharply, so that magnetic tension can overcome the additional straightening effect of the inertial force, and reduces the maximum width of the arch. The curvature of the arch increases as the siphon flow speed increases. For a critical siphon flow, with supercritical flow in the downstream leg, the arch is asymmetric, with greater curvature in the downstream leg of the arch. Adiabatic flow have qualitatively similar effects, except that adiabatic cooling reduces the buoyancy of the flux tube and thus leads to significantly wider arches. In some cases the cooling is strong enough to create negative buoyancy along sections of the flux tube, requiring upward curvature of the flux tube path along these sections and sometimes leading to unusual equilibrium paths of periodic, sinusoidal form.

  6. Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W.; Bravenec, R.

    2013-09-01

    A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ∇B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v||-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.

  7. Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W.; Bravenec, R.

    2013-09-15

    A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ∇B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.

  8. Acoustic emission from magnetic flux tubes in the solar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigeesh, G.; Hasan, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of three-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the excitation of waves in the magnetic network of the Sun due to footpoint motions of a magnetic flux tube. We consider motions that typically mimic granular buffeting and vortex flows and implement them as driving motions at the base of the flux tube. The driving motions generates various MHD modes within the flux tube and acoustic waves in the ambient medium. The response of the upper atmosphere to the underlying photospheric motion and the role of the flux tube in channeling the waves is investigated. We compute the acoustic energy flux in the various wave modes across different boundary layers defined by the plasma and magnetic field parameters and examine the observational implications for chromospheric and coronal heating.

  9. Moving magnetic tubes: fragmentation, vortex streets and the limit of the approximation of thin flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Schüssler, M.

    2006-05-01

    Aims.We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes in a stratified layer over a range of Reynolds numbers (25 ⪉ Re ⪉ 2600) by means of numerical simulations. Special emphasis is placed on studying the fragmentation of the rising tube, its trailing wake and the formation of a vortex street in the high-Reynolds number regime. Furthermore, we evaluate the relevance of the thin flux tube approximation with regard to describing the evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the simulations. Methods: .We used the FLASH code, which has an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm, thus allowing the simulations to be carried out at high Reynolds numbers. Results: .The evolution of the magnetic flux tube and its wake depends on the Reynolds number. At Re up to a few hundred, the wake consists of two counter-rotating vortex rolls. At higher Re, the vortex rolls break up and the shedding of flux into the wake occurs in a more intermittent fashion. The amount of flux retained by the central portion of the tube increases with the field line twist (in agreement with previous literature) and with Re. The time evolution of the twist is compatible with a homologous expansion of the tube. The motion of the central portion of the tube in the simulations is very well described by the thin flux tube model whenever the effects of flux loss or vortex forces can be neglected. If the flux tube has an initial net vorticity, it undergoes asymmetric vortex shedding. In this case, the lift force accelerates the tube in such a way that an oscillatory horizontal motion is super-imposed on the vertical rise of the tube, which leaves behind a vortex street. This last result is in accordance with previous simulations reported in the literature, which were carried out at lower Reynolds number.

  10. Predictions of reconnected flux, energy and helicity in eruptive solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachenko, Maria Dmitiyevna

    2010-12-01

    In order to better understand the solar genesis of interplanetary magnetic clouds, I model the magnetic and topological properties of several large eruptive solar flares and relate them to observations. My main hypothesis is that the flux ropes ejected during eruptive solar flares are the result of a sequence of magnetic reconnections. To test this hypothesis, I use the three-dimensional Minimum Current Corona model of flare energy storage (Longcope, 1996) together with pre-flare photospheric magnetic field and flare ribbon observations to predict the basic flare properties: reconnected magnetic flux, free energy, and flux rope helicity. Initially, the MCC model was able to quantify the properties of the flares that occur in active regions with only photospheric shearing motions. Since rotating motions may also play a key role in the flare energetics, I develop a method for including both shearing and rotating motions into the MCC model. I use this modified method to predict the model flare properties and then compare them to the observed quantities. Firstly, for two flares in active regions with fast rotating sunspots, I find that the relative importance of shearing and rotation to those flares depends critically on their location within the parent active region topology. Secondly, for four flares analyzed with the MCC model (three flares described here and one flare described in Longcope et al. (2007)), I find that the modeled flare properties agree with the observed properties within the uncertainties of the methods used. This agreement compels me to believe that the magnetic clouds associated with these four solar flares are formed by low-corona magnetic reconnection during the eruption as modeled by the MCC model, rather than eruption of pre-existing structures in the corona or formation in the upper corona with participation of the global magnetic field. I note that since all four flares occurred in active regions without significant pre-flare flux emergence

  11. Entropy conservation in simulations of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Schindler, K.

    2006-09-15

    Entropy and mass conservation are investigated for the dynamic field evolution associated with fast magnetic reconnection, based on the 'Newton Challenge' problem [Birn et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L06105 (2005)]. In this problem, the formation of a thin current sheet and magnetic reconnection are initiated in a plane Harris-type current sheet by temporally limited, spatially varying, inflow of magnetic flux. Using resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, specifically the entropy and mass integrated along the magnetic flux tubes are compared between the simulations. In the MHD simulation these should be exactly conserved quantities, when slippage and Ohmic dissipation are negligible. It is shown that there is very good agreement between the conservation of these quantities in the two simulation approaches, despite the effects of dissipation, provided that the resistivity in the MHD simulation is strongly localized. This demonstrates that dissipation is highly localized in the PIC simulation also, and that heat flux across magnetic flux tubes has negligible effect as well, so that the entropy increase on a full flux tube remains small even during reconnection. The mass conservation also implies that the frozen-in flux condition of ideal MHD is a good integral approximation outside the reconnection site. This result lends support for using the entropy-conserving MHD approach not only before and after reconnection but even as a constraint connecting the two phases.

  12. TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Vörös, Zoltán; Narita, Yasuhito; Bruno, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic flux tubes in the solar wind can be twisted as they are transported from the solar surface, where the tubes are twisted due to photospheric motions. It is suggested that the twisted magnetic tubes can be detected as the variation of total (thermal+magnetic) pressure during their passage through the observing satellite. We show that the total pressure of several observed twisted tubes resembles the theoretically expected profile. The twist of the isolated magnetic tube may explain the observed abrupt changes of magnetic field direction at tube walls. We have also found some evidence that the flux tube walls can be associated with local heating of the plasma and elevated proton and electron temperatures. For the tubes aligned with the Parker spiral, the twist angle can be estimated from the change of magnetic field direction. Stability analysis of twisted tubes shows that the critical twist angle of the tube with a homogeneous twist is 70°, but the angle can further decrease due to the motion of the tube with respect to the solar wind stream. The tubes with a stronger twist are unstable to the kink instability, therefore they probably cannot reach 1 AU.

  13. Emerging flux, magnetic reconnection, plasma turbulence and waves in the transition zone of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the solar transition zone, especially Spacelab 2 results, is reviewed. Emerging magnetic flux is considered as the energy source of the solar corona and the solar wind. The conversion of magnetic into kinetic energy is facilitated in the transition zone because of unique conditions. Radiation losses are sufficient to create fast instabilities. Observed nonthermal velocities in spectra of the transition zone indicate the existence of strong plasma oscillations and turbulence. The small filling factor of the transition zone indicates a highly filamentary structure of density, magnetic field strength, and currents, which results in rapid reconnection time scales. Particle acceleration and the heating of the corona are placed in the areas of strong plasma oscillations of the transition zone.

  14. Magnetic Reconnection in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, R. L.; Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a ubiquitous phenomenon in many varied space and astrophysical plasmas, and as such plays an important role in the dynamics of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). It is widely regarded that reconnection is instrumental in the formation and ejection of the initial CME flux rope, but reconnection also continues to affect the dynamics as it propagates through the interplanetary medium. For example, reconnection on the leading edge of the ICME, by which it interacts with the interplanetary medium, leads to flux erosion. However, recent in situ observations by Gosling et al. found signatures of reconnection exhausts in the interior. In light of this data, we consider the stability properties of systems with this flux rope geometry with regard to their minimum energy Taylor state. Variations from this state will result in the magnetic field relaxing back towards the minimum energy state, subject to the constraints that the toroidal flux and magnetic helicity remain invariant. In reversed field pinches, this relaxation is mediated by reconnection in the interior of the system, as has been shown theoretically and experimentally. By treating the ICME flux rope in a similar fashion, we show analytically that the the elongation of the flux tube cross section in the latitudinal direction will result in a departure from the Taylor state. The resulting relaxation of the magnetic field causes reconnection to commence in the interior of the ICME, in agreement with the observations of Gosling et al. We present MHD simulations in which reconnection initiates at a number of rational surfaces, and ultimately produces a stochastic magnetic field. If the time scales for this process are shorter than the propagation time to 1 AU, this result explains why many ICME flux ropes no longer exhibit the smooth, helical flux structure characteristic of a magnetic cloud.

  15. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection of Flux-rope Structures as a Precursor to an Eruptive X-class Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Yang, Kai; Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We present the quasi-periodic slipping motion of flux-rope structures prior to the onset of an eruptive X-class flare on 2015 March 11, obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The slipping motion occurred at the north part of the flux rope and seemed to successively peel off the flux rope. The speed of the slippage was 30‑40 km s‑1, with an average period of 130 ± 30 s. The Si iv λ1402.77 line showed a redshift of 10‑30 km s‑1 and a line width of 50‑120 km s‑1 at the west legs of slipping structures, indicative of reconnection downflow. The slipping motion lasted about 40 minutes, and the flux rope started to rise up slowly at the late stage of the slippage. Then an X2.1 flare was initiated, and the flux rope was impulsively accelerated. One of the flare ribbons swept across a negative-polarity sunspot, and the penumbral segments of the sunspot decayed rapidly after the flare. We studied the magnetic topology at the flaring region, and the results showed the existence of a twisted flux rope, together with quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) structures binding the flux rope. Our observations imply that quasi-periodic slipping magnetic reconnection occurs along the flux-rope-related QSLs in the preflare stage, which drives the later eruption of the flux rope and the associated flare.

  16. Flux Rope Formation and Self-Generated Turbulent Reconnection Driven by the Plasmoid Instability in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    It has been established that the Sweet-Parker current layer in high Lundquist number reconnection is unstable to the super-Alfvénic plasmoid instability. Past two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations have demonstrated that the plasmoid instability leads to a new regime where the Sweet-Parker current layer changes into a chain of plasmoids connected by secondary current sheets, and the averaged reconnection rate becomes nearly independent of the Lundquist number. In this work, three-dimensional simulations with a guide field shows that the additional degree of freedom allows plasmoid instabilities to grow at oblique angles. We present a scenario in which large-scale oblique tearing modes overlap with each other, break flux surfaces, and stir up a spectrum of smaller-scale tearing modes, leading eventually to self-generated turbulent reconnection. The averaged reconnection rate in the self-generated turbulent state is of the order of a hundredth of the characteristic Alfvén speed, which is similar to the two-dimensional result but is an order of magnitude lower than the fastest reconnection rate reported in recent studies of externally driven three-dimensional turbulent reconnection. Kinematic and magnetic energy fluctuations both form elongated eddies along the direction of local magnetic field, which is a signature of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Both energy fluctuations satisfy power-law spectra in the inertial range. The anisotropy of turbulence eddies is found to be nearly scale-independent, in contrast with the prediction of the Goldreich-Sridhar (GS) theory for anisotropic turbulence in a homogeneous plasma permeated by a uniform magnetic field. The effect of varying the magnitude of the toroidal field on the critical balance condition underlying the GS theory is discussed.

  17. Magnetic field characters of returning flux tubes in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hairong; Russell, Christopher; Jia, Yingdong; Wei, Hanying

    2016-04-01

    Deep in the Saturnian magnetosphere, water-group neutrals are ionized after being released from the plume of Enceladus at 4 RS. This forms a plasma disk from 2.5 to 8 RS around Saturn and the typical source rate is 12~250 kg/s. Such plasma addition must be shed to the solar wind ultimately to maintain the plasma density in the magnetosphere in long term average. In this plasma transfer process, the magnetic flux also convects outward. To conserve the total magnetic flux imposed on the magnetosphere by the planet's internal dynamo, the magnetic flux has to return to the inner magnetosphere. Flux tubes are found to be the major form of such return. Determining such flux tubes is essential in understanding the breathing of Saturn magnetosphere. We investigated 10 years of Cassini magnetometer data to identify over six hundred flux-returning events between 4 and 18 in L. Statistical properties are presented, to constrain the origin, transport and evolution of these flux tubes.

  18. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of amore » $q$-$$\\bar q$$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $$\\Delta y$$ falling within the window of $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $$dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$$ on the near side at $$(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $$(\\Delta \\phi$$$$\\sim$$$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$$$\\sim$$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, but there is no such prohibition for $$|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.« less

  19. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of a $q$-$\\bar q$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $\\Delta y$ falling within the window of $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$ on the near side at $(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $(\\Delta \\phi$$\\sim$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$\\sim$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, but there is no such prohibition for $|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.

  20. Explosive instability and erupting flux tubes in a magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, S. C.; Cowley, B.; Henneberg, S. A.; Wilson, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    The eruption of multiple flux tubes in a magnetized plasma is proposed as a mechanism for explosive release of energy in plasmas. A significant fraction of the linearly stable isolated flux tubes are shown to be metastable in a box model magnetized atmosphere in which ends of the field lines are embedded in conducting walls. The energy released by destabilizing such field lines can be a large proportion of the gravitational energy stored in the system. This energy can be released in a fast dynamical time. PMID:26339193

  1. Dissipationless Damping of Compressive MHD Modes in Twisted Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Fedun, V.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M. L.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2015-12-01

    Axisymmetric modes in straight magentic flux tubes exhibit a cutoff in the long wavelength limit and no damping is predicted. However, as soon as weak magnetic twist is introduced inside as well as outside the magnetic flux tube the cutoff recedes. Furthermore, when density variations are also incomporated within the modelresonant absorption appears. In this work we explore analytically the expected damping times for waves within the Alfven continuum for different solar atmospheric conditions. Based on the results in this work we offer insight on recent observations of sausage wave damping in the chromosphere.

  2. MHD waves on solar magnetic flux tubes - Tutorial review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the highly simplified models that have been developed for solar magnetic flux tubes, which are intense photospheric-level fields confined by external gas pressure but able to vary rapidly with height, are presently discussed with emphasis on the torsional Alfven mode's propagation, reflection, and non-WKB properties. The 'sausage' and 'kink' modes described by the thin flux-tube approximation are noted. Attention is also given to the surface waves and resonance absorption of X-ray-emitting loops, as well as to the results of recent work on the resonant instabilities that occur in the presence of bulk flows.

  3. Magnetic reconnection in plasma under inertial confinement fusion conditions driven by heat flux effects in Ohm's law.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, A S; Thomas, A G R; Fox, W; Bhattacharjee, A

    2014-03-14

    In the interaction of high-power laser beams with solid density plasma there are a number of mechanisms that generate strong magnetic fields. Such fields subsequently inhibit or redirect electron flows, but can themselves be advected by heat fluxes, resulting in complex interplay between thermal transport and magnetic fields. We show that for heating by multiple laser spots reconnection of magnetic field lines can occur, mediated by these heat fluxes, using a fully implicit 2D Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code. Under such conditions, the reconnection rate is dictated by heat flows rather than Alfvènic flows. We find that this mechanism is only relevant in a high β plasma. However, the Hall parameter ωcτei can be large so that thermal transport is strongly modified by these magnetic fields, which can impact longer time scale temperature homogeneity and ion dynamics in the system.

  4. Flux limiters. [for shock tube flow computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweby, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that first order accurate difference schemes for the numerical solution of conservation laws produce results which suffer from excessive numerical diffusion, classical second order schemes, although giving better resolution, suffer from spurious oscillations. Recently much effect has been put into achieving high resolution without these oscillations, using a variety of techniques. Here one class of such methods, that of flux limiting, is outlined together with the TVD constraint used to ensure oscillation free solutions. Brief numerical comparisons of different limiting functions are also presented.

  5. Data Set of Flare-Ribbon Reconnected Magnetic Fluxes: A Critical Tool for Understanding Solar Flares and Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachenko, M.; Lynch, B. J.; Welsch, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Flare ribbons are emission structures that are frequently observed during flares in transition-region and chromospheric radiation. These typically straddle a polarity inversion line (PIL) of the radial magnetic field at the photosphere, and move apart as the flare progresses. The ribbon flux - the amount of unsigned photospheric magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons - is thought to be related to the amount coronal magnetic reconnection, and hence provides a key diagnostic tool for understanding the physical processes at work in flares and CMEs. Previous measurements of the magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons required time-consuming co-alignment between magnetograph and intensity data from different instruments, explaining why those studies only analyzed, at most, a few events. The launch of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), presented a rare opportunity to compile a much larger sample of flare-ribbon events than could readily be assembled before. We created a dataset of 141 events of both flare ribbon positions and fluxes, as a function of time, for all C9.-class and greater flares within 45 degrees of disk center observed by SDO from January 2013 till April 2015. For this purpose, we used vector magnetograms (2D magnetic field maps) from HMI and UV images from AIA. A critical problem with using unprocessed AIA data is the existence of spurious intensities in AIA data associated with strong flare emission, most notably "blooming" (spurious smearing of saturated signal into neighboring pixels, often in streaks). To overcome this difficulty, we have developed an algorithmic procedure that effectively excludes artifacts like blooming. We present our database and compare statistical properties of flare ribbons, e.g. evolutions of ribbon reconnection fluxes and reconnection flux rates, with the properties from theoretical models.

  6. Inertial-Range Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind.

    PubMed

    Lalescu, Cristian C; Shi, Yi-Kang; Eyink, Gregory L; Drivas, Theodore D; Vishniac, Ethan T; Lazarian, Alexander

    2015-07-10

    In situ spacecraft data on the solar wind show events identified as magnetic reconnection with wide outflows and extended "X lines," 10(3)-10(4) times ion scales. To understand the role of turbulence at these scales, we make a case study of an inertial-range reconnection event in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. We observe stochastic wandering of field lines in space, breakdown of standard magnetic flux freezing due to Richardson dispersion, and a broadened reconnection zone containing many current sheets. The coarse-grain magnetic geometry is like large-scale reconnection in the solar wind, however, with a hyperbolic flux tube or apparent X line extending over integral length scales.

  7. Achieving Zero Current for Polar Wind Outflow on Open Flux Tubes Subjected to Large Photoelectron Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.; Khazanov, G.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    In this study we investigate how the condition of zero current on open flux tubes with polar wind outflow, subjected to large photoelectron fluxes, can be achieved. We employ a steady state collisionless semikinetic model to determine the density profiles of O(+), H(+), thermal electrons and photoelectrons coming from the ionosphere along with H(+), ions and electrons coming from the magnetosphere. The model solution attains a potential distribution which both satisfies the condition of charge neutrality and zero current. For the range of parameters considered in this study we find that a 45-60 volt discontinuous potential drop may develop to reflect most of the photoelectrons back toward the ionosphere. This develops because the downward flux of electrons from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere on typical open flux tubes (e.g. the polar rain) appears to be insufficient to balance the photoelectron flux from the ionosphere.

  8. Resonant Absorption of Axisymmetric Modes in Twisted Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Goossens, M.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.

  9. Low thermal flux glass-fiber tubing for cryogenic service.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. A.; Pharo, T. J., Jr.; Phillips, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Study of thin metallic liners which provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion plumbing systems and are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The composite tube is lightweight, strong, and has a very low thermal flux. The resultant reduced boiloff of stored cryogenic propellants yields a substantial weight savings for long-term missions (seven days or greater). Twelve styles of tubing ranging from 1/2 to 5 in. in diameter were fabricated and tested with excellent results for most of the concepts at operating temperatures from +70 to -423 F and operating pressures up to 3000 psi.

  10. DENSITY ENHANCEMENTS AND VOIDS FOLLOWING PATCHY RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Guidoni, S. E.; Longcope, D. W.

    2011-04-01

    We show, through a simple patchy reconnection model, that retracting reconnected flux tubes may present elongated regions relatively devoid of plasma, as well as long lasting, dense central hot regions. Reconnection is assumed to happen in a small patch across a Syrovatskii (non-uniform) current sheet (CS) with skewed magnetic fields. The background magnetic pressure has its maximum at the center of the CS plane and decreases toward its edges. The reconnection patch creates two V-shaped reconnected tubes that shorten as they retract in opposite directions, due to magnetic tension. One of them moves upward toward the top edge of the CS, and the other one moves downward toward the top of the underlying arcade. Rotational discontinuities (RDs) propagate along the legs of the tubes and generate parallel supersonic flows that collide at the center of the tube. There, gas-dynamic shocks that compress and heat the plasma are launched outwardly. The descending tube moves through the bottom part of the CS where it expands laterally in response to the decreasing background magnetic pressure. This effect may decrease plasma density by 30%-50% of background levels. This tube will arrive at the top of the arcade that will slow it to a stop. Here, the perpendicular dynamics is halted, but the parallel dynamics continues along its legs; the RDs are shut down, and the gas is rarified to even lower densities. The hot post-shock regions continue evolving, determining a long lasting hot region on top of the arcade. We provide an observational method based on total emission measure and mean temperature that indicates where in the CS the tube has been reconnected.

  11. Statistical Study of Plasma-depleted Flux Tubes in Saturnian Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H. Y.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jia, Y. D.

    2015-10-01

    We have surveyed the occurrence of flux tubes with both enhanced and depressed field strength relative to their surroundings as observed in Cassini magnetometer data. Consistent with earlier studies, enhanced field flux tubes are concentrated near the equator while depressed field flux tubes are distributed in a larger latitudinal region. For both types of flux tubes, their occurrence rates vary with the local time in the same pattern and they contain the same magnetic flux. Therefore, we suggest that those two types of tubes are just different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Near the equator with high ambient plasma density, the flux tubes convecting in from the tail are compressed, resulting in increased field strength. Off the equator,these flux tubes expand slightly, resulting in decreased field strength. The enhanced flux tubes gradually break into smaller ones as they convect inward. Inside an L value of about 5, they become indistinguishable from the background.

  12. Non-steady Reconnection in Global Simulations of Magnetosphere Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Sibeck, D.; Rastaetter, L.; Toth, G.; Ridley, A.

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the non-steady magnetic reconnection during quasi-steady solar wind driving we employed high resolution global MHD model BATSRUS with non-MHD corrections in diffusion regions around the reconnection sites. To clarify the role of small-scale non-MHD effects on the global magnetospheric dynamic we performed simulations with different models of dissipation. We found that magnetopause surface is not in steady state even during extended periods of steady solar wind conditions. The so-called tilted reconnection lines become unstable due to formation of pressure bubbles, strong core field flux tubes, vortices, and traveling magnetic field cavities. Non-steady dayside reconnection results in formation of flux tubes with bended axis magnetically connecting magnetic field cavities generated at flanks and strong core segments formed near the subsolar region. We found that the rate of magnetic flux loading to the tail lobes is not very sensitive to the dissipation mechanism and details of the dayside reconnection. On the other hand the magnetotail reconnection rate, the speed of the reconnection site retreat and the global magnetotail dynamics strongly depend on the model of dissipation. THEMIS and Cluster observations are consistent with signatures predicted by simulations.

  13. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M. |

    1996-12-31

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the so called maximum allowable (or critical) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. This is the condition at which vapor blanketing is expected to be initiated. Phenomenological considerations demonstrate why the maximum allowable heat flux would be expected to be less than for single tubes. Hydrodynamic theory is applied to extend the results of Lienhard and Dhir to large submerged bundles and the consequent correlation is compared to the correlation of Palen and Small and the limited data available for saturated conditions. To date the main conclusion is that estimates of q{double_prime}{sub chf} are highly uncertain for this configuration.

  14. Magneto-Acoustic Waves in Compressible Magnetically Twisted Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdélyi, Robert; Fedun, Viktor

    2010-05-01

    The oscillatory modes of a magnetically twisted compressible flux tube embedded in a compressible magnetic environment are investigated in cylindrical geometry. Solutions to the governing equations to linear wave perturbations are derived in terms of Whittaker’s functions. A general dispersion equation is obtained in terms of Kummer’s functions for the approximation of weak and uniform internal twist, which is a good initial working model for flux tubes in solar applications. The sausage, kink and fluting modes are examined by means of the derived exact dispersion equation. The solutions of this general dispersion equation are found numerically under plasma conditions representative of the solar photosphere and corona. Solutions for the phase speed of the allowed eigenmodes are obtained for a range of wavenumbers and varying magnetic twist. Our results generalise previous classical and widely applied studies of MHD waves and oscillations in magnetic loops without a magnetic twist. Potential applications to solar magneto-seismology are discussed.

  15. Dynamic and Stagnating Plasma Flow Leading to Magnetic-Flux-Tube Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    You, S.; Yun, G.S.; Bellan, P.M.

    2005-07-22

    Highly collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are frequently observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. We propose that a single, universal magnetohydrodynamic pumping process explains why such collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are ubiquitous. Experimental evidence from carefully diagnosed laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets confirms this assertion and is reported here. The magnetohydrodynamic process pumps plasma into a magnetic-flux tube and the stagnation of the resulting flow causes this flux tube to become collimated.

  16. Dynamic and stagnating plasma flow leading to magnetic-flux-tube collimation.

    PubMed

    You, S; Yun, G S; Bellan, P M

    2005-07-22

    Highly collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are frequently observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. We propose that a single, universal magnetohydrodynamic pumping process explains why such collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are ubiquitous. Experimental evidence from carefully diagnosed laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets confirms this assertion and is reported here. The magnetohydrodynamic process pumps plasma into a magnetic-flux tube and the stagnation of the resulting flow causes this flux tube to become collimated.

  17. Pair creation in an electric flux tube and chiral anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Iwazaki, Aiichi

    2009-11-15

    Using the chiral anomaly, we discuss the pair creation of massless fermions under the effect of a magnetic field B-vector when an electric flux tube E-vector parallel to B-vector is switched on. The tube is axially symmetric and infinitely long. For the constraint B>>E, we can analytically obtain the spatial and temporal behaviors of the number density of the fermions, the azimuthal magnetic field generated by the fermions, and so on. We find that the lifetime t{sub c} of the electric field becomes shorter as the width of the tube becomes narrower. Applying it to the plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, we find that the color electric field decays quickly such that t{sub c}{approx_equal}Q{sub s}{sup -1}, in which Q{sub s} is the saturation momentum.

  18. High resolution studies of sunspots and flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Alan

    This contract is for a three-year research study of sunspots and magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, using tunable filter images collected with a CCD camera during observing runs at the Canary Islands observatories in Spain. The best observations are analyzed and compared with theoretical models, to study the structure and dynamics of sunspots, their connections with surrounding magnetic fields, and the properties and evolution of smaller flux tubes in plage and quiet sun. Scientific results are reported at conferences and published in the appropriate journals. The contract is being performed by the Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, part of the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) of the Research and Development Division (RDD) of Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc. (LMSC). The principal investigator is Dr. Alan Title, and the research is done by him and other scientific staff at LPARL and Solar Physics Research Corporation (SPRC), often in collaboration with visiting scientists and students from other institutions. Highlights during this reporting period include completing the final version of a paper on the Evershed effect, writing a paper on magnetic diffusion, continuing work on contrast of small flux tubes, and work on the development of new models to interpret our sunspots observations.

  19. High resolution studies of sunspots and flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, Alan

    1994-01-01

    This contract is for a three-year research study of sunspots and magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, using tunable filter images collected with a CCD camera during observing runs at the Canary Islands observatories in Spain. The best observations are analyzed and compared with theoretical models, to study the structure and dynamics of sunspots, their connections with surrounding magnetic fields, and the properties and evolution of smaller flux tubes in plage and quiet sun. Scientific results are reported at conferences and published in the appropriate journals. The contract is being performed by the Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, part of the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) of the Research and Development Division (RDD) of Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc. (LMSC). The principal investigator is Dr. Alan Title, and the research is done by him and other scientific staff at LPARL and Solar Physics Research Corporation (SPRC), often in collaboration with visiting scientists and students from other institutions. Highlights during this reporting period include completing the final version of a paper on the Evershed effect, writing a paper on magnetic diffusion, continuing work on contrast of small flux tubes, and work on the development of new models to interpret our sunspots observations.

  20. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  1. THE EFFECT OF RECONNECTION ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE SUN’S OPEN–CLOSED FLUX BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect

    Pontin, D. I.; Wyper, P. F. E-mail: peter.f.wyper@nasa.gov

    2015-05-20

    Global magnetic field extrapolations are now revealing the huge complexity of the Sun's corona, and in particular the structure of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux. Moreover, recent developments indicate that magnetic reconnection in the corona likely occurs in highly fragmented current layers, and that this typically leads to a dramatic increase in the topological complexity beyond that of the equilibrium field. In this paper we use static models to investigate the consequences of reconnection at the open–closed flux boundary (“interchange reconnection”) in a fragmented current layer. We demonstrate that it leads to efficient mixing of magnetic flux (and therefore plasma) from open and closed field regions. This corresponds to an increase in the length and complexity of the open–closed boundary. Thus, whenever reconnection occurs at a null point or separator of this open–closed boundary, the associated separatrix arc of the so-called S-web in the high corona becomes not a single line but a band of finite thickness within which the open–closed boundary is highly structured. This has significant implications for the acceleration of the slow solar wind, for which the interaction of open and closed field is thought to be important, and may also explain the coronal origins of certain solar energetic particles. The topological structures examined contain magnetic null points, separatrices and separators, and include a model for a pseudo-streamer. The potential for understanding both the large scale morphology and fine structure observed in flare ribbons associated with coronal nulls is also discussed.

  2. Magnetic Reconnection in the Interior of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, R. L.; Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    Recent in situ observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) found signatures of reconnection exhausts in their interior or trailing edge. Whereas reconnection on the leading edge of an ICME would indicate an interaction with the coronal or interplanetary environment, this result suggests that the internal magnetic field reconnects with itself. In light of this data, we consider the stability properties of flux ropes first developed in the context of astrophysics, then further elaborated upon in the context of reversed field pinches (RFPs). It was shown that the lowest energy state of a flux rope corresponds to ∇×B=λB with λ a constant, the so-called Taylor state. Variations from this state will result in the magnetic field trying to reorient itself into the Taylor state solution, subject to the constraints that the toroidal flux and magnetic helicity are invariant. In reversed field pinches, this relaxation is mediated by the reconnection of the magnetic field, resulting in a sawtooth crash. If we likewise treat the ICME as a flux rope, any deviation from the Taylor state will result in reconnection within the interior of the flux tube, in agreement with the observations by Gosling et al. Such a departure from the Taylor state takes place as the flux tube cross section expands in the latitudinal direction, as seen in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of flux tubes propagating through the interplanetary medium. We show analytically that this elongation results in a state which is no longer in the minimum energy Taylor state. We then present magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an elongated flux tube which has evolved away from the Taylor state and show that reconnection at many surfaces produces a complex stochastic magnetic field as the system evolves back to a minimum energy state configuration.

  3. Superthermal Ion Transport and Acceleration in Multiple Contracting and Reconnecting Inertial-scale Flux Ropes in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jakobus; Zank, Gary; Webb, Gary

    2014-10-01

    MHD turbulence simulations with a strong large-scale magnetic field show that the turbulence is filled with quasi-2D inertial-scale flux ropes that intermittently reconnect. Solar wind observations indicate that the statistical properties of the turbulence agree well with the MHD turbulence simulations, while particle simulations stress how ions can be efficiently accelerated to produce power law spectra when traversing multiple flux ropes. Recent observations show the presence of different size inertial-scale magnetic islands in the slow solar wind near the heliospheric current sheet, evidence of island merging, and of heating of ions and electrons in the vicinity. We will present a new statistical transport theory designed to model the acceleration and transport of superthermal ions traversing multiple contracting and reconnecting inertial-scale quasi-2D flux ropes in the supersonic slow solar wind. A steady-state solution for the accelerated particle spectrum in a radially expanding solar wind will discussed, showing that the theory potentially can explain naturally the existence of superthermal power-law spectra observed during quiet solar wind conditions.

  4. Suprathermal Ion Acceleration in Multiple Contracting and Reconnecting Inertial-scale Flux Ropes in the Supersonic Solar Wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. A.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    3D and 2D MHD turbulence simulations with a strong large-scale magnetic field show that the turbulence is filled with quasi-2D inertial-scale flux ropes that intermittently reconnect, while test particle simulations stress how suprathermal particles can be efficiently accelerated to produce power law spectra (kappa distributions) when traversing multiple flux ropes. Solar wind observations indicate that the statistical properties of the turbulence agree well with the MHD turbulence simulation. In addition, recent observations show the presence of different size inertial-scale magnetic islands in the slow solar wind near the heliospheric current sheet, evidence of island merging, and of heating of ions and electrons in their vicinity. At the same time, observations in the supersonic solar wind suggest the existence of suprathermal ion spectra in the solar wind frame where the distribution function is a power law in momentum with a -5 exponent. We present a new statistical transport theory to model the acceleration of superthermal ions traversing multiple contracting and reconnecting inertial-scale quasi-2D flux ropes in the supersonic solar wind. Steady-state analytical solutions for the accelerated suprathermal particle spectrum in a radially expanding solar wind will be explored to show under what conditions one can reproduce the observed superthermal power-law slope.

  5. Combining Diffusive Shock Acceleration with Acceleration by Contracting and Reconnecting Small-scale Flux Ropes at Heliospheric Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. A.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    Computational and observational evidence is accruing that heliospheric shocks, as emitters of vorticity, can produce downstream magnetic flux ropes and filaments. This led Zank et al. to investigate a new paradigm whereby energetic particle acceleration near shocks is a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) with downstream acceleration by many small-scale contracting and reconnecting (merging) flux ropes. Using a model where flux-rope acceleration involves a first-order Fermi mechanism due to the mean compression of numerous contracting flux ropes, Zank et al. provide theoretical support for observations that power-law spectra of energetic particles downstream of heliospheric shocks can be harder than predicted by DSA theory and that energetic particle intensities should peak behind shocks instead of at shocks as predicted by DSA theory. In this paper, a more extended formalism of kinetic transport theory developed by le Roux et al. is used to further explore this paradigm. We describe how second-order Fermi acceleration, related to the variance in the electromagnetic fields produced by downstream small-scale flux-rope dynamics, modifies the standard DSA model. The results show that (i) this approach can qualitatively reproduce observations of particle intensities peaking behind the shock, thus providing further support for the new paradigm, and (ii) stochastic acceleration by compressible flux ropes tends to be more efficient than incompressible flux ropes behind shocks in modifying the DSA spectrum of energetic particles.

  6. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SMALL-SCALE RECONNECTION EVENTS TRIGGERED BY MAGNETIC FLUX EMERGENCE IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Aulanier, G.; Vargas DomInguez, S.; Kamio, S.

    2010-12-01

    The interaction between emerging magnetic flux and the pre-existing ambient field has become a 'hot' topic for both numerical simulations and high-resolution observations of the solar atmosphere. The appearance of brightenings and surges during episodes of flux emergence is believed to be a signature of magnetic reconnection processes. We present an analysis of a small-scale flux emergence event in NOAA 10971, observed simultaneously with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope on La Palma and the Hinode satellite during a joint campaign in 2007 September. Extremely high-resolution G-band, H{alpha}, and Ca II H filtergrams, Fe I and Na I magnetograms, EUV raster scans, and X-ray images show that the emerging region was associated with chromospheric, transition region and coronal brightenings, as well as with chromospheric surges. We suggest that these features were caused by magnetic reconnection at low altitude in the atmosphere. To support this idea, we perform potential and linear force-free field extrapolations using the FROMAGE service. The extrapolations show that the emergence site is cospatial with a three-dimensional null point, from which a spine originates. This magnetic configuration and the overall orientation of the field lines above the emerging flux region are compatible with the structures observed in the different atmospheric layers and remain stable against variations of the force-free field parameter. Our analysis supports the predictions of recent three-dimensional numerical simulations that energetic phenomena may result from the interaction between emerging flux and the pre-existing chromospheric and coronal field.

  7. Quantifying the dynamic evolution of individual arched magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenson, E. V.; Bellan, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Highly dynamic arched ‘loops’ of plasma were created in the laboratory with a magnetized plasma gun. The magnetic structure of the loops was found to be consistent with that of an expanding flux tube subject to a kink instability. High-speed flows were found to transport plasma along the loop axis, from both footpoints toward the apex of the arched loop. Two complementary MHD models were used to explain the expansion and axial flows, both of which scale in proportion to a ‘toroidal Alfven speed’.

  8. Measurements of absorbed heat flux and water-side heat transfer coefficient in water wall tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The tubular type instrument (flux tube) was developed to identify boundary conditions in water wall tubes of steam boilers. The meter is constructed from a short length of eccentric tube containing four thermocouples on the fire side below the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. The fifth thermocouple is located at the rear of the tube on the casing side of the water-wall tube. The boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the water flux-tube are determined based on temperature measurements at the interior locations. Four K-type sheathed thermocouples of 1 mm in diameter, are inserted into holes, which are parallel to the tube axis. The non-linear least squares problem is solved numerically using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The heat transfer conditions in adjacent boiler tubes have no impact on the temperature distribution in the flux tubes.

  9. Modeling Evaporative Upflows Through a Flux Tube of Nonconstant Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unverferth, John E.; Longcope, Dana

    2016-05-01

    Chromospheric evaporation is a long studied part of solar flares. Spectroscopic observations of flares typically show subsonic upflows. This contrasts with simulations which consistently predict supersonic evaporation flows. One possible explanation is that the actual flows occur though flux tubes which expand from confined photospheric sources to volume-filling coronal field. Very few flare simulations to date have accounted for this geometry, and run instead with flare loops of uniform cross section. It is well known that transonic flows are dramatically affected by their geoemetry, and can exhibit shocks under certain circumstances.To investigate this we created a simple model of the canopy of magnetic field. This exhibited the expected expansion but also showed some cases of over-expansion followed by constriction. The flow through those flux tubes will encounter a kind of chamber. We then used a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamics to model the flow of plasma through such a chamber. According to this simulation, there exists a set of inflow parameters that will generate a standing shock inside the chamber. This solution results in a sonic outflow from a supersonic inflow.

  10. Dynamic Flux Tubes Form Reservoirs of Stability in Neuronal Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteforte, Michael; Wolf, Fred

    2012-10-01

    Neurons in cerebral cortical circuits interact by sending and receiving electrical impulses called spikes. The ongoing spiking activity of cortical circuits is fundamental to many cognitive functions including sensory processing, working memory, and decision making. London et al. [Sensitivity to Perturbations In Vivo Implies High Noise and Suggests Rate Coding in Cortex, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 466, 123 (2010).10.1038/nature09086] recently argued that even a single additional spike can cause a cascade of extra spikes that rapidly decorrelate the microstate of the network. Here, we show theoretically in a minimal model of cortical neuronal circuits that single-spike perturbations trigger only a very weak rate response. Nevertheless, single-spike perturbations are found to rapidly decorrelate the microstate of the network, although the dynamics is stable with respect to small perturbations. The coexistence of stable and unstable dynamics results from a system of exponentially separating dynamic flux tubes around stable trajectories in the network’s phase space. The radius of these flux tubes appears to decrease algebraically with neuron number N and connectivity K, which implies that the entropy of the circuit’s repertoire of state sequences scales as Nln⁡(KN).

  11. Numerical study of the vortex tube reconnection using vortex particle method on many graphics cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Henryk; Kosior, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    Vortex Particle Methods are one of the most convenient ways of tracking the vorticity evolution. In the article we presented numerical recreation of the real life experiment concerning head-on collision of two vortex rings. In the experiment the evolution and reconnection of the vortex structures is tracked with passive markers (paint particles) which in viscous fluid does not follow the evolution of vorticity field. In numerical computations we showed the difference between vorticity evolution and movement of passive markers. The agreement with the experiment was very good. Due to problems with very long time of computations on a single processor the Vortex-in-Cell method was implemented on the multicore architecture of the graphics cards (GPUs). Vortex Particle Methods are very well suited for parallel computations. As there are myriads of particles in the flow and for each of them the same equations of motion have to be solved the SIMD architecture used in GPUs seems to be perfect. The main disadvantage in this case is the small amount of the RAM memory. To overcome this problem we created a multiGPU implementation of the VIC method. Some remarks on parallel computing are given in the article.

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF MULTIPLE SCATTERING OF THE f-MODE BY FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Felipe, T.; Crouch, A.; Birch, A.

    2013-09-20

    We use numerical simulations to study the absorption and phase shift of surface-gravity waves caused by groups of magnetic flux tubes. The dependence of the scattering coefficients on the distance between the tubes and their positions is analyzed for several cases with two or three flux tubes embedded in a quiet Sun atmosphere. The results are compared with those obtained neglecting completely or partially multiple scattering effects. We show that multiple scattering has a significant impact on the absorption measurements and tends to reduce the phase shift. We also consider more general cases of ensembles of randomly distributed flux tubes, and we have evaluated the effects on the scattering measurements of changing the number of tubes included in the bundle and the average distance between flux tubes. We find that for the longest wavelength incoming waves, multiple scattering enhances the absorption, and its efficiency increases with the number of flux tubes and the reduction of the distance between them.

  13. ON THE DISPERSION AND SCATTERING OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES BY LONGITUDINALLY STRATIFIED FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Andries, J.; Cally, P. S. E-mail: paul.cally@monash.edu

    2011-12-20

    We provide a fairly general analytic theory for the dispersion and scattering of magnetohydrodynamic waves by longitudinally stratified flux tubes. The theory provides a common framework for, and synthesis of, many previous studies of flux tube oscillations that were carried out under various simplifying assumptions. The present theory focuses on making only a minimal number of assumptions. As a result it thus provides an analytical treatment of several generalizations of existing tube oscillation models. The most important practical cases are inclusion of plasma pressure and possibly buoyancy effects in models of straight non-diverging tubes as applied in coronal seismology, and relaxation of the 'thin tube' approximation in oscillation models of diverging tubes as applied both in the context of p-mode scattering and coronal seismology. In particular, it illustrates the unifying theoretical framework underlying both the description of waves scattered by flux tubes and the dispersion of waves carried along flux tubes.

  14. Dynamics of Magnetic Flux Tubes in an Advective Flow around a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Giri, Kinsuk

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields cannibalized by an accretion flow would very soon have a dominant toroidal component. Without changing the topology, we study the movements of these flux tubes inside a geometrically thick advective disk which undergo centrifugal pressure supported shocks. We also consider the effects of the flux tubes on the flow. We use a finite element method (Total Variation Diminishing) for this purpose and specifically focussed whether the flux tubes contribute to changes in outflow properties in terms of its collimation and outflow rates. It is seen that depending upon the cross sectional radius of the flux tubes (which control the drag force), these field lines may move towards the central object or oscillate vertically before eventually escaping out of the funnel wall (pressure zero surface). These interesting results obtained with and without flux tubes point to the role the flux tubes play in collimation of jets and outflows.

  15. How the Saturnian Magnetosphere Conserves Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn are driven by the centrifugal force of near co-rotating water group ions released at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second by Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plasma is accelerated up to co-rotation speed by the magnetospheric magnetic field coupled to the Saturnian ionosphere. The plasma is lost ultimately through the process of magnetic reconnection in the tail. Conservation of magnetic flux requires that plasma-depleted, "empty" flux tubes return magnetic flux to the inner magnetosphere. After completion of the initial inrush of the reconnected and largely emptied flux tubes inward of the reconnection point, the flux tubes face the outflowing plasma and must move inward against the flow. Observations of such flux tubes have been identified in the eight years of Cassini magnetometer data. The occurrence of these tubes is observed at all local times indicating slow inward transport of the tubes relative to the co-rotation speed. Depleted flux tubes observed in the equatorial region appear as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field, whereas the same flux tubes observed at higher latitudes appear as decreased field strength. The difference in appearance of the low latitude and the high latitude tubes is due to the plasma environment just outside the tube. Warm low-density plasma fills the inside of the flux tube at all latitudes. This flux tube thus will expand in the less dense regions away from the magnetic equator and will be observed as a decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic field from the background. These flux tubes near the equator, where the plasma density outside of the flux tube is much greater, will be observed as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field. Cassini magnetometer and CAPS data are examined to understand the properties of these flux tubes and their radial and latitudinal evolution throughout the Saturnian magnetospheric environment.

  16. Weyl invariant formulation of the flux-tube solution in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Yoshiaki; Toki, Hiroshi

    2000-09-01

    The flux-tube solution in the dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory in the Bogomol'nyi limit is studied by using the manifestly Weyl invariant form of the DGL Lagrangian. The dual gauge symmetry is extended to [U(1)]3m, and, accordingly, there appear three different types of flux tube. The string tension for each flux tube is calculated analytically and is found to be the same owing to Weyl symmetry. It is suggested that the manifestly Weyl invariant approach enables us to treat flux tubes of various types in the DGL theory in a framework quite similar to the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs theory.

  17. Flux tube train model for local turbulence simulation of toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Ishizawa, A.; Nunami, M.

    2015-02-15

    A new simulation method for local turbulence in toroidal plasmas is developed by extending the conventional idea of the flux tube model. In the new approach, a train of flux tubes is employed, where flux tube simulation boxes are serially connected at each end along a field line so as to preserve a symmetry of the local gyrokinetic equations for image modes in an axisymmetric torus. Validity of the flux tube train model is confirmed against the toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence for a case with a long parallel correlation of fluctuations, demonstrating numerical advantages over the conventional method in the time step size and the symmetry-preserving property.

  18. Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. A.; Fan, Y.

    2015-05-01

    We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch ( Astrophys. J. 741, 11, 2011; Solar Phys. 287, 239, 2013), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on 1022 Mx flux tubes, corresponding to flux tubes of large active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of ≤ 60 kG that are subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward because of the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution, which results from including radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic field strengths ranging from 15 kG to 100 kG have rise times of ≤ 0.2 years and exhibit a Joy's Law tilt-angle trend. Our results suggest that radiative heating is an effective mechanism by which flux tubes can escape from the stably stratified overshoot region. Moreover, flux tubes do not necessarily need to be anchored in the overshoot region to produce emergence properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun.

  19. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  20. Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux tubes in almost helical plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia de Andrade, L.C.

    2006-02-15

    Riemannian geometry of curves applied recently by Ricca [Fluid Dyn. Res 36, 319 (2005)] in the case of inflectional disequilibrium of twisted magnetic flux tubes is used here to compute the magnetic helicity force-free field case. Here the application of Lorentz force-free to the magnetic flux tube in tokamaks allows one to obtain an equation that generalizes the cylindrical tokamak equation by a term that contains the curvature of the magnetic flux tube. Another example of the use of the magnetic flux tube is done by taking the electron magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluid model (EMHD) of plasma physics that allows one to compute the velocity of the fluid in helical and almost helical flows in terms of the Frenet torsion of thin magnetic flux tubes. The cases of straight and curved twisted tubes are examined. Second-order effects on the Frenet torsion arise on the poloidal component of the magnetic field, while curvature effects appear in the toroidal component. The magnetic fields are computed in terms of the penetration depth used in superconductors. The ratio between poloidal and toroidal components of the magnetic field depends on the torsion and curvature of the magnetic flux tube. It is shown that the rotation of the almost helical plasma flow contributes to the twist of the magnetic flux tube through the total Frenet torsion along the tube.

  1. Magnetohydrostatic Equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional Multiple Open Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Stratified Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gent, F. A.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  2. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional multiple open magnetic flux tubes in the stratified solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R.; Fedun, V.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  3. Dynamical evolution of twisted magnetic flux tubes. I - Equilibrium and linear stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Schnack, Dalton D.; Van Hoven, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The three-dimensional dynamical evolution of twisted magnetic flux tubes is studied using a time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The flux tubes are intended to model solar coronal loops, and include the stabilizing effect of photospheric line tying. The model permits the complete evolution of flux tubes to be followed self-consistently, including the formation, equilibrium, linear instability, and nonlinear behavior. Starting from an initial uniform background magnetic field, a twisted flux tube is created by the application of slow, localized photospheric vortex flows. The flux tube evolves quasi-statically through sequences of equilibria with increasing twist, until it becomes linearly unstable to an ideal MHD kink mode. In this paper, the equilibrium properties and the linear stability behavior are discussed. The application of the method to the uniform-twist, Gold-Hoyle field confirms the previous stability threshold for kink instability and provides estimates of the resulting growth rate.

  4. Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind - Evidence for interplanetary magnetic field reconnection?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Phillips, J. L.; Bame, S. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    An examination of ISEE-3 data from 1978 reveal 25 electron heat flux dropout events ranging in duration from 20 min to over 11 hours. The heat flux dropouts are found to occur in association with high plasma densities, low plasma velocities, low ion and electron temperatures, and low magnetic field magnitudes. It is suggested that the heat flux dropout intervals may indicate that the spacecraft is sampling plasma regimes which are magnetically disconnected from the sun and instead are connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.

  5. High Resolution Studies of Sunspots and Flux Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This contract started as a three-year research study of sunspots and magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, using tunable filter images collected with a CCD camera during observing runs at the Canary Islands observatories in Spain. Scientific results are reported at conferences and published in the appropriate journals. The contract is being performed by the Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory (S&AL), part of the Lockheed Palo Alto Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alan Title, and the research is done by him and other scientific staff at S&AL, often in collaboration with visiting scientists and students from other institutions. An extension to the contract has been awarded for developing the Solar Lite technology demonstration telescope, a 1-meter solar telescope with silicon carbide optics made at the Vavilov Optical Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The highlights during this reporting period included the continuation of the fabrication efforts on the Solar Lite optical components at Vavilov State Optical Institute, including the completion of the Gregorian telescope field stop. A visit was made to the Vavilov Institute to review the progress and inspect the optical components.

  6. Reconnection at Earth's Dayside Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassak, P. A.; Fuselier, S. A.

    Magnetic reconnection at Earth's dayside magnetopause plays a crucial role in space weather-related phenomena. The response of the magnetosphere to input from interplanetary space differs greatly depending on where reconnection happens and how efficiently it reconnects magnetic flux from interplanetary space. This chapter is a pedagogical treatment of dayside reconnection. Introductory topics include a guide to the magnetosphere for the uninitiated and a brief history of the field. Technical topics include qualitative properties of dayside reconnection, such as where reconnection occurs and what it looks like, and how reconnection quantitatively depends on ambient conditions, including the effect of asymmetries, the diamagnetic drift, and flow shear. Both observational and theoretical aspects are discussed. The chapter is closed with a discussion of open questions and the outlook for the future of dayside reconnection research.

  7. Application of Stereo Vision to the Reconnection Scaling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Klarenbeek, Johnny; Sears, Jason A.; Gao, Kevin W.; Intrator, Thomas P.; Weber, Thomas

    2012-08-14

    The measurement and simulation of the three-dimensional structure of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical and lab plasmas is a challenging problem. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we use the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) to model 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) relaxation of plasma filled tubes. These magnetic flux tubes are called flux ropes. In RSX, the 3D structure of the flux ropes is explored with insertable probes. Stereo triangulation can be used to compute the 3D position of a probe from point correspondences in images from two calibrated cameras. While common applications of stereo triangulation include 3D scene reconstruction and robotics navigation, we will investigate the novel application of stereo triangulation in plasma physics to aid reconstruction of 3D data for RSX plasmas. Several challenges will be explored and addressed, such as minimizing 3D reconstruction errors in stereo camera systems and dealing with point correspondence problems.

  8. CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Lopin, Igor; Nagorny, Ivan

    2013-09-10

    The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.

  9. Plasma β scaling of anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind flux tube

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Aveek; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Ebrahimi, Fatima E-mail: amitava@princeton.edu

    2014-03-10

    Based on various observations, it has been suggested that at 1 AU, solar wind consists of 'spaghetti'-like magnetic field structures that have the magnetic topology of flux tubes. It is also observed that the plasma fluctuation spectra at 1 AU show a plasma β dependence. Reconciling these two sets of observations and using the Invariance Principle, Bhattacharjee et al. suggested that the plasma inside every flux tube may become unstable with respect to pressure-driven instabilities and gives rise to fluctuation spectra that depend on the local plasma β. The present work is the first direct numerical simulation of such a flux tube. We solve the full magnetohydrodynamic equations using the DEBS code and show that if the plasma inside the flux tube is driven unstable by spatial inhomogeneities in the background plasma pressure, the observed nature of the fluctuating power spectra agrees reasonably well with observations, as well as the analytical prediction of Bhattacharjee et al.

  10. A fast flux tube-based method for solute-transport simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atteia, Olivier; Huberson, Serge; Dupuy, Alain

    2011-03-01

    A new method to calculate the transport of dissolved species in aquifers is presented. This approach is an extension of the stream tubes which are used for flow computation. The flux tubes defined here are conservative for solutes, but not for water mass. The flux tubes are first defined in a general domain and then calculated in a two-dimensional uniform flow field. The tubes' computation is based on a parametric solution. The method is extended further in order to deal with heterogeneous media. A particle-tracking algorithm is used where the deviation of the flux-tube boundaries due to dispersion is accounted for. The approximate solution obtained by this approach is compared to classical numerical solutions given by a finite difference code (RT3D) and a finite element code (FEFLOW). This comparison was performed for several test cases with increasing complexity. The differences between the flux-tube approach and the other methods always remain small, even regarding mass conservation. The major advantage of the flux-tube approach is the ability to reach a solution quickly, as the method is hundreds to thousands of times faster than classical finite difference or finite element models.

  11. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    DOE PAGES

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintainingmore » a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.« less

  12. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  13. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  14. 3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, T.

    2015-10-15

    The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconnection can occur only between anti-parallel components of the magnetic flux tubes and may be referred to as component reconnection. The latter configuration type may be more important for the larger class of small-scale reconnection events. The two types of magnetic configurations can be compared to counter-helicity and co-helicity configurations, respectively, in laboratory plasma collision experiments.

  15. Observations of Plasma Waves in the Colliding Jet Region of a 3D Magnetic Flux Rope Flanked by Two Active Reconnection X Lines at the Subsolar Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oieroset, M.; Sundkvist, D. J.; Chaston, C. C.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F.; McFadden, J. P.; Angelopoulos, V.; Andersson, L.; Eastwood, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed a detailed analysis of plasma and wave observations in a 3D magnetic flux rope encountered by the THEMIS spacecraft at the subsolar magnetopause. The extent of the flux rope was ˜270 ion skin depths in the outflow direction, and it was flanked by two active reconnection X lines producing colliding plasma jets in the flux rope core where ion heating and suprathermal electrons were observed. The colliding jet region was highly dynamic and characterized by the presence of high-frequency waves such as ion acoustic-like waves, electron holes, and whistler mode waves near the flux rope center and low-frequency kinetic Alfvén waves over a larger region. We will discuss possible links between these waves and particle heating.

  16. Detailed study of the Abelian-projected SU(2) flux tube and its dual Ginzburg-Landau analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Suzuki, T.

    2003-12-01

    The color-electric flux tube of Abelian-projected (AP) SU(2) lattice gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is examined. It is shown that the lattice Gribov copy effect in the MAG is crucial for the monopole-related parts of the flux-tube profiles. Taking into account both the gauge fixing procedure and the effect of finite quark-antiquark distance properly, the scaling property of the flux-tube profile is confirmed. The quantitative relation between the measured AP flux tube and the flux-tube solution of the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs (DAH) model is also discussed. The fitting of the AP flux tube in terms of the DAH flux tube indicates that the vacuum can be classified as a weakly type-I dual superconductor.

  17. Inertial-Range Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind.

    PubMed

    Lalescu, Cristian C; Shi, Yi-Kang; Eyink, Gregory L; Drivas, Theodore D; Vishniac, Ethan T; Lazarian, Alexander

    2015-07-10

    In situ spacecraft data on the solar wind show events identified as magnetic reconnection with wide outflows and extended "X lines," 10(3)-10(4) times ion scales. To understand the role of turbulence at these scales, we make a case study of an inertial-range reconnection event in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. We observe stochastic wandering of field lines in space, breakdown of standard magnetic flux freezing due to Richardson dispersion, and a broadened reconnection zone containing many current sheets. The coarse-grain magnetic geometry is like large-scale reconnection in the solar wind, however, with a hyperbolic flux tube or apparent X line extending over integral length scales. PMID:26207472

  18. Current sheet thinning, reconnection onset, and auroral morphology during geomagnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, A.; Hsieh, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic substorms represent a fundamental energy release mechanism for the terrestrial magnetosphere. Specifically, the evolution of thin currents sheets during the substorm growth phase plays a key role for substorms because such current sheets present a much lower threshold for the onset of tearing modes and magnetic reconnection than the usually thick magnetotail current sheet. Here we examine and compare two basic processes for current sheet thinning in the Earth's magnetotail: Current sheet thinning (1) through closed magnetic flux depletion (MFD) in the near Earth magnetotail caused by divergent flux transport to replace closed flux on the dayside and (2) through accumulation of open flux magnetic flux in the tail lobes also caused by dayside reconnection. Both processes are expected to operate during any period of enhanced dayside reconnection. It is demonstrated that closed magnetic flux depletion (MFD) in the near Earth magnetotail and the increase of open lobe magnetic flux can lead to the evolution of two separate thin current sheets in the near Earth and the mid tail regions of the magnetosphere. While the auroral morphology associated with MFD and near Earth current sheet formation is well consistent with typical substorm growth observation, midtail current sheet formation through lobe flux increase shows only a minor influence on the auroral ionosphere. We discuss the physics of the dual current sheet formation and local and auroral properties of magnetic reconnection in either current sheet. It is suggested that only reconnection onset in the near Earth current sheet may be consistent with substorm expansion because the flux tube entropy depletion of mid tail reconnection appears insufficient to cause geosynchronous particle injection and dipolarization. Therefore reconnection in the mid tail current sheet is more likely associated with bursty bulk flows or dipolarization fronts which stop short of geosynchronous distances.

  19. On the relation between coronal heating, flux tube divergence, and the solar wind proton flux and flow speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Onulf; Leer, Egil; Hansteen, Viggo H.

    1994-01-01

    A one-fluid solar wind model is used to investigate some relations between coronal heating, the flux tube divergence near the Sun, and the solar wind proton flux and flow speed. The effects of energy addition to the supersonic region of the flow are also studied. We allow for a mechanical energy flux that heats the corona, and an Alfven wave energy flux that adds energy, mainly to the supersonic flow, both as momentum and as heat. We find that the mechanical energy flux determines the solar wind mass flux, and in order to keep an almost constant proton flux at the orbit of Earth with changing flow geometry, that the mechanical energy flux must vary linearly with the magnetic field in the inner corona. This thermally driven wind generally has a low asymptotic flow speed. When Alfven waves are added to the thermally driven flow, the asymptotic flow speed is increased and is determined by the ratio of the Alfven wave and the mechanical energy fluxes at the coronal base. Flow speeds characteristic of recurrent high-speed solar wind streams can be obtained only when the Alfven wave energy flux, deposited in the supersonic flow, is larger than the mechanical energy flux heating the corona.

  20. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes. V - Radiative flows with variable ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montesinos, Benjamin; Thomas, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Steady siphon flows in arched isolated magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere are calculated here including radiative transfer between the flux tube and its surrounding and variable ionization of the flowing gas. It is shown that the behavior of a siphon flow is strongly determined by the degree of radiative coupling between the flux tube and its surroundings in the superadiabatic layer just below the solar surface. Critical siphon flows with adiabatic tube shocks in the downstream leg are calculated, illustrating the radiative relaxation of the temperature jump downstream of the shock. For flows in arched flux tubes reaching up to the temperature minimum, where the opacity is low, the gas inside the flux tube is much cooler than the surrounding atmosphere at the top of the arch. It is suggested that gas cooled by siphon flows contribute to the cool component of the solar atmosphere at the height of the temperature minimum implied by observations of the infrared CO bands at 4.6 and 2.3 microns.

  1. A Kinetic Transport Theory for Particle Acceleration and Transport in Regions of Multiple Contracting and Reconnecting Inertial-scale Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. A.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.

    2015-03-01

    Simulations of particle acceleration in turbulent plasma regions with multiple contracting and merging (reconnecting) magnetic islands emphasize the key role of temporary particle trapping in island structures for the efficient acceleration of particles to form hard power-law spectra. Statistical kinetic transport theories have been developed that capture the essential physics of particle acceleration in multi-island regions. The transport theory of Zank et al. is further developed by considering the acceleration effects of both the mean and the variance of the electric fields induced by the dynamics of multiple inertial-scale flux ropes. A focused transport equation is derived that includes new Fokker-Planck terms for particle scattering and stochastic acceleration due to the variance in multiple flux-rope magnetic fields, plasma flows, and reconnection electric fields. A Parker transport equation is also derived in which a new expression for momentum diffusion appears, combining stochastic acceleration by particle scattering in the mean multi-flux-rope electric fields with acceleration by the variance in these electric fields. Test particle acceleration is modeled analytically considering drift acceleration by the variance in the induced electric fields of flux ropes in the slow supersonic, radially expanding solar wind. Hard power-law spectra occur for sufficiently strong inertial-scale flux ropes with an index modified by adiabatic cooling, solar wind advection, and diffusive escape from flux ropes. Flux ropes might be sufficiently strong behind interplanetary shocks where the index of suprathermal ion power-law spectra observed in the supersonic solar wind can be reproduced.

  2. A KINETIC TRANSPORT THEORY FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND TRANSPORT IN REGIONS OF MULTIPLE CONTRACTING AND RECONNECTING INERTIAL-SCALE FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Le Roux, J. A.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.

    2015-03-10

    Simulations of particle acceleration in turbulent plasma regions with multiple contracting and merging (reconnecting) magnetic islands emphasize the key role of temporary particle trapping in island structures for the efficient acceleration of particles to form hard power-law spectra. Statistical kinetic transport theories have been developed that capture the essential physics of particle acceleration in multi-island regions. The transport theory of Zank et al. is further developed by considering the acceleration effects of both the mean and the variance of the electric fields induced by the dynamics of multiple inertial-scale flux ropes. A focused transport equation is derived that includes new Fokker-Planck terms for particle scattering and stochastic acceleration due to the variance in multiple flux-rope magnetic fields, plasma flows, and reconnection electric fields. A Parker transport equation is also derived in which a new expression for momentum diffusion appears, combining stochastic acceleration by particle scattering in the mean multi-flux-rope electric fields with acceleration by the variance in these electric fields. Test particle acceleration is modeled analytically considering drift acceleration by the variance in the induced electric fields of flux ropes in the slow supersonic, radially expanding solar wind. Hard power-law spectra occur for sufficiently strong inertial-scale flux ropes with an index modified by adiabatic cooling, solar wind advection, and diffusive escape from flux ropes. Flux ropes might be sufficiently strong behind interplanetary shocks where the index of suprathermal ion power-law spectra observed in the supersonic solar wind can be reproduced.

  3. Basic properties of magnetic flux tubes and restrictions on theories of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the mean longitudinal field in a magnetic flux tube is reduced, rather than enhanced, by twisting the tube to form a rope. It is shown that there is no magnetohydrostatic equilibrium when one twisted rope is wound around another. Instead there is rapid line cutting (neutral point annihilation). It is shown that the twisting increases, and the field strength decreases, along a flux tube extending upward through a stratified atmosphere. These facts are at variance with Piddington's (1975) recent suggestion that solar activity is to be understood as the result of flux tubes which are enormously concentrated by twisting, which consist of several twisted ropes wound around each other, and which came untwisted where they emerge through the photosphere.

  4. Self-organized criticality in a two-dimensional cellular automaton model of a magnetic flux tube with background flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dănilă, B.; Harko, T.; Mocanu, G.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the transition to self-organized criticality in a two-dimensional model of a flux tube with a background flow. The magnetic induction equation, represented by a partial differential equation with a stochastic source term, is discretized and implemented on a two-dimensional cellular automaton. The energy released by the automaton during one relaxation event is the magnetic energy. As a result of the simulations, we obtain the time evolution of the energy release, of the system control parameter, of the event lifetime distribution and of the event size distribution, respectively, and we establish that a self-organized critical state is indeed reached by the system. Moreover, energetic initial impulses in the magnetohydrodynamic flow can lead to one-dimensional signatures in the magnetic two-dimensional system, once the self-organized critical regime is established. The applications of the model for the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is briefly considered, and it is shown that some astrophysical parameters of the bursts, like the light curves, the maximum released energy and the number of peaks in the light curve can be reproduced and explained, at least on a qualitative level, by working in a framework in which the systems settles in a self-organized critical state via magnetic reconnection processes in the magnetized GRB fireball.

  5. Numerical Experiments on the Two-step Emergence of Twisted Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, S.; Yokoyama, T.

    2011-07-01

    We present the new results of the two-dimensional numerical experiments on the cross-sectional evolution of a twisted magnetic flux tube rising from the deeper solar convection zone (-20,000 km) to the corona through the surface. The initial depth is 10 times deeper than most of the previous calculations focusing on the flux emergence from the uppermost convection zone. We find that the evolution is illustrated by the following two-step process. The initial tube rises due to its buoyancy, subject to aerodynamic drag due to the external flow. Because of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field, the tube maintains its coherency and does not deform to become a vortex roll pair. When the flux tube approaches the photosphere and expands sufficiently, the plasma on the rising tube accumulates to suppress the tube's emergence. Therefore, the flux decelerates and extends horizontally beneath the surface. This new finding owes to our large-scale simulation, which simultaneously calculates the dynamics within the interior as well as above the surface. As the magnetic pressure gradient increases around the surface, magnetic buoyancy instability is triggered locally and, as a result, the flux rises further into the solar corona. We also find that the deceleration occurs at a higher altitude than assumed in our previous experiment using magnetic flux sheets. By conducting parametric studies, we investigate the conditions for the two-step emergence of the rising flux tube: field strength >~ 1.5 × 104 G and the twist >~ 5.0 × 10-4 km-1 at -20,000 km depth.

  6. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE TWO-STEP EMERGENCE OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, S.; Yokoyama, T.

    2011-07-10

    We present the new results of the two-dimensional numerical experiments on the cross-sectional evolution of a twisted magnetic flux tube rising from the deeper solar convection zone (-20,000 km) to the corona through the surface. The initial depth is 10 times deeper than most of the previous calculations focusing on the flux emergence from the uppermost convection zone. We find that the evolution is illustrated by the following two-step process. The initial tube rises due to its buoyancy, subject to aerodynamic drag due to the external flow. Because of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field, the tube maintains its coherency and does not deform to become a vortex roll pair. When the flux tube approaches the photosphere and expands sufficiently, the plasma on the rising tube accumulates to suppress the tube's emergence. Therefore, the flux decelerates and extends horizontally beneath the surface. This new finding owes to our large-scale simulation, which simultaneously calculates the dynamics within the interior as well as above the surface. As the magnetic pressure gradient increases around the surface, magnetic buoyancy instability is triggered locally and, as a result, the flux rises further into the solar corona. We also find that the deceleration occurs at a higher altitude than assumed in our previous experiment using magnetic flux sheets. By conducting parametric studies, we investigate the conditions for the two-step emergence of the rising flux tube: field strength {approx}> 1.5 x 10{sup 4} G and the twist {approx}> 5.0 x 10{sup -4} km{sup -1} at -20,000 km depth.

  7. Simulations of Emerging Magnetic Flux. II. The Formation of Unstable Coronal Flux Ropes and the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (approximately 36 Mm above the surface).We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as "magnetic breakout," are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  8. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. II. The formation of unstable coronal flux ropes and the initiation of coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-05-20

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (∼36 Mm above the surface). We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as 'magnetic breakout', are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  9. Polar observations of ion/electron bursts at the pre-dawn polar cap boundary: evidence for internal reconnection of overdraped lobe flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholt, P. E.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2008-08-01

    Observations made by Polar of ion-electron bursts on the dawn side of the polar cap are presented. They occurred when conditions external to the magnetosphere corresponded to that of the sheath region of a magnetic cloud, which was characterized by very high densities/dynamic pressure and a magnetic field which was strong in all components and which was tilted antisunward (Bx<0) and northward (Bz>0) with its clock angle lying between 20 and 90° (By: 8 15 nT). A clear temporal development in the energy range spanned by the individual ion bursts (from 0.2 2 keV to 1 10 keV) was present. We relate this to a corresponding temporal evolution in the cloud sheath field and plasma. We analyze the solar wind-magnetosphere aspects of the observations using the concepts of (i) (i) overdraped lobe flux, (ii) Bx- and By-regulated sequential reconnections in opposite hemispheres (magnetopause and internal modes), and (iii) newly-closed magnetic flux. In particular, we find that the most energetic ion bursts (accompanied by bi-directionally streaming electrons at 1 10 keV and intense magnetosheath-origin fluxes) are located on newly closed field lines generated by internal reconnection occurring between overdraped lobe field lines and the closed geomagnetic field. This result corroborates a topology of lobe reconnection under conditions of dipole tilt and/or nonzero IMF Bx component advanced by Watanabe et al. (2006), which in our case is adapted to nonzero IMF By conditions.

  10. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    SciTech Connect

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.; Verth, G. E-mail: stief.gijsen@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvén waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated by kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvén waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvén waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.

  11. Modelling Magnetic Reconnection and Nano-flare Heating in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, George; Asgari-Targhi, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Current models describing magnetic reconnection in the solar corona assume single reconnection events occurring at random crossings between magnetic flux tubes. However, in the avalanche model of magnetic reconnection, multiple reconnections are expected to occur. The purpose of this research is to first, calculate the point of the greatest stress between magnetic flux tubes and then to allow for dynamic evolution utilising the avalanche model. This represents a significant increase in sophistication over previous models. This undertaking is not purely theoretical since we compare the results of our modelling with HI-C data. Using key inputs from the HIC and AIA observations such as loop length and magnetic field strength, we predict the number of reconnection events likely to take place. As a single reconnection event cannot currently be directly observed, the distribution of flare events are recorded instead. The power law fit yielded as a result of our simulations is within the expected range given the observational evidence of flare distributions and temperature values in the corona. This provides further evidence to support the role of Nano-flares in the heating of the corona.

  12. Benchmarking Particle-in-Cell drift wave simulations with Eulerian simulations in a flux-tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott; Wan, Weigang; Bravenec, Ronald; Wang, Eric; Candy, Jeff

    2012-10-01

    We present the implementation of a flux-tube option in the global turbulence code GEM.footnotetextY. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comp. Phys. 220, 839 (2007) This is necessary for benchmarking purposes because of the immense complexity involved in comparing global simulations. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. Our initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ∇B, T, ∇T, the Jacobian etc.) to be equal to their values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. We found good agreement between GEM and GYRO/GS2 for the mode frequency/growth rate in the case of adiabatic electrons, but a difference of ˜15% in the growth rates when kinetic electrons are included. Our goal is to understand the origin of this moderate disagreement. An alternative local geometry model based on a local solution of the Grad-Shafranov equationfootnotetextJ. Candy, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51, 105009 (2009) has been implemented and new benchmarking results from this model will be presented.

  13. Dynamics of local isolated magnetic flux tubes in a fast-rotating stellar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Tajima, C.T.; Matsumoto, R. |; Shibata, K.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in the fast rotating stellar atmosphere is studied. We focus on the effects and signatures of the instability of the flux tube emergence influenced by the Coriolis force. We present the result from a linear stability analysis and discuss its possible signatures in the course of the evolution of G-type and M-type stars. We present a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation of local isolated magnetic flux tubes under a magnetic buoyancy instability in co-rotating Cartesian coordinates. We find that the combination of the buoyancy instability and the Coriolis effect gives rise to a mechanism, to twist the emerging magnetic flux tube into a helical structure. The tilt angle, east-west asymmetry and magnetic helicity of the Twisted flux tubes in the simulations are studied in detail. The linear and nonlinear analyses provide hints as to what kind of pattern of large spots in young M-type main-sequence stars might be observed. We find that young and old G-type stars may have different distributions of spots while M-type stars may always have low latitudes spots. The size of stellar spots may decrease when a star becomes older, due to the decreasing of magnetic field. A qualitative comparison with solar observations is also presented.

  14. The stretching of magnetic flux tubes in the convective overshoot region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.; Mcclymont, Alexander N.; Chou, Dean-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of a magnetic flux tube initially lying at the bottom of the solar convective overshoot region. Stretching of the flux tube, e.g., by differential rotation, reduces its density, causing it to rise quasi-statically (a process referred to as vertical flux drift) until it reaches the top of the overshoot region and enters the buoyantly unstable convection region, from which a portion of it may ultimately protrude to form an active region on the surface. It is suggested that vertical flux drift and flux destabilization are inevitable consequences of field amplification, and it is surmised that these phenomena should be considered in self-consistent models of solar and stellar dynamos operating in the overshoot region.

  15. Transport of magnetic flux and mass in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Russell, C. T.; Jia, Y. D.; Wei, H. Y.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    It is well accepted that cold plasma sourced by Enceladus is ultimately lost to the solar wind, while the magnetic flux convecting outward with the plasma must return to the inner magnetosphere. However, whether the interchange or reconnection, or a combination of the two processes is the dominant mechanism in returning the magnetic flux is still under debate. Initial Cassini observations have shown that the magnetic flux returns in the form of flux tubes in the inner magnetosphere. Here we investigate those events with 10 year Cassini magnetometer data and confirm that their magnetic signatures are determined by the background plasma environments: inside (outside) the plasma disk, the returning magnetic field is enhanced (depressed) in strength. The distribution, temporal variation, shape, and transportation rate of the flux tubes are also characterized. The flux tubes break into smaller ones as they convect in. The shape of their cross section is closer to circular than fingerlike as produced in the simulations based on the interchange mechanism. In addition, no sudden changes in any flux tube properties can be found at the "boundary" which has been claimed to separate the reconnection and interchange-dominant regions. On the other hand, reasonable cold plasma loss rate and outflow velocity can be obtained if the transport rate of the magnetic flux matches the reconnection rate, which supports reconnection alone as the dominant mechanism in unloading the cold plasma from the inner magnetosphere and returning the magnetic flux from the tail.

  16. AN ESTIMATE OF THE DETECTABILITY OF RISING FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.; Fan, Y.

    2010-11-10

    The physics of the formation of magnetic active regions (ARs) is one of the most important problems in solar physics. One main class of theories suggests that ARs are the result of magnetic flux that rises from the tachocline. Time-distance helioseismology, which is based on measurements of wave propagation, promises to allow the study of the subsurface behavior of this magnetic flux. Here, we use a model for a buoyant magnetic flux concentration together with the ray approximation to show that the dominant effect on the wave propagation is expected to be from the roughly 100 m s{sup -1} retrograde flow associated with the rising flux. Using a B-spline-based method for carrying out inversions of wave travel times for flows in spherical geometry, we show that at 3 days before emergence the detection of this retrograde flow at a depth of 30 Mm should be possible with a signal-to-noise level of about 8 with a sample of 150 emerging ARs.

  17. Numerical simulations of magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a twisted solar flux tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, K.; Chmielewski, P.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khomenko, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper aims to study the response of a solar small-scale and weak magnetic flux tube to photospheric twisting motions. We numerically solve three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations to describe the evolution of the perturbation within the initially static flux tube, excited by twists in the azimuthal component of the velocity. These twists produce rotation of the magnetic field lines. Perturbation of magnetic field lines propagates upwardly, driving vertical and azimuthal flow as well as plasma compressions and rarefactions in the form of eddies. We conclude that these eddies result from the sheared azimuthal flow which seeds Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) between the flux tube and the ambient medium. Numerically obtained properties of the KHI confirm the analytical predictions for the occurrence of the instability.

  18. Impact of flux distribution on elementary heating events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, J. P.; De Moortel, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The complex magnetic field on the solar surface has been shown to contain a range of sizes and distributions of magnetic flux structures. The dynamic evolution of this magnetic carpet by photospheric flows provides a continual source of free magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere, which can subsequently be released by magnetic reconnection. Aims: We investigate how the distribution and number of magnetic flux sources impact the energy release and locations of heating through magnetic reconnection driven by slow footpoint motions. Methods: 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using Lare3D are carried out, where flux tubes are formed between positive and negative sources placed symmetrically on the lower and upper boundaries of the domain, respectively. The flux tubes are subjected to rotational driving velocities on the boundaries and are forced to interact and reconnect. Results: Initially, simple flux distributions with two and four sources are compared. In both cases, central current concentrations are formed between the flux tubes and Ohmic heating occurs. The reconnection and subsequent energy release is delayed in the four-source case and is shown to produce more locations of heating, but with smaller magnitudes. Increasing the values of the background field between the flux tubes is shown to delay the onset of reconnection and increases the efficiency of heating in both the two- and four-source cases. The cases with two flux tubes are always more energetic than the corresponding four flux tube cases, however the addition of the background field makes this disparity less significant. A final experiment with a larger number of smaller flux sources is considered and the field evolution and energetics are shown to be remarkably similar to the two-source case, indicating the importance of the size and separation of the flux sources relative to the spatial scales of the velocity driver.

  19. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  20. Time-dependent modeling of solar wind acceleration from turbulent heating in open flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, Lauren Nicole; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The acceleration of the solar wind, particularly from open flux tubes, remains an open question in solar physics. Countless physical processes have been suggested to explain all or parts of the coupled problem of coronal heating and wind acceleration, but the current generation of observations have been so far unable to distinguish which mechanism(s) dominates. In this project, we consider heating by Alfvén waves in a three-dimensional, time-dependent reduced magnetohydrodynamics model. This model solves for the heating rate as a function of time due to the twisting and braiding of magnetic field lines within a flux tube, which is caused by Alfvén waves generated at the single footpoint of the flux tube. We investigate three specific structures commonly found in the corona: 1) an open flux tube in a coronal hole, 2) an open flux tube on the edge of an equatorial streamer, and 3) an open flux tube directly neighboring an active region. We present the time-dependent heating rate, power spectra of fluctuations, and the time-averaged properties of the solar wind arising from each magnetic structure. We compare the time-averaged properties from the present modeling with previous results from a one-dimensional, time-steady code (Cranmer et al. 2007) to better calibrate the physics in the lower-dimensional code and get a better understanding of the intricate role that bursty, transient heating from Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence plays in the acceleration of the solar wind from different magnetic structures.

  1. ABSORPTION OF p MODES BY THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Rekha; Hindman, Bradley W.; Braun, Doug C.; Birch, Aaron C.

    2009-04-10

    We study the interaction between p modes and the many magnetic fibrils that lace the solar convection zone. In particular, we investigate the resulting absorption of p-mode energy by the fibril magnetic field. Through mechanical buffeting, the p modes excite tube waves on the magnetic fibrils-in the form of longitudinal sausage waves and transverse kink waves. The tube waves propagate up and down the magnetic fibrils and out of the p-mode cavity, thereby removing energy from the incident acoustic waves. We compute the absorption coefficient associated with this damping mechanism and model the absorption that would be observed for magnetic plage. We compare our results to the absorption coefficient that is measured using the local-helioseismic technique of ridge-filtered holography. We find that, depending on the mode order and the photospheric boundary conditions, we can achieve absorption coefficients for simulated plage that exceed 50%. The observed increase of the absorption coefficient as a function of frequency is reproduced for all model parameters.

  2. Dynamics of multiple flux tubes in sawtoothing KSTAR plasmas heated by electron cyclotron waves: I. Experimental analysis of the tube structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, G. H.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Bierwage, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Jeong, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; the KSTAR Team

    2015-01-01

    Multiple (two or more) flux tubes are commonly observed inside and/or near the q = 1 flux surface in KSTAR tokamak plasmas with localized electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECH/CD). Detailed 2D and quasi-3D images of the flux tubes obtained by an advanced imaging diagnostic system showed that the flux tubes are m/n = 1/1 field-aligned structures co-rotating around the magnetic axis. The flux tubes typically merge together and become like the internal kink mode of the usual sawtooth, which then collapses like a usual sawtooth crash. A systematic scan of ECH/CD beam position showed a strong correlation with the number of flux tubes. In the presence of multiple flux tubes close to the q = 1 surface, the radially outward heat transport was enhanced, which explains naturally temporal changes of electron temperature. We emphasize that the multiple flux tubes are a universal feature distinct from the internal kink instability and play a critical role in the control of sawteeth using ECH/CD.

  3. A multi-scale magnetotail reconnection event at Saturn and associated flows: Cassini/UVIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Jia, X.; Gérard, J.-C.; Bonfond, B.; Pryor, W.; Gustin, J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Jackman, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution Cassini/UVIS (Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) observations of Saturn's aurora during May 2013 (DOY 140-141). The observations reveal an enhanced auroral activity in the midnight-dawn quadrant in an extended local time sector (∼02 to 05 LT), which rotates with an average velocity of ∼45% of rigid corotation. The auroral dawn enhancement reported here, given its observed location and brightness, is most probably due to hot tenuous plasma carried inward in fast moving flux tubes returning from a tail reconnection site to the dayside. These flux tubes could generate intense field-aligned currents that would cause aurora to brighten. However, the origin of tail reconnection (solar wind or internally driven) is uncertain. Based mainly on the flux variations, which do not demonstrate flux closure, we suggest that the most plausible scenario is that of internally driven tail reconnection which operates on closed field lines. The observations also reveal multiple intensifications within the enhanced region suggesting an x-line in the tail, which extends from 02 to 05 LT. The localised enhancements evolve in arc and spot-like small scale features, which resemble vortices mainly in the beginning of the sequence. These auroral features could be related to plasma flows enhanced from reconnection which diverge into multiple narrow channels then spread azimuthally and radially. We suggest that the evolution of tail reconnection at Saturn may be pictured by an ensemble of numerous narrow current wedges or that inward transport initiated in the reconnection region could be explained by multiple localised flow burst events. The formation of vortical-like structures could then be related to field-aligned currents, building up in vortical flows in the tail. An alternative, but less plausible, scenario could be that the small scale auroral structures are related to viscous interactions involving small-scale reconnection.

  4. Simulation of magnetic flux leakage: Application to tube inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prémel, Denis; Fnaeich, E. A.; Djafa, S.; Pichon, L.; Trillon, A.; Bisiaux, B.

    2012-05-01

    The detection of flaws in steel pipes using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) consists in detecting magnetic flux leaks outside the pipe, either with a magnetic sensor or with an induction coil, while the pipe is rotating. In the Vallourec group, many NDT units use MFL for testing ferromagnetic pipes. In order to improve the performances of flaw detection, CEA LIST and the Vallourec Research Aulnoye (VRA) group are collaborating on MFL modelling. The aim is to be able to perform parametric studies thanks to a fast 3D numerical model dedicated to MFL systems. A simplified 2D geometry has already been derived for the development of first simulation tools. When considering the B-H curve of ferromagnetic materials, the non-linear magnetostatic problem can be solved with the generalized boundary element method (BEMG), which comes to the evaluation of two equivalent scalar potentials: the surface charge density and the volume charge density. When applying the Galerkin method for the discretization of integral equations, the particularity of this numerical model lies in the implementation of high order basis functions for the interpolation of the scalar unknowns. This paper presents some first numerical results for the numerical validation of the semi-analytical model.

  5. Magnetotail Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrukovich, A.; Artemyev, A.; Nakamura, R.

    Reconnection is the key process responsible for the magnetotail dynamics. Driven reconnection in the distant tail is not sufficient to support global magnetospheric convection and the near Earth neutral line spontaneously forms to restore the balance. Mechanisms of initiation of such near-Earth magnetotail reconnection still represent one of major unresolved issues in space physics. We review the progress in this topic during the last decade. Recent theoretical advances suggest several variants of overcoming the famous tearing stability problem. Multipoint spacecraft observations reveal detailed structure of pre-onset current sheet of and reconnection zone down to ion larmor scale, supporting the importance of unstable state development through internal magnetotail reconfiguration.

  6. Detection of Cracks at Welds in Steel Tubing Using Flux Focusing Electromagnetic Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Nath, Shridhar; Simpson, John; Namkung, Min

    1994-01-01

    The inspection of weldments in critical pressure vessel joints is a major concern in the nuclear power industry. Corrosive environments can speed the fatigue process and access to the critical area is often limited. Eddy current techniques have begun to be used to help overcome these obstacles [1]. As direct contact and couplants are not required, remote areas can be inspected by simply snaking an eddy current coil into the intake tube of the vessel. The drawback of the eddy current method has been the high sensitivity to small changes in the conductivity and permeability of the test piece which are known to vary at weldments [1]. The flaw detection mechanism of the flux focusing electromagnetic probe can help alleviate these difficulties and provide a unique capability for detecting longitudinal fatigue cracks in critical tube structures. The Flux Focusing Electromagnetic Flaw Detector, originally invented for the detection of fatigue and corrosion damage in aluminum plates [2-3], has been adapted for use in testing steel tubing for longitudinal fatigue cracks. The modified design allows for the probe to be placed axisymmetrically into the tubing, inducing eddy currents in the tube wall. The pickup coil of the probe is fixed slightly below the primary windings and is rotated 90 so that its axis is normal to the tube wall. The magnetic flux of the primary coil is focused through the use of ferromagnetic material so that in the absence of fatigue damage there will be no flux linkage with the pickup coil. The presence of a longitudinal fatigue crack will cause the eddy currents induced in the tube wall to flow around the flaw and directly under the pickup coil. The magnetic field associated with these currents will then link the pickup coil and an unambiguous increase in the output voltage of the probe will be measured. The use of the flux focusing electromagnetic probe is especially suited for the detection of flaws originating at or near tube welds. The probe is

  7. Numerical simulation of filling a magnetic flux tube with a cold plasma: Anomalous plasma effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Leung, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale models of plasmaspheric refilling have revealed that during the early stage of the refilling counterstreaming ion beams are a common feature. However, the instability of such ion beams and its effect on refilling remain unexplored. In order to learn the basic effects of ion beam instabilities on refilling, we have performed numerical simulations of the refilling of an artificial magnetic flux tube. (The shape and size of the tube are assumed so that the essential features of the refilling problem are kept in the simulation and at the same time the small scale processes driven by the ion beams are sufficiently resolved.) We have also studied the effect of commonly found equatorially trapped warm and/or hot plasma on the filling of a flux tube with a cold plasma. Three types of simulation runs have been performed.

  8. Design and use of the ORNL HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) pneumatic tube irradiation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Robinson, L.; Teasley, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    A second pneumatic tube that was recently installed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor for neutron activation analysis is described. Although not yet tested, the system is expected to have a thermal neutron flux of about 1.5 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. A delayed neutron counter is an integral part of the pneumatic tube, and all of the hardware is present to enable automated use of the counter. The system is operated with a Gould programmable controller that is programmed with an IBM personal computer. Automation of any mode of operation, including the delayed neutron counter, will only require a nominal amount of software development. Except for the lack of a hot cell, the irradiation facility has all of the advantageous features of an older pneumatic tube that has been in operation for 17 years. The design of the system and some applications and methods of operation are described.

  9. Reconnection in photospheric-chromospheric current sheet and coronal heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, N.; Uddin, W.

    2011-02-15

    It has been observed by various ground and space based solar missions that magnetic reconnection occurs frequently in the photosphere-chromosphere region as well as in the solar corona. The purpose of this article is to examine the process of reconnection in thin current sheet formed between two oppositely directed magnetic flux tubes in photospheric-chromospheric region. Using the data of different atmospheric models for the solar photosphere and chromosphere, we have estimated the rate of magnetic reconnection in terms of Alfvenic Mach number, growth rate of tearing mode, island length scales, and energy dissipation rate necessary to heat the chromospheric plasma. It is found that magnetic Reynolds number for the current sheet in the chromosphere varies from 1.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} to 7.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} which indicates that the field lines in the photosphere and chromosphere reconnect with speed, that is, 0.00034 to 0.0297 times the Alfven speed. Frequency of the MHD waves generated in the chromosphere reconnection region is of the order of 100 Hz, so these high-frequency waves may be the sources of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration.

  10. Flux-tube geometry and solar wind speed during an activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.; Rouillard, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The solar wind speed at 1 AU shows cyclic variations in latitude and in time which reflect the evolution of the global background magnetic field during the activity cycle. It is commonly accepted that the terminal (asymptotic) wind speed in a given magnetic flux-tube is generally anti-correlated with its total expansion ratio, which motivated the definition of widely used semi-empirical scaling laws relating one to the other. In practice, such scaling laws require ad hoc corrections (especially for the slow wind in the vicinities of streamer/coronal hole boundaries) and empirical fits to in situ spacecraft data. A predictive law based solely on physical principles is still missing. Aims: We test whether the flux-tube expansion is the controlling factor of the wind speed at all phases of the cycle and at all latitudes (close to and far from streamer boundaries) using a very large sample of wind-carrying open magnetic flux-tubes. We furthermore search for additional physical parameters based on the geometry of the coronal magnetic field which have an influence on the terminal wind flow speed. Methods: We use numerical magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of the corona and wind coupled to a dynamo model to determine the properties of the coronal magnetic field and of the wind velocity (as a function of time and latitude) during a whole 11-yr activity cycle. These simulations provide a large statistical ensemble of open flux-tubes which we analyse conjointly in order to identify relations of dependence between the wind speed and geometrical parameters of the flux-tubes which are valid globally (for all latitudes and moments of the cycle). Results: Our study confirms that the terminal (asymptotic) speed of the solar wind depends very strongly on the geometry of the open magnetic flux-tubes through which it flows. The total flux-tube expansion is more clearly anti-correlated with the wind speed for fast rather than for slow wind flows, and effectively controls the

  11. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  12. Reconnection Remnants in the Magnetic Cloud of October 18-19, 1995: A Shock, Monochromatic Wave, Heat Flux Dropout and Energetic Ion Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, A.; Farrell, W.; Slavin, J. A.; Lepping, R. P.; Fitzenreiter, R.; Thompson, B.; Hamilton, D. C.; Gloeckler, G.; Ho, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the WIND spacecraft observed particle and field signatures on October 18-19, 1995 due to reconnection near the footpoints of a magnetic cloud (i.e., between 1 and 5 solar radii). These signatures include: (1) an internal shock traveling approximately along the axis of the magnetic cloud, (2) a simple compression of the magnetic field consistent with the footpoint magnetic fields being thrust outwards at speeds much greater than the solar wind speed, (3) an electron heat flux dropout occurring within minutes of the shock indicating a topological change resulting from disconnection from the solar surface, (4) a very cold 5 keV proton beam and (5) an associated monochromatic wave. We expect that, given observations of enough magnetic clouds, Wind and other spacecraft will see signatures similar to the ones reported here indicating reconnection. However, these observations require the spacecraft to be fortuitously positioned to observe the passing shock and other signatures and will therefore be associated with only a small fraction of magnetic clouds. Consistent with this, a few magnetic clouds observed by Wind have been found to possess internal shock waves.

  13. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  14. ON THE ANISOTROPY IN EXPANSION OF MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Malanushenko, A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Most one-dimensional hydrodynamic models of plasma confined to magnetic flux tubes assume circular tube cross sections. We use potential field models to show that flux tubes in circumstances relevant to the solar corona do not, in general, maintain the same cross-sectional shape through their length and therefore the assumption of a circular cross section is rarely true. We support our hypothesis with mathematical reasoning and numerical experiments. We demonstrate that lifting this assumption in favor of realistic, non-circular loops makes the apparent expansion of magnetic flux tubes consistent with that of observed coronal loops. We propose that in a bundle of ribbon-like loops, those that are viewed along the wide direction would stand out against those that are viewed across the wide direction due to the difference in their column depths. That result would impose a bias toward selecting loops that appear not to be expanding, seen projected in the plane of sky. An implication of this selection bias is that the preferentially selected non-circular loops would appear to have increased pressure scale heights even if they are resolved by current instruments.

  15. Sunspot rotation. II. Effects of varying the field strength and twist of an emerging flux tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, Z.; Hood, A. W.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Observations of flux emergence indicate that rotational velocities may develop within sunspots. However, the dependence of this rotation on sub-photospheric field strength and twist remains largely unknown. Aims: We investigate the effects of varying the initial field strength and twist of an emerging sub-photospheric magnetic flux tube on the rotation of the sunspots at the photosphere. Methods: We consider a simple model of a stratified domain with a sub-photospheric interior layer and three overlying atmospheric layers. A twisted arched flux tube is inserted in the interior and is allowed to rise into the atmosphere. To achieve this, the magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved using the Lagrangian-remap code, Lare3d. We perform a parameter study by independently varying the sub-photospheric magnetic field strength and twist. Results: Altering the initial magnetic field strength and twist of the flux tube significantly affects the tube's evolution and the rotational motions that develop at the photosphere. The rotation angle, vorticity, and current show a direct dependence on the initial field strength. We find that an increase in field strength increases the angle through which the fieldlines rotate, the length of the fieldlines extending into the atmosphere, and the magnetic energy transported to the atmosphere. This also affects the amount of residual twist in the interior. The length of the fieldlines is crucial as we predict the twist per unit length equilibrates to a lower value on longer fieldlines. No such direct dependence is found when we modify the twist of the magnetic field owing to the complex effect this has on the tension force acting on the tube. However, there is still a clear ordering in quantities such as the rotation angle, helicity, and free energy with higher initial twist cases being related to sunspots that rotate more rapidly, transporting more helicity and magnetic energy to the atmosphere.

  16. THE RISE OF ACTIVE REGION FLUX TUBES IN THE TURBULENT SOLAR CONVECTIVE ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Maria A.; Fan Yuhong; Miesch, Mark S.

    2011-11-01

    We use a thin flux tube model in a rotating spherical shell of turbulent convective flows to study how active region scale flux tubes rise buoyantly from the bottom of the convection zone to near the solar surface. We investigate toroidal flux tubes at the base of the convection zone with field strengths ranging from 15 kG to 100 kG at initial latitudes ranging from 1{sup 0} to 40{sup 0} with a total flux of 10{sup 22} Mx. We find that the dynamic evolution of the flux tube changes from convection dominated to magnetic buoyancy dominated as the initial field strength increases from 15 kG to 100 kG. At 100 kG, the development of {Omega}-shaped rising loops is mainly controlled by the growth of the magnetic buoyancy instability. However, at low field strengths of 15 kG, the development of rising {Omega}-shaped loops is largely controlled by convective flows, and properties of the emerging loops are significantly changed compared to previous results in the absence of convection. With convection, rise times are drastically reduced (from years to a few months), loops are able to emerge at low latitudes, and tilt angles of emerging loops are consistent with Joy's law for initial field strengths of {approx}>40 kG. We also examine other asymmetries that develop between the leading and following legs of the emerging loops. Taking all the results together, we find that mid-range field strengths of {approx}40-50 kG produce emerging loops that best match the observed properties of solar active regions.

  17. Finite ballooning angle effects on ion temperature gradient driven mode in gyrokinetic flux tube simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rameswar; Brunner, S.; Ganesh, R.; Jenko, F.

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents effects of finite ballooning angles on linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode and associated heat and momentum flux in Gyrokinetic flux tube simulation GENE. It is found that zero ballooning angle is not always the one at which the linear growth rate is maximum. The ITG mode acquires a short wavelength (SW) branch (k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub i} > 1) when growth rates maximized over all ballooning angles are considered. However, the SW branch disappears on reducing temperature gradient showing characteristics of zero ballooning angle SWITG in case of extremely high temperature gradient. Associated heat flux is even with respect to ballooning angle and maximizes at nonzero ballooning angle while the parallel momentum flux is odd with respect to the ballooning angle.

  18. Fast Solar Wind from Slowly Expanding Magnetic Flux Tubes (P54)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.

    2006-11-01

    aks.astro.itbhu@gmail.com We present an empirical model of the fast solar wind, emanating from radially oriented slowly expanding magnetic flux tubes. We consider a single-fluid, steady state model in which the flow is driven by thermal and non-thermal pressure gradients. We apply a non-Alfvénic energy correction at the coronal base and find that specific relations correlate solar wind speed and non-thermal energy flux with the aerial expansion factor. The results are compared with the previously reported ones.

  19. Generalized flux-tube solution in Abelian-projected SU(N) gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Yoshiaki

    2002-12-01

    The [U(1)]N-1 dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory as a low-energy effective theory of Abelian-projected SU(N) gauge theory is formulated in a Weyl symmetric way. The string tensions of the flux-tube solutions of the DGL theory associated with color-electric charges in various representations of SU(N) are calculated analytically at the border between type I and type II of the dual superconducting vacuum (Bogomol’nyi limit). The resulting string tensions satisfy the flux counting rule, which reflects the non-Abelian nature of gauge theory.

  20. A fresh look at the flux tube in Abelian-projected SU(2) gluodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Suzuki, T.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2003-05-01

    We reconsider the properties of the QQ¯ flux tube within Abelian-projected SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of electric field and monopole current. In maximal Abelian gauge fixing, we assess the influence of Gribov copies on the apparent flux-tube profile. For the profile corresponding to optimal gauge fixing, we study the independence of the lattice spacing for β = 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5115 on a 32 4 lattice. We apply the decomposition of the Abelian Wilson loop into monopole and photon parts and compare the electric and monopole profile emerging from these three different sources with the field strength and monopole current within the DGL theory.

  1. Distortions of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Presence of Electric Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanushenko, Anna; Rempel, Matthias; Cheung, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Solar coronal loops possess several peculiar properties, which have been a subject of intensive research for a long time. These in particular include the lack of apparent expansion of coronal loops and the increased pressure scale height in loops compared to the diffuse background. Previously, Malanushenko & Schrijver (2013) proposed that these could be explained by the fact that magnetic flux tubes expand with height in a highly anisotropic manner. They used potential field models to demonstrate that flux tubes that have circular cross section at the photosphere, in the corona turn into a highly elongates structures, more resembling thick ribbons. Such ribbons, viewed along the expanding edge, would appear as thin, crisp structures of a constant cross-section with an increased pressure scale height, and when viewed along the non-expanding side, would appear as faint, wide and underdense features. This may also introduce a selection bias,when a set of loops is collected for a further study, towards those viewed along the expanding edge.However, some of the past studies have indicated that strong electric currents flowing in a given flux tube may result in the tube maintaining a relatively constant cross-sectional shape along its length. Given that Malanushenko & Schrijver (2013) focused on a potential, or current-free, field model of an active region, the extend to which their analysis could be applied to the real solar fields, was unclear.In the present study, we use a magnetic field created by MURaM, a highly realistic state-of-the-art radiative MHD code (Vogler et al, 2005; Rempel et al, 2009b). MURaM was shown to reproduce a wide variety of observed features of the solar corona (e.g., Hansteen et al, 2010; Cheung et al. 2007, 2008; Rempel 2009a,b). We analyze the distortions of magnetic flux tubes in a MURaM simulation of an active region corona. We quantify such distortions and correlate them with a number of relevant parameters of flux tubes, with a

  2. Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Video Gallery

    This science visualization shows a magnetospheric substorm, during which, magnetic reconnection causes energy to be rapidly released along the field lines in the magnetotail, that part of the magne...

  3. Dilation of force-free magnetic flux tubes. [solar magnetic field profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankenthal, S.

    1977-01-01

    A general study is presented of the mapping functions which relate the magnetic-field profiles across a force-free rope in segments subjected to various external pressures. The results reveal that if the external pressure falls below a certain critical level (dependent on the flux-current relation which defines the tube), the magnetic profile consists of an invariant core sheathed in a layer permeated by an azimuthal magnetic field.

  4. Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.

  5. The oscillations of a magnetic flux tube and its application to sunspots

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.J.; Roberts, B. )

    1990-01-01

    The modes of oscillation of an isolated magnetic flux tube in the absence of gravity is examined, with parameters chosen to mimic a sunspot. Gravitational stratification of the umbral atmosphere leads to consider two cases, distinguished primarily by the ordering of the Alfven speed and the external sound speed. The transition between these two regimes occurs at about the level where the optical depth, tau(c), is equal to 1 in the umbra. The modes given by the model, taken together with the observations, suggest that 3 minute oscillations are slow-body modes (driven by overstable convection) and that a sunspot consists of a bundle of pore-sized flux tubes rather than a single monolithic one. Fast-body modes are identified in the tube with the observed 5 minute oscillations of the umbral photosphere and below. The excitation of these modes propagating up or down the tube may explain the recent observation that sunspots act as sinks for p-modes propagating in their environment. Running penumbral waves are associated with fast- and slow-surface modes. The fast-surface wave could arise from fast-body modes driven below the level where tau(c) = 1; the slow-surface waves may arise from granular buffeting or overstable convection. 55 refs.

  6. Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  7. Two- and three-body color flux tubes in the chromodielectric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Gunnar; Greiner, Carsten; Leupold, Stefan; Mosel, Ulrich

    2004-12-01

    Using the framework of the chromodielectric model we perform an analysis of color electric flux tubes in mesonlike qq¯ and baryonlike qqq quark configurations. We discuss the Abelian color structure of the model and point out a symmetry in color space as a remnant of the SU(3) symmetry of QCD. The generic features of the model are discussed by varying the model parameters. We fix these parameters by reproducing the string tension τ=980 MeV/fm and the transverse width ρ=0.35 fm of the qq¯ flux tube obtained in lattice calculations. We use a bag constant B1/4=(240-260) MeV, a glueball mass mg=(1000-1700) MeV, and a strong coupling constant CFαs=0.2-0.3. We show that the asymptotic string profile of an infinitely long flux tube is already reached for qq¯ separations R≥1.0 fm. A connection to the dual color superconductor is made by extracting a magnetic current from the model equations and a qualitative agreement between the two descriptions of confinement is shown. In the study of the qqq system we observe a Δ-like geometry for the color electric fields and a Y-like geometry in the scalar fields both in the energy density distribution and in the corresponding potentials. The resulting total qqq potential is described neither by the Δ-picture nor by the Y-picture alone.

  8. Io's wobbling flux tube and nonuniform surface conductivity - Longitude control of decametric emission and other magnetospheric interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Study of systematic relations between Io's flux tube orientation, decametric emission control, and areal surface properties suggest a model that can account for longitude control of principal Io-associated decametric emissions and other observed Io/magnetosphere interactions. The model is based on the fact that Jupiter's magnetic field structure is dominated by a tilted dipole rotating at a different angular velocity than Io's orbital motion. This caused Io's flux tube near Io to wobble (precess) with respect to Io's rotational axis. Discrete contact junctions are invoked between the active current-sheet regions in the flux tube and Io's surface.

  9. Multiple Flux transfer events observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenchi, Lorenzo; Trattner, Karlheinz; Fazakerley, Andrew; Fear, Robert; Mihaljcic, Branislav

    2016-07-01

    Time-varying reconnection at the Earth magnetopause generates magnetic structures called Flux Transfer Events (FTE) characterized by the typical bipolar variation in the magnetic field component normal to the magnetopause. Different generation mechanisms have been proposed: the original Russell and Elphic FTE model (1978) predicts a pair of elbow shaped flux tubes of reconnected field lines generated by intermittent and localized reconnection. Alternatively, Lee and Fu (1985) propose that FTEs are caused by reconnection along multiple extended X-lines while a third FTE model is based on bursty reconnection along a single X-line (Scholer et al. 1988; Southwood et al., 1988). In this presentation, we present the detailed analysis of several FTEs sequentially observed by Cluster on 27 March 2007. While the Grad Shafranov analysis gives FTE orientations completely different from each other that are more in agreement with the Russell and Elphic model, the FTE orientations obtained from multi-spacecraft timing, which are probably more reliable, have smaller deviations with respect to the X line orientation, and are therefore more consistent with the extended X line models. Most of these FTEs are associated with a single reconnection jet, moving in the same direction of the FTEs, which appears consistently at the trailing edge of the FTEs. This signature suggests a generation mechanism based on single X line reconnection. We also used the Grad Shafranov reconstruction to recover the field topology of a large FTE, which is not associated with reconnection jets. The reconstruction suggests that this FTE is a flux rope with nested helical field lines, which is expected in the multiple X line reconnection. A possible interpretation suggests that both single X line and multiple X line generation mechanisms contributed to the formation of the FTEs during this magnetopause crossing.

  10. A multi-scale magnetotail reconnection event at Saturn and associated flows: Cassini/UVIS auroral observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radioti, Aikaterini; Grodent, Denis; Jia, Xianzhe; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Bonfond, Bertrand; Pryor, Wayne; Gustin, Jacques; Mitchell, Donald; Jackman, Caitriona

    2015-04-01

    We present high-resolution Cassini/UVIS (Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) observations of Saturn's aurora during May 2013 (DOY 140-141). The observations reveal an enhanced auroral activity in the midnight-dawn quadrant in an extended local time sector (~02 to 05 LT), which rotates with an average velocity of ~ 45% of rigid corotation. The auroral dawn enhancement reported here, given its observed location and brightness, is most probably due to hot tenuous plasma carried inward in fast moving flux tubes returning from a tail reconnection site to the dayside. These flux tubes could generate intense field-aligned currents that would cause aurora to brighten. However, the origin of tail reconnection (solar wind or internally driven) is uncertain. Based mainly on the flux variations, which do not demonstrate flux closure, we suggest that the most plausible scenario is that of internally driven tail reconnection which operates on closed field lines. The observations also reveal multiple intensifications within the enhanced region suggesting an x-line in the tail, which extends from 02 to 05 LT. The localised enhancements evolve in arc and spot-like small scale features, which resemble vortices mainly in the beginning of the sequence. These auroral features could be related to plasma flows enhanced from reconnection which diverge into multiple narrow channels then spread azimuthally and radially. We suggest that the evolution of tail reconnection at Saturn may be pictured by an ensemble of numerous narrow current wedges or that inward transport initiated in the reconnection region could be explained by multiple localised flow burst events. The formation of vortical-like structures could then be related to field-aligned currents, building up in vortical flows in the tail. An alternative, but less plausible, scenario could be that the small scale auroral structures are related to viscous interactions involving small-scale reconnection.

  11. Propagation and Dispersion of Sausage Wave Trains in Magnetic Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, R.; Ruderman, M. S.; Terradas, J.

    2015-06-01

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces wave trains that disperse as they propagate along the tube, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. We find that the propagating wave train undergoes stronger attenuation for longer axisymmetric (or shorter transverse) perturbations, while the internal to external density ratio has a smaller effect on the attenuation. Moreover, for parameter values typical of coronal loops axisymmetric (transverse) wave trains travel at a speed 0.75-1 (1.2) times the Alfvén speed of the magnetic tube. In both cases, the wave train passage at a fixed position of the magnetic tube gives rise to oscillations with periods of the order of seconds, with axisymmetric disturbances causing more oscillations than transverse ones. To test the detectability of propagating transverse or axisymmetric wave packets in magnetic tubes of the solar atmosphere (e.g., coronal loops, spicules, or prominence threads) a forward modeling of the perturbations must be carried out.

  12. PROPAGATION AND DISPERSION OF SAUSAGE WAVE TRAINS IN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Ruderman, M. S.

    2015-06-10

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces wave trains that disperse as they propagate along the tube, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. We find that the propagating wave train undergoes stronger attenuation for longer axisymmetric (or shorter transverse) perturbations, while the internal to external density ratio has a smaller effect on the attenuation. Moreover, for parameter values typical of coronal loops axisymmetric (transverse) wave trains travel at a speed 0.75–1 (1.2) times the Alfvén speed of the magnetic tube. In both cases, the wave train passage at a fixed position of the magnetic tube gives rise to oscillations with periods of the order of seconds, with axisymmetric disturbances causing more oscillations than transverse ones. To test the detectability of propagating transverse or axisymmetric wave packets in magnetic tubes of the solar atmosphere (e.g., coronal loops, spicules, or prominence threads) a forward modeling of the perturbations must be carried out.

  13. Turbulent reconnection and its implications.

    PubMed

    Lazarian, A; Eyink, G; Vishniac, E; Kowal, G

    2015-05-13

    Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700-718 (doi:10.1086/307233)) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate

  14. Turbulent reconnection and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Lazarian, A.; Eyink, G.; Vishniac, E.; Kowal, G.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700–718 ()) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate this process to

  15. Turbulent reconnection and its implications.

    PubMed

    Lazarian, A; Eyink, G; Vishniac, E; Kowal, G

    2015-05-13

    Magnetic reconnection is a process of magnetic field topology change, which is one of the most fundamental processes happening in magnetized plasmas. In most astrophysical environments, the Reynolds numbers corresponding to plasma flows are large and therefore the transition to turbulence is inevitable. This turbulence, which can be pre-existing or driven by magnetic reconnection itself, must be taken into account for any theory of magnetic reconnection that attempts to describe the process in the aforementioned environments. This necessity is obvious as three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations show the transition to the turbulence state of initially laminar reconnecting magnetic fields. We discuss ideas of how turbulence can modify reconnection with the focus on the Lazarian & Vishniac (Lazarian & Vishniac 1999 Astrophys. J. 517, 700-718 (doi:10.1086/307233)) reconnection model. We present numerical evidence supporting the model and demonstrate that it is closely connected to the experimentally proven concept of Richardson dispersion/diffusion as well as to more recent advances in understanding of the Lagrangian dynamics of magnetized fluids. We point out that the generalized Ohm's law that accounts for turbulent motion predicts the subdominance of the microphysical plasma effects for reconnection for realistically turbulent media. We show that one of the most dramatic consequences of turbulence is the violation of the generally accepted notion of magnetic flux freezing. This notion is a cornerstone of most theories dealing with magnetized plasmas, and therefore its change induces fundamental shifts in accepted paradigms, for instance, turbulent reconnection entails reconnection diffusion process that is essential for understanding star formation. We argue that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the process of tearing reconnection should transfer to turbulent reconnection. We discuss flares that are predicted by turbulent reconnection and relate

  16. Enhancement of critical heat flux in tubes using staged tangential flow injection: (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of the enhancement in single and two phase heat transfer from tubes subjected to tangential flow injection have been continuing. Investigations using water as the test liquid have been focused on: single phase heat transfer coefficients; two phase heat transfer coefficients under subcooled boiling conditions; subcooled critical heat fluxes; and modeling of the enhancement under swirl flow conditions. With tangential injection up to four fold increase in the average heat transfer coefficient has been observed. During subcooled boiling the enhancement is relatively small. However swirl induced centripetal force increases vapor escape velocity and as a result higher critical heat fluxes can be accommodated. In the range of flow parameters studied up to 40% enhancement in critical heat flux has been observed with single stage injection. This enhancement is slightly less than that obtained with Freon-113. The mechanistic reasons for this observation are currently being investigated.

  17. Energy release and transfer in guide field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    2010-01-01

    Properties of energy release and transfer by magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field are investigated on the basis of 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Two initial configurations are considered: a plane current sheet with a uniform guide field of 80% of the reconnecting magnetic field component and a force-free current sheet in which the magnetic field strength is constant but the field direction rotates by 180° through the current sheet. The onset of reconnection is stimulated by localized, temporally limited compression. Both MHD and PIC simulations consistently show that the outgoing energy fluxes are dominated by (redirected) Poynting flux and enthalpy flux, whereas bulk kinetic energy flux and heat flux (in the PIC simulation) are small. The Poynting flux is mainly associated with the magnetic energy of the guide field which is carried from inflow to outflow without much alteration. The conversion of annihilated magnetic energy to enthalpy flux (that is, thermal energy) stems mainly from the fact that the outflow occurs into a closed field region governed by approximate force balance between Lorentz and pressure gradient forces. Therefore, the energy converted from magnetic to kinetic energy by Lorentz force acceleration becomes immediately transferred to thermal energy by the work done by the pressure gradient force. Strong similarities between late stages of MHD and PIC simulations result from the fact that conservation of mass and entropy content and footpoint displacement of magnetic flux tubes, imposed in MHD, are also approximately satisfied in the PIC simulations.

  18. Forced Convection Boiling and Critical Heat Flux of Ethanol in Electrically Heated Tube Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Linne, Diane L.; Rousar, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Electrically heated tube tests were conducted to characterize the critical heat flux (transition from nucleate to film boiling) of subcritical ethanol flowing at conditions relevant to the design of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber. The coolant was SDA-3C alcohol (95% ethyl alcohol, 5% isopropyl alcohol by weight), and tests were conducted over the following ranges of conditions: pressure from 144 to 703 psia, flow velocities from 9.7 to 77 ft/s, coolant subcooling from 33 to 362 F, and critical heat fluxes up to 8.7 BTU/in(exp 2)/sec. For the data taken near 200 psia, critical heat flux was correlated as a function of the product of velocity and fluid subcooling to within +/- 20%. For data taken at higher pressures, an additional pressure term is needed to correlate the critical heat flux. It was also shown that at the higher test pressures and/or flow rates, exceeding the critical heat flux did not result in wall burnout. This result may significantly increase the engine heat flux design envelope for higher pressure conditions.

  19. Auroral electron precipitation and flux tube erosion in Titan’s upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, D.; Yelle, R. V.; Galand, M.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Jones, G. H.; Lavvas, P.

    2013-09-01

    Cassini dasta shows that Titan’s atmosphere strongly depletes the electron content in Saturn’s flux tubes, producing features known as electron bite-outs, which indicate that the flux of auroral electrons decreases over time. To understand this process we have developed a time-dependent two-stream model, which uses field line geometries and drift paths calculated by a three-dimensional multi-fluid model of Titan’s plasma interaction. The boundary conditions of the model account for the time-dependent reduction or increase in electron flux along Saturn’s magnetic field lines because of the loss or production of electrons in Titan’s atmosphere. The modification of the auroral electron flux depends on the electron bounce period in Saturn’s outer magnetosphere; therefore, we also calculate electron bounce periods along several Kronian field lines accounting for both the magnetic mirroring force and the field-aligned electric potential in Saturn’s plasma sheet. We use the time-dependent two-stream model to calculate how the reduction in the auroral electron flux affects electron impact ionization and energy deposition rates in Titan’s upper atmosphere. We find that the flux of higher energy (>50 eV) electrons entering Titan’s atmosphere is strongly reduced over time, resulting in smaller ionization and energy deposition rates below ∼1300 km altitude. Finally, we show that sample spectrograms produced from our calculations are consistent with CAPS-ELS data.

  20. KELVIN-HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY IN CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES DUE TO AZIMUTHAL SHEAR FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Goossens, M.

    2010-04-01

    Transverse oscillations of coronal loops are often observed and have been theoretically interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Numerical simulations by Terradas et al. suggest that shear flows generated at the loop boundary during kink oscillations could give rise to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Here, we investigate the linear stage of the KHI in a cylindrical magnetic flux tube in the presence of azimuthal shear motions. We consider the basic, linearized MHD equations in the beta = 0 approximation and apply them to a straight and homogeneous cylindrical flux tube model embedded in a coronal environment. Azimuthal shear flows with a sharp jump of the velocity at the cylinder boundary are included in the model. We obtain an analytical expression for the dispersion relation of the unstable MHD modes supported by the configuration, and compute analytical approximations of the critical velocity shear and the KHI growth rate in the thin tube limit. A parametric study of the KHI growth rates is performed by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. We find that fluting-like modes can develop a KHI in timescales comparable to the period of kink oscillations of the flux tube. The KHI growth rates increase with the value of the azimuthal wavenumber and decrease with the longitudinal wavenumber. However, the presence of a small azimuthal component of the magnetic field can suppress the KHI. Azimuthal motions related to kink oscillations of untwisted coronal loops may trigger a KHI, but this phenomenon has not been observed to date. We propose that the azimuthal component of the magnetic field is responsible for suppressing the KHI in a stable coronal loop. The required twist is small enough to prevent the development of the pinch instability.

  1. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-04-01

    The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower without massively disturbing the wind field. To measure CO and N2O fluxes, we installed an eddy covariance system at a 125 m mast, where the gas analyser was kept in a laboratory close to the tower and the sampling was performed using a 150 m long tube with a gas intake at 96 m height. We investigated the frequency attenuation and the time lag of the N2O and CO concentration measurements with a concentration step experiment. The results showed surprisingly high cut-off frequencies (close to 2 Hz) and small low-pass filter induced time lags (< 0.3 s), which were similar for CO and N2O. The results indicate that the concentration signal was hardly biased during the ca 10 s travel through the tube. Due to the larger turbulence time scales at large measurement heights the low-pass correction was for the majority of the measurements < 5%. For water vapour the tube attenuation was massive, which had, however, a positive effect by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube flows.

  2. Generation of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Low Solar Atmospheric Flux Tubes by Photospheric Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, S. J.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions, small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated via the interaction of granulation motion and the background magnetic field. This paper studies the effects of these motions on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave excitation from broadband photospheric drivers. Numerical experiments of linear MHD wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the low choromosphere (above β = 1) are performed. Horizontal and vertical velocity field drivers mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere. The results are analyzed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular, and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters to both the linear and non-linear cases. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated to enable the quantification of the relative strengths of excited modes. The torsional drivers primarily excite Alfvén modes (≈60% of the total flux) with small contributions from the slow kink mode, and, for the logarithmic spiral driver, small amounts of slow sausage mode. The horizontal and vertical drivers primarily excite slow kink or fast sausage modes, respectively, with small variations dependent upon flux surface radius.

  3. GENERATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN LOW SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC FLUX TUBES BY PHOTOSPHERIC MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, S. J.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-20

    Recent ground- and space-based observations reveal the presence of small-scale motions between convection cells in the solar photosphere. In these regions, small-scale magnetic flux tubes are generated via the interaction of granulation motion and the background magnetic field. This paper studies the effects of these motions on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave excitation from broadband photospheric drivers. Numerical experiments of linear MHD wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the low choromosphere (above β = 1) are performed. Horizontal and vertical velocity field drivers mimic granular buffeting and solar global oscillations. A uniform torsional driver as well as Archimedean and logarithmic spiral drivers mimic observed torsional motions in the solar photosphere. The results are analyzed using a novel method for extracting the parallel, perpendicular, and azimuthal components of the perturbations, which caters to both the linear and non-linear cases. Employing this method yields the identification of the wave modes excited in the numerical simulations and enables a comparison of excited modes via velocity perturbations and wave energy flux. The wave energy flux distribution is calculated to enable the quantification of the relative strengths of excited modes. The torsional drivers primarily excite Alfvén modes (≈60% of the total flux) with small contributions from the slow kink mode, and, for the logarithmic spiral driver, small amounts of slow sausage mode. The horizontal and vertical drivers primarily excite slow kink or fast sausage modes, respectively, with small variations dependent upon flux surface radius.

  4. The Dynamic Evolution of Active-Region-Scale Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Turbulent Solar Convective Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Maria A.; Fan, Yuhong; Miesch, Mark S.

    2014-06-01

    The manner by which bundles of magnetic field, or flux tubes, traverse the convection zone to eventual emergence at the solar surface is not well understood. To provide a connection between dynamo-generated magnetic fields and sunspots, I have performed simulations of magnetic flux emergence through the bulk of a turbulent, solar convective envelope by employing a thin flux tube model subject to interaction with flows taken from a hydrodynamic convection simulation computed through the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code. Through performing these simulations, much insight has been gained about the influence of turbulent solar-like convection on the flux emergence process and resulting active region properties. I find that the dynamic evolution of flux tubes change from convection dominated to magnetic buoyancy dominated as the initial field strength of the flux tubes increases from 15 kG to 100 kG. Additionally, active-region-scale flux tubes of 40 kG and greater exhibit properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun, such as: tilt angles, rotation rates, and morphological asymmetries. The joint effect of the Coriolis force and helical motions present in convective upflows help tilt the apex of rising flux tubes toward the equator in accordance with Joy’s Law. Additionally, rotationally aligned, columnar convective structures called giant cells present in the ASH simulation organizes flux emergence into a large-scale longitudinal pattern similar to the active longitude trend on the Sun and other solar-like stars. The effect of radiative diffusion across the radiation zone-convection zone interface on the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes is also studied, as well as the possibility of an induced twist of flux tube magnetic fields lines due to the Coriolis force induced tilting of the flux tube apex, presence of turbulent convection, and the conservation of helicity. Flux emergence simulations through the convection zone of a Sun rotating at 5 times

  5. Torsional Alfvén waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, K.; Solov'ev, A.; Musielak, Z. E.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kraśkiewicz, J.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfvén waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulas for the equilibrium mass density and gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to numerically simulate the propagation of nonlinear Alfvén waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, the transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfvén waves, as well as energy transfer to the magnetoacoustic waves that are triggered by the Alfvén waves and are akin to the vertical jet flows. Alfvén waves experience about 5% amplitude reflection at the transition region. Magnetic (velocity) field perturbations that experience attenuation (growth) with height agree with analytical findings. The kinetic energy of magnetoacoustic waves consists of 25% of the total energy of Alfvén waves. The energy transfer may lead to localized mass transport in the form of vertical jets, as well as to localized heating because slow magnetoacoustic waves are prone to dissipation in the inner corona.

  6. Duality of gauge field singularities and the structure of the flux tube in Abelian-projected SU(2) gauge theory and the dual Abelian Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Suzuki, T.; Polikarpov, M. I.

    2003-11-01

    The structure of the flux-tube profile in Abelian-projected (AP) SU(2) gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge is studied. The connection between the AP flux tube and the classical flux-tube solution of the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs model is clarified in terms of the path-integral duality transformation. This connection suggests that the electric photon and the magnetic monopole parts of the Abelian Wilson loop can act as separate sources creating the Coulombic and the solenoidal electric field inside a flux tube. The conjecture is confirmed by a lattice simulation which shows that the AP flux tube is composed of these two contributions.

  7. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. III - Aerodynamic lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift exerted on a magnetic flux tube by the asymmetric flow around the two sides of the tube is calculated as part of an investigation of the physics of solar flux tubes. The general hydrodynamic forces on a rigid circular cylinder in a nonuniform flow of an ideal fluid are derived from the first derivatives of the velocity field. Aerodynamic lift in a radial nonuniform flow is found to act in the direction of the flow, toward the region of increased flow velocity, while in a shear flow, lift is perpendicular to the free stream and directed toward increasing flow velocity. For a general, three dimensional, large-scale stationary incompressible equilibrium flow, an expression is also derived relating the lift per unit length to the dynamical pressure, cylinder radius and the gradient of the free-stream velocity. Evidence from an asymmetric airfoil in a uniform flow indicates that lift is enhanced in a real fluid in the presence of turbulence.

  8. GLOBAL AND LOCAL CUTOFF FREQUENCIES FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATING ALONG SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Routh, S.; Musielak, Z. E.; Hammer, R. E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu

    2013-01-20

    It is a well-established result that the propagation of linear transverse waves along a thin but isothermal magnetic flux tube is affected by the existence of the global cutoff frequency, which separates the propagating and non-propagating waves. In this paper, the wave propagation along a thin and non-isothermal flux tube is considered and a local cutoff frequency is derived. The effects of different temperature profiles on this local cutoff frequency are studied by considering different power-law temperature distributions, as well as the semi-empirical VAL C model of the solar atmosphere. The obtained results show that the conditions for wave propagation strongly depend on the temperature gradients. Moreover, the local cutoff frequency calculated for the VAL C model gives constraints on the range of wave frequencies that are propagating in different parts of the solar atmosphere. These theoretically predicted constraints are compared to observational data and are used to discuss the role played by transverse tube waves in the atmospheric heating and dynamics, and in the excitation of solar atmospheric oscillations.

  9. Three-dimensional MHD Magnetic Reconnection Simulations with a Finite Guide Field: Proposal of the Shock-evoking Positive-feedback Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuoyang; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic model, we simulate the magnetic reconnection in a single current sheet. We assume a finite guide field, a random perturbation on the velocity field, and uniform resistivity. Our model enhances the reconnection rate relative to the classical Sweet–Parker model in the same configuration. The efficiency of magnetic energy conversion is increased by interactions between the multiple tearing layers coexisting in the global current sheet. This interaction, which forms a positive-feedback system, arises from coupling of the inflow and outflow regions in different layers across the current sheet. The coupling accelerates the elementary reconnection events, thereby enhancing the global reconnection rate. The reconnection establishes flux tubes along each tearing layer. Slow-mode shocks gradually form along the outer boundaries of these tubes, further accelerating the magnetic energy conversion. Such a positive-feedback system is absent in two-dimensional simulations, 3D reconnection without a guide field, and reconnection under a single perturbation mode. We refer to our model as the “shock-evoking positive-feedback” model.

  10. The dynamic evolution of active-region-scale magnetic flux tubes in the turbulent solar convective envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Maria Ann

    2014-12-01

    The Sun exhibits cyclic properties of its large-scale magnetic field on the order of sigma22 years, with a ˜11 year frequency of sunspot occurrence. These sunspots, or active regions, are the centers of magnetically driven phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Volatile solar magnetic events directed toward the Earth pose a threat to human activities and our increasingly technological society. As such, the origin and nature of solar magnetic flux emergence is a topic of global concern. Sunspots are observable manifestations of solar magnetic fields, thus providing a photospheric link to the deep-seated dynamo mechanism. However, the manner by which bundles of magnetic field, or flux tubes, traverse the convection zone to eventual emergence at the solar surface is not well understood. To provide a connection between dynamo-generated magnetic fields and sunspots, I have performed simulations of magnetic flux emergence through the bulk of a turbulent, solar convective envelope by employing a thin flux tube model subject to interaction with flows taken from a hydrodynamic convection simulation computed through the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code. The convective velocity field interacts with the flux tube through the drag force it experiences as it traverses through the convecting medium. Through performing these simulations, much insight has been gained about the influence of turbulent solar-like convection on the flux emergence process and resulting active region properties. I find that the dynamic evolution of flux tubes change from convection dominated to magnetic buoyancy dominated as the initial field strength of the flux tubes increases from 15 kG to 100 kG. Additionally, active-region-scale flux tubes of 40 kG and greater exhibit properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun, such as: tilt angles, rotation rates, and morphological asymmetries. The joint effect of the Coriolis force and helical motions present in convective

  11. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection in Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuma, Syuniti

    2000-03-01

    reconnection, triggered by a supernova explosion, creates hot plasmas and magnetic islands (helical tubes), and how the magnetic islands confine the hot plasmas in Galaxy. The supernova shock is one of the possible mechanisms to trigger reconnection in Galaxy. We conclude that magnetic reconnection is able to heat the GRXE plasma if the magnetic field is localized in an intense flux tube with Blocal sim 30 muG. Part III This is the main part of the thesis. We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova shock (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing 2D MHD numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. The magnetic reconnection starts long after the supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock wave) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) The tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock. The current sheet becomes thin in the nonlinear phase of tearing instability. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) The secondary tearing-mode instability occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. The anomalous resistivity sets in, and Petschek type reconnection starts. The interstellar gas is accelerated and heated. The magnetic energy is released quickly while magnetic islands are moving in the current sheet during Petschek type reconnection. (v) Magnetic reconnection stops because the gas pressure increases in the current sheet near left and right boundaries. The released magnetic energy is determined by the interstellar magnetic field strength, not by the energy of initial supernova nor distance between the supernova and the current sheet. We suggest that magnetic reconnection is a possible mechanism to generate X

  13. Properties of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves. III; Wave Propagation in Solar and Stellar Wind Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the analytic properties of longitudinal tube waves taking into account ambient wind flows. This is an extension of the studies of Papers I and II, which assumed a mean flow speed of zero and also dealt with a simplified horizontal pressure balance. Applications include the study of longitudinal flux tube waves in stars with significant mass loss and heating and dynamics of plumes in the solar wind. Slow magnetosonic waves, also called longitudinal waves, have been observed in solar plumes and are likely an important source of heating. We show that the inclusion of ambient wind flows considerably alters the limiting shock strength as well as the energy damping length of waves.

  14. Properties of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves. III; Wave Propagation in Solar and Stellar Wind FLows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuntz, M.; Suess, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the analytic properties of longitudinal tube waves taking into account ambient wind flows. This is an extension of the studies of Papers I and II, which assumed a mean flow speed of zero and also dealt with a simplified horizontal pressure balance. Applications include the study of longitudinal flux tube waves in stars with significant mass loss and the heating and dynamics of plumes in the solar wind. Slow magnetosonic waves, also called longitudinal waves, have been observed in solar plumes and are likely an important source of heating. We show that the inclusion of ambient wind flows considerably alters the limiting shock strength as well as the energy damping length of the waves.

  15. ON THE SUPPORT OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MATERIAL BY THE DIPS OF A CORONAL FLUX TUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, Andrew; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-04-01

    The dense prominence material is believed to be supported against gravity through the magnetic tension of dipped coronal magnetic field. For quiescent prominences, which exhibit many gravity-driven flows, hydrodynamic forces are likely to play an important role in the determination of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field distributions. In this study, we present the first steps toward creating a three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic prominence model where the prominence is formed in the dips of a coronal flux tube. Here 2.5D equilibria are created by adding mass to an initially force-free magnetic field, then performing a secondary magnetohydrodynamic relaxation. Two inverse polarity magnetic field configurations are studied in detail, a simple o-point configuration with a ratio of the horizontal field (B{sub x} ) to the axial field (B{sub y} ) of 1:2 and a more complex model that also has an x-point with a ratio of 1:11. The models show that support against gravity is either by total pressure or tension, with only tension support resembling observed quiescent prominences. The o-point of the coronal flux tube was pulled down by the prominence material, leading to compression of the magnetic field at the base of the prominence. Therefore, tension support comes from the small curvature of the compressed magnetic field at the bottom and the larger curvature of the stretched magnetic field at the top of the prominence. It was found that this method does not guarantee convergence to a prominence-like equilibrium in the case where an x-point exists below the prominence flux tube. The results imply that a plasma {beta} of {approx}0.1 is necessary to support prominences through magnetic tension.

  16. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENT HEATING OF OPEN FLUX TUBES IN THE CHROMOSPHERE, CORONA, AND SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate several key questions of plasma heating in open-field regions of the corona that connect to the solar wind. We present results for a model of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence for three typical open magnetic field structures: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube neighboring an equatorial streamer, and an open flux tube near a strong-field active region. We compare time-steady, one-dimensional turbulent heating models against fully time-dependent three-dimensional reduced-magnetohydrodynamic modeling of BRAID. We find that the time-steady results agree well with time-averaged results from BRAID. The time dependence allows us to investigate the variability of the magnetic fluctuations and of the heating in the corona. The high-frequency tail of the power spectrum of fluctuations forms a power law whose exponent varies with height, and we discuss the possible physical explanation for this behavior. The variability in the heating rate is bursty and nanoflare-like in nature, and we analyze the amount of energy lost via dissipative heating in transient events throughout the simulation. The average energy in these events is 10{sup 21.91} erg, within the “picoflare” range, and many events reach classical “nanoflare” energies. We also estimated the multithermal distribution of temperatures that would result from the heating-rate variability, and found good agreement with observed widths of coronal differential emission measure distributions. The results of the modeling presented in this paper provide compelling evidence that turbulent heating in the solar atmosphere by Alfvén waves accelerates the solar wind in open flux tubes.

  17. Observations on Characterization of Defects in Coiled Tubing From Magnetic-Flux-Leakage Data

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Karen S. Miller; Charles R. Tolle

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents observations on the sizing of automatically detected artificial flaws in coiled tubing samples using magnetic-flux-leakage data. Sixty-six artificial flaws of various shapes and types, ranging from 0.30 mm deep pits to slots with length of 9.5 mm, in 44.45 mm outer diameter pipe were analyzed. The detection algorithm and the information automatically extracted from the data are described. Observations on the capabilities and limitations for determining the size and shape of the flaws are discussed.

  18. Diurnal variations on a plasmaspheric flux tube - Light ion flows and F region temperature enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiter, S. M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Rasmussen, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the diurnal variations on a plasmaspheric flux tube modeled using a time-dependent multispecies one-stream interhemispheric model for plasma flows. The model takes into account the effects of ionization, charge exchange, recombination, collisions, heat conduction, and allows for external heat sources. The simulation is done for June solstice conditions during solar minimum. Focus is placed on the presence of large downward H(+) velocities at about 320-km altitude in the winter (southern) hemisphere, in early morning when the summer hemisphere is sunlit but the winter hemisphere is dark. In addition, an upward H(+) flux is seen in the Southern Hemisphere at altitudes above 2000 km when the sun rises in the northern end.

  19. MULTI-PARAMETRIC STUDY OF RISING 3D BUOYANT FLUX TUBES IN AN ADIABATIC STRATIFICATION USING AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando

    2015-11-20

    We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vorticity in the main body of the tube of opposite sign on the opposite sides of the apex. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the azimuthal component of the field on the flux surfaces. The lift force associated with this global vorticity makes the flanks of the tube move away from their initial vertical plane in an antisymmetric fashion. The trajectories have an oscillatory motion superimposed, due to the shedding of vortex rolls to the wake, which creates a Von Karman street.

  20. Multi-parametric Study of Rising 3D Buoyant Flux Tubes in an Adiabatic Stratification Using AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-11-01

    We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vorticity in the main body of the tube of opposite sign on the opposite sides of the apex. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the azimuthal component of the field on the flux surfaces. The lift force associated with this global vorticity makes the flanks of the tube move away from their initial vertical plane in an antisymmetric fashion. The trajectories have an oscillatory motion superimposed, due to the shedding of vortex rolls to the wake, which creates a Von Karman street.

  1. CAN THE SOLAR WIND BE DRIVEN BY MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SUN'S MAGNETIC CARPET?

    SciTech Connect

    Cranmer, Steven R.; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A. E-mail: avanballegooijen@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-01

    The physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind remain unknown after many years of study. Some have suggested that the wind is driven by waves and turbulence in open magnetic flux tubes, and others have suggested that plasma is injected into the open tubes by magnetic reconnection with closed loops. In order to test the latter idea, we developed Monte Carlo simulations of the photospheric 'magnetic carpet' and extrapolated the time-varying coronal field. These models were constructed for a range of different magnetic flux imbalance ratios. Completely balanced models represent quiet regions on the Sun and source regions of slow solar wind streams. Highly imbalanced models represent coronal holes and source regions of fast wind streams. The models agree with observed emergence rates, surface flux densities, and number distributions of magnetic elements. Despite having no imposed supergranular motions in the models, a realistic network of magnetic 'funnels' appeared spontaneously. We computed the rate at which closed field lines open up (i.e., recycling times for open flux), and we estimated the energy flux released in reconnection events involving the opening up of closed flux tubes. For quiet regions and mixed-polarity coronal holes, these energy fluxes were found to be much lower than that which is required to accelerate the solar wind. For the most imbalanced coronal holes, the energy fluxes may be large enough to power the solar wind, but the recycling times are far longer than the time it takes the solar wind to accelerate into the low corona. Thus, it is unlikely that either the slow or fast solar wind is driven by reconnection and loop-opening processes in the magnetic carpet.

  2. Magnetic-flux-driven topological quantum phase transition and manipulation of perfect edge states in graphene tube

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Song, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the tight-binding model for a graphene tube with perimeter N threaded by a magnetic field. We show exactly that this model has different nontrivial topological phases as the flux changes. The winding number, as an indicator of topological quantum phase transition (QPT) fixes at N/3 if N/3 equals to its integer part [N/3], otherwise it jumps between [N/3] and [N/3] + 1 periodically as the flux varies a flux quantum. For an open tube with zigzag boundary condition, exact edge states are obtained. There exist two perfect midgap edge states, in which the particle is completely located at the boundary, even for a tube with finite length. The threading flux can be employed to control the quantum states: transferring the perfect edge state from one end to the other, or generating maximal entanglement between them. PMID:27554930

  3. Magnetic-flux-driven topological quantum phase transition and manipulation of perfect edge states in graphene tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Song, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We study the tight-binding model for a graphene tube with perimeter N threaded by a magnetic field. We show exactly that this model has different nontrivial topological phases as the flux changes. The winding number, as an indicator of topological quantum phase transition (QPT) fixes at N/3 if N/3 equals to its integer part [N/3], otherwise it jumps between [N/3] and [N/3] + 1 periodically as the flux varies a flux quantum. For an open tube with zigzag boundary condition, exact edge states are obtained. There exist two perfect midgap edge states, in which the particle is completely located at the boundary, even for a tube with finite length. The threading flux can be employed to control the quantum states: transferring the perfect edge state from one end to the other, or generating maximal entanglement between them.

  4. Coronal magnetic reconnection driven by CME expansion—the 2011 June 7 event

    SciTech Connect

    Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Baker, D.; Green, L. M.; Williams, D. R.; Carlyle, J.; Kliem, B.; Long, D. M.; Matthews, S. A.; Török, T.; Pariat, E.; Valori, G.; Démoulin, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.

    2014-06-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupt and expand in a magnetically structured solar corona. Various indirect observational pieces of evidence have shown that the magnetic field of CMEs reconnects with surrounding magnetic fields, forming, e.g., dimming regions distant from the CME source regions. Analyzing Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations of the eruption from AR 11226 on 2011 June 7, we present the first direct evidence of coronal magnetic reconnection between the fields of two adjacent active regions during a CME. The observations are presented jointly with a data-constrained numerical simulation, demonstrating the formation/intensification of current sheets along a hyperbolic flux tube at the interface between the CME and the neighboring AR 11227. Reconnection resulted in the formation of new magnetic connections between the erupting magnetic structure from AR 11226 and the neighboring active region AR 11227 about 200 Mm from the eruption site. The onset of reconnection first becomes apparent in the SDO/AIA images when filament plasma, originally contained within the erupting flux rope, is redirected toward remote areas in AR 11227, tracing the change of large-scale magnetic connectivity. The location of the coronal reconnection region becomes bright and directly observable at SDO/AIA wavelengths, owing to the presence of down-flowing cool, dense (10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}) filament plasma in its vicinity. The high-density plasma around the reconnection region is heated to coronal temperatures, presumably by slow-mode shocks and Coulomb collisions. These results provide the first direct observational evidence that CMEs reconnect with surrounding magnetic structures, leading to a large-scale reconfiguration of the coronal magnetic field.

  5. Spontaneous magnetic reconnection. Collisionless reconnection and its potential astrophysical relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, R. A.; Baumjohann, W.

    2015-10-01

    The present review concerns the relevance of collisionless reconnection in the astrophysical context. Emphasis is put on recent developments in theory obtained from collisionless numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is stressed that magnetic reconnection is a universal process of particular importance under collisionless conditions, when both collisional and anomalous dissipation are irrelevant. While collisional (resistive) reconnection is a slow, diffusive process, collisionless reconnection is spontaneous. On any astrophysical time scale, it is explosive. It sets on when electric current widths become comparable to the leptonic inertial length in the so-called lepton (electron/positron) "diffusion region", where leptons de-magnetise. Here, the magnetic field contacts its oppositely directed partner and annihilates. Spontaneous reconnection breaks the original magnetic symmetry, violently releases the stored free energy of the electric current, and causes plasma heating and particle acceleration. Ultimately, the released energy is provided by mechanical motion of either the two colliding magnetised plasmas that generate the current sheet or the internal turbulence cascading down to lepton-scale current filaments. Spontaneous reconnection in such extended current sheets that separate two colliding plasmas results in the generation of many reconnection sites (tearing modes) distributed over the current surface, each consisting of lepton exhausts and jets which are separated by plasmoids. Volume-filling factors of reconnection sites are estimated to be as large as {<}10^{-5} per current sheet. Lepton currents inside exhausts may be strong enough to excite Buneman and, for large thermal pressure anisotropy, also Weibel instabilities. They bifurcate and break off into many small-scale current filaments and magnetic flux ropes exhibiting turbulent magnetic power spectra of very flat power-law shape W_b∝ k^{-α } in wavenumber k with power becoming as

  6. Mechanics of viscous vortex reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Fazle; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2011-02-01

    This work is motivated by our long-standing claim that reconnection of coherent structures is the dominant mechanism of jet noise generation and plays a key role in both energy cascade and fine-scale mixing in fluid turbulence [F. Hussain, Phys. Fluids 26, 2816 (1983); J. Fluid Mech. 173, 303 (1986)]. To shed further light on the mechanism involved and quantify its features, the reconnection of two antiparallel vortex tubes is studied by direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range (250-9000) of the vortex Reynolds number, Re (=circulation/viscosity) at much higher resolutions than have been attempted. Unlike magnetic or superfluid reconnections, viscous reconnection is never complete, leaving behind a part of the initial tubes as threads, which then undergo successive reconnections (our cascade and mixing scenarios) as the newly formed bridges recoil from each other by self-advection. We find that the time tR for orthogonal transfer of circulation scales as tR≈Re-3/4. The shortest distance d between the tube centroids scales as d ≈a[Re(t0-t)]3/4 before reconnection (collision) and as d ≈b[Re(t -t0)]2 after reconnection (repulsion), where t0 is the instant of smallest separation between vortex centroids. We find that b is a constant, thus suggesting self-similarity, but a is dependent on Re. Bridge repulsion is faster than collision and is more autonomous as local induction predominates, and, given the associated acceleration of vorticity, is potentially a source of intense sound generation. At the higher Re studied, the tails of the colliding threads are compressed into a planar jet with multiple vortex pairs. For Re>6000, there is an avalanche of smaller scales during the reconnection, the rate of small scale generation and the spectral content (in vorticity, transfer function and dissipation spectra) being quite consistent with the structures visualized by the λ2 criterion. The maximum rate of vortex

  7. In situ measurements of the plasma bulk velocity near the Io flux tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, A.

    1985-01-01

    The flow around the Io flux tube was studied by analyzing the eleven spectra taken by the Voyager 1 Plasma Science (PLS) experiment in its vicinity. The bulk plasma parameters were determined using a procedure that uses the full response function of the instrument and the data in all four PLS sensors. The mass density of the plasma in the vicinity of Io is found to be 22,500 + or - 2,500 amu/cu cm and its electron density is found to be 1500 + or - 200/cu cm. The Alfven speed was determined using three independent methods; the values obtained are consistent and taken together yield V sub A = 300 + or - 50 km/sec, corresponding to an Alfven Mach number of 0.19 + or - 0.02. For the flow pattern, good agreement was found with the model of Neubauer (1980), and it was concluded that the plasma flows around the flux tube with a pattern similar to the flow of an incompressible fluid around a long cylinder obstacle of radius 1.26 + or - 0.1 R sub Io.

  8. Casimir scaling and hadronic flux tube in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Yoshiaki

    2001-10-01

    The string tensions of flux tubes associated with static charges in various SU(3) representations are studied within the dual Ginzburg-Landau (DGL) theory. The ratios of the string tensions between higher and fundamental representations, dD ≡ σ_D/σ_F, are found to depend only on the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter, κ = m_\\chi/m_B, the mass ratio between monopoles m_\\chi and dual gauge bosons m_B. In the case of the Bogomol'nyi limit (κ=1), analytical values of dD are easily obtained by adopting the manifestly Weyl invariant formulation of the DGL theory, which are provided simply by the number of color-electric Dirac strings inside the flux tube. A numerical investigation of the ratio for various GL-parameter cases is also performed, which suggests that the Casimir scaling is obtained in the type-II parameter range within the interval κ=5 ~ 9 for various ratios d_D. [Y. Koma et al., Phys. Rev. D 64 (2001) 011501 (R)

  9. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  10. Propagation and dispersion of transverse wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Ruderman, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The dispersion of small-amplitude, impulsively excited wave trains propagating along a magnetic flux tube is investigated. The initial disturbance is a localized transverse displacement of the tube that excites a fast kink wave packet. The spatial and temporal evolution of the perturbed variables (density, plasma displacement, velocity, ...) is given by an analytical expression containing an integral that is computed numerically. We find that the dispersion of fast kink wave trains is more important for shorter initial disturbances (i.e., more concentrated in the longitudinal direction) and for larger density ratios (i.e., for larger contrasts of the tube density with respect to the environment density). This type of excitation generates a wave train whose signature at a fixed position along a coronal loop is a short event (duration ≅ 20 s) in which the velocity and density oscillate very rapidly with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. The oscillatory period is not constant but gradually declines during the course of this event. Peak values of the velocity are of the order of 10 km s{sup –1} and are accompanied by maximum density variations of the order of 10%-15% the unperturbed loop density.

  11. Two-dimensional electric field measurements in the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, K. A.; Yeoman, T. K.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    2000-12-01

    Line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the SuperDARN CUTLASS HF radar pair have been combined to produce the first two-dimensional vector measurements of the convection pattern throughout the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event (a pulsed ionospheric flow, or PIF). Very stable and moderate interplanetary magnetic field conditions, along with a preceding prolonged period of northward interplanetary magnetic field, allow a detailed study of the spatial and the temporal evolution of the ionospheric response to magnetic reconnection. The flux tube footprint is tracked for half an hour across six hours of local time in the auroral zone, from magnetic local noon to dusk. The motion of the footprint of the newly reconnected flux tube is compared with the ionospheric convection velocity. Two primary intervals in the PIF's evolution have been determined. For the first half of its lifetime in the radar field of view the phase speed of the PIF is highly variable and the mean speed is nearly twice the ionospheric convection speed. For the final half of its lifetime the phase velocity becomes much less variable and slows down to the ionospheric convection velocity. The evolution of the flux tube in the magnetosphere has been studied using magnetic field, magnetopause and magnetosheath models. The data are consistent with an interval of azimuthally propagating magnetopause reconnection, in a manner consonant with a peeling of magnetic flux from the magnetopause, followed by an interval of anti-sunward convection of reconnected flux tubes.

  12. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 7. Single tube tests, critical heat flux test program

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report deals with critical heat flux (CHF) measurements in vertical down flow of water at low pressures in a round Inconel tube, 96 inches long and 0.62 inch inside diameter. A total of 28 CHF points were obtained. These data were found to correlate linearly with the single variable q, defined as the heat flux required to raise the enthalpy from the inlet value to the saturation value. These results were compared to the published results of Swedish investigators for vertical upflow of water at low pressures in round tubes of similar diameters and various lengths. The parameter q depends on the inlet enthalpy and is a nonlocal variable, thus this correlation is nonlocal unless the coefficients depend upon tube length in a particular prescribed manner. For the low pressure Swedish data, the coefficients are practically independent of length and hence the correlation is nonlocal. In the present investigation only one length was employed, so it is not possible to determine whether the correlation for these data is local or nonlocal, although there is reason to believe that it is local. The same correlation was applied to a large data base (thousands of CHF points) compiled from the published data of a number of groups and found to apply, with reasonable accuracy over a wide range of conditions, yielding sometimes local and sometimes nonlocal correlations. The basic philosophy of data analysis here was not to generate a single correlation which would reproduce all data, but to search for correlations which apply adequately over some range and which might have some mechanistic significance. The tentative conclusion is that at least two mechanisms appear operative, leading to two types of correlations, one local, the other nonlocal.

  13. The 3D Structure of Flux Tubes That Admit Flute Instability in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) of Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hironori

    2014-10-01

    A severe reduction in size down to an ion gyro-radius scale, commonly known as ``squeezing,'' in a lateral dimension of the cross section of a flux tube is traditionally thought to inhibit the occurrence of the flute instability in the Scrape-off-Layer of a diverted tokamak by isolating the main volume of the flux tube from its ends at electrically conducting target plates. A study reported here in the 3D flux tube structure reveals the absence of squeezing for a flux tube that is sufficiently large in its toroidal extent (small toroidal harmonic number n) and located in a layer of low field-line shear around the ``sweet spot'' (about mid-way between the primary and secondary separatrices). The low-shear layer does not hence inhibit the flute instability through the squeezing mechanism, and may thus restore the flute instability, among the most virulent in the magnetized plasma, to the ranks of candidate electrostatic instabilities thought to underlie the turbulence in the SOL in tokamaks. Variations along the flux tube of geometrical characteristics including the cross section will be calculated to develop criteria for the absence of squeezing. Supported in part by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Magnetic Reconnection Models of Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that prominences form by magnetic reconnection between initially distinct flux systems in the solar corona, we simulate coronal magnetic field evolution when two flux systems are driven together by boundary motions. In particular, we focus on configurations similar to those in the quiescent prominence formation model of Martens & Zwaan. We find that reconnection proceeds very weakly, if at all, in configurations driven with global shear flows (i.e., differential rotation); reconnection proceeds much more efficiently in similar configurations that are driven to collide directly, with converging motions along the neutral line that lead to flux cancellation; reconnected fields from this process can exhibit sheared, dipped field lines along the neutral line, consistent with prominence observations. Our field configurations do not possess the ``breakout'' topology, and eruptions are not observed, even though a substantial amount of flux is canceled in some runs.

  15. The distribution of reconnection geometry in flux transfer events using energetic ion, plasma and magnetic data. [on dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, P. W.; Rijnbeek, R. P.; Sckopke, N.; Russell, C. T.; Saunders, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of energetic ion anisotropies in flux transfer events (FTEs) about the dayside magnetopause has been determined for ISEE 2 crossings of the boundary in 1977 and 1978. When the events are sorted according to the sign of the east-west component of the magnetic field in the magnetosphere, a clear correlation is observed on the northern morningside. When the field is eastward, particles flow antiparallel to the field, implying field line connection to the Northern Hemisphere; when the field is westward, the opposite is true. On the afternoonside, the particle anisotropies are correlated with latitude. Explanations for this pattern are discussed which involve FTE formation at low latitudes with subsequent motion at a velocity given by the vector superposition of the Alfven velocity from the release of magnetic tension and the magnetosheath bulk flow velocity. Evidence that the geomagnetic and not the geocentric solar magnetospheric equator is the source of FTEs is considered.

  16. INJECTION OF PLASMA INTO THE NASCENT SOLAR WIND VIA RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY SUPERGRANULAR ADVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Liping; He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Chen Wenlei; Zhang Lei; Wang Linghua; Yan Limei; Peter, Hardi; Marsch, Eckart; Feng, Xueshang

    2013-06-10

    To understand the origin of the solar wind is one of the key research topics in modern solar and heliospheric physics. Previous solar wind models assumed that plasma flows outward along a steady magnetic flux tube that reaches continuously from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the corona. Inspired by more recent comprehensive observations, Tu et al. suggested a new scenario for the origin of the solar wind, in which it flows out in a magnetically open coronal funnel and mass is provided to the funnel by small-scale side loops. Thus mass is supplied by means of magnetic reconnection that is driven by supergranular convection. To validate this scenario and simulate the processes involved, a 2.5 dimensional (2.5D) numerical MHD model is established in the present paper. In our simulation a closed loop moves toward an open funnel, which has opposite polarity and is located at the edge of a supergranulation cell, and magnetic reconnection is triggered and continues while gradually opening up one half of the closed loop. Its other half connects with the root of the open funnel and forms a new closed loop which is submerged by a reconnection plasma stream flowing downward. Thus we find that the outflowing plasma in the newly reconnected funnel originates not only from the upward reconnection flow but also from the high-pressure leg of the originally closed loop. This implies an efficient supply of mass from the dense loop to the dilute funnel. The mass flux of the outflow released from the funnel considered in our study is calculated to be appropriate for providing the mass flux at the coronal base of the solar wind, though additional heating and acceleration mechanisms are necessary to keep the velocity at the higher location. Our numerical model demonstrates that in the funnel the mass for the solar wind may be supplied from adjacent closed loops via magnetic reconnection as well as directly from the footpoints of open funnels.

  17. Dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in close binary stars. I. Equilibrium and stability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzwarth, V.; Schüssler, M.

    2003-07-01

    Surface reconstructions of active close binary stars based on photometric and spectroscopic observations reveal non-uniform starspot distributions, which indicate the existence of preferred spot longitudes (with respect to the companion star). We consider the equilibrium and linear stability of toroidal magnetic flux tubes in close binaries to examine whether tidal effects are capable to initiate the formation of rising flux loops at preferred longitudes near the bottom of the stellar convection zone. The tidal force and the deviation of the stellar structure from spherical symmetry are treated in lowest-order perturbation theory assuming synchronised close binaries with orbital periods of a few days. The frequency, growth time, and spatial structure of linear eigenmodes are determined by a stability analysis. We find that, despite their small magnitude, tidal effects can lead to a considerable longitudinal asymmetry in the formation probability of flux loops, since the breaking of the axial symmetry due to the presence of the companion star is reinforced by the sensitive dependence of the stability properties on the stellar stratification and by resonance effects. The orientation of preferred longitudes of loop formation depends on the equilibrium configuration and the wave number of the dominating eigenmode. The change of the growth times of unstable modes with respect to the case of a single star is very small.

  18. The scattering of f- and p-modes from ensembles of thin magnetic flux tubes: an analytical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson and Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  19. The Scattering of f- and p-modes from Ensembles of Thin Magnetic Flux Tubes: An Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-08-01

    Motivated by the observational results of Braun, we extend the model of Hanson & Cally to address the effect of multiple scattering of f and p modes by an ensemble of thin vertical magnetic flux tubes in the surface layers of the Sun. As in the observational Hankel analysis, we measure the scatter and phase shift from an incident cylindrical wave in a coordinate system roughly centered in the core of the ensemble. It is demonstrated that although thin flux tubes are unable to interact with high-order fluting modes individually, they can indirectly absorb energy from these waves through the scatters of kink and sausage components. It is also shown how the distribution of absorption and phase shift across the azimuthal order m depends strongly on the tube position as well as on the individual tube characteristics. This is the first analytical study into an ensembles multiple-scattering regime that is embedded within a stratified atmosphere.

  20. Magnetic Reconnection and Associated Transient Phenomena Within the Magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarn, Philippe; Andre, Nicolas; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena A.; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2015-04-01

    We review in situ observations made in Jupiter and Saturn's magnetosphere that illustrate the possible roles of magnetic reconnection in rapidly-rotating magnetospheres. In the Earth's solar wind-driven magnetosphere, the magnetospheric convection is classically described as a cycle of dayside opening and tail closing reconnection (the Dungey cycle). For the rapidly-rotating Jovian and Kronian magnetospheres, heavily populated by internal plasma sources, the classical concept (the Vasyliunas cycle) is that the magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the final stage of the radial plasma transport across the disk. By cutting and closing flux tubes that have been elongated by the rotational stress, the reconnection process would lead to the formation of plasmoids that propagate down the tail, contributing to the final evacuation of the internally produced plasma and allowing the return of the magnetic flux toward the planet. This process has been studied by inspecting possible `local' signatures of the reconnection, as magnetic field reversals, plasma flow anisotropies, energetic particle bursts, and more global consequences on the magnetospheric activity. The investigations made at Jupiter support the concept of an `average' X-line, extended in the dawn/dusk direction and located at 90-120 Jovian radius (RJ) on the night side. The existence of a similar average X-line has not yet been established at Saturn, perhaps by lack of statistics. Both at Jupiter and Saturn, the reconfiguration signatures are consistent with magnetospheric dipolarizations and formation of plasmoids and flux ropes. In several cases, the reconfigurations also appear to be closely associated with large scale activations of the magnetosphere, seen from the radio and auroral emissions. Nevertheless, the statistical study also suggests that the reconnection events and the associated plasmoids are not frequent enough to explain a plasma evacuation that matches the mass input rate from the

  1. Reconnection Diffusion in Turbulent Fluids and Its Implications for Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2014-05-01

    Astrophysical fluids are turbulent a fact which changes the dynamics of many key processes, including magnetic reconnection. Fast reconnection of magnetic field in turbulent fluids allows the field to change its topology and connections. As a result, the traditional concept of magnetic fields being frozen into the plasma is no longer applicable. Plasma associated with a given magnetic field line at one instant is distributed along a different set of magnetic field lines at the next instant. This diffusion of plasmas and magnetic field is enabled by reconnection and therefore is termed "reconnection diffusion". The astrophysical implications of this concept include heat transfer in plasmas, advection of heavy elements in interstellar medium, magnetic field generation etc. However, the most dramatic implications of the concept are related to the star formation process. The reason is that magnetic fields are dynamically important for most of the stages of star formation. The existing theory of star formation has been developed ignoring the possibility of reconnection diffusion. Instead, it appeals to the decoupling of mass and magnetic field arising from neutrals drifting in respect to ions entrained on magnetic field lines, i.e. through the process that is termed "ambipolar diffusion". The predictions of ambipolar diffusion and reconnection diffusion are very different. For instance, if the ionization of media is high, ambipolar diffusion predicts that the coupling of mass and magnetic field is nearly perfect. At the same time, reconnection diffusion is independent of the ionization but depends on the scale of the turbulent eddies and on the turbulent velocities. In the paper we explain the physics of reconnection diffusion both from macroscopic and microscopic points of view, i.e. appealing to the reconnection of flux tubes and to the diffusion of magnetic field lines. We make use of the Lazarian and Vishniac (Astrophys. J. 517:700, 1999) theory of magnetic

  2. A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION: OUTFLOWS, HEATING, AND WAVES IN CHROMOSPHERIC JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizuka, N.; Shimizu, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Kuwahata, A.; Kaminou, Y.; Ono, Y.; Inomoto, M.

    2012-09-10

    Hinode observations have revealed intermittent recurrent plasma ejections/jets in the chromosphere. These are interpreted as a result of non-perfectly anti-parallel magnetic reconnection, i.e., component reconnection, between a twisted magnetic flux tube and the pre-existing coronal/chromospheric magnetic field, though the fundamental physics of component reconnection is not revealed. In this paper, we experimentally reproduced the magnetic configuration and investigated the dynamics of plasma ejections, heating, and wave generation triggered by component reconnection in the chromosphere. We set plasma parameters as in the chromosphere (density 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, temperature 5-10 eV, i.e., (5-10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K, and reconnection magnetic field 200 G) using argon plasma. Our experiment shows bi-directional outflows with the speed of 5 km s{sup -1} at maximum, ion heating in the downstream area over 30 eV, and magnetic fluctuations mainly at 5-10 {mu}s period. We succeeded in qualitatively reproducing chromospheric jets, but quantitatively, we still have some differences between observations and experiments such as in jet velocity, total energy, and wave frequency. Some of them can be explained by the scale gap between solar and laboratory plasma, while the others are probably due to the difference in microscopy and macroscopy, collisionality, and the degree of ionization, which have not been achieved in our experiment.

  3. Two regimes of flux scaling in axially homogeneous turbulent convection in vertical tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2016-08-01

    From experiments of axially homogeneous turbulent convection in a vertical tube using heat (Prandtl number Pr≃6 ) and brine (Pr≃600 ) we show that at sufficiently high Rayleigh numbers (Rag), the Nusselt number Nug˜(RagPr)1/2, which corresponds to the so-called ultimate regime scaling. In heat experiments below certain Rag,however,there is transition to a new regime, Nug˜(RagPr)0.3. This transition also seems to exist in earlier reported data for Pr=1 and Pr≃600 , at different Rag. However, the transition occurs at a single Grashof number, Grgc≃1.6 ×105 , and unified flux scalings for Pr≥1 , Nug/Pr˜Grg0.3, and Nug/Pr˜Grg1/2 can be given for the two regimes.

  4. Limited Streamer Tubes for the BaBar Instrumented Flux Return Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.; /Princeton U.

    2005-10-11

    Starting from the very beginning of their operation the efficiency of the RPC chambers in the BaBar Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) has suffered serious degradation. After intensive investigation, various remediation efforts had been carried out, but without success. As a result the BaBar collaboration decided to replace the dying barrel RPC chambers about two years ago. To study the feasibility of using the Limited Streamer Tube (LST) as the replacement of RPC we carried out an R&D program that has resulted in BaBar's deciding to replace the barrel RPC's with LST's. In this report we summarize the major detector R&D results, and leave other issues of the IFR system upgrade to the future publications.

  5. A modified thermal conductivity for low density plasma magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Richards, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to inconsistencies which have arisen in results from a hydrodynamic model in simulation of high ion temperature (1-2 eV) observed in low density, outer plasmasphere flux tubes, we postulate a reduced thermal conductivity coefficient in which only particles in the loss cone of the quasi-collisionless plasma contribute to the thermal conduction. Other particles are assumed to magnetically mirror before they reach the topside ionosphere and therefore not to remove thermal energy from the plasmasphere. This concept is used to formulate a mathematically simple, but physically limiting model for a modified thermal conductivity coefficient. When this modified coefficient is employed in the hydrodynamic model in a case study, the inconsistencies between simulation results and observations are largely resolved. The high simulated ion temperatures are achieved with significantly lower ion temperatures in the topside ionosphere. We suggest that this mechanism may be operative under the limited low density, refilling conditions in which high ion temperatures are observed.

  6. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2015-07-01

    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of - and -mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125, 2014a; 791, 129, 2014b) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident - and -modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  7. Confinement and Lattice Quantum-Electrodynamic Electric Flux Tubes Simulated with Ultracold Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni

    2011-12-30

    We propose a method for simulating (2+1)D compact lattice quantum-electrodynamics, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In our model local Bose-Einstein condensates' (BECs) phases correspond to the electromagnetic vector potential, and the local number operators represent the conjugate electric field. The well-known gauge-invariant Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian is obtained as an effective low-energy theory. The field is then coupled to external static charges. We show that in the strong coupling limit this gives rise to ''electric flux tubes'' and to confinement. This can be observed by measuring the local density deviations of the BECs, and is expected to hold even, to some extent, outside the perturbative calculable regime.

  8. Numerical Study on the Emergence of Kinked Flux Tube for Understanding of Possible Origin of δ-spot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Fan, Yuhong; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-11-01

    We carried out an magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a subsurface twisted kink-unstable flux tube emerges from the solar interior to the corona. Unlike the previous expectations based on the bodily emergence of a knotted tube, we found that the kinked tube can spontaneously form a complex quadrupole structure at the photosphere. Due to the development of the kink instability before the emergence, the magnetic twist at the kinked apex of the tube is greatly reduced, although the other parts of the tube are still strongly twisted. This leads to the formation of a complex quadrupole structure: a pair of the coherent, strongly twisted spots and a narrow complex bipolar pair between it. The quadrupole is formed by the submergence of a portion of emerged magnetic fields. This result is relevant for understanding the origin of the complex multipolar δ-spot regions that have a strong magnetic shear and emerge with polarity orientations not following Hale-Nicholson and Joy Laws.

  9. NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE EMERGENCE OF KINKED FLUX TUBE FOR UNDERSTANDING OF POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF δ-SPOT REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari; Fan, Yuhong; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-11-10

    We carried out an magnetohydrodynamic simulation where a subsurface twisted kink-unstable flux tube emerges from the solar interior to the corona. Unlike the previous expectations based on the bodily emergence of a knotted tube, we found that the kinked tube can spontaneously form a complex quadrupole structure at the photosphere. Due to the development of the kink instability before the emergence, the magnetic twist at the kinked apex of the tube is greatly reduced, although the other parts of the tube are still strongly twisted. This leads to the formation of a complex quadrupole structure: a pair of the coherent, strongly twisted spots and a narrow complex bipolar pair between it. The quadrupole is formed by the submergence of a portion of emerged magnetic fields. This result is relevant for understanding the origin of the complex multipolar δ-spot regions that have a strong magnetic shear and emerge with polarity orientations not following Hale-Nicholson and Joy Laws.

  10. Stopping frequency of type III solar radio bursts in expanding magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: Understanding the properties of type III radio bursts in the solar corona and interplanetary space is one of the best ways to remotely deduce the characteristics of solar accelerated electron beams and the solar wind plasma. One feature of all type III bursts is the lowest frequency they reach (or stopping frequency). This feature reflects the distance from the Sun that an electron beam can drive the observable plasma emission mechanism. The stopping frequency has never been systematically studied before from a theoretical perspective. Methods: Using numerical kinetic simulations, we explore the different parameters that dictate how far an electron beam can travel before it stops inducing a significant level of Langmuir waves, responsible for plasma radio emission. We use the quasilinear approach to model the resonant interaction between electrons and Langmuir waves self-consistently in inhomogeneous plasma, and take into consideration the expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube and the turbulent density of the interplanetary medium. Results: We find that the rate of radial expansion has a significant effect on the distance an electron beam travels before enhanced levels of Langmuir waves, hence radio waves, cease. Radial expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube rarefies the electron stream to the extent that the density of non-thermal electrons is too low to drive Langmuir wave production. The initial conditions of the electron beam have a significant effect, where decreasing the beam density or increasing the spectral index of injected electrons would cause higher type III stopping frequencies. We also demonstrate how the intensity of large-scale density fluctuations increases the highest frequency to which Langmuir waves can be driven by the beam and how the magnetic field geometry can be the cause of type III bursts that are only observed at high coronal frequencies.

  11. Onset of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in partially ionized magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Gómez, D.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Recent observations of solar prominences show the presence of turbulent flows that may be caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilites (KHI). However, the observed flow velocities are below the classical threshold for the onset of KHI in fully ionized plasmas. Aims: We investigate the effect of partial ionization on the onset of KHI in dense and cool cylindrical magnetic flux tubes surrounded by a hotter and lighter environment. Methods: The linearized governing equations of a partially ionized two-fluid plasma were used to describe the behavior of small-amplitude perturbations superimposed on a magnetic tube with longitudinal mass flow. A normal mode analysis was performed to obtain the dispersion relation for linear incompressible waves. We focused on the appearance of unstable solutions and studied the dependence of their growth rates on various physical parameters. We obtained an analytical approximation of the KHI linear growth rate for slow flows and strong ion-neutral coupling. We applied this to solar prominence threads. Results: The presence of a neutral component in a plasma may contribute to the onset of the KHI even for sub-Alfvénic longitudinal shear flows. Collisions between ions and neutrals reduce the growth rates of the unstable perturbations, but cannot completely suppress the instability. Conclusions: Turbulent flows in solar prominences with sub-Alfvénic flow velocities may be interpreted as consequences of KHI in partially ionized plasmas.

  12. Systematics of flux tubes in the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory and Casimir scaling hypothesis: folklore and lattice facts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Y.; Koma (Takayama), M.

    2003-01-01

    The ratios between the string tensions σ_D of color-electric flux tubes in higher and fundamental SU(3) representations, dD equiv σD/σ3, are systematically studied in a Weyl symmetric formulation of the DGL theory. The ratio is found to depend on the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter, kappa equiv m_{χ}/mB, the mass ratio between the monopoles (m_{χ}) and the masses of the dual gauge bosons (mB). While the ratios dD follow a simple flux counting rule in the Bogomol'nyi limit, kappa=1.0, systematic deviations appear with increasing kappa due to interactions between the fundamental flux inside a higher representation flux tube. We find that in a type-II dual superconducting vacuum near kappa = 3.0 this leads to a consistent description of the ratios dD as observed in lattice QCD simulations.

  13. Relating magnetic reconnection to coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that the solar corona is being heated and that coronal magnetic fields undergo reconnection all the time. Here we attempt to show that these two facts are related—i.e. coronal reconnection generates heat. This attempt must address the fact that topological change of field lines does not automatically generate heat. We present one case of flux emergence where we have measured the rate of coronal magnetic reconnection and the rate of energy dissipation in the corona. The ratio of these two, , is a current comparable to the amount of current expected to flow along the boundary separating the emerged flux from the pre-existing flux overlying it. We can generalize this relation to the overall corona in quiet Sun or in active regions. Doing so yields estimates for the contribution to coronal heating from magnetic reconnection. These estimated rates are comparable to the amount required to maintain the corona at its observed temperature. PMID:25897089

  14. On the look-up tables for the critical heat flux in tubes (history and problems)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, P.L.; Smogalev, I.P.

    1995-09-01

    The complication of critical heat flux (CHF) problem for boiling in channels is caused by the large number of variable factors and the variety of two-phase flows. The existence of several hundreds of correlations for the prediction of CHF demonstrates the unsatisfactory state of this problem. The phenomenological CHF models can provide only the qualitative predictions of CHF primarily in annular-dispersed flow. The CHF look-up tables covered the results of numerous experiments received more recognition in the last 15 years. These tables are based on the statistical averaging of CHF values for each range of pressure, mass flux and quality. The CHF values for regions, where no experimental data is available, are obtained by extrapolation. The correction of these tables to account for the diameter effect is a complicated problem. There are ranges of conditions where the simple correlations cannot produce the reliable results. Therefore, diameter effect on CHF needs additional study. The modification of look-up table data for CHF in tubes to predict CHF in rod bundles must include a method which to take into account the nonuniformity of quality in a rod bundle cross section.

  15. On the area expansion of magnetic flux tubes in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Cirtain, Jonathan W. E-mail: elena@asu.cas.cz

    2014-11-20

    We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field, extrapolated from the high-resolution Hinode/SOT magnetogram of the quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show an overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the Solar Optical Telescope magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist or to active regions producing significant flares.

  16. The analysis of two-dimensional two-phase flow in horizontal heated tube bundles using drift flux model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruichang; Zheng, Rongchuan; Wang, Yanwu

    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of two-dimensional two-phase flow in horizontal heated tube bundles. In the experiments, two advanced measuring systems with a single-fibre optical probe and a tri-fibre-optical-probe were developed to measure respectively the local void fraction and vapor bubble velocities among the heated tube bundles. In accordance with the internal circulation characteristics of two-phase flow in the tube bundles, a mathematical model of two-dimensional two-phase low Reynolds number turbulent flow based on the modified drift flux model and the numerical simulation method to analyze the two-phase flow structures have been developed. The modified drift flux model in which both the acceleration by gravity and the acceleration of the average volumetric flow are taken into account for the calculation of the drift velocities enables its application to the analysis of multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In the analysis the distributions of the vapor-phase velocity, liquid-phase velocity and void fraction were numerically obtained by using the modified drift flux model and conventional drift flux model respectively and compared with the experimental results. The numerical analysis results by using the modified drift flux model agree reasonably well with the experimental investigation. It is confirmed that the modified drift flux model has the capability of correctly simulating the two-dimensional two-phase flow.

  17. Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Hantao

    1998-11-01

    The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation.

  18. Rapidly solidified Ag-Cu eutectics: A comparative study using drop-tube and melt fluxing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Mullis, A. M.; Cochrane, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of rapid solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy processed via melt fluxing and drop-tube techniques is presented. A computational model is used to estimate the cooling rate and undercooling of the free fall droplets as this cannot be determined directly. SEM micrographs show that both materials consist of lamellar and anomalous eutectic structures. However, below the critical undercooling the morphologies of each are different in respect of the distribution and volume of anomalous eutectic. The anomalous eutectic in flux- undercooled samples preferentially forms at cell boundaries around the lamellar eutectic in the cell body. In drop-tube processed samples it tends to distribute randomly inside the droplets and at much smaller volume fractions. That the formation of the anomalous eutectic can, at least in part, be suppressed in the drop-tube is strongly suggestive that the formation of anomalous eutectic occurs via remelting process, which is suppressed by rapid cooling during solidification.

  19. Unsteady wandering magnetic field lines, turbulence and laboratory flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, D.; Pulliam, D.; Lazarian, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe earth bound laboratory experiment investigations of patchy, unsteady, bursty, patchy magnetic field structures that are unifying features of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in helio, space and astro physics. Macroscopic field lines occupy cross sectional areas, fill up three dimensional (3D) volumes as flux tubes. They contain mass with Newtonian dynamics that follow magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations of motion. Flux rope geometry can be ubiquitous in laminar reconnection sheet geometries that are themselves unstable to formation of secondary "islands" that in 3D are really flux ropes. Flux ropes are ubiquitous structures on the sun and the rest of the heliosphere. Understanding the dynamics of flux ropes and their mutual interactions offers the key to many important astrophysical phenomena, including magnetic reconnection and turbulence. We describe laboratory investigations on RSX, where 3D interaction of flux ropes can be studied in great detail. We use experimental probes inside the the flux ropes to measure the magnetic and electric fields, current density, density, temperatures, pressure, and electrostatic and vector plasma potentials. Macroscopic magnetic field lines, unsteady wandering characteristics, and dynamic objects with structure down to the dissipation scale length can be traced from data sets in a 3D volume. Computational approaches are finally able to tackle simple 3D systems and we sketch some intriguing simulation results that are consistent with 3D extensions of typical 2D cartoons for magnetic reconnection and turbulence.

  20. Comparing Simulations of Rising Flux Tubes Through the Solar Convection Zone with Observations of Solar Active Regions: Constraining the Dynamo Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. A.; Fan, Y.; Miesch, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    We study how active-region-scale flux tubes rise buoyantly from the base of the convection zone to near the solar surface by embedding a thin flux tube model in a rotating spherical shell of solar-like turbulent convection. These toroidal flux tubes that we simulate range in magnetic field strength from 15 kG to 100 kG at initial latitudes of 1∘ to 40∘ in both hemispheres. This article expands upon Weber, Fan, and Miesch ( Astrophys. J. 741, 11, 2011) (Article 1) with the inclusion of tubes with magnetic flux of 1020 Mx and 1021 Mx, and more simulations of the previously investigated case of 1022 Mx, sampling more convective flows than the previous article, greatly improving statistics. Observed properties of active regions are compared to properties of the simulated emerging flux tubes, including: the tilt of active regions in accordance with Joy's Law as in Article 1, and in addition the scatter of tilt angles about the Joy's Law trend, the most commonly occurring tilt angle, the rotation rate of the emerging loops with respect to the surrounding plasma, and the nature of the magnetic field at the flux tube apex. We discuss how these diagnostic properties constrain the initial field strength of the active-region flux tubes at the bottom of the solar convection zone, and suggest that flux tubes of initial magnetic field strengths of ≥ 40 kG are good candidates for the progenitors of large (1021 Mx to 1022 Mx) solar active regions, which agrees with the results from Article 1 for flux tubes of 1022 Mx. With the addition of more magnetic flux values and more simulations, we find that for all magnetic field strengths, the emerging tubes show a positive Joy's Law trend, and that this trend does not show a statistically significant dependence on the magnetic flux.

  1. Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N. A.; Miralles, M. P.; Ranquist, D. A.; Pope, C. L.; Raymond, J. C.; Lukin, V. S.; McKillop, S.; Shen, C.; Winter, H. D.; Reeves, K. K.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections typically predict the development of an elongated current sheet in the wake behind the rising flux rope. In reality, reconnection in these current sheets will be asymmetric along the inflow, outflow, and out-of-plane directions. We perform resistive MHD simulations to investigate the consequences of asymmetry during solar reconnection. We predict several observational signatures of asymmetric reconnection, including flare loops with a skewed candle flame shape, slow drifting of the current sheet into the strong field upstream region, asymmetric footpoint speeds and hard X-ray emission, and rolling motions within the erupting flux rope. There is net plasma flow across the magnetic field null along both the inflow and outflow directions. We compare simulations to SDO/AIA, Hinode/XRT, and STEREO observations of flare loop shapes, current sheet drifting, and rolling motions during prominence eruptions. Simulations of the plasmoid instability with different upstream magnetic fields show that the reconnection rate remains enhanced even during the asymmetric case. The islands preferentially grow into the weak field upstream region. The islands develop net vorticity because the outflow jets impact them obliquely rather than directly. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere occurs when emerging flux interacts with pre-existing overlying flux. We present initial results on asymmetric reconnection in partially ionized chromospheric plasmas. Finally, we discuss how comparisons to observations are necessary to understand the role of three-dimensional effects.

  2. Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N. A.; Miralles, M. P.; Ranquist, D. A.; Pope, C. L.; Raymond, J. C.; Lukin, V. S.; McKillop, S. C.; Shen, C.; Winter, H. D.; Reeves, K. K.; Lin, J.

    2013-12-01

    Models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections typically predict the development of an elongated current sheet in the wake behind the rising flux rope. In reality, reconnection in these current sheets will be asymmetric along the inflow, outflow, and out-of-plane directions. We perform resistive MHD simulations to investigate the consequences of asymmetry during solar reconnection. We predict several observational signatures of asymmetric reconnection, including flare loops with a skewed candle flame shape, slow drifting of the current sheet into the strong field upstream region, asymmetric footpoint speeds and hard X-ray emission, and rolling motions within the erupting flux rope. There is net plasma flow across the magnetic field null along both the inflow and outflow directions. We compare simulations to SDO/AIA, Hinode/XRT, and STEREO observations of flare loop shapes, current sheet drifting, and rolling motions during prominence eruptions. Simulations of the plasm! oid instability with different upstream magnetic fields show that the reconnection rate remains enhanced even during the asymmetric case. The islands preferentially grow into the weak field upstream region. The islands develop net vorticity because the outflow jets impact them obliquely rather than directly. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere occurs when emerging flux interacts with pre-existing overlying flux. We present initial results on asymmetric reconnection in partially ionized chromospheric plasmas. Finally, we discuss how comparisons to observations are necessary to understand the role of three-dimensional effects.

  3. Distinguishing between pulsed and continuous reconnection at the dayside magnetopause

    PubMed Central

    Onsager, T. G.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic reconnection has been established as the dominant mechanism by which magnetic fields in different regions change topology to create open magnetic field lines that allow energy and momentum to flow into the magnetosphere. One of the persistent problems of magnetic reconnection is the question of whether the process is continuous or intermittent and what input condition(s) might favor one type of reconnection over the other. Observations from imagers that record FUV emissions caused by precipitating cusp ions demonstrate the global nature of magnetic reconnection. Those images show continuous ionospheric emissions even during changing interplanetary magnetic field conditions. On the other hand, in situ observations from polar‐orbiting satellites show distinctive cusp structures in flux distributions of precipitating ions, which are interpreted as the telltale signature of intermittent reconnection. This study uses a modification of the low‐velocity cutoff method, which was previously successfully used to determine the location of the reconnection site, to calculate for the cusp ion distributions the “time since reconnection occurred.” The “time since reconnection” is used to determine the “reconnection time” for the cusp magnetic field lines where these distributions have been observed. The profile of the reconnection time, either continuous or stepped, is a direct measurement of the nature of magnetic reconnection at the reconnection site. This paper will discuss a continuous and pulsed reconnection event from the Polar spacecraft to illustrate the methodology.

  4. Distinguishing between pulsed and continuous reconnection at the dayside magnetopause

    PubMed Central

    Onsager, T. G.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic reconnection has been established as the dominant mechanism by which magnetic fields in different regions change topology to create open magnetic field lines that allow energy and momentum to flow into the magnetosphere. One of the persistent problems of magnetic reconnection is the question of whether the process is continuous or intermittent and what input condition(s) might favor one type of reconnection over the other. Observations from imagers that record FUV emissions caused by precipitating cusp ions demonstrate the global nature of magnetic reconnection. Those images show continuous ionospheric emissions even during changing interplanetary magnetic field conditions. On the other hand, in situ observations from polar‐orbiting satellites show distinctive cusp structures in flux distributions of precipitating ions, which are interpreted as the telltale signature of intermittent reconnection. This study uses a modification of the low‐velocity cutoff method, which was previously successfully used to determine the location of the reconnection site, to calculate for the cusp ion distributions the “time since reconnection occurred.” The “time since reconnection” is used to determine the “reconnection time” for the cusp magnetic field lines where these distributions have been observed. The profile of the reconnection time, either continuous or stepped, is a direct measurement of the nature of magnetic reconnection at the reconnection site. This paper will discuss a continuous and pulsed reconnection event from the Polar spacecraft to illustrate the methodology. PMID:27656333

  5. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel

    2013-11-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences.

  6. Spontaneous reconnection at a separator current layer: 1. Nature of the reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. E. H.; Parnell, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic separators, which lie on the boundary between four topologically distinct flux domains, are prime locations in three-dimensional magnetic fields for reconnection, especially in the magnetosphere between the planetary and interplanetary magnetic fields and also in the solar atmosphere. Little is known about the details of separator reconnection, and so the aim of this paper, which is the first of two, is to study the properties of magnetic reconnection at a single separator. Three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic numerical experiments are run to study separator reconnection starting from a magnetohydrostatic equilibrium which contains a twisted current layer along a single separator linking a pair of opposite-polarity null points. The resulting reconnection occurs in two phases. The first is short involving rapid reconnection in which the current at the separator is reduced by a factor of around 2.3. Most (75%) of the magnetic energy is converted during this phase, via Ohmic dissipation, directly into internal energy, with just 0.1% going into kinetic energy. During this phase the reconnection occurs along most of the separator away from its ends (the nulls) but in an asymmetric manner which changes both spatially and temporally over time. The second phase is much longer and involves slow impulsive bursty reconnection. Again, Ohmic heating dominates over viscous damping. Here the reconnection occurs in small localized bursts at random anywhere along the separator.

  7. Dissipative MHD solutions for resonant Alfven waves in 1-dimensional magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Ruderman, Michail S.; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper extends the analysis by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg (1991) on resonant Alfven waves in nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. It proves that the fundamental conservation law for resonant Alfven waves found in ideal MHD by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg remains valid in dissipative MHD. This guarantees that the jump conditions of Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg, that connect the ideal MHD solutions for xi(sub r), and P' across the dissipative layer, are correct. In addition, the present paper replaces the complicated dissipative MHD solutions obtained by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg for xi(sub r), and P' in terms of double integrals of Hankel functions of complex argument of order 1/3 with compact analytical solutions that allow a straight- forward mathematical and physical interpretation. Finally, it presents an analytical dissipative MHD solution for the component of the Lagrangian displacement in the magnetic surfaces perpen- dicular to the magnetic field lines xi(sub perpendicular) which enables us to determine the dominant dynamics of resonant Alfven waves in dissipative MHD.

  8. Flux Tube Dynamics Following Pellet Release Experi- ments in Laboratory Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, D.; Davis, M.; Mauel, M.; Roberts, M.; Worstell, M.; Chilenski, M.; Kesner, J.; Woskov, P.

    2013-10-01

    The rapid release of particles in the magnetosphere has allowed study of a wide range of space plasma dynamics including particle transport, magnetic bubble formation, and rapid flux-tube dynamics. We report new experiments using the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) (http://www.psfc.mit.edu/ldx/) where we explore the high-speed plasma dynamics following the release of 0.2 mm polystyrene pellets. The pellets are released into high-beta steady-state plasmas containing significant population of quasi-relativistic electrons. Similiar experiments, conducted in a smaller, mechanically-supported, laboratory magnetosphere show pellet ``explosions,'' electron precipitation, ``blob'' formation, and rapid changes of plasma density. A variety of diagnostics are available, including microwave reflectometry, high-speed videography, multi-tip probe arrays, and accurate magnetic reconstruction. Results and analyses will be reported along with plans for futher efforts to increase plasma density and conduct a variety of controlled physics experiments associated with magnetospheric events. Supported by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science.

  9. Thermalization of parton spectra in the colour-flux-tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-09-01

    A detailed study of thermalization of the momentum spectra of partons produced via decays of colour flux tubes due to the Schwinger tunnelling mechanism is presented. The collisions between particles are included in the relaxation-time approximation specified by different values of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. At first we show that, to a good approximation, the transverse-momentum spectra of the produced partons are exponential, irrespective of the assumed value of the viscosity of the system and the freeze-out time. This thermal-like behaviour may be attributed to specific properties of the Schwinger tunnelling process. In the next step, in order to check the approach of the system towards genuine local equilibrium, we compare the local slope of the model transverse-momentum spectra with the local slope of the fully equilibrated reference spectra characterized by the effective temperature that reproduces the energy density of the system. We find that the viscosity corresponding to the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory lower bound is necessary for thermalization of the system within about two fermis.

  10. Characterization of 3D filament dynamics in a MAST SOL flux tube geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Dudson, B. D.; Fishpool, G.

    2013-10-01

    Non-linear simulations of filament propagation in a realistic MAST SOL flux tube geometry using the BOUT++ fluid modelling framework show an isolation of the dynamics of the filament in the divertor region from the midplane region due to three features of the magnetic geometry; the variation of magnetic curvature along the field line, the expansion of the flux tube and strong magnetic shear. Of the three effects, the latter two lead to a midplane ballooning feature of the filament, whilst the former leads to a ballooning around the X-points. In simulations containing all three effects the filament is observed to balloon at the midplane, suggesting that the role of curvature variation is sub-dominant to the flux expansion and magnetic shear. The magnitudes of these effects are all strongest near the X-point which leads to the formation of parallel density gradients. The filaments simulated, which represent filaments in MAST, are identified as resistive ballooning, meaning that their motion is inertially limited, not sheath limited. Parallel density gradients can drive the filament towards a Boltzmann response when the collisionalityof the plasma is low. The results here show that the formation of parallel density gradients is a natural and inevitable consequence of a realistic magnetic geometry and therefore the transition to the Boltzmann response is a consequence of the use of realistic magnetic geometry and does not require initializing specifically varying background profiles as in slab simulations. The filaments studied here are stable to the linear resistive drift-wave instability but are subject to the non-linear effects associated with the Boltzmann response, particularly Boltzmann spinning. The Boltzmann response causes the filament to spin on an axis. In later stages of its evolution a non-linear turbulent state develops where the vorticity evolves into a turbulent eddy field on the same length scale as the parallel current. The transition from interchange

  11. Magnetic reconnection launcher

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Maynard

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic launcher includes a plurality of electrical stages which are energized sequentially in synchrony with the passage of a projectile. Each stage of the launcher includes two or more coils which are arranged coaxially on either closed-loop or straight lines to form gaps between their ends. The projectile has an electrically conductive gap-portion that passes through all the gaps of all the stages in a direction transverse to the axes of the coils. The coils receive an electric current, store magnetic energy, and convert a significant portion of the stored magnetic energy into kinetic energy of the projectile by magnetic reconnection as the gap portion of the projectile moves through the gap. The magnetic polarity of the opposing coils is in the same direction, e.g. N-S-N-S. A gap portion of the projectile may be made from aluminum and is propelled by the reconnection of magnetic flux stored in the coils which causes accelerating forces to act upon the projectile at both the rear vertical surface of the projectile and at the horizontal surfaces of the projectile near its rear. The gap portion of the projectile may be flat, rectangular and longer than the length of the opposing coils and fit loosely within the gap between the opposing coils.

  12. Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Tim R.

    2011-04-01

    Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005-July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu`u `Ō`ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu`u `Ō`ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on volcanoes on Hawai`i and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic fluctuation in lava

  13. Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea Volcano during November 2005–July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on volcanoes on Hawai‘i and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic

  14. Evidence of Multiple Reconnection Lines at the Magnetopause from Cusp Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trattner, K. J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Omidi, N.; Sibeck, David Gary

    2012-01-01

    Recent global hybrid simulations investigated the formation of flux transfer events (FTEs) and their convection and interaction with the cusp. Based on these simulations, we have analyzed several Polar cusp crossings in the Northern Hemisphere to search for the signature of such FTEs in the energy distribution of downward precipitating ions: precipitating ion beams at different energies parallel to the ambient magnetic field and overlapping in time. Overlapping ion distributions in the cusp are usually attributed to a combination of variable ion acceleration during the magnetopause crossing together with the time-of-flight effect from the entry point to the observing satellite. Most "step up" ion cusp structures (steps in the ion energy dispersions) only overlap for the populations with large pitch angles and not for the parallel streaming populations. Such cusp structures are the signatures predicted by the pulsed reconnection model, where the reconnection rate at the magnetopause decreased to zero, physically separating convecting flux tubes and their parallel streaming ions. However, several Polar cusp events discussed in this study also show an energy overlap for parallel-streaming precipitating ions. This condition might be caused by reopening an already reconnected field line, forming a magnetic island (flux rope) at the magnetopause similar to that reported in global MHD and Hybrid simulations

  15. Slip versus Field-Line Mapping in Describing 3D Reconnection of Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate two techniques for describing the structure of the coronal magnetic field and its evolution due to reconnection in numerical 3D simulations of the solar corona and CMEs. These techniques employ two types of mapping of the boundary of the computational domain on itself. One of them is defined at a given time moment via connections of the magnetic field lines to their opposite endpoints. The other mapping, called slip mapping, relates field line endpoints at two different time moments and allows one to identify the slippage of plasma elements due to resistivity across field lines for a given time interval (Titov et al. 2009). The distortion of each of these mappings can be measured by using the so-called squashing factor Q (Titov 2007). The high-Q layers computed for the first and second mappings define, respectively, (quasi-)separatrix surfaces and reconnection fronts in evolving magnetic configurations. Analyzing these structural features, we are able to reveal topologically different domains and reconnected flux systems in the configurations, in particular, open, closed and disconnected magnetic flux tubes, as well as quantify the related magnetic flux transfer. Comparison with observations makes it possible also to relate these features to observed morphological elements such as flare loops and ribbons, and EUV dimmings. We illustrate these general techniques by applying them to particular data-driven MHD simulations. *Research supported by NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and NSF/SHINE and NSF/FESD.

  16. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. IV - Aerodynamic lift on a thin cylinder in convective flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinganos, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift exerted on a long circular cylinder immersed in a convective flow pattern in an ideal fluid is calculated to establish the equilibrium position of the cylinder. The calculations establish the surprising result that the cylinder is pushed out the upwellings and the downdrafts of the convective cell, into a location midway between them. The implications for the intense magnetic flux tubes in the convection beneath the surface of the sun are considered.

  17. Solar Wind Acceleration: Modeling Effects of Turbulent Heating in Open Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-06-01

    We present two self-consistent coronal heating models that determine the properties of the solar wind generated and accelerated in magnetic field geometries that are open to the heliosphere. These models require only the radial magnetic field profile as input. The first code, ZEPHYR (Cranmer et al. 2007) is a 1D MHD code that includes the effects of turbulent heating created by counter-propagating Alfven waves rather than relying on empirical heating functions. We present the analysis of a large grid of modeled flux tubes (> 400) and the resulting solar wind properties. From the models and results, we recreate the observed anti-correlation between wind speed at 1 AU and the so-called expansion factor, a parameterization of the magnetic field profile. We also find that our models follow the same observationally-derived relation between temperature at 1 AU and wind speed at 1 AU. We continue our analysis with a newly-developed code written in Python called TEMPEST (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool) that runs an order of magnitude faster than ZEPHYR due to a set of simplifying relations between the input magnetic field profile and the temperature and wave reflection coefficient profiles. We present these simplifying relations as a useful result in themselves as well as the anti-correlation between wind speed and expansion factor also found with TEMPEST. Due to the nature of the algorithm TEMPEST utilizes to find solar wind solutions, we can effectively separate the two primary ways in which Alfven waves contribute to solar wind acceleration: 1) heating the surrounding gas through a turbulent cascade and 2) providing a separate source of wave pressure. We intend to make TEMPEST easily available to the public and suggest that TEMPEST can be used as a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather, either as a stand-alone code or within an existing modeling framework.

  18. ERUPTING FILAMENTS WITH LARGE ENCLOSING FLUX TUBES AS SOURCES OF HIGH-MASS THREE-PART CMEs, AND ERUPTING FILAMENTS IN THE ABSENCE OF ENCLOSING FLUX TUBES AS SOURCES OF LOW-MASS UNSTRUCTURED CMEs

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, Joe; Morgan, Huw

    2015-11-01

    The 3-part appearance of many coronal mass ejections (CMEs) arising from erupting filaments emerges from a large magnetic flux tube structure, consistent with the form of the erupting filament system. Other CMEs arising from erupting filaments lack a clear 3-part structure and reasons for this have not been researched in detail. This paper aims to further establish the link between CME structure and the structure of the erupting filament system and to investigate whether CMEs which lack a 3-part structure have different eruption characteristics. A survey is made of 221 near-limb filament eruptions observed from 2013 May 03 to 2014 June 30 by Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) imagers and coronagraphs. Ninety-two filament eruptions are associated with 3-part structured CMEs, 41 eruptions are associated with unstructured CMEs. The remaining 88 are categorized as failed eruptions. For 34% of the 3-part CMEs, processing applied to EUV images reveals the erupting front edge is a pre-existing loop structure surrounding the filament, which subsequently erupts with the filament to form the leading bright front edge of the CME. This connection is confirmed by a flux-rope density model. Furthermore, the unstructured CMEs have a narrower distribution of mass compared to structured CMEs, with total mass comparable to the mass of 3-part CME cores. This study supports the interpretation of 3-part CME leading fronts as the outer boundaries of a large pre-existing flux tube. Unstructured (non 3-part) CMEs are a different family to structured CMEs, arising from the eruption of filaments which are compact flux tubes in the absence of a large system of enclosing closed field.

  19. Reconnection at three dimensional magnetic null points: Effect of current sheet asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wyper, P. F.; Jain, Rekha

    2013-05-15

    Asymmetric current sheets are likely to be prevalent in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas with complex three dimensional (3D) magnetic topologies. This work presents kinematic analytical models for spine and fan reconnection at a radially symmetric 3D null (i.e., a null where the eigenvalues associated with the fan plane are equal) with asymmetric current sheets. Asymmetric fan reconnection is characterized by an asymmetric reconnection of flux past each spine line and a bulk flow of plasma across the null point. In contrast, asymmetric spine reconnection is characterized by the reconnection of an equal quantity of flux across the fan plane in both directions. The higher modes of spine reconnection also include localized wedges of vortical flux transport in each half of the fan. In this situation, two definitions for reconnection rate become appropriate: a local reconnection rate quantifying how much flux is genuinely reconnected across the fan plane and a global rate associated with the net flux driven across each semi-plane. Through a scaling analysis, it is shown that when the ohmic dissipation in the layer is assumed to be constant, the increase in the local rate bleeds from the global rate as the sheet deformation is increased. Both models suggest that asymmetry in the current sheet dimensions will have a profound effect on the reconnection rate and manner of flux transport in reconnection involving 3D nulls.

  20. Three-dimensional calculations of neutron streaming in the beam tubes of the ORNL HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, R.L.; Rhoades, W.A.; Williams, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    The streaming of neutrons through the beam tubes in High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has resulted in a reduction of the fracture toughness of the reactor vessel. As a result, an evaluation of vessel integrity was undertaken in order to determine if the reactor can be operated again. As a part of this evaluation, three-dimensional neutron transport calculations were performed to obtain fluxes at points of interest in the wall of the vessel. By comparing the calculated and measured activation of dosimetry specimens from the vessel surveillance program, it was determined that the calculated flux shape was satisfactory to transpose the surveillance data to the locations in the vessel. A bias factor was applied to correct for the average C/E ratio of 0.69. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Length and time for development of laminar flow in tubes following a step increase of volume flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A.; Herrmann, Marcus; Frakes, David H.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Laminar flows starting up from rest in round tubes are relevant to numerous industrial and biomedical applications. The two most common types are flows driven by an abruptly imposed constant pressure gradient or by an abruptly imposed constant volume flux. Analytical solutions are available for transient, fully developed flows, wherein streamwise development over the entrance length is absent (Szymanski in J de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées 11:67-107, 1932; Andersson and Tiseth in Chem Eng Commun 112(1):121-133, 1992, respectively). They represent the transient responses of flows in tubes that are very long compared with the entrance length, a condition that is seldom satisfied in biomedical tube networks. This study establishes the entrance (development) length and development time of starting laminar flow in a round tube of finite length driven by a piston pump that produces a step change from zero flow to a constant volume flux for Reynolds numbers between 500 and 3,000. The flows are examined experimentally, using stereographic particle image velocimetry and computationally using computational fluid dynamics, and are then compared with the known analytical solutions for fully developed flow conditions in infinitely long tubes. Results show that step function volume flux start-up flows reach steady state and fully developed flow five times more quickly than those driven by a step function pressure gradient, a 500 % change when compared with existing estimates. Based on these results, we present new, simple guidelines for achieving experimental flows that are fully developed in space and time in realistic (finite) tube geometries. To a first approximation, the time to achieve steady spatially developing flow is nearly equal to the time needed to achieve steady, fully developed flow. Conversely, the entrance length needed to achieve fully developed transient flow is approximately equal to the length needed to achieve fully developed steady flow. Beyond this

  2. Reversible collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.

    2013-10-15

    Reversible magnetic reconnection is demonstrated for the first time by means of gyrokinetic numerical simulations of a collisionless magnetized plasma. Growth of a current-driven instability in a sheared magnetic field is accompanied by magnetic reconnection due to electron inertia effects. Following the instability growth, the collisionless reconnection is accelerated with development of a cross-shaped structure of current density, and then all field lines are reconnected. The fully reconnected state is followed by the secondary reconnection resulting in a weakly turbulent state. A time-reversed simulation starting from the turbulent state manifests that the collisionless reconnection process proceeds inversely leading to the initial state. During the reversed reconnection, the kinetic energy is reconverted into the original magnetic field energy. In order to understand the stability of reversed process, an external perturbation is added to the fully reconnected state, and it is found that the accelerated reconnection is reversible when the deviation of the E × B streamlines due to the perturbation is comparable with or smaller than a current layer width.

  3. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-28

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  4. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. VI - Convective propulsion. VII - Heat flow in a convective downdraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of negative aerodynamic drag in an ideal fluid subject to convective instability is considered. It is shown that a cylinder moving in such a fluid is propelled forward in its motion by the convective forces and that the characteristic acceleration time is comparable to the onset time of convective motions in the fluid. It is suggested that convective propulsion plays an important role in the dynamics of flux tubes extending through the surface of the sun. The suppression of the upward heat flow in a Boussinesq convective cell with free upper and lower boundaries by a downdraft is then analyzed. Application to the solar convection zone indicates that downdrafts of 1 to 2 km/s at depths of 1000 to 4000 km beneath the visible surface of the sun are sufficient to reduce the upward heat flux to a small fraction of the ambient value.

  5. Preliminary Results of Laboratory Simulation of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shou-Biao; Xie, Jin-Lin; Hu, Guang-Hai; Li, Hong; Huang, Guang-Li; Liu, Wan-Dong

    2011-10-01

    In the Linear Magnetized Plasma (LMP) device of University of Science and Technology of China and by exerting parallel currents on two parallel copper plates, we have realized the magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasma. With the emissive probes, we have measured the parallel (along the axial direction) electric field in the process of reconnection, and verified the dependence of reconnection current on passing particles. Using the magnetic probe, we have measured the time evolution of magnetic flux, and the measured result shows no pileup of magnetic flux, in consistence with the result of numerical simulation.

  6. Energetics of the magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2014-10-01

    The essential feature of magnetic reconnection is that it energizes plasma particles by converting magnetic energy to particle energy. This talk addresses this key unresolved question; how is magnetic energy converted to plasma kinetic energy during reconnection? Our recent study on MRX demonstrates that more than half of the incoming magnetic energy is converted to particle energy at a remarkably fast speed (~ 0.2VA) in the reconnection layer. A question arises as to whether the present results should be applied to magnetic reconnection phenomena in the space astrophysical plasmas. In a reconnection region of effectively similar size in the Earth's magnetotail, the energy partition was carefully measured during multiple passages of the Cluster satellites. The half length of the tail reconnection layer (L) was estimated to be 2000-4000 km namely 3-6 di, (ion skin depth); the scale length of this measurement is very similar to the MRX case, L ~ 3di. Reconnection in the magneto-tail is driven by an external force, i.e., the solar wind, and the boundary conditions are very similar to the MRX setup. The observed energy partition is notably similar, namely, more than 50% of the magnetic energy flux is converted to the particle energy flux, which is dominated by the ion enthalpy flux, with smaller contributions from the electron enthalpy and heat flux. A broad implication will be discussed. Supported by DoE, NASA, NSF.

  7. Three-Dimensional Signatures of Intermittent Magnetic Reconnection in Global Simulations of Dayside Magnetosphere Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M.M.; Sibeck, D.; Hesse, M.; Rastatter, L.; Toth, G.

    2008-01-01

    We performed high resolution global MHD simulations of THEMIS dayside crossings events in May -June 2007. We found that magnetopause surface is not in steady-state even during extended periods of steady solar wind conditions. The so-called tilted reconnection lines become unstable due to formation of pressure bubbles, strong core field flux tubes, vortices, and traveling magnetic field cavities. The topology of FTEs differ from that in two dimension cartoons representing obliquely oriented quasi-2D flux rope. The structure of FTE is changing at spatial scales of 1 -2 Re. Closely located space probes can observe completely different signatures. Branches of bent flux rope can move in opposite directions. THEMIS and Cluster observations are consistent with signatures predicted by simulations.

  8. Collisionless Reconnection and Electron Demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    Observable, dimensionless properties of the electron diffusion region of collisionless magnetic reconnection are motivated and benchmarked in two and three dimensional Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations as appropriate for measurements with present state of the art spacecraft. The dimensionless quantities of this paper invariably trace their origin to breaking the magnetization of the thermal electrons. Several observable proxies are also motivated for the rate of frozen flux violation and a parameter \\varLambda _{\\varPhi } that when greater than unity is associated with close proximity to the analogue of the saddle point region of 2D reconnection usually called the electron diffusion region. Analogous regions to the electron diffusion region of 2D reconnection with \\varLambda _{\\varPhi } > 1 have been identified in 3D simulations. 10-20 disjoint diffusion regions are identified and the geometrical patterns of their locations illustrated. First examples of associations between local observables based on electron demagnetization and global diagnostics (like squashing) are also presented. A by product of these studies is the development of a single spacecraft determinations of gradient scales in the plasma.

  9. A review of pressure anisotropy caused by electron trapping in collisionless plasma, and its implications for magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egedal, Jan; Le, Ari; Daughton, William

    2013-06-01

    From spacecraft data, it is evident that electron pressure anisotropy develops in collisionless plasmas. This is in contrast to the results of theoretical investigations, which suggest this anisotropy should be limited. Common for such theoretical studies is that the effects of electron trapping are not included; simply speaking, electron trapping is a non-linear effect and is, therefore, eliminated when utilizing the standard methods for linearizing the underlying kinetic equations. Here, we review our recent work on the anisotropy that develops when retaining the effects of electron trapping. A general analytic model is derived for the electron guiding center distribution f¯(v∥,v⊥) of an expanding flux tube. The model is consistent with anisotropic distributions observed by spacecraft, and is applied as a fluid closure yielding anisotropic equations of state for the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the local magnetic field direction) of the electron pressure. In the context of reconnection, the new closure accounts for the strong pressure anisotropy that develops in the reconnection regions. It is shown that for generic reconnection in a collisionless plasma nearly all thermal electrons are trapped, and dominate the properties of the electron fluid. A new numerical code is developed implementing the anisotropic closure within the standard two-fluid framework. The code accurately reproduces the detailed structure of the reconnection region observed in fully kinetic simulations. These results emphasize the important role of pressure anisotropy for the reconnection process. In particular, for reconnection geometries characterized by small values of the normalized upstream electron pressure, βe∞, the pressure anisotropy becomes large with p∥≫p⊥ and strong parallel electric fields develop in conjunction with this anisotropy. The parallel electric fields can be sustained over large spatial scales and, therefore, become important for

  10. Average patterns of precipitation and plasma flow in the plasma sheet flux tubes during steady magnetospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Lennartsson, W.; Pellinen, R.; Vallinkoski, M.; Fedorova, N. I.

    1990-01-01

    Average patterns of plasma drifts and auroral precipitation in the nightside auroral zone were constructed during a steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) event on February 19, 1978. By comparing these patterns with the measurements in the midtail plasma sheet made by ISEE-1, and using the corresponding magnetic field model, the following features are inferred: (1) the concentration of the earthward convection in the midnight portion of the plasma sheet (convection jet); (2) the depleted plasma energy content of the flux tubes in the convection jet region; and (3) the Region-1 field-aligned currents generated in the midtail plasma sheet. It is argued that these three elements are mutually consistent features appearing in the process of ionosphere-magnetosphere interaction during SMC periods. These configurational characteristics resemble the corresponding features of substorm expansions (enhanced convection and 'dipolarized' magnetic field within the substorm current wedge) and appear to play the same role in regulating the plasma flow in the flux tubes connected to the plasma sheet.

  11. Electromagnetic energy conversion at reconnection fronts.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, V; Runov, A; Zhou, X-Z; Turner, D L; Kiehas, S A; Li, S-S; Shinohara, I

    2013-09-27

    Earth's magnetotail contains magnetic energy derived from the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Conversion of that energy back to particle energy ultimately powers Earth's auroras, heats the magnetospheric plasma, and energizes the Van Allen radiation belts. Where and how such electromagnetic energy conversion occurs has been unclear. Using a conjunction between eight spacecraft, we show that this conversion takes place within fronts of recently reconnected magnetic flux, predominantly at 1- to 10-electron inertial length scale, intense electrical current sheets (tens to hundreds of nanoamperes per square meter). Launched continually during intervals of geomagnetic activity, these reconnection outflow flux fronts convert ~10 to 100 gigawatts per square Earth radius of power, consistent with local magnetic flux transport, and a few times 10(15) joules of magnetic energy, consistent with global magnetotail flux reduction. PMID:24072917

  12. Electromagnetic energy conversion at reconnection fronts.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, V; Runov, A; Zhou, X-Z; Turner, D L; Kiehas, S A; Li, S-S; Shinohara, I

    2013-09-27

    Earth's magnetotail contains magnetic energy derived from the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Conversion of that energy back to particle energy ultimately powers Earth's auroras, heats the magnetospheric plasma, and energizes the Van Allen radiation belts. Where and how such electromagnetic energy conversion occurs has been unclear. Using a conjunction between eight spacecraft, we show that this conversion takes place within fronts of recently reconnected magnetic flux, predominantly at 1- to 10-electron inertial length scale, intense electrical current sheets (tens to hundreds of nanoamperes per square meter). Launched continually during intervals of geomagnetic activity, these reconnection outflow flux fronts convert ~10 to 100 gigawatts per square Earth radius of power, consistent with local magnetic flux transport, and a few times 10(15) joules of magnetic energy, consistent with global magnetotail flux reduction.

  13. Flux Transfer Event in the Subsolar Region and Near the Cusp: Simultaneous Polar and Cluster Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Zheng, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Pfaff, R. F.; Slavin, J. A.; Lin, N.; Mozer, F.; Parks, G.; Petrinec, S. M.; Lucek, e. A.; Reme, Henri

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon called flux transfer events (FTEs) is widely accepted as the manifestation of time-dependent reconnection. In this paper, we present an observational evidence of a flux transfer event observed simultaneously at low-latitude by Polar and high-latitude by Cluster. This event occurred on March 21, 2002, when both Cluster and Polar were located near the local noon but with large latitudinal distance. Cluster was moving outbound from polar cusp to the magnetosheath, and Polar was in the magnetosheath near the equatorial magnetopause. The observations show that a flux transfer event was formed between the equator and the northern cusp. Polar and Cluster observed the FTE's two open flux tubes: Polar saw the southward moving flux tube near the equator; and Cluster the , northward moving flux tube at high latitude. Unlike low-latitude FTEs, the high-latitude FTE did not exhibit the characteristic bi-polar BN signature. But the plasma data clearly showed its open flux tube configuration. Enhanced electric field fluctuations were observed within the FTE core, both at low- and high-attitudes. This event provides us a unique opportunity to understand high-latitude FTE signatures and the nature of time-varying reconnection.

  14. Comments on Magnetic Reconnection Models of Canceling Magnetic Features on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2015-06-01

    Data analysis and theoretical arguments support magnetic reconnection in a chromospheric current sheet as the mechanism of the observed photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun. Flux pile-up reconnection in a Sweet-Parker current sheet can explain the observed properties of canceling mag-netic features, including the speeds of canceling magnetic fragments, the magnetic uxes in the fragments, and the flux cancellation rates, inferred from the data. It is discussed how more realistic chromospheric reconnection models can be developed by relaxing the assumptions of a negligible current sheet curvature and a constant height of the reconnection site above the photosphere.

  15. A Rosetta Stone for in situ Observations of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Daughton, W. S.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2015-12-01

    Local conditions that constrain the physics of magnetic reconnection in space in 3D will be discussed, including those observable conditions presently used and new ones that enhance experimental closure. Three classes of tests will be discussed: i) proxies for unmeasurable theoretical properties II) observable properties satisfied by all layers that pass mass flux, including those of the reconnection layer, and (iii) observable kinetic tests that are increasingly peculiar to collisionless magnetic reconnection. A Rosetta Stone of state of the art observables will be proposed, including proxies for unmeasurable theoretical local rate of frozen flux violation and measures of the significance of frozen flux encountered. A suite of kinetic observables involving properties peculiar to electrons will also be demonstrated as promising litmus tests for certifying sites of collisionless magnetic reconnection.

  16. Observations of Slow Electron Holes at a Magnetic Reconnection Site

    SciTech Connect

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Fujimoto, M.; Retino, A.; Owen, C. J.

    2010-10-15

    We report in situ observations of high-frequency electrostatic waves in the vicinity of a reconnection site in the Earth's magnetotail. Two different types of waves are observed inside an ion-scale magnetic flux rope embedded in a reconnecting current sheet. Electron holes (weak double layers) produced by the Buneman instability are observed in the density minimum in the center of the flux rope. Higher frequency broadband electrostatic waves with frequencies extending up to f{sub pe} are driven by the electron beam and are observed in the denser part of the rope. Our observations demonstrate multiscale coupling during the reconnection: Electron-scale physics is induced by the dynamics of an ion-scale flux rope embedded in a yet larger-scale magnetic reconnection process.

  17. Quantum vortex reconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccher, S.; Caliari, M.; Baggaley, A. W.; Barenghi, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    We study reconnections of quantum vortices by numerically solving the governing Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that the minimum distance between vortices scales differently with time before and after the vortex reconnection. We also compute vortex reconnections using the Biot-Savart law for vortex filaments of infinitesimal thickness, and find that, in this model, reconnections are time symmetric. We argue that the likely cause of the difference between the Gross-Pitaevskii model and the Biot-Savart model is the intense rarefaction wave which is radiated away from a Gross-Pitaeveskii reconnection. Finally we compare our results to experimental observations in superfluid helium and discuss the different length scales probed by the two models and by experiments.

  18. Three-dimensional null point reconnection regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, E. R.; Pontin, D. I.

    2009-12-15

    Recent advances in theory and computational experiments have shown the need to refine the previous categorization of magnetic reconnection at three-dimensional null points--points at which the magnetic field vanishes. We propose here a division into three different types, depending on the nature of the flow near the spine and fan of the null. The spine is an isolated field line which approaches the null (or recedes from it), while the fan is a surface of field lines which recede from it (or approach it). So-called torsional spine reconnection occurs when field lines in the vicinity of the fan rotate, with current becoming concentrated along the spine so that nearby field lines undergo rotational slippage. In torsional fan reconnection field lines near the spine rotate and create a current that is concentrated in the fan with a rotational flux mismatch and rotational slippage. In both of these regimes, the spine and fan are perpendicular and there is no flux transfer across spine or fan. The third regime, called spine-fan reconnection, is the most common in practice and combines elements of the previous spine and fan models. In this case, in response to a generic shearing motion, the null point collapses to form a current sheet that is focused at the null itself, in a sheet that locally spans both the spine and fan. In this regime the spine and fan are no longer perpendicular and there is flux transfer across both of them.

  19. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  20. Evidence for siphon flows with shocks in solar magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degenhardt, D.; Solanki, S. K.; Montesinos, B.; Thomas, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    We synthesize profiles of the infrared line Fe I 15648.5 A (g = 3) for a recently developed theoretical model of siphon flows along photospheric magnetic loops. The synthesized line profiles are compared with the observations from which Rueedi et al. (1992) deduced the presence of such flows across the neutral line of an active region plage. This comparison supports the interpretation of Rueedi et al. (1992). It also suggests that the average footpoint separation of the observed loops carrying the siphon flow is 8-15 sec and that the siphon flow experiences a standing tube shock in the downstream leg near the top of the arch.

  1. Boosting magnetic reconnection by viscosity and thermal conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoshima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Takahiro; Imada, Shinsuke

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear evolution of magnetic reconnection is investigated by means of magnetohydrodynamic simulations including uniform resistivity, uniform viscosity, and anisotropic thermal conduction. When viscosity exceeds resistivity (the magnetic Prandtl number P r m > 1 ), the viscous dissipation dominates outflow dynamics and leads to the decrease in the plasma density inside a current sheet. The low-density current sheet supports the excitation of the vortex. The thickness of the vortex is broader than that of the current for P r m > 1 . The broader vortex flow more efficiently carries the upstream magnetic flux toward the reconnection region, and consequently, boosts the reconnection. The reconnection rate increases with viscosity provided that thermal conduction is fast enough to take away the thermal energy increased by the viscous dissipation (the fluid Prandtl number Pr < 1). The result suggests the need to control the Prandtl numbers for the reconnection against the conventional resistive model.

  2. A Comparison between a Minijet Model and a Glasma Flux Tube Model for Central Au-Au Collisions at sqrt NN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Longacre, R.S.

    2011-05-17

    In this paper we compare two models with central Au-Au collisions at sqrtsNN=200 GeV. The first model is a minijet model which assumes that around ~50 minijets are produced in back-to-back pairs and have an altered fragmentation functions. It is also assumed that the fragments are transparent and escape the collision zone and are detected. The second model is a glasma flux tube model which leads to flux tubes on the surface of a radial expanding fireball driven by interacting flux tubes near the center of the fireball through plasma instabilities. This internal fireball becomes an opaque hydro fluid which pushes the surface flux tubes outward. Around ~12 surfaceflux tubes remain and fragment with ~1/2 the produced particles escaping the collision zone and are detected. Both models can reproduce two particle angular correlations in the different pt1 pt2 bins. We also compare the two models for three additional effects: meson baryon ratios; the long range nearside correlation called the ridge; and the so-called mach cone effect when applied to three particle angular correlations.

  3. Drift flux model as approximation of two fluid model for two phase dispersed and slug flow in tube

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of one-dimensional schematizing for non-steady two-phase dispersed and slug flow in tube is presented. Quasi-static approximation, when inertia forces because of the accelerations of the phases may be neglected, is considered. Gas-liquid bubbly and slug vertical upward flows are analyzed. Non-trivial theoretical equations for slip velocity for these flows are derived. Juxtaposition of the derived equations for slip velocity with the famous Zuber-Findlay correlation as cross correlation coefficients is criticized. The generalization of non-steady drift flux Wallis theory taking into account influence of wall friction on the bubbly or slug flows for kinematical waves is considered.

  4. Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. I. Zero Plasma-β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.

    2014-03-01

    MHD waves and oscillations in sharply structured magnetic plasmas have been studied for static and steady systems in the thin tube approximation over many years. This work will generalize these studies by introducing a slowly varying background density in time, in order to determine the changes to the wave parameters introduced by this temporally varying equilibrium, i.e. to investigate the amplitude, frequency, and wavenumber for the kink and higher order propagating fast magnetohydrodynamic wave in the leading order approximation to the WKB approach in a zero- β plasma representing the upper solar atmosphere. To progress, the thin tube and over-dense loop approximations are used, restricting the results found here to the duration of a number of multiples of the characteristic density change timescale. Using such approximations it is shown that the amplitude of the kink wave is enhanced in a manner proportional to the square of the Alfvén speed, . The frequency of the wave solution tends to the driving frequency of the system as time progresses; however, the wavenumber approaches zero after a large multiple of the characteristic density change timescale, indicating an ever increasing wavelength. For the higher order fluting modes the changes in amplitude are dependent upon the wave mode; for the m=2 mode the wave is amplified to a constant level; however, for all m≥3 the fast MHD wave is damped within a relatively small multiple of the characteristic density change timescale. Understanding MHD wave behavior in time-dependent plasmas is an important step towards a more complete model of the solar atmosphere and has a key role to play in solar magneto-seismological applications.

  5. Plasma Compression in Magnetic Reconnection Regions in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provornikova, E.; Laming, J. M.; Lukin, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    It has been proposed that particles bouncing between magnetized flows converging in a reconnection region can be accelerated by the first-order Fermi mechanism. Analytical considerations of this mechanism have shown that the spectral index of accelerated particles is related to the total plasma compression within the reconnection region, similarly to the case of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. As a first step to investigate the efficiency of Fermi acceleration in reconnection regions in producing hard energy spectra of particles in the solar corona, we explore the degree of plasma compression that can be achieved at reconnection sites. In particular, we aim to determine the conditions for the strong compressions to form. Using a two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical model, we consider a set of magnetic field configurations where magnetic reconnection can occur, including a Harris current sheet, a force-free current sheet, and two merging flux ropes. Plasma parameters are taken to be characteristic of the solar corona. Numerical simulations show that strong plasma compressions (≥4) in the reconnection regions can form when the plasma heating due to reconnection is efficiently removed by fast thermal conduction or the radiative cooling process. The radiative cooling process that is negligible in the typical 1 MK corona can play an important role in the low corona/transition region. It is found that plasma compression is expected to be strongest in low-beta plasma β ˜ 0.01–0.07 at reconnection magnetic nulls.

  6. Evolution of a magnetic flux tube in two-dimensional penetrative convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, R. L.; Brandenburg, A.; Nordlund, A.; Stein, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Highly supercritical compressible convection is simulated in a two-dimensional domain in which the upper half is unstable to convection while the lower half is stably stratified. This configuration is an idealization of the layers near the base of the solar convection zone. Once the turbulent flow is well developed, a toroidal magnetic field B sub tor is introduced to the stable layer. The field's evolution is governed by an advection-diffusion-type equation, and the Lorentz force does not significantly affect the flow. After many turnover times the field is stratified such that the absolute value of B sub tor/rho is approximately constant in the convective layer, where rho is density, while in the stable layer this ratio decreases linearly with depth. Consequently most of the magnetic flux is stored in the overshoot layer. The inclusion of rotation leads to travelling waves which transport magnetic flux latitudinally in a manner reminiscent of the migrations seen during the solar cycle.

  7. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. I. The formation of stable coronal flux ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Török, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a convection zone magnetic flux tube into a solar atmosphere containing a pre-existing dipole coronal field, which is orientated to minimize reconnection with the emerging field. We observe that the emergence process is capable of producing a coronal flux rope by the transfer of twist from the convection zone, as found in previous simulations. We find that this flux rope is stable, with no evidence of a fast rise, and that its ultimate height in the corona is determined by the strength of the pre-existing dipole field. We also find that although the electric currents in the initial convection zone flux tube are almost perfectly neutralized, the resultant coronal flux rope carries a significant net current. These results suggest that flux tube emergence is capable of creating non-current-neutralized stable flux ropes in the corona, tethered by overlying potential fields, a magnetic configuration that is believed to be the source of coronal mass ejections.

  8. Model of Hall Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.

    2008-11-28

    The rate of quasistationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection is calculated in the framework of incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics, which includes the Hall and electron pressure terms in Ohm's law. The Hall-magnetohydrodynamics equations are solved in a local region across the reconnection electron layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. In the case when the ion inertial length d{sub i} is larger than the Sweet-Parker reconnection layer thickness, the dimensionless reconnection rate is found to be independent of the electrical resistivity and equal to d{sub i}/L, where L is the scale length of the external magnetic field in the upstream region outside the electron layer and the ion layer thickness is found to be d{sub i}.

  9. THEMIS Sees Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Video Gallery

    THEMIS observations confirm for the first time that magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail triggers the onset of substorms. Substorms are the sudden violent eruptions of space weather that releas...

  10. Earth Reconnect -- July 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    A visualization of Earth's magnetosphere on July 15-16, 2012, shows how constant magnetic reconnection caused by an arriving coronal mass ejection, or CME, from the sun disrupted the magnetosphere,...

  11. Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection in Weakly Ionized Chromospheric Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-06-01

    Realistic models of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere must take into account that the plasma is partially ionized and that plasma conditions within any two magnetic flux bundles undergoing reconnection may not be the same. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere may occur when newly emerged flux interacts with pre-existing, overlying flux. We present 2.5D simulations of asymmetric reconnection in weakly ionized, reacting plasmas where the magnetic field strengths, ion and neutral densities, and temperatures are different in each upstream region. The plasma and neutral components are evolved separately to allow non-equilibrium ionization. As in previous simulations of chromospheric reconnection, the current sheet thins to the scale of the neutral–ion mean free path and the ion and neutral outflows are strongly coupled. However, the ion and neutral inflows are asymmetrically decoupled. In cases with magnetic asymmetry, a net flow of neutrals through the current sheet from the weak-field (high-density) upstream region into the strong-field upstream region results from a neutral pressure gradient. Consequently, neutrals dragged along with the outflow are more likely to originate from the weak-field region. The Hall effect leads to the development of a characteristic quadrupole magnetic field modified by asymmetry, but the X-point geometry expected during Hall reconnection does not occur. All simulations show the development of plasmoids after an initial laminar phase.

  12. Investigation on the Importance of Fast Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of Short-Tube Closed-Path Gas Analyzer for Eddy-Covariance Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathilankal, J. C.; Fratini, G.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    High-speed, precise gas analyzers used in eddy covariance flux research measure gas content in a known volume, thus essentially measuring gas density. The classical eddy flux equation, however, is based on the dry mole fraction. The relation between dry mole fraction and density is regulated by the ideal gas law and law of partial pressures, and depends on water vapor content, temperature and pressure of air. If the instrument can output precise fast dry mole fraction, the flux processing is significantly simplified and WPL terms accounting for air density fluctuations are no longer required. This will also lead to the reduction in uncertainties associated with the WPL terms. For instruments adopting an open-path design, this method is difficult to use because of complexities with maintaining reliable fast temperature measurements integrated over the entire measuring path, and also because of extraordinary challenges with accurate measurements of fast pressure in the open air flow. For instruments utilizing a traditional long-tube closed-path design, with tube length 1000 or more times the tube diameter, this method can be used when instantaneous fluctuations in the air temperature of the sampled air are effectively dampened, instantaneous pressure fluctuations are regulated or negligible, and water vapor is measured simultaneously with gas, or the sample is dried. For instruments with a short-tube enclosed design, most - but not all - of the temperature fluctuations are attenuated, so calculating unbiased fluxes using fast dry mole fraction output requires high-speed, precise temperature measurements of the air stream inside the cell. In this presentation, authors look at short-term and long-term data sets to assess the importance of high-speed, precise air temperature measurements in the sampling cell of short-tube enclosed gas analyzers. The CO2 and H2O half hourly flux calculations, as well as long-term carbon and water budgets, are examined.

  13. Studies of Magnetic Reconnection in Colliding Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Novel images of magnetic fields and measurements of electron and ion temperatures have been obtained in the magnetic reconnection region of high- β, laser-produced plasmas. Experiments using laser-irradiated foils produce expanding, hemispherical plasma plumes carrying MG Biermann-battery magnetic fields, which can be driven to interact and reconnect. Thomson-scattering measurements of electron and ion temperatures in the interaction region of two colliding, magnetized plasmas show no thermal enhancement due to reconnection, as expected for β ~ 8 plasmas. Two different proton radiography techniques used to image the magnetic field structures show deformation, pileup, and annihilation of magnetic flux. High-resolution images reveal unambiguously reconnection-induced jets emerging from the interaction region and show instabilities in the expanding plasma plumes and supersonic, hydrodynamic jets due to the plasma collision. Quantitative magnetic flux data show that reconnection in experiments with asymmetry in the scale size, density, temperature, and plasma flow across the reconnection region occurs less efficiently than in similar, symmetric experiments. This result is attributed to disruption of the Hall mechanism mediating collisionless reconnection. The collision of plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields has also been probed, illustrating the deformation of magnetic field structures in high-energy-density plasmas in the absence of reconnection. These experiments are particularly relevant to high- β reconnection environments, such as the magnetopause. This work was performed in collaboration with C. Li, F. Séguin, A. Zylstra, H. Rinderknecht, H. Sio, J. Frenje, and R. Petrasso (MIT), I. Igumenshchev, V. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, and D. Froula (LLE), J. Ross and R. Town (LLNL), W. Fox (UNH), and A. Nikroo (GA), and was supported in part by the NLUF, FSC/UR, U.S. DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  14. Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Wilder, F. D.; Holmes, J. C.; Stawarz, J. E.; Eriksson, S.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Usanova, M. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Hesse, M.; Chen, L. J.; Lapenta, G.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Drake, J.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Nakamura, R.; Marklund, G.

    2016-06-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E∥ ) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E∥ events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100 mV /m , which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E∥ events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E∥ events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields.

  15. Magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. W.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process throughout the solar system, significantly shaping and modulating the magnetospheres of the magnetized planets. Within planetary magnetotails reconnection can be responsible for energizing particles and potentially changing the total flux and mass contained within the magnetosphere. The Kronian magnetosphere is thought to be a middle ground between the rotationally dominated Jovian magnetosphere and the solar wind driven terrestrial magnetosphere. However, previous studies have not been able to find a statistical reconnection x-line, as has been possible at both Jupiter and Earth. Additionally the standard picture of magnetotail reconnection at Saturn, developed by Cowley et al. [2004], suggests a potential asymmetry between the dawn and dusk flanks, caused by different reconnection processes dominating. This work centers on the development of an algorithm designed to find reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data, aiming to reduce the bias that manual searches could inherently introduce, thereby ensuring the validity of any statistical analysis. The algorithm primarily identifies the reconnection related events from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, allowing an almost uninterrupted in-situ search (when the spacecraft is situated within the magnetotail). The new catalogue of candidate reconnection events, produced by the algorithm, enables a more complete statistical view of reconnection in the Kronian magnetotail. Well-studied data encompassing the deep magnetotail and dawn flank (particularly from orbits in 2006) were used to train the algorithm and develop reasonable criteria. The algorithm was then applied to data encompassing the dusk flank (including orbits from 2009, for which plasma data have been examined by Thomsen et al. [2014]). This combination enables a robust, and global, comparison of reconnection rates, signatures and properties in the Kronian magnetotail.

  16. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  17. VINETA II: a linear magnetic reconnection experiment.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, H; Von Stechow, A; Rahbarnia, K; Grulke, O; Klinger, T

    2014-02-01

    A linear experiment dedicated to the study of driven magnetic reconnection is presented. The new device (VINETA II) is suitable for investigating both collisional and near collisionless reconnection. Reconnection is achieved by externally driving magnetic field lines towards an X-point, inducing a current in the background plasma which consequently modifies the magnetic field topology. Owing to the open field line configuration of the experiment, the current is limited by the axial sheath boundary conditions. A plasma gun is used as an additional electron source in order to counterbalance the charge separation effects and supply the required current. Two drive methods are used in the device. First, an oscillating current through two parallel conductors drive the reconnection. Second, a stationary X-point topology is formed by the parallel conductors, and the drive is achieved by an oscillating current through a third conductor. In the first setup, the magnetic field of the axial plasma current dominates the field topology near the X-point throughout most of the drive. The second setup allows for the amplitude of the plasma current as well as the motion of the flux to be set independently of the X-point topology of the parallel conductors.

  18. VINETA II: A linear magnetic reconnection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, H. Von Stechow, A.; Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2014-02-15

    A linear experiment dedicated to the study of driven magnetic reconnection is presented. The new device (VINETA II) is suitable for investigating both collisional and near collisionless reconnection. Reconnection is achieved by externally driving magnetic field lines towards an X-point, inducing a current in the background plasma which consequently modifies the magnetic field topology. Owing to the open field line configuration of the experiment, the current is limited by the axial sheath boundary conditions. A plasma gun is used as an additional electron source in order to counterbalance the charge separation effects and supply the required current. Two drive methods are used in the device. First, an oscillating current through two parallel conductors drive the reconnection. Second, a stationary X-point topology is formed by the parallel conductors, and the drive is achieved by an oscillating current through a third conductor. In the first setup, the magnetic field of the axial plasma current dominates the field topology near the X-point throughout most of the drive. The second setup allows for the amplitude of the plasma current as well as the motion of the flux to be set independently of the X-point topology of the parallel conductors.

  19. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections by Tether-Cutting Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present and interpret examples of the eruptive motion and flare brightening observed in the onset of magnetic explosions that produce coronal mass ejections. The observations are photospheric magnetograms and sequences of coronal and/or chromospheric images. In our examples, the explosion is apparently driven by the ejective eruption of a sigmoidal sheared-field flux rope from the core of an initially closed bipole. This eruption is initiated (triggered and unleashed) by reconnection located either (1) internally, low in the sheared core field, or (2) externally, at a magnetic null above the closed bipole. The internal reconnection is commonly called 'tether-cutting" reconnection, and the external reconnection is commonly called "break-out' reconnection. We point out that break-out reconnection amounts to external tether cutting. In one example, the eruptive motion of the sheared core field starts several minutes prior to any detectable brightening in the coronal images. We suggest that in this case the eruption is triggered by internal tether-cutting reconnection that at first is too slow and/or too localized to produce detectable heating in the coronal images. This work is supported by NASA's Office of Space Science through its Solar & Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research & Technology program and its Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator program.

  20. 3D outflow jets originating from turbulence in the reconnection current layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Keizo

    2016-07-01

    Satellite observations in the Earth's magnetosphere and in solar flares have suggested that the reconnection outflow jets are fully three dimensional, consisting of a series of narrow channels. The jet structure is important in evaluating the energy and flux transport in the reconnection process. Previous theoretical models based on fluid simulations have relied on patchy reconnection where reconnection takes place predominantly in patchy portions of the current layer. The problem of the previous models is that the gross reconnection rate is much smaller than that in the 2D reconnection case. The present study shows a large-scale 3D PIC simulation revealing that the 3D outflow jets are generated through the 3D flux ropes formed in the turbulent electron current layer around the x-line. Reconnection proceeds almost uniformly along the x-line, so that the gross reconnection rate is comparable to that in the 2D reconnection case. The flux ropes and resultant outflow channels have a typical current-aligned scale provided by the wavelength of an electron shear mode that is much larger than the typical kinetic scales. It is found that the structure of the 3D outflow jets obtained in the simulation is consistent with the bursty bulk flow observed in the Earth's magnetotail.

  1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE IN A SPHERICAL SHELL: INFLUENCE OF TURBULENT CONVECTION AND ASSOCIATED MEAN FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, Laurene; Brun, Allan Sacha E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr

    2009-08-20

    We present the first three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics study in spherical geometry of the nonlinear dynamical evolution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent rotating convection zone (CZ). These numerical simulations use the anelastic spherical harmonic code. We seek to understand the mechanism of emergence of strong toroidal fields through a turbulent layer from the base of the solar CZ to the surface as active regions. To do so, we study numerically the rise of magnetic toroidal flux ropes from the base of a modeled CZ up to the top of our computational domain where bipolar patches are formed. We compare the dynamical behavior of flux tubes in a fully convective shell possessing self-consistently generated mean flows such as meridional circulation (MC) and differential rotation, with reference calculations done in a quiet isentropic zone. We find that two parameters influence the tubes during their rise through the CZ: the initial field strength and amount of twist, thus confirming previous findings in Cartesian geometry. Further, when the tube is sufficiently strong with respect to the equipartition field, it rises almost radially independently of the initial latitude (either low or high). By contrast, weaker field cases indicate that downflows and upflows control the rising velocity of particular regions of the rope and could in principle favor the emergence of flux through {omega}-loop structures. For these latter cases, we focus on the orientation of bipolar patches and find that sufficiently arched structures are able to create bipolar regions with a predominantly east-west orientation. Meridional flow seems to determine the trajectory of the magnetic rope when the field strength has been significantly reduced near the top of the domain. Appearance of local magnetic field also feeds back on the horizontal flows thus perturbing the MC via Maxwell stresses. Finally differential rotation makes it more difficult for tubes introduced at low latitudes to

  2. Reconnection in substorms and solar flares: analogies and differences

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the crucial process in the release of magnetic energy associated with magnetospheric substorms and with solar flares. On the basis of three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations we investigate similarities and differences between the two scenarios. We address in particular mechanisms that lead to the onset of reconnection and on energy release, transport, and conversion mechanisms. Analogous processes might exist in the motion of field line footpoints on the sun and in magnetic flux addition to the magnetotail. In both cases such processes might lead to a loss of neighboring equilibrium, characterized by the formation of very thin embedded current sheet, which acts as trigger for reconnection. We find that Joule (or ohmic) dissipation plays only a minor role in the overall energy transfer associated with reconnection. The dominant transfer of released magnetic energy occurs to electromagnetic energy (Poynting) flux and to thermal energy transport as enthalpy flux. The former dominates in low-beta, specifically initially force-free current sheets expected for the solar corona, while the latter dominates in high-beta current sheets, such as the magnetotail. In both cases the outflow from the reconnection site becomes bursty, i.e. spatially and temporally localized, yet carrying most of the outflow energy. Hence an analogy might exist between bursty bulk flows (BBFs) in the magnetotail and pulses of Poynting flux in solar flares.

  3. Impulsive reconnection: 3D onset and stagnation in turbulent paradigms

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Jason A; Intrator, Thomas P; Weber, Tom; Lapenta, Giovanni; Lazarian, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Reconnection processes are ubiquitous in solar coronal loops, the earth's magnetotail, galactic jets, and laboratory configurations such as spheromaks and Z pinches. It is believed that reconnection dynamics are often closely linked to turbulence. In these phenomena, the bursty onset of reconnection is partly determined by a balance of macroscopic MHD forces. In a turbulent paradigm, it is reasonable to suppose that there exist many individual reconnection sites, each X-line being finite in axial extent and thus intrinsically three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The balance between MHD forces and flux pile-up continuously shifts as mutually tangled flux ropes merge or bounce. The spatial scale and thus the rate of reconnection are therefore intimately related to the turbulence statistics both in space and in time. We study intermittent 3D reconnection along spatially localized X-lines between two or more flux ropes. The threshold of MHD instability which in this case is the kink threshold is varied by modifying the line-tying boundary conditions. For fast inflow speed of approaching ropes, there is merging and magnetic reconnection which is a well known and expected consequence of the 2D coalescence instability. On the other hand, for slower inflow speed the flux ropes bounce. The threshold appears to be the Sweet Parker speed v{sub A}/S{sup 1/2}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed and S is the Lundquist number. Computations by collaborators at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, and LANL complement the experiment.

  4. Bursts of Pc 1-2 related to flux transfer events

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoldy, R.L. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Engebretson, M.J. )

    1987-01-01

    Instances of sporadic reconnection of geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field lines have been measured by space-craft passing through the dayside magnetopause region (Russell and Elphic 1979; Rijnbeek et al. 1984). The ionospheric signature of the reconnection events (flux transfer events) is a topic of current interest in that if one is evident then ground magnetic field data can be used to monitor the rate of dayside reconnection and conditions under which it occurs in a manner not possible with rapidly moving spacecraft. The proposed ground magnetic signature of a flux transfer event (FTE) is a large amplitude one-cycle Pc 5 (150-600 second period) pulse produced by a large vortex of ionospheric Hall current generated by the field-aligned current in the helical flux tube that has reconnected (Lee 1986). The intent of this article is to provide further data on the possible ground magnetic signatures of FTE (Lanzerotti el al. 1986) as measured by the induction antennas that the University of New Hampshire and the University of Minnesota have operated at high latitudes in the Antarctic and Greenland. With a high-frequency cut-off of 5 hertz, the induction magnetometers can measure Pc 1-2 waves (0.1-5.0 hertz) which cannot be seen by fluxgate instruments. Indeed, Pc 1-2 waves are frequently observed on the ground coincident with the Pc 5 FTE signature which provides some interesting new perspectives on these events.

  5. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets. PMID:19407194

  6. MESSENGER observations of magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Slavin, James A; Acuña, Mario H; Anderson, Brian J; Baker, Daniel N; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E; Ho, George C; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C; Trávnícek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H

    2009-05-01

    Solar wind energy transfer to planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres is controlled by magnetic reconnection, a process that determines the degree of connectivity between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and a planet's magnetic field. During MESSENGER's second flyby of Mercury, a steady southward IMF was observed and the magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field, indicating a reconnection rate ~10 times that typical at Earth. Moreover, a large flux transfer event was observed in the magnetosheath, and a plasmoid and multiple traveling compression regions were observed in Mercury's magnetotail, all products of reconnection. These observations indicate that Mercury's magnetosphere is much more responsive to IMF direction and dominated by the effects of reconnection than that of Earth or the other magnetized planets.

  7. RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS AND CURRENT SHEET OBSERVED WITH HINODE/XRT IN THE 2008 APRIL 9 'CARTWHEEL CME' FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Sabrina L.; McKenzie, David E.; Longcope, Dana W.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Forbes, Terry G.

    2010-10-10

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) have been observed with Yohkoh/SXT (soft X-rays (SXR)), TRACE (extreme ultraviolet (EUV)), SOHO/LASCO (white light), SOHO/SUMER (EUV spectra), and Hinode/XRT (SXR). Characteristics such as low emissivity and trajectories, which slow as they reach the top of the arcade, are consistent with post-reconnection magnetic flux tubes retracting from a reconnection site high in the corona until they reach a lower-energy magnetic configuration. Viewed from a perpendicular angle, SADs should appear as shrinking loops rather than downflowing voids. We present X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) following a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2008 April 9 and show that their speeds and decelerations are consistent with those determined for SADs. We also present evidence for a possible current sheet observed during this flare that extends between the flare arcade and the CME. Additionally, we show a correlation between reconnection outflows observed with XRT and outgoing flows observed with LASCO.

  8. Particle simulation of collisionless reconnection using TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Büchner, J.

    Magnetic reconnection is an important mechanism in the dynamics of the magnetosphere in facilitating the change in magnetospheric topology in response to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In the magnetosphere the classical collision rate is small, while the inertia of the electrons allows the frozen-in flux constraint to be broken. At small values of resistivity, this dissipation region then controls the rate of reconnection by forming an elongated Sweet-Parker layer, with an inflow velocity νi into the x-line that scales like: νi = δ ∆ νA νA (1) where δ and ∆ are the width (controlled by resistivity) and length (macroscopic) of the dissipation region respectively and νA is the Alfvén velocity. The scale length around the x-line where the electrons become demagnetised is of the order of the electron skin depth c/ωpe. This region is however much smaller than the ion inertial length c/ωpi, below which the Hall terms in the kinetic Ohm's law become important. Within this distance from the x-line the ions decouple from the electrons and are accelerated away at Alfv´enic velocities (Burkhart et al., 1990) The dynamics of the system at the scale length of the electron dissipation layer is therefore linked to Hall physics, making it a critical ingredient in determining collisionless reconnection rates. Particle simulation techniques have been used to investigate magnetic reconnection in 2-D for a Harris sheet equilibrium. A set of parameters are chosen as well as the dimensions of the computational domain, the boundary conditions and the initial amplitude and form of a seed magnetic island to start the reconnection process. Some preliminary results will be given in this paper.

  9. Reconnecting the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebrecht, John

    1996-01-01

    During the past three years, staff at the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy have developed a partial reconstruction of Whitehead's "one subject matter," a course reconnecting biology, chemistry, earth and space sciences, and physics into an integrated science program. Staff successfully overcame dilemmas regarding thematic organization,…

  10. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (ηΔ,φΔ)

    DOE PAGES

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-09

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity η of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that themore » glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although η elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.« less

  11. Turbulent General Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, G. L.

    2015-07-01

    Plasma flows with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-like turbulent inertial range, such as the solar wind, require a generalization of general magnetic reconnection (GMR) theory. We introduce the slip velocity source vector per unit arclength of field line, the ratio of the curl of the non-ideal electric field in the generalized Ohm’s Law and magnetic field strength. It diverges at magnetic nulls, unifying GMR with null-point reconnection. Only under restrictive assumptions is the slip velocity related to the gradient of quasi-potential (which is the integral of parallel electric field along magnetic field lines). In a turbulent inertial range, the non-ideal field becomes tiny while its curl is large, so that line slippage occurs even while ideal MHD becomes accurate. The resolution is that ideal MHD is valid for a turbulent inertial range only in a weak sense that does not imply magnetic line freezing. The notion of weak solution is explained in terms of renormalization group (RG) type theory. The weak validity of the ideal Ohm’s law in the inertial range is shown via rigorous estimates of the terms in the generalized Ohm’s Law. All non-ideal terms are irrelevant in the RG sense and large-scale reconnection is thus governed solely by ideal dynamics. We discuss the implications for heliospheric reconnection, in particular for deviations from the Parker spiral model. Solar wind observations show that reconnection in a turbulence-broadened heliospheric current sheet, which is consistent with Lazarian-Vishniac theory, leads to slip velocities that cause field lines to lag relative to the spiral model.

  12. Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  13. PARTIAL SLINGSHOT RECONNECTION BETWEEN TWO FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yunchun; Hong, Junchao; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Zheng, Ruisheng; Yang, Bo; Li, Haidong; Yang, Dan

    2013-02-10

    We present a rare observation of an interaction between two filaments around AR 11358 and AR 11361 on 2011 December 3 that is strongly suggestive of the occurrence of slingshot reconnection. A small elbow-shaped active-region filament (F12) underwent a failed eruption that brought it into contact with a nearby larger, thicker filament (F34). Accompanied by the appearance of complicated internal structures below the erupting F12, its two legs separated away from each other and then connected into F34. This process led the filaments to change their connectivity to form two newly linked filaments, and one of them showed a clear inverse {gamma}-shape. However, the alteration in the filament connectivity was imperfect since F34 is discernible after the eruption. These observations can be interpreted as a partial slingshot reconnection between two filaments that had unequal axial magnetic flux.

  14. Fast magnetic reconnection with large guide fields

    SciTech Connect

    Stanier, A.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacón, L.; Daughton, W.

    2015-01-09

    Here, we demonstrate using two-fluid simulations that low-βmagnetic reconnection remains fast, regardless of the presence of fast dispersive waves, which have been previously suggested to play a critical role. In order to understand these results, a discrete model is constructed that offers scaling relationships for the reconnection rate and dissipation region (DR) thickness in terms of the upstream magnetic field and DR length. We verify these scalings numerically and show how the DR self-adjusts to process magnetic flux at the same rate that it is supplied to a larger region where two-fluid effects become important. Ultimately, the rate is independent of the DR physics and is in good agreement with kinetic results.

  15. Fast magnetic reconnection with large guide fields

    DOE PAGES

    Stanier, A.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Chacón, L.; Daughton, W.

    2015-01-09

    Here, we demonstrate using two-fluid simulations that low-βmagnetic reconnection remains fast, regardless of the presence of fast dispersive waves, which have been previously suggested to play a critical role. In order to understand these results, a discrete model is constructed that offers scaling relationships for the reconnection rate and dissipation region (DR) thickness in terms of the upstream magnetic field and DR length. We verify these scalings numerically and show how the DR self-adjusts to process magnetic flux at the same rate that it is supplied to a larger region where two-fluid effects become important. Ultimately, the rate is independentmore » of the DR physics and is in good agreement with kinetic results.« less

  16. Three-dimensional shock formation in the spontaneous fast reconnection evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondoh, K.; Ugai, M.; Shimizu, T.

    2011-12-01

    Shock structure associated with magnetic reconnection is studied using three-dimensional magneto-hydro-dynamics simulations on the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model. In the two-dimensional reconnection, the angle between the slow shock pair (thickness of the plasma sheet) is smaller (thinner) in the region with higher reconnection rate. On the other hand, in the three-dimensional reconnection, the reconnection rate in the diffusion region is not uniform in the direction of sheet current, and the angle between the shock pair at the center of the diffusion region should be smallest. However, the profile of the angle in the direction of sheet current is not satisfied with this relationship. It is shown that this structure is caused by the inflow from the direction of the positive and negative sheet current and the inflow of the magnetic flux accompanied with it.

  17. 2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  18. 20 and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta= 1 level (Le., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a lOW-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  19. Magnetic reconnection process in transient coaxial helicity injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Raman, R.

    2013-09-15

    The physics of magnetic reconnection and fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection experiments in NSTX is examined using resistive MHD simulations. These simulations have been performed using the NIMROD code with fixed boundary flux (including NSTX poloidal coil currents) in the NSTX experimental geometry. Simulations show that an X point is formed in the injector region, followed by formation of closed flux surfaces within 0.5 ms after the driven injector voltage and injector current begin to rapidly decrease. As the injector voltage is turned off, the field lines tend to untwist in the toroidal direction and magnetic field compression exerts a radial J × B force and generates a bi-directional radial E{sub toroidal}×B{sub poloidal} pinch flow to bring oppositely directed field lines closer together to reconnect. At sufficiently low magnetic diffusivity (high Lundquist number), and with a sufficiently narrow injector flux footprint width, the oppositely directed field lines have sufficient time to reconnect (before dissipating), leading to the formation of closed flux surfaces. The reconnection process is shown to have transient Sweet-Parker characteristics.

  20. Reconnection on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  1. Inhomogeneous turbulence in magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu

    2016-07-01

    Turbulence is expected to play an essential role in enhancing magnetic reconnection. Turbulence associated with magnetic reconnection is highly inhomogeneous: it is generated by inhomogeneities of the field configuration such as the velocity shear, temperature gradient, density stratification, magnetic shear, etc. This self-generated turbulence affects the reconnection through the turbulent transport. In this reconnection--turbulence interaction, localization of turbulent transport due to dynamic balance between several turbulence effects plays an essential role. For investigating inhomogeneous turbulence in a strongly nonlinear regime, closure or turbulence modeling approaches provide a powerful tool. A turbulence modeling approach for the magnetic reconnection is introduced. In the model, the mean-field equations with turbulence effects incorporated are solved simultaneously with the equations of turbulent statistical quantities that represent spatiotemporal properties of turbulence under the effect of large-scale field inhomogeneities. Numerical simulations of this Reynolds-averaged turbulence model showed that self-generated turbulence enhances magnetic reconnection. It was pointed out that reconnection states may be divided into three category depending on the turbulence level: (i) laminar reconnection; (ii) turbulent reconnection, and (iii) turbulent diffusion. Recent developments in this direction are also briefly introduced, which includes the magnetic Prandtl number dependence, spectral evolution, and guide-field effects. Also relationship of this fully nonlinear turbulence approach with other important approaches such as plasmoid instability reconnection will be discussed.

  2. Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection in Coronal Mass Ejection Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Crystal; Miralles, M. P.; Murphy, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Flux rope models of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) predict the formation ofan elongated current sheet in the wake behind the rising plasmoid. These current sheets have been seen to drift or tilt over time by instruments including SOHO/LASCO and Hinode/XRT. We measure this in multiple observations including the 2008 April 9 "Cartwheel CME" and find an average drift that is far more than can be accounted for via the effects of solar rotation. The observed drift could be due to different parts of the current sheet actively reconnecting at different times (e.g., Savage et al. 2010), macroscopic effects from the rising flux rope pulling the plasma sheet along with it, or asymmetry in the magnetic reconnection process itself. These drift rates are compared with resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of line-tied reconnection between magnetic fields of different strengths. The observed drift rates are comparable to predictions made by the simulations.

  3. Magnetic reconnection in incompressible fluids. [of solar atmosphere and interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, Edward E.; Craig, Ian J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamical relaxation of a disturbed X-type magnetic neutral point in a periodic geometry, with an ignorable coordinate, for an incompressible fluid. It is found that the properties of the current sheet cannot be understood in terms of steady state reconnection theory or more recent linear dynamical solutions. Accordingly, a new scaling law for magnetic reconnection is presented, consistent with fast energy dissipation (i.e., the dissipation rate at current maximum is approximately independent of magnetic diffusivity (eta)). The flux annihilation rate, however, scales at eta exp 1/4, faster than the Sweet-Parker rate of sq rt eta but asymptotically much slower than the dissipation rate. These results suggest a flux pile-up regime in which the bulk of the free magnetic energy is released as heat rather than as kinetic energy of mass motion. The implications of our results for reconnection in the solar atmosphere and interior are discussed.

  4. The Role of Compressibility in Energy Release by Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Borovosky, J. E.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using resistive compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate the energy release and transfer by magnetic reconnection in finite (closed or periodic) systems. The emphasis is on the magnitude of energy released and transferred to plasma heating in configurations that range from highly compressible to incompressible, based on the magnitude of the background beta (ratio of plasma pressure over magnetic pressure) and of a guide field in two-dimensional reconnection. As expected, the system becomes more incompressible, and the role of compressional heating diminishes, with increasing beta or increasing guide field. Nevertheless, compressional heating may dominate over Joule heating for values of the guide field of 2 or 3 (in relation to the reconnecting magnetic field component) and beta of 5-10. This result stems from the strong localization of the dissipation near the reconnection site, which is modeled based on particle simulation results. Imposing uniform resistivity, corresponding to a Lundquist number of 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4), leads to significantly larger Ohmic heating. Increasing incompressibility greatly reduces the magnetic flux transfer and the amount of energy released, from approx. 10% of the energy associated with the reconnecting field component, for zero guide field and low beta, to approx. 0.2%-0.4% for large values of the guide field B(sub y0) > 5 or large beta. The results demonstrate the importance of taking into account plasma compressibility and localization of dissipation in investigations of heating by turbulent reconnection, possibly relevant for solar wind or coronal heating.

  5. Preliminary Experimental Result of Magnetic Reconnection in Laboratory Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. B.; Xie, J. L.; Hu, G. H.; Li, H.; Huang, G. L.; Liu, W. D.

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the most important physical processes in astrophysical plasmas. Lots of theoretical works, numerical simulations and observations have been done. Some experimental programs have been activated to investigate the basic mechanisms of magnetic reconnection. In order to investigate the electron dynamic near the electron diffusion region in magnetic reconnection process, an upgrade is accomplished in the LMP (Linear magnetic plasmas) device at University of Science and Technology of China. The magnetic field of reconnection is produced by passing two identical currents axially through two copper plates. Magnetic field and parallel electric field are measured by magnetic probes and emissive probes, respectively. The existence of a large electric field related to the reconnection process is verified. The plasma is driven by electric field and magnetic field, so the magnetic reconnection appears. The magnitude of axial current is found to scale with the number of passing particles. In the configuration of current bars, passing particles are even more and our measured axial current is about 10 A. Magnetic flux doesn't pile up because of the parameter region in our case, which is consistent with the result of numerical simulation.

  6. Acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2015-07-16

    The presentation begins with colorful depictions of solar x-ray flares and references to pulsar phenomena. Plasma reconnection is complex, could be x-point dominated or turbulent, field lines could break due to either resistivity or non-ideal effects, such as electron pressure anisotropy. Electron acceleration is sometimes observed, and sometimes not. One way to study this complex problem is to have many examples of the process (reconnection) and compare them; the other way is to simplify and come to something robust. Ideal MHD (E=0) turbulence driven by magnetic energy is assumed, and the first-order acceleration is sought. It is found that dissipation in big (length >100 ion skin depths) current sheets is universal and independent on microscopic resistivity and the mean imposed field; particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. One example of such flow is spontaneous reconnection. This explains hot electrons with a power-law tail in solar flares, as well as ultrashort time variability in some astrophysical sources.

  7. An Investigation of Perpendicular Gradients of Parallel Electric Field Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturner, A. P.; Ergun, R.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.

    2014-12-01

    Many observations of particle heating and acceleration throughout the universe have been associated with magnetic reconnection. Generalized Ohm's Law describes how particles move under ideal and non-ideal conditions; however, it is insufficient for describing how the magnetic field itself changes. Initial studies have shown that a curl of a parallel electric field is necessary for reconnection to occur. These analytic studies have demonstrated that perpendicular gradients in the parallel electric field drive a counter-twisting of the magnetic field on either side of the localized parallel electric field. This results in the slippage of magnetic flux tubes and a break down of the 'frozen-in' condition. In this presentation, we analyze results from self-consistent implicit kinetic particle-in-cell simulations. The strongest gradients of parallel electric fields in the simulations are along the separator and not at the X-point. We will present where in the simulation domain the 'frozen-in' condition breaks down and compare it with the location of these gradients, and discuss the implications.

  8. Ion-scale structure in Mercury's magnetopause reconnection diffusion region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John C.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Poh, Gangkai; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2016-06-01

    The strength and time dependence of the electric field in a magnetopause diffusion region relate to the rate of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and a planetary magnetic field. Here we use ~150 ms measurements of energetic electrons from the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed over Mercury's dayside polar cap boundary (PCB) to infer such small-scale changes in magnetic topology and reconnection rates. We provide the first direct measurement of open magnetic topology in flux transfer events at Mercury, structures thought to account for a significant portion of the open magnetic flux transport throughout the magnetosphere. In addition, variations in PCB latitude likely correspond to intermittent bursts of ~0.3-3 mV/m reconnection electric fields separated by ~5-10 s, resulting in average and peak normalized dayside reconnection rates of ~0.02 and ~0.2, respectively. These data demonstrate that structure in the magnetopause diffusion region at Mercury occurs at the smallest ion scales relevant to reconnection physics.

  9. Magnetic reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail: A comprehensive magnetic field survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. W.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2016-04-01

    Reconnection within planetary magnetotails is responsible for locally energizing particles and changing the magnetic topology. Its role in terms of global magnetospheric dynamics can involve changing the mass and flux content of the magnetosphere. We have identified reconnection related events in spacecraft magnetometer data recorded during Cassini's exploration of Saturn's magnetotail. The events are identified from deflections in the north-south component of the magnetic field, significant above a background level. Data were selected to provide full tail coverage, encompassing the dawn and dusk flanks as well as the deepest midnight orbits. Overall 2094 reconnection related events were identified, with an average rate of 5.0 events per day. The majority of events occur in clusters (within 3 h of other events). We examine changes in this rate in terms of local time and latitude coverage, taking seasonal effects into account. The observed reconnection rate peaks postmidnight with more infrequent but steady loss seen on the dusk flank. We estimate the mass loss from the event catalog and find it to be insufficient to balance the input from the moon Enceladus. Several reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. The reconnection X line location appears to be highly variable, though a statistical separation between events tailward and planetward of the X line is observed at a radial distance of between 20 and 30RS downtail. The small sample size at dawn prevents comprehensive statistical comparison with the dusk flank observations in terms of flux closure.

  10. Radio evidence for breakout reconnection in solar eruptive events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurass, H.; Holman, G.; Braune, S.; Mann, G.; Zlobec, P.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Magnetic reconnection is understood to be fundamental to energy release in solar eruptive events (SEEs). In these events reconnection produces a magnetic flux rope above an arcade of hot flare loops. Breakout reconnection, a secondary reconnection high in the corona between this flux rope and the overlying magnetic field, has been hypothesized. Direct observational evidence for breakout reconnection has been elusive, however. Aims: The aim of this study is to establish a plausible interpretation of the combined radio and hard X-ray (HXR) emissions observed during the impulsive phase of the near-limb X3.9-class SEE on 2003 November 03. Methods: We study radio spectra (AIP), simultaneous radio images (Nançay Multi-frequency Radio Heliograph, NRH), and single-frequency polarimeter data (OAT). The radio emission is nonthermal plasma radiation with a complex structure in frequency and time. Emphasis is on the time interval when the HXR flare loop height was observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to be at its minimum and an X-ray source was observed above the top of the arcade loops. Results: Two stationary, meter-wavelength sources are observed radially aligned at 0.18 and 0.41 R⊙ above the active region and HXR sources. The lower source is apparently associated with the upper reconnection jet of the flare current sheet (CS), and the upper source is apparently associated with breakout reconnection. Sources observed at lower radio frequencies surround the upper source at the expected locations of the breakout reconnection jets. Conclusions: We believe the upper radio source is the most compelling evidence to date for the onset of breakout reconnection during a SEE. The height stationarity of the breakout sources and their dynamic radio spectrum discriminate them from propagating disturbances. Timing and location arguments reveal for the first time that both the earlier described above the flare loop top HXR source and the lower

  11. SPONTANEOUS CURRENT-LAYER FRAGMENTATION AND CASCADING RECONNECTION IN SOLAR FLARES. I. MODEL AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Miroslav; Buechner, Joerg; Karlicky, Marian; Skala, Jan

    2011-08-10

    Magnetic reconnection is commonly considered to be a mechanism of solar (eruptive) flares. A deeper study of this scenario reveals, however, a number of open issues. Among them is the fundamental question of how the magnetic energy is transferred from large, accumulation scales to plasma scales where its actual dissipation takes place. In order to investigate this transfer over a broad range of scales, we address this question by means of a high-resolution MHD simulation. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic-energy transfer to small scales is realized via a cascade of consecutively smaller and smaller flux ropes (plasmoids), analogous to the vortex-tube cascade in (incompressible) fluid dynamics. Both tearing and (driven) 'fragmenting coalescence' processes are equally important for the consecutive fragmentation of the magnetic field (and associated current density) into smaller elements. At the later stages, a dynamic balance between tearing and coalescence processes reveals a steady (power-law) scaling typical of cascading processes. It is shown that cascading reconnection also addresses other open issues in solar-flare research, such as the duality between the regular large-scale picture of (eruptive) flares and the observed signatures of fragmented (chaotic) energy release, as well as the huge number of accelerated particles. Indeed, spontaneous current-layer fragmentation and the formation of multiple channelized dissipative/acceleration regions embedded in the current layer appear to be intrinsic to the cascading process. The multiple small-scale current sheets may also facilitate the acceleration of a large number of particles. The structure, distribution, and dynamics of the embedded potential acceleration regions in a current layer fragmented by cascading reconnection are studied and discussed.

  12. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  13. Magnetic Reconnection Driven by the Nernst Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Joglekar, A.; Thomas, A.

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas has been the subject of recent observations and PIC simulations. In laser-plasma experiments, laser-driven hot spots on a target can give rise to strong magnetic fields due to the Biermann battery effect. The hot spots can also produce strong heat flux perpendicular to the magnetic field, bringing into play the Nernst effect. Recently, using the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code IMPACTA, which relies on a perturbative expansion of the electron distribution function holding ions fixed, Joglekar and Thomas (JT) have shown that the Nernst effect can play a significant role in magnetic reconnection. Since the domain of applicability of the expansion constrains the realm of validity of JT's results, we have undertaken a 2D PIC study of the Nernst effect, including complete kinetic dynamics of electrons as well as ions. We analyze the results using a broad range of dimensionless parameters, including plasma beta, the mass ratio of electrons and ions, and the Lundquist and Nernst numbers. We have found that the Nernst term contributes dominantly to support the the out-of-plane electric field upstream of the reconnection layer, consistent with JT's results. Variations on these results as a function of plasma parameters will be discussed.

  14. Shear-Driven Reconnection in Kinetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Germaschewski, K.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Bessho, N.

    2015-12-01

    The explosive energy release in solar eruptive phenomena is believed to be due to magnetic reconnection. In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field countered by a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance; therefore, it is critical for understanding CME/flare initiation, to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are dominant in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is challenging, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. Plasma instabilities can arise nonetheless. In the work presented here, we show that we can control this instability and generate a predicted out-of-plane magnetic flux. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.

  15. Critical Issues on Magnetic Reconnection in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Jacquey, C.; Lakhina, G. S.; Lundin, R.; Nagai, T.; Phan, T.-D.; Pu, Z. Y.; Roth, M.; Song, Y.; Treumann, R. A.; Yamauchi, M.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2005-02-01

    The idea of expedient energy transformation by magnetic reconnection (MR) has generated much enthusiasm in the space plasma community. The early concept of MR, which was envisioned for the solar flare phenomenon in a simple two-dimensional (2D) steady-state situation, is in dire need for extension to encompass three-dimensional (3D) non-steady-state phenomena prevalent in space plasmas in nature like in the magnetosphere. A workshop was organized to address this and related critical issues on MR. The essential outcome of this workshop is summarized in this review. After a brief evaluation on the pros and cons of existing definitions of MR, we propose essentially a working definition that can be used to identify MR in transient and spatially localized phenomena. The word “essentially” reflects a slight diversity in the opinion on how transient and localized 3D MR process might be defined. MR is defined here as a process with the following characteristics: (1) there is a plasma bulk flow across a boundary separating regions with topologically different magnetic field lines if projected on the plane of MR, thereby converting magnetic energy into kinetic particle energy, (2) there can be an out-of-the-plane magnetic field component (the so-called guide field) present such that the reconnected magnetic flux tubes are twisted to form flux ropes, and (3) the region exhibiting non-ideal MHD conditions should be localized to a scale comparable to the ion inertial length in the direction of the plasma inflow velocity. This definition captures the most important 3D aspects and preserves many essential characteristics of the 2D case. It may be considered as the first step in the generalization of the traditional 2D concept. As a demonstration on the utility of this definition, we apply it to identify MR associated with plasma phenomena in the dayside magnetopause and nightside magnetotail of the Earth’s magnetosphere. How MR may be distinguished from other competing

  16. Reduction-melting combined with a Na₂CO₃ flux recycling process for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    With large quantity of flux (Na2CO3), lead can be recovered from the funnel glass of waste cathode-ray tubes via reduction-melting at 1000°C. To reduce flux cost, a technique to recover added flux from the generated oxide phase is also important in order to recycle the flux recovered from the reduction-melting process. In this study, the phase separation of sodium and the crystallization of water-soluble sodium silicates were induced after the reduction-melting process to enhance the leachability of sodium in the oxide phase and to extract the sodium from the phase for the recovery of Na2CO3 as flux. A reductive atmosphere promoted the phase separation and crystallization, and the leachability of sodium from the oxide phase was enhanced. The optimum temperature and treatment time for increasing the leachability were 700°C and 2h, respectively. After treatment, more than 90% of the sodium in the oxide phase was extracted in water. NaHCO3 can be recovered by carbonization of the solution containing sodium ions using carbon dioxide gas, decomposed to Na2CO3 at 50°C and recycled for use in the reduction-melting process.

  17. Radiative Magnetic Reconnection in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    In this chapter we review a new and rapidly growing area of research in high-energy plasma astrophysics—radiative magnetic reconnection, defined here as a regime of reconnection where radiation reaction has an important influence on the reconnection dynamics, energetics, and/or nonthermal particle acceleration. This influence be may be manifested via a variety of radiative effects that are critical in many high-energy astrophysical applications. The most notable radiative effects in astrophysical reconnection include radiation-reaction limits on particle acceleration, radiative cooling, radiative resistivity, braking of reconnection outflows by radiation drag, radiation pressure, viscosity, and even pair creation at highest energy densities. The self-consistent inclusion of these effects into magnetic reconnection theory and modeling sometimes calls for serious modifications to our overall theoretical approach to the problem. In addition, prompt reconnection-powered radiation often represents our only observational diagnostic tool available for studying remote astrophysical systems; this underscores the importance of developing predictive modeling capabilities to connect the underlying physical conditions in a reconnecting system to observable radiative signatures. This chapter presents an overview of our recent theoretical progress in developing basic physical understanding of radiative magnetic reconnection, with a special emphasis on astrophysically most important radiation mechanisms like synchrotron, curvature, and inverse-Compton. The chapter also offers a broad review of key high-energy astrophysical applications of radiative reconnection, illustrated by multiple examples such as: pulsar wind nebulae, pulsar magnetospheres, black-hole accretion-disk coronae and hot accretion flows in X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei and their relativistic jets, magnetospheres of magnetars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, this chapter discusses the most critical

  18. Multi-scale structures of turbulent magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T. K. M.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Baumjohann, W.; Daughton, W.

    2016-05-01

    We have analyzed data from a series of 3D fully kinetic simulations of turbulent magnetic reconnection with a guide field. A new concept of the guide filed reconnection process has recently been proposed, in which the secondary tearing instability and the resulting formation of oblique, small scale flux ropes largely disturb the structure of the primary reconnection layer and lead to 3D turbulent features [W. Daughton et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 539 (2011)]. In this paper, we further investigate the multi-scale physics in this turbulent, guide field reconnection process by introducing a wave number band-pass filter (k-BPF) technique in which modes for the small scale (less than ion scale) fluctuations and the background large scale (more than ion scale) variations are separately reconstructed from the wave number domain to the spatial domain in the inverse Fourier transform process. Combining with the Fourier based analyses in the wave number domain, we successfully identify spatial and temporal development of the multi-scale structures in the turbulent reconnection process. When considering a strong guide field, the small scale tearing mode and the resulting flux ropes develop over a specific range of oblique angles mainly along the edge of the primary ion scale flux ropes and reconnection separatrix. The rapid merging of these small scale modes leads to a smooth energy spectrum connecting ion and electron scales. When the guide field is sufficiently weak, the background current sheet is strongly kinked and oblique angles for the small scale modes are widely scattered at the kinked regions. Similar approaches handling both the wave number and spatial domains will be applicable to the data from multipoint, high-resolution spacecraft observations such as the NASA magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission.

  19. Theory and Simulations of Incomplete Reconnection During Sawteeth Due to Diamagnetic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidler, Matthew Thomas

    Tokamaks use magnetic fields to confine plasmas to achieve fusion; they are the leading approach proposed for the widespread production of fusion energy. The sawtooth crash in tokamaks limits the core temperature, adversely impacts confinement, and seeds disruptions. Adequate knowledge of the physics governing the sawtooth crash and a predictive capability of its ramifications has been elusive, including an understanding of incomplete reconnection, i.e., why sawteeth often cease prematurely before processing all available magnetic flux. In this dissertation, we introduce a model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes resulting from increasing diamagnetic effects in the nonlinear phase of magnetic reconnection. Physically, the reconnection inflow self-consistently convects the high pressure core of a tokamak toward the q=1 rational surface, thereby increasing the pressure gradient at the reconnection site. If the pressure gradient at the rational surface becomes large enough due to the self-consistent evolution, incomplete reconnection will occur due to diamagnetic effects becoming large enough to suppress reconnection. Predictions of this model are borne out in large-scale proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations of reconnection in a 2D slab geometry and are also consistent with data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST). Additionally, we present simulations from the 3D extended-MHD code M3D-C1 used to study the sawtooth crash in a 3D toroidal geometry for resistive-MHD and two-fluid models. This is the first study in a 3D tokamak geometry to show that the inclusion of two-fluid physics in the model equations is essential for recovering timescales more closely in line with experimental results compared to resistive-MHD and contrast the dynamics in the two models. We use a novel approach to sample the data in the plane of reconnection perpendicular to the (m,n)=(1,1) mode to carefully assess the reconnection physics. Using local measures of

  20. OBSERVATIONAL PREDICTION OF HIGH MAGNETIC REYNOLDS NUMBER PRE-FLARE RECONNECTION EVENTS: AN APPLICATION OF NITTA'S SELF-SIMILAR RECONNECTION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Shin-ya

    2010-08-20

    We applied the 'self-similar evolutionary model' of magnetic reconnection to simple pre-flare reconnection events driven by flux emergence as the first step in inspecting the realizability of the reconnection events predicted by this model. Previous works paid scant attention to the dependence of the magnetic Reynolds number (R*{sub em}) on reconnection events. We aim to clarify how the pre-flare phase of reconnection events in the high R*{sub em} range that is frequently encountered in astrophysical applications is observed. We clarify that (1) the time variation of the emission measure distribution strongly depends on R*{sub em}, (2) the expected light curve for sufficiently low R*{sub em} shows a long lifetime property while that for high R*{sub em} shows an impulsive property, and (3) in the case of recurrent small reconnection events on the same loop, the released magnetic energy scale is inversely correlated to the rear-end speed of the moving bright point along the loop. Note that other reconnection models cannot totally explain integration of these properties. If evidence of phenomena with these properties can be detected from, e.g., the Hinode observation, it strongly supports the validity of the self-similar reconnection model.

  1. Observations of Magnetic Reconnection and Plasma Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBraccio, Gina A.

    Mercury's magnetosphere is formed as a result of the supersonic solar wind interacting with the planet's intrinsic magnetic field. The combination of the weak planetary dipole moment and intense solar wind forcing of the inner heliosphere creates a unique space environment, which can teach us about planetary magnetospheres. In this work, we analyze the first in situ orbital observations at Mercury, provided by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Magnetic reconnection and the transport of plasma and magnetic flux are investigated using MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer measurements. Here, we report our results on the effect of magnetic reconnection and plasma dynamics on Mercury's space environment: (1) Mercury's magnetosphere is driven by frequent, intense magnetic reconnection observed in the form of magnetic field components normal to the magnetopause, BN, and as helical bundles of flux, called magnetic flux ropes, in the cross-tail current sheet. The high reconnection rates are determined to be a direct consequence of the low plasma beta, the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressure, in the inner heliosphere. (2) As upstream solar wind conditions vary, we find that reconnection occurs at Mercury's magnetopause for all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field, independent of shear angle. During the most extreme solar wind forcing events, the influence of induction fields generated within Mercury's highly conducting core are negated by erosion due to persistent magnetopause reconnection. (3) We present the first observations of Mercury's plasma mantle, which forms as a result of magnetopause reconnection and allows solar wind plasma to enter into the high-latitude magnetotail through the dayside cusps. The energy dispersion observed in the plasma mantle protons is used to infer the cross-magnetosphere electric field, providing a direct measurement of solar wind momentum

  2. Fast Magnetic Reconnection in the Plasmoid-Dominated Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Uzdensky, D. A.; Loureiro, N. F.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2010-12-03

    A conceptual model of resistive magnetic reconnection via a stochastic plasmoid chain is proposed. The global reconnection rate is shown to be independent of the Lundquist number. The distribution of fluxes in the plasmoids is shown to be an inverse-square law. It is argued that there is a finite probability of emergence of abnormally large plasmoids, which can disrupt the chain (and may be responsible for observable large abrupt events in solar flares and sawtooth crashes). A criterion for the transition from the resistive magnetohydrodynamic to the collisionless regime is provided.

  3. Reconnections of Wave Vortex Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    When wave vortices, that is nodal lines of a complex scalar wavefunction in space, approach transversely, their typical crossing and reconnection is a two-stage process incorporating two well-understood elementary events in which locally coplanar hyperbolas switch branches. The explicit description of this reconnection is a pedagogically useful…

  4. Separatrices: The crux of reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey; Newman, David; Goldman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the key processes in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas: it is the opposite of a dynamo. Looking at energy, a dynamo transforms kinetic energy in magnetic energy while reconnection takes magnetic energy and returns it to its kinetic form. Most plasma processes at their core involve first storing magnetic energy accumulated over time and then releasing it suddenly. We focus here on this release. A key concept in analysing reconnection is that of the separatrix, a surface (line in 2D) that separates the fresh unperturbed plasma embedded in magnetic field lines not yet reconnected with the hotter exhaust embedded in reconnected field lines. In kinetic physics, the separatrices become a layer where many key processes develop. We present here new results relative to the processes at the separatrices that regulate the plasma flow, the energization of the species, the electromagnetic fields and the instabilities developing at the separatrices.

  5. THEMIS Reconnection Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As the Sun's ionized and magnetized particles are passing by Earth they impart mechanical energy which is transformed into magnetic energy by compressing the tail. The tail field lines eventually merge (or 'reconnect') and slingshot particles towards and away from Earth, thereby converting magnetic into particle energy. This energy finds itself along field lines and powers the aurora on the one hand, and down the tail via the expulsion of a plasma blob, a plasmoid, on the other. This storage-and-release process of solar wind energy by the magnetosphere is called a substorm.

  6. Nonlinear Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Tassi, E.; Borgogno, D.; Pegoraro, F.

    2008-10-15

    We review some recent results that have been obtained in the investigation of collisionless reconnection in two and three dimensional magnetic configurations with a strong guide field in regimes of interest for laboratory plasmas. First, we adopt a two-field plasma model where two distinct regimes, laminar and turbulent, can be identified. Then, we show that these regimes may combine when we consider a more general four-field model, where perturbation of the magnetic and velocity fields are allowed also along the ignorable coordinate.

  7. RECURRENT EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS AND THE ''SIGMOID-TO-ARCADE'' TRANSFORMATION IN THE SUN DRIVEN BY DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Tsinganos, K.

    2014-05-10

    We report on three-dimensional MHD simulations of recurrent mini coronal mass ejection (CME)-like eruptions in a small active region (AR), which is formed by the dynamical emergence of a twisted (not kink unstable) flux tube from the solar interior. The eruptions develop as a result of the repeated formation and expulsion of new flux ropes due to continuous emergence and reconnection of sheared field lines along the polarity inversion line of the AR. The acceleration of the eruptions is triggered by tether-cutting reconnection at the current sheet underneath the erupting field. We find that each explosive eruption is followed by reformation of a sigmoidal structure and a subsequent ''sigmoid-to-flare arcade'' transformation in the AR. These results might have implications for recurrent CMEs and eruptive sigmoids/flares observations and theoretical studies.

  8. Internal and External Reconnection Series Homologous Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from the extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) on SOHO and the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh, we examine a series of morphologically homologous solar flares occurring in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) active region 8210 over May 1-2, 1998. An emerging flux region (EFR) impacted against a sunspot to the west and next to a coronal hole to the east is the source of the repeated flaring. An SXT sigmoid parallels the EFR's neutral line at the site of the initial flaring in soft X rays. In EIT each flaring episode begins with the formation of a crinkle pattern external to the EFR. These EIT crinkles move out from, and then in toward, the EFR with velocities approx. 20 km/ s. A shrinking and expansion of the width of the coronal hole coincides with the crinkle activity, and generation and evolution of a postflare loop system begins near the time of crinkle formation. Using a schematic based on magnetograms of the region, we suggest that these observations are consistent with the standard reconnection-based model for solar eruptions but are modified by the presence of the additional magnetic fields of the sunspot and coronal hole. In the schematic, internal reconnection begins inside of the EFR-associated fields, unleashing a flare, postflare loops, and a coronal mass ejection (CME). External reconnection, first occurring between the escaping CME and the coronal hole field and second occurring between fields formed as a result of the first external reconnection, results in the EIT crinkles and changes in the coronal hole boundary. By the end of the second external reconnection, the initial setup is reinstated; thus the sequence can repeat, resulting in morphologically homologous eruptions. Our inferred magnetic topology is similar to that suggested in the "breakout model" of eruptions although we cannot determine if our eruptions are released primarily by the breakout mechanism (external reconnection) or, alternatively

  9. Magnetic Reconnection: A Fundamental Process in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For many years, collisionless magnetic reconnect ion has been recognized as a fundamental process, which facilitates plasma transport and energy release in systems ranging from the astrophysical plasmas to magnetospheres and even laboratory plasma. Beginning with work addressing solar dynamics, it has been understood that reconnection is essential to explain solar eruptions, the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, and the dynamics of the magnetosphere. Accordingly, the process of magnetic reconnection has been and remains a prime target for space-based and laboratory studies, as well as for theoretical research. Much progress has been made throughout the years, beginning with indirect verifications by studies of processes enabled by reconnection, such as Coronal Mass Ejections, Flux Transfer Events, and Plasmoids. Theoretical advances have accompanied these observations, moving knowledge beyond the Sweet-Parker theory to the recognition that other, collisionless, effects are available and likely to support much faster reconnect ion rates. At the present time we are therefore near a break-through in our understanding of how collisionless reconnect ion works. Theory and modeling have advanced to the point that two competing theories are considered leading candidates for explaining the microphysics of this process. Both theories predict very small spatial and temporal scales. which are. to date, inaccessible to space-based or laboratory measurements. The need to understand magnetic reconnect ion has led NASA to begin the implementation of a tailored mission, Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), a four spacecraft cluster equipped to resolve all relevant spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, we present an overview of current knowledge as well as an outlook towards measurements provided by MMS.

  10. Three-dimensional, Impulsive Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    S Dorfman, et al

    2013-05-03

    Impulsive, local, 3-D reconnection is identified for the first time in a laboratory current sheet. The events observed in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) are characterized by large local gradients in the third direction and cannot be explained by 2-D models. Detailed measurements show that the ejection of flux rope structures from the current sheet plays a key role in these events. By contrast, even though electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are also observed concurrently with the impulsive behavior, they are not the key physics responsible. A qualitative, 3-D, two-fluid model is proposed to explain the observations. The experimental results may be particularly applicable to space and astrophysical plasmas where impulsive reconnection occurs.

  11. FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND SPONTANEOUS STOCHASTICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Lazarian, A.; Vishniac, E. T.

    2011-12-10

    Magnetic field lines in astrophysical plasmas are expected to be frozen-in at scales larger than the ion gyroradius. The rapid reconnection of magnetic-flux structures with dimensions vastly larger than the gyroradius requires a breakdown in the standard Alfven flux-freezing law. We attribute this breakdown to ubiquitous MHD plasma turbulence with power-law scaling ranges of velocity and magnetic energy spectra. Lagrangian particle trajectories in such environments become 'spontaneously stochastic', so that infinitely many magnetic field lines are advected to each point and must be averaged to obtain the resultant magnetic field. The relative distance between initial magnetic field lines which arrive at the same final point depends upon the properties of two-particle turbulent dispersion. We develop predictions based on the phenomenological Goldreich and Sridhar theory of strong MHD turbulence and on weak MHD turbulence theory. We recover the predictions of the Lazarian and Vishniac theory for the reconnection rate of large-scale magnetic structures. Lazarian and Vishniac also invoked 'spontaneous stochasticity', but of the field lines rather than of the Lagrangian trajectories. More recent theories of fast magnetic reconnection appeal to microscopic plasma processes that lead to additional terms in the generalized Ohm's law, such as the collisionless Hall term. We estimate quantitatively the effect of such processes on the inertial-range turbulence dynamics and find them to be negligible in most astrophysical environments. For example, the predictions of the Lazarian and Vishniac theory are unchanged in Hall MHD turbulence with an extended inertial range, whenever the ion skin depth {delta}{sub i} is much smaller than the turbulent integral length or injection-scale L{sub i} .

  12. Sustained lobe reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Jackman, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which solar wind driving may affect Saturn's magnetosphere is not yet fully understood. We present observations that suggest that under some conditions the solar wind does govern the character of the plasma sheet in Saturn's outer magnetosphere. On 16 September 2006, the Cassini spacecraft, at a radial distance of 37 Rs near local midnight, observed a sunward flowing ion population for ~5 h, which was accompanied by enhanced Saturn Kilometric Radiation emissions. We interpret this beam as the outflow from a long-lasting episode of Dungey-type reconnection, i.e., reconnection of previously open flux containing magnetosheath material. The beam occurred in the middle of a several-day interval of SKR activity and enhanced lobe magnetic field strength, apparently caused by the arrival of a solar wind compression region with significantly higher than average dynamic pressure. The arrival of the high-pressure solar wind also marked a change in the composition of the plasma-sheet plasma, from water-group-dominated material clearly of inner-magnetosphere origin to material dominated by light-ion composition, consistent with captured magnetosheath plasma. This event suggests that under the influence of prolonged high solar wind dynamic pressure, the tail plasma sheet, which normally consists of inner-magnetospheric plasma, is eroded away by ongoing reconnection that then involves open lobe field lines. This process removes open magnetic flux from the lobes and creates a more Earth-like, Dungey-style outer plasma sheet dominantly of solar wind origin. This behavior is potentially a recurrent phenomenon driven by repeating high-pressure streams (corotating interaction regions) in the solar wind, which also drive geomagnetic storms at Earth.

  13. Reconnecting to the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Folke, Carl; Jansson, Asa; Rockström, Johan; Olsson, Per; Carpenter, Stephen R; Chapin, F Stuart; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Daily, Gretchen; Danell, Kjell; Ebbesson, Jonas; Elmqvist, Thomas; Galaz, Victor; Moberg, Fredrik; Nilsson, Måns; Osterblom, Henrik; Ostrom, Elinor; Persson, Asa; Peterson, Garry; Polasky, Stephen; Steffen, Will; Walker, Brian; Westley, Frances

    2011-11-01

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere--a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  14. The Magnetic Reconnection Code: Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Amitava Bhattacharjee

    2007-04-20

    Understanding magnetic reconnection is one of the principal challenges in plasma physics. Reconnection is a process by which magnetic fields reconfigure themselves, releasing energy that can be converted to particle energies and bulk flows. Thanks to the availability of sophisticated diagnostics in fusion and laboratory experiments, in situ probing of magnetospheric and solar wind plasmas, and X-ray emission measurements from solar and stellar plasmas, theoretical models of magnetic reconnection can now be constrained by stringent observational tests. The members of the CMRS comprise an interdisciplinary group drawn from applied mathematics, astrophysics, computer science, fluid dynamics, plasma physics, and space science communities.

  15. Neutral and non-neutral collisionless plasma equilibria for twisted flux tubes: The Gold-Hoyle model in a background field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanson, O.; Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate exact one-dimensional collisionless plasma equilibria for a continuum of flux tube models, for which the total magnetic field is made up of the "force-free" Gold-Hoyle magnetic flux tube embedded in a uniform and anti-parallel background magnetic field. For a sufficiently weak background magnetic field, the axial component of the total magnetic field reverses at some finite radius. The presence of the background magnetic field means that the total system is not exactly force-free, but by reducing its magnitude, the departure from force-free can be made as small as desired. The distribution function for each species is a function of the three constants of motion; namely, the Hamiltonian and the canonical momenta in the axial and azimuthal directions. Poisson's equation and Ampère's law are solved exactly, and the solution allows either electrically neutral or non-neutral configurations, depending on the values of the bulk ion and electron flows. These equilibria have possible applications in various solar, space, and astrophysical contexts, as well as in the laboratory.

  16. Gradient-driven flux-tube simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence close to the non-linear threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, A. G.; Rath, F.; Buchholz, R.; Camenen, Y.; Candy, J.; Casson, F. J.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Hornsby, W. A.; Strintzi, D.; Weikl, A.

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that Ion Temperature Gradient turbulence close to the threshold exhibits a long time behaviour, with smaller heat fluxes at later times. This reduction is connected with the slow growth of long wave length zonal flows, and consequently, the numerical dissipation on these flows must be sufficiently small. Close to the nonlinear threshold for turbulence generation, a relatively small dissipation can maintain a turbulent state with a sizeable heat flux, through the damping of the zonal flow. Lowering the dissipation causes the turbulence, for temperature gradients close to the threshold, to be subdued. The heat flux then does not go smoothly to zero when the threshold is approached from above. Rather, a finite minimum heat flux is obtained below which no fully developed turbulent state exists. The threshold value of the temperature gradient length at which this finite heat flux is obtained is up to 30% larger compared with the threshold value obtained by extrapolating the heat flux to zero, and the cyclone base case is found to be nonlinearly stable. Transport is subdued when a fully developed staircase structure in the E × B shearing rate forms. Just above the threshold, an incomplete staircase develops, and transport is mediated by avalanche structures which propagate through the marginally stable regions.

  17. Three-Dimensional Turbulent Reconnection Induced by the Plasmoid Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    It has been established that the Sweet-Parker current layer in high-Lundquist-number reconnection is unstable to the super-Alfvenic plasmoid instability. Past two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations have demonstrated that the plasmoid instability leads to a new regime in which the Sweet-Parker current layer evolves into a chain of plasmoids connected by secondary current sheets and the averaged reconnection rate becomes nearly independent of the Lundquist number. In a three-dimensional configuration with a guide field, the additional degree of freedom allows plasmoid instabilities to grow at oblique angles [S. Baalrud et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 022101 (2012)] and develop the complex dynamics of flux ropes which overlap, cause field-line stochasticization, and self-generate a turbulent state. Three-dimensional simulations in the high-Lundquist-number regime show the formation of cigar-shaped eddies elongated in the direction of the local magnetic field, which is a signature of anisotropic MHD turbulence. Furthermore, the energy fluctuation spectra are found to satisfy power laws in the inertial range. The averaged 3D reconnection rate in the self-generated turbulent state is of the order of a hundredth of the characteristic Alfven speed, which is an order of magnitude lower than the reconnection rate reported in recent studies of externally driven 3D turbulent reconnection. The physical reasons for these differences will be discussed.

  18. Statistical study of reconnection exhausts in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Enžl, J.; Přech, L.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.

    2014-11-20

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process that changes magnetic field configuration and converts a magnetic energy to flow energy and plasma heating. This paper presents a survey of the plasma and magnetic field parameters inside 418 reconnection exhausts identified in the WIND data from 1995-2012. The statistical analysis is oriented on the re-distribution of the magnetic energy released due to reconnection between a plasma acceleration and its heating. The results show that both the portion of the energy deposited into heat as well as the energy spent on the acceleration of the exhaust plasma rise with the magnetic shear angle in accord with the increase of the magnetic flux available for reconnection. The decrease of the normalized exhaust speed with the increasing magnetic shear suggests a decreasing efficiency of the acceleration and/or the increasing efficiency of heating in high-shear events. However, we have found that the already suggested relation between the exhaust speed and temperature enhancement would be rather considered as an upper limit of the plasma heating during reconnection regardless of the shear angle.

  19. Intuitive approach to magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, Russell M.

    2011-11-15

    Two reconnection problems are considered. The first problem concerns global physics. The plasma in the global reconnection region is in magnetostatic equilibrium. It is shown that this equilibrium can be uniquely characterized by a set of constraints. During reconnection and independently of the local reconnection physics, these constraints can be uniquely evolved from any initial state. The second problem concerns Petschek reconnection. Petschek's model for fast reconnection, which is governed by resistive MHD equations with constant resistivity is not validated by numerical simulations. Malyshkin et al.[Phys. Plasmas 12, 102920 (2005)], showed that the reason for the discrepancy is that Petschek did not employ Ohm's law throughout the local diffusion region, but only at the X-point. A derivation of Petschek reconnection, including Ohm's law throughout the entire diffusion region, removes the discrepancy. This derivation is based largely on Petschek's original 1964 calculation [in AAS-NASA Symposium on Solar Flares (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1964), NASA SP50, p. 425]. A useful physical interpretation of the role which Ohm's law plays in the diffusion region is presented.

  20. Reconnection rates of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; White, R.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Sweet-Parker and Petschek scalings of magnetic reconnection rate are modified to include the effect of the viscosity. The modified scalings show that the viscous effect can be important in high-..beta.. plasmas. The theoretical reconnection scalings are compared with numerical simulation results in a tokamak geometry for three different cases: a forced reconnection driven by external coils, the nonlinear m = 1 resistive internal kink, and the nonlinear m = 2 tearing mode. In the first two cases, the numerical reconnection rate agrees well with the modified Sweet-Parker scaling, when the viscosity is sufficiently large. When the viscosity is negligible, a steady state which was assumed in the derivation of the reconnection scalings is not reached and the current sheet in the reconnection layer either remains stable through sloshing motions of the plasma or breaks up to higher m modes. When the current sheet remains stable, a rough comparison with the Sweet-Parker scaling is obtained. In the nonlinear m = 2 tearing mode case where the instability is purely resistive, the reconnection occurs on the slower dissipation time scale (Psi/sub s/ approx. eta). In addition, experimental data of the nonlinear m = 1 resistive internal kink in tokamak discharges are analyzed and are found to give reasonable agreement with the modified Sweet-Parker scaling.

  1. The Foggy EUV Corona and Coronal Heating by MHD Waves from Explosive Reconnection Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Falconer, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In 0.5 arcsec/pixel TRACE coronal EUV images, the corona rooted in active regions that are at the limb and are not flaring is seen to consist of (1) a complex array of discrete loops and plumes embedded in (2) a diffuse ambient component that shows no fine structure and gradually fades with height. For each of two not-flaring active regions, found that the diffuse component is (1) approximately isothermal and hydrostatic and (2) emits well over half of the total EUV luminosity of the active-region corona. Here, from a TRACE Fe XII coronal image of another not-flaring active region, the large sunspot active region AR 10652 when it was at the west limb on 30 July 2004, we separate the diffuse component from the discrete loop component by spatial filtering, and find that the diffuse component has about 60% of the total luminosity. If under much higher spatial resolution than that of TRACE (e. g., the 0.1 arcsec/pixel resolution of the Hi-C sounding-rocket experiment proposed by J. W. Cirtain et al), most of the diffuse component remains diffuse rather being resolved into very narrow loops and plumes, this will raise the possibility that the EUV corona in active regions consists of two basically different but comparably luminous components: one being the set of discrete bright loops and plumes and the other being a truly diffuse component filling the space between the discrete loops and plumes. This dichotomy would imply that there are two different but comparably powerful coronal heating mechanisms operating in active regions, one for the distinct loops and plumes and another for the diffuse component. We present a scenario in which (1) each discrete bright loop or plume is a flux tube that was recently reconnected in a burst of reconnection, and (2) the diffuse component is heated by MHD waves that are generated by these reconnection events and by other fine-scale explosive reconnection events, most of which occur in and below the base of the corona where they are

  2. Pollen tube growth is coupled to the extracellular calcium ion flux and the intracellular calcium gradient: effect of BAPTA-type buffers and hypertonic media.

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, E S; Miller, D D; Callaham, D A; Shipley, A M; Rivers, B A; Cresti, M; Hepler, P K

    1994-01-01

    Lily pollen tubes possess a steep, tip-focused intracellular Ca2+ gradient and a tip-directed extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ratiometric ion imaging revealed that the gradient extends from above 3.0 microM at the apex to approximately 0.2 microM within 20 microns from the tip, while application of the Ca(2+)-specific vibrating electrode indicated that the extracellular influx measured between 1.4 and 14 pmol cm-2 sec-1. We examined the relationship between these phenomena and their role in tube growth by using different 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA)-type buffers and hypertonic media. Injection of active BAPTA-type buffers or application of elevated levels of sucrose reversibly inhibited growth, destroyed tip zonation of organelles, and modified normal patterns of cytoplasmic streaming. Simultaneously, these treatments dissipated both the intracellular tip-focused gradient and the extracellular Ca2+ flux. Of the BAPTA-type buffers, 5,5'-dibromo-BAPTA (dissociation constant [Kd] is 1.5 microM) and 4,4'-difluoro-BAPTA (Kd of 1.7 microM) exhibited greater activity than those buffers with either a higher affinity (5,5'-dimethyl-BAPTA, Kd of 0.15 microM; BAPTA, Kd of 0.21 microM; 5,5'-difluoro-BAPTA, Kd of 0.25 microM) or lower affinity (5-methyl, 5'-nitro-BAPTA, Kd of 22 microM) for Ca2+. Our findings provide evidence that growing pollen tubes have open Ca2+ channels in their tip and that these channels become inactivated in nongrowing tubes. The studies with elevated sucrose support the view that stretching of the apical plasma membrane contributes to the maintenance of the Ca2+ signal. PMID:7866026

  3. The Funnel Geometry of Open Flux Tubes in the Low Solar Corona Constrained by O VI and Ne VIII Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byhring, Hanne S.; Esser, Ruth; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations show that observed outflow velocities of order 7-10 km/s of C IV and O VI ions, and 15-20 km/s of Ne VIII ions, are not only consistent with models of the solar wind from coronas holes, but also place unique constraints on the degree of flow tube expansion as well as the location of the expansion in the transition region/lower corona.

  4. Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. III. Leaky Waves in Zero-Beta Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the time-dependent wave properties and the damping rate of propagating fast magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves when energy leakage into a magnetised atmosphere is considered. By considering a cold plasma, initial investigations into the evolution of MHD wave damping through this energy leakage will take place. The time-dependent governing equations have been derived previously in Williamson and Erdélyi (2014a, Solar Phys. 289, 899 - 909) and are now solved when the assumption of evanescent wave propagation in the outside of the waveguide is relaxed. The dispersion relation for leaky waves applicable to a straight magnetic field is determined in both an arbitrary tube and a thin-tube approximation. By analytically solving the dispersion relation in the thin-tube approximation, the explicit expressions for the temporal evolution of the dynamic frequency and wavenumber are determined. The damping rate is, then, obtained from the dispersion relation and is shown to decrease as the density ratio increases. By comparing the decrease in damping rate to the increase in damping for a stationary system, as shown, we aim to point out that energy leakage may not be as efficient a damping mechanism as previously thought.

  5. Particle simulation of high-energy-density laser-driven reconnection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Fox, W.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-10-01

    Recently, reconnection between magnetic fields, self-generated through the Biermann battery effect, has been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-driven experiments on the Vulcan, OMEGA, and Shenguang laser facilities. This is a novel regime for magnetic reconnection study, characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. Reconnection in this regime is investigated with particle-in-cell simulations using the PSC code. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (that is, the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1], and secondary instabilities that lead to magnetic island formation. We present further detailed simulations of reconnection in this geometry, exploring the role of binary particle collisions and examining mechanisms for particle energization and acceleration, as has been recently observed in laser-driven reconnection experiments [2].[4pt] [1] W. Fox, et al, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).[0pt] [2] Q.L.Dong, et al., PRL 108, 215001 (2012).

  6. Reconnection in compressible plasmas: Extended conversion region

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Zenitani, S.

    2011-11-15

    The classical Sweet-Parker approach to steady-state magnetic reconnection is extended into the regime of large resistivity (small magnetic Reynolds or Lundquist number) when the aspect ratio between the outflow and inflow scale, {delta} = d/L, approaches unity. In a previous paper [Paper I, Hesse et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 042104 (2011)], the vicinity of the dissipation site (''diffusion region'') was investigated. In this paper, the approach is extended to cover larger sites, in which the energy transfer and conversion is not confined to the diffusion region. Consistent with the results of Paper I, we find that increasing aspect ratio {delta} is associated with increasing compression, increasing reconnection rate for low {beta}, but slightly decreasing rate for higher {beta}, decreasing outflow speed, and increasing outflow magnetic field. These trends are stronger for lower {beta}. Deviations from the traditional Sweet-Parker limit {delta}{yields} 0 become significant for R{sub m}<{approx}10, where R{sub m} is the magnetic Reynolds number (Lundquist number) based on the half-thickness of the current layer responsible for the Ohmic dissipation. They are also more significant for small {gamma}, that is, for increasing compressibility. In contrast to the results of Paper I, but consistent with earlier results for {delta}<<1, we find that in this limit the outflow speed is given by the Alfven speed {nu}{sub A} in the inflow region and the energy conversion is given by an even split of Poynting flux into enthalpy flux and bulk kinetic energy flux. However, with increasing {delta} the conversion to enthalpy flux becomes more and more dominant.

  7. Contribution of dayside transients to the reconnection voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, M.; Milan, S. E.; Imber, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    There are a range of different dayside transient signatures relating to the coupling between the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere. Flux transfer events are one particular example of dayside transients which play a key role in the transport of energy and momentum through the process of magnetic reconnection. FTEs are widely observed at the dayside magnetopause while also having signatures in the ionosphere, through such events as poleward moving auroral forms or poleward moving radar auroral forms. Here we consider the link between the convection generated by FTEs and the poleward moving radar auroral form to estimate the reconnection voltage and the size of the reconnection line. We will focus on events observed with the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) where we can measure the ionospheric convection over a range of local times. These observations need to be placed in the context of the boundary between the open and closed magnetic flux since we need to calculate the convection across that boundary in the frame of the boundary motion to get the reconnection voltage. We place the observations in the framework of the expanding/contracting polar cap model.

  8. Particle Heating and Energization During Magnetic Reconnection Events in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Ami M.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Forest, C.; Nornberg, M.; Sarff, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in particle transport, energization, and acceleration in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas. In MST reversed field pinch plasmas, discrete magnetic reconnection events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field, resulting in non-collisional ion heating. However, Thomson Scattering measures a decrease in the thermal electron temperature. Recent fast x-ray measurements show an enhancement in the high energy x-ray flux during reconnection, where the coupling between edge and core tearing modes is essential for enhanced flux. A non-Maxwellian energetic electron tail is generated during reconnection, where the power law spectral index (γ) decreases from 4.3 to 1.8 and is dependent on density, plasma current, and the reversal parameter. After the reconnection event, γ increases rapidly to 5.8, consistent with the loss of energetic electrons due to stochastic thermal transport. During the reconnection event, the change in γ is correlated with the change in magnetic energy stored in the equilibrium field, indicating that the released magnetic energy may be an energy source for electron energization. Recent experimental and computational results of energetic electron tail formation during magnetic reconnection events will be presented. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE and the NSF.

  9. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2014-05-01

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τV<τrec≈τA√S (1+Pm)1/4<τR, where τV is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τA is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τR is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  10. Experimental onset threshold and magnetic pressure pileup for 3D Sweet-Parker reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, Thomas P; Sun, Xuan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Furno, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    In space, astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, magnetic reconnect ion converts magnetic into particle energy during unsteady, explosive events. The abrupt onset and cessation has been a long standing puzzle. We show the first three-dimensional (3D) laboratory example of onset and stagnation of Sweet-Parker type magnetic reconnection between magnetized and parallel current (flux) ropes driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) attraction and 3D instability. Mutually attracting flux ropes advect and merge oppositely directed magnetic fields. Magnetic flux is annihilated, but reaches soon a threshold where magnetic flux and pressure pile up, and reconnection magnetic topology appears. This occurs when inflow speeds exceed the SweetParker speed v{sub SP} = v{sub A} / S{sup 1/2}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed and S is the Lundquist number for the reconnection layer, as magnetic flux arrives faster than flux annihilation can process it. Finally piled up fields generate MHD reaction forces that stall the inflow and the reconnection process.

  11. Physics of forced magnetic reconnection in coaxial helicity injection experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Raman, R.; Hooper, E. B.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-05-15

    We numerically examine the physics of fast flux closure in transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) experiments in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). By performing resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with poloidal injector coil currents held constant in time, we find that closed flux surfaces are formed through forced magnetic reconnection. Through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection with an elongated current sheet in the injector region, closed flux surfaces expand in the NSTX global domain. Simulations demonstrate outflows approaching poloidally Alfvénic flows and reconnection times consistent with the Sweet-Parker model. Critical requirements for magnetic reconnection and flux closure are studied in detail. These primary effects, which are magnetic diffusivity, injector flux, injector flux footprint width, and rate of injector voltage reduction, are simulated for transient CHI experiments. The relevant time scales for effective reconnection are τ{sub V}<τ{sub rec}≈τ{sub A}√(S)(1+Pm){sup 1/4}<τ{sub R}, where τ{sub V} is the time for the injector voltage reduction, τ{sub A} is the poloidal Alfvén transit time, τ{sub R} is the global resistive diffusion time, and Pm and S are Prandtl and Lundquist numbers.

  12. ON THE NATURE OF RECONNECTION AT A SOLAR CORONAL NULL POINT ABOVE A SEPARATRIX DOME

    SciTech Connect

    Pontin, D. I.; Priest, E. R.; Galsgaard, K.

    2013-09-10

    Three-dimensional magnetic null points are ubiquitous in the solar corona and in any generic mixed-polarity magnetic field. We consider magnetic reconnection at an isolated coronal null point whose fan field lines form a dome structure. Using analytical and computational models, we demonstrate several features of spine-fan reconnection at such a null, including the fact that substantial magnetic flux transfer from one region of field line connectivity to another can occur. The flux transfer occurs across the current sheet that forms around the null point during spine-fan reconnection, and there is no separator present. Also, flipping of magnetic field lines takes place in a manner similar to that observed in the quasi-separatrix layer or slip-running reconnection.

  13. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  14. Asymmetric magnetic reconnection with out-of-plane shear flows in a two dimensional hybrid model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Xian-Qu; Liu, Yue

    2015-05-15

    Effects of out-of-plane shear flows on asymmetric magnetic reconnect are investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) hybrid model with an initial Harris sheet equilibrium. It is found that the out-of-plane flow with an in-plane shear can significantly change the asymmetric reconnection process as well as the related geometry. The magnetic flux, out-of-plane magnetic field, in-plane flow vorticity, plasma density, and the reconnection rate are discussed in detail. The results are in comparison with the cases without the shear flows to further understand the effect.

  15. Geomagnetically Induced Currents From Reconnection

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animations shows a coronal mass ejections collide with Earth's magnetic fields and the fields change shape and strength. Reconnection in the magnetotail causes currents to follow the field lin...

  16. Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Terry G.

    2016-05-01

    Reconnection has at least three possible roles in solar flares: First, it may contribute to the build-up of magnetic energy in the solar corona prior to flare onset; second, it may directly trigger the onset of the flare; and third, it may allow the release of magnetic energy by relaxing the magnetic field configuration to a lower energy state. Although observational support for the first two roles is somewhat limited, there is now ample support for the third. Within the last few years EUV and X-ray instruments have directly observed the kind of plasma flows and heating indicative of reconnection. Continued improvements in instrumentation will greatly help to determine the detailed physics of the reconnection process in the solar atmosphere. Careful measurement of the reconnection outflows will be especially helpful in this regard. Current observations suggest that in some flares the jet outflows are accelerated within a short diffusion region that is more characteristic of Petschek-type reconnection than Sweet-Parker reconnection. Recent resistive MHD theoretical and numerical analyses predict that the length of the diffusion region should be just within the resolution range of current X-ray and EUV telescopes if the resistivity is uniform. On the other hand, if the resistivity is not uniform, the length of the diffusion region could be too short for the outflow acceleration region to be observable.

  17. Magnetic reconnection in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.; Feldman, W.; Walthour, D.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Magnetic reconnection produces fundamental changes in the magnetic field topology of plasmas and leads ultimately to substantial plasma heating and acceleration. The transfer of stored magnetic field energy to the plasma occurs primarily at thin conversion layers that extend outward from the reconnection site. We performed a comparative study of the structure and nature of these conversion layers as observed during reconnection at Earth`s magnetopause and in the geomagnetic tail. Our research utilized plasma and magnetic field data from the Earth-orbiting ISEE satellites during crossings of the conversion layers at the magnetopause and in the geomagnetic tail, as well as data obtained during a long-duration balloon flight in Antarctica and simultaneously from satellites in geosynchronous orbit. We have found that the reconnection layer at the magnetopause usually does not contain a slow mode shock, contrary to earlier theoretical expectations. Through a coordinated analysis of data obtained from balloon altitudes and at geosynchronous orbit, we obtained evidence that reconnection can occur simultaneously in both hemispheres at the magnetopause above the polar caps. The final year of our study was oriented primarily towards the question of determining the magnetic topology of disturbances in the solar wind associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and understanding how that topology is affected by magnetic reconnection occurring near the Sun.

  18. Magnetic Reconnection in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, N.E.

    2001-06-01

    width expected form the electron pressure gradient effect. It is significantly smaller than the width expected from the ion inertia, but this width is not expected to be relevant to a strongly magnetized plasma such as an RFP. Notably it is comparable to the width of the magnetic island produced by the associated tearing mode. This is consistent with expectation for saturated or fully developed resistive tearing modes such as MST is believed to exhibit. It is also consistent with the broadening of a smaller width current sheet through current transport due to parallel streaming of charge carriers (along the field lines of the associated island). Third we obtain estimates of the radial charge transport or radial current density due to streaming charge of carriers along magnetic field lines that results from reconnection in the edge of MST. We find that in contradiction with the theoretical expectation for isolated tearing modes it is non-vanishing and in fact large enough to imply both the existence of another charge transport mechanism to maintain charge neutrality and a significant difference in the radial ion and electron particle fluxes due to parallel streaming of particles. Fourth we interpret the flux surface average of j and b as a J x B force density on the plasma. We observe in agreement with theory and observation for interacting tearing modes in an RFP that the radial structure of the force density during sawtooth crashes is such as to flatten the equilibrium radial gradient in toroidal velocity. We observe also that it is sufficiently large as to imply the existence of other force densities on the plasma.

  19. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Giannios, Dimitrios; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short (˜min) variability time-scales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e. plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours-days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids that form in the reconnection layer. Smaller and faster plasmoids produce flares of sub-hour duration with higher peak luminosities than those powered by the largest plasmoids. Yet, the observed fluence in both types of flares is similar. Multiple flares with a range of flux-doubling time-scales (minutes to several hours) observed over a longer period of flaring activity (days or longer) may be used as a probe of the reconnection layer's orientation and the jet's magnetization. Our model shows that blazar flares are naturally expected as a result of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically dominated jet.

  20. Physical conditions in the reconnection layer in pulsar magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-01-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet (CS) beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this CS inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. We develop a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment and discuss its implications for the observed pulsed gamma-ray emission. We argue that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via a hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. Using the conditions of pressure balance across these current layers, the balance between the heating by magnetic energy dissipation and synchrotron cooling, and Ampere's law, we obtain simple estimates for key parameters of the layers—temperature, density, and layer thickness. In the comoving frame of the relativistic pulsar wind just outside of the equatorial CS, these basic parameters are uniquely determined by the strength of the reconnecting upstream magnetic field. For the case of the Crab pulsar, we find them to be of order 10 GeV, 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, and 10 cm, respectively. After accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting due to the pulsar wind, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from the reconnecting CS can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and very high energy (∼100 GeV) radiation, respectively. Also, we suggest that the rapid relative motions of the secondary plasmoids in the hierarchical chain may contribute to the production of the pulsar radio emission.

  1. ON THE ERUPTION OF CORONAL FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.

    2010-08-10

    We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of the evolution of the magnetic field in the corona where the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux tube is driven at the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. Through a sequence of simulations in which we vary the amount of twisted flux transported into the corona before the emergence is stopped, we investigate the conditions that lead to a dynamic eruption of the resulting coronal flux rope. It is found that the critical condition for the onset of eruption is for the center of the flux rope to reach a critical height at which the corresponding potential field declines with height at a sufficiently steep rate, consistent with the onset of the torus instability of the flux rope. In some cases, immediately after the emergence is stopped, the coronal flux rope first settles into a quasi-static rise with an underlying sigmoid-shaped current layer developing. Preferential heating of field lines going through this current layer may give rise to the observed quiescent X-ray sigmoid loops before eruption. Reconnections in the current layer during the initial quasi-static stage is found to add detached flux to the coronal flux rope, allowing it to rise quasi-statically to the critical height and dynamic eruption of the flux rope then ensues. By identifying field lines whose tops are in the most intense part of the current layer during the eruption, we deduce the evolution and morphology of the post-flare X-ray loops and the flare ribbons at their footpoints.

  2. Amid the Tempest: An Observational View of Magnetic Reconnection in Explosions on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiong

    2007-05-01

    Viewed through telescopes, the Sun is a restless star. Frequently, impulsive brightenings in the Sun's atmosphere, known as solar flares, are observed across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is considered that solar flares are driven by magnetic reconnection, when anti-parallel magnetic field lines collide and reconnect with each other, efficiently converting free magnetic energy into heating plasmas and accelerating charged particles. Over the past decades, solar physicists have discovered observational signatures as indirect evidence for magnetic reconnection. Careful analyses of these observations lead to evaluation of key physical parameters of magnetic reconnection. Growing efforts have been extended to understand the process of magnetic reconnection in some of the most spectacular explosions on the Sun in the form of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Often accompanied by flares, nearly once a day, a large bundle of plasma wrapped in magnetic field lines is violently hurled out of the Sun into interplanetary space. This is a CME. CMEs are driven magnetically, although the exact mechanisms remain in heated debate. Among many mysteries of CMEs, a fundamental question has been the origin of the specific magnetic structure of CMEs, some reaching the earth and being observed in-situ as a nested set of helical field lines, or a magnetic flux rope. Analyses of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and their solar progenitors, including flares and CMEs, provide an observational insight into the role of magnetic reconnection at the early stage of flux rope eruption.

  3. Impact of Magnetic Draping, Convection, and Field Line Tying on Magnetopause Reconnection Under Northward IMF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    We simulate a northward IMF cusp reconnection event at the magnetopause using the OpenGGCM resistive MHD code. The ACE input data, solar wind parameters, and dipole tilt belong to a 2002 reconnection event observed by IMAGE and Cluster. Based on a fully three-dimensional skeleton separators, nulls, and parallel electric fields, we show magnetic draping, convection, ionospheric field line tying play a role in producing a series of locally reconnecting nulls with flux ropes. The flux ropes in the cusp along the global separator line of symmetry. In 2D projection, the flux ropes the appearance of a tearing mode with a series of 'x's' and 'o's' but bearing a kind of 'guide field' that exists only within the magnetopause. The reconnecting field lines in the string of ropes involve IMF and both open and closed Earth magnetic field lines. The observed magnetic geometry reproduces the findings of a superposed epoch impact parameter study derived from the Cluster magnetometer data for the same event. The observed geometry has repercussions for spacecraft observations of cusp reconnection and for the imposed boundary conditions reconnection simulations.

  4. Evidence for collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Drake, J. F.; Phan, T. D.; Øieroset, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuña, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in combination with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection, we present the first direct evidence of collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars. The evidence indicates that the spacecraft passed through the diffusion region where reconnection is initiated and observed the magnetic field signatures of differential electron and ion motion - the Hall magnetic field - that uniquely indicate the reconnection process. These are the first such in-situ reconnection observations at an astronomical body other than the Earth. Reconnection may be the source of Mars' recently discovered auroral activity and the changing boundaries of the closed regions of crustal magnetic field.

  5. Effects of the geomagnetic asymmetry of flux-tube integrated neutral winds to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Weihua; Xu, Jisheng; Tian, Mao

    Neutral winds play an important role in the develop-ment of Rayleigh-Taylor instability which is very associated with the occurrence of irregularities in the equatorial and low-latitude regions. For example, eastward winds would make for the development of R-T instability and meridional winds suppress the development of R-T insta-bility. In this work, we investigate effects of the geomagnetic asymmetry of neutral winds to the flux-tube integrated R-T instability in equatorial ionosphere. The flux-tube integrated lin-ear growth rate of R-T instability were estimated and considering the ambient electric fields and asymmetry of neutral winds between North-South hemispheres, and the integrated growth rates were compared which were get with and without the neutral wind, including the zonal and meridional wind. Effects of the longitudinal distribution of the meridional winds on the inte-grated growth rate are investigated also. It is shown that the zonal and meridional wind could significantly affect the growth rates and the meridional winds could decrease the integrated growth rate, respectively. The longitudinal variation of occurrence of irregularities would be related with the global distribution of meridional wind. Reference: Sultan, P.J., Linear theory and modeling of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability leading to the occurrence of equatorial spread F, J. Geophys. Res., 1996, 101(A12), 26875-26891 Basu, B., On the linear theory of equato-rial plasma instability: Comparison of different descriptions, J. Geophys. Res., 2002, 107(A8), 1199, doi: 10.1029/2001JA000317

  6. Suppression of collisionless magnetic reconnection in asymmetric current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the suppression of asymmetric reconnection in the limit where the diamagnetic drift speed ≫ Alfvén speed and the magnetic shear angle is moderate. We demonstrate that the slippage between electrons and the magnetic flux mitigates the suppression and can even result in fast reconnection that lacks one of the outflow jets. Through comparing a case where the diamagnetic drift is supported by the temperature gradient with a companion case that has a density gradient instead, we identify a robust suppression mechanism. The drift of the x-line is slowed down locally by the asymmetric nature of the x-line, and then the x-line is run over and swallowed by the faster-moving following flux.

  7. Suppression of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Asymmetric Current Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the suppression of asymmetric reconnection in the limit where the diamagnetic drift speed >> Alfven speed and the magnetic shear angle is moderate. We demonstrate that the slippage between electrons and the magnetic flux mitigates the suppression and can even result in fast reconnection that lacks one of the outflow jets. Through comparing a case where the diamagnetic drift is supported by the temperature gradient with a companion case that has a density gradient instead, we identify a robust suppression mechanism. The drift of the x-line is slowed down locally by the asymmetric nature of the x-line, and then the x-line is run over and swallowed by the faster-moving following flux.

  8. Global Simulations of Magnetotail Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Rastatter, L.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing number of observational evidences of dynamic quasi-periodical magnetosphere response to continuously southward interplan etary magnetic field (IMF). However, traditional global MHD simulatio ns with magnetic reconnection supported by numerical dissipation and ad hoc anomalous resistivity driven by steady southward IMF often prod uce only quasi-steady configurations with almost stationary near-eart h neutral line. This discrepancy can be explained by the assumption that global MHD simulations significantly underestimate the reconnectio n rate in the magnetotail during substorm expansion phase. Indeed, co mparative studies of magnetic reconnection in small scale geometries demonstrated that traditional resistive MHD did not produce the fast r econnection rates observed in kinetic simulations. The major approxim ation of the traditional MHD approach is an isotropic fluid assumption) with zero off-diagonal pressure tensor components. The approximatio n, however, becomes invalid in the diffusion region around the reconn ection site where ions become unmagnetized and experience nongyrotropic behaviour. Deviation from gyrotropy in particle distribution functi on caused by kinetic effects manifests itself in nongyrotropic pressu re tensor with nonzero off-diagonal components. We use the global MHD code BATS-R-US and replace ad hoc parameters such as "critical curren t density" and "anomalous resistivity" with a physically motivated di ssipation model. The key element of the approach is to identify diffusion regions where the isotropic fluid MHD approximation is not applic able. We developed an algorithm that searches for locations of magnet otail reconnection sites. The algorithm takes advantage of block-based domain-decomposition technique employed by the BATS-R-US. Boundaries of the diffusion region around each reconnection site are estimated from the gyrotropic orbit threshold condition, where the ion gyroradius is equal to the distance to the

  9. Oxygen impacts on dipolarization fronts and reconnection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Haoming; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Lapenta, Giovanni; Walker, Raymond J.

    2016-02-01

    Spacecraft observations near a magnetotail X line show that oxygen (O+) ions are minor species during nonstorm substorms, but they can become major species during some of the storm time substorms. Dipolarization fronts (DFs), which are characterized by a sharp increase northward magnetic field in the magnetotail, are commonly observed during magnetospheric substorms. In this study, we investigated the O+ effects on DFs and the reconnection rate during magnetotail reconnection. We used a 2.5-D implicit particle-in-cell simulation in a 2-D Harris current sheet in the presence of H+ and O+ ions. Simulation runs with equal number densities of O+ and H+ (O+ run) and with pure H+ ion species (H+ run) were performed. Comparing the two different runs, we found that both the reconnection rate and the DF speed in the O+ run were much less than those in the H+ run. By studying the force balance and plasma composition at the DF, we found that the outflow magnetic flux and DF propagation were encumbered by the current sheet O+ inertia, which reduced the DF speed and delayed the reconnection rate in the O+ run. We also found an ambipolar electric field in the O+ run due to the different inflow and outflow speeds of O+ and electrons in the O+ diffusion region. As a result, this ambipolar electric field induced O+ drag on the convective magnetic field in the O+ diffusion region. The small reconnection rate determined in the O+ run can be attributed to the current sheet inertia and the O+ drag on the convective magnetic flux.

  10. Statistics of energetic electrons in the magnetotail reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Li, Tangmu; Deng, Xiaohua; Pang, Ye; Xu, Xiaojun; Tang, Rongxin; Huang, Shiyong; Li, Huimin

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection has long been regarded as an important site for producing energetic electrons in solar terrestrial and astrophysical plasmas. The motivation of this paper is to provide the average properties of energetic electrons in reconnection region, which are crucial for understanding electron energization mechanism but are rarely known. We statistically analyzed the energetic electrons through 21 magnetotail reconnection events observed by Cluster spacecraft during the years of 2001-2005. Approximately 1200 data points with time resolution of 8 s have been collected for each spacecraft. Two parameters are examined: energetic electron rate (EER) and power law index. EER, which is defined as the ratio of the integrated energetic electron flux to the lower energy electron flux, is used to quantify the electron acceleration efficiency. We find that EER and energetic electron flux (EEF) are positively correlated with the power law index, i.e., the higher rate and flux generally corresponds to softer spectrum. This unexpected correlation is probably caused by some nonadiabatic heating/acceleration mechanisms that tend to soft the spectrum with high temperature. EER is much larger within the earthward flow than the tailward flow. It is positively correlated with the outflow speed Vx, while the correlation between EER and Bz is less clear. With the increment of earthward outflow speed, the occurrence rate of high EER also monotonically increases. We find that EER generally does not increase with the increment of perpendicular electric field |E⊥|, suggesting that adiabatic betatron and Fermi acceleration probably play minor roles in electron energization during magnetotail reconnection.

  11. Comparisons of Earthward Poynting flux and the kinetic energy flux of up-flowing transversely heated ions from the Polar spacecraft on cusp magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents estimates of the Poynting flux flowing along magnetic field lines in the Earth's cusp region over altitudes from 0.8 Re to 7 Re using measurements during several passes from the Polar spacecraft. The Poynting flux is calculated from measurements of electric fields from the University of California, Berkeley double probe electric field instrument, and from magnetic field measurements from the U.C.L.A. fluxgate magnetometer. The estimates of Poynting flux are of special interest because the high altitude mapping of the cusp magnetic flux tubes may connect to newly reconnected field lines and the low altitude mapping of these field lines is the scene of powerful acceleration processes, most notably transverse heating and outflow of ions. The data show that the Poynting flux is predominantly downward over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz . This frequency range includes the Poynting flux due to steady state convection and field-aligned current systems, Alfven waves, and kinetic Alfven waves. Measurement of transversely heated ions over the energy ranges from 10 eV to several keV and their associated ion kinetic energy flux are presented from the University of Iowa Hydra instrument and compared to the values of the downward Poynting flux. Generally the downward Poynting flux exceeds the upward kinetic energy flux of the ions.

  12. High-energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-03-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ~50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is FX = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity LX = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 1034 erg s-1 assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ~100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ~30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  13. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  14. Hyperbolic method for magnetic reconnection process in steady state magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baty, Hubert; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    A recent numerical approach for solving the advection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations is extended for the first time to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, aiming in particular consistent improvements over classical methods for investigating the magnetic reconnection process. In this study, we mainly focus on a two-dimensional incompressible set of resistive MHD equations written in flux-vorticity scalar variables. The originality of the method is based on hyperbolic reformulation of the dissipative terms, leading to the construction of an equivalent hyperbolic first-order (spatial derivatives) system. This enables the use of approximate Riemann solvers for handling dissipative and advective flux in the same way. A simple second-order finite-volume discretization on rectangular grids using an upwind flux is employed. The advantages of this method are illustrated by a comparison to two particular analytical steady state solutions of the inviscid magnetic reconnection mechanism, namely the magnetic annihilation and the reconnective diffusion problems. In particular, the numerical solution is obtained with the same order of accuracy for the solution and gradient for a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers, without any deterioration characteristic of more conventional schemes. The amelioration of the hyperbolic method and its extension to time-dependent MHD problems related to solar flares mechanisms is also discussed.

  15. Magnetic Reconnection in the Spheromak: Physics and Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E B; Cohen, B I; Hill, D N; LoDestro, L L; McLean, H S; Romero-Talamas, C A; Wood, R D; Sovinec, C R

    2006-02-28

    Magnetic reconnection in the spheromak changes magnetic topology by conversion of injected toroidal flux into poloidal flux and by magnetic surface closure (or opening) in a slowly decaying spheromak. Results from the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, are compared with resistive MHD simulations using the NIMROD code. Voltage spikes on the SSPX gun during spheromak formation are interpreted as reconnection across a negative-current layer close to the mean-field x-point. Field lines are chaotic during these events, resulting in rapid electron energy loss to the walls and the low T{sub e} < 50 eV seen in experiment and simulation during strong helicity injection. Closure of flux surfaces (and high T{sub e}) can occur between voltage spikes if they are sufficiently far apart in time; these topology changes are not reflected in the impedance of the axisymmetric gun. Possible future experimental scenarios in SSPX are examined in the presence of the constraints imposed by reconnection physics.

  16. A review of astrophysical reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    Magnetic reconnection is a basic plasma process involving rapid rearrangement of magnetic field topology. It often leads to violent release of magnetic energy and its conversion to the plasma thermal and kinetic energy as well as nonthermal particle acceleration. It is thus believed to power numerous types of explosive phenomena both inside and outside the Solar system, including various kinds of high-energy flares. In this talk I will first give an overview of astrophysical systems where reconnection is believed to play an important role. Examples include pulsed high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres; gamma-ray flares in pulsar wind nebulae and AGN/blazar jets; Gamma-Ray Bursts; and giant flares in magnetar systems. I will also analyze the physical conditions of the plasma in some of these astrophysical systems and will discuss the fundamental physical differences between various astrophysical instances of magnetic reconnection and the more familiar solar and space examples of reconnection. In particular, I will demonstrate the importance of including radiative effects in order to understand astrophysical magnetic reconnection and in order to connect our theoretical models with the observed radiation signatures.

  17. Origin of resistivity in reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treumann, Rudolf A.

    2001-06-01

    Resistivity is believed to play an important role in reconnection leading to the distinction between resistive and collisionless reconnection. The former is treated in the Sweet-Parker model of long current sheets, and the Petschek model of a small resistive region. Both models in spite of their different dynamics attribute to the violation of the frozen-in condition in their diffusion regions due to the action of resistivity. In collisionless reconnection there is little consensus about the processes breaking the frozen-in condition. The question is whether anomalous processes generate sufficient resistivity or whether other processes free the particles from slavery by the magnetic field. In the present paper we review processes that may cause anomalous resistivity in collisionless current sheets. Our general conclusion is that in space plasma boundaries accessible to in situ spacecraft, wave levels have always been found to be high enough to explain the existence of large enough local diffusivity for igniting local reconnection. However, other processes might take place as well. Non-resistive reconnection can be caused by inertia or diamagnetism.

  18. Tail reconnection at Saturn: An overview of local plasmoid properties and the role of reconnection in global magnetospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, C. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Kivelson, M. G.; Southwood, D. J.; Achilleos, N.; Thomsen, M. F.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Eastwood, J. P.; Freeman, M. P.; Dougherty, M. K.; Vogt, M. F.

    2014-04-01

    We present a comprehensive review of the magnetic field and plasma signatures of reconnection events observed with the Cassini spacecraft during the tail orbits of 2006. We examine their "local" properties in terms of magnetic field reconfiguration and changing plasma flows. We also describe the "global" impact of reconnection in terms of the contribution to mass loss, flux closure, and large scale tail structure. The signatures of 69 plasmoids, 17 travelling compression regions (TCRs), and 13 planetward-moving structures have been found in total to date in the tail orbits of 2006. The direction of motion is inferred from the sign of the change in the Bθ component of the magnetic field in the first instance, and confirmed through plasma flow data where available (for 30 events). We discuss the location spread of the observations, showing that where spacecraft coverage is symmetric about midnight, reconnection signatures are observed more frequently on the dawn flank than on the dusk flank and comment on the importance of this in terms of understanding Dungey- and Vasyliunas-cycle flows. We probe the interior structure of plasmoids and find a preference for loops over flux ropes at Saturn, exploring the implications of this for large-scale tail structure. We estimate the mass lost downtail through reconnection and suggest that the apparent imbalance between mass input and observed plasmoid ejection may mean that alternative mass loss methods contribute to balancing Saturn's mass budget. We also estimate the rate of magnetic flux closure in the tail and find that, where open field line closure is active, it plays a very significant role in flux cycling at Saturn.

  19. Spatial Transport of Magnetic Flux Surfaces in Strongly Anisotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Oughton, S.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic flux surfaces afford familiar descriptions of spatial structure, dynamics, and connectivity of magnetic fields, with particular relevance in contexts such as solar coronal flux tubes, magnetic field connectivity in the interplanetary and interstellar medium, as well as in laboratory plasmas and dynamo problems [1-4]. Typical models assume that field-lines are orderly, and flux tubes remain identifiable over macroscopic distances; however, a previous study has shown that flux tubes shred in the presence of fluctuations, typically losing identity after several correlation scales [5]. Here, the structure of magnetic flux surfaces is numerically investigated in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model of homogeneous turbulence. Short and long-wavelength behavior is studied statistically by propagating magnetic surfaces along the mean field. At small scales magnetic surfaces become complex, experiencing an exponential thinning. At large scales, instead, the magnetic flux undergoes a diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established by means of a multiple scale analysis. Both large and small scales limits are controlled by the Kubo number. These results have consequences for understanding and interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in plasmas [6]. [1] E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1979). [2] J. R. Jokipii and E. N. Parker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 44 (1968). [3] R. Bruno et al., Planet. Space Sci. 49, 1201 (2001). [4] M. N. Rosenbluth et al., Nuclear Fusion 6, 297 (1966). [5] W. H. Matthaeus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2136 (1995). [6] S. Servidio et al., submitted (2013).

  20. Reconnection rates, small scale structures and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    The study of reconnection in the context of one fluid, two dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), with spatially uniform constant density, viscosity and resistivity is though to retain most of the physics important in reconnection. Much of the existing reconnection literature makes use of this approach. This discussion focuses on attempts to determine the properties of reconnection solutions to MHD as precisely as possible without regard to the intrinsic limitations of the model.

  1. On Lorentz invariants in relativistic magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu-Di; Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Lorentz invariants whose nonrelativistic correspondences play important roles in magnetic reconnection are discussed in this paper. Particularly, the relativistic invariant of the magnetic reconnection rate is defined and investigated in a covariant two-fluid model. Certain Lorentz covariant representations for energy conversion and magnetic structures in reconnection processes are also investigated. Furthermore, relativistic measures for topological features of reconnection sites, particularly magnetic nulls and separatrices, are analyzed.

  2. Where and when does reconnection occur in the tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherron, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    We comment on the question of when and where reconnection begins in the tail and how it is related to the onset of auroral expansion. This question was addressed in a workshop dedicated to Unsolved Problems in Magnetospheric Physics held in Scarborough, UK, in September 2015. The answer is that it typically occurs first in the midtail a little beyond 20 Re somewhat before midnight about 55 min after a southward turning of the solar wind magnetic field. It appears to be a consequence of plasma sheet thinning down to the scale of an ion gyroradius. The onset of the activation and expansion of auroral activity and accompanying magnetic signatures typically occur within 1 or 2 min of the appearance of signatures of midtail reconnection. The unanswered question is which comes first and whether reconnection is the cause of the auroral expansion. We point out that older observations clearly established that plasmoids (flux ropes) are released from near 20 Re within a few minutes of the usual signatures of expansion onset. This is only possible if reconnection occurs close to the Earth. More detailed observations with modern spacecraft have led to the development of new explanations for the cause of the substorm expansion that appear to neglect older observations. We conclude that it is essential to carefully define the various terms used in the study of substorms and to develop quantitative methods that enable statistical studies of the various processes associated with auroral expansion onset.

  3. Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, A. J. B.; Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.

  4. Evolution of field line helicity during magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. J. B. Hornig, G.; Wilmot-Smith, A. L.; Yeates, A. R.

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the evolution of field line helicity for magnetic fields that connect two boundaries without null points, with emphasis on localized finite-B magnetic reconnection. Total (relative) magnetic helicity is already recognized as an important topological constraint on magnetohydrodynamic processes. Field line helicity offers further advantages because it preserves all topological information and can distinguish between different magnetic fields with the same total helicity. Magnetic reconnection changes field connectivity and field line helicity reflects these changes; the goal of this paper is to characterize that evolution. We start by deriving the evolution equation for field line helicity and examining its terms, also obtaining a simplified form for cases where dynamics are localized within the domain. The main result, which we support using kinematic examples, is that during localized reconnection in a complex magnetic field, the evolution of field line helicity is dominated by a work-like term that is evaluated at the field line endpoints, namely, the scalar product of the generalized field line velocity and the vector potential. Furthermore, the flux integral of this term over certain areas is very small compared to the integral of the unsigned quantity, which indicates that changes of field line helicity happen in a well-organized pairwise manner. It follows that reconnection is very efficient at redistributing helicity in complex magnetic fields despite having little effect on the total helicity.

  5. The Onset of Magnetic Reconnection in Tail-Like Equilibria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Kuznetsova, Masha

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental mode of dynamics in the magnetotail, and is recognized as the basic mechanisms converting stored magnetic energy into kinetic energy of plasma particles. The effects of the reconnection process are well documented by spacecraft observations of plasmoids in the distant magnetotail, or bursty bulk flows, and magnetic field dipolarizations in the near Earth region. Theoretical and numerical analyses have, in recent years, shed new light on the way reconnection operates, and, in particular, which microscopic mechanism supports the dissipative electric field in the associated diffusion region. Despite this progress, however. the question of how magnetic reconnection initiates in a tail-like magnetic field with finite flux threading the current i.sheet remains unanswered. Instead, theoretical studies supported by numerical simulations support the point-of-view that such plasma and current sheets are stable with respect to collisionless tearing mode. In this paper, we will further investigate this conclusion, with emphasis on the question whether it remains valid in plasma sheets with embedded thin current sheets. For this purpose, we perform particle-in-cell simulations of the driven formation of thin current sheets, and their subsequent evolution either to equilibrium or to instability of a tearing-type mode. In the latter case we will pay particular attention to the nature of the electric field contribution which unmagnetizes the electrons.

  6. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmasa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  7. 3-D simulations of magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas, in a regime characterized by extremely high magnetic fields, high plasma beta and strong, supersonic plasma inflow. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. Previous 2-d particle-in-cell reconnection simulations, with parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments, identified key ingredients for obtaining the very fast reconnection rates, namely two-fluid reconnection mediated by collisionless effects (the Hall current and electron pressure tensor), and strong flux pile-up of the inflowing magnetic field [1]. We present results from extending the previous simulations to 3-d, and discuss 3-d effects in the experiments, including instabilities in the reconnection layer, the topological skeleton of null-null lines, and field-generation from the Biermann battery effect. [4pt] [1] W. Fox, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, PRL 106, 215003 (2011).

  8. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  9. Possible two-step solar energy release mechanism due to turbulent magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Quanlin; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, a possible two-step solar magnetic energy release process attributed to turbulent magnetic reconnection is investigated by magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the purpose of accounting for the closely associated observational features including canceling magnetic features and different kinds of small-scale activities such as ultraviolet explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. Numerical results based on realistic transition region physical parameters show that magnetic reconnections in a vertical turbulent current sheet consist of two stages, i.e., a first slow Sweet-Parker-like reconnection and a later rapid Petschek-like reconnection, where the latter fast reconnection phase seems a direct consequence of the initial slow reconnection phase when a critical state is reached. The formation of coherent plasmoid of various sizes and their coalescence play a central role in this complex nonlinear evolution. The 'observed' values of the rate of cancellation flux as well as the approaching velocity of magnetic fragments of inverse polarity in present simulation are well consistent with the corresponding measurements in the latest observations. The difference between our turbulent magnetic reconnection two-step energy release model and other schematic two-step models is discussed and then possible application of present outcome to solar explosives is described.

  10. TWISTING, RECONNECTING MAGNETOSPHERES AND MAGNETAR SPINDOWN

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hui, Lam

    2012-07-20

    We present the first simulations of evolving, strongly twisted magnetar magnetospheres. Slow shearing of the magnetar crust is seen to lead to a series of magnetospheric expansion and reconnection events, corresponding to X-ray flares and bursts. The axisymmetric simulations include rotation of the neutron star and the magnetic wind through the light cylinder. We study how the increasing twist affects the spindown rate of the star, finding that a dramatic increase in spindown occurs. Particularly spectacular are explosive events caused by the sudden opening of large amounts of overtwisted magnetic flux, which may be associated with the observed giant flares. These events are accompanied by a short period of ultrastrong spindown, resulting in an abrupt increase in spin period, such as was observed in the giant flare of SGR 1900+14.

  11. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  12. Electron jet of asymmetric reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Eriksson, E.; Li, W.; Johlander, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Pritchett, P. L.; Retinò, A.; Phan, T. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G. T.; Le Contel, O.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Nakamura, R.; Torbert, R. B.; Paterson, W. R.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Avanov, L. A.; Lavraud, B.; Saito, Y.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Turner, D. L.; Blake, J. D.; Fennell, J. F.; Jaynes, A.; Mauk, B. H.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of an electron-scale current sheet and electron outflow jet for asymmetric reconnection with guide field at the subsolar magnetopause. The electron jet observed within the reconnection region has an electron Mach number of 0.35 and is associated with electron agyrotropy. The jet is unstable to an electrostatic instability which generates intense waves with E∥ amplitudes reaching up to 300 mV m-1 and potentials up to 20% of the electron thermal energy. We see evidence of interaction between the waves and the electron beam, leading to quick thermalization of the beam and stabilization of the instability. The wave phase speed is comparable to the ion thermal speed, suggesting that the instability is of Buneman type, and therefore introduces electron-ion drag and leads to braking of the electron flow. Our observations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays an important role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetric reconnection.

  13. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in a Double Candle-flame-shaped Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-04-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ˜10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The “Ahead” satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magnetic field lines that are traced starting from the same HFT footprint, where the field lines are relatively flexible. These results argue strongly in favor of slipping magnetic reconnection at the HFT. The slipping reconnection was likely triggered by the flare and manifested as propagative dimmings before the loop slippage is observed. It may contribute to the late-phase peak in Fe xvi 33.5 nm, which is even higher than its main-phase counterpart, and may also play a role in the density and temperature asymmetry observed in the northern loop system through heat conduction.

  14. Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection.

    PubMed

    Ergun, R E; Goodrich, K A; Wilder, F D; Holmes, J C; Stawarz, J E; Eriksson, S; Sturner, A P; Malaspina, D M; Usanova, M E; Torbert, R B; Lindqvist, P-A; Khotyaintsev, Y; Burch, J L; Strangeway, R J; Russell, C T; Pollock, C J; Giles, B L; Hesse, M; Chen, L J; Lapenta, G; Goldman, M V; Newman, D L; Schwartz, S J; Eastwood, J P; Phan, T D; Mozer, F S; Drake, J; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Nakamura, R; Marklund, G

    2016-06-10

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E_{∥}) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E_{∥} events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100  mV/m, which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E_{∥} events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E_{∥} events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields. PMID:27341241

  15. MESSENGER Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin. James A.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER'S second flyby of Mercury on October 6,2008, very intense reconnection was observed between the planet's magnetic field and a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The dawn magnetopause was threaded by a strong magnetic field normal to its surface, approx.14 nT, that implies a rate of reconnection approx.10 times the typical rate at Earth and a cross-magnetospheric electric potential drop of approx.30 kV. The highest magnetic field observed during this second flyby, approx.160 nT, was found at the core of a large dayside flux transfer event (FTE). This FTE is estimated to contain magnetic flux equal to approx.5% that of Mercury's magnetic tail or approximately one order of magnitude higher fraction of the tail flux than is typically found for FTEs at Earth. Plasmoid and traveling compression region (TCR) signatures were observed throughout MESSENGER'S traversal of Mercury's magnetotail with a repetition rate comparable to the Dungey cycle time of approx.2 min. The TCR signatures changed from south-north, indicating tailward motion, to north-south, indicating sunward motion, at a distance approx.2.6 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius) behind the terminator indicating that the near-Mercury magnetotail neutral line was crossed at that point. Overall, these new MESSENGER observations suggest that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause is very intense relative to what is found at Earth and other planets, while reconnection in Mercury's tail is similar to that in other planetary magnetospheres, but with a very short Dungey cycle time.

  16. Observing the release of twist by magnetic reconnection in a solar filament eruption.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Liheng; Su, Yingna; Kliem, Bernhard; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Bi, Yi; Xiang, Yongyuan; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process of topology change and energy release, taking place in plasmas on the Sun, in space, in astrophysical objects and in the laboratory. However, observational evidence has been relatively rare and typically only partial. Here we present evidence of fast reconnection in a solar filament eruption using high-resolution H-alpha images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, supplemented by extreme ultraviolet observations. The reconnection is seen to occur between a set of ambient chromospheric fibrils and the filament itself. This allows for the relaxation of magnetic tension in the filament by an untwisting motion, demonstrating a flux rope structure. The topology change and untwisting are also found through nonlinear force-free field modelling of the active region in combination with magnetohydrodynamic simulation. These results demonstrate a new role for reconnection in solar eruptions: the release of magnetic twist. PMID:27306479

  17. A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A set of conservation equations is utilized to derive balance equations in the reconnection diffusion region of a symmetric pair plasma. The reconnection electric field is assumed to have the function to maintain the current density in the diffusion region, and to impart thermal energy to the plasma by means of quasi-viscous dissipation. Using these assumptions it is possible to derive a simple set of equations for diffusion region parameters in dependence on inflow conditions and on plasma compressibility. These equations are solved by means of a simple, iterative, procedure. The solutions show expected features such as dominance of enthalpy flux in the reconnection outflow, as well as combination of adiabatic and quasi-viscous heating. Furthermore, the model predicts a maximum reconnection electric field of E(sup *)=0.4, normalized to the parameters at the inflow edge of the diffusion region.

  18. Observing the release of twist by magnetic reconnection in a solar filament eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Liheng; Su, Yingna; Kliem, Bernhard; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Bi, Yi; Xiang, Yongyuan; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Li

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process of topology change and energy release, taking place in plasmas on the Sun, in space, in astrophysical objects and in the laboratory. However, observational evidence has been relatively rare and typically only partial. Here we present evidence of fast reconnection in a solar filament eruption using high-resolution H-alpha images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, supplemented by extreme ultraviolet observations. The reconnection is seen to occur between a set of ambient chromospheric fibrils and the filament itself. This allows for the relaxation of magnetic tension in the filament by an untwisting motion, demonstrating a flux rope structure. The topology change and untwisting are also found through nonlinear force-free field modelling of the active region in combination with magnetohydrodynamic simulation. These results demonstrate a new role for reconnection in solar eruptions: the release of magnetic twist.

  19. Observing the release of twist by magnetic reconnection in a solar filament eruption

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Liheng; Su, Yingna; Kliem, Bernhard; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Bi, Yi; Xiang, Yongyuan; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process of topology change and energy release, taking place in plasmas on the Sun, in space, in astrophysical objects and in the laboratory. However, observational evidence has been relatively rare and typically only partial. Here we present evidence of fast reconnection in a solar filament eruption using high-resolution H-alpha images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, supplemented by extreme ultraviolet observations. The reconnection is seen to occur between a set of ambient chromospheric fibrils and the filament itself. This allows for the relaxation of magnetic tension in the filament by an untwisting motion, demonstrating a flux rope structure. The topology change and untwisting are also found through nonlinear force-free field modelling of the active region in combination with magnetohydrodynamic simulation. These results demonstrate a new role for reconnection in solar eruptions: the release of magnetic twist. PMID:27306479

  20. Magnetic reconnection and stochastic plasmoid chains in high-Lundquist-number plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, N. F.; Samtaney, R.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Uzdensky, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    A numerical study of magnetic reconnection in the large-Lundquist-number (S), plasmoid-dominated regime is carried out for S up to 107. The theoretical model of Uzdensky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 235002 (2010)] is confirmed and partially amended. The normalized reconnection rate is E~eff~0.02 independently of S for S>>104. The plasmoid flux (Ψ) and half-width (wx) distribution functions scale as f(Ψ)~Ψ-2 and f(wx)~wx-2. The joint distribution of Ψ and wx shows that plasmoids populate a triangular region wx>~Ψ/B0, where B0 is the reconnecting field. It is argued that this feature is due to plasmoid coalescence. Macroscopic ``monster'' plasmoids with wx~10% of the system size are shown to emerge in just a few Alfvén times, independently of S, suggesting that large disruptive events are an inevitable feature of large-S reconnection.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of turbulent magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Quanlin; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing

    2004-12-01

    Turbulent reconnection process in a one-dimensional current sheet is investigated by means of a two-dimensional compressible one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulation with spatially uniform, fixed resistivity. Turbulence is set up by adding to the sheet pinch small but finite level of broadband random-phased magnetic field components. To clarify the nonlinear spatial-temporal nature of the turbulent reconnection process the reconnection system is treated as an unforced initial value problem without any anomalous resistivity model adopted. Numerical results demonstrate the duality of turbulent reconnection, i.e., a transition from Sweet-Parker-like slow reconnection to Petschek-like fast reconnection in its nonlinear evolutionary process. The initial slow reconnection phase is characterized by many independent microreconnection events confined within the sheet region and a global reconnection rate mainly dependent on the initially added turbulence and insensitive to variations of the plasma {beta} and resistivity. The formation and amplification of the major plasmoid leads the following reconnection process to a rapid reconnection stage with a fast reconnection rate of the order of 0.1 or even larger, drastically changing the topology of the global magnetic field. That is, the presence of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in large-scale current sheets can raise the reconnection rate from small values on the order of the Sweet-Parker rate to high values on the order of the Petscheck rate through triggering an evolution toward fast magnetic reconnection. Meanwhile, the backward coupling between the small- and large-scale magnetic field dynamics has been properly represented through the present high resolution simulation. The undriven turbulent reconnection model established here expresses a solid numerical basis for the previous schematic two-step magnetic reconnection models and a possible explanation of two-stage energy release process of solar explosives.

  2. High-speed Air Temperature Measurements in a Closed-path Cell and Quality of CO2 and H2O Fluxes from a Short-tube Gas Analyzer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Fratini, G.

    2015-12-01

    Gas analyzers traditionally used for eddy covariance method measure gas density. When fluxes are calculated, corrections are applied to account for the changes in gas density due to changing temperature and pressure (Ideal Gas Law) and changing water vapor density (Dalton's Law). The new generation of gas analyzers with fast air temperature and pressure measurements in the sampling cell enables on-the-fly calculation of fast dry mole fraction. This significantly simplifies the flux processing because the WPL density terms are no longer required, and leads to the reduction in uncertainties associated with latent and sensible heat flux inputs into the density terms. Traditional closed-path instruments with long intake tubes often can effectively dampen the fast temperature fluctuations in the tube before reaching the measurement cell, thus reducing or eliminating the need for temperature correction for density-based fluxes. But in instruments with a short-tube design, most - but not all - of the temperature fluctuations are attenuated, so calculating unbiased fluxes using fast dry mole fraction requires high-speed precise temperature measurements of the air stream inside the cell. Fast pressure and water vapor content of the sampled air should also be measured in the cell and carefully aligned in time with gas density and sample temperature measurements.In this study we examine the impact of fast-response air temperature measurements in the cell on the calculations of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes at different time scales from three different ecosystems. The fast cell air temperature data is filtered mathematically to obtain slower response cell temperature time series, which is used in the calculation of fluxes. This exercise is intended to simulate the use of thicker slower response thermocouples instead of fast response fine wire thermocouples for estimating cell temperature. The directly measured block temperature is also utilized to illustrate the

  3. Transition to Petschek-type Reconnection in Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, R.; Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T.; Hietala, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Petschek reconnection model predicts that for antiparallel symmetric conditions, slow-mode shocks should form along reconnection exhaust boundaries, and that the reconnection current sheet should bifurcate. However, closer to the X-line it is expected that Hall physics effects should play a more significant role in controlling the reconnection dynamics. Whilst in-situ observations at the magnetopause and magnetotail have provided a detailed insight into reconnection physics, imprecise knowledge of the spacecraft location both within the reconnection exhaust and relative to the X-line limits the extent to which the spatial structure of reconnection exhausts can be probed. In the solar wind, however, the rapid transit of a spacecraft across the solar wind exhausts allow us to make detailed observations with precise knowledge of the spacecraft location within the jet, such that the magnetic structure of the reconnecting boundary can be directly deduced. If two spacecraft measure the reconnection jets either side of the X-line, this enables a much more precise reconstruction of the reconnection geometry, but this is a rare occurrence. Here we present three solar wind reconnection events where different spacecraft (ACE, Cluster and Wind) sampled both of the oppositely directed reconnection exhausts from a common reconnection X-line, which allows us to estimate each spacecraft's distance from the X-line. We find that in all three cases spacecraft furthest from the reconnection site observed bifurcated current sheets, consistent with Petschek reconnection, whereas spacecraft closer to the reconnection site did not. This suggests that bifurcations of reconnection current sheets develop with increasing distance from the X-line, and that Petschek-type signatures are less developed close to the reconnection site. We discuss these results and consider what may control the point at which these signatures appear, and implications for other reconnection environments.

  4. Magnetic reconnection in the presence of externally driven and self-generated turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Karimabadi, H.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-11-15

    Magnetic reconnection is an important process that violates flux freezing and induces change of magnetic field topology in conducting fluids and, as a consequence, converts magnetic field energy into particle energy. It is thought to be operative in laboratory, heliophysical, and astrophysical plasmas. These environments exhibit wide variations in collisionality, ranging from collisionless in the Earth's magnetosphere to highly collisional in molecular clouds. A common feature among these plasmas is, however, the presence of turbulence. We review the present understanding of the effects of turbulence on the reconnection rate, discussing both how strong pre-existing turbulence modifies Sweet-Parker reconnection and how turbulence may develop as a result of reconnection itself. In steady state, reconnection rate is proportional to the aspect ratio of the diffusion region. Thus, two general MHD classes of models for fast reconnection have been proposed, differing on whether they keep the aspect ratio finite by increasing the width due to turbulent broadening or shortening the length of the diffusion layer due to plasmoid instability. One of the consequences of the plasmoid instability model is the possibility that the current sheet thins down to collisionless scales where kinetic effects become dominant. As a result, kinetic effects may be of importance for many astrophysical applications which were considered to be in the realm of MHD. Whether pre-existing turbulence can significantly modify the transition to the kinetic regime is not currently known. Although most studies of turbulent reconnection have been based on MHD, recent advances in kinetic simulations are enabling 3D studies of turbulence and reconnection in the collisionless regime. A summary of these recent works, highlighting similarities and differences with the MHD models of turbulent reconnection, as well as comparison with in situ observations in the magnetosphere and in the solar wind, are presented

  5. Magnetic reconnection in the presence of externally driven and self-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important process that violates flux freezing and induces change of magnetic field topology in conducting fluids and, as a consequence, converts magnetic field energy into particle energy. It is thought to be operative in laboratory, heliophysical, and astrophysical plasmas. These environments exhibit wide variations in collisionality, ranging from collisionless in the Earth's magnetosphere to highly collisional in molecular clouds. A common feature among these plasmas is, however, the presence of turbulence. We review the present understanding of the effects of turbulence on the reconnection rate, discussing both how strong pre-existing turbulence modifies Sweet-Parker reconnection and how turbulence may develop as a result of reconnection itself. In steady state, reconnection rate is proportional to the aspect ratio of the diffusion region. Thus, two general MHD classes of models for fast reconnection have been proposed, differing on whether they keep the aspect ratio finite by increasing the width due to turbulent broadening or shortening the length of the diffusion layer due to plasmoid instability. One of the consequences of the plasmoid instability model is the possibility that the current sheet thins down to collisionless scales where kinetic effects become dominant. As a result, kinetic effects may be of importance for many astrophysical applications which were considered to be in the realm of MHD. Whether pre-existing turbulence can significantly modify the transition to the kinetic regime is not currently known. Although most studies of turbulent reconnection have been based on MHD, recent advances in kinetic simulations are enabling 3D studies of turbulence and reconnection in the collisionless regime. A summary of these recent works, highlighting similarities and differences with the MHD models of turbulent reconnection, as well as comparison with in situ observations in the magnetosphere and in the solar wind, are presented

  6. Transition to whistler mediated magnetic reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandt, M. E.; Denton, R. E.; Drake, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The transition in the magnetic reconnection rate from the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime where the Alfen wave controls reconnection to a regime in which the ions become unmagnetized and the whistler wave mediates reconnection is explored with 2-D hybrid simulations. In the whistler regime the electrons carry the currents while the ions provide a neutralizing background. A simple physical picture is presented illustrating the role of the whistler mediated reconnection is calculated analytically. The development of an out-of-plane component of the magnetic field is an observable signature of whistler driven reconnection.

  7. Ionospheric Response to Flux Transfer Events at the Earth's Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitout, F.; Blelly, P. L.

    2003-06-01

    Flux transfer events (FTE) are thought to be the manifestation of the pulsed reconnection process by which interplanetary magnetic field lines and Earth's magnetic field lines merge. They are observed at the magnetopause as bipolar signatures in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the magnetopause (normal component) as the distorted newly reconnected field lines get dragged by the magnetic tension and the solar wind. FTEs are also observed in the ionosphere by ground-based instrumentations. Optical instruments commonly record poleward moving auroral forms in the red line (630nm) corresponding to low-energy electron precipitation. SuperDARN radars observe the convection associated to FTEs as enhanced flow channels. The EISCAT radars on the Svalbard archipelago have revealed the transient and impulsive nature of the ionosphere under the polar cusp for southward IMF. We have performed a simulation of the ionospheric footprint of a FTE by including the Southwood model of FTE in the TRANSCAR model of ionosphere. We can trace the evolution of an open flux tube and the behaviour and dynamics of the surrounding ionospheric plasma. We particularly focus on the signature of the two areas of return flow on both side of the FTE footprint. Those return flow may actually be responsible of some of the structures observed by Incoherent Scatter radars such as the Eiscat Svalbard Radar (ESR). We then compare our simulations with observations and finally discuss the pros and cons of the Southwood model of FTE.

  8. The plasmoid instability during asymmetric inflow magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Young, Aleida K.; Shen, Chengcai; Lin, Jun; Ni, Lei

    2013-06-15

    Theoretical studies of the plasmoid instability generally assume that the reconnecting magnetic fields are symmetric. We relax this assumption by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the plasmoid instability during asymmetric inflow magnetic reconnection. Magnetic asymmetry modifies the onset, scaling, and dynamics of this instability. Magnetic islands develop preferentially into the weak magnetic field upstream region. Outflow jets from individual X-points impact plasmoids obliquely rather than directly as in the symmetric case. Consequently, deposition of momentum by the outflow jets into the plasmoids is less efficient, the plasmoids develop net vorticity, and shear flow slows down secondary merging between islands. Secondary merging events have asymmetry along both the inflow and outflow directions. Downstream plasma is more turbulent in cases with magnetic asymmetry because islands are able to roll around each other after exiting the current sheet. As in the symmetric case, plasmoid formation facilitates faster reconnection for at least small and moderate magnetic asymmetries. However, when the upstream magnetic field strengths differ by a factor of 4, the reconnection rate plateaus at a lower value than expected from scaling the symmetric results. We perform a parameter study to investigate the onset of the plasmoid instability as a function of magnetic asymmetry and domain size. There exist domain sizes for which symmetric simulations are stable but asymmetric simulations are unstable, suggesting that moderate magnetic asymmetry is somewhat destabilizing. We discuss the implications for plasmoid and flux rope formation in solar eruptions, laboratory reconnection experiments, and space plasmas. The differences between symmetric and asymmetric simulations provide some hints regarding the nature of the three-dimensional plasmoid instability.

  9. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  10. Evidence for Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, D.; Eastwood, J.; Halekas, J.; Drake, J.; Phan, T.; Oieroset, M.; Mitchell, D.; Lin, R.; Acuna, M.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process that enables the rapid conversion of magnetic to particle energy and is important in astrophysics as well as solar, space and planetary physics. Using data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft in combination with simulations of reconnection, we present the first direct evidence of collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars. The evidence indicates that the spacecraft passed through the diffusion region where reconnection is initiated and observed the magnetic field signatures of differential electron and ion motion that uniquely indicate the reconnection process. These are the first such in- situ reconnection observations at an astronomical body other than the Earth. Reconnection may be the source of Mars" recently discovered auroral activity and the changing boundaries of the closed regions of crustal magnetic field.

  11. Reconnection in thin current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Pucci, Fulvia; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-05-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in nature and laboratory, but the question of reconnection speed and initial trigger have remained mysterious. How is fast magnetic energy release triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas?It has been shown that a tearing mode instability can grow on an ideal timescale, i.e., independent from the the Lundquist number, once the current sheet thickness becomes thin enough, or rather the inverse aspect ratio a/L reaches a scale a/L~S-1/3. As such, the latter provides a natural, critical threshold for current sheets that can be formed in nature before they disrupt in a few Alfvén time units. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection extended to simple viscous and kinetic models and we propose a possible scenario for the transition to explosive reconnection in high-Lundquist number plasmas, that we support with fully nonlinear numerical MHD simulations of a collapsing current sheet.

  12. The role of magnetic flux tube deformation and magnetosheath plasma beta in the saturation of the Region 1 field-aligned current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, F. D.; Eriksson, S.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-03-01

    The phenomena of cross polar cap potential (CPCP) and ionospheric field-aligned current (FAC) saturation remain largely unexplained. In the present study, we expand upon the Alfvén wing model of CPCP saturation by investigating its impact on the magnetosphere-ionosphere current system, particularly the Region 1 FAC input into the polar cap. Our hypothesis is that the ability of open flux tubes to deform in response to applied fluid stress from the magnetosheath is governed by the magnetosheath plasma beta, which in turn governs the Maxwell stress imposed on ionospheric plasma from the magnetosphere. We performed 32 MHD simulations with varying solar wind density and interplanetary magnetic field strength and show that the plasma beta does govern the deformation of open field lines, as well as the nonlinear response of the Region 1 FAC system to increasingly southward interplanetary magnetic field. Further, we show that the current-voltage relationship in the ionosphere also shows a dependence on the plasma beta in the magnetosheath, with the ionosphere becoming more resistive at lower beta.

  13. The Role of Polar Cap Flux Tube Deformation and Magnetosheath Plasma Beta in the Saturation of the Region 1 Field-Aligned Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, F. D.; Eriksson, S.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The phenomena of cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) and ionospheric field-aligned current (FAC) saturation remains largely unexplained. In this study, we expand upon the Alfvén Wing model of CPCP saturation by investigating its impact on the magnetosphere-ionosphere current system, particularly the Region 1 FAC input into the polar cap. Our hypothesis is that the ability of open flux tubes to deform in response to applied fluid stress from the magnetosheath is governed by the magnetosheath plasma beta, which in turn governs the Maxwell stress imposed on ionospheric plasma from the magnetosphere. This leads both the Region 1 FAC input as well as the ionospheric convection strength, as represented by the CPCP, to saturate in response to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) driving. We perform 32 simulations using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model with varying solar wind density and IMF strength, and demonstrate that the plasma beta does govern the deformation of polar cap and lobe field lines, as well as the non-linear response of the Region 1 FAC system to increasingly southward IMF. Further, we show that the current-voltage relationship in the ionosphere also shows a dependence on the plasma beta in the magnetosheath, with the ionosphere becoming more resistive at lower beta.

  14. The Transport of Plasma and Magnetic Flux in Giant Planet Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2013-05-01

    Both Jupiter and Saturn have moons that add significant quantities of neutrals and/or dust beyond geosynchronous orbit. This material becomes charged and interacts with the planetary plasma that is "orbiting" the planets at near corotational speeds, driven by the planetary ionospheres. Since this speed is greater than the keplerian orbital speed at these distances, the net force on the newly added charged mass is outward. The charged material is held in place by the magnetic field which stretches to the amount needed to balance centripetal and centrifugal forces. The currents involved in this process close in the ionosphere which is an imperfect conductor and the feet of the field lines hence slip poleward and the material near the equator moves outward. This motion allows the magnetosphere to divest itself of the added mass by transferring it to the magnetotail. The magnetotail in turn can rid itself of the newly added mass by the process of reconnection, interior to the region of added mass, freeing an island of magnetized plasma which then moves down the magnetotail no longer connected to the magnetosphere. This maintains a quasi-stationary conservation of mass in the magnetosphere with roughly constant mass and "periodic" disturbances. However, there is one other steady state the magnetosphere needs to maintain. It needs to replace the mass loaded flux tubes with emptied flux tubes. Thus the "emptied" flux tubes in the tail must move inward against the outgoing mass-loaded flux tubes. That they are buoyant is a help in this regard but it appears also to be helpful if the returning flux separates into thin flux tubes, just like air bubbles rising in a container with a leak in the bottom. In this way the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn maintain their dynamic, steady-state convection patterns.

  15. Role of electron inertia and reconnection dynamics in a stressed X-point collapse with a guide-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf von der Pahlen, J.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: In previous simulations of collisionless 2D magnetic reconnection it was consistently found that the term in the generalised Ohm's law that breaks the frozen-in condition is the divergence of the electron pressure tensor's non-gyrotropic components. The motivation for this study is to investigate the effect of the variation of the guide-field on the reconnection mechanism in simulations of X-point collapse, and the related changes in reconnection dynamics. Methods: A fully relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code was used to model X-point collapse with a guide-field in two and three spatial dimensions. Results: We show that in a 2D X-point collapse with a guide-field close to the strength of the in-plane field, the increased induced shear flows along the diffusion region lead to a new reconnection regime in which electron inertial terms play a dominant role at the X-point. This transition is marked by the emergence of a magnetic island - and hence a second reconnection site - as well as electron flow vortices moving along the current sheet. The reconnection electric field at the X-point is shown to exceed all lower guide-field cases for a brief period, indicating a strong burst in reconnection. By extending the simulation to three spatial dimensions it is shown that the locations of vortices along the current sheet (visualised by their Q-value) vary in the out-of-plane direction, producing tilted vortex tubes. The vortex tubes on opposite sides of the diffusion region are tilted in opposite directions, similarly to bifurcated current sheets in oblique tearing-mode reconnection. The tilt angles of vortex tubes were compared to a theoretical estimation and were found to be a good match. Particle velocity distribution functions for different guide-field runs, for 2.5D and 3D simulations, are analysed and compared.

  16. High-resolution multifluid simulations of flux ropes in the Martian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnett, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multifluid simulations of the Martian magnetosphere show the development and dynamics of flux ropes. One flux rope, which is analyzed in detail, initiates at a reconnection region near the dusk terminator and travels tailward with a speed on the order of 40 km s-1. The reconnection region forms close to the planet at an altitude of 700 km. Both the location of the reconnection and energy spectra of the plasma in the reconnection region agree with Mars Global Surveyor observations of reconnection. The largest flux ropes have a spatial extent on the order of 2000 km. Energy spectra taken through the flux ropes show an inverted-V type structure similar to those measured by Mars Express, suggesting that some inverted-V observations may be transits through flux ropes. The simulations indicate that the formation of flux ropes can lead to enhanced loss of heavy ions from the atmosphere.

  17. Three-dimensional magnetic reconnection and the magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of superthermal electron fluxes in the solar wind indicate that field lines within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, on occasion some field lines embedded deep within CMEs appear to be connected to the Sun at only one end. Here we propose an explanation for how such field lines arise in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation for the flux rope topology characteristic of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration, solar X-ray events. Our consideration of the field topologies resulting from 3-dimensional reconnection indicates that field lines within and near CMEs may on occasion be connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.

  18. OBSERVATION OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION DRIVEN BY GRANULAR SCALE ADVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Zhicheng; Cao Wenda; Ji Haisheng

    2013-06-01

    We report the first evidence of magnetic reconnection driven by advection in a rapidly developing large granule using high spatial resolution observations of a small surge event (base size {approx} 4'' Multiplication-Sign 4'') with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The observations were carried out in narrowband (0.5 A) He I 10830 A and broadband (10 A) TiO 7057 A. Since He I 10830 A triplet has a very high excitation level and is optically thin, its filtergrams enable us to investigate the surge from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the lower corona. Simultaneous space data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used in the analysis. It is shown that the surge is spatio-temporally associated with magnetic flux emergence in the rapidly developing large granule. During the development of the granule, its advecting flow ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) squeezed the magnetic flux into an intergranular lane area, where a magnetic flux concentration was formed and the neighboring flux with opposite magnetic polarity was canceled. During the cancellation, the surge was produced as absorption in He I 10830 A filtergrams while simultaneous EUV brightening occurred at its base. The observations clearly indicate evidence of a finest-scale reconnection process driven by the granule's motion.

  19. Energy release and transfer in solar flares: simulations of three-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Fletches, L; Hesse, M; Neukirch, T

    2008-01-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations we investigate energy release and transfer in a three-dimensional extension of the standard two-ribbon flare picture. In this scenario reconnection is initiated in a thin current sheet (suggested to form below a departing coronal mass ejection) above a bipolar magnetic field. Two cases are contrasted: an initially force-free current sheet (low beta) and a finite-pressure current sheet (high beta). The energy conversion process from reconnect ion consists of incoming Poynting flux (from the release of magnetic energy) turned into up-and downgoing Poynting flux, enthalpy flux and bulk kinetic energy flux. In the low-beta case, the outgoing Poynting flux is the dominant contribution, whereas the outgoing enthalpy flux dominates in the high-beta case. The bulk kinetic energy flux is only a minor contribution, particularly in the downward direction. The dominance of the downgoing Poynting flux in the low-beta case is consistent with an alternative to the thick target electron beam model for solar flare energy transport, suggested recently by Fletcher and Hudson. For plausible characteristic parameters of the reconnecting field configuration, we obtain energy release time scales and and energy output rates that compare favorably with those inferred from observations for the impulsive phase of flares.

  20. Spectroscopic Signature of Bursty Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.; Innes, D.; Barta, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bursty reconnection is thought to play a central role in explosive events in the solar atmosphere. Time dependent reconnection occurs when a current sheet undergoes tearing and coalescence instabilities. We simulate these dynamics using a 2.5D adiabatic dimensionless single-fluid MHD model. We scale the model output into the regime appropriate for the upper chromosphere and forward model time dependent spectral profiles which incorporate the projection effects of viewing angle and temperature sensitivity. We find that the profiles are often bimodal and red wing dominant. Both red and blue shifted peaks are visible at velocities 40% of the Alfven speed outside the current sheet. This spectral modeling provides a platform for direct comparison with the novel dataset to be provided by IRIS, particularly in the context of jets and flares.

  1. The Plasmaspheric Plume and Magnetopause Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, B. M.; Phan, T. D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Souza, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present near-simultaneous measurements from two THEMIS spacecraft at the dayside magnetopause with a 1.5 h separation in local time. One spacecraft observes a high-density plasmaspheric plume while the other does not. Both spacecraft observe signatures of magnetic reconnection, providing a test for the changes to reconnection in local time along the magnetopause as well as the impact of high densities on the reconnection process. When the plume is present and the magnetospheric density exceeds that in the magnetosheath, the reconnection jet velocity decreases, the density within the jet increases, and the location of the faster jet is primarily on field lines with magnetosheath orientation. Slower jet velocities indicate that reconnection is occurring less efficiently. In the localized region where the plume contacts the magnetopause, the high-density plume may impede the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling by mass loading the reconnection site.

  2. Indeterminacy and instability in Petschek reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, Terry G.; Priest, Eric R.; Seaton, Daniel B.; Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2013-05-15

    We explain two puzzling aspects of Petschek's model for fast reconnection. One is its failure to occur in plasma simulations with uniform resistivity. The other is its inability to provide anything more than an upper limit for the reconnection rate. We have found that previously published analytical solutions based on Petschek's model are structurally unstable if the electrical resistivity is uniform. The structural instability is associated with the presence of an essential singularity at the X-line that is unphysical. By requiring that such a singularity does not exist, we obtain a formula that predicts a specific rate of reconnection. For uniform resistivity, reconnection can only occur at the slow, Sweet-Parker rate. For nonuniform resistivity, reconnection can occur at a much faster rate provided that the resistivity profile is not too flat near the X-line. If this condition is satisfied, then the scale length of the nonuniformity determines the reconnection rate.

  3. Global axisymmetric simulations of two-fluid reconnection in an experimentally relevant geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, N. A.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2008-04-15

    To address the interplay between local and global effects in magnetic reconnection, axisymmetric numerical simulations for the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] are performed using the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)]. The 'pull' and 'push' modes of the device are simulated both with and without two-fluid effects in the generalized Ohm's law. As in experiment, the pull reconnection rate is slowed due to the presence of downstream pressure associated with the outflow. Effects induced by toroidicity include a radially inward drift of the current sheet during pull reconnection and a radially outward displacement of the X-point during push reconnection. These effects result from the inboard side of the current sheet having less volume than the outboard side, facilitating the formation of large scale pressure gradients since the inboard side is more susceptible to a buildup or depletion of density. Toroidicity also leads to asymmetry of the quadrupole field during two-fluid simulations. During pull reconnection, the outboard lobes of the quadrupole typically peak close to the X-point, whereas the inboard quadrupole lobes peak near the flux core surfaces. At experimentally relevant parameters, the reconnection rate is found to depend more on the mode of operation than on the inclusion of two-fluid effects. The current sheet in two-fluid co-helicity simulations tilts due to a Lorentz force associated with the guide field and the outflowing electrons, resulting in asymmetric flow patterns for both ions and electrons. In two-fluid counter-helicity simulations, the Hall effect leads to a radial shift in position of the X-point and an asymmetric outflow pattern, which is examined in terms of separate force-density contributions. In general, asymmetry due to toroidicity or the Hall effect often leads to uneven outflow, which then feeds back on the reconnection process through large scale

  4. Toward multi-scale simulation of reconnection phenomena in space plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Usami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ohtani, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow. On the other hand configuration of the magnetic field leading to formation of diffusion region is determined in macroscopic scale and topological change after reconnection is also expressed in macroscopic scale. Thus magnetic reconnection is typical multi-scale phenomenon and microscopic and macroscopic physics are strongly coupled. Recently Horiuchi et al. developed an effective resistivity model based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results obtained in study of collisionless driven reconnection and applied to a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. They showed reproduction of global behavior in substrom such as dipolarization and flux rope formation by global three dimensional MHD simulation. Usami et al. developed multi-hierarchy simulation model, in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are solved self-consistently and simultaneously. Based on the domain decomposition method, this model consists of three parts: a MHD algorithm for macroscopic global dynamics, a PIC algorithm for microscopic kinetic physics, and an interface algorithm to interlock macro and micro hierarchies. They verified the interface algorithm by simulation of plasma injection flow. In their latest work, this model was applied to collisionless reconnection in an open system and magnetic reconnection was successfully found. In this paper, we describe our approach to clarify multi-scale phenomena and report the current status. Our recent study about extension of the MHD domain to global system is presented. We

  5. Magnetic reconnection in a compressible MHD plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Birn, Joachim

    2011-04-15

    Using steady-state resistive MHD, magnetic reconnection is reinvestigated for conditions of high resistivity/low magnetic Reynolds number, when the thickness of the diffusion region is no longer small compared to its length. Implicit expressions for the reconnection rate and other reconnection parameters are derived based on the requirements of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. These expressions are solved via simple iterative procedures. Implications specifically for low Reynolds number/high resistivity are being discussed.

  6. 3D Dynamics of Magnetopause Reconnection Using Hall-MHD Global Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, K.; Germaschewski, K.; Raeder, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause and in the magnetotail is of crucial importance for the dynamics of the global magnetosphere and space weather. Even though the plasma conditions in the magnetosphere are largely in the collisionless regime, most of the existing research using global computational models employ single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with artificial resistivity. Studies of reconnection in simplified, two-dimensional geometries have established that two-fluid and kinetic effects can dramatically alter dynamics and reconnection rates when compared with single-fluid models. These enhanced models also introduce particular signatures, for example a quadrupolar out-of-plane magnetic field component that has already been observed in space by satellite measurements. However, results from simplified geometries cannot be translated directly to the dynamics of three-dimensional magnetospheric reconnection. For instance, magnetic flux originating from the solar wind and arriving at the magnetopause can either reconnect or be advected around the magnetosphere. In this study, we use a new version of the OpenGGCM code that incorporates the Hall term in a Generalized Ohm's Law to study magnetopause reconnection under synthetic solar wind conditions and investigate how reconnection rates and dynamics of flux transfer events depend on the strength of the Hall term. The OpenGGCM, a global model of Earth's magnetosphere, has recently been ported to exploit modern computing architectures like the Cell processor and SIMD capabilities of conventional processors using an automatic code generator. These enhancements provide us with the performance needed to include the computationally expensive Hall physics.

  7. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (ηΔΔ)

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-09

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity η of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that the glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although η elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.

  8. Dissipation in relativistic pair-plasma reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-11-15

    An investigation into the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection is presented. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. A set of numerical simulations is analyzed, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For antiparallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  9. Dissipation in Relativistic Pair-Plasma Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. We analyze a set of numerical simulations, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For anti-parallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.

  10. Slipping magnetic reconnection in coronal loops.

    PubMed

    Aulanier, Guillaume; Golub, Leon; Deluca, Edward E; Cirtain, Jonathan W; Kano, Ryouhei; Lundquist, Loraine L; Narukage, Noriyuki; Sakao, Taro; Weber, Mark A

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection of solar coronal loops is the main process that causes solar flares and possibly coronal heating. In the standard model, magnetic field lines break and reconnect instantaneously at places where the field mapping is discontinuous. However, another mode may operate where the magnetic field mapping is continuous but shows steep gradients: The field lines may slip across each other. Soft x-ray observations of fast bidirectional motions of coronal loops, observed by the Hinode spacecraft, support the existence of this slipping magnetic reconnection regime in the Sun's corona. This basic process should be considered when interpreting reconnection, both on the Sun and in laboratory-based plasma experiments. PMID:18063789

  11. Secondary reconnection, energisation and turbulence in dipolarisation fronts: results of a 3D kinetic simulation campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; olshevskyi, Vyacheslav; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    regions in the fronts. [1] Hamrin, Maria, et al. "The evolution of flux pileup regions in the plasma sheet: Cluster observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 118.10 (2013): 6279-6290. [2] Wu, Mingyu, et al. "In situ observations of multistage electron acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120.8 (2015): 6320-6331. [3] Schmid, D., et al. "Two states of magnetotail dipolarization fronts: A statistical study." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 120.2 (2015): 1096-1108. [4] Lapenta, Giovanni, et al. "Secondary reconnection sites in reconnection-generated flux ropes and reconnection fronts." Nature Physics 11.8 (2015): 690-695.

  12. The ionospheric signature of flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, S. W. H.; Freeman, M. P.; Lockwood, Mike; Smith, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effects at ionospheric heights which take place when transient reconnection events (i.e., Flux Tranfer Events (FTEs)) occur at the dayside magnetopause are considered. The nature of the FTE related ionospheric flows, the associated current systems, and the plasma precipitation, are discussed. In particular, the nature of the time dependent cusp precipitation which occurs on this case is outlined and expectations are compared with those based on steady magnetopause reconnection.

  13. PIC Simulations of the Omega-EP Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenda; Blackman, Eric; Yan, Rui; Ren, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    In an Omega EP experiment on magnetic reconnection, two laser beams with peak intensity of 7 × 1018 W/cm2 are focused on a Cu-target. Here we report 2D PIC simulation results with parameters derived from the experiment including a realistic ion-electron mass ratio. We find that 1) toroidal and mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields are generated and a bubble of high-energy-density plasma is produced from single beam-target interactions and 2) the magnetic topology changes as two such bubbles expand and interact with each other indicating the occurrence of magnetic reconnection. The reconnection can occur even when the bubble expansion velocity is subsonic. Flux pileup is observed when the expansion velocity is supersonic. Energetic Cu-ions with energy up to 12 MeV are also observed in the outflow. This work was supported by NNSA under Corporate Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302 and Grant No. DE-NA0002205; by DOE under Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER54789; and by NSF under Grant No. PHY-1314734.

  14. Magnetopause-foreshock interactions induced by dayside reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hietala, Heli; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Palmroth, Minna; Ganse, Urs; Sandroos, Arto; Hannuksela, Otto; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Vainio, Rami

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effects of dayside reconnection events on the bow shock in global hybrid-Vlasov simulations of the terrestrial magnetosphere. Using the Finnish Meteorological Institute's hybrid-Vlasov model Vlasiator (http://vlasiator.fmi.fi), which couples kinetic ions through Vlasov's equation with charge-neutralising fluid electrons, the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is modelled self-consistently in two spatial and three velocity dimensions. Recent polar plane simulations with southward IMF cover both the dayside and nightside reconnection sites, in a volume ranging from about 40 Earth radii (RE) upstream to about one hundred RE downstream. Dayside reconnection at the magnetopause results in the formation of the two-dimensional equivalents of flux transfer events. These magnetic islands are accelerated and move from the subsolar region towards the cusps and beyond. In doing so, they generate fast-mode waves ahead and behind, which propagate throughout the magnetosheath and can lead to significant perturbations in the bow shock shape and position. We investigate such simulated events and their signatures in the magnetosheath, at the bow shock and in the foreshock. We also analyse observational data to find similar signatures in spacecraft measurements and discuss the requirements for THOR instruments if they were to be able to fully characterise such an event.

  15. Improved Boundary Model for Particle Simulation of Collisionless Driven Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, H.; Horiuchi, R.

    2006-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between particle kinetic effects and anomalous resistivity due to plasma instabilities in collisionless driven reconnection, we develop a three-dimensional Particle Simulation code for Magnetic reconnection in an Open system (PASMO). Recently, we have improved a model of upstream boundary to satisfy sufficiently the frozen-in condition both for ions and electrons. From the condition, plasma inflow is driven by ExB drift due to a driving electric field. In the previous model, particles are supplied into the system each time step, based on the particle flux through upstream boundary. The number density changes in proportion to magnetic field. In the improved model, particles in a cell near upstream boundary are newly loaded so as to satisfy shifted Maxwellian rigorously every time step. Using this model, the frozen-in condition is satisfied near the boundary both for electrons and ions. We will discuss the relationship between excitation of instability and mechanism of magnetic reconnection in the meeting.

  16. Transient Magnetic Reconnection and Dipolarization Fronts in the Terrestrial Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Deng, Xiaohua; Pang, Ye; Xu, Xiaojun; Huang, Shiyong; Tang, Rongxin; Yuan, Zhigang

    2015-04-01

    We report a Cluster observation of transient magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail at the location of [Xgsm~ -17.2 RE, Ygsm~ -4.5 RE and Zgsm~ 0]. The reconnection X-line retreated tailward with a speed of 34 km/s based on multi-spacecraft analysis. An ion diffusion region with a weak guide field (~10% of lobe field) was encountered during the flow reversal. A flux rope was embedded in the tailward flow. Transient suprathermal electron beams, which directed away from the X-line, were detected repeatedly around the separatrix region with periods of about 60s during the tailward flow bursts. On the earthward side of X-line, multiple earthward-propagating dipolarization fronts were observed quasi-periodically at the edge of the ion diffusion region with time period of 60s-90s. Particle and wave characteristics also show distinct signatures at different stages of the transient reconnection. The implications of this observation will be discussed.

  17. Cluster observations of Shear-mode surface waves diverging from Geomagnetic Tail reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Wygant, J. R.; Dombeck, J. P.; Cattell, C. A.; Thaller, S. A.; Mouikis, C.; Balogh, A.; Reme, H.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first Cluster spacecraft study of the intense (δB/B~0.5, δE/VAB~0.5) equatorial plane surface waves diverging from magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail at ~17 Re. Using phase lag analysis with multi-spacecraft measurements, we quantitatively determine the wavelength and phase velocity of the waves with spacecraft frame frequencies from 0.03 Hz to 1 Hz and wavelengths from much larger (4Re) than to comparable to the H+ gyroradius (~300km). The phase velocities track the strong variations in the equatorial plane projection of the reconnection outflow velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field. The propagation direction and wavelength of the observed surface waves resemble those of flapping waves of the magnetotail current sheet, suggesting a same origin shared by both of these waves. The observed waves appear ubiquitous in the outflows near magnetotail reconnection. Evidence is found that the observed waves are associated with velocity shear in reconnection outflows. Analysis shows that observed waves are associated with strong field-aligned Alfvenic Poynting flux directed away from the reconnection region toward Earth. These observations present a scenario in which the observed surface waves are driven and convected through a velocity-shear type instability by high-speed (~1000km) reconnection outflows tending to slow down due to power dissipation through Poynting flux. The mapped Poynting flux (100ergs/cm2s) and longitudinal scales (10-100 km) to 100km altitude suggest that the observed waves and their motions are an important boundary condition for night-side aurora. Figure: a) The BX-GSM in the geomagnetic tail current sheet. b) The phase difference wavelet spectrum between Bz_GSM from SC2 and SC3, used to determine the wave phase velocity, is correlated with the reconnection outflow velocity (represented by H+ VX-GSM) c) The spacecraft trajectory through magnetotail reconnection. d) The observed equatorial plane surface wave

  18. The role of Reconnection Diffusion in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Lima, Reinaldo; Lazarian, Alex; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Guerrero, Gustavo; Leao, Marcia

    Fast magnetic reconnection is an omnipresent process in turbulent astrophysical flows. It allows the magnetic flux to diffuse through the gas even when the ideal MHD approximation is applicable. Recently we have tested this diffusive mechanism (termed ``Reconnection Diffusion'', RD) for solving two intriguing problems related to star formation: (i) the removal of magnetic flux from collapsing molecular clouds in order to explain the observed magnetic field intensities in protostars (the ``magnetic flux problem''), and (ii) the formation of rotationally sustained protostellar disks in the presence of the magnetic fields, which tend to remove all the angular momentum (the ``magnetic braking catastrophe''). Using 3D MHD simulations we have demonstrated successfully the efficiency of the RD in both problems. More recently, we have also identified the conditions under which RD is able to produce supercritical cores from self-gravitating subcritical molecular cloud clumps. In this presentation we review the RD theory and the results of our numerical studies in different phases of star formation. We also derive the RD coefficient profile from the numerical simulations and compare with the theoretical predictions.

  19. EUV burst, particle heating and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xiang; Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul; Bellan plasma Group Team

    2015-11-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection associated with a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a kinked flux rope is studied in the Caltech jet experiment. As the kinked plasma accelerates laterally away from its equilibrium position, an effective gravity due to the acceleration results in a secondary Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This Rayleigh-Taylor instability erodes the plasma to a scale smaller than the ion skin depth and induces a fast magnetic reconnection. A spatially localized energetic EUV burst is observed at the position of fast magnetic reconnection, indicating strong localized electron heating. A circularly polarized high frequency magnetic field perturbation is simultaneously observed at some distance from the reconnection region indicating that the reconnection emits whistler waves and that Hall dynamics governs the reconnection. Spectroscopic measurement including Stark broadening and Doppler broadening shows simultaneous fast ion heating. It is also observed that the voltage across the source electrodes spikes when there is fast magnetic reconnection resulting from the fact that magnetic reconnection changes the magnetic flux linking the electrode circuit. The electron heating is consistent with Ohmic dissipation while the ion heating is consistent with stochastic heating.

  20. Changes in benthic nutrient sources within a wetland after hydrologic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, James S; Topping, Brent R; Carter, James L; Wood, Tamara M; Cameron, Jason M; Asbill-Case, Jessica R; Carlson, Rick A

    2012-09-01

    Removing dams and levees to restore hydrologic connectivity and enhance ecosystem services such as nutrient removal has been an increasingly common management practice. In the present study, the authors assessed geochemical and biological changes following engineered levee breaches that reconnected eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, USA, to an adjacent, historic wetland that had been under agricultural use for the last seven decades. Over the three-year study, the reconnected wetland served as a benthic source for both macronutrients (dissolved organic carbon [DOC], soluble reactive phosphorus [SRP], and ammonia) and micronutrients (dissolved iron and manganese). The magnitude of those benthic sources was similar to or greater than that of allochthonous sources. The highest DOC benthic flux to the water column occurred immediately after rewetting occurred. It then decreased during the present study to levels more similar to the adjacent lake. Dissolved ammonia fluxes, initially negative after the levee breaches, became consistently positive through the remainder of the study. Nitrate fluxes, also initially negative, became negligible two years after the levee breaches. In contrast to previous laboratory studies, SRP fluxes remained positive, as did fluxes of dissolved iron and manganese. Our results indicate that the timescales of chemical changes following hydrologic reconnection of wetlands are solute-specific and in some cases extend for multiple years beyond the reconnection event. During the present study, colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates gradually generated assemblages similar to those in a nearby wetland refuge and provided further evidence of the multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat. Such timescales should be considered when developing water-quality management strategies to achieve wetland-restoration goals. PMID:22707141

  1. Use of Data Mining and Computer Vision Algorithms in Studies of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.; Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T.; Yilmaz, A.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge discovery from large data sets collected from spacecraft measurements as well as petascale simulations remains a major obstacle to scientific progress. For example, our recent 3D kinetic simulation of reconnection included over 3 trillion particles and generated well over 200 TB of data. Similarly identification of interesting features in spacecraft data can be quite time consuming and by definition focuses on simpler features as human eye has limited capability in deciphering complex patterns and dependencies. Machine learning algorithms offer a solution to this problem. Here we present our latest results on use of machine learning algorithms in analysis of (i) 2D and 3D kinetic simulations of reconnection and (ii) reconnection events in the solar wind using Wind data. The results are quite promising and point to the power of these techniques to find hidden relationships. For example, identification of flux ropes in the solar wind remains quite controversial since unlike the magnetopause where one can search for bipolar signatures of the magnetic field component in the boundary normal coordinates, there are no generally agreed upon method of identifying them. As a preparation for this, we show results of our technique applied to time series generated from simulations of flux ropes. We find that the algorithms were not only able to detect flux ropes in the simulation data very accurately, but they were also able to distinguish crossings across a flux rope versus those along the axis of a flux rope. In case of spacecraft data, our models were able to detect crossings of the reconnection exhausts and distinguish them from non-exhausts. Finally, we use machine learning algorithms to compare the crossings of reconnection exhausts from simulations and spacecraft observations in the solar wind.

  2. Changes in benthic nutrient sources within a wetland after hydrologic reconnection.