Science.gov

Sample records for reconstructed process facility

  1. Image processing and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick

    2012-06-15

    This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

  2. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  3. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion devices, including flares and process heaters, and sulfur recovery plants. The sulfur recovery... facility, provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares, the... commence construction, modification, or reconstruction after May 14, 2007. For flares, the provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion devices, including flares and process heaters, and sulfur recovery plants. The sulfur recovery... facility, provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares, the... commence construction, modification, or reconstruction after May 14, 2007. For flares, the provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustion devices, including flares and process heaters, and sulfur recovery plants. The sulfur recovery... facility, provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares, the... commence construction, modification, or reconstruction after May 14, 2007. For flares, the provisions...

  6. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  7. IFSAR processing for 3D target reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Christian D.; Moses, Randolph L.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) processing for the 3D reconstruction of radar targets. A major source of reconstruction error is induced by multiple scattering responses in a resolution cell, giving rise to height errors. We present a model for multiple scattering centers and analyze the errors that result using traditional IFSAR height estimation. We present a simple geometric model that characterizes the height error and suggests tests for detecting or reducing this error. We consider the use of image magnitude difference as a test statistic to detect multiple scattering responses in a resolution cell, and we analyze the resulting height error reduction and hypothesis test performance using this statistic. Finally, we consider phase linearity test statistics when three or more IFSAR images are available. Examples using synthetic Xpatch backhoe imagery are presented.

  8. Neural process reconstruction from sparse user scribbles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Mike; Jeong, Won-Ki; Vázquez-Reina, Amelio; Unger, Markus; Bischof, Horst; Lichtman, Jeff; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel semi-automatic method for segmenting neural processes in large, highly anisotropic EM (electron microscopy) image stacks. Our method takes advantage of sparse scribble annotations provided by the user to guide a 3D variational segmentation model, thereby allowing our method to globally optimally enforce 3D geometric constraints on the segmentation. Moreover, we leverage a novel algorithm for propagating segmentation constraints through the image stack via optimal volumetric pathways, thereby allowing our method to compute highly accurate 3D segmentations from very sparse user input. We evaluate our method by reconstructing 16 neural processes in a 1024 x 1024 x 50 nanometer-scale EM image stack of a mouse hippocampus. We demonstrate that, on average, our method is 68% more accurate than previous state-of-the-art semi-automatic methods. PMID:22003670

  9. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  10. AWE multi-axis radiographic facility: A review of 3D-reconstructions from limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a 3D-reconstruction study carried out to address issues regarding the optimal number of radiographic views and their orientations in a new flash X-radiography facility. The results presented in this paper are taken from reconstructions with noiseless projection data simulated from a phantom. These idealized results have shown the relative improvements gained by adding additional views, as well as the impact of varying the view orientations and the effectiveness of various constraints to suppress reconstruction artefacts. It has been concluded that, given sufficient a priori knowledge to implement appropriate constraints, a limited number of views (as few as five in the new facility) can give reasonable reconstructions, and that the reconstruction is relatively insensitive to the view orientation. .

  11. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  12. SALTSTONE PROCESSING FACILITY TRANSFER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Reigel, M.

    2010-08-04

    On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Production Facility inadvertently transferred 1800 gallons of untreated waste from the salt feed tank to Vault 4. During shut down, approximately 70 gallons of the material was left in the Saltstone hopper. A sample of the slurry in the hopper was sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze the density, pH and the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals. The sample was hazardous for chromium, mercury and pH. The sample received from the Saltstone hopper was analyzed visually while obtaining sample aliquots and while the sample was allowed to settle. It was observed that the sample contains solids that settle in approximately 20 minutes (Figure 3-1). There is a floating layer on top of the supernate during settling and disperses when the sample is agitated (Figure 3-2). The untreated waste inadvertently transferred from the SFT to Vault 4 was toxic for chromium and mercury. In addition, the pH of the sample is at the regulatory limit. Visually inspecting the sample indicates solids present in the sample.

  13. Skylab materials processing facility experiment developer's report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility is traced from the design of a portable, self-contained electron beam welding system for terrestrial applications to the highly complex experiment system ultimately developed for three Skylab missions. The M512 experiment facility was designed to support six in-space experiments intended to explore the advantages of manufacturing materials in the near-zero-gravity environment of Earth orbit. Detailed descriptions of the M512 facility and related experiment hardware are provided, with discussions of hardware verification and man-machine interfaces included. An analysis of the operation of the facility and experiments during the three Skylab missions is presented, including discussions of the hardware performance, anomalies, and data returned to earth.

  14. Environmental Radiation Dose Reconstruction for U.S. and Russian Weapons Production Facilities: Hanford and Mayak

    SciTech Connect

    Ansbaugh, Lynn R.; Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Napier, Bruce A.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.

    2003-05-01

    Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States, such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries, such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions, which are used to estimate environmental releases, transport, and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling, when conducted, is used to organize and validate the measurements. Past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons has resulted in major releases of radionuclides into the environment. Reconstruction of the historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals in the public living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States; several are also underway in other countries. The types of activity performed, the operating histories, and the radionuclide releases vary widely across the different facilities. The U.S. Hanford Site and the Russian Mayak Production Association are used here to illustrate the nature of the assessed problems and the range of approaches developed to solve them.

  15. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

  16. Cogeneration at a milk processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackowski, L.E. Jr.; Coles, R.L. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design aspects and operational considerations of a base loaded nominal 47MW combustion gas turbine heat recovery cogeneration plant located in Corona, California. The plant will sell electricity and steam to an adjacent milk processing facility and surplus electrical power to the local utility. The plant design incorporates a single General Electric PGLM5000 STIG aircraft derivative type natural gas fired combustion gas turbine with steam injection for nitrogen oxide (NO/sub chi/) suppression and power augmentation and a three pressure level head recovery boiler producing steam for use by the milk facility and the combustion gas turbine.

  17. Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    DeeEarl Vaden

    2005-10-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

  18. Implementing change in the facilities planning process

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    In the post-Cold War climate of reduced budgets at the national laboratories, the Sites Planning Department at Sandia National Laboratories was faced with the problem of securing funding for capital construction projects in a very competitive environment. The Department of Energy (DOE), felt that requests for new facilities were not always well coordinated with its mission needs. The Sites Planning Department needed to revolutionize the way they were doing business. To be successful in obtaining approval and funding for future facilities, they recognized the need to concentrate their efforts on project proposals that tap strategic programs at DOE. The authors developed a series of new processes to identify, evaluate, prioritize, and develop line item project proposals to request approval and obtain funding. A matrixed group of sites and facilities directors was formed to establish criteria and make preliminary recommendations to upper management. Matrixed working groups were also established at the staff level to develop and prepare projects for the prioritization process. Ultimately, similar processes will be applied to all project types, and a prioritized plan generated for each. These plans will become the blueprint for an overarching strategic site plan. What started as a means of increasing success in obtaining approval and funding of capital projects has launched a whole new approach to project development that permits incorporation of facilities planning into overall corporate strategic planning.

  19. The reconstructed evolutionary process with the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Didier, Gilles; Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Laurin, Michel

    2012-12-21

    Using the fossil record yields more detailed reconstructions of the evolutionary process than what is obtained from contemporary lineages only. In this work, we present a stochastic process modeling not only speciation and extinction, but also fossil finds. Next, we derive an explicit formula for the likelihood of a reconstructed phylogeny with fossils, which can be used to estimate the speciation and extinction rates. Finally, we provide a comparative simulation-based evaluation of the accuracy of estimations of these rates from complete phylogenies (including extinct lineages), from reconstructions with contemporary lineages only and from reconstructions with contemporary lineages and the fossil record. Results show that taking the fossil record into account yields more accurate estimates of speciation and extinction rates than considering only contemporary lineages.

  20. Materials evaluation for a transuranic processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A., Schwenk, E.B. ); Divine, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company, with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is developing a transuranium extraction process for preheating double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site to reduce the volume of transuranic waste being sent to a repository. The bench- scale transuranium extraction process development is reaching a stage where a pilot plant design has begun for the construction of a facility in the existing B Plant. Because of the potential corrosivity of neutralized cladding removal waste process streams, existing embedded piping alloys in B Plant are being evaluated and new'' alloys are being selected for the full-scale plant screening corrosion tests. Once the waste is acidified with HNO{sub 3}, some of the process streams that are high in F{sup {minus}} and low in Al and zr can produce corrosion rates exceeding 30,000 mil/yr in austenitic alloys. Initial results results are reported concerning the applicability of existing plant materials to withstand expected process solutions and conditions to help determine the feasibility of locating the plant at the selected facility. In addition, process changes are presented that should make the process solutions less corrosive to the existing materials. Experimental work confirms that Hastelloy B is unsatisfactory for the expected process solutions; type 304L, 347 and 309S stainless steels are satisfactory for service at room temperature and 60{degrees}C, if process stream complexing is performed. Inconel 625 was satisfactory for all solutions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The generalized time variable reconstructed birth-death process.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, Nathaniel

    2012-05-01

    Much recent research has investigated the effect that different time variable birth-death processes have on the distribution of branching times in phylogenies of extant taxa. Previous work has shown how to calculate the distributions of number of lineages and branching times for a reconstructed constant rate birth-death process that started with one or two reconstructed lineages at some time in the past or ended with some number of lineages in the present. Here I expand that work to include any time variable birth-death process that starts with any number of reconstructed lineages and/or ends with any number of reconstructed lineages at any time, and I calculate a number of distributions under that process. I also explore the discrete time birth-death process which operates as an efficient and accurate numerical solution to any time-variable birth-death process and allows for the analytical incorporation of sampling and mass extinctions. I describe how these distributions can be used to compare different time variable models using maximum likelihood analysis, and I show how to simulate random trees under any of these models. I also introduce two visual methods for evaluating different time variable birth-death processes; these methods illustrate the shape of distributions for the number of lineages and waiting times by plotting them over time.

  2. Spatial emission tomography reconstruction using Pitman-Yor process

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, Mame Diarra; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali; Barat, Eric; Comtat, Claude

    2009-12-08

    In this paper, we address the problem of emission tomography spatial reconstruction in three dimensions following a Bayesian nonparametric approach. Our model makes use of a generalization of the Dirichlet process called Pitman-Yor process. The problem in this approach is to deal with the infinite representation of the distribution in the inference. So we propose an efficient Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling scheme which is able to generate samples from the posterior distribution of the activity distribution. An application to 3D-PET reconstruction is presented.

  3. Defining and reconstructing clinical processes based on IHE and BPMN 2.0.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Melanie; Pfeifer, Franz; Helm, Emmanuel; Schuler, Andreas; Altmann, Josef

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the current status and the results of our process management system for defining and reconstructing clinical care processes, which contributes to compare, analyze and evaluate clinical processes and further to identify high cost tasks or stays. The system is founded on IHE, which guarantees standardized interfaces and interoperability between clinical information systems. At the heart of the system there is BPMN, a modeling notation and specification language, which allows the definition and execution of clinical processes. The system provides functionality to define healthcare information system independent clinical core processes and to execute the processes in a workflow engine. Furthermore, the reconstruction of clinical processes is done by evaluating an IHE audit log database, which records patient movements within a health care facility. The main goal of the system is to assist hospital operators and clinical process managers to detect discrepancies between defined and actual clinical processes and as well to identify main causes of high medical costs. Beyond that, the system can potentially contribute to reconstruct and improve clinical processes and enhance cost control and patient care quality.

  4. Facilities for pyrochemical process studies at ENEA

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Tiranti, G.; Baicchi, E.

    2013-07-01

    Some facilities have successfully been installed at ENEA laboratories for pyrochemical process studies under inactive conditions. PYREL III, MECRYP and OGATA plants allow to perform experiments about electrorefining and electroreduction of simulated fuel, melt crystallization of lithium chloride containing impurities from electroreduction campaigns, and trapping of volatile and semi-volatile fission products. Moreover, an argon-atmosphere glove-box is used for conditioning of chloride salt wastes with sodalite or SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) matrix.

  5. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustion devices (including process heaters), flares and sulfur recovery plants. The sulfur recovery plant..., provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares and delayed coking... section which commence construction, modification or reconstruction after May 14, 2007. For flares,...

  6. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustion devices (including process heaters), flares and sulfur recovery plants. The sulfur recovery plant..., provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares and delayed coking... section which commence construction, modification or reconstruction after May 14, 2007. For flares,...

  7. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

  8. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950`s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

  9. 40 CFR 60.100 - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.100 Applicability, designation of affected facility, and... petroleum refineries: fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerators, fuel gas combustion devices, and... boundaries of a petroleum refinery to be an affected facility, provided it processes gases produced within...

  10. 40 CFR 60.100 - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.100 Applicability, designation of affected facility, and... petroleum refineries: fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerators, fuel gas combustion devices, and... boundaries of a petroleum refinery to be an affected facility, provided it processes gases produced within...

  11. Free energy reconstruction from steered dynamics without post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Athenes, Manuel; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin

    2010-09-20

    Various methods achieving importance sampling in ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories enable one to estimate free energy differences and, by maximum-likelihood post-processing, to reconstruct free energy landscapes. Here, based on Bayes theorem, we propose a more direct method in which a posterior likelihood function is used both to construct the steered dynamics and to infer the contribution to equilibrium of all the sampled states. The method is implemented with two steering schedules. First, using non-autonomous steering, we calculate the migration barrier of the vacancy in Fe-{alpha}. Second, using an autonomous scheduling related to metadynamics and equivalent to temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics, we accurately reconstruct the two-dimensional free energy landscape of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster as a function of an orientational bond-order parameter and energy, down to the solid-solid structural transition temperature of the cluster and without maximum-likelihood post-processing.

  12. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  13. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defense-in-depth practices. 1 The design must incorporate, to the extent practicable: 1 As used in § 70.64, Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities, defense-in-depth practices means a... incorporating defense-in-depth practices is a conservatively designed facility and system that will...

  14. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  15. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  16. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  17. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  18. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  19. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72... Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration management system to evaluate, implement, and track each change to the site, structures, processes,...

  20. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facility changes and change process. 70.72 Section 70.72... Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration management system to evaluate, implement, and track each change to the site, structures, processes,...

  1. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  2. Reconstruction of dark energy and expansion dynamics using Gaussian processes

    SciTech Connect

    Seikel, Marina; Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mathew E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za

    2012-06-01

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space, as the errors found depend strongly on the parametrisation considered. We present a new non-parametric approach to reconstructing the history of the expansion rate and dark energy using Gaussian Processes, which is a fully Bayesian approach for smoothing data. We present a pedagogical introduction to Gaussian Processes, and discuss how it can be used to robustly differentiate data in a suitable way. Using this method we show that the Dark Energy Survey - Supernova Survey (DES) can accurately recover a slowly evolving equation of state to σ{sub w} = ±0.05 (95% CL) at z = 0 and ±0.25 at z = 0.7, with a minimum error of ±0.025 at the sweet-spot at z ∼ 0.16, provided the other parameters of the model are known. Errors on the expansion history are an order of magnitude smaller, yet make no assumptions about dark energy whatsoever. A code for calculating functions and their first three derivatives using Gaussian processes has been developed and is available for download.

  3. Physiological reconstruction of defects of the incus long process.

    PubMed

    Mills, R P

    1996-12-01

    Operations to reconstruct defects of the ossicular chain conventionally involve the creation of a link between the malleus handle or tympanic membrane and the head of the stapes. These procedures do not produce satisfactory hearing results in a significant number of patients and must be considered unphysiological. Over the last 5 years the author has been using an alternative approach for patients with defects of the long process of the incus but an intact stapes arch in which the defect is repaired with a small cortical bone graft. Because of the way in which the graft fits over the stump of the long process it is called the 'sleeve' technique. So far 30 operations have been carried out and 21 patients have been followed for more than 1 year. The hearing results in these patients have been compared with those for patients with the same ossicular defect who have undergone conventional reconstructions by the same surgeon. There were significantly larger hearing gains (P < 0.04) and smaller postoperative air-bone gaps (P < 0.04) at 1 year in the 'sleeve' technique group. The technique is easy to perform and therefore appears to be the technique of choice in ears with partial erosion of the long process of the incus. PMID:9118570

  4. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  5. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  6. Managing the Rural School Facility Construction Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passarelli, Angelo; Goehring, Wade; Harley, Anne

    The decision to renovate or replace a school building is the starting point for a long and challenging journey with many phases: planning, development, and project delivery and construction. Each phase requires different levels of expertise, skills, and activities. The challenge of a rural facility project is to find leadership to provide guidance…

  7. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  8. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  9. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  10. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  11. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they conflict with the requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food processing facilities....

  12. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound by image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Haber, Carl

    2003-03-26

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with no or minimal contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods and digital image processing. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Various aspects of this approach are discussed. A feasibility test is reported which used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the record and with a digitally re-mastered version of the original magnetic recording. A more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software, is considered.

  13. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  14. Saltstone studies using the scaled continuous processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M. D.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hansen, E. K.

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Facility since its conception with bench-scale laboratory experiments, mid-scale testing at vendor facilities, and consultations and testing at the Saltstone Facility. There have been minimal opportunities for the measurement of rheological properties of the grout slurry at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF); thus, the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF), constructed to provide processing data related to mixing, transfer, and other operations conducted in the SPF, is the most representative process data for determining the expected rheological properties in the SPF. These results can be used to verify the laboratory scale experiments that support the SPF using conventional mixing processes that appropriately represent the shear imparted to the slurry in the SPF.

  15. Integration Process for Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an ISS research facility located in the United States Laboratory (US Lab), Destiny. The FCF is a multi-discipline facility that performs microgravity research primarily in fluids physics science and combustion science. This facility remains on-orbit and provides accommodations to multi-user and Principal investigator (PI) unique hardware. The FCF is designed to accommodate 15 PI's per year. In order to allow for this number of payloads per year, the FCF has developed an end-to-end analytical and physical integration process. The process includes provision of integration tools, products and interface management throughout the life of the payload. The payload is provided with a single point of contact from the facility and works with that interface from PI selection through post flight processing. The process utilizes electronic tools for creation of interface documents/agreements, storage of payload data and rollup for facility submittals to ISS. Additionally, the process provides integration to and testing with flight-like simulators prior to payload delivery to KSC. These simulators allow the payload to test in the flight configuration and perform final facility interface and science verifications. The process also provides for support to the payload from the FCF through the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP). Finally, the process includes support in the development of operational products and the operation of the payload on-orbit.

  16. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  17. Visions: Involving Teachers as Process Partners for Facility Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanard, Marilynn

    1996-01-01

    Suggests teachers be involved in educational school facility planning efforts in order to fulfill educational program needs. The creation or vision process for facilities planning includes the program description, educational program overview, imagining the future, storyboarding, a Gap Analysis to identify program needs, and a force field analysis…

  18. Receipt of the Observatory at the Orbital Processing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    These series of photos show the receipt of the observatory at the Orbital processing facility at VAFB. The observatory was received on April 16, 2013 and transferred to its handling fixture and the...

  19. Design criteria for Waste Coolant Processing Facility and preliminary proposal 722 for Waste Coolant Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-27

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A-E) in the performance of Titles 1 and 2 design for the construction of a facility to treat the biodegradable, water soluble, waste machine coolant generated at the Y-12 plant. The purpose of this facility is to reduce the organic loading of coolants prior to final treatment at the proposed West Tank Farm Treatment Facility.

  20. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  1. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  2. Ninth Processing Campaign in the Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, K F; Donovan, R I; Swenson, M C

    1982-04-01

    This report discusses the Ninth (and final) Processing Campaign at the Waste Calcining Facility. Several processing interruptions were experienced during this campaign and the emphasis of this report is on process and equipment performance with operating problems and corrective actions discussed in detail.

  3. Opportunities for Process Monitoring Techniques at Delayed Access Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Johnson, Shirley J.; Schanfein, Mark; Toomey, Christopher

    2013-09-20

    Except for specific cases where the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) maintains a continuous presence at a facility (such as the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant), there is always a period of time or delay between the moment a State is notified or aware of an upcoming inspection, and the time the inspector actually enters the material balance area or facility. Termed by the authors as “delayed access,” this period of time between inspection notice and inspector entrance to a facility poses a concern. Delayed access also has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of measures applied as part of the Safeguards Approach for a facility (such as short-notice inspections). This report investigates the feasibility of using process monitoring to address safeguards challenges posed by delayed access at a subset of facility types.

  4. Development of experimental facilities for processing metallic crystals in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bill J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution, current status, and planning for facilities to exploit the microgravity environment of earth orbit in applied metallic materials science. Space-Shuttle based facilities and some precursor flight programs are reviewed. Current facility development programs and planned Space Station furnace capabilities are described. The reduced gravity levels available in earth orbit allow the processing of metallic materials without the disturbing influence of gravitationally induced thermal convection, stratification due to density differences in sample components, or the effects of hydrostatic pressure.

  5. Mock Nuclear Processing Facility-Safeguards Training Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Hasty, Tim; Johns, Rissell; Baum, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    This document outlines specific training requirements in the topical areas of Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and Physical Protection(PP) which are to be used as technical input for designing a mock Integrated Security Facility (ISF) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The overall project objective for these requirements is to enhance the ability to deliver training on Material Protection Control and Accounting (MC&A) concepts regarding hazardous material such as irradiated materials with respect to bulk processing facilities.

  6. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

    1994-06-01

    Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

  8. NASA Construction of Facilities Validation Processes - Total Building Commissioning (TBCx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Jay C.

    2004-01-01

    Key Atributes include: Total Quality Management (TQM) System that looks at all phases of a project. A team process that spans boundaries. A Commissioning Authority to lead the process. Commissioning requirements in contracts. Independent design review to verify compliance with Facility Project Requirements (FPR). Formal written Commissioning Plan with Documented Results. Functional performance testing (FPT) against the requirements document.

  9. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2011-10-10

    The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this “State-level” approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: • Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure lonq-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  12. A Review of the Aging Process and Facilities Topic.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2015-01-01

    Aging facilities have become a concern in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry, so much that task forces are formed by trade organizations to address the topic. Too often, examples of aging or obsolete equipment, unit operations, processes, or entire facilities have been encountered. Major contributors to this outcome are the failure to invest in new equipment, disregarding appropriate maintenance activities, and neglecting the implementation of modern technologies. In some cases, a production process is insufficiently modified to manufacture a new product in an existing process that was used to produce a phased-out product. In other instances, manufacturers expanded the facility or processes to fulfill increasing demand and the scaling occurred in a non-uniform manner, which led to non-optimal results. Regulatory hurdles of post-approval changes in the process may thwart companies' efforts to implement new technologies. As an example, some changes have required 4 years to gain global approval. This paper will address cases of aging processes and facilities aside from modernizing options.

  13. Review of the containerless processing technologies and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Material processing techniques which can most fully utilize the advantages provided by space are related to containerless processing. An avoidance of physical contact between the melt and the walls of a container leads to an elimination of container-induced contamination and heterogeneous nucleation. Containerless processing facilities development by NASA will provide a basis for the performance of precursor experiments and processing technologies studies prior to Space Shuttle flights. Attention is given to acoustic containerless processing, electromagnetic containerless processing, electrostatic levitation technology, drop tubes, and the use of zero-G KC-135 aircraft flights for tests and training purposes.

  14. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa R.; Kelly, Angelita C.

    1987-01-01

    The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) is an integral part of the Space Shuttle data network for missions that involve attached scientific payloads. Expert system prototypes were developed to aid in the performance of the quality assurance function of the Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads processed telemetry data. The Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS), two expert systems, were developed to determine their feasibility and potential in the quality assurance of processed telemetry data. The capabilities and performance of these systems are discussed.

  15. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  16. 76 FR 44049 - Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 14, 2011 (76 FR 41527), the U.S...: Richard.Jervey@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 14, 2011 (76 FR 41527), the NRC published...

  17. Unity connecting module in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the end at the right can be seen the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, which provides entry into the module. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  18. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  19. CAD programs: a tool for crime scene processing and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggiano, Daniel; De Forest, Peter R.; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1997-02-01

    Computer aided drafting (CAD) programs have great potential for helping the forensic scientist. One of their most direct and useful applications is crime scene documentation, as an aid in rendering neat, unambiguous line drawings of crime scenes. Once the data has been entered, it can easily be displayed, printed, or plotted in a variety of formats. Final renditions from this initial data entry can take multiple forms and can have multiple uses. As a demonstrative aid, a CAD program can produce two dimensional (2-D) drawings of the scene from one's notes to scale. These 2-D renditions are court display quality and help to make the forensic scientists's testimony easily understood. Another use for CAD is as an analytical tool for scene reconstruction. More than just a drawing aid, CAD can generate useful information from the data input. It can help reconstruct bullet paths or locations of furniture in a room when it is critical to the reconstruction. Data entry at the scene, on a notebook computer, can assist in framing and answering questions so that the forensic scientist can test hypotheses while actively documenting the scene. Further, three dimensional (3-D) renditions of items can be viewed from many 'locations' by using the program to rotate the object and the observers' viewpoint.

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  1. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  2. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Methods: Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. Results: The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Conclusions: Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction. PMID:23387778

  3. APET methodology for Defense Waste Processing Facility: Mode C operation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Massey, W.M.

    1995-04-01

    Safe operation of SRS facilities continues to be the highest priority of the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of these facilities, the Defense Waste Processing Facility or DWPF, is currently undergoing cold chemical runs to verify the design and construction preparatory to hot startup in 1995. The DWPFF is a facility designed to convert the waste currently stored in tanks at the 200-Area tank farm into a form that is suitable for long term storage in engineered surface facilities and, ultimately, geologic isolation. As a part of the program to ensure safe operation of the DWPF, a probabilistic Safety Assessment of the DWPF has been completed. The results of this analysis are incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for DWPF. The usual practice in preparation of Safety Analysis Reports is to include only a conservative analysis of certain design basis accidents. A major part of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment is the development and quantification of an Accident Progression Event Tree or APET. The APET provides a probabilistic representation of potential sequences along which an accident may progress. The methodology used to determine the risk of operation of the DWPF borrows heavily from methods applied to the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of SRS reactors and to some commercial reactors. This report describes the Accident Progression Event Tree developed for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the DWPF.

  4. Control system for BCP processing facility at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Cristian Boffo et al.

    2003-09-11

    The surface processing is one of the key elements of superconducting RF cavity fabrication. Safety and reliability are the main requirements for the chemical surface treatment facility being developed at FNAL. Accepting the Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) as the baseline process, a ''gravity feed and open etching tank'' approach has been chosen at this stage. This choice resulted in the introduction of a control system with a strong automation since the number of elements to be controlled at different steps of the process is rather big. In order to allow for maximum flexibility, two operational modes were defined within the control system: semi-automatic, which requires an operator's decision to move from one stage to another, and manual. This paper describes the main features of the control system for the BCP facility that is under development at FNAL.

  5. Region of interest processing for iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Felix K.; Nasirudin, Radin A.; Mei, Kai; Fehringer, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Franz; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noël, Peter B.

    2015-03-01

    The recent advancements in the graphics card technology raised the performance of parallel computing and contributed to the introduction of iterative reconstruction methods for x-ray computed tomography in clinical CT scanners. Iterative maximum likelihood (ML) based reconstruction methods are known to reduce image noise and to improve the diagnostic quality of low-dose CT. However, iterative reconstruction of a region of interest (ROI), especially ML based, is challenging. But for some clinical procedures, like cardiac CT, only a ROI is needed for diagnostics. A high-resolution reconstruction of the full field of view (FOV) consumes unnecessary computation effort that results in a slower reconstruction than clinically acceptable. In this work, we present an extension and evaluation of an existing ROI processing algorithm. Especially improvements for the equalization between regions inside and outside of a ROI are proposed. The evaluation was done on data collected from a clinical CT scanner. The performance of the different algorithms is qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. Our solution to the ROI problem provides an increase in signal-to-noise ratio and leads to visually less noise in the final reconstruction. The reconstruction speed of our technique was observed to be comparable with other previous proposed techniques. The development of ROI processing algorithms in combination with iterative reconstruction will provide higher diagnostic quality in the near future.

  6. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  7. Hanford Solid Waste Handling Facility strategy. [Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, J.F.

    1982-05-01

    Prior to 1970, transuranic (TRU) solid waste was disposed of at Hanford by shallow land burial. Since 1970, TRU solid waste has been stored in near surface trenches designed to facilitate retrieval after twenty-year storage period. Current strategy calls for final disposal in a geologic repository. Funding permitting, in 1983, certification of newly generated TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria for geologic disposal will be initiated. Certified and uncertified waste will continue to be stored at Hanford in retrievable storage until a firm schedule for shipment to WIPP can be developed. Previously stored wastes retrieved for geologic disposal and newly generated uncertified waste will require processing to assure compliance with disposal criteria. A facility to perform this function is being developed. A study to determine the requirements of this Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is currently being conducted. The processes, equipment and schedules are described. Processes for use include the following: TRU/non-TRU separation; plasma torch-size reduction; arc saw-size reduction; incineration of organic solid waste; microwave plasma incineration-liquid waste; vacuum furnace metal melting; vibratory finishing-decontamination; electropolishing-decontamination. Detailed design of the WRAP Facility is slated for completion in FY 1987 with construction to be completed in FY 1991.

  8. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  9. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  10. Application of three-dimensional digital image processing for reconstruction of microstructural volume from serial sections

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.

    2000-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of the three-dimensional microstructure. The three-dimensional microstructural reconstruction clearly revealed that the tungsten grains are almost completely connected in three-dimensional space. Both the matrix and the grains are topologically co-continuous, although the alloy was liquid-phase sintered in microgravity. Therefore, absence of gravity did not produced a microstructure consisting of discrete isolated W grains uniformly dispersed in the liquid Ni-Fe alloy matrix at the sintering temperature.

  11. Accident Fault Trees for Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1999-06-22

    The purpose of this report is to document fault tree analyses which have been completed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) safety analysis. Logic models for equipment failures and human error combinations that could lead to flammable gas explosions in various process tanks, or failure of critical support systems were developed for internal initiating events and for earthquakes. These fault trees provide frequency estimates for support systems failures and accidents that could lead to radioactive and hazardous chemical releases both on-site and off-site. Top event frequency results from these fault trees will be used in further APET analyses to calculate accident risk associated with DWPF facility operations. This report lists and explains important underlying assumptions, provides references for failure data sources, and briefly describes the fault tree method used. Specific commitments from DWPF to provide new procedural/administrative controls or system design changes are listed in the ''Facility Commitments'' section. The purpose of the ''Assumptions'' section is to clarify the basis for fault tree modeling, and is not necessarily a list of items required to be protected by Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs).

  12. Improving the accuracy of volumetric segmentation using pre-processing boundary detection and image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Rick; Hu, Jiuxiang; Gelb, Anne; Farin, Gerald

    2004-04-01

    The concentration edge -detection and Gegenbauer image-reconstruction methods were previously shown to improve the quality of segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, these methods are utilized as a pre-processing step to the Weibull E-SD field segmentation. It is demonstrated that the combination of the concentration edge detection and Gegenbauer reconstruction method improves the accuracy of segmentation for the simulated test data and real magnetic resonance images used in this study. PMID:15376580

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup test program: Glass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-07-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual geologic disposal. Six simulated glass compositions will be processed in the DWPF during initial startup. The glass in 86 of the first 106 full sized canisters will be sampled and characterized. Extensive glass characterization will determine the following: (1) sampling frequency for radioactive operation, (2) verification of the compositionally dependent process-product models, (3) verification of melter mixing, (4) representativeness of the glass from the canister throat sampler, and (5) homogeneity of the canister glass.

  14. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup test program: Glass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual geologic disposal. Six simulated glass compositions will be processed in the DWPF during initial startup. The glass in 86 of the first 106 full sized canisters will be sampled and characterized. Extensive glass characterization will determine the following: (1) sampling frequency for radioactive operation, (2) verification of the compositionally dependent process-product models, (3) verification of melter mixing, (4) representativeness of the glass from the canister throat sampler, and (5) homogeneity of the canister glass.

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G; Joshi, Pooran C; List III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E; Armstrong, Beth L; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jacobs, Christopher B; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  16. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  17. Accelerating frequency-domain diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jaya; Chandrasekharan, Venkittarayan; Upendra, Vishwajith; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction uses advanced numerical models that are computationally costly to be implemented in the real time. The graphics processing units (GPUs) offer desktop massive parallelization that can accelerate these computations. An open-source GPU-accelerated linear algebra library package is used to compute the most intensive matrix-matrix calculations and matrix decompositions that are used in solving the system of linear equations. These open-source functions were integrated into the existing frequency-domain diffuse optical image reconstruction algorithms to evaluate the acceleration capability of the GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C 1060) with increasing reconstruction problem sizes. These studies indicate that single precision computations are sufficient for diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction. The acceleration per iteration can be up to 40, using GPUs compared to traditional CPUs in case of three-dimensional reconstruction, where the reconstruction problem is more underdetermined, making the GPUs more attractive in the clinical settings. The current limitation of these GPUs in the available onboard memory (4 GB) that restricts the reconstruction of a large set of optical parameters, more than 13,377.

  18. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  19. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility`s process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases.

  20. Electrical CT image reconstruction technique for powder flow in petroleum refinery process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Masahiro; Doh, Deog-Hee; Ochi, Mitsuaki

    2008-03-01

    A new reconstruction method called sampled pattern matching (SPM) was applied to the image reconstruction of an electrical capacitance computed tomography in powder flow in a vertical pipe for petroleum refinery process. This new method is able to achieve stable convergence without the use of an empirical value. Experiments were carried out using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts as powder with two air volume flow rates and four powder volume flow rates to measure the capacitance of a pipe cross section. The SPM method is compared with conventional methods in terms of volume fraction, residual capacitance, and correlation capacitance. Overall, the SPM method proved superior to conventional methods without any empirical value because SPM achieves accurate reconstruction by using an objective function that is calculated as the inner product calculation between the experimental capacitance and the reconstructed image capacitance.

  1. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    PubMed

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move.

  2. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    PubMed

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move. PMID:25906468

  3. Tributylphosphate in the In-Tank Precipitation Process Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs, D.T.; Swingle, R.F.

    1993-11-23

    A material balance investigation and evaluation of n- tributylphosphate (TBP) recycle throughout ITP and its carryover to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was performed. Criticality and DWPF-related issues were determined to pose no adverse consequences due to TBP addition. Effects of decomposition products were also considered. Flammability of 1-butanol, a TBP decomposition product, in Tank 22 was investigated. Calculations show that Tank 22 would be ventilated with air at a rate sufficient to maintain a 1-butanol concentration (volume percent) well below 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for 1-butanol.

  4. New signal processing technique for density profile reconstruction using reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Ricaud, B.; Briolle, F.; Heuraux, S.

    2011-08-15

    Reflectometry profile measurement requires an accurate determination of the plasma reflected signal. Along with a good resolution and a high signal to noise ratio of the phase measurement, adequate data analysis is required. A new data processing based on time-frequency tomographic representation is used. It provides a clearer separation between multiple components and improves isolation of the relevant signals. In this paper, this data processing technique is applied to two sets of signals coming from two different reflectometer devices used on the Tore Supra tokamak. For the standard density profile reflectometry, it improves the initialization process and its reliability, providing a more accurate profile determination in the far scrape-off layer with density measurements as low as 10{sup 16} m{sup -1}. For a second reflectometer, which provides measurements in front of a lower hybrid launcher, this method improves the separation of the relevant plasma signal from multi-reflection processes due to the proximity of the plasma.

  5. A novel data processing technique for image reconstruction of penumbral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongwei; Li, Hongyun; Xu, Zeping; Song, Guzhou; Zhang, Faqiang; Zhou, Lin

    2011-06-01

    CT image reconstruction technique was applied to the data processing of the penumbral imaging. Compared with other traditional processing techniques for penumbral coded pinhole image such as Wiener, Lucy-Richardson and blind technique, this approach is brand new. In this method, the coded aperture processing method was used for the first time independent to the point spread function of the image diagnostic system. In this way, the technical obstacles was overcome in the traditional coded pinhole image processing caused by the uncertainty of point spread function of the image diagnostic system. Then based on the theoretical study, the simulation of penumbral imaging and image reconstruction was carried out to provide fairly good results. While in the visible light experiment, the point source of light was used to irradiate a 5mm×5mm object after diffuse scattering and volume scattering. The penumbral imaging was made with aperture size of ~20mm. Finally, the CT image reconstruction technique was used for image reconstruction to provide a fairly good reconstruction result.

  6. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  7. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  8. Generator Certification Process for Envirocare's Containerized Class A Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B. C.

    2002-02-25

    On October 19, 2001, the Utah Division of Radiation Control issued Amendment 12 to Radioactive Material License UT2300249 (RML) for Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) disposal operations. The license amendment provides the mechanism for Envirocare to receive and dispose of containerized Class A Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) at the newly constructed Containerized Waste Facility (CWF). Due to the increased radioactivity and external dose rates of waste that will be shipped to the CWF, a Generator Certification Program has been implemented that eliminates the requirement to sample incoming shipments, thus keeping worker doses to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This paper presents the key elements of the Generator Certification Program and describes the review and approval process for certifying generators to ship waste to the CWF. Each phase of the program will be discussed to assist generators in gaining a better understanding of the certification process. Additionally, the paper will present unique differences between the CWF Waste Acceptance Criteria and the requirements from other commercial disposal facilities.

  9. Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Rui; Koseki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Yusaku

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the cause of an explosion during disposal processing of raw garbage, the property of the raw garbage was primarily examined by a thermo gravimetry-differential thermal analyzer. With mutable oil concentration, the results showed variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction for the samples, for example, decreasing from 150 degrees C in the samples typically containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114 degrees C when the oil content was raised to 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility being heated by hot air of 150 degrees C, which was blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanying with an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached to 1070 degrees C. Meanwhile, gases, including flammable ones, whose amounts were CO2 approximately CO>H2>methane>ethane in order, were yielded. It indicated that smoldering developed from the zones near the hot air supply nozzle and propagated along the pathway of the imposed air. The continuously released gases possibly induced the transition of smoldering to flame or explosion after accumulating for hours.

  10. Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Rui; Koseki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Yusaku

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the cause of an explosion during disposal processing of raw garbage, the property of the raw garbage was primarily examined by a thermo gravimetry-differential thermal analyzer. With mutable oil concentration, the results showed variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction for the samples, for example, decreasing from 150 degrees C in the samples typically containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114 degrees C when the oil content was raised to 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility being heated by hot air of 150 degrees C, which was blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanying with an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached to 1070 degrees C. Meanwhile, gases, including flammable ones, whose amounts were CO2 approximately CO>H2>methane>ethane in order, were yielded. It indicated that smoldering developed from the zones near the hot air supply nozzle and propagated along the pathway of the imposed air. The continuously released gases possibly induced the transition of smoldering to flame or explosion after accumulating for hours. PMID:18006152

  11. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  12. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    SciTech Connect

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  13. Advances in Image Pre-Processing to Improve Automated 3d Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabeni, A.; Apollonio, F. I.; Gaiani, M.; Remondino, F.

    2015-02-01

    Tools and algorithms for automated image processing and 3D reconstruction purposes have become more and more available, giving the possibility to process any dataset of unoriented and markerless images. Typically, dense 3D point clouds (or texture 3D polygonal models) are produced at reasonable processing time. In this paper, we evaluate how the radiometric pre-processing of image datasets (particularly in RAW format) can help in improving the performances of state-of-the-art automated image processing tools. Beside a review of common pre-processing methods, an efficient pipeline based on color enhancement, image denoising, RGB to Gray conversion and image content enrichment is presented. The performed tests, partly reported for sake of space, demonstrate how an effective image pre-processing, which considers the entire dataset in analysis, can improve the automated orientation procedure and dense 3D point cloud reconstruction, even in case of poor texture scenarios.

  14. The application of MUSIC algorithm in spectrum reconstruction and interferogram processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chunmin; Zhao, Baochang; Zhu, Baohui

    2008-05-01

    Three different methods of spectrum reproduction and interferogram processing are discussed and contrasted in this paper. Especially, the nonparametric model of MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm is firstly brought into the practical spectrum reconstruction processing. The experimental results prove that this method has immensely improved the resolution of reproduced spectrum, and provided a better math model for super advanced resolving power in spectrum reconstruction. The usefulness and simplicity of the technique will lead the interference imaging spectrometers to almost every field into which the spectroscopy has ventured and into some where it has not gone before.

  15. A MCNP model of gloveboxes in a plutonium processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    A room in the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glovebox for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glovebox will be located in a room containing other gloveboxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. A MCNP model of the room and gloveboxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glovebox and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glovebox. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

  16. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  17. Fast direct reconstruction strategy of dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maomao; Zhang, Jiulou; Cai, Chuangjian; Gao, Yang; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (DFMT) is a valuable method to evaluate the metabolic process of contrast agents in different organs in vivo, and direct reconstruction methods can improve the temporal resolution of DFMT. However, challenges still remain due to the large time consumption of the direct reconstruction methods. An acceleration strategy using graphics processing units (GPU) is presented. The procedure of conjugate gradient optimization in the direct reconstruction method is programmed using the compute unified device architecture and then accelerated on GPU. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments are performed to validate the feasibility of the strategy. The results demonstrate that, compared with the traditional method, the proposed strategy can reduce the time consumption by ˜90% without a degradation of quality.

  18. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

  19. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    PubMed

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well PMID:24020255

  20. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  1. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  2. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL... of the Facility Clearance would not be inconsistent with the national interest, including a finding... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity...

  3. Recent National Transonic Facility Test Process Improvements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W., Jr.; Adcock, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two recent process improvements; drag feed-forward Mach number control and simultaneous force/moment and pressure testing, at the National Transonic Facility. These improvements have reduced the duration and cost of testing. The drag feedforward Mach number control reduces the Mach number settling time by using measured model drag in the Mach number control algorithm. Simultaneous force/moment and pressure testing allows simultaneous collection of force/moment and pressure data without sacrificing data quality thereby reducing the overall testing time. Both improvements can be implemented at any wind tunnel. Additionally the NTF is working to develop and implement continuous pitch as a testing option as an additional method to reduce costs and maintain data quality.

  4. Recent National Transonic Facility Test Process Improvements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W., Jr.; Adcock, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two recent process improvements; drag feed-forward Mach number control and simultaneous force/moment and pressure testing, at the National Transonic Facility. These improvements have reduced the duration and cost of testing. The drag feed-forward Mach number control reduces the Mach number settling time by using measured model drag in the Mach number control algorithm. Simultaneous force/moment and pressure testing allows simultaneous collection of force/moment and pressure data without sacrificing data quality thereby reducing the overall testing time. Both improvements can be implemented at any wind tunnel. Additionally the NTF is working to develop and implement continuous pitch as a testing option as an additional method to reduce costs and maintain data quality.

  5. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform and canister description: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.G.

    1988-12-01

    This document describes the reference wasteform and canister for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The principal changes include revised feed and glass product compositions, an estimate of glass product characteristics as a function of time after the start of vitrification, and additional data on glass leaching performance. The feed and glass product composition data are identical to that described in the DWPF Basic Data Report, Revision 90/91. The DWPF facility is located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and it is scheduled for construction completion during December 1989. The wasteform is borosilicate glass containing approximately 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance consisting of glass-forming chemicals, primarily glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its stability toward reaction with potential repository groundwaters, its relatively high ability to incorporate nuclides found in the sludge into the solid matrix, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains approximately 71% SiO/sub 2/, 12% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 10% Na/sub 2/O. Tests to quantify the stability of DWPF waste glass have been performed under a wide variety of conditions, including simulations of potential repository environments. Based on these tests, DWPF waste glass should easily meet repository criteria. The canister is filled with about 3700 lb of glass which occupies 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approximately 690 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and precipitate from 15-year-old supernate. The radionuclide activity of the canister is about 233,000 curies, with an estimated radiation level of 5600 rad/hour at the canister surface. 14 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  9. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  10. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  11. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... assurance that items relied on for safety will be available and reliable to perform their function when... utility services. (8) Inspection, testing, and maintenance. The design of items relied on for safety must... behavior of items relied on for safety. (b) Facility and system design and facility layout must be based...

  12. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... assurance that items relied on for safety will be available and reliable to perform their function when... utility services. (8) Inspection, testing, and maintenance. The design of items relied on for safety must... behavior of items relied on for safety. (b) Facility and system design and facility layout must be based...

  13. Estimating and bidding for the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 10 more ways the low bidder got low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  14. EUPHORE: Research facility to study tropospheric transformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, K.

    2003-04-01

    The EUPHORE simulation chamber consists of two half-spherical Teflon bags, each with a volume of 200 m^3 and a base diameter of 9.2 m. The FEP Teflon has a transmission of about 75% at 280 nm and of more than 80% above 300 nm. Purified and dried ambient air is used to fill the chamber and flush it between experiments. The humidity in the chamber is measured by a dew point hygrometer, and the temperature is monitored by several thermocouples located at different positions inside the chamber. The solar flux is monitored with spectral resolution in the photochemically active spectral region. The simulation chamber is equipped with a number of analytical instruments for the measurement of single VOC components, NO, NO_2, O_3 and other species. In-situ measurements in the ppb range are performed using long-path absorption spectroscopy, in the UV/VIS by DOAS and in the IR by FT-IR. A GC-MS system is used for the sensitive analysis of a variety of reaction products. A newly installed LIF technique allows the in situ measurement of OH and HO_2 radicals during the reaction processes. The technological concept and the organisation structure of the EUPHORE facility will be presented. The integration of quality control measures is an obvious and necessary second step for the successful exploitation of the technically advanced outdoor smog chamber EUPHORE as a research tool. This will underline the leadership of the European scientific community in the important research areas of investigating transformation processes in the troposphere and tracking the influence of human activities on photooxidant formation and its interaction with processes related to global change. In the coming years the main scientific focus will be on testing chemical mechanisms in order to improve the models which describe the atmospheric processes of complex chemical systems. The collaborative work at the EUPHORE outdoor simulation chamber will provide all the users of the installation with a basic

  15. A Statistical Reconstruction of Bivariate Climate from Tree Ring Width Measurements Using Scientifically Motivated Process Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipton, J.; Hooten, M.; Pederson, N.; Tingley, M.; Bishop, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reconstruct historical climate is important to understanding how climate has changed in the past. The instrumental record of temperature and precipitation only spans the most recent centuries. Thus, reconstructions of the climate features are typically based on proxy archives. The proxy archives integrate climate information through biological, geological, physical, and chemical processes. Tree ring widths provide one of the most spatially and temporally rich sources of high quality climate proxy data. However, the statistical reconstruction of paleoclimate from tree ring widths is quite challenging because the climate signal is inherently multi-dimensional while tree ring widths are a one dimensional data source. We propose a Bayesian Hierarchical model using a non-linear, scientifically motivated tree ring growth models to reconstruct multivariate climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) in the Hudson Valley region of New York. Our proposed model extends and enhances former methods in a number of ways. We allow for species-specific responses to climate, which further constrains the many-to-one relationship between tree rings and climate. The resulting model allows for prediction of reasonable climate scenarios given tree ring widths. We explore a natural model selection framework that weighs the influence of multiple candidate growth models in terms of their predictive ability. To enable prediction backcasts, the climate variables are modeled with an underlying continuous time latent process. The continuous time process allows for added flexibility in the climate response through time at different temporal scales and enables investigation of differences in climate between the reconstruction period and the instrumental period. Validation of the model's predictive abilities is achieved through a pseudo-proxy simulation experiment where the quality of climate predictions are measured by out of sample performance based on a proper local scoring

  16. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  17. A chain of processes - from past climate variations to paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfeld, Kira; Laepple, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Paleoclimate proxy data cover large sections of the Earth's past dynamics and hold information that is crucial to improve climate models on timescales from decades to millennia. The attribution of proxy variability to different physical climate parameters and seasons, such as, e.g., summer temperature or winter precipitation, is necessary for most model-data intercomparisons. This is, however, complicated by time-scale dependence, underdeterminacy and short overlapping periods in the calibration to modern-day data. Non-climatic and potentially archive-specific and local effects further decrease the signal-to-noise-ratio and increase the uncertainty of a paleoclimate reconstruction. The proxy data have heterogeneous origins, e.g. from marine or terrestrial archives, which grew biologically or resulted from sedimentation processes. This amplifies reconstruction uncertainty due to proxy- and archive- specific technical challenges like record sparsity, age uncertainty and sampling time irregularity. Despite these obstacles, paleoclimate reconstructions are essential to test how adequately climate models simulate long-term climate variability, and to identify potentially lacking mechanisms that propagate internal climate variability on annual to millennial timescales. Improving our understanding of paleoclimate archives and proxies will therefore enable us to obtain better climate reconstructions that are more suitable to be compared to modeled data or modern-day observations. In this contribution we aim to identify and survey the chain of processes that occurred from the moment when past environmental variations were recorded in natural paleoclimate proxies, through the human sampling, calibration and attribution process to the final reconstruction. We distinguish paleoclimate archive classes for example according to their origin, such as terrestrial, marine or biogenic, and geographical occurrence, such as alpine, tropical or polar. We are further interested in the

  18. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  19. Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2006-02-27

    A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

  20. Chronic Beryllium Disease and Sensitization at a Beryllium Processing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Kenneth; Hertzberg, Vicki; Rice, Carol; Reilly, Mary Jo; Aronchick, Judith; Parker, John E.; Regovich, Jackie; Rossman, Milton

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a medical screening for beryllium disease of 577 former workers from a beryllium processing facility. The screening included a medical and work history questionnaire, a chest radiograph, and blood lymphocyte proliferation testing for beryllium. A task exposure and a job exposure matrix were constructed to examine the association between exposure to beryllium and the development of beryllium disease. More than 90% of the cohort completed the questionnaire, and 74% completed the blood and radiograph component of the screening. Forty-four (7.6%) individuals had definite or probable chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and another 40 (7.0%) were sensitized to beryllium. The prevalence of CBD and sensitization in our cohort was greater than the prevalence reported in studies of other beryllium-exposed cohorts. Various exposure measures evaluated included duration; first decade worked; last decade worked; cumulative, mean, and highest job; and highest task exposure to beryllium (to both soluble and nonsoluble forms). Soluble cumulative and mean exposure levels were lower in individuals with CBD. Sensitized individuals had shorter duration of exposure, began work later, last worked longer ago, and had lower cumulative and peak exposures and lower nonsoluble cumulative and mean exposures. A possible explanation for the exposure–response findings of our study may be an interaction between genetic predisposition and a decreased permanence of soluble beryllium in the body. Both CBD and sensitization occurred in former workers whose mean daily working lifetime average exposures were lower than the current allowable Occupational Safety and Health Administration workplace air level of 2 μg/m3 and the Department of Energy guideline of 0.2 μg/m3. PMID:16203248

  1. Can overconfidence be used as an indicator of reconstructive rather than retrieval processes?

    PubMed

    Juslin, P; Winman, A; Persson, T

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper Wagenaar (1988) suggested that overconfidence can be used as an indicator of reconstructive processes which allow responses based on inference to be distinguished from responses based on retrieval. The ecological models (Björkman, in press; Gigerenzer, Hoffrage, & Kleinbölting, 1991; Juslin, 1993a, 1993b, 1994) provide a more positive view of the calibration of reconstructive responses. In this paper we compare these two views and argue that overconfidence cannot be considered a reliable indicator of reconstructive processes since people may be well calibrated for tasks that require inference, provided that tasks are selected in offunbiased manner. Instead, we discuss two different models: the response-independence model which is appropriate to retrieval, and the response-dependence model which applies to inference. These two models predict different distributions of solution probabilities and they therefore provide a criterion by which we can distinguish between direct retrieval and reconstruction. In two empirical studies modelled after Experiment 1 in Wagenaar's (1988) paper it is shown that calibration can be very similar and quite reasonable both for tasks that are dominated by inference and tasks that are dominated by retrieval processes. In Experiment 2 we show that the two conditions nevertheless differ in regard to the distributions of solution probabilities in the manner predicted by the two response models presented in the paper. It is proposed that the issue of which is the most appropriate interpretation of solution probabilities is neglected, and that the criterion should be of interest also to applications outside the domain of calibration research. PMID:7851081

  2. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY...

  3. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY...

  4. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY...

  5. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY...

  6. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY...

  7. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards systems to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  8. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction, and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards system to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  9. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... throughout the life of the facility. (2) Natural phenomena hazards. The design must provide for adequate protection against natural phenomena with consideration of the most severe documented historical events for... selection of engineered controls over administrative controls to increase overall system reliability; and...

  10. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... throughout the life of the facility. (2) Natural phenomena hazards. The design must provide for adequate protection against natural phenomena with consideration of the most severe documented historical events for... selection of engineered controls over administrative controls to increase overall system reliability; and...

  11. Sedimentological discontinuties as chances for enhancing process-based palaeo-environmental reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Kai; Lockot, Gregori; Wünnemann, Bernd; Ramisch, Arne; Diekmann, Bernhard; Yan, Dada

    2014-05-01

    Morpho-stratigraphic approaches in the field of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction are time consuming, have a low temporal resolution and the problem of equifinality in terms of processes or simply the reputation of fuzziness. Nevertheless, investigations of seemingly continuous archives such as lake sediments are more effective if climate driven catchment signals are considered. Lake level data sets provide valuable indices for modelling the palaeoclimatic history and feedback-mechanisms on regional, supra-regional or even hemispherical scales. However, they are frequently used without considering the role of sediment trapping, signal buffering and random events (tectonic, mass-movements, etc.) along related sediment cascades. Moreover, dating inversions, record gaps and unlikely high or low SARs are considered as archive-internal disturbances or simply measurement errors which have to be smoothed by increasingly sophisticated tools of statistics or simply eliminated. This poster examines the value of such discontinuities and random events within continuous lake record for deciphering catchment-wide feedbacks/responses and their related processes. Our first example shows the influence of lake level changes and permafrost uplift on the reservoir effect of Lake Heihai, Northern Tibetan Plateau. A drop in lake level induced the reworking of sediment sequences, which is not identifiable by disturbances of the stratighraphy. This problem only becomes apparent, if several on-shore sediment records and at least two lake cores are compared. Several lake records from Hala Lake, Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau confirm highly diverse stratigraphies and sediment properties, thus underpinning the necessity of data comparison from different locations (within the lake) for a reliable reconstruction of climate-driven hydrological variations within a lake-catchment system. A third example from a large endorheic foreland basin of the Tibetan Plateau (Ejina Basin also

  12. State-of-the-Art Facility: A Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William; Speicher, A. Dean

    Chief executive officers of school districts and facility planners must assume the role of change agent to meet the information needs of the 21st century. Public school learning, which will serve more groupings of people on a continual basis, will be disseminated through media learning centers. Management should follow six steps in planning…

  13. Process Control Manual for Aerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is an operations manual for activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment facilities. The stated purpose of the manual is to provide an on-the-job reference for operators of these two types of treatment plants. The overall objective of the manual is to aid the operator in…

  14. Integrating Sustainability Programs into the Facilities Capital Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    With detailed information about the costs and benefits of potential green investments, educational facilities can effectively evaluate which initiatives will ultimately provide the greatest results over the short and long term. Based on its overall goals, every school, college, or university will have different values and therefore different…

  15. Evaluating Contextual Processing in Diffusion MRI: Application to Optic Radiation Reconstruction for Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tax, Chantal M. W.; Duits, Remco; Vilanova, Anna; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Hofman, Paul; Wagner, Louis; Leemans, Alexander; Ossenblok, Pauly

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion MRI and tractography allow for investigation of the architectural configuration of white matter in vivo, offering new avenues for applications like presurgical planning. Despite the promising outlook, there are many pitfalls that complicate its use for (clinical) application. Amongst these are inaccuracies in the geometry of the diffusion profiles on which tractography is based, and poor alignment with neighboring profiles. Recently developed contextual processing techniques, including enhancement and well-posed geometric sharpening, have shown to result in sharper and better aligned diffusion profiles. However, the research that has been conducted up to now is mainly of theoretical nature, and so far these techniques have only been evaluated by visual inspection of the diffusion profiles. In this work, the method is evaluated in a clinically relevant application: the reconstruction of the optic radiation for epilepsy surgery. For this evaluation we have developed a framework in which we incorporate a novel scoring procedure for individual pathways. We demonstrate that, using enhancement and sharpening, the extraction of an anatomically plausible reconstruction of the optic radiation from a large amount of probabilistic pathways is greatly improved in three healthy controls, where currently used methods fail to do so. Furthermore, challenging reconstructions of the optic radiation in three epilepsy surgery candidates with extensive brain lesions demonstrate that it is beneficial to integrate these methods in surgical planning. PMID:25077946

  16. Occupancy mapping and surface reconstruction using local Gaussian processes with Kinect sensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soohwan; Kim, Jonghyuk

    2013-10-01

    Although RGB-D sensors have been successfully applied to visual SLAM and surface reconstruction, most of the applications aim at visualization. In this paper, we propose a noble method of building continuous occupancy maps and reconstructing surfaces in a single framework for both navigation and visualization. Particularly, we apply a Bayesian nonparametric approach, Gaussian process classification, to occupancy mapping. However, it suffers from high-computational complexity of O(n(3))+O(n(2)m), where n and m are the numbers of training and test data, respectively, limiting its use for large-scale mapping with huge training data, which is common with high-resolution RGB-D sensors. Therefore, we partition both training and test data with a coarse-to-fine clustering method and apply Gaussian processes to each local clusters. In addition, we consider Gaussian processes as implicit functions, and thus extract iso-surfaces from the scalar fields, continuous occupancy maps, using marching cubes. By doing that, we are able to build two types of map representations within a single framework of Gaussian processes. Experimental results with 2-D simulated data show that the accuracy of our approximated method is comparable to previous work, while the computational time is dramatically reduced. We also demonstrate our method with 3-D real data to show its feasibility in large-scale environments. PMID:23893758

  17. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  18. Neural information processing and self-organizing maps as a tool in safeguarding storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Fuyat, C.

    1993-08-01

    Storage facilities for nuclear materials and weapons dismantlement facilities could have a large number of sensors with the potential for generating large amounts of data. Because of the anticipated complexity and diversity of the data, efficient automatic algorithms are necessary to make interpretations and ensure secure and safe operation. New, advanced safeguards systems are needed to process the information gathered from monitors and make interpretations that are in the best interests of the facility or agency. In this paper we present a conceptual design for software to assist with processing these large quantities of data from storage facilities.

  19. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  20. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  1. PITRE: software for phase-sensitive X-ray image processing and tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong Chang; Dreossi, Diego; Mancini, Lucia; Menk, Ralf; Rigon, Luigi; Xiao, Ti Qiao; Longo, Renata

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron-radiation computed tomography has been applied in many research fields. Here, PITRE (Phase-sensitive X-ray Image processing and Tomography REconstruction) and PITRE_BM (PITRE Batch Manager) are presented. PITRE supports phase retrieval for propagation-based phase-contrast imaging/tomography (PPCI/PPCT), extracts apparent absorption, refractive and scattering information of diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), and allows parallel-beam tomography reconstruction for conventional absorption CT data and for PPCT phase retrieved and DEI-CT extracted information. PITRE_BM is a batch processing manager for PITRE: it executes a series of tasks, created via PITRE, without manual intervention. Both PITRE and PITRE_BM are coded in Interactive Data Language (IDL), and have a user-friendly graphical user interface. They are freeware and can run on Microsoft Windows systems via IDL Virtual Machine, which can be downloaded for free and does not require a license. The data-processing principle and some examples of application will be presented.

  2. Europa's South Pole Region: A sequential reconstruction of surface modification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jeannie; Greenberg, Richard; Sarid, Alyssa

    2006-08-01

    High-resolution images of a region near the south pole of Europa allow reconstruction of a series of events, tectonic and thermal, that displaced and modified the surface. This approach is complementary to regional geological mapping, which is based on less detailed images, but covers a broader sample of the surface. The events reconstructed in this locale resurfaced about half the area or more, so they probably ranged over a substantial fraction of the age of Europa's surface, which in itself is quite young (< 50 Myr) due to the cumulative effects of such local (or regional) reprocessing events acting over the entire globe. Chaotic terrain was formed (probably by thermal processes) both early and late in the sequence. Trends in changing geological processes that had been inferred from lower-resolution images in regional geological mapping efforts, especially an increase in formation of chaotic terrain with time, which had been widely interpreted as implying a thickening of the ice crust, are not evident in this area. The impression that chaotic terrain is a relatively recent phenomenon may come from the fact that older chaotic terrain can be more difficult to identify, especially in the lower-resolution images used for geological mapping. This study reinforces the conclusion that both chaotic terrain and tectonic features have been formed by competing processes that have resurfaced Europa through much of its geologic history.

  3. Compressed sensing reconstruction for whole-heart imaging with 3D radial trajectories: a graphics processing unit implementation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seunghoon; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic acquisition in whole-heart coronary MRI is the prolonged data acquisition time. Isotropic 3D radial trajectories allow undersampling of k-space data in all three spatial dimensions, enabling accelerated acquisition of the volumetric data. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction can provide further acceleration in the acquisition by removing the incoherent artifacts due to undersampling and improving the image quality. However, the heavy computational overhead of the CS reconstruction has been a limiting factor for its application. In this article, a parallelized implementation of an iterative CS reconstruction method for 3D radial acquisitions using a commercial graphics processing unit is presented. The execution time of the graphics processing unit-implemented CS reconstruction was compared with that of the C++ implementation, and the efficacy of the undersampled 3D radial acquisition with CS reconstruction was investigated in both phantom and whole-heart coronary data sets. Subsequently, the efficacy of CS in suppressing streaking artifacts in 3D whole-heart coronary MRI with 3D radial imaging and its convergence properties were studied. The CS reconstruction provides improved image quality (in terms of vessel sharpness and suppression of noise-like artifacts) compared with the conventional 3D gridding algorithm, and the graphics processing unit implementation greatly reduces the execution time of CS reconstruction yielding 34-54 times speed-up compared with C++ implementation. PMID:22392604

  4. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Agulleiro, J I; Vázquez, F; Garzón, E M; Fernández, J J

    2012-04-01

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM.

  5. Synthesizing primary molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases using a two-frequency reconstructive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Petculescu, Andi G; Lueptow, Richard M

    2005-06-17

    Identifying molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases remains challenging. An algorithm that reconstructs the primary relaxation processes is presented. Based on measurements of acoustic attenuation and sound speed at two frequencies, it synthesizes the entire frequency dependence of the complex effective specific heat of the gas, which is the macroscopic "footprint" of relaxation effects. The algorithm is based on the fact that for a simple relaxation process, such as occurs in many polyatomic gases at temperatures around 300 K, the effective specific heat traces a semicircle in the complex plane as a function of frequency. Knowing the high-frequency or instantaneous value of the specific heat provides the capability to not only sense the presence, but also infer the nature and, for mixtures of unlike-symmetry molecules, the concentration of foreign molecules leaking in a host gas. PMID:16090508

  6. The time-dependent reconstructed evolutionary process with a key-role for mass-extinction events.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The homogeneous reconstructed evolutionary process is a birth-death process without observed extinct lineages. Each species evolves independently with the same diversification rate-speciation rate, λ(t), and extinction rate, μ(t)-that may change over time. The process is commonly applied to model species diversification where the data are reconstructed phylogenies, e.g. trees estimated from present-day molecular data, and used to infer diversification rates. In the present paper I develop the general probability density of a reconstructed tree under any homogeneous, time-dependent birth-death process. I demonstrate how to adapt this probability density when conditioning on the survival of one or two initial lineages, or on the process realizing n species, and also how to transform between the probability density of a reconstructed tree and the probability density of the speciation times. I demonstrate the use of the general time-dependent probability density functions by deriving the probability density of a reconstructed tree under a birth-death-shift model with explicit mass-extinction events. I extend these functions to several special cases, including the pure-birth process, the pure-death process, the birth-death process, and the critical-branching process. Thus, I specify equations for the most commonly used birth-death models in a unified framework (e.g. same condition and same data) using a common notation.

  7. Processing of tetraphenylborate precipitates in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site has generated 77 million gallons of high level radioactive waste since the early 1950`s. By 1987, evaporation had reduced the concentration of the waste inventory to 35 million gallons. Currently, the wastes reside in large underground tanks as a soluble fraction stored, crystallized salts, and an insoluble fraction, sludge, which consists of hydrated transition metal oxides. The bulk of the radionuclides, 67 percent, are in the sludge while the crystallized salts and supernate are composed of the nitrates, nitrites, sulfates and hydroxides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The principal radionuclide in the soluble waste is {sup 137}Cs with traces of {sup 90}Sr. The transformation of the high level wastes into a borosilicate glass suitable for permanent disposal is the goal of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To minimize the volume of glass produced, the soluble fraction of the waste is treated with sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate in the waste tanks to precipitate the radioactive cesium ion and absorb the radioactive strontium ion. The precipitate is washed in the waste tanks and is then pumped to the DWPF. The precipitate, as received, is incompatible with the vitrification process because of the high aromatic carbon content and requires further chemical treatment. Within the DWPF, the precipitate is processed in the Salt Processing Cell to remove the aromatic carbon as benzene. The precipitate hydrolysis process hydrolyzes the tetraphenylborate anion to produce borate anion and benzene. The benzene is removed by distillation, decontaminated and transferred out of the DWPF for disposal.

  8. Process-based reconstruction of sedimentary rocks, sandy soils and soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Roman; Gerke, Kirill; Čapek, Pavel; Karsanina, Marina; Korost, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    There are three main approaches to model and reconstruct (using 2D cut(s), grain size distribution or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other shapes granular packs), and 3) morphological methods. Each method has its own advantages and shortcomings, so there is no readily available solution and methods should be carefully chosen and tested for each particular media. Here we mainly focus on sequential process-based method due to its general simplicity and straightforward usability for different transformation modeling: diagenesis, mechanical compaction, erosion, etc. It is well known that process-based models for sandstone thin-sections give good transport properties after 3D reconstruction. This method is also useful for pore-network extraction validation. At first, polydisperse sphere packs are created using two different techniques: (1) modified Lubachevsky-Stillinger method, and (2) original Øren-Bakke method with global minimal or local minimal energy ballistic disposition rules. The latter are known to create anisotropic packs with kissing numbers different from real sedimentary materials. During the next step, the third phase (clay minerals for rocks and clay and organic matter for soils) is grown within pore space based on Voronoi tesselation to determine distances to the nearest grains. Input parameters, i.e., grain size distributions and porosities are determined using laboratory methods or image analysis for real porous media: sandstones, sandy soils and soil aggregates. To model soil aggregate structure a gravitational algorithm is used there a set of granules falls onto a gravity center in the middle of the aggregate. All further steps are similar to that of sedimentary rocks and soils. Resulted 3D reconstructions are compared with original 3D structures obtained using X

  9. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement results.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Austin L; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Martinez, David M; Vaughn, Timothy L; Williams, Laurie L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Floerchinger, Cody; Omara, Mark; Subramanian, R; Zimmerle, Daniel; Marchese, Anthony J; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-01

    Facility-level methane emissions were measured at 114 gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in the United States natural gas system. At gathering facilities, the measured methane emission rates ranged from 0.7 to 700 kg per hour (kg/h) (0.6 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm)). Normalized emissions (as a % of total methane throughput) were less than 1% for 85 gathering facilities and 19 had normalized emissions less than 0.1%. The range of methane emissions rates for processing plants was 3 to 600 kg/h (3 to 524 scfm), corresponding to normalized methane emissions rates <1% in all cases. The distributions of methane emissions, particularly for gathering facilities, are skewed. For example, 30% of gathering facilities contribute 80% of the total emissions. Normalized emissions rates are negatively correlated with facility throughput. The variation in methane emissions also appears driven by differences between inlet and outlet pressure, as well as venting and leaking equipment. Substantial venting from liquids storage tanks was observed at 20% of gathering facilities. Emissions rates at these facilities were, on average, around four times the rates observed at similar facilities without substantial venting. PMID:25668106

  10. Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility science data processing architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Bicknell, Thomas; Miller, Carol L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at Fairbanks, being developed to generate science data products for supporting research in sea ice motion, ice classification, sea-ice-ocean interaction, glacier behavior, ocean waves, and hydrological and geological study areas. Special attention is given to the individual substructures of the ASF: the Receiving Ground Station (RGS), the SAR Processor System, and the Interactive Image Analysis System. The SAR data will be linked to the RGS by the ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2, the Japanese ERS-1, and the Canadian Radarsat.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Qu, Z G; Ding, T; Miao, J Y

    2016-04-01

    The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems. PMID:27176384

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Ding, T.; Miao, J. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems.

  13. A reconstruction algorithm based on sparse representation for Raman signal processing under high background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Xu, Y.; Que, J.; He, H.; Wang, X.; Tang, M.

    2016-02-01

    Background noise is one of the main interference sources of the Raman spectroscopy measurement and imaging technique. In this paper, a sparse representation based algorithm is presented to process the Raman signals under high background noise. In contrast with the existing de-noising methods, the proposed method reconstructs the pure Raman signals by estimating the Raman peak information. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is its high anti-noise capacity and low pure Raman signal reduction contributed by its reconstruction principle. Meanwhile, the Batch-OMP algorithm is applied to accelerate the training of the sparse representation. Therefore, it is very suitable to be adopted in the Raman measurement or imaging instruments to observe fast dynamic processes where the scanning time has to be shortened and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the raw tested signal is reduced. In the simulation and experiment, the de-noising result obtained by the proposed algorithm was better than the traditional Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter and the fixed-threshold wavelet de-noising algorithm.

  14. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D.; Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  15. Simplified electroholographic color reconstruction system using graphics processing unit and liquid crystal display projector.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Takada, Naoki; Niwa, Masashi; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2009-08-31

    We have constructed a simple color electroholography system that has excellent cost performance. It uses a graphics processing unit (GPU) and a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector. The structure of the GPU is suitable for calculating computer-generated holograms (CGHs). The calculation speed of the GPU is approximately 1,500 times faster than that of a central processing unit. The LCD projector is an inexpensive, high-performance device for displaying CGHs. It has high-definition LCD panels for red, green and blue. Thus, it can be easily used for color electroholography. For a three-dimensional object consisting of 1,000 points, our system succeeded in real-time color holographic reconstruction at rate of 30 frames per second.

  16. Attractor reconstruction from the time series of information entropy of seismic kinetics process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakhovsky, I. R.

    2016-09-01

    The attractor is reconstructed from the time series of the information entropy of the seismic kinetics process. It is shown that the seismic kinetics process is governed by three order parameters and is characterized by a strange attractor in the three-dimensional phase space. The D q-spectrum of the multifractal measure induced by the attractor, which describes the topological structure of the latter, is obtained. The monofractal dimension of the attractor is D q(0) = 2.31…, and the correlation dimension is D q(2) = 2.16…. The estimate of the largest Lyapunov exponent of the attractor λ1 = 0.331…. The positive signature of the largest Lyapunov exponent suggests that the attractor is chaotic and the behavior of the phase trajectory is unpredictable.

  17. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1972-01-01

    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  18. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-8 Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements. (a) Any person who operates a facility in which imported regulated articles...

  19. 10 CFR 95.15 - Approval for processing licensees and others for facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for processing licensees and others for facility clearance. 95.15 Section 95.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security §...

  20. Probabilistic Feasibility of the Reconstruction Process of Russian-Orthodox Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhova, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    The cultural human heritage is important for the identity of following generations and has to be preserved in a suitable manner. In the course of time a lot of information about former cultural constructions has been lost because some objects were strongly damaged by natural erosion or on account of human work or were even destroyed. It is important to capture still available building parts of former buildings, mostly ruins. This data could be the basis for a virtual reconstruction. Laserscanning offers in principle the possibility to take up extensively surfaces of buildings in its actual status. In this paper we assume a priori given 3d-laserscanner data, 3d point cloud for the partly destroyed church. There are many well known algorithms, that describe different methods of extraction and detection of geometric primitives, which are recognized separately in 3d points clouds. In our work we put them in a common probabilistic framework, which guides the complete reconstruction process of complex buildings, in our case russian-orthodox churches. Churches are modeled with their functional volumetric components, enriched with a priori known probabilities, which are deduced from a database of russian-orthodox churches. Each set of components represents a complete church. The power of the new method is shown for a simulated dataset of 100 russian-orthodox churches.

  1. Comparison Between Two Generic 3d Building Reconstruction Approaches - Point Cloud Based VS. Image Processing Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, D.; Linkiewicz, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares two generic approaches for the reconstruction of buildings. Synthesized and real oblique and vertical aerial imagery is transformed on the one hand into a dense photogrammetric 3D point cloud and on the other hand into photogrammetric 2.5D surface models depicting a scene from different cardinal directions. One approach evaluates the 3D point cloud statistically in order to extract the hull of structures, while the other approach makes use of salient line segments in 2.5D surface models, so that the hull of 3D structures can be recovered. With orders of magnitudes more analyzed 3D points, the point cloud based approach is an order of magnitude more accurate for the synthetic dataset compared to the lower dimensioned, but therefor orders of magnitude faster, image processing based approach. For real world data the difference in accuracy between both approaches is not significant anymore. In both cases the reconstructed polyhedra supply information about their inherent semantic and can be used for subsequent and more differentiated semantic annotations through exploitation of texture information.

  2. 3D TEM reconstruction and segmentation process of laminar bio-nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Iturrondobeitia, M. Okariz, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, R.; Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Ibarretxe, J.

    2015-03-30

    The microstructure of laminar bio-nanocomposites (Poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay) depends on the amount of clay platelet opening after integration with the polymer matrix and determines the final properties of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique is the only one that can provide a direct observation of the layer dispersion and the degree of exfoliation. However, the orientation of the clay platelets, which affects the final properties, is practically immeasurable from a single 2D TEM image. This issue can be overcome using transmission electron tomography (ET), a technique that allows the complete 3D characterization of the structure, including the measurement of the orientation of clay platelets, their morphology and their 3D distribution. ET involves a 3D reconstruction of the study volume and a subsequent segmentation of the study object. Currently, accurate segmentation is performed manually, which is inefficient and tedious. The aim of this work is to propose an objective/automated segmentation methodology process of a 3D TEM tomography reconstruction. In this method the segmentation threshold is optimized by minimizing the variation of the dimensions of the segmented objects and matching the segmented V{sub clay} (%) and the actual one. The method is first validated using a fictitious set of objects, and then applied on a nanocomposite.

  3. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  4. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-05-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  5. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  6. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  7. Lax regulation of oil vessels and processing facilities continues

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovitch, N.

    1993-12-31

    Four years after the grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in 1989, oil spills continue to occur with alarming frequency: In 1992 the Shoko Maru spilled more than 96,000 gallons of crude oil into the Texas City Channel and a leak at an offshore well in Louisiana spilled at least 30,000 gallons; in 1991 alone, there were 677 spills in the Port of New Orleans, 398 spills in New York Harbor, 239 spills in Port of Hampton Roads, 235 spills in Port of Philadelphia, 130 spills in Seattle, and 116 spills in Boston Harbor. The amount of oil spilled in these ports alone in one year exceeded 300,000 gallons. The recent huge spills off foreign coasts-the Shetland Islands, the coasts of Spain and Indonesia-reinforce the importance of regulation. The Oil Pollution Act, passed in August 1992 mandates that all vessels traveling in US waters and all oil transfer and storage facilities take measurable and enforceable actions to reduce spills. However, major problems remain, both with the act and with enforcing it. This article discusses both the problems and the solutions to pollution control of oil spills.

  8. 77 FR 823 - Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Information DG-3037 was published in the Federal Register on July 14, 2011 (76 FR 41527). The public comment... conversion, plutonium processing, or fabrication of mixed-oxide fuel or fuel assemblies. Such fuel...

  9. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  10. Evaluation of the antipsychotic medication review process at four long-term facilities in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Birney, Arden; Charland, Paola; Cole, Mollie; Aslam Arain, Mubashir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this evaluation was to understand how four long-term care (LTC) facilities in Alberta have implemented medication reviews for the Appropriate Use of Antipsychotics (AUA) initiative. We aimed to determine how interprofessional (IP) collaboration was incorporated in the antipsychotic medication reviews and how the reviews had been sustained. Methods Four LTC facilities in Alberta participated in this evaluation. We conducted semistructured interviews with 18 facility staff and observed one antipsychotic medication review at each facility. We analyzed data according to the following key components that we identified as relevant to the antipsychotic medication reviews: the structure of the reviews, IP interactions between the staff members, and strategies for sustaining the reviews. Results The duration of antipsychotic medication reviews ranged from 1 to 1.5 hours. The number of professions in attendance ranged from 3 to 9; a pharmacist led the review at two sites, while a registered nurse led the review at one site and a nurse practitioner at the remaining site. The number of residents discussed during the review ranged from 6 to 20. The process at some facilities was highly IP, demonstrating each of the six IP competencies. Other facilities conducted the review in a less IP manner due to challenges of physician involvement and staff workload, particularly of health care aides. Facilities that had an nurse practitioner on site were more efficient with the process of implementing recommendations resulting from the medication reviews. Conclusion The LTC facilities were successful in implementing the medication review process and the process seemed to be sustainable. A few challenges were observed in the implementation process at two facilities. IP practice moved forward the goals of the AUA initiative to reduce the inappropriate use of antipsychotics. PMID:27785044

  11. Grout pump selection process for the Transportable Grout Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, D.; Treat, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Selected low-level radioactive liquid wastes at Hanford will be disposed by grouting. Grout is formed by mixing the liquid wastes with solid materials, including Portland cement, fly ash, and clay. The mixed grouts will be pumped to disposal sites (e.g., trenches and buried structures) where the grout will be allowed to harden and, thereby, immobilize the wastes. A Transportable Grout Facility (TGF) will be constructed and operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations to perform the grouting function. A critical component of the TGF is the grout pump. A preliminary review of pumping requirements identified reciprocating pumps and progressive cavity pumps as the two classes of pumps best suited for the application. The advantages and disadvantages of specific types of pumps within these two classes were subsequently investigated. As a result of this study, the single-screw, rotary positive displacement pump was identified as the best choice for the TGF application. This pump has a simple design, is easy to operate, is rugged, and is suitable for a radioactive environment. It produces a steady, uniform flow that simplifies suction and discharge piping requirements. This pump will likely require less maintenance than reciprocating pumps and can be disassembled rapidly and decontaminated easily. If the TGF should eventually require discharge pressures in excess of 500 psi, a double-acting duplex piston pump is recommended because it can operate at low speed, with only moderate flow rate fluctuations. However, the check valves, stuffing box, piston, suction, and discharge piping must be designed carefully to allow trouble-free operations.

  12. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    SciTech Connect

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  13. Removal and treatment of mercury contamination at gas processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, S.M.; McArthur, A.

    1995-12-01

    Processing of gas containing mercury invariably leads to contamination of equipment and can generate waste in the form of sludge and spent adsorbent materials. Occasional accidents can also lead to soil contamination. This paper reviews mercury contamination in the gas processing industry and discusses newly developed methods for clean-up and disposal of mercury waste. Research and development (sponsored by the Gas Research Institute) have produced new technology for mercury removal from complex matrices. Equipment decontamination is accomplished using chemical cleaning solutions that selectively oxidize and complex elemental mercury deposits. These cleaning formulations include aqueous base solutions containing iodine as the completing agent and organic (alcohol) base solutions using completing agents. Soil, sludge, and debris must be thermally processed to remove (recycle) mercury. Thermal systems use vacuum, inert gas, or air as the carder medium. If air is used, sulfur in the matrix is converted to SO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons are oxidized as well, depending upon design. Anaerobic thermal systems employ selective condensation and/or adsorption to separate sulfur and hydrocarbons from mercury. Spent adsorbent materials are also thermally processed using strictly anaerobic conditions to avoid exothermal reactions involving carbon. The regulatory climate relative to mercury is changing rapidly. Regulations covering treated debris and soils may require total mercury concentrations of less than 2 mg/kg for burial. Total mercury analysis rather than leaching procedure (TCLP) is becoming the norm in regulations and specifications. Sampling and analysis procedures for contaminated surfaces are under development.

  14. SSOPs and GMPs for commercial shell egg processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  15. Application of artificial intelligence to melter control: Realtime process advisor for the scale melter facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jr, R E

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is currently under construction and when completed will process high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform. This facility will consist of numerous batch chemical processing steps as well as the continuous operation of a joule-heated melter and its off-gas treatment system. A realtime process advisor system based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques has been developed and is currently in use at the semiworks facility, which is operating a 2/3 scale of the DWPF joule-heated melter. The melter advisor system interfaces to the existing data collection and control system and monitors current operations of this facility. The advisor then provides advice to operators and engineers when it identifies process problems. The current system is capable of identifying process problems such as feed system pluggages and thermocouple failures and providing recommended actions. The system also provides facilities normally with distributed control systems. These include the ability to display process flowsheets, monitor alarm conditions, and check the status of process interlocks. 7 figs.

  16. Progress of the High Level Waste Program at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13178

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, Jonathan M.; Fellinger, Terri L.; Staub, Aaron V.; Ray, Jeff W.; Iaukea, John F.

    2013-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site treats and immobilizes High Level Waste into a durable borosilicate glass for safe, permanent storage. The High Level Waste program significantly reduces environmental risks associated with the storage of radioactive waste from legacy efforts to separate fissionable nuclear material from irradiated targets and fuels. In an effort to support the disposition of radioactive waste and accelerate tank closure at the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility recently implemented facility and flowsheet modifications to improve production by 25%. These improvements, while low in cost, translated to record facility production in fiscal years 2011 and 2012. In addition, significant progress has been accomplished on longer term projects aimed at simplifying and expanding the flexibility of the existing flowsheet in order to accommodate future processing needs and goals. (authors)

  17. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... negative pressure at all times while the process unit or affected facility is in operation to ensure that... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of...-vented process units or affected facilities. (a) Use of closed vent system and control device....

  18. Unconfined alluvial flow processes: Recognition and interpretation of their deposits, and the significance for palaeogeographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Colin P.; Davidson, Stephanie K.

    2012-02-01

    Palaeogeographic interpretation of the sedimentary rock record depends on correct recognition from the preserved evidence of the processes responsible for transporting and depositing the sediment. This in turn depends on robust knowledge transfer from previous workers, and the successful exchange of ideas between workers requires consistent use of a well-defined vocabulary. We have identified serious breakdowns in all these interpretation steps in the case of terrestrial unconfined flow and its deposits, and these failures are leading to unreliable environmental and climatic interpretation. This is significant because such alluvial deposits commonly form a majority of the rock record of continental environments. Working from the basic principles of geomorphology and fluid dynamics, we have undertaken a wide-ranging analysis of the nature of out-of-channel flow and from this make predictions about the characteristics of its deposits. We identify the range of possible locations and conditions that lead to the development of unconfined flow, review the processes operating in each case, and examine the range of lithological features that can be produced by these processes. This allows us to evaluate the reliability of the criteria claimed for identification of out-of-channel flow deposits, and examine how our new insights might alter palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic reconstructions published previously by others. The sedimentary record of unconfined flows is much more diverse and complex than usually portrayed. The received wisdom that the record of unconfined flow consists solely of upwards-fining thin beds produced from shallow waning flows is shown to be flawed. A wide range of lithofacies are possible, and the variation in both flow steadiness and uniformity needs to be taken into account. The previously published criteria for recognition of flows of this type are not diagnostic of process or location; unconfined flow deposits cannot reliably be identified from

  19. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-03-01

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  20. Virtual head rotation reveals a process of route reconstruction from human vestibular signals.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2005-09-01

    The vestibular organs can feed perceptual processes that build a picture of our route as we move about in the world. However, raw vestibular signals do not define the path taken because, during travel, the head can undergo accelerations unrelated to the route and also be orientated in any direction to vary the signal. This study investigated the computational process by which the brain transforms raw vestibular signals for the purpose of route reconstruction. We electrically stimulated the vestibular nerves of human subjects to evoke a virtual head rotation fixed in skull co-ordinates and measure its perceptual effect. The virtual head rotation caused subjects to perceive an illusory whole-body rotation that was a cyclic function of head-pitch angle. They perceived whole-body yaw rotation in one direction with the head pitched forwards, the opposite direction with the head pitched backwards, and no rotation with the head in an intermediate position. A model based on vector operations and the anatomy and firing properties of semicircular canals precisely predicted these perceptions. In effect, a neural process computes the vector dot product between the craniocentric vestibular vector of head rotation and the gravitational unit vector. This computation yields the signal of body rotation in the horizontal plane that feeds our perception of the route travelled.

  1. Kinect Posture Reconstruction Based on a Local Mixture of Gaussian Process Models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Zhou, Liuyang; Leung, Howard; Shum, Hubert P H

    2016-11-01

    Depth sensor based 3D human motion estimation hardware such as Kinect has made interactive applications more popular recently. However, it is still challenging to accurately recognize postures from a single depth camera due to the inherently noisy data derived from depth images and self-occluding action performed by the user. In this paper, we propose a new real-time probabilistic framework to enhance the accuracy of live captured postures that belong to one of the action classes in the database. We adopt the Gaussian Process model as a prior to leverage the position data obtained from Kinect and marker-based motion capture system. We also incorporate a temporal consistency term into the optimization framework to constrain the velocity variations between successive frames. To ensure that the reconstructed posture resembles the accurate parts of the observed posture, we embed a set of joint reliability measurements into the optimization framework. A major drawback of Gaussian Process is its cubic learning complexity when dealing with a large database due to the inverse of a covariance matrix. To solve the problem, we propose a new method based on a local mixture of Gaussian Processes, in which Gaussian Processes are defined in local regions of the state space. Due to the significantly decreased sample size in each local Gaussian Process, the learning time is greatly reduced. At the same time, the prediction speed is enhanced as the weighted mean prediction for a given sample is determined by the nearby local models only. Our system also allows incrementally updating a specific local Gaussian Process in real time, which enhances the likelihood of adapting to run-time postures that are different from those in the database. Experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate high quality postures even under severe self-occlusion situations, which is beneficial for real-time applications such as motion-based gaming and sport training. PMID:26701789

  2. Martian groundwater outflow processes and morphology; reconstruction of paleohydrology using landscape evolution experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; de Jong, Steven M.; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater played an important role in the aqueous history of Mars but how, how long, and with what intensity remains unclear. Two types of fluvial landforms related to groundwater emergence are the giant outflow channels and the disputed sapping valleys. Understanding of the relation between subsurface and surface processes is slim, which limits inferences of climate implications from the observable morphology. We aim to increase this understanding and to apply this knowledge to Martian cases to reconstruct former hydrological conditions. Using a series of sandbox experiments, we investigated formative processes of valleys formed by groundwater. These experiments showed the morphology and processes of groundwater sapping and pressurized groundwater outflow (see Marra et al, 2014, Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.12.026) and further focused on landscape characteristics of groundwater sapping sourced locally or distally, and identified various processes linked to pressurized groundwater outbursts including the formation and eruption of subsurface reservoirs that can explain the high reconstructed discharges of large outflow valleys (see Marra et al, 2014, JGR doi:10.1002/2014JE004701). Based on the experiments, we identified novel morphological indicators for groundwater outflow in the outflow channel region of Lunae and Ophir Plana. These, in combination with the classic outflow features, show a clear trend of increasing outflow magnitude with decreasing elevation to the northeast, indicating a head from a common aquifer. The putative aquifer we identified was likely recharged by infiltration over the Tharsis region. Outflow channel activity peaked in the Hesperian, but continued in the Amazonian at a lower magnitude. Our results agree well with groundwater recharge in the Noachian and Early Hesperian, corresponding to a climate that sustained an active hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the large outflow events require a confining layer to build up enough pressure

  3. Monte Carlo-based fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction method accelerated by a cluster of graphic processing units.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guotao; Gong, Hui; Deng, Yong; Fu, Jianwei; Luo, Qingming

    2011-02-01

    High-speed fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) reconstruction for 3-D heterogeneous media is still one of the most challenging problems in diffusive optical fluorescence imaging. In this paper, we propose a fast FMT reconstruction method that is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and accelerated by a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Based on the Message Passing Interface standard, we modified the MC code for fast FMT reconstruction, and different Green's functions representing the flux distribution in media are calculated simultaneously by different GPUs in the cluster. A load-balancing method was also developed to increase the computational efficiency. By applying the Fréchet derivative, a Jacobian matrix is formed to reconstruct the distribution of the fluorochromes using the calculated Green's functions. Phantom experiments have shown that only 10 min are required to get reconstruction results with a cluster of 6 GPUs, rather than 6 h with a cluster of multiple dual opteron CPU nodes. Because of the advantages of high accuracy and suitability for 3-D heterogeneity media with refractive-index-unmatched boundaries from the MC simulation, the GPU cluster-accelerated method provides a reliable approach to high-speed reconstruction for FMT imaging.

  4. Statistical process control program at a ceramics vendor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Enke, G.M.

    1992-12-01

    Development of a statistical process control (SPC) program at a ceramics vendor location was deemed necessary to improve product quality, reduce manufacturing flowtime, and reduce quality costs borne by AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), and the vendor. Because of the lack of available KCD manpower and the required time schedule for the project, it was necessary for the SPC program to be implemented by an external contractor. Approximately a year after the program had been installed, the original baseline was reviewed so that the success of the project could be determined.

  5. 324 Facility B-Cell quality process plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1998-06-10

    B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. This includes: (1) Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment. This activity is the restart of hotwork in B-Cell to size reduce the remainder of Tank 119 and other miscellaneous pieces of equipment into sizes that can be loaded into a grout container. This activity also includes the process of preparing the containers for shipment from the cell. The specific activities and procedures used are detailed in a table. (2) Load and Ship Low-Level Waste. This activity covers the process of taking a grouted LLW container from B-Cell and loading it into the cask in the REC airlock and Cask Handling Area (CHA) for shipment to the LLBG. The detailed activities and procedures for this part of cell cleanout are included in second table.

  6. Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

  7. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

  8. Overview of Nasal Soft Tissue Reconstruction: Keeping It Simple

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, William M.; Koshy, John C.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of nasal soft tissue reconstruction and of the senior author's practice. Nasal soft tissue reconstruction is a challenging endeavor as the nose is one of the most prominent and complex facial features. A multitude of surgical repair options exist, which can make the decision-making process unnecessarily complicated. It is advisable that the reconstructive surgeon become facile with a handful of surgical techniques versus trying to master many techniques. PMID:24872747

  9. Preliminary technical data summary No. 3 for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, L.F.

    1980-05-01

    This document presents an update on the best information presently available for the purpose of establishing the basis for the design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility. Objective of this project is to provide a facility to fix the radionuclides present in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste in a high-integrity form (glass). Flowsheets and material balances reflect the alternate CAB case including the incorporation of low-level supernate in concrete. (DLC)

  10. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  11. Radon Reduction Experience at a Former Uranium Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eger, K. J.; Rutherford, L.; Rickett, K.; Fellman, R.; Hungate, S.

    2004-02-29

    Approximately 6,200 cubic meters of waste containing about 2.0E8 MBq of radium-226 are stored in two large silos at the Fernald Site in southwest Ohio. The material is scheduled for retrieval, packaging, off site shipment and disposal by burial. Air in the silos above the stored material contained radon-222 at a concentration of 7.4 E5 Bq/L. Short-lived daughters formed by decay in these headspaces generated dose rates at contact with the top of the silos up to 1.05 mSv/hr and there complicate the process of retrieval. A Radon Control System (RCS) employing carbon adsorption beds has been designed under contract with the Fluor Fernald to remove most of the radon in the headspaces and maintain lower concentrations during periods when work on or above the domes is needed. Removing the radon also removes the short-lived daughters and reduces the dose rate near the domes to 20 to 30 {mu}Sv/hr. Failing to remove the radon would be costly, in the exposure of personnel needed to work extended periods at these moderate dose rates, or in dollars for the application of remote retrieval techniques. In addition, the RCS minimizes the potential for environmental releases. This paper describes the RCS, its mode of operation, and early experiences. The results of the test described herein and the experience gained from operation of the RCS during its first phase of continuous operation, will be used to determine the best air flow, and air flow distribution, the most desirable number and sequence number and sequence of adsorption beds to be used and the optimum application of air recycle within the RCS.

  12. AERIAL SHOWING COMPLETED REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) ADJOINING FUEL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL SHOWING COMPLETED REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) ADJOINING FUEL PROCESSING BUILDING AND EXCAVATION FOR HOT PILOT PLANT TO RIGHT (CPP-640). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1221. J. Anderson, Photographer, 3/22/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. PCR-SSCP-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Dorn-In, Samart; Hölzel, Christina S; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Balsliemke, Joachim; Bauer, Johann

    2013-03-01

    Food processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. In general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. However, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat products with certain preserving conditions. In case that unhygienic meat is used to produce heat processed products, the microorganisms will be deactivated by heat, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and apply a molecular biological method--polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)--to reconstruct the original fungal flora of heat processed meat. Twenty primer pairs were tested for their specificity for fungal DNA. Since none of them fully complied with all study criteria (such as high specificity and sensitivity for fungal DNA; suitability of the products for PCR-SSCP) in the matrix "meat", we designed a new reverse primer, ITS5.8R. The primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R amplified DNA from all tested fungal species, but not DNA from meat-producing animals or from ingredients of plant origin (spices). For the final test, 32 DNA bands in acrylamide gel from 15 meat products and 1 soy sauce were sequenced-all originating from fungal species, which were, in other studies, reported to contaminate meat e.g. Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida rugosa, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Eurotium amstelodami and Pichia membranifaciens, and/or spices such as Botrytis aclada, Guignardia mangiferae, Itersonilia perplexans, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lewia infectoria, Neofusicoccum parvum and Pleospora herbarum. This confirms the suitability of PCR-SSCP to specifically detect fungal DNA in heat processed meat products, and thus provides an overview of fungal species contaminating raw material such as meat and spices. PMID:23361099

  14. Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dippre, M. A.

    2003-02-25

    A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational

  15. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) is to examine assay, characterize, treat, and repackage solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. WRAP 1 will contain equipment and facilities necessary for non-destructive examination (NDE) of wastes and to perform a non-destructive examination assay (NDA) of the total radionuclide content of the wastes, without opening the outer container (e.g., 55-gal drum). WRAP 1 will also be equipped to open drums which do not meet waste acceptance and shipping criteria, and to perform limited physical treatment of the wastes to ensure that storage, shipping, and disposal criteria are met. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and transuranic and low level mixed wastes (LLMW). The WRAP 1 facility will only accept contact handler (CH) waste containers. A Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (TBACT) assessment has been completed for the WRAP 1 facility (WHC 1993). Because toxic emissions from the WRAP 1 facility are sufficiently low and do not pose any health or safety concerns to the public, no controls for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and installation of HEPA filters for particulates satisfy TBACT for the facility.

  16. 40 CFR 60.640 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance for SO2 Emissions From Onshore Natural Gas Processing for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or... affected facilities that process natural gas: each sweetening unit, and each sweetening unit followed by a... applicable to facilities located on land and include facilities located onshore which process natural...

  17. 40 CFR 60.640 - Applicability and designation of affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for SO2 Emissions From Onshore Natural Gas Processing for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or... affected facilities that process natural gas: each sweetening unit, and each sweetening unit followed by a... applicable to facilities located on land and include facilities located onshore which process natural...

  18. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    SciTech Connect

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  19. Electrodynamics sensor for the image reconstruction process in an electrical charge tomography system.

    PubMed

    Rahmat, Mohd Fua'ad; Isa, Mohd Daud; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Hussin, Tengku Ahmad Raja

    2009-01-01

    Electrical charge tomography (EChT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is aimed to reconstruct the image of materials being conveyed based on data measured by an electrodynamics sensor installed around the pipe. Image reconstruction in electrical charge tomography is vital and has not been widely studied before. Three methods have been introduced before, namely the linear back projection method, the filtered back projection method and the least square method. These methods normally face ill-posed problems and their solutions are unstable and inaccurate. In order to ensure the stability and accuracy, a special solution should be applied to obtain a meaningful image reconstruction result. In this paper, a new image reconstruction method - Least squares with regularization (LSR) will be introduced to reconstruct the image of material in a gravity mode conveyor pipeline for electrical charge tomography. Numerical analysis results based on simulation data indicated that this algorithm efficiently overcomes the numerical instability. The results show that the accuracy of the reconstruction images obtained using the proposed algorithm was enhanced and similar to the image captured by a CCD Camera. As a result, an efficient method for electrical charge tomography image reconstruction has been introduced.

  20. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  1. The main factor causing prolonged reaction time on force producing process following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, F; Onari, K; Kawaguchi, K; Tsukisaka, K

    2000-12-01

    This study investigated the electromechanical properties of atrophied human quadriceps femoris muscle during a voluntarily elicited maximal isometric contraction (MVC) and a peripherally stimulated twitch contraction. Nineteen patients were recruited 2-3 months following a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Both the involved leg as well as the uninvolved leg were studied. Maximal twitch response was elicited and surface electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from the vastus lateralis. Total reaction time (TRT) for both MVC and twitch on involved leg was prolonged (251.47 msec, 26.01 msec). This prolongation suggests an extended lag in avoiding injury such as during sports. Pre-motor time during both MVC and twitch (PMTmvc, PMTtwitch) did not differ between both groups. Electromechanical delay during MVC (EMDmvc) was prolonged on involved leg (53.42 msec), and also evoked twitch EMD (EMDtwitch) (20.04 msec) as compared to the opposite side. Prolonged EMDtwitch may be due to a decrease in stiffness of the series elastic component, changes of peripheral muscle composition to containing more slow type muscle fibers, or a decrease in function of the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling process. A prolonged EMDtwitch can also explain the prolonged EMDmvc. These findings also suggested that prolonged TRTmvc to visual stimulus during MVC in atrophied human quadriceps femoris muscle after disuse was principally due to prolongation of EMDmvc. Prolonged EMDmvc may have resulted from decreased muscle stiffness, which was evident in the prolongation of the EMDtwitch.

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  3. The Establishment of a New Friction Stir Welding Process Development Facility at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Full-scale weld process development is being performed at MSFC to develop the tools, fixtures, and facilities necessary for Ares I production. Full scale development in-house at MSFC fosters technical acuity within the NASA engineering community, and allows engineers to identify and correct tooling and equipment shortcomings before they become problems on the production floor. Finally, while the new weld process development facility is currently being outfitted in support of Ares I development, it has been established to support all future Constellation Program needs. In particular, both the RWT and VWT were sized with the larger Ares V hardware in mind.

  4. Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1994-02-01

    To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal.

  5. Onboard experiment data support facility. Task 2 report: Definition of onboard processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The onboard experiment data support facility (OEDSF) will provide data processing support to various experiment payloads on board the space shuttle. The OEDSF study will define the conceptual design and generate specifications for an OEDSF which will meet the following objectives: (1) provide a cost-effective approach to end-to-end processing requirements, (2) service multiple disciplines (3) satisfy user needs, (4) reduce the amount and improve the quality of data collected, stored and processed, and (5) embody growth capacity.

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1: Volume 1, Preliminary Design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Preliminary Design Report (Title 1) for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and process systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title 1 design. The primary mission of the WRAP 1 Facility is to characterize and certify contact-handled (CH) waste in 55-gallon drums for disposal. Its secondary function is to certify CH waste in Standard Waste Boxes (SWBs) for disposal. The preferred plan consist of retrieving the waste and repackaging as necessary in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to certify TRU waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. WIPP is a research and development facility designed to demonstrate the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of TRU waste from National Defense programs. Retrieved waste found to be Low-Level Waste (LLW) after examination in the WRAP facility will be disposed of on the Hanford site in the low-level waste burial ground. The Hanford Site TRU waste will be shipped to the WIPP for disposal between 1999 and 2013.

  7. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  8. Novel Reconstruction Technique for New Physics Processes with Initial State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alwall, Johan; Hiramastsu, Kenji; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-09

    The production of heavy particles at hadron colliders is associated with radiation of additional quarks and gluons from incoming partons. They can have significant transverse momenta and the additional initial state radiation (ISR) jets complicate the reconstruction of new particle masses. Taking gluino pair production and decay at the Large Hadron Collider as an example, we develop a novel technique to reduce these effects, allowing for a better reconstruction of masses through the measurement of kinematical end points.

  9. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  10. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  11. A New Concept: Use of Negotiations in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permitting Process in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.J.; Rose, W.M.; Domenici, P.V.; Hollingsworth, L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a unique negotiation process leading to authorization of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and dispose remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The negotiation process involved multiple entities and individuals brought together under authority of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) to discuss and resolve technical and facility operational issues flowing from an NMED-issued hazardous waste facility Draft Permit. The novel negotiation process resulted in numerous substantive changes to the Draft Permit, which were ultimately memorialised in a 'Draft Permit as Changed'. This paper discusses various aspects of the negotiation process, including events leading to the negotiations, regulatory basis for the negotiations, negotiation participants, and benefits of the process. (authors)

  12. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  13. A 60Co multipurpose radiation processing facility at Bahia Blanca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    The aim of the project is to have a multipurpose facility which will enable us to show the techno-economic viability of the irradiation process applied to regional products, important from the economic point of view. The topics will fundamentally be connected with regional themes such as food preservation and the modification of polymer structures. This project will make it possible to carry out basic and applied studies related to radiation chemistry, dosimetry and engineering irradiation processes. The facility will operate in the Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) with a maximum activity of 18.5 PBq of Co-60. The viability and design of the irradiation facility is supported by the Government of the Buenos Aires Province since it is interested in the socio-economic benefit of this technology at the regional level.

  14. Application for approval to construct the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The following Application For Approval Of Construction is being submitted by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office pursuant to 40 CFR 61.07, ``Application for Approval of Construction or Modification,`` for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1). The WRAP 1 facility will be a new source of radioactive emissions to the atmosphere. The WRAP 1 facility will be housed in the new 2336-W Building, which will be located in the 200 West Area south of 23rd Street and west of Dayton Avenue. The 200 West Area is located within the boundary of the Hanford Site. The mission of the WRAP 1 facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, and repackage solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the waste in accordance with all applicable regulations. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low-level waste (LLW), Transuranic (TRU) waste, TRU mixed waste, and low-level mixed waste (LLMW). The WRAP 1 facility will only accept contact handled (CH) waste containers. CH waste is a waste category whose external surface dose rate does not exceed 200 mrem/h. These containers have a surface dose rate of less than 200 mrem/h.

  15. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  16. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements. 319.40-8 Section 319.40-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  17. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

  18. Spatio-temporal distribution of stored-product inects around food processing and storage facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain storage and processing facilities consist of a landscape of indoor and outdoor habitats that can potentially support stored-product insect pests, and understanding patterns of species diversity and spatial distribution in the landscape surrounding structures can provide insight into how the ou...

  19. 40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section 372.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.20 Process for modifying covered...

  20. Reconstruction of 2D x-ray radiographs at the National Ignition Facility using pinhole tomography (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J. E. Rygg, J. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Town, R. P. J.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional radiographs of imploding fusion capsules are obtained at the National Ignition Facility by projection through a pinhole array onto a time-gated framing camera. Parallax among images in the image array makes it possible to distinguish contributions from the capsule and from the backlighter, permitting correction of backlighter non-uniformities within the capsule radiograph. Furthermore, precise determination of the imaging system geometry and implosion velocity enables combination of multiple images to reduce signal-to-noise and discover new capsule features.

  1. Reconstruction of 2D x-ray radiographs at the National Ignition Facility using pinhole tomography (invited).

    PubMed

    Field, J E; Rygg, J R; Barrios, M A; Benedetti, L R; Döppner, T; Izumi, N; Jones, O; Khan, S F; Ma, T; Nagel, S R; Pak, A; Tommasini, R; Bradley, D K; Town, R P J

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional radiographs of imploding fusion capsules are obtained at the National Ignition Facility by projection through a pinhole array onto a time-gated framing camera. Parallax among images in the image array makes it possible to distinguish contributions from the capsule and from the backlighter, permitting correction of backlighter non-uniformities within the capsule radiograph. Furthermore, precise determination of the imaging system geometry and implosion velocity enables combination of multiple images to reduce signal-to-noise and discover new capsule features.

  2. Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Long, Jon D

    2010-09-28

    In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD

  3. Unity connecting module viewed from above in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is viewed from above while it awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the side can be seen the connecting hatch. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  4. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  5. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-04-19

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  7. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  8. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    RYAN GW

    2008-04-25

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

  10. A preliminary study on the safeguardability of a Korean advanced pyro-processing facility (KAPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Thomas, K.E.; Marlow, J.B.; Menlove, H.O.; Ko, W.I.; Yang, M.S.; Park, S.W.

    2007-07-01

    A preliminary study on the safeguardability of the Korean Advanced Pyro-processing Facility (KAPF) was performed. The main processes of the facility include voloxidation, electrolytic reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and salt recycling with a transuranic (TRU) recovery process. The subprocesses and material flow of the conceptually designed KAPF with a unit capacity of 100 tHM/year were analysed, and subsequently, the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. Uncertainty in material accounting was evaluated with designed MBA and KMP, together with measurement uncertainties of analytic methods identified for the KAPF. It was found that the major safeguards challenges were Pu input accountability and U/Pu inventory measurement at each subprocess. The continuous association of Pu with Cm presents measurement options in both cases. It was concluded that a safeguards system for the KAPF could be designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's comprehensive safeguards objective. (authors)

  11. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  12. Electromagnetic containerless processing requirements and recommended facility concept and capabilities for space lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. T.; Bloom, H. L.; Napaluch, L. J.; Stockhoff, E. H.; Wouch, G.

    1974-01-01

    Containerless melting, reaction, and solidification experiments and processes which potentially can lead to new understanding of material science and production of new or improved materials in the weightless space environment are reviewed in terms of planning for spacelab. Most of the experiments and processes discussed are amenable to the employment of electromagnetic position control and electromagnetic induction or electron beam heating and melting. The spectrum of relevant properties of materials, which determine requirements for a space laboratory electromagnetic containerless processing facility are reviewed. Appropriate distributions and associated coil structures are analyzed and compared on the basis of efficiency, for providing the functions of position sensing, control, and induction heating. Several coil systems are found capable of providing these functions. Exchangeable modular coils in appropriate sizes are recommended to achieve the maximum power efficiencies, for a wide range of specimen sizes and resistivities, in order to conserve total facility power.

  13. Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    TRINER, G.C.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  14. Changes in Attitudes towards and Awareness of A Medical Waste Incinerator during the Facility Siting Process.

    PubMed

    Ostry; Hertzman; Marion

    1995-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of the process of siting a medical waste incinerator on knowledge and attitudes among subgroups within an adjacent community using a model of risk perception that conceptually divided the community into attitudinal and behavioral subgroups based on awareness and concern in relation to the planned facility. The study design was a one-year survey and a three-year postintervention survey conducted during the siting process. The authors also documented the siting process in order to relate siting inputs to attitudinal and knowledge changes within the community. After three years of promotion, 80% of the respondents remained unaware of the site. The authors conclude that it may be very difficult to engender awareness in affected communities and more difficult still to influence attitudes towards the proposed facility.

  15. The environmental impact assessment process for nuclear facilities: An examination of the Indian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, Divya Badami

    2010-07-15

    India plans to construct numerous nuclear plants and uranium mines across the country, which could have significant environmental, health, and social impacts. The national Environmental Impact Assessment process is supposed to regulate these impacts. This paper examines how effective this process has been, and the extent to which public inputs have been taken into account. In addition to generic problems associated with the EIA process for all kinds of projects in India, there are concerns that are specific to nuclear facilities. One is that some nuclear facilities are exempt from the environmental clearance process. The second is that data regarding radiation baseline levels and future releases, which is the principle environmental concern with respect to nuclear facilities, is controlled entirely by the nuclear establishment. The third is that members of the nuclear establishment take part in almost every level of the environmental clearance procedure. For these reasons and others, the EIA process with regard to nuclear projects in India is of dubious quality. We make a number of recommendations that could address these lacunae, and more generally the imbalance of power between the nuclear establishment on the one hand, and civil society and the regulatory agencies on the other.

  16. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report FY 2002 (October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary user centers: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing (including extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, and high-density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, and bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; and (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high-performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials databases A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state-of-the-art materials characterization capabilities, and high-performance computing to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized user-submitted proposal and a user agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provided free of charge

  17. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report: October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary User Centers including: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing including (extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, high density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials data bases. A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state of the art materials characterization capabilities, high performance computing, to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized User-submitted Proposal and a User Agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provides free of charge while

  18. Diagenetic processes in the plant-soil system and their implications for palaeo-reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungait, J.; Jia, G.; McClymont, E. L.; Bingham, E.; Väliranta, M.; Korhola, A.; Evershed, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived organic matter in soils and peats comprises mixtures of biomolecular components that can act as 'biomarkers' for their vegetative provenance. Different plant communities are adapted to specific environmental conditions, so this approach can be used to investigate a variety of questions about land-use and climate change over a range of timescales. For example, the abundance and distribution of long-chain aliphatic compounds, that are relatively hydrophobic and resistant to microbial decomposition, are widely used as evidence of colonisation by different groups of plants in either natural or managed contemporary environments [1]. Natural abundance or artificial 13C-labelling of plants is used to provide additional evidence for plant inputs, and to determine rates of turnover of soil C pools using compound-specific stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry [2]. However, the application of molecular approaches to palaeovegetation reconstruction is still relatively rare. Biomarkers for different vegetation types are particularly important when diagenetic processes result in the loss of plant macrofossils. Lipid biomarkers are the most commonly used [3], and their δ13C values can be used to determine shifts in palaeoclimate using changes in the contribution of C3 and C4 plant-derived compounds [4]. Carbohydrates are the major components of plant biomass, but their potential as biomarkers is usually disregarded due to their perceived rapid decomposition. However, recently, we showed that carbohydrate compositional parameters of modern bog-forming plants showed strong correspondence with fossil plant abundances in a peat core from Kontolanrahka Bog, Finland [5]. Subsequent application of the carbohydrate proxy to similar cores from Bissendorfer Moor, Germany, and Butterburn Flow, UK, has shown its potential to explore plant inputs in anaerobic terrestrial environments. [1] Dungait JAJ, Docherty G, Straker V, Evershed RP, 2010a. Phytochem 71:415. [2] Dungait JAJ

  19. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  20. Bit error rate performance of Image Processing Facility high density tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Image Processing Facility at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center uses High Density Tape Recorders (HDTR's) to transfer high volume image data and ancillary information from one system to another. For ancillary information, it is required that very low bit error rates (BER's) accompany the transfers. The facility processes about 10 to the 11th bits of image data per day from many sensors, involving 15 independent processing systems requiring the use of HDTR's. When acquired, the 16 HDTR's offered state-of-the-art performance of 1 x 10 to the -6th BER as specified. The BER requirement was later upgraded in two steps: (1) incorporating data randomizing circuitry to yield a BER of 2 x 10 to the -7th and (2) further modifying to include a bit error correction capability to attain a BER of 2 x 10 to the -9th. The total improvement factor was 500 to 1. Attention is given here to the background, technical approach, and final results of these modifications. Also discussed are the format of the data recorded by the HDTR, the magnetic tape format, the magnetic tape dropout characteristics as experienced in the Image Processing Facility, the head life history, and the reliability of the HDTR's.

  1. Payload/GSE/data system interface: Users guide for the VPF (Vertical Processing Facility)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Payload/GSE/data system interface users guide for the Vertical Processing Facility is presented. The purpose of the document is three fold. First, the simulated Payload and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Data System Interface, which is also known as the payload T-0 (T-Zero) System is described. This simulated system is located with the Cargo Integration Test Equipment (CITE) in the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) that is located in the KSC Industrial Area. The actual Payload T-0 System consists of the Orbiter, Mobile Launch Platforms (MLPs), and Launch Complex (LC) 39A and B. This is referred to as the Pad Payload T-0 System (Refer to KSC-DL-116 for Pad Payload T-0 System description). Secondly, information is provided to the payload customer of differences between this simulated system and the actual system. Thirdly, a reference guide of the VPF Payload T-0 System for both KSC and payload customer personnel is provided.

  2. Critical Protection Item Classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    As a part of its compliance with the Department of Energy requirements for safety of nuclear facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) assigns functional classifications to structures, systems and components (SSCs). As a result, changes in design, operations, maintenance, testing, and inspections of SSCs are performed and backfit requirements are established. This paper describes the Critical Protection Item (CPI) Classification for waste processing facility (WPF) at SRS. The descriptions of the WPF and the processes considered are provided elsewhere. The proposed CPI classification methodology includes the evaluation of the onsite radiological consequences, and the onsite and offsite non-radiological consequences from postulated accidents at the WPF, and comparison of these consequences with allowable frequency-dependent limits. When allowable limits are exceeded, CPIs are identified for accident mitigation.

  3. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  4. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  5. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  6. Industrial waste treatment process engineering. Volume 1: Facility evaluation and pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problems based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 1 include: pollution prevention evaluation; preliminary central treatment evaluation; waste treatment system process design; equalization; chemical processes; chemical precipitation; chemical oxidation-reduction; neutralization and pH control; coagulation/flocculation; and flotation.

  7. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  8. Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor: A Near-Real-Time Monitor For Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The threat of protracted diversion of Pu from commercial reprocessing operations is perhaps the greatest concern to national and international agencies tasked with safeguarding these facilities. While it is generally understood that a method for direct monitoring of process on-line and in near-real time (NRT) would be the best defense against protracted diversion scenarios, an effective method with these qualities has yet to be developed. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an on-line NRT process monitoring method that should be sensitive to minor alterations in process conditions and compatible with small, easily deployable, detection systems. This Approach is known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and involves the determination and recognition of the contaminant pattern within a process stream for a suite of indicator (radioactive) elements present in the spent fuel as a function of process variables. Utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, decreases the likelihood that attempts to divert Pu by altering the ReDox environment within the process would go undetected. In addition, by identifying gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, this Approach might eliminate the need for bulky neutron detection systems, relying instead on small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors easily deployable throughout the facility.

  9. Adaptive algorithms of position and energy reconstruction in Anger-camera type detectors: experimental data processing in ANTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Defendi, I.; Engels, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Gongadze, A.; Guerard, B.; Jurkovic, M.; Kemmerling, G.; Manzin, G.; Margato, L. M. S.; Niko, H.; Pereira, L.; Petrillo, C.; Peyaud, A.; Piscitelli, F.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N. J.; Sacchetti, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Solovov, V.; Van Esch, P.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2013-05-01

    The software package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations), developed for simulation of Anger-type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging was extended to include a module for experimental data processing. Data recorded with a sensor array containing up to 100 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) in a custom configuration can be loaded and the positions and energies of the events can be reconstructed using the Center-of-Gravity, Maximum Likelihood or Least Squares algorithm. A particular strength of the new module is the ability to reconstruct the light response functions and relative gains of the photomultipliers from flood field illumination data using adaptive algorithms. The performance of the module is demonstrated with simulated data generated in ANTS and experimental data recorded with a 19 PMT neutron detector. The package executables are publicly available at http://coimbra.lip.pt/~andrei/

  10. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  11. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, is moved to KSC Orbiter Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is towed by nose landing gear via ground cart into the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF). During its servicing in the OPF, OV-103's orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods will be installed. OV-103 will be moved to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) (visible in the background) when OPF maintenance procedures are completed. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-89PC-659.

  12. [Importance of health information systems in the process of reform and reconstruction of health care].

    PubMed

    Ridanović, Z

    1998-01-01

    Reform and reconstruction of health care system can not be carried out without health information systems and modern information and communication technologies. In other hand, health information system of The Federation of BiH must be an object of both reform and reconstruction. This thesis points out that reform of health information system is a crucial priorities in order to improve and fasten reform. There is a paradigmatic question: who provides service, to whom, what is the price, and what is the final solution? In order to answer this question, an integral health information system that will be computer supported is necessary. For integral work and information exchange, computers must be connected and follow the same operating procedures. Benefits of an integral health information system, as well as impact factors for its implementation are discussed in the paper. PMID:9623089

  13. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  14. Advanced system experimental facility: solid waste to methane gas. Background and process description

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, R.; Pfeffer, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Refuse Conversion to Methane Facility in Pompano Beach, Florida, a 100-ton/day experimental plant to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to methane for fuel, has been built and is being tested. The facility has been designed to assess the technical merit of anaerobic digestion of the MSW process. Approximately 40 ton/day of volatile solids are fed to the digesters; of this, about 25 ton/day will be converted to gases. For each pound of volatile solids destroyed, 6.6 std. ft/sup 3/ of methane gas and 6.6 std. ft/sup 3/ of CO/sub 2/ will be produced. Thus, the plant will yield approximately 330,000 std. ft/sup 3//day each of methane and CO/sub 2/. This project provides a critical test of the most important process variables, thus allowing judgments to be made on scale-up considerations. The successful operation of this facility will yield information with a significant impact on potential commercial-scale plant developments. The background and theory involved in applying this technology to MSW, as well as details of the specific process line, are presented.

  15. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level.

  16. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

  17. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, March--May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-06-01

    The project described in this report was the result of a Memorandum of Cooperation between the US and the former-USSR following the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. A joint program was established to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. The task of Working Group 7 was ``to develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (Biospheric Model Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains. In the future, this project will be considered separately from the Chernobyl Studies Project and the essential activities of former Task 7.1D will be folded within the broader umbrella of the BIOMOVS and VAMP projects. The Working Group Leader of Task 7.1D will continue to provide oversight for this project.

  18. Comparison of doses and risks obtained from dose reconstructions for historical operations of federal facilities that supported the development, production, or testing of nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Reed, E W; Thiessen, K M; Hoffman, F O; Apostoaei, A I

    2003-06-01

    Five dose reconstruction projects focusing on historical public exposures from U.S. government nuclear facilities have been completed in the last 12 y (Fernald, Hanford, Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats). Using information available in published reports, doses and excess health risks of the most serious contaminants in each study are compared for representative maximally and typically exposed individuals. For both the representative maximally exposed individual and the representative typically exposed individual, the highest excess risks of cancer incidence were from 131I released from Hanford, Nevada Test Site, and Oak Ridge and 222Rn released from Fernald (with central estimates for maximally exposed individuals approaching or exceeding 10(-2)); the lowest risks for both maximally and typically exposed individuals were from 239/240Pu and carbon tetrachloride released from Rocky Flats. Excess health risks to the representative maximally exposed individual were at or below 10(-40 for releases from Rocky Flats. For representative typically exposed individuals, the excess risks from releases of mixed radionuclides in the Clinch River (Oak Ridge), PCBs in East Fork Poplar Creek (Oak Ridge), and both plutonium and carbon tetrachloride released from Rocky Flats were mostly below 10(-5). PMID:12822578

  19. Potential applications of fusion neutral beam facilities for advanced material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Surface processing techniques involving high energy ion implantation have achieved commercial success for semiconductors and biomaterials. However, wider use has been limited in good part by economic factors, some of which are related to the line-of-sight nature of the beam implantation process. Plasma source ion implantation is intended to remove some of the limitations imposed by directionality of beam systems and also to help provide economies of scale. The present paper will outline relevant technologies and areas of expertise that exist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in relation to possible future needs in materials processing. Experience in generation of plasmas, control of ionization states, pulsed extraction, and sheath physics exists. Contributions to future technology can be made either for the immersion mode or for the extracted beam mode. Existing facilities include the High Power Test Facility, which could conservatively operate at 1 A of continuous current at 100 kV delivered to areas of about 1 m{sup 2}. Higher instantaneous voltages and currents are available with a reduced duty cycle. Another facility, the High Heat Flux Facility can supply a maximum of 60 kV and currents of up to 60 A for 2 s on a 10% duty cycle. Plasmas may be generated by use of microwaves, radio-frequency induction or other methods and plasma properties may be tailored to suit specific needs. In addition to ion implantation of large steel components, foreseeable applications include ion implantation of polymers, ion implantation of Ti alloys, Al alloys, or other reactive surfaces.

  20. Space Station microgravity and materials processing facility A national laboratory dedicated to U.S. interests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.; Pevey, E. R.; Mookherji, T.

    1986-01-01

    The Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (MMPF) of the Space Station is examined. The MMPF is designed to accommodate individual experiments and associated hardware and is to be housed in the Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory Module. The objectives of the microgravity and materials processing study and the user, experiment/equipment, MMPF system requirements, and programmatics and planning development tasks of the study are described. Consideration is given to the acceleration environment, on-orbit sample preparation and analysis, mission-time-line analyses, and payload complement trades. Diagrams of the MMPF are presented.

  1. A process for establishing a financial assurance plan for LLW disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1993-04-01

    This document describes a process by which an effective financial assurance program can be developed for new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The report identifies examples of activities that might cause financial losses and the types of losses they might create, discusses mechanisms that could be used to quantify and ensure against the various types of potential losses identified and describes a decision process to formulate a financial assurance program that takes into account the characteristics of both the potential losses and available mechanisms. A sample application of the concepts described in the report is provided.

  2. Startup of Savannah River`s Defense Waste Processing Facility to produce radioactive glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.M.

    1997-08-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) began production of radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) in 1996 following an extensive test program discussed earlier. Currently DWPF is operating in a `sludge only` mode to produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge and glass frit. Future operations will produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of processing activities to date, operational problems encountered since entering radioactive operations, and the programs underway to solve them.

  3. Containerless Processing in Reduced Gravity Using the TEMPUS Facility during MSL-1 and MSL-1R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.

    1998-01-01

    Containerless processing provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, very reactive materials. It is an important method which provides access to the metastable state of an undercooled melt. In the absence of container walls, the nucleation rate is greatly reduced and undercooling up to (Tm-Tn)/Tm approx. equal to 0.2 can be obtained, where Tm and Tn are the melting and nucleation temperatures, respectively. Electromagnetic levitation represents a method particularly well-suited for the study of metallic melts. The TEMPUS (Tiegelfreies ElektroMagnetisches Prozessieren Unter Schwerelosgkeit) facility is a research instrument designed to perform electromagnetic levitation studies in reduced gravity. TEMPUS is a joint undertaking between DARA, the German Space Agency, and the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center provides the leadership for scientific and management efforts which support the four US PI teams which performed experiments in the TEMPUS facility. The facility is sensitive to accelerations in the 1-10 Hz range. This became evident during the MSL-1 mission. Analysis of accelerometer and video data indicated that loss of sample control occurred during crew exercise periods which created disturbances in this frequency range. Prior to the MSL-1R flight the TEMPUS team, the accelerometer support groups and the mission operations team developed a strategy to provide for the operation of the facility without such disturbances. The successful implementation of this plan led to the highly successful operation of this facility during MSL-1R.

  4. Dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes colonisation in a newly-opened meat processing facility.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Borda, Daniela; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Stessl, Beatrix; Gurgu, Leontina; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    This study determined the colonisation scenario of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly-opened ready-to-eat meat processing facility using a combination of classical microbiology and molecular biology techniques. Samples (n=183), including food contact surfaces, non-food contact surfaces, raw materials and food samples, collected on four sampling occasions, were analysed for L. monocytogenes by the ISO 11290:1996 standard method and by real-time PCR applied to the second enrichment broth from the ISO method. No L. monocytogenes were detected on the first sampling occasion, but by the second sampling occasion a persistent clone had colonised the facility. Analysis of the second enrichment of the ISO method by real-time PCR was more sensitive for the detection of L. monocytogenes than the ISO method alone. In order to reduce the risk of cross contamination and the public health risk, awareness and proactive measures are required to control L. monocytogenes from the first days of production in a newly opened meat processing facility.

  5. DOE final report, phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.

    1998-01-07

    This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented.

  6. A knowledge acquisition process to analyse operational problems in solid waste management facilities.

    PubMed

    Dokas, Ioannis M; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios C

    2006-08-01

    The available expertise on managing and operating solid waste management (SWM) facilities varies among countries and among types of facilities. Few experts are willing to record their experience, while few researchers systematically investigate the chains of events that could trigger operational failures in a facility; expertise acquisition and dissemination, in SWM, is neither popular nor easy, despite the great need for it. This paper presents a knowledge acquisition process aimed at capturing, codifying and expanding reliable expertise and propagating it to non-experts. The knowledge engineer (KE), the person performing the acquisition, must identify the events (or causes) that could trigger a failure, determine whether a specific event could trigger more than one failure, and establish how various events are related among themselves and how they are linked to specific operational problems. The proposed process, which utilizes logic diagrams (fault trees) widely used in system safety and reliability analyses, was used for the analysis of 24 common landfill operational problems. The acquired knowledge led to the development of a web-based expert system (Landfill Operation Management Advisor, http://loma.civil.duth.gr), which estimates the occurrence possibility of operational problems, provides advice and suggests solutions.

  7. Dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes colonisation in a newly-opened meat processing facility.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Borda, Daniela; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Stessl, Beatrix; Gurgu, Leontina; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    This study determined the colonisation scenario of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly-opened ready-to-eat meat processing facility using a combination of classical microbiology and molecular biology techniques. Samples (n=183), including food contact surfaces, non-food contact surfaces, raw materials and food samples, collected on four sampling occasions, were analysed for L. monocytogenes by the ISO 11290:1996 standard method and by real-time PCR applied to the second enrichment broth from the ISO method. No L. monocytogenes were detected on the first sampling occasion, but by the second sampling occasion a persistent clone had colonised the facility. Analysis of the second enrichment of the ISO method by real-time PCR was more sensitive for the detection of L. monocytogenes than the ISO method alone. In order to reduce the risk of cross contamination and the public health risk, awareness and proactive measures are required to control L. monocytogenes from the first days of production in a newly opened meat processing facility. PMID:26599913

  8. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  9. Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility industrial process heat, category A. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, P.; Brzeczek, M.; Seilestad, H.; Silverman, C.; Yenetchi, G.

    1981-07-01

    The conceptual design of a central receiver solar cogeneration facility at a California oil field is described. The process of selecting the final cogeneration system configuration is described and the various system level and subsystem level tradeoff studies are presented, including the system configuration study, technology options, and system sizing. The facility is described, and the functional aspects, requirements operational characteristics, and performance are discussed. Capital and operating costs, safety, environmental, regulatory issues and potential limiting considerations for the design are included. Each subsystem is described in detail including a discussion of the functional requirements, design, operating characteristics performance estimates and a top level cost estimate. An economic assessment is performed to determine the near-term economic viability of the project and to examine the impact of variations in major economic parameters such as capital and operating and maintenance costs on economic viability. Two measures of economic viability used are levelized energy cost and net present value.

  10. Fluids and Combustion Facility Acoustic Emissions Controlled by Aggressive Low-Noise Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Young, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a dual-rack microgravity research facility that is being developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology (NGIT) for the International Space Station (ISS) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. As an on-orbit test bed, FCF will host a succession of experiments in fluid and combustion physics. The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) must meet ISS acoustic emission requirements (ref. 1), which support speech communication and hearing-loss-prevention goals for ISS crew. To meet these requirements, the NGIT acoustics team implemented an aggressive low-noise design effort that incorporated frequent acoustic emission testing for all internal noise sources, larger-scale systems, and fully integrated racks (ref. 2). Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ref. 3) provided acoustical testing services (see the following photograph) as well as specialized acoustical engineering support as part of the low-noise design process (ref. 4).

  11. Integration of distributed plant process computer systems to nuclear power generation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, T.; Finlay, K.

    1996-11-01

    Many operating nuclear power generation facilities are replacing their plant process computer. Such replacement projects are driven by equipment obsolescence issues and associated objectives to improve plant operability, increase plant information access, improve man machine interface characteristics, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes a few recently completed and on-going replacement projects with emphasis upon the application integrated distributed plant process computer systems. By presenting a few recent projects, the variations of distributed systems design show how various configurations can address needs for flexibility, open architecture, and integration of technological advancements in instrumentation and control technology. Architectural considerations for optimal integration of the plant process computer and plant process instrumentation & control are evident from variations of design features.

  12. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  13. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes in Seafood Processing Facilities and Smoked Salmon in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Zaouali, Sarah; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare but life-threatening disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the seafood processing industry in the Republic of Ireland. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was determined by regular sampling of both food samples and processing environment swabs at eight seafood processing facilities over two calendar years. All samples were analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1 standard method, and the isolates were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, serotyping, and the occurrence of some genes related to survival under stress (SSI-1, Tn6188, and bcrABC). A prevalence of 2.5% in 508 samples (433 environmental swabs and 75 food samples) was found. From the isolates obtained, eight different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified, two occurring in more than one facility and one occurring in food and the environment. Five of the eight pulsotypes identified contained at least one of the three stress survival-related genes tested. The tolerance of the isolates to benzalkonium chloride, a representative quaternary ammonium compound, was also examined and ranged from 5.5 ± 0.5 to 8.5 ± 0.5 ppm of benzalkonium chloride. To evaluate the ability of smoked salmon to support the growth of L. monocytogenes, including the T4 widespread pulsotype that was isolated, a challenge test was performed on cold-smoked salmon obtained from two separate producers. The results showed clearly that both types of smoked salmon supported the growth of L. monocytogenes. Although occurrence of L. monocytogenes on seafood was low, this study showed that the smoked salmon used in this study can support the growth of L. monocytogenes; therefore, vigilance is required in the processing facilities to reduce the associated risk.

  14. Modelling of post-fragmentation waste stream processing within UK shredder facilities.

    PubMed

    Coates, Gareth; Rahimifard, Shahin

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of producer responsibility legislation within the UK (i.e., waste electrical and electronic equipment directive and end-of-life vehicles directive), specific recycling and recovery targets have been imposed to improve the sustainability of end-of-life products. With the introduction of these targets, and the increased investment in post-fragmentation facilities, automated material separation technologies are playing an integral role within the UK's end-of-life waste management strategy. Post-fragmentation facilities utilise a range of purification technologies that target certain material attributes (e.g., density, magnetism, volume) to isolate materials from the shredded waste stream. High ferrous prices have historically meant that UK facilities have been primarily interested in recovering iron and steel, establishing processing routes that are very effective at removing these material types, but as a consequence are extremely rigid and inflexible. With the proliferation of more exotic materials within end-of-life products, combined with more stringent recycling targets, there is therefore a need to optimise the current waste reclamation processes to better realise effort-to-value returns. This paper provides a background as to the current post-fragmentation processing adopted within the UK, and describes the development of a post-fragmentation modelling approach, capable of simulating the value-added processing that a piece of automated separation equipment can have on a fragmented waste stream. These include the modelling of the inefficiencies of the technology, the effects of material entanglement on separation, determination of typical material sizing and an appreciation for compositional value. The implementation of this approach within a software decision-support system is described, before the limitations, calibration and further validation of the approach are discussed. PMID:18472415

  15. Gains in efficiency and scientific potential of continental climate reconstruction provided by the LRC LacCore Facility, University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, A.; Brady, K.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

    2007-12-01

    , and stores metadata and analytical data for all cores processed at the facility. Any researcher may submit sample requests for material in archived cores. Supplies for field (e.g., polycarbonate pipe, endcaps), lab (e.g., sample containers, pollen sample spike), and curation (e.g., D-tubes) are sold at cost. In collaboration with facility users, staff continually develop new equipment, supplies, and procedures as needed in order to provide the best and most comprehensive set of services to the research community.

  16. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  17. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  18. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  19. 30 CFR 910.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a mine. 910.827 Section 910.827 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 910.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at...

  20. 30 CFR 947.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a mine. 947.827 Section 947.827 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 947.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at...

  1. 30 CFR 937.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a mine. 937.827 Section 937.827 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 937.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at...

  2. 30 CFR 922.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a mine. 922.827 Section 922.827 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 922.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at...

  3. 30 CFR 912.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a mine. 912.827 Section 912.827 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 912.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at...

  4. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  5. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  6. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  7. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  8. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Cradled in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System, the Chandra X-ray Observatory waits to be moved inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Chandra arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  9. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers (left) drive, by remote control, the rear bogie away from the VPF. The bogie is part of the tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System that helped move the Chandra X-ray Observatory (right) from the Shuttle Landing Facility into the VPF. Chandra arrived at KSC on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  10. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Cradled in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System, the Chandra X-ray Observatory reaches the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Chandra arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  11. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  12. Putative Cross-Contamination Routes of Listeria monocytogenes in a Meat Processing Facility in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Jordan, Kieran; Nicolau, Anca Ioana

    2015-09-01

    Putative routes of Listeria monocytogenes contamination, based on the workflow of the employees, were studied in a meat processing facility by investigating 226 samples collected from food contact surfaces, non-food contact surfaces, raw materials, and ready-to-eat meat products on four occasions over a 1-year period. In total, 19.7% of non-food contact surfaces, 22.9% of food contact surfaces, 45% of raw materials, and 20% of ready-to-eat meat products were positive for L. monocytogenes (analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization standard method ISO 11290). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were determined for a representative subset of these isolates, and 11 distinct pulsotypes were identified, two of which were frequently isolated (T4 and T8) and considered persistent. Strains from the various pulsotypes were screened for the presence of bcrABC and qacH, the genes responsible for tolerance responses to quaternary ammonium compounds. Two strains harbored bcrABC, and these strains had a higher benzalkonium chloride tolerance; however, they were not considered persistent strains. The frequently isolated PFGE pulsotype T8 strains were highly adhesive to abiotic surfaces at 10 and 20°C; however, the pulsotype T6 strain, which was isolated only at the last sampling time, had the highest adhesion ability, and the pulsotype T4 strain (the second most persistent pulsotype) had only modest adhesion. Four putative cross-contamination routes were confirmed by mapping the persistent and other isolates. This information could allow a food safety manager to adjust the work flow to improve the hygienic conditions in a meat processing facility. This study revealed the prevalence and persistence of L. monocytogenes strains in a meat processing facility and established the importance of developing strategies to avoid cross-contamination, recalls, and outbreaks of listeriosis.

  13. Decisional tool to assess current and future process robustness in an antibody purification facility.

    PubMed

    Stonier, Adam; Simaria, Ana Sofia; Smith, Martin; Farid, Suzanne S

    2012-07-01

    Increases in cell culture titers in existing facilities have prompted efforts to identify strategies that alleviate purification bottlenecks while controlling costs. This article describes the application of a database-driven dynamic simulation tool to identify optimal purification sizing strategies and visualize their robustness to future titer increases. The tool harnessed the benefits of MySQL to capture the process, business, and risk features of multiple purification options and better manage the large datasets required for uncertainty analysis and optimization. The database was linked to a discrete-event simulation engine so as to model the dynamic features of biopharmaceutical manufacture and impact of resource constraints. For a given titer, the tool performed brute force optimization so as to identify optimal purification sizing strategies that minimized the batch material cost while maintaining the schedule. The tool was applied to industrial case studies based on a platform monoclonal antibody purification process in a multisuite clinical scale manufacturing facility. The case studies assessed the robustness of optimal strategies to batch-to-batch titer variability and extended this to assess the long-term fit of the platform process as titers increase from 1 to 10 g/L, given a range of equipment sizes available to enable scale intensification efforts. Novel visualization plots consisting of multiple Pareto frontiers with tie-lines connecting the position of optimal configurations over a given titer range were constructed. These enabled rapid identification of robust purification configurations given titer fluctuations and the facility limit that the purification suites could handle in terms of the maximum titer and hence harvest load. PMID:22641562

  14. Decisional tool to assess current and future process robustness in an antibody purification facility.

    PubMed

    Stonier, Adam; Simaria, Ana Sofia; Smith, Martin; Farid, Suzanne S

    2012-07-01

    Increases in cell culture titers in existing facilities have prompted efforts to identify strategies that alleviate purification bottlenecks while controlling costs. This article describes the application of a database-driven dynamic simulation tool to identify optimal purification sizing strategies and visualize their robustness to future titer increases. The tool harnessed the benefits of MySQL to capture the process, business, and risk features of multiple purification options and better manage the large datasets required for uncertainty analysis and optimization. The database was linked to a discrete-event simulation engine so as to model the dynamic features of biopharmaceutical manufacture and impact of resource constraints. For a given titer, the tool performed brute force optimization so as to identify optimal purification sizing strategies that minimized the batch material cost while maintaining the schedule. The tool was applied to industrial case studies based on a platform monoclonal antibody purification process in a multisuite clinical scale manufacturing facility. The case studies assessed the robustness of optimal strategies to batch-to-batch titer variability and extended this to assess the long-term fit of the platform process as titers increase from 1 to 10 g/L, given a range of equipment sizes available to enable scale intensification efforts. Novel visualization plots consisting of multiple Pareto frontiers with tie-lines connecting the position of optimal configurations over a given titer range were constructed. These enabled rapid identification of robust purification configurations given titer fluctuations and the facility limit that the purification suites could handle in terms of the maximum titer and hence harvest load.

  15. First Results from the CARIBU Facility: Mass Measurements on the r-Process Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Bertone, P. F.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Morgan, G. E.; Orford, R.; Segel, R. E.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the Sn132 double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A=135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100 ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations.

  16. An ecological perspective of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms in food processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Cutter, Catherine N

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can enter the food chain at virtually any point. However, food processing environments seem to be of particular importance. From an ecological point of view, food processing facilities are microbial habitats that are constantly disturbed by cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Although L. monocytogenes is considered ubiquitous in nature, it is important to recognize that not all L. monocytogenes strains appear to be equally distributed; the distribution of the organism seems to be related to certain habitats. Currently, no direct evidence exists that L. monocytogenes-associated biofilms have played a role in food contamination or foodborne outbreaks, likely because biofilm isolation and identification are not part of an outbreak investigation, or the definition of biofilm is unclear. Because L. monocytogenes is known to colonize surfaces, we suggest that contamination patterns may be studied in the context of how biofilm formation is influenced by the environment within food processing facilities. In this review, direct and indirect epidemiological and phenotypic evidence of lineage-related biofilm formation capacity to specific ecological niches will be discussed. A critical view on the development of the biofilm concept, focused on the practical implications, strengths, and weaknesses of the current definitions also is discussed. The idea that biofilm formation may be an alternative surrogate for microbial fitness is proposed. Furthermore, current research on the influence of environmental factors on biofilm formation is discussed.

  17. Process control through the incorporation of PLC networks in service radiation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, J. H. F.

    In order to ensure the smooth and safe running and operation of an irradiation facility, several regulations must be complied with, most of which are prescribed by the authorities. However, internal working regulations, based on years of practical experience, are of equal importance. The application of computers, micro-processors and PLCs, in combination with semi-conductor electronics, has improved process control considerably. Not only can every step in the process and even each detailed function be controlled, but also the combination of the different functions. By using PLC-systems in combination with computers, important data can be stored, recorded and presented in such a way that the technical staff can be warned in advance of breakdowns or undesirable deviations in the process parameters. Keeping a log of these data will help guarantee the correct functioning of the irradiation facility. It is even possible with these modern PLC techniques to monitor the control-console, so that each operation is recorded and accessible.

  18. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  19. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  20. Radioactive Air Emmission Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-12-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07 for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. The rewrite of this NOC incorporates all the approved revisions (Sections 5.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0), a revised potential to emit (PTE) based on the revised maximally exposed individual (MEI) (Sections 8.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, and 15.0), the results of a study on fugitive emissions (Sections 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0), and reflects the current operating conditions at the WRAP Facility (Section 5.0). This NOC replaces DOE/RL-93-15 and DOE/RL-93-16 in their entirety. The primary function of the WRAP Facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, verify, and repackage radioactive material and mixed waste. There are two sources of emissions from the WRAP Facility: stack emissions and fugitive emissions. The stack emissions have an unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 1.13 E+02 millirem per year. The abated TEDE for the stack emissions is estimated at 5.63 E-02 millirem per year to the MEI. The fugitive emissions have an unabated TEDE estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 5.87 E-04. There is no abatement for the fugitive emissions.

  1. Work continues on Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), work continues on the U.S. Lab module, Destiny, which is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the International Space Station. Destiny shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The SRTM is targeted for launch on mission STS-99 in September 1999. Leonardo is scheduled to launch on mission STS- 102 in June 2000.

  2. STS-35 Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) telescopes at KSC processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Astronomy Laboratory 1 (ASTRO-1) payload is processed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) facility. In the foreground, mounted on a two-axis pointing system (TAPS) is the Broad Band X Ray Telescope (BBXRT). Only one of the three ultraviolet telescopes mounted on the instrument pointing system (IPS) is visible - the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). Above the UIT is a star tracker (AST). ASTRO-1 telescopes on unpressurized pallets (u-pallets) will be inserted in Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, payload bay (PLB). The STS-35 payload is the first horizontal payload flown since late 1985. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-90PC-398.

  3. DEIReconstructor: a software for diffraction enhanced imaging processing and tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Qing-Xi; Huang, Wan-Xia; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) has been widely applied in many fields, especially when imaging low-Z samples or when the difference in the attenuation coefficient between different regions in the sample is too small to be detected. Recent developments of this technique have presented a need for a new software package for data analysis. Here, the Diffraction Enhanced Image Reconstructor (DEIReconstructor), developed in Matlab, is presented. DEIReconstructor has a user-friendly graphical user interface and runs under any of the 32-bit or 64-bit Microsoft Windows operating systems including XP and Win7. Many of its features are integrated to support imaging preprocessing, extract absorption, refractive and scattering information of diffraction enhanced imaging and allow for parallel-beam tomography reconstruction for DEI-CT. Furthermore, many other useful functions are also implemented in order to simplify the data analysis and the presentation of results. The compiled software package is freely available.

  4. Design of a lunar propellant processing facility. NASA/USRA advanced program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batra, Rajesh; Bell, Jason; Campbell, J. Matt; Cash, Tom; Collins, John; Dailey, Brian; France, Angelique; Gareau, Will; Gleckler, Mark; Hamilton, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Mankind's exploration of space will eventually lead to the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. Essential to the economic viability of such an undertaking will be prudent utilization of indigenous lunar resources. The design of a lunar propellant processing system is presented. The system elements include facilities for ore processing, ice transportation, water splitting, propellant storage, personnel and materials transportation, human habitation, power generation, and communications. The design scenario postulates that ice is present in the lunar polar regions, and that an initial lunar outpost was established. Mining, ore processing, and water transportation operations are located in the polar regions. Water processing and propellant storage facilities are positioned near the equator. A general description of design operations is outlined below. Regolith containing the ice is mined from permanently-shaded polar craters. Water is separated from the ore using a microwave processing technique, and refrozen into projectiles for launch to the equatorial site via railgun. A mass-catching device retrieves the ice. This ice is processed using fractional distillation to remove impurities, and the purified liquid water is fed to an electrolytic cell that splits the water into vaporous hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are condensed and stored separately in a tank farm. Electric power for all operations is supplied by SP-100 nuclear reactors. Transportation of materials and personnel is accomplished primarily using chemical rockets. Modular living habitats are used which provide flexibility for the placement and number of personnel. A communications system consisting of lunar surface terminals, a lunar relay satellite, and terrestrial surface stations provides capabilities for continuous Moon-Moon and Moon-Earth transmissions of voice, picture, and data.

  5. Recent Process and Equipment Improvements to Increase High Level Waste Throughput at The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Driscoll, R.J.; Barnes, A.B.; Coleman, J.R.; Glover, T.L.; Hopkins, R.C.; Iverson, D.C.; Leita, J.N.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in an 8 % waste throughput increase over the standard 28 % waste loading based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (7 %), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2 %), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2 %) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3 %) for a total increase in canister production of 14 %. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed. (authors)

  6. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  8. Salmonella collected from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Shaw, J D; Harrison, M A

    2012-09-01

    Salmonella, a member of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Salmonella. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to a central processing facility before they are washed, graded, and packed. Two plants in the Southeastern United States were sampled; one was a mixed operation and the other was an off-line operation. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n = 25/visit). A 12 × 12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Each swab was preenriched in buffered peptone at 37°C for 24 h, selectively enriched using TT and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth at 42°C overnight, then plated onto brilliant green sulfa and XLT-4 incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive colonies were transferred to lysine iron agar and triple sugar iron slants for 24 h at 37°C. Isolates with presumptive reactions were confirmed using commercial polyclonal antisera. After initial confirmation, serogrouping was performed using commercial antisera. Mixed-operation swab samples were 12% positive for Salmonella, whereas off-line samples were 36% positive for Salmonella; isolates were confirmed as serogroups B, C1, and C2. Kauffman-White serotyping was performed by a contract laboratory. Serotypes (n = 30) recovered were Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandanka, and Typhimurium. This work demonstrated that nest run egg carts may serve as reservoirs for Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment.

  9. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  10. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  11. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3). PMID:17905489

  12. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3).

  13. TRENTA Facility for Trade-Off Studies Between Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange and Cryogenic Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I.R.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Welte, S.; Kveton, O.; Murdoch, D

    2005-07-15

    One of the most used methods for tritium recovery from different sources of tritiated water is based on the combination between Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) and Cryogenic Distillation (CD) processes. The development, i.e. configuration, design and performance testing of critical components, of a tritium recovery system based on the combination CECE-CD is essential for both JET and ITER. For JET, a Water Detritiation System (WDS) is not only needed to process tritiated water which has already been accumulated from operation, but also for the tritiated water which will be generated during decommissioning. For ITER, the WDS is one of the key systems to control the tritium content in the effluents streams, to recover as much tritium as possible and consequently to minimize the impact on the environment. A cryogenic distillation facility with the aim to investigate the trade-off between CECE-CD, to validate different components and mathematical modelling software is current under development at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as an extension of the existing CECE facility.

  14. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Day, Gregory A.; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Deubner, David C.; Kent, Michael S.; Schuler, Christine R.; Virji, M. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  15. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  16. The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  17. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Frey, Eric C.; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  18. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Barrett, Harrison H; Frey, Eric C; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A

    2015-09-21

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  19. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Barrett, Harrison H; Frey, Eric C; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A

    2015-09-21

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  20. Paleotemperature reconstruction for freeze-thaw processes during the late Pleistocene through the Holocene

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovsky, V.E.; Maximova, L.N.; Seregina, N.V.

    1992-03-01

    Variations in ground surface temperatures for different regions of the USSR were studied using the basic principles of Milankovitch global climate-change theory and harmonic analysis with cycle periods of 200, 100, 41, 21, and 11 thousand years (ka). The amplitude of these cycles has been calculated based on the following assumptions: (1) Climatic rhythms are represented as sinusoidal variations of temperature with periods of 200 (T), 100 (T 1), 41 (T2), 21 (T3) and 11 (T4) ka. (2) Minima of harmonics T1 and T2 occurred between 25 and 26 ka ago, while minima of period T3 occurred between 22 and 23 ka ago; in addition, maxima of periods TI and T4 were 5 ka ago. (3) Northern hemisphere deviations from present day temperatures during the last cold epoch were up to 9 deg C in high latitudes, ice-free areas and 5 deg C for lower latitudes; during the last warm epoch, these values were 4 and 2 deg C, respectively. Harmonics T2, T3 and T4 were combined in an attempt to refine the paleotemperature variations in different regions of the USSR from the late Pleistocene to the present. This long-term model is tested with a series of computer simulations of perennial freezing that show good agreement with reconstructions of paleopermafrost distribution and with its present vertical structure.

  1. Cancer mortality in counties near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania, 1950-1995.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2003-12-01

    There has been concern that living near nuclear installations might increase the risk of cancer, including childhood leukemia, in surrounding communities. Such concern has been voiced by residents in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties in Western Pennsylvania in conjunction with the operation of two former nuclear materials processing facilities located in the Apollo borough and the Parks township, just three miles apart. These facilities began operating in 1957 and 1960 and processed uranium and plutonium for commercial and naval applications. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer rates in communities around the Apollo-Parks nuclear facilities, a cancer incidence and a cancer mortality survey were conducted. The county mortality findings are reported here. Nearly 40,000 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties from 1950 through 1995. Each of these two study counties was matched for comparison to three control counties in the same region on the basis of age, race, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors available from the 1990 U.S. Census. There were over 77,000 cancer deaths in the 6 control counties during the 45 y studied. Following similar methods used by the National Cancer Institute, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates of the United States. Relative risks (RR) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. There were no significant increases in the study counties for any cancer when comparisons were made with either the U.S. population or the control counties. In particular, deaths due to cancers of the lung, bone, liver, and kidney were not more frequent in the study counties than in the control counties. These are the cancers of a priori interest given that uranium and/or plutonium might be expected to

  2. Development of a national estimate of methane emissions from United States natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, A. J.; Robinson, A. L.; Zimmerle, D.; Vaughn, T. L.; Martinez, D. M.; Williams, L.; Mitchell, A.; Subramanian, R.; Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    New facility-level methane emissions measurements obtained from 114 natural gas gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in 13 U.S. states were combined with facility counts obtained from state and national databases in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate methane emissions from U.S. natural gas gathering and processing operations. Total annual methane emissions of 2,421 (+245/-237) Gg were estimated for all U.S. gathering and processing operations, representing a methane loss rate of 0.47% (±0.05%) when normalized by 2012 CH4 production. The largest source of emissions from gathering and processing operations were attributed to normal operation of gathering facilities (1,697 +189/-185 Gg). The methane emissions from processing plants (506 +55/-52 Gg) was 40% lower than the 2014 EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate but a factor of three higher than that reported under the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Since gathering operations are currently embedded within the production segment of the EPA GHGI, field observations equipment counts at gathering facilities were used to estimate the fraction of the methane emissions in the EPA production inventory to assign to gathering facilities. Based on this analysis, the study results suggest that methane emissions from gathering facilities could be as high as eight times that of the EPA GHGI estimate. Because methane emissions from most gathering facilities are not reported under the current rule and not all source categories are reported for processing plants, the total CH4 emissions from gathering and processing reported under the EPA GHGRP (180 Gg) represents only 14% of that tabulated in the EPA GHGI and 7% of that predicted from this study.

  3. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  4. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  5. A workflow to process 3D+time microscopy images of developing organisms and reconstruct their cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Faure, Emmanuel; Savy, Thierry; Rizzi, Barbara; Melani, Camilo; Stašová, Olga; Fabrèges, Dimitri; Špir, Róbert; Hammons, Mark; Čúnderlík, Róbert; Recher, Gaëlle; Lombardot, Benoît; Duloquin, Louise; Colin, Ingrid; Kollár, Jozef; Desnoulez, Sophie; Affaticati, Pierre; Maury, Benoît; Boyreau, Adeline; Nief, Jean-Yves; Calvat, Pascal; Vernier, Philippe; Frain, Monique; Lutfalla, Georges; Kergosien, Yannick; Suret, Pierre; Remešíková, Mariana; Doursat, René; Sarti, Alessandro; Mikula, Karol; Peyriéras, Nadine; Bourgine, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative and systematic analysis of embryonic cell dynamics from in vivo 3D+time image data sets is a major challenge at the forefront of developmental biology. Despite recent breakthroughs in the microscopy imaging of living systems, producing an accurate cell lineage tree for any developing organism remains a difficult task. We present here the BioEmergences workflow integrating all reconstruction steps from image acquisition and processing to the interactive visualization of reconstructed data. Original mathematical methods and algorithms underlie image filtering, nucleus centre detection, nucleus and membrane segmentation, and cell tracking. They are demonstrated on zebrafish, ascidian and sea urchin embryos with stained nuclei and membranes. Subsequent validation and annotations are carried out using Mov-IT, a custom-made graphical interface. Compared with eight other software tools, our workflow achieved the best lineage score. Delivered in standalone or web service mode, BioEmergences and Mov-IT offer a unique set of tools for in silico experimental embryology. PMID:26912388

  6. A workflow to process 3D+time microscopy images of developing organisms and reconstruct their cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Emmanuel; Savy, Thierry; Rizzi, Barbara; Melani, Camilo; Stašová, Olga; Fabrèges, Dimitri; Špir, Róbert; Hammons, Mark; Čúnderlík, Róbert; Recher, Gaëlle; Lombardot, Benoît; Duloquin, Louise; Colin, Ingrid; Kollár, Jozef; Desnoulez, Sophie; Affaticati, Pierre; Maury, Benoît; Boyreau, Adeline; Nief, Jean-Yves; Calvat, Pascal; Vernier, Philippe; Frain, Monique; Lutfalla, Georges; Kergosien, Yannick; Suret, Pierre; Remešíková, Mariana; Doursat, René; Sarti, Alessandro; Mikula, Karol; Peyriéras, Nadine; Bourgine, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative and systematic analysis of embryonic cell dynamics from in vivo 3D+time image data sets is a major challenge at the forefront of developmental biology. Despite recent breakthroughs in the microscopy imaging of living systems, producing an accurate cell lineage tree for any developing organism remains a difficult task. We present here the BioEmergences workflow integrating all reconstruction steps from image acquisition and processing to the interactive visualization of reconstructed data. Original mathematical methods and algorithms underlie image filtering, nucleus centre detection, nucleus and membrane segmentation, and cell tracking. They are demonstrated on zebrafish, ascidian and sea urchin embryos with stained nuclei and membranes. Subsequent validation and annotations are carried out using Mov-IT, a custom-made graphical interface. Compared with eight other software tools, our workflow achieved the best lineage score. Delivered in standalone or web service mode, BioEmergences and Mov-IT offer a unique set of tools for in silico experimental embryology. PMID:26912388

  7. An ImageJ plugin for ion beam imaging and data processing at AIFIRA facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, G.; Daudin, L.; Bessy, A.; Buga, F.; Ghanty, J.; Naar, A.; Sommar, V.; Michelet, C.; Seznec, H.; Barberet, P.

    2015-04-01

    Quantification and imaging of chemical elements at the cellular level requires the use of a combination of techniques such as micro-PIXE, micro-RBS, STIM, secondary electron imaging associated with optical and fluorescence microscopy techniques employed prior to irradiation. Such a numerous set of methods generates an important amount of data per experiment. Typically for each acquisition the following data has to be processed: chemical map for each element present with a concentration above the detection limit, density and backscattered maps, mean and local spectra corresponding to relevant region of interest such as whole cell, intracellular compartment, or nanoparticles. These operations are time consuming, repetitive and as such could be source of errors in data manipulation. In order to optimize data processing, we have developed a new tool for batch data processing and imaging. This tool has been developed as a plugin for ImageJ, a versatile software for image processing that is suitable for the treatment of basic IBA data operations. Because ImageJ is written in Java, the plugin can be used under Linux, Mas OS X and Windows in both 32-bits and 64-bits modes, which may interest developers working on open-access ion beam facilities like AIFIRA. The main features of this plugin are presented here: listfile processing, spectroscopic imaging, local information extraction, quantitative density maps and database management using OMERO.

  8. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) includes: examining, assaying, characterizing, treating, and repackaging solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low-level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, TRU mixed wastes, and low-level mixed wastes (LLMW). Airborne releases from the WRAP 1 facility will be primarily in particulate forms (99.999 percent of total unabated emissions). The release of two volatilized radionuclides, tritium and carbon-14 will contribute less than 0.001 percent of the total unabated emissions. Table 2-1 lists the radionuclides which are anticipated to be emitted from WRAP 1 exhaust stack. The Clean Air Assessment Package 1988 (CAP-88) computer code (WHC 1991) was used to calculate effective dose equivalent (EDE) from WRAP 1 to the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEI), and thus demonstrate compliance with WAC 246-247. Table 4-1 shows the dose factors derived from the CAP-88 modeling and the EDE for each radionuclide. The source term (i.e., emissions after abatement in curies per year) are multiplied by the dose factors to obtain the EDE. The total projected EDE from controlled airborne radiological emissions to the offsite MEI is 1.31E-03 mrem/year. The dose attributable to radiological emissions from WRAP 1 will, then, constitute 0.013 percent of the WAC 246-247 EDE regulatory limit of 10 mrem/year to the offsite MEI.

  10. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Process for Facile Electrosynthesis of Metal Carbides and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xingli; Chen, Chaoyi; Lu, Xionggang; Li, Shangshu; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2016-09-01

    Metal carbides (MCs) and composites including TiC, SiC, TaC, ZrC, NbC, Ti5Si3/TiC, and Nb/Nb5Si3 have been directly electrosynthesized from their stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOs/C) mixture precursors by an innovative solid oxide membrane (SOM)-assisted electrochemical process. MOs/C mixture powders including TiO2/C, SiO2/C, Ta2O5/C, ZrO2/C, Nb2O5/C, TiO2/SiO2/C, Nb2O5/SiO2 were pressed to form porous pellets and then served as cathode precursors. A SOM-based anode, made from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based membrane, was used to control the electroreduction process. The SOM electrochemical process was performed at 1273 K (1000 °C) and 3.5 to 4.0 V in molten CaCl2. The oxygen component contained in the MOs/C precursors was gradually removed during electroreduction process, and thus, MOs/C can be directly converted into MCs and composites at the cathode. The reaction mechanism of the electroreduction process and the characteristics of the obtained MCs and composites products were systematically investigated. The results show that the electrosynthesis process typically involves compounding, electroreduction, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes. The products can be predesigned and controlled to form micro/nanostructured MCs and composites. Multicomponent multilayer composites (MMCs) have also been tried to electrosynthesize in this work. It is suggested that the SOM-assisted electroreduction process has great potential to be used for the facile and green synthesis of various MCs and composites.

  11. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY'S (DWPF) PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.; Edwards, T.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-03-14

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO{sub 3} acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestions of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples. The SB7a SRAT Receipt and SB7a SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constituates the SB7a Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), to form the Sb7a Blend composition.

  12. Didactical Reconstruction of Processes in Knowledge Construction: Pre-service Physics Teachers Learning the Law of Electromagnetic Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntylä, Terhi

    2012-08-01

    In physics teacher education, two central goals are first to learn the structures of physics knowledge, and second the processes of its construction. To know the structure is to know the framework of concepts and laws; to know the processes is to know where the knowledge comes from, how the framework is constructed, and how it can be justified. This article introduces a way to approach these goals in the form of a graphical tool called the didactical reconstruction of processes (DRP), where knowledge is constructed to the extent that experiments and models have an equally important role in the construction process. In practice, the DRP is a graphical network representation or a `flow chart' with a specific structure, which aims to give an image of the processes of physical concept formation, while at the same time bearing in mind the educational goals. The DRP was tested in an instruction unit for pre-service physics teachers, where students drew flow charts for representing how the law of electromagnetic induction is formed. In addition to flow charts, students also wrote essays clarifying the content of the flow charts. The flow charts and essays were analysed through a qualitative categorisation of structural and knowledge claim patterns. The results show that the DRP helps students in arguing how to form the electromagnetic induction law and that the experiments and models have a distinct role in supporting students' knowledge claims.

  13. Letter Report. Defense Waste Processing Facility Pour Spout Heaters - Conceptual Designs and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    SK Sundaram; JM Perez, Jr.

    2000-09-06

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) identified a major task to address performance limitations and deficiencies of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now in its sixth year of operation. Design, installation, testing, monitoring, operability, and a number of other characteristics were studied by research personnel collaboratively at a number of facilities: Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Because the potential limiting feature to the DWPF was identified as the pour spout/riser heater, researches on alternative design concepts originally proposed in the past were revisited. In the original works, finite element modeling was performed to evaluate temperature distribution and stress of the design currently used at the DWPF. Studies were also made to define the requirements of the design and to consider the approaches for remote removal/replacement. Their heater type/location, their remotely replaceable thermocouples, and their capabilities for remote handling characterized the five alternative designs proposed. Review comments on the alternative designs indicated a relatively wide range of advantages and disadvantages of the designs. The present report provides an overview of the design criteria, modeling results, and alternative designs. Based on a review of the past design optimization activities and an assessment of recent experience, recommendations are proposed for future consideration and improvement.

  14. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

    2007-01-02

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  15. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2006-11-15

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  16. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-09-30

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  17. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  18. Improvement of the Computing - Related Procurement Process at a Government Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gittins, C.

    2000-04-03

    The purpose of the project was to develop, implement, and market value-added services through the Computing Resource Center in an effort to streamline computing-related procurement processes across the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The power of the project was in focusing attention on and value of centralizing the delivery of computer related products and services to the institution. The project required a plan and marketing strategy that would drive attention to the facility's value-added offerings and services. A significant outcome of the project has been the change in the CRC internal organization. The realignment of internal policies and practices, together with additions to its product and service offerings has brought an increased focus to the facility. This movement from a small, fractious organization into one that is still small yet well organized and focused on its mission and goals has been a significant transition. Indicative of this turnaround was the sharing of information. One-on-one and small group meetings, together with statistics showing work activity was invaluable in gaining support for more equitable workload distribution, and the removal of blame and finger pointing. Sharing monthly reports on sales and operating costs also had a positive impact.

  19. Final deactivation project report on the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility, Building 7602 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility (Building 7602) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities by the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP). This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This report provides a history and description of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous and radioactive materials inventory, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed.

  20. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    In many African countries, user fees have failed to achieve intended access and quality of care improvements. Subsequent user fee reduction or elimination policies have often been poorly planned, without alternative sources of income for facilities. We describe early implementation of an innovative national health financing intervention in Kenya; the health sector services fund (HSSF). In HSSF, central funds are credited directly into a facility's bank account quarterly, and facility funds are managed by health facility management committees (HFMCs) including community representatives. HSSF is therefore a finance mechanism with potential to increase access to funds for peripheral facilities, support user fee reduction and improve equity in access. We conducted a process evaluation of HSSF implementation based on a theory of change underpinning the intervention. Methods included interviews at national, district and facility levels, facility record reviews, a structured exit survey and a document review. We found impressive achievements: HSSF funds were reaching facilities; funds were being overseen and used in a way that strengthened transparency and community involvement; and health workers' motivation and patient satisfaction improved. Challenges or unintended outcomes included: complex and centralized accounting requirements undermining efficiency; interactions between HSSF and user fees leading to difficulties in accessing crucial user fee funds; and some relationship problems between key players. Although user fees charged had not increased, national reduction policies were still not being adhered to. Finance mechanisms can have a strong positive impact on peripheral facilities, and HFMCs can play a valuable role in managing facilities. Although fiduciary oversight is essential, mechanisms should allow for local decision-making and ensure that unmanageable paperwork is avoided. There are also limits to what can be achieved with relatively small funds in

  1. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    In many African countries, user fees have failed to achieve intended access and quality of care improvements. Subsequent user fee reduction or elimination policies have often been poorly planned, without alternative sources of income for facilities. We describe early implementation of an innovative national health financing intervention in Kenya; the health sector services fund (HSSF). In HSSF, central funds are credited directly into a facility's bank account quarterly, and facility funds are managed by health facility management committees (HFMCs) including community representatives. HSSF is therefore a finance mechanism with potential to increase access to funds for peripheral facilities, support user fee reduction and improve equity in access. We conducted a process evaluation of HSSF implementation based on a theory of change underpinning the intervention. Methods included interviews at national, district and facility levels, facility record reviews, a structured exit survey and a document review. We found impressive achievements: HSSF funds were reaching facilities; funds were being overseen and used in a way that strengthened transparency and community involvement; and health workers' motivation and patient satisfaction improved. Challenges or unintended outcomes included: complex and centralized accounting requirements undermining efficiency; interactions between HSSF and user fees leading to difficulties in accessing crucial user fee funds; and some relationship problems between key players. Although user fees charged had not increased, national reduction policies were still not being adhered to. Finance mechanisms can have a strong positive impact on peripheral facilities, and HFMCs can play a valuable role in managing facilities. Although fiduciary oversight is essential, mechanisms should allow for local decision-making and ensure that unmanageable paperwork is avoided. There are also limits to what can be achieved with relatively small funds in

  2. Climatic thresholds for pedogenic iron oxides under aerobic conditions: Processes and their significance in paleoclimate reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxides are widely distributed across the surface of the Earth as a result of the aerobic weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals. Pedogenic iron oxides which consist mainly of hematite (Hm), goethite (Gt), maghemite (Mgh), are often concentrated synchronously in aerobic soils under low to moderate rainfall regimes. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) and redness, which respectively reflect the content of Mgh and Hm in soils, are considered reasonable pedogenic and climatic indicators in soil taxonomy and paleorainfall reconstruction. However, under high rainfall regimes, the grain growth of Mgh and transformation to Hm, combined with the prior formation of Gt under conditions of high relative humidity (RH), can result in magnetic reduction and dramatic yellowing of soils and sediments, which explains the existence of rainfall thresholds for Mgh and Hm at a large scale even before the pedogenic environment turns anaerobic. In order to capture the rainfall thresholds for Mgh and Hm occurring under aerobic conditions, we explored a tropical transect across a granitic region where the soil color turned from red to yellow under a wide rainfall range of 900-2200 mm/yr and a corresponding mean annual RH range of 77%-85%. We observed a lower rainfall threshold of ∼1500 mm/yr and a corresponding RH ∼80% for Mgh and Hm along this transect, as well as a higher rainfall threshold of ∼1700 mm/yr and a corresponding RH of ∼81% for Gt and total pedogenic iron oxides (citrate/bicarbonate/dithionite-extractable Fe, Fed). Cross-referencing with comparable studies in temperate and subtropical regions, we noted that the rainfall or RH thresholds for Fed and Hm or Mgh likewise increase with temperature. Moreover, the different thresholds for total and individual iron oxide phase indicates that a negative correlation between chemical weathering intensity and redness or χ in sediment sequences can occur under the prevalent climate regime just between their thresholds. Finally

  3. Scalable mobile information system to support the treatment process and the workflow of wastewater facilities.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, L; Steinmetz, H; Ehret, J; Ebert, A; Schmitt, T G

    2004-01-01

    In order to support the operation of wastewater systems and the workflow of sewage systems an application for demonstration has been developed to show exemplarily how a mobile information system can be transferred into practice and used by the staff. The paper presents a scalable information visualisation system, which can be used with mobile devices. The regarded information data does not only include process data, but also general information about buildings and units, work directions, occupational safety regulations as well as instructions of first aid in case of a work accident. This is particularly appropriate for the use in remote facilities. The implementation is based on but not limited to SQL, JSP and HTML.

  4. Performance based seismic qualification of reinforced concrete nuclear materials processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.; Loceff, F.; Houston, T.; Rauls, G.; Mulliken, J.

    1997-09-01

    A seismic qualification of a reinforced concrete nuclear materials processing facility using performance based acceptance criteria is presented. Performance goals are defined in terms of a minimum annual seismic failure frequency. Pushover analyses are used to determine the building`s ultimate capacity and relate the capacity to roof drift and joint rotation. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are used to quantify the building`s drift using a suite of ground motion intensities representing varying soil conditions and levels of seismic hazard. A correlation between joint rotation and building drift to damage state is developed from experimental data. The damage state and seismic hazard are convolved to determine annual seismic failure frequency. The results of this rigorous approach is compared to those using equivalent force methods and pushover techniques recommended by ATC-19 and FEMA-273.

  5. A panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility with Unity connecting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) can be seen (left to right) Unity connecting module, the Rack Insertion Device and the first Multi-Purpose Launch Module, the Leonardo. Windows at the right above Leonardo allow visitors on tour to watch the activities in the SSPF. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station. The Italian-built MPLM, scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station.

  6. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, second from right, enjoys a tour of the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Joining Senator Glenn are, left to right, Dr. Bernard Harris, SPACEHAB vice president, microgravity and life sciences; Dale Steffey, SPACEHAB vice president, operations; and Dr. Shelley Harrison, SPACEHAB chairman and chief executive officer. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  7. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at left, enjoys a tour of the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Joining Senator Glenn are, left to right, Dale Steffey, SPACEHAB vice president, operations; Dr. Shelley Harrison, SPACEHAB chairman and chief executive officer; and Dr. Bernard Harris, SPACEHAB vice president, microgravity and life sciences. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  8. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, second from left, enjoys a tour of the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility in Cape Canaveral. Joining Senator Glenn are, left to right, Dale Steffey, SPACEHAB vice president, operations; Dr. Shelley Harrison, SPACEHAB chairman and chief executive officer; and Dr. Bernard Harris, SPACEHAB vice president, microgravity and life sciences. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89 later this week. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  9. Effect of personal hygiene on blood lead levels of workers at a lead processing facility.

    PubMed

    Askin, D P; Volkmann, M

    1997-10-01

    The relationship between personal hygiene and blood lead levels was tested at a lead processing facility. During the workers' semiannual respirator fit test, when they were confident their hands were clean, the amount of lead on their right hands was measured. Samples were obtained by cleaning one entire hand with a wiping towel treated with a proprietary mixture of alcohol, surfactants, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Wipe samples were analyzed for total lead and then compared with the worker's blood lead level. Each worker's personal habits at rest were also observed. Workers with more than 1 year's experience had a significantly positive correlation between lead on the hand tested and their blood level. The study strongly suggests that lead on the skin ultimately enters the bloodstream. The route of entry was not investigated. Personal habits of the workers with high blood lead levels were observed to include actions that would quickly contaminate their hands shortly after washing.

  10. Facile fabrication processes for hydrogel-based microfluidic devices made of natural biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Yuya; Yamada, Masumi; Yamada, Emi; Iwase, Masaki; Seki, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    We present facile strategies for the fabrication of two types of microfluidic devices made of hydrogels using the natural biopolymers, alginate, and gelatin as substrates. The processes presented include the molding-based preparation of hydrogel plates and their chemical bonding. To prepare calcium-alginate hydrogel microdevices, we suppressed the volume shrinkage of the alginate solution during gelation using propylene glycol alginate in the precursor solution along with sodium alginate. In addition, a chemical bonding method was developed using a polyelectrolyte membrane of poly-L-lysine as the electrostatic glue. To prepare gelatin-based microdevices, we used microbial transglutaminase to bond hydrogel plates chemically and to cross-link and stabilize the hydrogel matrix. As an application, mammalian cells (fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells) were cultivated on the microchannel surface to form three-dimensional capillary-embedding tissue models for biological research and tissue engineering. PMID:24803964

  11. A Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic reconstruction of the Southwest Pacific region: Tectonics controlled by subduction and slab rollback processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.; Lister, G. S.; Toy, V. G.

    2006-06-01

    A Cenozoic tectonic reconstruction is presented for the Southwest Pacific region located east of Australia. The reconstruction is constrained by large geological and geophysical datasets and recalculated rotation parameters for Pacific-Australia and Lord Howe Rise-Pacific relative plate motion. The reconstruction is based on a conceptual tectonic model in which the large-scale structures of the region are manifestations of slab rollback and backarc extension processes. The current paradigm proclaims that the southwestern Pacific plate boundary was a west-dipping subduction boundary only since the Middle Eocene. The new reconstruction provides kinematic evidence that this configuration was already established in the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleogene. From ˜ 82 to ˜ 52 Ma, subduction was primarily accomplished by east and northeast-directed rollback of the Pacific slab, accommodating opening of the New Caledonia, South Loyalty, Coral Sea and Pocklington backarc basins and partly accommodating spreading in the Tasman Sea. The total amount of east-directed rollback of the Pacific slab that took place from ˜ 82 Ma to ˜ 52 Ma is estimated to be at least 1200 km. A large percentage of this rollback accommodated opening of the South Loyalty Basin, a north-south trending backarc basin. It is estimated from kinematic and geological constraints that the east-west width of the basin was at least ˜ 750 km. The South Loyalty and Pocklington backarc basins were subducted in the Eocene to earliest Miocene along the newly formed New Caledonia and Pocklington subduction zones. This culminated in southwestward and southward obduction of ophiolites in New Caledonia, Northland and New Guinea in the latest Eocene to earliest Miocene. It is suggested that the formation of these new subduction zones was triggered by a change in Pacific-Australia relative motion at ˜ 50 Ma. Two additional phases of eastward rollback of the Pacific slab followed, one during opening of the South Fiji

  12. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses

    PubMed Central

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French–German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  13. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses.

    PubMed

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  14. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  15. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  16. Collaborative survey on the colonization of different types of cheese-processing facilities with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Stessl, Beatrix; Fricker, Martina; Fox, Edward; Karpiskova, Renata; Demnerova, Katarina; Jordan, Kieran; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cross-contamination via equipment and the food-processing environment has been implicated as the main cause of Listeria monocytogenes transmission. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the occurrence and potential persistence of L. monocytogenes in 19 European cheese-processing facilities. A sampling approach in 2007-2008 included, respectively, 11 and two industrial cheese producers in Austria and the Czech Republic, as well as six Irish on-farm cheese producers. From some of the producers, isolates were available from sampling before 2007. All isolates from both periods were included in a strain collection consisting of 226 L. monocytogenes isolates, which were then typed by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In addition, metabolic fingerprints from a subset of isolates were obtained by means of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. PFGE typing showed that six processing environments were colonized with seven persistent PFGE types of L. monocytogenes. Multilocus sequence typing undertaken on representatives of the seven persisting PFGE types grouped them into distinct clades on the basis of country and origin; however, two persistent strains from an Austrian and an Irish food processor were shown to be clonal. It was concluded that despite the fact that elaborate Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point concepts and cleaning programs are applied, persistent occurrence of L. monocytogenes can take place during cheese making. L. monocytogenes sanitation programs could be strengthened by including rapid analytical tools, such as FTIR, which allow prescreening of potentially persistent L. monocytogenes contaminants. PMID:24138033

  17. Documents containing operating data for Hanford separations processes, 1944--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this letter report is to identify documents that record batch, daily, or selected monthly separations processes operating information at the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1972. The information found in these documents is needed to develop the source terms necessary to make dose estimates. The documents have been identified, located, declassified if necessary, evaluated, and made available to the HEDR Project in general, the HEDR Task 03 (Source Terms) in particular, and the public. Complete bibliographic citations and some sample pages from the Hanford separations processes documents are included.

  18. An Array Processing Theory of Memory, Thought, and Behavior Patterning: A Radically Reconstructive View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Dennis J.

    A theory of memory is introduced, which seeks to respond to the shortcomings of existing theories based on metaphors. Memory is presented as a mechanism, a comparison process in which information held in some form of immediate storage (whether based on perception or previous cognition or both) is compared to previously stored long-term storage.…

  19. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  20. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  1. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  3. Quantitation of the reconstruction quality of a four-dimensional computed tomography process for lung cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wei; Parikh, Parag J.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Nystrom, Michelle M.; Hubenschmidt, James P.; Wahab, Sasha H.; Mutic, Sasa; Singh, Anurag K.; Christensen, Gary E.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) technique for mapping breathing motion in radiotherapy treatment planning. A multislice CT scanner (1.5 mm slices) operated in cine mode was used to acquire 12 contiguous slices in each couch position for 15 consecutive scans (0.5 s rotation, 0.25 s between scans) while the patient underwent simultaneous quantitative spirometry measurements to provide a sorting metric. The spirometry-sorted scans were used to reconstruct a 4D data set. A critical factor for 4D CT is quantifying the reconstructed data set quality which we measure by correlating the metric used relative to internal-object motion. For this study, the internal air content within the lung was used as a surrogate for internal motion measurements. Thresholding and image morphological operations were applied to delineate the air-containing tissues (lungs, trachea) from each CT slice. The Hounsfield values were converted to the internal air content (V). The relationship between the air content and spirometer-measured tidal volume ({nu}) was found to be quite linear throughout the lungs and was used to estimate the overall accuracy and precision of tidal volume-sorted 4D CT. Inspection of the CT-scan air content as a function of tidal volume showed excellent correlations (typically r>0.99) throughout the lung volume. Because of the discovered linear relationship, the ratio of internal air content to tidal volume was indicative of the fraction of air change in each couch position. Theoretically, due to air density differences within the lung and in room, the sum of these ratios would equal 1.11. For 12 patients, the mean value was 1.08{+-}0.06, indicating the high quality of spirometry-based image sorting. The residual of a first-order fit between {nu} and V was used to estimate the process precision. For all patients, the precision was better than 8%, with a mean value of 5.1%{+-}1.9%. This quantitative analysis highlights the value of using

  4. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-01-01

    In many African countries, user fees have failed to achieve intended access and quality of care improvements. Subsequent user fee reduction or elimination policies have often been poorly planned, without alternative sources of income for facilities. We describe early implementation of an innovative national health financing intervention in Kenya; the health sector services fund (HSSF). In HSSF, central funds are credited directly into a facility’s bank account quarterly, and facility funds are managed by health facility management committees (HFMCs) including community representatives. HSSF is therefore a finance mechanism with potential to increase access to funds for peripheral facilities, support user fee reduction and improve equity in access. We conducted a process evaluation of HSSF implementation based on a theory of change underpinning the intervention. Methods included interviews at national, district and facility levels, facility record reviews, a structured exit survey and a document review. We found impressive achievements: HSSF funds were reaching facilities; funds were being overseen and used in a way that strengthened transparency and community involvement; and health workers’ motivation and patient satisfaction improved. Challenges or unintended outcomes included: complex and centralized accounting requirements undermining efficiency; interactions between HSSF and user fees leading to difficulties in accessing crucial user fee funds; and some relationship problems between key players. Although user fees charged had not increased, national reduction policies were still not being adhered to. Finance mechanisms can have a strong positive impact on peripheral facilities, and HFMCs can play a valuable role in managing facilities. Although fiduciary oversight is essential, mechanisms should allow for local decision-making and ensure that unmanageable paperwork is avoided. There are also limits to what can be achieved with relatively small funds in

  5. [Evolution of Root Nodule Bacteria: Reconstruction of the Speciation Processes Resulting from Genomic Rearrangements in a Symbiotic System].

    PubMed

    Provorov, N A; Andronov, E E

    2016-01-01

    The processes of speciation and macroevolution of root nodule bacteria (rhizobia), based on deep rearrangements of their genomes and occurring in the N₂-fixing symbiotic system, are reconstructed. At the first stage of rhizobial evolution, transformation of free-living diazotrophs (related to Rhodopseudomonas) to symbiotic N₂-fixers (Bradyrhizobium) occurred due to the acquisition of the fix gene system, which is responsible for providing nitrogenase with electrons and reducing equivalents, as well as for oxygen-dependent regulation of nitrogenase synthesis in planta, and then of the nod genes responsible for the synthesis of the lipo- chito-oligosaccharide Nod factors, which induce root nodule development. The subsequent rearrangements of bacterial genomes included: (1) increased volume of hereditary information supported by species, genera (pan-genome), and individual strains; (2) transition from the unitary genome to a multicomponent one; and (3) enhanced levels of bacterial genetic plasticity and horizontal gene transfer, resulting in formation of new genera, of which Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Sinorhizobium are the largest, and of over 100 species. Rhizobial evolution caused by development and diversification of the Nod factor synthesizing systems may result in both increased host specificity range (transition of Bradyrhizobium from autotrophic to symbiotrophic carbon metabolism in interaction with a broad spectrum of legumes) and to its contraction (transition of Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium to "altruistic" interaction with legumes of the galegoid clade). Reconstruction of the evolutionary pathway from symbiotic N₂-fixers to their free-living ancestors makes it possible to initiate the studies based on up-to-date genome screening technologies and aimed at the issues of genetic integration of organisms into supracpecies complexes, ratios of the macro- and microevolutionary mechanisms, and developmetn of cooperative adaptations based on altruistic

  6. Advanced Distributed Measurements and Data Processing at the Vibro-Acoustic Test Facility, GRC Space Power Facility, Sandusky, Ohio - an Architecture and an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.; Evans, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale, distributed, high-speed data acquisition system (HSDAS) is currently being installed at the Space Power Facility (SPF) at NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, OH. This installation is being done as part of a facility construction project to add Vibro-acoustic Test Capabilities (VTC) to the current thermal-vacuum testing capability of SPF in support of the Orion Project s requirement for Space Environments Testing (SET). The HSDAS architecture is a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enables the system to support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and a very large system channel count. The architecture of the system is presented along with details on system scalability and measurement verification. In addition, the ability of the system to automate many of its processes such as measurement verification and measurement system analysis is also discussed.

  7. Soil and sediments micromorphology: reconstruction of palaeoenvironments, anthropogenic processes, or more recent human impact on ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Martine; Trombino, Luca; Stoops, Georges

    2014-05-01

    Soils and sediments registered the environmental changes in time and space, but also display components inherited from human activities, both in archaeological and in modern times. Micromorphological investigations carried out on undisturbed samples of soil and sediments by microscopic and ultramicroscopic techniques, correlated with mineralogy, geochemistry or biology, allow us to interpret the processes behind the formation of regoliths, sediments and anthropogenic deposits, from which a relative chronology, specific environmental conditions and/or extent of human impact may be deduced. The traditional optical microscopy observations, carried on the thin section groundmass and pedofeatures, provide clues on the different processes behind soils and sediments genesis (weathering, supergene, low T hydrothermal, anthropogenic) and their impact on ecosystems or on palaeoenvironments. In more recent times, the improvements in electron microscope imaging technology permit to make detailed observations up to the nanoscale, opening a new domain of observations to micromorphologists, both as regard of the micromass and of the thinner pedofeatures. Moreover, the optimisation of the microgeochemical mapping techniques, with spatially resolved chemical, isotopic or mineralogical analyses, is another powerful tool to gain insight in chemical migration fronts: the limit of the original rock fabric disappearance may be bypassed. In order to illustrate micromorphological researches in natural and man-influenced ecosystems, and to combine researches at different scales, several optical and electronic images of soils and sediments groundmass, associated to their microgeochemical characteristics will be presented, with selected examples taken from the climatic record of paleosols, the impact of hydrothermal alteration on saprolites, the neo-formation of minerals related to weathering process evolution, the protosoil formation in natural and human waste deposits, and the forensic

  8. Dawn Orbit Determination Team: Trajectory Modeling and Reconstruction Processes at Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Ardito, Alessandro; Han, Dongsuk; Haw, Robert; Kennedy, Brian; Mastrodemos, Nick; Nandi, Sumita; Park, Ryan; Rush, Brian; Vaughan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft spent over a year in orbit around Vesta from July 2011 through August 2012. In order to maintain the designated science reference orbits and enable the transfers between those orbits, precise and timely orbit determination was required. Challenges included low-thrust ion propulsion modeling, estimation of relatively unknown Vesta gravity and rotation models, track-ing data limitations, incorporation of real-time telemetry into dynamics model updates, and rapid maneuver design cycles during transfers. This paper discusses the dynamics models, filter configuration, and data processing implemented to deliver a rapid orbit determination capability to the Dawn project.

  9. Low and medium level radwaste processing treatment in Serpong nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Salimin, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Low and medium level radioactive processing treatment in Serpong Nuclear Facilities is described. The low and medium level liquid wastes are treated by evaporation process using thermo- siphon circulating evaporator with a 750 l/h evaporation capacity at volume reduction ratio 50 : 1 and decontamination factor of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6}. The concentrates are then solidified with portland cement in a concrete shell of 950 l. The spent resins from reactor are also solidified with cement slurry in a concrete shell of 950 l. The compactable wastes collected in 100 l drums are compacted in a 200 l drum by a 600 kN hydraulic press and then solidified with cement slurry. Non-compactable wastes are such as spent radiation sources are solidified with cement slurry in a concrete shell of 350 l. Burnable solid wastes and organic solvent are treated by incineration using a incinerator with 50 kg/h burning capacity, ashes generated are then solidified with cement slurry in a 100 l drum. Finally, all of the package wastes (embedded wastes) are stored in the interim storage building.

  10. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for process areas in a MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been designed and installed in the process area of an automated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. These instruments employ neutron coincidence counting methods to measure the spontaneous-fission rate of plutonium in the powders, pellets, and fuel pins in the process area. The spontaneous fission rate and the plutonium isotopic ratios determine the mass of plutonium in the sample. Measurements can be either attended or unattended. The fuel-pin assay system (FPAS) resides above the robotic conveyor system and measures the plutonium content in fuel-pin trays containing up to 24 pins (/approximately/1 kg of plutonium). The material accountancy glove-box (MAGB) counters consist of two slab detectors mounted on the sides of the glove box to measure samples of powder or pellets as they are brought to the load cell. Samples measured by the MAGB counters may contain up to 18 kg of MOX. This paper describes the design and performance of four systems: the fuel-pin assay system and three separate MAGB systems. The paper also discusses the role of Monte Carlo transport techniques in the detector design and subsequent instrument calibration. 5 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. ANION ANALYSES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ALTERNATE REDUCTANT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.

    2010-08-04

    The Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) at the Savannah River National Laboratory was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to develop and demonstrate an Ion Chromatography (IC) method for the analysis of glycolate, in addition to eight other anions (fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate and phosphate) in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. The method will be used to analyze anions for samples generated from the Alternate Reductant Demonstrations to be performed for the DWPF at the Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL). The method is specific to the characterization of anions in the simulant flowsheet work. Additional work will be needed for the analyses of anions in radiological samples by Analytical Development (AD) and DWPF. The documentation of the development and demonstration of the method fulfills the third requirement in the TTQAP, SRNL-RP-2010-00105, 'Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Glycolic-Formic Acid Flowsheet Development, Definition and Demonstrations Tasks 1-3'.

  12. Compound-specific isotopic analyses: a novel tool for reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Freeman, K. H.; Popp, B. N.; Hoham, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of isotopic fractionation in biogeochemical processes are reviewed and it is suggested that isotopic fractionations will be small when substrates are large. If so, isotopic compositions of biomarkers will reflect those of their biosynthetic precursors. This prediction is tested by consideration of results of analyses of geoporphyrins and geolipids from the Greenhorn Formation (Cretaceous, Western Interior Seaway of North America) and the Messel Shale (Eocene, lacustrine, southern Germany). It is shown (i) that isotopic compositions of porphyrins that are related to a common source, but which have been altered structurally, cluster tightly and (ii) that isotopic differences between geolipids and porphyrins related to a common source are equal to those observed in modern biosynthetic products. Both of these observations are consistent with preservation of biologically controlled isotopic compositions during diagenesis. Isotopic compositions of individual compounds can thus be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical processes in ancient depositional environments. In the Cretaceous samples, isotopic compositions of n-alkanes are covariant with those of total organic carbon, while delta values for pristane and phytane are covariant with those of porphyrins. In this unit representing an open marine environment, the preserved acyclic polyisoprenoids apparently derive mainly from primary material, while the extractable, n-alkanes derive mainly from lower levels of the food chain. In the Messel Shale, isotopic compositions of individual biomarkers range from -20.9 to -73.4% vs PDB. Isotopic compositions of specific compounds can be interpreted in terms of origin from methylotrophic, chemautotrophic, and chemolithotrophic microorganisms as well as from primary producers that lived in the water column and sediments of this ancient lake.

  13. Reconstructing fragmentation processes at Santiaguito volcano by combining ash analysis with geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornby, Adrian; Lavallée, Yan; Clesham, Stephen; De Angelis, Silvio; Kendrick, Jackie; Cimarelli, Corrado; Rollinson, Gavyn; Butcher, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Santiaguito volcano exhibits cyclic deformation and regular Vulcanian gas-and-ash explosions, ongoing for almost 100 years. Airfall ash samples collected 500 m from the active Caliente vent constitute a snapshot of the ash-forming mechanisms between and during eruptive events. Samples collected following ashfall from Vulcanian explosion plumes and following a major dome collapse with associated pyroclastic density currents on 28 November 2012, appear blocky and poorly vesicular under scanning electron microscope, indicating fragmentation of dense, low porosity magma. Particle size distributions show a single dominant fragmentation mechanism during co-pyroclastic flow airfall ash, at least three significant sources of erupted ash can be identified for vulcanian plume-derived ash. We employ QEMSCAN analysis, which provides a micron-scale dataset of ash particle morphology and phase distribution, to explore the textural fingerprint of these fragmentation processes. Ash generated during dome collapse shows a greater abundance of interstitial glass at particle boundaries over most of the particle size range, showing that the segregation of glass-enriched fines into airfall deposits during pyroclastic flow cannot fully account for this trend. Conversely, the relative depletion of glass in vulcanian explosion deposits may be due to viscous stress accommodation within interstitial glass, which concentrates stress within crystalline phases during fragmentation. By comparing ash analyses with observations of dome inflation and faulting, lava effusion and seismic and infrasound measurements, including recent measurements recorded during Workshops on Volcanoes 2016, we describe a stable sequence of ash-generating processes occurring during normal vulcanian activity: 1) Fracture and faulting and abrasion of plug material, 2) Failure and fragmentation of magma below the plug, 3) Expulsion of clastic material residing above the fragmentation depth, 4) Expansion and flow of the

  14. Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility study (MMPF): Requirements and Analyses of Commercial Operations (RACO) preliminary data release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This requirements and analyses of commercial operations (RACO) study data release reflects the current status of research activities of the Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility under Modification No. 21 to NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-36122. Section 1 includes 65 commercial space processing projects suitable for deployment aboard the Space Station. Section 2 contains reports of the R:BASE (TM) electronic data base being used in the study, synopses of the experiments, and a summary of data on the experimental facilities. Section 3 is a discussion of video and data compression techniques used as well as a mission timeline analysis.

  15. Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05

    The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL

  16. Processes in the Vicinity of an Injection Well of a Geothermal Facility in the Malm Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas; Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Bartels, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    With high temperatures, high transmissivities and low salinities the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin offers ideal conditions for the exploration of geothermal energy. In 2011 the Pullach geothermal facility was extended with a third geothermal well to account for the increasing heat demand. In the course of this extension an injection well was converted to a production well. Hence, for the first time in the history of geothermal exploration of the Malm Aquifer, data became accessible from the surrounding of an injection well which has been in operation for more than 5 years. This data, together with data froma a push-pull tracer test started 9 months before the conversion, allows unique access to the processes at the injection well and sets the baseline for an assessment of the long term behavior of geothermal heat and power plants in the Molasse Basin. The development of the production temperatures went faster than expected, after 4 years of production the initial temperatures have almost been reached. This can only be explained with a vertically heterogeneous distribution of the transmissivity. In this setting, the cold water forms a thin disc which extends much further from the injection well. Thus, the effective area of the heat exchange with the matrix of the aquifer is larger than in a homogeneous setting. The breakthrough of the tracers was affected by an unexpected delay of the start of the production. The regional flow led to a shift of the injected tracer pulses with the innermost tracer pulse being entirely transposed downstream of the injection well. The recovery rates mirror the sorption coefficients of the individual tracers as determined in batch tests and column tests. It became apparent, that the stagnation phase led to a bias towards sorption with slow kinetics and diffusion-limited matrix interactions. The hydrochemical data showed a significant increase of the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate indicating a

  17. Atmospheric processes sustaining a multidecadal variation in reconstructed and model-simulated Indian monsoon precipitation during the past half millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianru

    Analyses of recently reconstructed and model-simulated Indian May-September precipitation disclose a statistically significant multidecadal variation at the frequency of 40-50 year per cycle during the last half millennium. To understand the mechanism of this variation, we examined the energy and dynamic processes in the atmosphere, and the potential forcings from the sea surface temperature (SST) variations around the globe. Comparisons of paleo-SST and the paleo-precipitation simulations suggest that the SST is not a significant forcing of the multidecadal variation found in the Indian monsoon precipitation. Instead, analyses suggest that atmospheric processes characterized by phase differences between the meridional enthalpy gradient and poleward eddy enthalpy transport are important to sustain this variation. In this phase relationship, the meridional enthalpy gradient is strengthened by radiative loss in high latitudes. Driven by this enlarged gradient and associated changes in baroclinicity in the mid-latitude atmosphere, more energy is generated in the tropical and subtropical (monsoon) regions and transported poleward. The monsoon is strengthened to allow more energy being transported poleward. The increased enthalpy transport, in turn, weakens the meridional enthalpy gradient and, subsequently, softens the demand for energy production in the monsoon region. The monsoon weakens and the transport decreases. The variation in monsoon precipitation lags that in the meridional enthalpy gradient, but leads that in the poleward heat transport. This phase relationship and underlining chasing process by the heat transport to the gradient sustain this variation at the multidecadal timescale. This mechanism suggests that atmospheric circulation processes can contribute to multidecadal timescale variations in the Indian monsoon precipitation.

  18. L. monocytogenes in a cheese processing facility: Learning from contamination scenarios over three years of sampling.

    PubMed

    Rückerl, I; Muhterem-Uyar, M; Muri-Klinger, S; Wagner, K-H; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changing patterns of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cheese processing facility manufacturing a wide range of ready-to-eat products. Characterization of L. monocytogenes isolates included genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Disinfectant-susceptibility tests and the assessment of L. monocytogenes survival in fresh cheese were also conducted. During the sampling period between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1284 environmental samples were investigated. Overall occurrence rates of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were 21.9% and 19.5%, respectively. Identical L. monocytogenes genotypes were found in the food processing environment (FPE), raw materials and in products. Interventions after the sampling events changed contamination scenarios substantially. The high diversity of globally, widely distributed L. monocytogenes genotypes was reduced by identifying the major sources of contamination. Although susceptible to a broad range of disinfectants and cleaners, one dominant L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 5 could not be eradicated from drains and floors. Significantly, intense humidity and steam could be observed in all rooms and water residues were visible on floors due to increased cleaning strategies. This could explain the high L. monocytogenes contamination of the FPE (drains, shoes and floors) throughout the study (15.8%). The outcome of a challenge experiment in fresh cheese showed that L. monocytogenes could survive after 14days of storage at insufficient cooling temperatures (8 and 16°C). All efforts to reduce L. monocytogenes environmental contamination eventually led to a transition from dynamic to stable contamination scenarios. Consequently, implementation of systematic environmental monitoring via in-house systems should either aim for total avoidance of FPE colonization, or emphasize a first reduction of L. monocytogenes to sites where

  19. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  20. Roof Reconstruction from Airborne Laser Scanning Data Based on Image Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebbels, S.; Pohle-Fröhlich, R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a new data-driven approach to generate CityGML building models from airborne laser scanning data. The approach is based on image processing methods applied to an interpolated height map and avoids shortcomings of established methods for plane detection like Hough transform or RANSAC algorithms on point clouds. The improvement originates in an interpolation algorithm that generates a height map from sparse point cloud data by preserving ridge lines and step edges of roofs. Roof planes then are detected by clustering the height map's gradient angles, parameterizations of planes are estimated and used to filter out noise around ridge lines. On that basis, a raster representation of roof facets is generated. Then roof polygons are determined from region outlines, connected to a roof boundary graph, and simplified. Whereas the method is not limited to churches, the method's performance is primarily tested for church roofs of the German city of Krefeld because of their complexity. To eliminate inaccuracies of spires, contours of towers are detected additionally, and spires are rendered as solids of revolution. In our experiments, the new data-driven method lead to significantly better building models than the previously applied model-driven approach.

  1. Reconstructing depositional processes and history from reservoir stratigraphy: Englebright Lake, Yuba River, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.P.; Wright, S.A.; Alpers, C.N.; Flint, L.E.; Holmes, C.W.; Rubin, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Reservoirs provide the opportunity to link watershed history with its stratigraphic record. We analyze sediment cores from a northern California reservoir in the context of hydrologic history, watershed management, and depositional processes. Observations of recent depositional patterns, sediment-transport calculations, and 137CS geochronology support a conceptual model in which the reservoir delta progrades during floods of short duration (days) and is modified during prolonged (weeks to months) drawdowns that rework topset beds and transport sand from topsets to foresets. Sediment coarser than 0.25-0.5 mm. deposits in foresets and topsets, and finer material falls out of suspension as bottomset beds. Simple hydraulic calculations indicate that fine sand (0.063-0.5 mm) is transported into the distal bottomset area only during floods. The overall stratigraphy suggests that two phases of delta building occurred in the reservoir. The first, from dam construction in 1940 to 1970, was heavily influenced by annual, prolonged >20 m drawdowns of the water level. The second, built on top of the first, reflects sedimentation from 1970 to 2002 when the influence of drawdowns was less. Sedimentation rates in the central part of the reservoir have declined ???25% since 1970, likely reflecting a combination of fewer large floods, changes in watershed management, and winnowing of stored hydraulic mining sediment. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Reconstructing Holocene changes in the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds: Integrating modern processes and paleoclimate data from New Zealand's southern fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, J.; Moy, C. M.; Wilson, G. S.; Stirling, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds are an important component of the global carbon cycle due to their influence on Southern Ocean CO2 flux. In addition, the winds influence mid-latitude storm tracks, thereby controlling moisture balance over much of New Zealand's South Island and other Southern Hemisphere regions. Fiordland, New Zealand is an ideal locale to investigate Holocene changes in westerly wind behavior: It sits at the northern margin of the wind field maximum, is sensitive to latitudinal and strength fluctuations of the winds, and is the location of numerous fjord sub-basins with high sedimentation rates (up to 3 mm/yr). Due to the strong positive relationship between wind speed and regional rainfall, reconstructions of past precipitation and fjord circulation can inform us of past westerly wind behavior. These processes can be observed through changes in the rate of organic carbon delivery from land: When precipitation is high, more terrestrial organic carbon is delivered to the fjords, while low precipitation shifts the balance toward accumulation of marine organic carbon. An important first step towards reconstructing past westerly wind variability is to characterize the distribution and cycling of carbon throughout different depositional settings in the fjords to determine the optimal location for the development of paleoclimate records. Here, we present a geochemical characterization of surface sediments and the water column throughout the region and apply this understanding to sediment cores. During three field seasons in 2012 and 2013, we collected surface sediments, particulate organic matter, and piston cores from 10 different fjords spanning 44-46° S. Our results suggest that organic carbon in the fjord basins largely follows a two-end-member mixing model, drawing from marine and terrestrial end-member sources. We see consistent down-fjord trends in carbon and nitrogen concentrations and isotopes measured from surface sediments and

  3. Post-processing methods of rendering and visualizing 3-D reconstructed tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the computer processing techniques of tomographic images, after they have been generated by imaging scanners, for volume visualization. Volume visualization is concerned with the representation, manipulation, and rendering of volumetric data. Since the first digital images were produced from computed tomography (CT) scanners in the mid 1970s, applications of visualization in medicine have expanded dramatically. Today, three-dimensional (3D) medical visualization has expanded from using CT data, the first inherently digital source of 3D medical data, to using data from various medical imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance scanners, positron emission scanners, digital ultrasound, electronic and confocal microscopy, and other medical imaging modalities. We have advanced from rendering anatomy to aid diagnosis and visualize complex anatomic structures to planning and assisting surgery and radiation treatment. New, more accurate and cost-effective procedures for clinical services and biomedical research have become possible by integrating computer graphics technology with medical images. This trend is particularly noticeable in current market-driven health care environment. For example, interventional imaging, image-guided surgery, and stereotactic and visualization techniques are now stemming into surgical practice. In this presentation, we discuss only computer-display-based approaches of volumetric medical visualization. That is, we assume that the display device available is two-dimensional (2D) in nature and all analysis of multidimensional image data is to be carried out via the 2D screen of the device. There are technologies such as holography and virtual reality that do provide a {open_quotes}true 3D screen{close_quotes}. To confine the scope, this presentation will not discuss such approaches.

  4. VERIFICATION OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY PROCESS DIGESTION METHOD FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D.; Jones, M.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) confirms applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples.1 DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem (CC) Method, see DWPF Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). In addition to the CC method confirmation, the DWPF lab's mercury (Hg) digestion method was also evaluated for applicability to SB6 (see DWPF procedure 'Mercury System Operating Manual', Manual: SW4-15.204. Section 6.1, Revision 5, Effective date: 12-04-03). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples. For validation of the DWPF lab's Hg method, only SRAT receipt material was used and compared to AR digestion results. The SB6 SRAT Receipt and SB6 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB6 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), to form the SB6 Blend composition. In addition to the 16 elements currently measured by the DWPF, this report includes Hg and thorium (Th) data (Th comprising {approx}2.5 - 3 Wt% of the total solids in SRAT Receipt and SRAT Product, respectively) and provides specific details of ICP-AES analysis of Th. Thorium was found to interfere with the U 367.007 nm emission line, and an inter-element correction (IEC) had to be applied to U data, which is also

  5. Qualification of a Carbon Analyzer to Support the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Feller, M.

    2011-07-05

    The I-O Model 1030 carbon analyzer has been qualified for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Model 1030 system with the currently used Model 1010 Analyzer. This recommendation is based on side-by-side comparisons of the new unit to the currently used Model 1010 analyzer that are presented in this report. The side-by-side testing included standards and process samples. The standards, which were used for instrument calibration verifications in the measurement of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and of total organic carbon (TOC), were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The process samples included TIC analyses of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank samples and TOC analyses for Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. After the Model 1030 has been used for production reporting, DWPF should consider an investigation into the uncertainties associated with the TOC measurements to determine how far below the 18,916 ppm limit DWPF must control the average of the measurements for a set of SME samples to account for the uncertainties of the measurements from this new analyzer. Based upon the results presented in this report, it is recommended that the Model 1030 carbon analyzer is qualified for use. This recommendation is based on side-by-side comparisons of the new unit to the currently used Model 1010 analyzer that are presented in this report. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications for TIC and TOC, and process samples. The standards were traceable back to NIST. The process samples included TIC analyses of SRAT Receipt samples and TOC analyses for SME samples. At some point in the future, after the Model 1030 has been used for production reporting, DWPF should consider an investigation into the uncertainties associated with the TOC measurements to determine how far below the 18,916 ppm limit DWPF must control the average of the

  6. Facility Master Plans: An Essential First Step in the Building Development Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickerham, Wendell E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the facility master plan (FMP) in defining project scope and validating or challenging the work of consultants. Offers three case studies illustrating how facility master plans averted problems or led to unanticipated benefits for the colleges involved. (EV)

  7. Facile Synthesis of Nb3Sn Via a Hydrogen Reduction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhang, Long; Li, Yanxiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2016-09-01

    A controllable and facile process for the preparation of Nb3Sn intermetallic compound nanopowders using NbCl5 and SnCl2 vapors reduced by hydrogen has been developed. The vaporizing rates of the two chlorides are controlled by measuring their mass loss as a function of carrier gas (argon) flow rate at certain vaporization temperatures, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that hydrogenous Nb3Sn products are obtained under the vaporizing rate of 0.155 g min-1 for NbCl5 and 0.036 g min-1 for SnCl2 with the hydrogen flow rate of 2100 ml min-1 at 1273 K (1000 °C). Results of semi-quantitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) demonstrate that the atomic ratio of Nb to Sn in the as-synthesized products is 3.48:1, and the content of (Nb + Sn) is taken up to 89.61 wt pct from the total weight of the products. The products can be purified by vacuum heat treatment. Images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the products are homogenous particles with a mean diameter of 31 nm. In addition, the reaction ratio of the chlorides and the powder yield are controllable by hydrogen flow rate.

  8. A facility to study the particles released by ion sputtering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, E.; di Lellis, A. M.; Vannaroni, G.; Orsini, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Massetti, S.; Mura, A.; Vertolli, N.

    2007-08-01

    Research on the planetary surface erosion and planetary evolution could be enriched with the detection of the escaping material, in terms of energy and direction, caused by ions sputtering. A complete study of emitted neutral distribution from which infers the processes occurring on the impacted surface requires dedicated instrumentation, tailored on the peculiarity on the low energy profile of the sputtered signal. We propose a comprehensive facility at INAF/IFSI in Rome intended to provide the opportunity to investigate the interaction of selectable ion beam with planetary analogues through the detection of sputtered neutral atoms. The laboratory is equipped with a high volume UHV chamber, ion selectable sources in the range 0 to 10 keV, a set of 3D sample/sensor orientation motion actuation motors down to 1/100 deg resolution. The laboratory will support a set of neutral sensor heads sets derived from the Emitted for Low Energetic Neutral Atoms (ELENA) instrument under development for the ESA BepiColombo Mercury mission able to detect neutral atoms (few eV-up to 5 keV).

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  10. DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Mishima, J.

    1988-12-01

    A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) performed this work under the guidance of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Two full-scale DWPF canisters filled with nonradioactive borosilicate glass were impacted under ''normal'' and ''hypothetical'' accident conditions. Two canisters, supplied by the DWPF, were tested. Each canister was vertically dropped on the bottom end from a height of either 0.3 m or 9.1 m (for normal or hypothetical accident conditions, respectively). The structural integrity of each canister was then examined using helium leak and dye penetrant testing. The canisters' diameters and heights, which had been previously measured, were then remeasured to determine how the canister dimensions had changed. Following structural integrity testing, the canisters were flaw leak tested. For transportation flaw leak testing, four holes were fabricated into the shell of canister A-27 (0.3 m drop height). The canister was then transported a total distance of 2069 miles. During transport, the waste form material that fell from each flaw was collected to determine the amount of size distribution of each flaw release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report are two-fold: (1) to define the hydrogeologic conditions in the vicinity of the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) and, (2) to evaluate the potential for movement of a concentrated salt-solution waste if released at or near the DWPF. These purposes were accomplished by assembling and evaluating existing hydrogeologic data; collecting additional geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data; developing a local geologic framework; developing a conceptual model of the local ground-water flow system; and by performing laboratory experiments to determine the mobility of salt-solution waste in surface and near-surface sediments. Although the unconsolidated sediments are about 1000 ft thick in the study area, only the Tertiary age sediments, or upper 300 ft are discussed in this report. The top of the Ellenton Formation acts as the major confining unit between the overlying aquifers in Tertiary sediments and the underlying aquifers in Cretaceous sediments; therefore, the Ellenton Formation is the vertical limit of our hydrogeologic investigation. The majority of the hydrologic data for this study come from monitoring wells at the saltstone disposal site (SDS) in Z Area (fig. 3). No recent water-level data were collected in S Area owing to the removal of S Area monitoring wells prior to construction at the DWPF. 46 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Hypertension and hematologic parameters in a community near a uranium processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Sara E.; Burch, James B.; Bottai, Matteo; Pinney, Susan M.; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne; Vena, John E.; Hebert, James R.

    2010-11-15

    Background: Environmental uranium exposure originating as a byproduct of uranium processing can impact human health. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center functioned as a uranium processing facility from 1951 to 1989, and potential health effects among residents living near this plant were investigated via the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program (FMMP). Methods: Data from 8216 adult FMMP participants were used to test the hypothesis that elevated uranium exposure was associated with indicators of hypertension or changes in hematologic parameters at entry into the program. A cumulative uranium exposure estimate, developed by FMMP investigators, was used to classify exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and physician diagnoses were used to assess hypertension; and red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cell differential counts were used to characterize hematology. The relationship between uranium exposure and hypertension or hematologic parameters was evaluated using generalized linear models and quantile regression for continuous outcomes, and logistic regression or ordinal logistic regression for categorical outcomes, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results: Of 8216 adult FMMP participants 4187 (51%) had low cumulative uranium exposure, 1273 (15%) had moderate exposure, and 2756 (34%) were in the high (>0.50 Sievert) cumulative lifetime uranium exposure category. Participants with elevated uranium exposure had decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and increased eosinophil counts. Female participants with higher uranium exposures had elevated systolic blood pressure compared to women with lower exposures. However, no exposure-related changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure or hypertension diagnoses among female or male participants. Conclusions: Results from this investigation suggest that residents in the vicinity of the Fernald plant with elevated exposure to uranium primarily via inhalation exhibited

  13. Detection of Salmonella Senftenberg associated with high saline environments in mussel processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Peiteado, Jesus; Lozano-León, Antonio; Garcia-Martin, Oscar

    2004-02-01

    A contamination by Salmonella Senftenberg in frozen mussels was detected in 1998 during a routine analytical surveillance. From June 1998 to December 2001, a total of 3,410 samples of steamed frozen mussels and items related to their manufacture were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella Senftenberg was isolated in 573 (16.8%) samples, and no other serovar was detected. The contamination episodes extended for several months. Salmonella Senftenberg colonies from the first contamination events showed a rugose morphology on agar with a shiny crystalline layer and limited colony formation on microbiological media. These contaminations were mainly associated with brine (300 g of NaCl per liter), while the live molluscs that were being processed were free of Salmonella. When the brine contaminations were nearly controlled, new episodes were detected that were associated with live mussels. In the new episodes, colonies showed the typical characteristics of Salmonella and normal growth on agar. Salmonella Senftenberg presented a high resistance to unfavorable environments and showed a preference for clean environments. While Salmonella Senftenberg could be isolated from mussels after steam treatment, it could not survive after immersion in water at 80 degrees C for 1 min. This fact was used to develop a process to remove contamination from products, minimizing the health risk associated with frozen mussel consumption. The general incidence of Salmonella Senftenberg in facilities and mussels was reduced from 31.2% in 1998 to 2.5% in 2001. During this study, no cases of illness from consumption of frozen mussels were reported, indicating a possible lack of virulence of Salmonella Senftenberg in these contamination events.

  14. Product/Process (P/P) Models For The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): Model Ranges And Validation Ranges For Future Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Edwards, T.

    2015-09-25

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  15. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  16. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  17. 40 CFR 80.513 - What provisions apply to transmix processing facilities and pipelines that produce diesel fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... processing facilities and pipelines that produce diesel fuel from pipeline interface? 80.513 Section 80.513... pipelines that produce diesel fuel from pipeline interface? For purposes of this section, transmix means a mixture of finished fuels, such as pipeline interface, that no longer meets the specifications for a...

  18. 40 CFR 80.513 - What provisions apply to transmix processing facilities and pipelines that produce diesel fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... processing facilities and pipelines that produce diesel fuel from pipeline interface? 80.513 Section 80.513... pipelines that produce diesel fuel from pipeline interface? For purposes of this section, transmix means a mixture of finished fuels, such as pipeline interface, that no longer meets the specifications for a...

  19. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  20. 76 FR 77728 - Process for a Designated Contract Market or Swap Execution Facility To Make a Swap Available To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... proposing regulations that establish a process for a designated contract market (``DCM'') or swap execution...\\ must be executed on a DCM or SEF,\\3\\ subject to certain exceptions. Under Section 2(h)(8)(B) of the CEA... Execution Facilities, 76 FR 1214 (Jan. 7, 2011). \\7\\ 76 FR at 1241. \\8\\ Id. \\9\\ Id. \\10\\ Id. The SEF...

  1. Development of a portable hyperspectral imaging system for monitoring the efficacy of sanitation procedures in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cleaning and sanitation in food processing facilities is a critical step in reducing the risk of transfer of pathogenic organisms to food consumed by the public. Current methods to check the effectiveness of sanitation procedures rely on visual observation and sub-sampling tests such as ATP biolumin...

  2. A Microsoft Project-Based Planning, Tracking, and Management Tool for the National Transonic Facility's Model Changeover Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vairo, Daniel M.

    1998-01-01

    The removal and installation of sting-mounted wind tunnel models in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is a multi-task process having a large impact on the annual throughput of the facility. Approximately ten model removal and installation cycles occur annually at the NTF with each cycle requiring slightly over five days to complete. The various tasks of the model changeover process were modeled in Microsoft Project as a template to provide a planning, tracking, and management tool. The template can also be used as a tool to evaluate improvements to this process. This document describes the development of the template and provides step-by-step instructions on its use and as a planning and tracking tool. A secondary role of this document is to provide an overview of the model changeover process and briefly describe the tasks associated with it.

  3. Studying Galileo at Secondary School: A Reconstruction of His "Jumping-Hill" Experiment and the Process of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichmann, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    Finds that interpretation of Galileo's only known experimental manuscript produces some interesting questions that offer pedagogical applications. Promotes classroom "research games" consisting of reconstructed experiments with Galileo's inclined plane and with other instruments to allow further speculation. (Author/WRM)

  4. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Evolution of Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. A.; Battistuz, B.; Foley, S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since April 2004 the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array (TA) network has grown to over 400 broadband seismic stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. In total, over 1.7 terabytes per year of 24-bit, 40 samples-per-second seismic and state of health data is recorded from the stations. The ANF provides analysts access to real-time and archived data, as well as state-of-health data, metadata, and interactive tools for station engineers and the public via a website. Additional processing and recovery of missing data from on-site recorders (balers) at the stations is performed before the final data is transmitted to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). Assembly of the final data set requires additional storage and processing capabilities to combine the real-time data with baler data. The infrastructure supporting these diverse computational and storage needs currently consists of twelve virtualized Sun Solaris Zones executing on nine physical server systems. The servers are protected against failure by redundant power, storage, and networking connections. Storage needs are provided by a hybrid iSCSI and Fiber Channel Storage Area Network (SAN) with access to over 40 terabytes of RAID 5 and 6 storage. Processing tasks are assigned to systems based on parallelization and floating-point calculation needs. On-site buffering at the data-loggers provide protection in case of short-term network or hardware problems, while backup acquisition systems at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and the DMC protect against catastrophic failure of the primary site. Configuration management and monitoring of these systems is accomplished with open-source (Cfengine, Nagios, Solaris Community Software) and commercial tools (Intermapper). In the evolution from a single server to multiple virtualized server instances, Sun Cluster software was evaluated and found to be unstable in our environment. Shared filesystem

  5. Hospitals changing their buying habits. Overhauled technology-acquisition processes help equip facilities to make prudent purchases.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M

    1990-11-26

    As hospitals face increasing pressure to rein in costs, equipment spending faces stiff competition for limited funds. When facilities replace aging or outdated equipment, they're often replacing the entire technology assessment process as well. One hospital facing a $4 million bill to equip a new building is revamping its purchasing process based on department "wish lists." And an Ohio system has formed a special division to speed assessment and implementation of new technologies and procedures.

  6. The Shock Compression Laboratory at Harvard: A New Facility for Planetary Impact Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    The Shock Compression Laboratory in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard is a new facility for the study of impact and collisional phenomena. The following describes the experimental capabilities of the laboratory.

  7. The Free-style Gluteal Perforator Flap in the Thinning and Delay Process for Perineal Reconstruction After Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Horta, Ricardo; Nascimento, Ricardo; Silva, Alvaro; Amarante, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Perineal wounds present a special challenge for reconstructive surgeons. The vacuum-assisted closure device is useful as a temporizing measure or for wounds too large or contaminated for immediate reconstruction. Compared to traditional myocutaneous flaps, perforator flaps provide thinner fasciocutaneous flaps for perineal reconstruction with favorable results and fewer donor site morbidities. The upper and lower gluteal regions are rich in perforators, which allow for more versatile flap design according to the defect. The authors combined the principles of free-style perforator flaps, flap delay, and thinning of perforator flaps to restore perineal function and aesthetics. The procedure was undertaken in a 72-year-old female who was obese with the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to perineal abscess. After 3 months, the flap achieved adequate and durable reconstruction with acceptable aesthetic contour and patient satisfaction; there was no loss of function at donor sites. Clinical applications and technical refinements of freestyle pedicled perforator flaps can be extended to the perineal region. Because of its many advantages and its versatility, freestyle pedicled perforator flaps constitute a valued reconstructive option and, when indicated, an alternative to pedicled axial flaps or even free flaps, in addition to vacuum therapy, to simplify the reconstructive procedure. PMID:27434419

  8. Development and use of statistical survey criteria for release of materials at a former uranium processing facility.

    PubMed

    Green, S; Miller, R H; Nelson, R A

    1991-12-01

    To minimize the amount of waste and to recover reusable resources during demolition of radioactively contaminated facilities, building construction material and equipment can be efficiently and successfully surveyed using statistical methods described in this article. A radioactive contamination survey strategy aimed at reducing survey technician labor while still providing assurance that only uncontaminated material is released for salvage is discussed. Provided is the survey method, rationale, and results of three case studies where this method was successfully employed at a former uranium processing facility.

  9. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  10. Airborne concentrations of chrysotile asbestos in serpentine quarries and stone processing facilities in Valmalenco, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Somigliana, Anna; Gemmi, Mauro; Bernabeo, Ferruccio; Savoca, Domenico; Cavallo, Domenico M; Bertazzi, Pier A

    2012-07-01

    Asbestos may be naturally present in rocks and soils. In some cases, there is the possibility of releasing asbestos fibres into the atmosphere from the rock or soil, subsequently exposing workers and the general population, which can lead to an increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases. In the present study, air contaminated with asbestos fibres released from serpentinites was investigated in occupational settings (quarries and processing factories) and in the environment close to working facilities and at urban sites. The only naturally occurrence of asbestos found in Valmalenco area was chrysotile; amphibole fibres were never detected. An experimental cut-off diameter of 0.25 μm was established for distinguishing between Valmalenco chrysotile and antigorite single fibres using selected area electron diffraction analyses. Air contamination from chrysotile fibres in the examined occupational settings was site-dependent as the degree of asbestos contamination of Valmalenco serpentinites is highly variable from place to place. Block cutting of massive serpentinites with multiple blades or discs and drilling at the quarry sites that had the highest levels of asbestos contamination generated the highest exposures to (i.e. over the occupational exposure limits) asbestos. Conversely, working activities on foliated serpentinites produced airborne chrysotile concentrations comparable with ambient levels. Environmental chrysotile concentrations were always below the Italian limit for life environments (0.002 f ml(-1)), except for one sample collected at a quarry property boundary. The present exposure assessment study should encourage the development of an effective and concordant policy for proper use of asbestos-bearing rocks and soils as well as for the protection of public health.

  11. Fabrication of biodegradable polyurethane microspheres by a facile and green process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Yen; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-05-01

    Two different compositions of water-based biodegradable polyurethane (PU) in the form of homogeneous nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using biodegradable polyesters as the soft segment. The first PU (PU01) was based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and the second PU (PU02) was based on 40% PCL diol and 60% polyethylene butylene adipate diol. The PU NP dispersions with different solid contents were sprayed into liquid nitrogen and resuspended in water to generate elastic microspheres (50-60 µm) with different nanoporosities. In vitro degradation analysis revealed that microspheres of PU02 (i.e., PU02 MS) degraded faster than those of PU01 (PU01 MS). Methylene blue was encapsulated during microsphere formation and the release was investigated. Microspheres made from a lower content (10%) of PU02 dispersion (i.e., PU02 MS_10) showed a greater burst release of methylene blue in 6 h, whereas those made from a higher content (30%) of PU01 dispersion (i.e., PU01 MS_30) revealed a prolonged release with a significantly lower burst release. Biocompatibility evaluation using L929 fibroblasts demonstrated that cells were attached and proliferated on microspheres after 24 h. On the other hand, microspheres may further self-assemble into films and scaffolds. Surface modification of microspheres by chitosan may modify the self-assembly behavior of microspheres. Microspheres could be stacked to form scaffolds with different macroporosities. Fibroblasts were successfully seeded and grown in the microsphere-stacked scaffolds. We concluded that the biodegradable and elastic microspheres may be facilely produced from a green and sustainable process with potential applications in drug release and three-dimensional cell culture.

  12. Molecular and Genomic Characterization of Vibrio mimicus Isolated from a Frozen Shrimp Processing Facility in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Guardiola-Avila, Iliana; Acedo-Felix, Evelia; Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Noriega-Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a gram-negative bacterium responsible for diseases in humans. Three strains of V. mimicus identified as V. mimicus 87, V. mimicus 92 and V. mimicus 93 were isolated from a shrimp processing facility in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico. The strains were analyzed using several molecular techniques and according to the cluster analysis they were different, their similarities ranged between 51.3% and 71.6%. ERIC-PCR and RAPD (vmh390R) were the most discriminatory molecular techniques for the differentiation of these strains. The complete genomes of two strains (V. mimicus 87, renamed as CAIM 1882, and V. mimicus 92, renamed as CAIM 1883) were sequenced. The sizes of the genomes were 3.9 Mb in both strains, with 2.8 Mb in ChI and 1.1 Mb in ChII. A 12.7% difference was found in the proteome content (BLAST matrix). Several virulence genes were detected (e.g. capsular polysaccharide, an accessory colonization factor and genes involved in quorum-sensing) which were classified in 16 categories. Variations in the gene content between these genomes were observed, mainly in proteins and virulence genes (e.g., hemagglutinin, mobile elements and membrane proteins). According to these results, both strains were different, even when they came from the same source, giving an insight of the diversity of V. mimicus. The identification of various virulence genes, including a not previously reported V. mimicus gene (acfD) in ChI in all sequenced strains, supports the pathogenic potential of this species. Further analysis will help to fully understand their potential virulence, environmental impact and evolution. PMID:26730584

  13. Molecular and Genomic Characterization of Vibrio mimicus Isolated from a Frozen Shrimp Processing Facility in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guardiola-Avila, Iliana; Acedo-Felix, Evelia; Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Noriega-Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a gram-negative bacterium responsible for diseases in humans. Three strains of V. mimicus identified as V. mimicus 87, V. mimicus 92 and V. mimicus 93 were isolated from a shrimp processing facility in Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico. The strains were analyzed using several molecular techniques and according to the cluster analysis they were different, their similarities ranged between 51.3% and 71.6%. ERIC-PCR and RAPD (vmh390R) were the most discriminatory molecular techniques for the differentiation of these strains. The complete genomes of two strains (V. mimicus 87, renamed as CAIM 1882, and V. mimicus 92, renamed as CAIM 1883) were sequenced. The sizes of the genomes were 3.9 Mb in both strains, with 2.8 Mb in ChI and 1.1 Mb in ChII. A 12.7% difference was found in the proteome content (BLAST matrix). Several virulence genes were detected (e.g. capsular polysaccharide, an accessory colonization factor and genes involved in quorum-sensing) which were classified in 16 categories. Variations in the gene content between these genomes were observed, mainly in proteins and virulence genes (e.g., hemagglutinin, mobile elements and membrane proteins). According to these results, both strains were different, even when they came from the same source, giving an insight of the diversity of V. mimicus. The identification of various virulence genes, including a not previously reported V. mimicus gene (acfD) in ChI in all sequenced strains, supports the pathogenic potential of this species. Further analysis will help to fully understand their potential virulence, environmental impact and evolution. PMID:26730584

  14. Description of Defense Waste Processing Facility reference waste form and canister. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and is scheduled for construction authorization during FY-1984. The reference waste form is borosilicate glass containing approx. 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its high resistance to leaching by water, its relatively high solubility for nuclides found in the sludge, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains about 58% SiO/sub 2/ and 15% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Leachabilities of SRP waste glasses are expected to approach 10/sup -8/ g/m/sup 2/-day based upon 1000-day tests using glasses containing SRP radioactive waste. Tests were performed under a wide variety of conditions simulating repository environments. The canister is filled with 3260 lb of glass which occupies about 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approx. 470 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and 15-year-old supernate from the sludge and supernate processes. The radionuclide content of the canister is about 177,000 ci, with a radiation level of 5500 rem/h at canister surface contact. The reference canister is fabricated of standard 24-in.-OD, Schedule 20, 304L stainless steel pipe with a dished bottom, domed head, and a combined lifting and welding flange on the head neck. The overall canister length is 9 ft 10 in. with a 3/8-in. wall thickness. The 3-m canister length was selected to reduce equipment cell height in the DWPF to a practical size. The canister diameter was selected as an optimum size from glass quality considerations, a logical size for repository handling and to ensure that a filled canister with its double containment shipping cask could be accommodated on a legal-weight truck. The overall dimensions and weight appear to be compatible with preliminary assessments of repository requirements. 10 references.

  15. Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2013-01-22

    Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the

  16. Deconvolving the process-origin of sediments on volcanic mountains and implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction: Mt Ruapehu area, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Glaciation on the central North Island of New Zealand is limited to the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park, including Mt Ruapehu, the largest and most active andesitic stratovolcano on the North Island. At 2797 m asl, Mt Ruapehu represents the only peak in the North Island to currently intercept the permanent snowline, with small cirque glaciers descending to an altitude of ~2300 m. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), small ice-caps existed on Mt Ruapehu and the Tongariro Massif (15 km to the NNE of Ruapehu), with a series of small (<10 km-long) valley glaciers radiating out from domes centered on the summit areas to altitudes of ~1200 m. Holocene glacier advances have left smaller deposits inboard of some of the LGM moraines. However, understanding of moraine deposition and reconstructing former glacier extent is limited by: (1) the fragmentary nature of glacier moraines in this high precipitation environment; and (2) the broad range of possible process-origins for unconsolidated debris ridges on active volcanoes. Here, we describe the clast roundness, clast shape and textural characteristics associated with active and former glaciers on Mt Ruaephu and the Tongariro Massif, in order to assist in classifying the process-origin of sediments on glaciated volcanic mountains. Supraglacial inputs include rockfall, tephra, and avalanche material delivered to the surface of glaciers. Basal debris, where observed at the terminus of active cirque glaciers, consists mainly of incorporated fluvial material. Following deposition, reworking is mainly by proglacial streams, debris flows and lahars. Within the vicinity of glaciers, the dominant facies appear to be: (i) bouldery gravel with angular clasts on steep slopes surrounding glaciers, (ii) silty-sandy boulder gravel, with mainly subangular clasts, forming lateral moraines, (iii) boulder/cobble gravel with mainly subrounded clasts and associated laminated sediments representing fluvially-reworked material; and (iv

  17. Combining livestock production information in a process-based vegetation model to reconstruct the history of grassland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Campioli, Matteo; Zhang, Xianzhou; Bai, Yongfei; Viovy, Nicolas; Joiner, Joanna; Wang, Xuhui; Peng, Shushi; Yue, Chao; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Tao; Hauglustaine, Didier A.; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Peregon, Anna; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Grassland management type (grazed or mown) and intensity (intensive or extensive) play a crucial role in the greenhouse gas balance and surface energy budget of this biome, both at field scale and at large spatial scale. However, global gridded historical information on grassland management intensity is not available. Combining modelled grass-biomass productivity with statistics of the grass-biomass demand by livestock, we reconstruct gridded maps of grassland management intensity from 1901 to 2012. These maps include the minimum area of managed vs. maximum area of unmanaged grasslands and the fraction of mown vs. grazed area at a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°. The grass-biomass demand is derived from a livestock dataset for 2000, extended to cover the period 1901-2012. The grass-biomass supply (i.e. forage grass from mown grassland and biomass grazed) is simulated by the process-based model ORCHIDEE-GM driven by historical climate change, rising CO2 concentration, and changes in nitrogen fertilization. The global area of managed grassland obtained in this study increases from 6.1 × 106 km2 in 1901 to 12.3 × 106 km2 in 2000, although the expansion pathway varies between different regions. ORCHIDEE-GM also simulated augmentation in global mean productivity and herbage-use efficiency over managed grassland during the 20th century, indicating a general intensification of grassland management at global scale but with regional differences. The gridded grassland management intensity maps are model dependent because they depend on modelled productivity. Thus specific attention was given to the evaluation of modelled productivity against a series of observations from site-level net primary productivity (NPP) measurements to two global satellite products of gross primary productivity (GPP) (MODIS-GPP and SIF data). Generally, ORCHIDEE-GM captures the spatial pattern, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability of grassland productivity at global scale well and thus is

  18. Experimental Component Characterization, Monte-Carlo-Based Image Generation and Source Reconstruction for the Neutron Imaging System of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, C A; Moran, M J

    2007-08-21

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is one of seven ignition target diagnostics under development for the National Ignition Facility. The NIS is required to record hot-spot (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (6-10 MeV) images with a resolution of 10 microns and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 at the 20% contour. The NIS is a valuable diagnostic since the downscattered neutrons reveal the spatial distribution of the cold fuel during an ignition attempt, providing important information in the case of a failed implosion. The present study explores the parameter space of several line-of-sight (LOS) configurations that could serve as the basis for the final design. Six commercially available organic scintillators were experimentally characterized for their light emission decay profile and neutron sensitivity. The samples showed a long lived decay component that makes direct recording of a downscattered image impossible. The two best candidates for the NIS detector material are: EJ232 (BC422) plastic fibers or capillaries filled with EJ399B. A Monte Carlo-based end-to-end model of the NIS was developed to study the imaging capabilities of several LOS configurations and verify that the recovered sources meet the design requirements. The model includes accurate neutron source distributions, aperture geometries (square pinhole, triangular wedge, mini-penumbral, annular and penumbral), their point spread functions, and a pixelated scintillator detector. The modeling results show that a useful downscattered image can be obtained by recording the primary peak and the downscattered images, and then subtracting a decayed version of the former from the latter. The difference images need to be deconvolved in order to obtain accurate source distributions. The images are processed using a frequency-space modified-regularization algorithm and low-pass filtering. The resolution and SNR of these sources are quantified by using two surrogate sources. The simulations show that all LOS

  19. Chemical hazards database and detection system for Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (MMPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Jimmy; Smith, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to identify contaminants associated with experiments and facilities is directly related to the safety of the Space Station. A means of identifying these contaminants has been developed through this contracting effort. The delivered system provides a listing of the materials and/or chemicals associated with each facility, information as to the contaminant's physical state, a list of the quantity and/or volume of each suspected contaminant, a database of the toxicological hazards associated with each contaminant, a recommended means of rapid identification of the contaminants under operational conditions, a method of identifying possible failure modes and effects analysis associated with each facility, and a fault tree-type analysis that will provide a means of identifying potential hazardous conditions related to future planned missions.

  20. Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

  1. An analysis of workplace exposures to benzene over four decades at a petrochemical processing and manufacturing facility (1962-1999).

    PubMed

    Sahmel, J; Devlin, K; Burns, A; Ferracini, T; Ground, M; Paustenbach, D

    2013-01-01

    Benzene, a known carcinogen, can be generated as a by-product during the use of petroleum-based raw materials in chemical manufacturing. The aim of this study was to analyze a large data set of benzene air concentration measurements collected over nearly 40 years during routine employee exposure monitoring at a petrochemical manufacturing facility. The facility used ethane, propane, and natural gas as raw materials in the production of common commercial materials such as polyethylene, polypropylene, waxes, adhesives, alcohols, and aldehydes. In total, 3607 benzene air samples were collected at the facility from 1962 to 1999. Of these, in total 2359 long-term (>1 h) personal exposure samples for benzene were collected during routine operations at the facility between 1974 and 1999. These samples were analyzed by division, department, and job title to establish employee benzene exposures in different areas of the facility over time. Sampling data were also analyzed by key events over time, including changes in the occupational exposure limits (OELs) for benzene and key equipment process changes at the facility. Although mean benzene concentrations varied according to operation, in nearly all cases measured benzene quantities were below the OEL in place at the time for benzene (10 ppm for 1974-1986 and 1 ppm for 1987-1999). Decreases in mean benzene air concentrations were also found when data were evaluated according to 7- to 10-yr periods following key equipment process changes. Further, an evaluation of mortality rates for a retrospective employee cohort (n = 3938) demonstrated that the average personal benzene exposures at this facility (0.89 ppm for the period 1974-1986 and 0.125 ppm for the period 1987-1999) did not result in increased standardized mortality ratio (SMRs) for diseases or malignancies of the lymphatic system. The robust nature of this data set provides comprehensive exposure information that may be useful for assessing human benzene exposures at

  2. QUALIFICATION OF THE SECOND ICS-3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPH FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2009-12-03

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification testing was a head to head comparison of the second ICS-3000 with the initial ICS-3000 system that was installed in 221-S M-13. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has recently replaced the Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems that had been used since 1998 by the first of two new ICS-3000 systems. The replacement effort was necessary due to the vendor of the DX-500 systems no longer supporting service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance due to the pump configuration only using water versus the current system where the pump uses various hydroxide concentrations. The ICS-3000

  3. Qualification of the First ICS-3000 ION Chromatograph for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-13 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a head to head comparison of the ICS-3000 with the currently used DX-500 IC system. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. Based upon the successful qualification of the ICS-3000 in M-13, it is recommended that this task proceed in developing the data to qualify, by a head to head comparison of the two ICS-3000 instruments, a second ICS-3000 to be installed in M-14. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, organic acid constituents, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has been using Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems since 1998. The vendor informed DWPF in 2006 that the instruments would no longer be supported by service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance

  4. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-07-25

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  5. EVALUATION OF A TURBIDITY METER FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Mahannah, R.; Edwards, T.

    2013-06-04

    Savannah River Remediation’s (SRR’s) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a “peanut” vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 weight percent (wt%). A “go/no-go” decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a “go” decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a “no-go” determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. Subsequent to the

  6. Evaluation Of A Turbidity Meter For Use At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mahannah, R. N.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-01-15

    Savannah River Remediation's (SRR's) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a ''peanut'' vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 wt%. A ''go/no-go'' decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a ''go'' decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a ''no-go'' determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards

  7. Wetland and Sensitive Species Survey Report for Y-12: Proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Giffen, N.; Peterson, M.; Reasor, S.; Pounds, L.; Byrd, G.; Wiest, M. C.; Hill, C. C.

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of an environmental survey conducted at sites associated with the proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in September-October 2009. The survey was conducted in order to evaluate potential impacts of the overall project. This project includes the construction of a haul road, concrete batch plant, wet soil storage area and dry soil storage area. The environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at ORNL who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Natural resource staff assistance on this project included the collection of environmental information that can aid in project location decisions that minimize impacts to sensitive resource such as significant wildlife populations, rare plants and wetlands. Natural resources work was conducted in various habitats, corresponding to the proposed areas of impact. Thc credentials/qualifications of the researchers are contained in Appendix A. The proposed haul road traverses a number of different habitats including a power-line right-of-way. wetlands, streams, forest and mowed areas. It extends from what is known as the New Salvage Yard on the west to the Polaris Parking Lot on the east. This haul road is meant to connect the proposed concrete batch plant to the UPF building site. The proposed site of the concrete batch plant itself is a highly disturbed fenced area. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 1. The proposed Wet Soils Disposal Area is located on the north side of Bear Creek Road at the former Control Burn Study Area. This is a second growth arce containing thick vegetation, and extensive dead and down woody material. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2. Thc dry soils storage area is proposed for what is currently known as the West Borrow Area. This site is located on the west side of Reeves Road south of Bear Creek Road. The site is an early successional

  8. Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-06-30

    The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present in the canister that may lead to internal corrosion of the canister or that could potentially adversely affect normal canister handling. During vitrification, volatilization of mixed (Na, K, Cs)Cl, (Na, K, Cs){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (Na, K, Cs)BF{sub 4}, (Na, K){sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and (Na,K)CrO{sub 4} species from glass melt condensed in the melter off-gas and in the cyclone separator in the canister pour spout vacuum line. A full-scale DWPF prototypic canister filled during Campaign 10 of the SRS Scale Glass Melter was sectioned and examined. Mixed (NaK)CI, (NaK){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NaK) borates, and a (Na,K) fluoride phase (either NaF or Na{sub 2}BF{sub 4}) were identified on the interior canister walls, neck, and shoulder above the melt pour surface. Similar deposits were found on the glass melt surface and on glass fracture surfaces. Chromates were not found. Spinel crystals were found associated with the glass pour surface. Reference amounts of the halides and sulfates were found retained in the glass and the glass chemistry, including the distribution of the halides and sulfates, was homogeneous. In all cases where rust was observed, heavy metals (Zn, Ti, Sn) from the cutting blade/fluid were present indicating that the rust was a reaction product of the cutting fluid with glass and heat sensitized canister or with carbon-steel contamination on canister interior. Only minimal water vapor is present so that internal corrosion of the canister, will not occur.

  9. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, D. G.; Alves, L. C.; Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C.; Le Trequesser, Q.; Marques, A. C.; Seznec, H.; da Silva, R. C.

    2014-07-01

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans - a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  10. Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility (RSF) (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    An in-depth look at how the U.S. DOE and NREL used a performance-based design-build contract to build the Research Support Facility (RSF); one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world.

  11. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs in Data Processing. Interim Report. Research 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, William A.

    This guide lists a series of pivotal questions about the educational program to be offered, and the answers to these questions bear directly on the numbers and kinds of instructional areas needed in the contemplated facilities. Much of the material is presented in a checklist format which allows for consideration of alternatives in facility…

  12. Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were…

  13. 78 FR 33995 - Nuclear Proliferation Assessment in Licensing Process for Enrichment or Reprocessing Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... public comment in the Federal Register (FR) on December 23, 2010 (75 FR 246). The petition requests that...: Procedures for Reports on Research'' (37 FR 15393; August 1, 1972), upon receipt of the report, the DOE will... facilities it regulates that manufacture or use enriched uranium and plutonium do so safely and securely....

  14. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  15. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  16. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location {number_sign}1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations {number_sign}3 and {number_sign}9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location {number_sign}5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  17. Prototype interface facility for intelligent handling and processing of medical image and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lymberopoulos, Dimitris C.; Garantziotis, Giannis; Spiropoulos, Kostas V.; Kotsopoulos, Stavros A.; Goutis, Costas E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper introduces an interface facility (IF) developed within the overall framework of RACE research project. Due to the nature of the project which it has been focused in the Remote Medical Expert Consultation, the involvement of distances, the versatile user advocation and familiarity with newly introduced methods of medical diagnosis, considerable deficiencies can arise. The aim was to intelligently assist the user/physician by providing an ergonomic environment which would contain operational and functional deficiencies to the lowest possible levels. IF, energizes and activates system and application level commands and procedures along with the necessary exemplified and instructional help facilities, in order to concisely allow the user to interact with the system safely and easily at all levels.

  18. Channeled spectropolarimetry using iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dennis J.; LaCasse, Charles F.; Craven, Julia M.

    2016-05-01

    Channeled spectropolarimeters (CSP) measure the polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Conventional Fourier reconstruction suffers from noise, assumes the channels are band-limited, and requires uniformly spaced samples. To address these problems, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm. We develop a mathematical model of CSP measurements and minimize a cost function based on this model. We simulate a measured spectrum using example Stokes parameters, from which we compare conventional Fourier reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. Importantly, our iterative approach can reconstruct signals that contain more bandwidth, an advancement over Fourier reconstruction. Our results also show that iterative reconstruction mitigates noise effects, processes non-uniformly spaced samples without interpolation, and more faithfully recovers the ground truth Stokes parameters. This work offers a significant improvement to Fourier reconstruction for channeled spectropolarimetry.

  19. Mines and mineral processing facilities in the vicinity of the March 11, 2011, earthquake in northern Honshu, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menzie, W. David; Baker, Michael S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Kuo, Chin

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey data indicate that the area affected by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 earthquake and associated tsunami is home to nine cement plants, eight iodine plants, four iron and steel plants, four limestone mines, three copper refineries, two gold refineries, two lead refineries, two zinc refineries, one titanium dioxide plant, and one titanium sponge processing facility. These facilities have the capacity to produce the following percentages of the world's nonfuel mineral production: 25 percent of iodine, 10 percent of titanium sponge (metal), 3 percent of refined zinc, 2.5 percent of refined copper, and 1.4 percent of steel. In addition, the nine cement plants contribute about one-third of Japan's cement annual production. The iodine is a byproduct from production of natural gas at the Miniami Kanto gas field, east of Tokyo in Chiba Prefecture. Japan is the world's second leading (after Chile) producer of iodine, which is processed in seven nearby facilities.

  20. Reconstruction of caldera collapse and resurgence processes in the offshore sector of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Lena; Spiess, Volkhard; Sacchi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    system. Moreover, a dome-like structure associated with a cluster of normal faults and an apical depression was identified in the center of the caldera, which corresponds very well with the on land observed location of the long-term uplift. Based on the seismic dataset, a conceptual reconstruction of the caldera deformation and depositional processes was developed. Furthermore, the seismic data show indications for a shallow ring-fault system associated with the collapse of the NYT caldera. In addition, major stratigraphic units such as the CI and NYT could be traced on a regional scale, thereby providing information about the eruptive processes and vent locations. Besides the volcano-tectonic aspects, a system tract analysis was carried out in order to reveal the interplay between eustatic sea-level variations and tectonically induced uplift and subsidence.

  1. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Montgomery

    2008-05-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.

  2. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties.

  3. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties. PMID:26179779

  4. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  5. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  6. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts.

  7. Using the ABLE facility to observe urbanization effects on planetary boundary layer processes

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Shannon, J.D.; Sisterson, D.L.; Wesely, M.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Argonne Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) facility, located in south central Kansas, east of Wichita, is devoted primarily to investigations of and within the planetary boundary layer (PBL), including the dynamics of the mixed layer during both day and night; effects of varying land use and landform; the interactive role of precipitation, runoff, and soil moisture; storm development; and energy budgets on scales of 10 to 100 km. With an expected lifetime of 10--15 years, the facility is well situated to observe the effects of gradual urbanization on PBL dynamics and structure as the Wichita urban area expands to the east and several small municipalities located within the study area expand. Combining the continuous measurements of ABLE with (1) ancillary continuous measurements of, for example, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and the Global Energy Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) programs and with (2) shorter, more intensive studies within ABLE, such as the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Studies (CASES) Program, allows hypothesized features of urbanization, including heat island effects, precipitation enhancement, and modification of the surface energy budget partitioning, to be studied.

  8. Aerobic biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a Mexican natural gas processing facility.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Carrillo, T; Castorena-Cortés, G; Zapata-Peñasco, I; Reyes-Avila, J; Olguín-Lora, P

    2012-03-01

    The biodegradation of oil sludge from Mexican sour gas and petrochemical facilities contaminated with a high content of hydrocarbons, 334.7 ± 7.0 g kg(-1) dry matter (dm), was evaluated. Studies in microcosm systems were carried out in order to determine the capacity of the native microbiota in the sludge to reduce hydrocarbon levels under aerobic conditions. Different carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous (C/N/P) nutrient ratios were tested. The systems were incubated at 30 °C and shaken at 100 rpm. Hydrocarbon removals from 32 to 51% were achieved in the assays after 30 days of incubation. The best assay had C/N/P ratio of 100/1.74/0.5. The results of the Microtox(®) and Ames tests indicated that the original sludge was highly toxic and mutagenic, whereas the best assay gave a final product that did not show toxicity or mutagenicity.

  9. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under the Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan for Tank System TRA-009. The tank system to be closed is identified as VCO-SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-009. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1159 - Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1159 Operational and equipment standards for existing, new, or reconstructed sources. (a) Hydrochloric acid...) Hydrochloric acid storage vessels. The owner or operator of an affected vessel shall provide and...

  15. 75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...' representatives, including lessees who process natural gas extracted from a Federal lease in the Gulf of Mexico... Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management..., flare gas, condensate, natural gas liquids, or any other products recovered from Federal...

  16. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  17. Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG).

    PubMed

    Nilsson Påledal, S; Arrhenius, K; Moestedt, J; Engelbrektsson, J; Stensen, K

    2016-02-01

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty. Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  18. Overview of Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, R. B.

    1980-04-01

    Image reconstruction (or computerized tomography, etc.) is any process whereby a function, f, on Rn is estimated from empirical data pertaining to its integrals, ∫f(x) dx, for some collection of hyperplanes of dimension k < n. The paper begins with background information on how image reconstruction problems have arisen in practice, and describes some of the application areas of past or current interest; these include radioastronomy, optics, radiology and nuclear medicine, electron microscopy, acoustical imaging, geophysical tomography, nondestructive testing, and NMR zeugmatography. Then the various reconstruction algorithms are discussed in five classes: summation, or simple back-projection; convolution, or filtered back-projection; Fourier and other functional transforms; orthogonal function series expansion; and iterative methods. Certain more technical mathematical aspects of image reconstruction are considered from the standpoint of uniqueness, consistency, and stability of solution. The paper concludes by presenting certain open problems. 73 references. (RWR)

  19. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics from water-processable nanomaterials and their facile fabrication approaches.

    PubMed

    Subianto, Surya; Dutta, Naba; Andersson, Mats; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film photovoltaics based on bulk-heterojunction donor-acceptor combinations have received significant interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-scale solution processing. However, current state-of-the-art cells utilise materials soluble mainly in halogenated solvents which pose processing challenges due to their toxicity and thus environmental hazards. In this contribution, we look at various nanomaterials, and alternative processing of these solar cells using environmentally friendly solvents, and review recently reported different strategies and approaches that are making inroads in this field. Specifically, we focus on the use of water-dispersible donors and acceptors, use of aqueous solvents for fabrication and discuss the merits of the two main approaches of water-processable solar cells; namely, through the use of water-soluble materials and the use of aqueous dispersion rather than a solution, as well as review some of the recent advances in alternative fabrication techniques.

  20. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  1. Radioactive Carbon Isotope Monitoring System Based on Cavity Ring-down Laser Spectroscopy for Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Takiguchi, Yu; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    In decommissioning process of nuclear facilities, large amount of radioactive isotopes are discharged as waste. Radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is one of the key nuclides to determine the upper limit of concentration in the waste disposal. In particular, 14C on the graphite reactor decommissioning should be separated from stable carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) and monitored for the public health and safety. We propose an isotope analysis system based on cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy (CRDS) to monitor the carbon isotopes (12C, 13C and 14C) in the isotope separation process for the graphite reactor decommissioning. This system is compact and suitable for a continuous monitoring, because the concentration of molecules including the carbon isotope is derived from its photo absorbance with ultra high sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy. Here are presented the necessary conditions of CRDS system for 14C isotope analysis through the preliminary experimental results of 13C isotope analysis with a prototype system.

  2. Production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a cross section of different solutions to the many unique production problems operators face. Sections address benefit vs. cost options for production facility designs, oil and gas separation processes and equipment, oil treating and desalting systems, and water treating methods and equipment. Papers were selected to give an overall view of factors involved in optimizing the design of cost-effective production facilities.

  3. Distribution and identification of culturable airborne microorganisms in a Swiss milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Helmut; Fricker-Feer, Claudia; Ziegler, Dominik; Mandal, Jyotshna; Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Airborne communities (mainly bacteria) were sampled and characterized (concentration levels and diversity) at 1 outdoor and 6 indoor sites within a Swiss dairy production facility. Air samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in different seasons, one in February and one in July 2012 using impaction bioaerosol samplers. After cultivation, isolates were identified by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight) and molecular (sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes) methods. In general, total airborne particle loads and total bacterial counts were higher in winter than in summer, but remained constant within each indoor sampling site at both sampling times (February and July). Bacterial numbers were generally very low (<100 cfu/m(3) of air) during the different steps of milk powder production. Elevated bacterial concentrations (with mean values of 391 ± 142 and 179 ± 33 cfu/m(3) of air during winter and summer sampling, respectively; n=15) occurred mainly in the "logistics area," where products in closed tins are packed in secondary packaging material and prepared for shipping. However, total bacterial counts at the outdoor site varied, with a 5- to 6-fold higher concentration observed in winter compared with summer. Twenty-five gram-positive and gram-negative genera were identified as part of the airborne microflora, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus being the most frequent genera identified. Overall, the culturable microflora community showed a composition typical and representative for the specific location. Bacterial counts were highly correlated with total airborne particles in the size range 1 to 5 µm, indicating that a simple surveillance system based upon counting of airborne particles could be implemented. The data generated in this study could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the dairy plant's sanitation program and to identify potential sources of airborne contamination, resulting in increased food safety.

  4. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Refining and upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The refinery and upgrade process development unit (PDU) is designed to upgrade liquid hydrocarbon products from the direct and indirect liquefaction PDU's to transportation fuels. The refinery will comprise of the following reactor systems: (a) Hydrotreating (b) Hydrocracking (c) Reforming. The three reactor systems will share common feed preparation, product separation and fractionation sections. The refinery is being designed to operate independently of the other PDU's. The use of common feed and product handling systems will permit operation of one process reactor system at a time in the refinery. In addition, the hydrotreater and hydrocracker will be operable in series. The process is designed to utilize intermediate storage and maximize the use of equipment.

  5. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Refining and upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The refinery and upgrade process development unit (PDU) is designed to upgrade liquid hydrocarbon products from the direct and indirect liquefaction PDU`s to transportation fuels. The refinery will comprise of the following reactor systems: (a) Hydrotreating (b) Hydrocracking (c) Reforming. The three reactor systems will share common feed preparation, product separation and fractionation sections. The refinery is being designed to operate independently of the other PDU`s. The use of common feed and product handling systems will permit operation of one process reactor system at a time in the refinery. In addition, the hydrotreater and hydrocracker will be operable in series. The process is designed to utilize intermediate storage and maximize the use of equipment.

  6. Technology Readiness Assessment of Department of Energy Waste Processing Facilities: Lessons Learned, Next Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.; Gerdes, K.; Holton, L.; Krahn, S.; Sutter, H.

    2008-07-01

    In an effort to improve its oversight of major waste treatment construction projects DOE has piloted a Technical Readiness Assessment/Technology Maturation Plan (TRA/TMP) process based on similar processes employed by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA. DOE has carried out TRAs for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), for supplemental treatment technologies that may be employed to process Hanford low activity waste (LAW), for the removal of Hanford K-Basin waste, and for treatment technologies for Savannah River Site's tank 48. This paper describes the TRA/TMP methodology and discusses the findings and lessons learned during its application. The paper also discusses the next steps in the technical assessment of DOE environmental projects. (authors)

  7. Facile Solubilization Of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using A Urea Melt Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Adrian; Ford, William; Graupner, Ralf; Wessels, Jurina; Yasuda, Akio; Ley, Lothar; Hirsch, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    In this work we present a simple and effective process to overcome the water insolubility of mildly oxidized Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). As this insolubility mainly arises from strong van-der Waals and π-π stacking interactions of the nanotubes, we applied a urea-melt process to break up the bundles and simultaneously convert the carboxylic functional groups into primary amides. After intense washing and precipitation steps the urea functionalized nanotubes (U-SWCNTs) show a remarkably increased solubility in water and some alcohols which, makes them accessible for further functionalization and applications in these solvents.

  8. A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Grover, Sameer; Dubey, Sudipta; Mamgain, Hitesh; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple technique to transfer chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene from copper and platinum substrates using a soak-and-peel delamination technique utilizing only hot deionized water. The lack of chemical etchants results in cleaner CVD graphene films minimizing unintentional doping, as confirmed by Raman and electrical measurements. The process allows the reuse of substrates and hence can enable the use of oriented substrates for growth of higher quality graphene, and is an inherently inexpensive and scalable process for large-area production. PMID:24457558

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  10. APPLICATIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT ASSEMBLY PROCESSES TO THE FACILE SYNTHESES OF DIVERSELY FUNCTIONALIZED NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES‡

    PubMed Central

    Donald, James R.; Granger, Brett A.; Hardy, Simon; Sahn, James J.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Several multicomponent assembly processes have been developed for the synthesis of intermediates that may be elaborated by a variety of cyclizations to generate a diverse array of highly functionalized heterocycles from readily-available starting materials. The overall approach enables the efficient preparation of libraries of small molecules derived from fused, privileged scaffolds. PMID:22451742

  11. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on wood substrates via a one-step hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Qing, Yan; Wu, Yiqiang; Liang, Jin; Luo, Sha

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces were successfully fabricated on wood substrates via a one-step hydrothermal process. The morphology of the nanocomposite surfaces was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the elemental composition was determined via energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the crystallization of the anatase phase of TiO2 was prevented because of the presence of vinyltriethoxysilane [VTES, CH2CHSi(OC2H5)3] during the hydrothermal process. In addition, the nanocomposite contained Ti/Si particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 100 nm that thoroughly covered the wood substrate. Furthermore, the roughness coupled with the presence of low surface free energy groups led to superhydrophobicity; the static water contact angle (WCA) was as high as 153°, and the sliding angle was very low.

  12. The LHEA PDP 11/70 graphics processing facility users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of all necessary and useful information needed to allow the inexperienced user to program on the PDP 11/70. Information regarding the use of editing and file manipulation utilities as well as operational procedures are included. The inexperienced user is taken through the process of creating, editing, compiling, task building and debugging his/her FORTRAN program. Also, documentation on additional software is included.

  13. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  14. Risk-Based Decision Process for Accelerated Closure of a Nuclear Weapons Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.; Norland, R. L.; DiSalvo, R.; Anderson, M.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly 40 years of nuclear weapons production at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Site) resulted in contamination of soil and underground systems and structures with hazardous substances, including plutonium, uranium and hazardous waste constituents. The Site was placed on the National Priority List in 1989. There are more than 370 Individual Hazardous Substance Sites (IHSSs) at RFETS. Accelerated cleanup and closure of RFETS is being achieved through implementation and refinement of a regulatory framework that fosters programmatic and technical innovations: (1) extensive use of ''accelerated actions'' to remediate IHSSs, (2) development of a risk-based screening process that triggers and helps define the scope of accelerated actions consistent with the final remedial action objectives for the Site, (3) use of field instrumentation for real time data collection, (4) a data management system that renders near real time field data assessment, and (5) a regulatory agency consultative process to facilitate timely decisions. This paper presents the process and interim results for these aspects of the accelerated closure program applied to Environmental Restoration activities at the Site.

  15. Goldratt's thinking process applied to the budget constraints of a Texas MHMR facility.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lloyd J; Churchwell, Lana

    2004-01-01

    Managers for years have known that the best way to run a business is to constantly be looking for ways to improve the way to do business. The barrier has been the ability to identify and solve the right problems. Eliyahu Goldratt (1992c), in his book The Goal, uses a love story format to illustrate his "Theory of Constraints." In Goldratt's (1994) next book, It's Not Luck, he further illustrates this powerful technique called "The Thinking Process" which is based on the Socratic method, using the "if ... then" reasoning process, The first step is to identify UDEs or undesirable effects within the organization and then use these UDEs to create a Current Reality Tree (CRT) which helps to identify the core problem. Next, use an Evaporating Cloud to come up with ideas and a way to break the constraint. Finally, use the injections in the Evaporating Cloud to create a Future Reality Tree, further validating the idea and making sure it does not create any negative effects. In this article, the "Thinking Process" will be used to identify and solve problems related to the General Medical Department of an MHMR State Hospital. PMID:15704641

  16. A facile method to determine pore size distribution in porous scaffold by using image processing.

    PubMed

    Lo Re, G; Lopresti, F; Petrucci, G; Scaffaro, R

    2015-09-01

    Image processing permits scientists to investigate morphological properties of three-dimensional structures starting from their bi-dimensional gray-scale representation. In many cases porous structure with complex architecture has to be designed in order to attempt specific properties such in the case of scaffold for tissue engineering. Traditional morphological characterization, like scanning electron microscopy, should be coupled with quantitative information such as pore size distribution (PSD) in order to get a deeper understanding of the influence of the porous structure on tissue regeneration processes and on other related applications, it is remarkable to study a quantitative analysis of porosity and of pores dimension. In this work it was developed as a software able to accomplish the segmentation of images containing pores of any geometry in a semi-automatic way with the aim to measure the PSD. Case study constituted by PLA porous scaffolds with different pore size was adopted. Results indicate that image processing methods well fit the pore size features of PLA scaffolds, overcoming the limits of the more invasive porosimetry techniques. PMID:26026425

  17. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-09-30

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  18. The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Minette, M.; Sorenson, D.; Heineman, R.; Gerber, M.; Charboneau, S.; Bond, F.

    2006-07-01

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  19. CHALLENGES OF PRESERVING HISTORIC RESOURCES DURING THE D & D OF HIGHLY CONTAMINATED HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT PLUTONIUM PROCESS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2006-03-17

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that ere included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE'S Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Sitewide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  20. Supercritical water oxidation technology for DWPF. [Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.; Gentilucci, J.A.

    1992-02-07

    At the request of Mr. H.L. Brandt and others in the Savannah River Field Office High Level Waste Division office, DWPF, and SRL personnel have reviewed two potential applications for supercritical water oxidation technology in DWPF. The first application would replace the current hydrolysis process by destroying the organic fractions of the precipitated cesium / potassium tetraphenylborate slurry. The second application pertains to liquid benzene destruction. After a thorough evaluation the first application is not recommended. The second is ready to be tested if needed.