Science.gov

Sample records for reconstructed process facility

  1. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SPDPF) are highlighted. The capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of vital Spacelab data to various user facilities around the world are described.

  2. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SDPF) processes, monitors, and accounts for the payload data from Spacelab and other Shuttle missions and forwards relevant data to various user facilities worldwide. The SLDPF is divided into the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). The SIPS division demultiplexes, synchronizes, time tags, quality checks, accounts for the data, and formats the data onto tapes. The SOPS division further edits, blocks, formats, and records the data on tape for shipment to users. User experiments must conform to the Spacelab's onboard High Rate Multiplexer (HRM) format for maximum process ability. Audio, analog, instrumentation, high density, experiment data, input/output data, quality control and accounting, and experimental channel tapes along with a variety of spacelab ancillary tapes are provided to the user by SLDPF.

  3. Book Processing Facility Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan (Drake)-Stewart Dougall, Marketing and Physical Distribution Consultants, New York, NY.

    The Association of New York Libraries for Technical Services (ANYLTS) is established to develop and run a centralized book processing facility for the public library systems in New York State. ANYLTS plans to receive book orders from the 22 library systems, transmit orders to publishers, receive the volumes from the publishers, print and attach…

  4. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  5. Image processing and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick

    2012-06-15

    This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

  6. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  7. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    At the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility (RPSF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the news media photograph the process as cranes are used to lift one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs Engineering, on the Test and Operations Support Contract, are preparing the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  8. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Members of the news media watch as a crane is used to move one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket to a test stand in the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Inside the RPSF, the Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs Engineering, on the Test and Operations Support Contract, will prepare the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  9. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Members of the news media view forward booster segments (painted green) for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket boosters inside the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Orbital ATK is a contractor for NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, and operates the BFF to prepare aft booster segments and hardware for the SLS rocket boosters. The SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft will launch on Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is preparing the infrastructure to process and launch spacecraft for deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  10. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    At the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility (RPSF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the news media watch as cranes are used to lift one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs Engineering, on the Test and Operations Support Contract, are preparing the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  11. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Members of the news media view the high bay inside the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility (RPSF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Inside the RPSF, engineers and technicians with Jacobs Engineering on the Test and Operations Support Contract, explain the various test stands. In the far corner is one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs are preparing the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  12. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Members of the news media watch as two cranes are used to lift one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket into the vertical position inside the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The pathfinder booster segment will be moved to the other end of the RPSF and secured on a test stand. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs Engineering, on the Test and Operations Support Contract, will prepare the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  13. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Inside the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the news media view the right-hand aft skirt that will be used on a solid rocket booster for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. Orbital ATK is contractor for NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, and operates the BFF to prepare aft booster segments and hardware for the SLS solid rocket boosters. At far right, in the royal blue shirt, Rick Serfozo, Orbital ATK Florida site director, talks to the media. The SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft will launch on Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is preparing the infrastructure to process and launch spacecraft for deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  14. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Inside the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the news media photograph a frustrum that will be stacked atop a forward skirt for one of NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters. Orbital ATK is a contractor for NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, and operates the BFF to prepare aft booster segments and hardware for the SLS solid rocket boosters. The SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft will launch on Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is preparing the infrastructure to process and launch spacecraft on deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  15. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Inside the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, members of the news media view a forward skirt that will be used on a solid rocket booster for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. Orbital ATK is a contractor for NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, and operates the BFF to prepare aft booster segments and hardware for the SLS solid rocket boosters. Rick Serfozo, Orbital ATK Florida site director, talks to the media. The SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft will launch on Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is preparing the infrastructure to process and launch spacecraft for deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  16. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Bethany March, an element integration engineer at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama, speaks to members of the news media during a tour of the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Orbital ATK is a contractor for MSFC, and operates the BFF to prepare aft booster segments and hardware for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters. To her right is Rick Serfozo, Orbital ATK Florida site director. The SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft will launch on Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is preparing the infrastructure to process and launch spacecraft for deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  17. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Inside the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jeff Cook, a thermal protection system specialist with Orbital ATK, displays a sample of the painted thermal protection system that is being applied to booster segments. Members of the news media toured the BFF. Orbital ATK is a contractor for NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, and operates the BFF to prepare aft booster segments and hardware for the SLS rocket boosters. The SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft will launch on Exploration Mission-1 in 2018. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is preparing the infrastructure to process and launch spacecraft for deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  18. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Members of the news media view the high bay inside the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility (RPSF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Kerry Chreist, with Jacobs Engineering on the Test and Operations Support Contract, explains the various test stands and how they will be used to prepare booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. In the far corner, in the vertical position, is one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for the SLS rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs are preparing the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  19. SRB Processing Facilities Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-01

    Members of the news media view the high bay inside the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facility (RPSF) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Kerry Chreist, with Jacobs Engineering on the Test and Operations Support Contract, talks with a reporter about the booster segments for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. In the far corner, in the vertical position, is one of two pathfinders, or test versions, of solid rocket booster segments for the SLS rocket. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and Jacobs are preparing the booster segments, which are inert, for a series of lifts, moves and stacking operations to prepare for Exploration Mission-1, deep-space missions and the journey to Mars.

  20. Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Fittinghoff, D N; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Izumi, N; Ma, T; Merrill, F E; Warrick, A L; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C

    2014-02-01

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (∼100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics.

  1. Neutron source reconstruction from pinhole imaging at National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volegov, P.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Merrill, F. E.; Warrick, A. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2014-02-01

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the ignition stage of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at NIF. Since the neutron source is small (˜100 μm) and neutrons are deeply penetrating (>3 cm) in all materials, the apertures used to achieve the desired 10-μm resolution are 20-cm long, single-sided tapers in gold. These apertures, which have triangular cross sections, produce distortions in the image, and the extended nature of the pinhole results in a non-stationary or spatially varying point spread function across the pinhole field of view. In this work, we have used iterative Maximum Likelihood techniques to remove the non-stationary distortions introduced by the aperture to reconstruct the underlying neutron source distributions. We present the detailed algorithms used for these reconstructions, the stopping criteria used and reconstructed sources from data collected at NIF with a discussion of the neutron imaging performance in light of other diagnostics.

  2. Accident reconstruction using process trees

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  3. The Facilities Audit. A Process for Improving Facilities Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    The problems of deferred maintenance and decaying campus infrastructure have troubled higher education for the past two decades. This book, designed to be a tool for facilities managers, describes a process for inspecting and reporting conditions of buildings and infrastructure. The audit process is meant to be a routine part of maintenance…

  4. The Facilities Audit. A Process for Improving Facilities Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    The problems of deferred maintenance and decaying campus infrastructure have troubled higher education for the past two decades. This book, designed to be a tool for facilities managers, describes a process for inspecting and reporting conditions of buildings and infrastructure. The audit process is meant to be a routine part of maintenance…

  5. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  6. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  7. SALTSTONE PROCESSING FACILITY TRANSFER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Reigel, M.

    2010-08-04

    On May 19, 2010, the Saltstone Production Facility inadvertently transferred 1800 gallons of untreated waste from the salt feed tank to Vault 4. During shut down, approximately 70 gallons of the material was left in the Saltstone hopper. A sample of the slurry in the hopper was sent to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to analyze the density, pH and the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals. The sample was hazardous for chromium, mercury and pH. The sample received from the Saltstone hopper was analyzed visually while obtaining sample aliquots and while the sample was allowed to settle. It was observed that the sample contains solids that settle in approximately 20 minutes (Figure 3-1). There is a floating layer on top of the supernate during settling and disperses when the sample is agitated (Figure 3-2). The untreated waste inadvertently transferred from the SFT to Vault 4 was toxic for chromium and mercury. In addition, the pH of the sample is at the regulatory limit. Visually inspecting the sample indicates solids present in the sample.

  8. Fabrication of Separator Demonstration Facility process vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Oberst, E.F.

    1985-01-15

    The process vessel system is the central element in the Separator Development Facility (SDF). It houses the two major process components, i.e., the laser-beam folding optics and the separators pods. This major subsystem is the critical-path procurement for the SDF project. Details of the vaious parts of the process vessel are given.

  9. Skylab materials processing facility experiment developer's report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility is traced from the design of a portable, self-contained electron beam welding system for terrestrial applications to the highly complex experiment system ultimately developed for three Skylab missions. The M512 experiment facility was designed to support six in-space experiments intended to explore the advantages of manufacturing materials in the near-zero-gravity environment of Earth orbit. Detailed descriptions of the M512 facility and related experiment hardware are provided, with discussions of hardware verification and man-machine interfaces included. An analysis of the operation of the facility and experiments during the three Skylab missions is presented, including discussions of the hardware performance, anomalies, and data returned to earth.

  10. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability, designation of affected... Commenced After May 14, 2007 § 60.100a Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction. (a) The provisions of this subpart apply to the following affected facilities in petroleum refineries...

  11. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document.

  12. Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    DeeEarl Vaden

    2005-10-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

  13. Materials evaluation for a transuranic processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A., Schwenk, E.B. ); Divine, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company, with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is developing a transuranium extraction process for preheating double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site to reduce the volume of transuranic waste being sent to a repository. The bench- scale transuranium extraction process development is reaching a stage where a pilot plant design has begun for the construction of a facility in the existing B Plant. Because of the potential corrosivity of neutralized cladding removal waste process streams, existing embedded piping alloys in B Plant are being evaluated and new'' alloys are being selected for the full-scale plant screening corrosion tests. Once the waste is acidified with HNO{sub 3}, some of the process streams that are high in F{sup {minus}} and low in Al and zr can produce corrosion rates exceeding 30,000 mil/yr in austenitic alloys. Initial results results are reported concerning the applicability of existing plant materials to withstand expected process solutions and conditions to help determine the feasibility of locating the plant at the selected facility. In addition, process changes are presented that should make the process solutions less corrosive to the existing materials. Experimental work confirms that Hastelloy B is unsatisfactory for the expected process solutions; type 304L, 347 and 309S stainless steels are satisfactory for service at room temperature and 60{degrees}C, if process stream complexing is performed. Inconel 625 was satisfactory for all solutions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Gas processing at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jacox, J.

    1995-02-01

    The term {open_quotes}Gas Processing{close_quotes} has many possible meanings and understandings. In this paper, and panel, we will be using it to generally mean the treatment of gas by methods other than those common to HVAC and Nuclear Air Treatment. This is only a working guideline not a rigorous definition. Whether a rigorous definition is desirable, or even possible is a question for some other forum. Here we will be discussing the practical aspects of what {open_quotes}Gas Processing{close_quotes} includes and how existing Codes, Standards and industry experience can, and should, apply to DOE and NRC Licensed facilities. A major impediment to use of the best engineering and technology in many nuclear facilities is the administrative mandate that only systems and equipment that meet specified {open_quotes}nuclear{close_quotes} documents are permissible. This paper will highlight some of the limitations created by this approach.

  15. Environmental Radiation Dose Reconstruction for U.S. and Russian Weapons Production Facilities: Hanford and Mayak

    SciTech Connect

    Ansbaugh, Lynn R.; Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Napier, Bruce A.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.

    2003-05-01

    Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States, such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries, such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions, which are used to estimate environmental releases, transport, and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling, when conducted, is used to organize and validate the measurements. Past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons has resulted in major releases of radionuclides into the environment. Reconstruction of the historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals in the public living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States; several are also underway in other countries. The types of activity performed, the operating histories, and the radionuclide releases vary widely across the different facilities. The U.S. Hanford Site and the Russian Mayak Production Association are used here to illustrate the nature of the assessed problems and the range of approaches developed to solve them.

  16. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  17. Process auditing in long term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, S M; LeSage, J; Roberts, K L; Ellor, J R

    1985-01-01

    The ECC tool development and audit experiences indicated that there is promise in developing a process audit tool to monitor quality of care in nursing homes; moreover, the tool selected required only one hour per resident. Focusing on the care process and resident needs provided useful information for care providers at the unit level as well as for administrative personnel. Besides incorporating a more interdisciplinary focus, the revised tool needs to define support services most appropriate for nursing homes, includes items related to discharge planning and increases measurement of significant others' involvement in the care process. Future emphasis at the ECC will focus on developing intervention plans to maintain strengths and correct deficiencies identified in the audits. Various strategies to bring about desired changes in the quality of care will be evaluated through regular, periodic monitoring. Having a valid and reliable measure of quality of care as a tool will be an important step forward for LTC facilities.

  18. Facilities for pyrochemical process studies at ENEA

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Tiranti, G.; Baicchi, E.

    2013-07-01

    Some facilities have successfully been installed at ENEA laboratories for pyrochemical process studies under inactive conditions. PYREL III, MECRYP and OGATA plants allow to perform experiments about electrorefining and electroreduction of simulated fuel, melt crystallization of lithium chloride containing impurities from electroreduction campaigns, and trapping of volatile and semi-volatile fission products. Moreover, an argon-atmosphere glove-box is used for conditioning of chloride salt wastes with sodalite or SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) matrix.

  19. Non-rigid Reconstruction of Casting Process with Temperature Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    Off-line reconstruction of rigid scene has made a great progress in the past decade. However, the on-line reconstruction of non-rigid scene is still a very challenging task. The casting process is a non-rigid reconstruction problem, it is a high-dynamic molding process lacking of geometric features. In order to reconstruct the casting process robustly, an on-line fusion strategy is proposed for dynamic reconstruction of casting process. Firstly, the geometric and flowing feature of casting are parameterized in manner of TSDF (truncated signed distance field) which is a volumetric block, parameterized casting guarantees real-time tracking and optimal deformation of casting process. Secondly, data structure of the volume grid is extended to have temperature value, the temperature interpolation function is build to generate the temperature of each voxel. This data structure allows for dynamic tracking of temperature of casting during deformation stages. Then, the sparse RGB features is extracted from casting scene to search correspondence between geometric representation and depth constraint. The extracted color data guarantees robust tracking of flowing motion of casting. Finally, the optimal deformation of the target space is transformed into a nonlinear regular variational optimization problem. This optimization step achieves smooth and optimal deformation of casting process. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct the casting process robustly and reduce drift in the process of non-rigid reconstruction of casting.

  20. Processing classical holographic interferograms by algorithms of digital hologram reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashov, A. V.; Petrov, N. V.; Semenova, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    The capability of digital hologram reconstruction algorithms applied for the processing of holographic interferograms in finite-width fringes being recorded and reconstructed by the classical optical method is validated. Application of these algorithms, significantly simplifies the processing procedure. Results of the processing of the holographic interferogram of a bulk strain soliton performed by the two methods are demonstrated to be in a good agreement.

  1. Dialysis Facility Safety: Processes and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Renee; Morey, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional human errors are the source of most safety breaches in complex, high-risk environments. The environment of dialysis care is extremely complex. Dialysis patients have unique and changing physiology, and the processes required for their routine care involve numerous open-ended interfaces between providers and an assortment of technologically advanced equipment. Communication errors, both within the dialysis facility and during care transitions, and lapses in compliance with policies and procedures are frequent areas of safety risk. Some events, such as air emboli and needle dislodgments occur infrequently, but are serious risks. Other adverse events include medication errors, patient falls, catheter and access-related infections, access infiltrations and prolonged bleeding. A robust safety system should evaluate how multiple, sequential errors might align to cause harm. Systems of care can be improved by sharing the results of root cause analyses, and "good catches." Failure mode effects and analyses can be used to proactively identify and mitigate areas of highest risk, and methods drawn from cognitive psychology, simulation training, and human factor engineering can be used to advance facility safety. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950's to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

  3. Defense waste processing facility startup progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.; Elder, H.H.

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950`s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high level waste produced since operation began have been consolidated into 33 million gallons by evaporation at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy has authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters, prior to emplacement in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. Cold startup testing using simulated non-radioactive feeds is scheduled to begin in November 1992 with radioactive operation scheduled to begin in May 1994. While technical issues have been identified which can potentially affect DWPF operation, they are not expected to negatively impact the start of non-radioactive startup testing.

  4. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-05-15

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  5. 76 FR 44049 - Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes'' in the Federal Register for a 30 day public comment period.... DG-3037 describes the types of changes for fuel cycle facilities for which licensees are to...

  6. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing facility clearance. 95.17 Section 95.17 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.17 Processing facility clearance....

  7. Coal processing facilities and total maintenance management

    SciTech Connect

    Hern, B.

    1995-08-01

    To optimize the availability of any surface mining facility, be it a preparation facility, a rail load out facility, a raw coal handling facility, etc., a program of total maintenance management is essential to the success of the operation. Todays market forces require that a facility be available to respond to changes in raw feed quality, product quality specification, revenue rate, throughput volume, and shipping requirements. Total maintenance management and plant availability have many ramifications to plant operations. Throughput is directly related to availability, as availability increases so does the rate of throughput in a given time frame. The higher the availability, the less operating hours required to produce the product. Less manning is needed to operate and maintain the facility and ultimately the optimum lowest cost is achieved.

  8. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  9. Sparse-view Reconstruction of Dynamic Processes by Neutron Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Kaestner, Anders; Zou, Yubin; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    As for neutron tomography, hundreds of projections over the range of 0-180 degrees are required to reconstruct the attenuation matrix with the traditional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, and the total acquisition time can reach several hours. This poor temporal resolution constrains that neutron tomography is only feasible to investigate static or quasi-static process. Reducing the number of projections is a possible way to improve the temporal resolution, which however highly relies on sparse-view reconstruction algorithms. To assess the feasibility of sparse-view reconstruction for neutron tomography, both simulation and an experiment of water uptake from a piece of wood composite were studied, and the results indicated that temporal resolution of neutron tomography can be improved when combining the Golden Ratio scan strategy with a prior image-constrained sparse-view reconstruction algorithm-PICCS.

  10. Liquid argon TPC signal formation, signal processing and reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baller, B.

    2017-07-01

    This document describes a reconstruction chain that was developed for the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab. These experiments study accelerator neutrino interactions that occur in a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber. Reconstructing the properties of particles produced in these interactions benefits from the knowledge of the micro-physics processes that affect the creation and transport of ionization electrons to the readout system. A wire signal deconvolution technique was developed to convert wire signals to a standard form for hit reconstruction, to remove artifacts in the electronics chain and to remove coherent noise. A unique clustering algorithm reconstructs line-like trajectories and vertices in two dimensions which are then matched to create of 3D objects. These techniques and algorithms are available to all experiments that use the LArSoft suite of software.

  11. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  12. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  13. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  14. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  15. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  16. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  17. The generalized time variable reconstructed birth-death process.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, Nathaniel

    2012-05-07

    Much recent research has investigated the effect that different time variable birth-death processes have on the distribution of branching times in phylogenies of extant taxa. Previous work has shown how to calculate the distributions of number of lineages and branching times for a reconstructed constant rate birth-death process that started with one or two reconstructed lineages at some time in the past or ended with some number of lineages in the present. Here I expand that work to include any time variable birth-death process that starts with any number of reconstructed lineages and/or ends with any number of reconstructed lineages at any time, and I calculate a number of distributions under that process. I also explore the discrete time birth-death process which operates as an efficient and accurate numerical solution to any time-variable birth-death process and allows for the analytical incorporation of sampling and mass extinctions. I describe how these distributions can be used to compare different time variable models using maximum likelihood analysis, and I show how to simulate random trees under any of these models. I also introduce two visual methods for evaluating different time variable birth-death processes; these methods illustrate the shape of distributions for the number of lineages and waiting times by plotting them over time.

  18. Defining and reconstructing clinical processes based on IHE and BPMN 2.0.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Melanie; Pfeifer, Franz; Helm, Emmanuel; Schuler, Andreas; Altmann, Josef

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the current status and the results of our process management system for defining and reconstructing clinical care processes, which contributes to compare, analyze and evaluate clinical processes and further to identify high cost tasks or stays. The system is founded on IHE, which guarantees standardized interfaces and interoperability between clinical information systems. At the heart of the system there is BPMN, a modeling notation and specification language, which allows the definition and execution of clinical processes. The system provides functionality to define healthcare information system independent clinical core processes and to execute the processes in a workflow engine. Furthermore, the reconstruction of clinical processes is done by evaluating an IHE audit log database, which records patient movements within a health care facility. The main goal of the system is to assist hospital operators and clinical process managers to detect discrepancies between defined and actual clinical processes and as well to identify main causes of high medical costs. Beyond that, the system can potentially contribute to reconstruct and improve clinical processes and enhance cost control and patient care quality.

  19. Reconstruction of a Collaborative Mathematical Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijls, Monique; Dekker, Rijkje; Van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    The study focused on the interaction between two secondary school students while they were working on computerized mathematical investigation tasks related to probability theory. The aim was to establish how such interaction helped the students to learn from one another, and how it may have hindered their learning process. The assumption was that…

  20. Reconstruction of a Collaborative Mathematical Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijls, Monique; Dekker, Rijkje; Van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    The study focused on the interaction between two secondary school students while they were working on computerized mathematical investigation tasks related to probability theory. The aim was to establish how such interaction helped the students to learn from one another, and how it may have hindered their learning process. The assumption was that…

  1. Spatial emission tomography reconstruction using Pitman-Yor process

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, Mame Diarra; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali; Barat, Eric; Comtat, Claude

    2009-12-08

    In this paper, we address the problem of emission tomography spatial reconstruction in three dimensions following a Bayesian nonparametric approach. Our model makes use of a generalization of the Dirichlet process called Pitman-Yor process. The problem in this approach is to deal with the infinite representation of the distribution in the inference. So we propose an efficient Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling scheme which is able to generate samples from the posterior distribution of the activity distribution. An application to 3D-PET reconstruction is presented.

  2. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  3. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combustion devices, including flares and process heaters, and sulfur recovery plants. The sulfur recovery... facility, provided it processes gases produced within a petroleum refinery. (b) Except for flares, the...: (1) Any new piping from a refinery process unit or fuel gas system is physically connected to...

  4. Managing the Rural School Facility Construction Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passarelli, Angelo; Goehring, Wade; Harley, Anne

    The decision to renovate or replace a school building is the starting point for a long and challenging journey with many phases: planning, development, and project delivery and construction. Each phase requires different levels of expertise, skills, and activities. The challenge of a rural facility project is to find leadership to provide guidance…

  5. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food processing facilities. 52.279... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities... Subpart I , “Review of new sources and modifications,” and relax the control on emissions from food...

  6. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Food processing facilities. 52.279... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities... Subpart I , “Review of new sources and modifications,” and relax the control on emissions from food...

  7. 10 CFR 1016.9 - Processing security facility approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing security facility approval. 1016.9 Section 1016... § 1016.9 Processing security facility approval. The following receipt of an acceptable request for... granted pursuant to § 1016.6 of this part. ...

  8. 10 CFR 95.17 - Processing facility clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... related classified information, or process the facility for a facility clearance. Processing will include... concerning the foreign intelligence threat, risk of unauthorized technology transfer, type and sensitivity of... acceptable security review conducted by the NRC; (3) Submitting key management personnel for...

  9. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Food processing facilities. 52.279... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities... Subpart I , “Review of new sources and modifications,” and relax the control on emissions from food...

  10. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Food processing facilities. 52.279... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities... Subpart I , “Review of new sources and modifications,” and relax the control on emissions from food...

  11. 40 CFR 52.279 - Food processing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Food processing facilities. 52.279... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.279 Food processing facilities... Subpart I , “Review of new sources and modifications,” and relax the control on emissions from food...

  12. 47 CFR 3.42 - Location of processing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of processing facility. 3.42 Section 3.42 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF... Location of processing facility. Settlement of maritime mobile and maritime mobile-satellite service...

  13. 47 CFR 3.42 - Location of processing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.42 Location of processing facility. Settlement of maritime mobile and maritime mobile-satellite service... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of processing facility. 3.42 Section 3...

  14. 47 CFR 3.42 - Location of processing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.42 Location of processing facility. Settlement of maritime mobile and maritime mobile-satellite service... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of processing facility. 3.42 Section 3...

  15. 47 CFR 3.42 - Location of processing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.42 Location of processing facility. Settlement of maritime mobile and maritime mobile-satellite service... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of processing facility. 3.42 Section 3...

  16. 47 CFR 3.42 - Location of processing facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.42 Location of processing facility. Settlement of maritime mobile and maritime mobile-satellite service... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of processing facility. 3.42 Section 3...

  17. An Overview of the Facilities Master Plan Process Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This paper provides a description of facilities master plans and the process of creating one. According to the paper, the purpose of the plan is to develop and communicate an efficient process to change a district's school facilities to better accommodate and support its current and future educational programs on a regularly updated basis. The…

  18. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  19. Saltstone studies using the scaled continuous processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M. D.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hansen, E. K.

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Facility since its conception with bench-scale laboratory experiments, mid-scale testing at vendor facilities, and consultations and testing at the Saltstone Facility. There have been minimal opportunities for the measurement of rheological properties of the grout slurry at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF); thus, the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF), constructed to provide processing data related to mixing, transfer, and other operations conducted in the SPF, is the most representative process data for determining the expected rheological properties in the SPF. These results can be used to verify the laboratory scale experiments that support the SPF using conventional mixing processes that appropriately represent the shear imparted to the slurry in the SPF.

  20. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... existing facilities. 70.64 Section 70.64 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.64 Requirements for new facilities or new processes at...

  1. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... existing facilities. 70.64 Section 70.64 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.64 Requirements for new facilities or new processes at...

  2. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... existing facilities. 70.64 Section 70.64 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.64 Requirements for new facilities or new processes at...

  3. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... existing facilities. 70.64 Section 70.64 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.64 Requirements for new facilities or new processes at...

  4. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... existing facilities. 70.64 Section 70.64 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.64 Requirements for new facilities or new processes at...

  5. Defense Waste Processing Facility radioactive operations -- Part 2, Glass making

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.; Rueter, K.J.; Ray, J.W.; Hodoh, O.

    1996-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling.

  6. Integration Process for Payloads in the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is an ISS research facility located in the United States Laboratory (US Lab), Destiny. The FCF is a multi-discipline facility that performs microgravity research primarily in fluids physics science and combustion science. This facility remains on-orbit and provides accommodations to multi-user and Principal investigator (PI) unique hardware. The FCF is designed to accommodate 15 PI's per year. In order to allow for this number of payloads per year, the FCF has developed an end-to-end analytical and physical integration process. The process includes provision of integration tools, products and interface management throughout the life of the payload. The payload is provided with a single point of contact from the facility and works with that interface from PI selection through post flight processing. The process utilizes electronic tools for creation of interface documents/agreements, storage of payload data and rollup for facility submittals to ISS. Additionally, the process provides integration to and testing with flight-like simulators prior to payload delivery to KSC. These simulators allow the payload to test in the flight configuration and perform final facility interface and science verifications. The process also provides for support to the payload from the FCF through the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP). Finally, the process includes support in the development of operational products and the operation of the payload on-orbit.

  7. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  8. Development of a Microwave Facility for Processing Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Hays, Charles C.; Meek, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews in this Roadmap for Developing a Lunar Microwave Facility an approach to determine the source of the enhanced microwave heating of Lunar Regolith. A set of microwave heating studies were proposed for a specially designed realistic simulant to determine optimum processing parameters. Apollo lunar soil will be used to validate the heating features found for the simulant. We have also introduced several possible designs for a future lunar microwave processing facility. In the future when sufficient funds become available, a microwave facility for processing regolith on the lunar surface will be ready to be built

  9. TEMPUS: A facility for containerless electromagnetic processing onboard spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenski, H.; Willnecker, R.

    1990-01-01

    The electromagnetic containerless processing facility TEMPUS was recently assigned for a flight on the IML-2 mission. In comparison to the TEMPUS facility already flown on a sounding rocket, several improvements had to be implemented. These are in particular related to: safety; resource management; and the possibility to process different samples with different requirements in one mission. The basic design of this facility as well as the expected processing capabilities are presented. Two operational aspects turned out to strongly influence the facility design: control of the sample motion (first experimental results indicate that crew or ground interaction will be necessary to minimize residual sample motions during processing); and exchange of RF-coils (during processing in vacuum, evaporated sample materials will condense at the cold surface and may force a coil exchange, when a critical thickness is exceeded).

  10. Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility (MPF) with the M518 Multipurpose Electric Facility (MEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The M512 Materials Processing Facility (MPF) with the M518 Multipurpose Electric Facility (MEF) tested and demonstrated a facility approach for materials process experimentation in space. It also provided a basic apparatus and a common interface for a group of metallic and nonmetallic materials experiments. The MPF consisted of a vacuum work chamber and associated mechanical and electrical controls. The M518 Multipurpose Electric Furnace (MEF) was an electric furnace system in which solidification, crystal growth, and other experiments involving phase changes were performed.

  11. Free energy reconstruction from steered dynamics without post-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Athenes, Manuel; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin

    2010-09-20

    Various methods achieving importance sampling in ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories enable one to estimate free energy differences and, by maximum-likelihood post-processing, to reconstruct free energy landscapes. Here, based on Bayes theorem, we propose a more direct method in which a posterior likelihood function is used both to construct the steered dynamics and to infer the contribution to equilibrium of all the sampled states. The method is implemented with two steering schedules. First, using non-autonomous steering, we calculate the migration barrier of the vacancy in Fe-{alpha}. Second, using an autonomous scheduling related to metadynamics and equivalent to temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics, we accurately reconstruct the two-dimensional free energy landscape of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster as a function of an orientational bond-order parameter and energy, down to the solid-solid structural transition temperature of the cluster and without maximum-likelihood post-processing.

  12. Receipt of the Observatory at the Orbital Processing Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    These series of photos show the receipt of the observatory at the Orbital processing facility at VAFB. The observatory was received on April 16, 2013 and transferred to its handling fixture and the...

  13. Design criteria for Waste Coolant Processing Facility and preliminary proposal 722 for Waste Coolant Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-27

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A-E) in the performance of Titles 1 and 2 design for the construction of a facility to treat the biodegradable, water soluble, waste machine coolant generated at the Y-12 plant. The purpose of this facility is to reduce the organic loading of coolants prior to final treatment at the proposed West Tank Farm Treatment Facility.

  14. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  15. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes were developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. The SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  16. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Basile, Lisa; Ames, Troy; Watson, Janice; Dallam, William

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) expert system prototypes have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payload (ASP) processed telemetry data. SLDPF functions include the capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of mission data to various user facilities. Prototypes for the two SLDPF functional elements, the Spacelab Output Processing System and the Spacelab Input Processing Element, are described. The prototypes have produced beneficial results including an increase in analyst productivity, a decrease in the burden of tedious analyses, the consistent evaluation of data, and the providing of concise historical records.

  17. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Osmosis 44 18. Oil/Water Separation 45 19. Air Stripping 47 20. Chemical Reduction 47 0 D. Utilizing and Combining Waste Streams Prior to Treatment 49 E...carbon R Granular activated carbon adsorption S Reverse osmosis Table20 PRETREATMENT PROCESS REMOVAL EFFICIENCY RANGES AVERA(;E ACHIEVABLE EFFLUENT...Donovan et al. included reverse osmosis , activated carbon adsorption, biological treatment, air stripping and chemical precipitation. The process

  18. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.546 Albumen flake process drying... intake. (d) Fermentation tanks, drying pans, trays or belts, scrapers, curing racks, and equipment used...

  19. Ninth Processing Campaign in the Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, K F; Donovan, R I; Swenson, M C

    1982-04-01

    This report discusses the Ninth (and final) Processing Campaign at the Waste Calcining Facility. Several processing interruptions were experienced during this campaign and the emphasis of this report is on process and equipment performance with operating problems and corrective actions discussed in detail.

  20. An Application of Business Process Management to Health Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohsen M D

    2017-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to help health care facility managers and personnel identify significant elements of their facilities to address, and steps and actions to follow, when applying business process management to them. The ABPMP (Association of Business Process Management Professionals) life-cycle model of business process management is adopted, and steps from Lean, business process reengineering, and Six Sigma, and actions from operations management are presented to implement it. Managers of health care facilities can find in business process management a more comprehensive approach to improving their facilities than Lean, Six Sigma, business process reengineering, and ad hoc approaches that does not conflict with them because many of their elements can be included under its umbrella. Furthermore, the suggested application of business process management can guide and relieve them from selecting among these approaches, as well as provide them with specific steps and actions that they can follow. This article fills a gap in the literature by presenting a much needed comprehensive application of business process management to health care facilities that has specific steps and actions for implementation.

  1. Opportunities for Process Monitoring Techniques at Delayed Access Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Johnson, Shirley J.; Schanfein, Mark; Toomey, Christopher

    2013-09-20

    Except for specific cases where the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) maintains a continuous presence at a facility (such as the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant), there is always a period of time or delay between the moment a State is notified or aware of an upcoming inspection, and the time the inspector actually enters the material balance area or facility. Termed by the authors as “delayed access,” this period of time between inspection notice and inspector entrance to a facility poses a concern. Delayed access also has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of measures applied as part of the Safeguards Approach for a facility (such as short-notice inspections). This report investigates the feasibility of using process monitoring to address safeguards challenges posed by delayed access at a subset of facility types.

  2. Mock Nuclear Processing Facility-Safeguards Training Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Hasty, Tim; Johns, Rissell; Baum, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    This document outlines specific training requirements in the topical areas of Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and Physical Protection(PP) which are to be used as technical input for designing a mock Integrated Security Facility (ISF) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The overall project objective for these requirements is to enhance the ability to deliver training on Material Protection Control and Accounting (MC&A) concepts regarding hazardous material such as irradiated materials with respect to bulk processing facilities.

  3. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation`s first and world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage.

  4. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2011-10-10

    The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this “State-level” approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: • Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied

  6. NASA Construction of Facilities Validation Processes - Total Building Commissioning (TBCx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Jay C.

    2004-01-01

    Key Atributes include: Total Quality Management (TQM) System that looks at all phases of a project. A team process that spans boundaries. A Commissioning Authority to lead the process. Commissioning requirements in contracts. Independent design review to verify compliance with Facility Project Requirements (FPR). Formal written Commissioning Plan with Documented Results. Functional performance testing (FPT) against the requirements document.

  7. Reconstruction of dark energy and expansion dynamics using Gaussian processes

    SciTech Connect

    Seikel, Marina; Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mathew E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za

    2012-06-01

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space, as the errors found depend strongly on the parametrisation considered. We present a new non-parametric approach to reconstructing the history of the expansion rate and dark energy using Gaussian Processes, which is a fully Bayesian approach for smoothing data. We present a pedagogical introduction to Gaussian Processes, and discuss how it can be used to robustly differentiate data in a suitable way. Using this method we show that the Dark Energy Survey - Supernova Survey (DES) can accurately recover a slowly evolving equation of state to σ{sub w} = ±0.05 (95% CL) at z = 0 and ±0.25 at z = 0.7, with a minimum error of ±0.025 at the sweet-spot at z ∼ 0.16, provided the other parameters of the model are known. Errors on the expansion history are an order of magnitude smaller, yet make no assumptions about dark energy whatsoever. A code for calculating functions and their first three derivatives using Gaussian processes has been developed and is available for download.

  8. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  9. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  10. Standard process for the roles and responsibilities for facility reuse of DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A.S.; Trost, D.G.; Pastel, J.A.; Payne, S.G.; Fleenor, R.M.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an understanding of the standard process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, and real property for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objective of this process is to facilitate the reindustrialization of the ORR for the Department of Energy (DOE). The roles and responsibilities in this standard, as defined in the attached narrative and flow diagrams, were agreed upon among various representatives from the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), and the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET). Reindustrialization for the DOE encompasses several areas which include: facilities reuse, materials and equipment recycling, and worker transition activities. The DOE-ORO`s vision for the ORR is to have completed the reindustrialization activities for the K-25 Site by the year 2010. Several steps have already been taken to aggressively pursue this vision, such as determining the most efficient and cost-effective ways to expedite the facilities reuse process. This report provides the time-phased, step-by-step, process for the lease or sale of facilities, equipment, land, and suggestions on streamlining the required regulatory processes.

  11. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound by image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Haber, Carl

    2003-03-26

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with no or minimal contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods and digital image processing. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Various aspects of this approach are discussed. A feasibility test is reported which used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the record and with a digitally re-mastered version of the original magnetic recording. A more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software, is considered.

  12. The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, S.L.; Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility Radioactive Operations - Year Two

    SciTech Connect

    Occhipinti, J.E.; Carter, J.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Beck, R.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first high-level radioactive waste vitrification facility. This waste (130 million liters) which has been stored in carbon steel underground tanks and is now being pretreated, melted into a highly durable borosilicate glass and poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Following a ten-year construction period and nearly three-year nonradioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. The first nine months of radioactive operations have been reported previously. As with any complex technical facility, difficulties were encountered during the transition to radioactive operations. Results of the second year of radioactive operations are presented in this paper. The discussion includes: feed preparation and glass melting, resolution of the melter pouring issues, improvements in processing attainment and throughput, and planned improvements in laboratory attainment and throughput.

  14. Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) quality assurance expert systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa R.; Kelly, Angelita C.

    1987-01-01

    The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) is an integral part of the Space Shuttle data network for missions that involve attached scientific payloads. Expert system prototypes were developed to aid in the performance of the quality assurance function of the Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads processed telemetry data. The Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS), two expert systems, were developed to determine their feasibility and potential in the quality assurance of processed telemetry data. The capabilities and performance of these systems are discussed.

  15. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  16. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  17. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  18. General view from outside the Orbiter Processing Facility at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view from outside the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center with the bay doors open as the Orbiter Discovery is atop the transport vehicle prepared to be moved over to the Vehicle Assembly Building. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration...

  20. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration...

  1. 10 CFR 70.72 - Facility changes and change process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special Nuclear Material § 70.72 Facility changes and change process. (a) The licensee shall establish a configuration...

  2. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  3. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  4. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  5. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  6. Unity connecting module in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the end at the right can be seen the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, which provides entry into the module. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  7. Unity connecting module in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the end at the right can be seen the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, which provides entry into the module. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  8. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  9. Wormholes from cosmological reconstruction based on Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He

    2017-06-01

    We study the model-independent traversable wormholes from cosmological reconstruction based on Gaussian processes (GP). Using a combination of Union 2.1 SNe Ia data, the latest observational Hubble parameter data and recent Planck's shift parameter, we find that our GP method can give a tighter constraint on the normalized comoving distance, its derivatives and the dark energy equation of state than the previous work (Seikel et al., 2012). Subsequently, two specific traversable wormhole solutions are obtained, i.e., the cases of a constant redshift function and a linear shape function. We find that, with decreasing cosmic acceleration, the traversal velocity v of the former case increases and the amounts of exotic matter IV of the latter case decreases.

  10. APET methodology for Defense Waste Processing Facility: Mode C operation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Massey, W.M.

    1995-04-01

    Safe operation of SRS facilities continues to be the highest priority of the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of these facilities, the Defense Waste Processing Facility or DWPF, is currently undergoing cold chemical runs to verify the design and construction preparatory to hot startup in 1995. The DWPFF is a facility designed to convert the waste currently stored in tanks at the 200-Area tank farm into a form that is suitable for long term storage in engineered surface facilities and, ultimately, geologic isolation. As a part of the program to ensure safe operation of the DWPF, a probabilistic Safety Assessment of the DWPF has been completed. The results of this analysis are incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for DWPF. The usual practice in preparation of Safety Analysis Reports is to include only a conservative analysis of certain design basis accidents. A major part of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment is the development and quantification of an Accident Progression Event Tree or APET. The APET provides a probabilistic representation of potential sequences along which an accident may progress. The methodology used to determine the risk of operation of the DWPF borrows heavily from methods applied to the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of SRS reactors and to some commercial reactors. This report describes the Accident Progression Event Tree developed for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the DWPF.

  11. Control system for BCP processing facility at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Cristian Boffo et al.

    2003-09-11

    The surface processing is one of the key elements of superconducting RF cavity fabrication. Safety and reliability are the main requirements for the chemical surface treatment facility being developed at FNAL. Accepting the Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) as the baseline process, a ''gravity feed and open etching tank'' approach has been chosen at this stage. This choice resulted in the introduction of a control system with a strong automation since the number of elements to be controlled at different steps of the process is rather big. In order to allow for maximum flexibility, two operational modes were defined within the control system: semi-automatic, which requires an operator's decision to move from one stage to another, and manual. This paper describes the main features of the control system for the BCP facility that is under development at FNAL.

  12. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  13. The development of Enron`s Teesside gas processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Meckna, R.D.; Oliver, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the changing nature of gas processing in the United Kingdom. Geographical changes in the gas supply and Legislative changes are discussed. Market demands require that a gas processing facility meet gas quality specifications, be reliable and flexible. A detailed description of the Train 1 plant design and operation will be addressed. A comparison of Train 2 and Train 1 will be made and differences in design will be highlighted. Special features of each plant such as the Drizo glycol dehydration and the Puraspec H{sub 2}S removal will be reviewed. Construction/operation interfaces were very important during the Train 2 construction because Train 1 was a live operating plant. A review of safety and environmental requirements with emphasis on how the Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards Regulation 1984 (CIMAH) affect the design, construction and operation of the facilities are included in the paper.

  14. Master slave manipulator maintenance at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lethco, A.J.; Beasley, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    Equipment has been developed and tested to provide transport, installation, removal, decontamination, and repair for the master slave manipulators that are required for thirty-five discrete work locations in the 221-S Vitrification Building of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This specialized equipment provides a standardized scheme for work locations at different elevations with two types of manipulators.

  15. Master slave manipulator maintenance at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lethco, A.J.; Beasley, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Equipment has been developed and tested to provide transport, installation, removal, decontamination, and repair for the master slave manipulators that are required for thirty-five discrete work locations in the 221-S Vitrification Building of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This specialized equipment provides a standardized scheme for work locations at different elevations with two types of manipulators.

  16. Cleaner production opportunity assessment for a milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, A; Demirer, G N

    2007-09-01

    Possible cleaner production (CP) opportunities for a milk processing facility were examined in this study. The CP concept and its key tools of implementation were used to assess the potential CP opportunities in the facility studied. The general production process and its resulting environmental loads were investigated by taking possible CP opportunities as the basis of study. The methodology developed for CP opportunity assessment in the milk processing facility covered two major steps: preparation of checklists to assist auditing and CP opportunity assessment, and implementation of the mass-balance analysis. For mass-balance analysis, measurements and experimental analysis of the mass flows were utilized to determine the inputs and outputs. Prepared checklists were utilized to determine waste reduction options that could be implemented. Selected opportunities were evaluated considering their environmental benefits and economic feasibility. The results of the study indicated that 50% of the service water used, 9.3% of the current wastewater (WW) discharge, 65.36% of the chemical use and the discharge of 181.9 kg/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 20.7 kg/day of total suspended solids (TSS) could be eliminated and 19.6% of the service water used could be recycled/reused.

  17. High Vacuum Creep Facility in the Materials Processing Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-01-21

    Technicians at work in the Materials Processing Laboratory’s Creep Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. The technicians supported the engineers’ studies of refractory materials, metals, and advanced superalloys. The Materials Processing Laboratory contained laboratories and test areas equipped to prepare and develop these metals and materials. The ultra-high vacuum lab, seen in this photograph, contained creep and tensile test equipment. Creep testing is used to study a material’s ability to withstand long durations under constant pressure and temperatures. The equipment measured the strain over a long period of time. Tensile test equipment subjects the test material to strain until the material fails. The two tests were used to determine the strength and durability of different materials. The Materials Processing Laboratory also housed arc and electron beam melting furnaces, a hydraulic vertical extrusion press, compaction and forging equipment, and rolling mills and swagers. There were cryogenic and gas storage facilities and mechanical and oil diffusion vacuum pumps. The facility contained both instrumental and analytical chemistry laboratories for work on radioactive or toxic materials and the only shop to machine toxic materials in the Midwest.

  18. DYMAC digital electronic balance. [LASL Plutonium Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.M.

    1980-06-01

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance.

  19. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility image retrieval and processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavney, Susan

    1986-01-01

    The general design and analysis functions of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) image workstation prototype are described. The main functions of the MicroVAX II based workstation will be database searching, digital image retrieval, and image processing and display. The uses of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) in the system are described. File access and image processing programs use TAE tutor screens to receive parameters from the user and TAE subroutines are used to pass parameters to applications programs. Interface menus are also provided by TAE.

  20. Accident Fault Trees for Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1999-06-22

    The purpose of this report is to document fault tree analyses which have been completed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) safety analysis. Logic models for equipment failures and human error combinations that could lead to flammable gas explosions in various process tanks, or failure of critical support systems were developed for internal initiating events and for earthquakes. These fault trees provide frequency estimates for support systems failures and accidents that could lead to radioactive and hazardous chemical releases both on-site and off-site. Top event frequency results from these fault trees will be used in further APET analyses to calculate accident risk associated with DWPF facility operations. This report lists and explains important underlying assumptions, provides references for failure data sources, and briefly describes the fault tree method used. Specific commitments from DWPF to provide new procedural/administrative controls or system design changes are listed in the ''Facility Commitments'' section. The purpose of the ''Assumptions'' section is to clarify the basis for fault tree modeling, and is not necessarily a list of items required to be protected by Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs).

  1. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    SciTech Connect

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  2. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G; Joshi, Pooran C; List III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E; Armstrong, Beth L; Ivanov, Ilia N; Jacobs, Christopher B; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji Won

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  3. Orbiter processing facility service platform failure and redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jesse L.

    1988-01-01

    In a high bay of the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) at the Kennedy Space Center, technicians were preparing the space shuttle orbiter Discovery for rollout to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). A service platform, commonly referred to as an OPF Bucket, was being retracted when it suddenly fell, striking a technician and impacting Discovery's payload bay door. A critical component in the OPF Bucket hoist system had failed, allowing the platform to fall. The incident was thoroughly investigated by both NASA and Lockheed, revealing many design deficiencies within the system. The deficiencies and the design changes made to correct them are reviewed.

  4. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    PubMed

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move.

  5. Hardware development process for Human Research facility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. .

  6. Tributylphosphate in the In-Tank Precipitation Process Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs, D.T.; Swingle, R.F.

    1993-11-23

    A material balance investigation and evaluation of n- tributylphosphate (TBP) recycle throughout ITP and its carryover to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was performed. Criticality and DWPF-related issues were determined to pose no adverse consequences due to TBP addition. Effects of decomposition products were also considered. Flammability of 1-butanol, a TBP decomposition product, in Tank 22 was investigated. Calculations show that Tank 22 would be ventilated with air at a rate sufficient to maintain a 1-butanol concentration (volume percent) well below 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for 1-butanol.

  7. 42 CFR 82.10 - Overview of the dose reconstruction process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE... information in the possession of NIOSH, from radiation safety programs, research, medical screening programs... the period from the initial date of potential exposure at a covered facility until the date the cancer...

  8. Criticality assessment of the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, B.C.; Williamson, T.G.; Clemmons, J.S.; Chandler, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    Assessment of nuclear criticality potential of the S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is required to ensure the safe processing of radioactive waste for final disposal. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), high-level radioactive wastes are stored as caustic slurries. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. The radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for storage and eventual disposal. The DWPF will initially immobilize sludge only, with simulated non-radioactive Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product. This paper demonstrates that criticality poses only a negligible risk in the DWPF process because of the characteristics of the waste and the DWPF process. The waste contains low concentration of fissile material and many elements which act as neutron poisons. Also, the DWPF process chemistry does not affect separation and accumulation of fissile materials. Experiments showed that DWPF can process all the high-level radioactive wastes currently stored at SRS with negligible criticality risk under normal and abnormal/process upset operation.

  9. Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Rui; Koseki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Yusaku

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the cause of an explosion during disposal processing of raw garbage, the property of the raw garbage was primarily examined by a thermo gravimetry-differential thermal analyzer. With mutable oil concentration, the results showed variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction for the samples, for example, decreasing from 150 degrees C in the samples typically containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114 degrees C when the oil content was raised to 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility being heated by hot air of 150 degrees C, which was blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanying with an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached to 1070 degrees C. Meanwhile, gases, including flammable ones, whose amounts were CO2 approximately CO>H2>methane>ethane in order, were yielded. It indicated that smoldering developed from the zones near the hot air supply nozzle and propagated along the pathway of the imposed air. The continuously released gases possibly induced the transition of smoldering to flame or explosion after accumulating for hours.

  10. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility`s process water handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-02-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO`s interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck.

  11. Remote lighting systems for the defense waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Divona, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is under construction at the Savannah River Plant. In DWPF, an immobilization process solidifies radioactive waste sludge by vitrification into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. The mixture of waste and glass solidifies in stainless steel containers for eventual transportation to an off-site federal repository. The DWPF contains a number of hot cell canyons that are remotely maintained using only a crane and crane-held impact wrench for replacing the equipment. In general, viewing into these canyons is accomplished through shielded windows and by the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV). Demonstration of the prototype remote light fixtures for the DWPF canyon was completed in 1984, and the actual plant equipment is scheduled for completion this year.

  12. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  13. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  14. Leonardo MPLM in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Center) The Multi-Purpose Launch Module, named Leonardo, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). At left is a Rack Insertion Device. Above the Leonardo are the windows of the tour room where visitors can watch the activities in the SSPF. Scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, the Italian-built MPLM will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station. The Leonardo is the first of three modules being provided by Alenia Aerospazio. The second MPLM, to be handed over in April 1999, is named Raffaello. A third module, to be named Donatello, is due to be delivered in October 2000 for launch in January 2001.

  15. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  16. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing at facilities operating under compliance..., Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-8 Processing at facilities operating under... plant pests from the facility, requirements to ensure the processing method effectively destroys plant...

  17. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation -- DWPF Late Wash Facility, Salt Process Cell and Chemical Process Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1994-10-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a nuclear criticality safety evaluation for the Late Wash Facility (LWF), the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) and the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). of the DWPF. Waste salt solution is processed in the Tank Farm In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process and is then further washed in the DWPF Late Wash Facility (LWF) before it is fed to the DWPF Salt Processing Cell. In the Salt Processing Cell the precipitate slurry is processed in the Precipitate Reactor (PR) and the resultant Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produce is combined with the sludge feed and frit in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell to produce a melter feed. The waste is finally immobilized in the Melt Cell. Material in the Tank Farm and the ITP and Extended Sludge processes have been shown to be safe against a nuclear criticality by others. The precipitate slurry feed from ITP and the first six batches of sludge feed are safe against a nuclear criticality and this evaluation demonstrates that the processes in the LWF, the SPC and the CPC do not alter the characteristics of the materials to compromise safety.

  18. The ATOVS and AVHRR product processing facility for EPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, D.; Ackermann, J.; Schraidt, R.; Patterson, T.; Schlüssel, P.; Phillips, P.; Arriaga, A.; Grandell, J.

    The ATOVS/AVHRR Product Processing Facility (PPF) of the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) Core Ground Segment comprises the Level 1 processing of the data from the ATOVS sounding instruments AMSU-A, MHS and HIRS/4, and the imager AVHRR/3 into calibrated and navigated radiances. A second component includes the level 2 processing, which uses as input the level 1 products of the aforementioned instruments. The specification of the PPF is based on two well-known and well-established software packages, which have been used by the international community for some years: The AAPP (ATOVS and AVHRR Pre-processing Package) and ICI (Inversion Coupled with Imager). The PPF is able to process data from instruments flown on the Metop and NOAA satellites. For the level 1 processing of the sounding instruments' data (HIRS, AMSU-A and MHS), the basic functionality of AAPP has been kept; however, the individual chains for each instrument have been separated and additional functionality has been integrated. For HIRS a global calibration, as performed by NOAA/NESDIS today, has been included. For AMSU-A and MHS the moon contamination of the calibration space view can be corrected for. Additional functionality has also been included in the AVHRR processing. In particular, an enhanced navigation by landmark processing has been implemented to ensure accurate geo-location. Additionally, the PPF can digest and process the global AVHRR data either at full pixel resolution (1 km at nadir), which is the nominal mode for the Metop processing, or at the reduced resolution of the NOAA/GAC (Global Area Coverage) data (about 4 km resolution at nadir). For the level 2 processing the ICI had to be modified to include the most recent improvement in fast radiative transfer modelling as included in the RTTOV-7. As a first step towards the realisation of the PPF a prototype has been generated for the purpose to help specifying the details of the PPF, and for verification of the latter by generation of

  19. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design.

  20. [Design of an HACCP program for a cocoa processing facility].

    PubMed

    López D'Sola, Patrizia; Sandia, María Gabriela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Hernández Serrano, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    The HACCP plan is a food safety management tool used to control physical, chemical and biological hazards associated to food processing through all the processing chain. The aim of this work is to design a HACCP Plan for a Venezuelan cocoa processing facility.The production of safe food products requires that the HACCP system be built upon a solid foundation of prerequisite programs such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP). The existence and effectiveness of these prerequisite programs were previously assessed.Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) audit to cocoa nibs suppliers were performed. To develop the HACCP plan, the five preliminary tasks and the seven HACCP principles were accomplished according to Codex Alimentarius procedures. Three Critical Control Points (CCP) were identified using a decision tree: winnowing (control of ochratoxin A), roasting (Salmonella control) and metallic particles detection. For each CCP, Critical limits were established, the Monitoring procedures, Corrective actions, Procedures for Verification and Documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application was established. To implement and maintain a HACCP plan for this processing plant is suggested. Recently OchratoxinA (OTA) has been related to cocoa beans. Although the shell separation from the nib has been reported as an effective measure to control this chemical hazard, ochratoxin prevalence study in cocoa beans produced in the country is recommended, and validate the winnowing step as well

  1. Sensitization and chronic beryllium disease at a primary manufacturing facility, part 1: historical exposure reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Virji, M Abbas; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Day, Gregory A; Kent, Michael S; Kreiss, Kathleen; Schuler, Christine R

    2012-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) have reported inconsistent exposure-response relationships, likely due to exposure misclassification. The objective of this study was to develop historical estimates of size-selective personal exposure to beryllium for an epidemiologic study. In 1999, a cross-sectional survey of workers hired after 1 January 1994 was conducted at a beryllium production facility. Personal exposure data from two air sampling surveys conducted in 1999 were used to obtain total, respirable, and submicron particle baseline exposure estimates (BEE) for a job-exposure matrix (JEM). General area air samples collected from 1994-1999 were used to estimate annual changes in exposures (temporal factors) for 24 different process areas. Historical exposure estimates (HEE) were calculated by applying the temporal factors to the BEE. Workers were assigned HEE based on their work history, and their historical exposure profile was summarized as cumulative, average, or highest-ever job exposure. Changes in exposure over a 6-year period were observed in 10 of the 24 process areas with an overall mean decline of 18% per year. The overall total exposure for study participants over their work tenure ranged from: 0.001-34.44 μg/m(3)-year, 0.01-16.26 μg/m(3), and 0.01-17.54 μg /m(3) for cumulative, average, and highest-ever job, respectively. For respirable exposures, the ranges were: 0.001-15.54 μg/m(3)-year, 0.01-3.56 μg/m(3), 0.01-5.54 μg /m(3) for cumulative, average, and highest-ever job, respectively. Using this JEM, exposure-response relationships for BeS and CBD can be explored over a range of exposure metrics such as total, respirable, and submicron beryllium mass concentrations, including summary measures such as cumulative, average, or highest exposures, with the ultimate objective of elucidating a quantitative exposure-response relationship.

  2. Containerless Processing in Reduced Gravity Using the TEMPUS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roger, Jan R.; Robinson, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    Containerless processing provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, very reactive materials. It is an important method which provides access to the metastable state of an undercooled melt. In the absence of container walls, the nucleation rate is greatly reduced and undercooling up to (Tm-Tn)/Tm approx. 0.2 can be obtained, where Tm and Tn are the melting and nucleation temperatures, respectively. Electromagnetic levitation represents a method particularly well-suited for the study of metallic melts. The TEMPUS facility is a research instrument designed to perform electromagnetic levitation studies in reduced gravity. It provides temperatures up to 2600 C, levitation of several grams of material and access to the undercooled state for an extended period of time (up to hours).

  3. Improved reconstructions of random media using dilation and erosion processes.

    PubMed

    Zachary, Chase E; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-11-01

    By using the most sensitive two-point correlation functions introduced to date, we reconstruct the microstructures of two-phase random media with heretofore unattained accuracy. Such media arise in a host of contexts, including porous and composite media, ecological structures, biological media, and astrophysical structures. The aforementioned correlation functions are special cases of the so-called canonical n-point correlation function H(n) and generalize the ones that have been recently employed to advance our ability to reconstruct complex microstructures [Y. Jiao, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 17634 (2009)]. The use of these generalized correlation functions is tantamount to dilating or eroding a reference phase of the target medium and incorporating the additional topological information of the modified media, thereby providing more accurate reconstructions of percolating, filamentary, and other topologically complex microstructures. We apply our methods to a multiply connected "donut" medium and a dilute distribution of "cracks" (a set of essentially zero measure), demonstrating improved accuracy in both cases with implications for higher-dimensional and biconnected two-phase systems. The high information content of the generalized two-point correlation functions suggests that it would be profitable to explore their use to characterize the structural and physical properties of not only random media, but also molecular systems, including structural glasses.

  4. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Process safety and risk management: Is your facility under control?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulkowski, J.

    1997-08-01

    By 1990, the US Congress had passed two significant pieces of legislation dealing with the prevention of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances--Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, and legislation that required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to issue its Process Safety Management regulations. On June 20, 1996, the final Rule on Risk Management Plans (RMP) for Chemical Accident Prevention was published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The final RMP Rule requires facilities with covered processes to be in full compliance with EPA`s Risk Management and Certification requirements by June 21, 1999. Meanwhile, the OSHA regulations, issued in final form in February 1992 (29CFR1910.119), provided a five-year compliance phase-in. One principal difference between the EPA and OSHA Rules arises from EPA`s position on exemptions: there are none under EPA`s Rule. With the RMP Rule, only the presence of a process containing a regulated substance above its threshold quantity determines applicability; the nature of the business is not considered in determining specific compliance requirements. Compliance of these regulations is discussed.

  6. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Methods: Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. Results: The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Conclusions: Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction. PMID:23387778

  7. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction.

  8. Region of interest processing for iterative reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Felix K.; Nasirudin, Radin A.; Mei, Kai; Fehringer, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Franz; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Noël, Peter B.

    2015-03-01

    The recent advancements in the graphics card technology raised the performance of parallel computing and contributed to the introduction of iterative reconstruction methods for x-ray computed tomography in clinical CT scanners. Iterative maximum likelihood (ML) based reconstruction methods are known to reduce image noise and to improve the diagnostic quality of low-dose CT. However, iterative reconstruction of a region of interest (ROI), especially ML based, is challenging. But for some clinical procedures, like cardiac CT, only a ROI is needed for diagnostics. A high-resolution reconstruction of the full field of view (FOV) consumes unnecessary computation effort that results in a slower reconstruction than clinically acceptable. In this work, we present an extension and evaluation of an existing ROI processing algorithm. Especially improvements for the equalization between regions inside and outside of a ROI are proposed. The evaluation was done on data collected from a clinical CT scanner. The performance of the different algorithms is qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. Our solution to the ROI problem provides an increase in signal-to-noise ratio and leads to visually less noise in the final reconstruction. The reconstruction speed of our technique was observed to be comparable with other previous proposed techniques. The development of ROI processing algorithms in combination with iterative reconstruction will provide higher diagnostic quality in the near future.

  9. OVERVIEW OF TESTING TO SUPPORT PROCESSING OF SLUDGE BATCH 4 IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C

    2006-09-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site began processing of its third sludge batch in March 2004. To avoid a feed outage in the facility, the next sludge batch will have to be prepared and ready for transfer to the DWPF by the end of 2006. The next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), will consist of a significant volume of HM-type sludge. HM-type sludge is very high in aluminum compared to the mostly Purex-type sludges that have been processed to date. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with Liquid Waste Operations to define the sludge preparation plans and to perform testing to support qualification and processing of SB4. Significant challenges have arisen during SB4 preparation and testing to include poor sludge settling behavior and lower than desired projected melt rates. An overview of the testing activities is provided.

  10. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  11. Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform and canister description: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.G.

    1988-12-01

    This document describes the reference wasteform and canister for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The principal changes include revised feed and glass product compositions, an estimate of glass product characteristics as a function of time after the start of vitrification, and additional data on glass leaching performance. The feed and glass product composition data are identical to that described in the DWPF Basic Data Report, Revision 90/91. The DWPF facility is located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and it is scheduled for construction completion during December 1989. The wasteform is borosilicate glass containing approximately 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance consisting of glass-forming chemicals, primarily glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its stability toward reaction with potential repository groundwaters, its relatively high ability to incorporate nuclides found in the sludge into the solid matrix, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains approximately 71% SiO/sub 2/, 12% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 10% Na/sub 2/O. Tests to quantify the stability of DWPF waste glass have been performed under a wide variety of conditions, including simulations of potential repository environments. Based on these tests, DWPF waste glass should easily meet repository criteria. The canister is filled with about 3700 lb of glass which occupies 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approximately 690 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and precipitate from 15-year-old supernate. The radionuclide activity of the canister is about 233,000 curies, with an estimated radiation level of 5600 rad/hour at the canister surface. 14 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  13. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  14. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  15. Participative Facility Planning for Obstetrical and Neonatal Care Processes: Beginning of Life Process

    PubMed Central

    Karvonen, Sauli; Petäjä, Hanna; Reijula, Kari; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Old hospitals may promote inefficient patient care processes and safety. A new, functionally planned hospital presents a chance to create an environment that supports streamlined, patient-centered healthcare processes and adapts to users' needs. This study depicts the phases of a facility planning project for pregnant women and newborn care processes (beginning of life process) at Turku University Hospital. Materials and Methods. Project design reports and meeting documents were utilized to assess the beginning of life process as well as the work processes of the Women's and Children's Hospital. Results. The main elements of the facility design (FD) project included rigorous preparation for the FD phase, functional planning throughout the FD process, and setting key values: (1) family-centered care, (2) Lean thinking and Lean tools as the framework for the FD process, (3) safety, and (4) cooperation. Conclusions. A well-prepared FD project with sufficient insight into functional planning, Lean thinking, and user-centricity seemed to facilitate the actual FD process. Although challenges occurred, the key values were not forgone and were successfully incorporated into the new hospital building.

  16. Comparison of pulse phase and thermographic signal reconstruction processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald-Tranta, Beata; Shepard, Steven M.

    2013-05-01

    Active thermography data for nondestructive testing has traditionally been evaluated by either visual or numerical identification of anomalous surface temperature contrast in the IR image sequence obtained as the target sample cools in response to thermal stimulation. However, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that considerably more information about the subsurface condition of a sample can be obtained by evaluating the time history of each pixel independently. In this paper, we evaluate the capabilities of two such analysis techniques, Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) using induction and optical flash excitation. Data sequences from optical pulse and scanned induction heating are analyzed with both methods. Results are evaluated in terms of signal-tobackground ratio for a given subsurface feature. In addition to the experimental data, we present finite element simulation models with varying flaw diameter and depth, and discuss size measurement accuracy and the effect of noise on detection limits and sensitivity for both methods.

  17. [Ear reconstruction using porous polyethylene implants. Effect of cortisone on edema reduction and healing process].

    PubMed

    Naumann, A; Ehrmantraut, S; Willnecker, V; Menger, M D; Schick, B; Laschke, M W

    2011-03-01

    Porous polyethylene implants are increasingly used for ear reconstruction. Although the material used exhibits good biocompatibility, swelling and edema formation frequently occur after implantation, which may be treated by prophylactic cortisone therapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of cortisone therapy on the postoperative healing process. Between 2006 and 2010 porous polyethylene implants (Medpor®) were used for ear reconstruction of high-grade ear deformities in 23 patients (m:f=11:12; age: 17.2±12.4 years). For this purpose, 11 patients were treated systemically with cortisone (3 mg/kg body weight Solu-Decortin H) for the first 3 postoperative days, whereas 12 patients (controls) did not receive cortisone. Postoperatively, we analyzed the time course of edema formation, complications and the reconstructive result. Rejection or extrusion of the polyethylene implants was not observed in any of the patients (n=23) during a postoperative observation period of up to 3.5 years. Within 3-12 months after ear reconstruction all patients exhibited a completely shaped ear. Administration of cortisone had no significant effect on postoperative edema formation or the reconstructive end result. Porous polyethylene implants are well suited for the reconstruction of moderate to high-grade ear deformities. Since administration of cortisone does not significantly affect the postoperative healing process, prophylactic cortisone treatment following ear reconstruction with porous polyethylene implants should be omitted with regard to potential side effects.

  18. Estimating and bidding for the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    This new, unique Cost Engineering Report introduces the 800-page, C-100 government estimate for the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) and Volume IV Aerospace Construction Price Book. At the January 23, 1991, bid opening for the SSPF, the government cost estimate was right on target. Metric, Inc., Prime Contractor, low bid was 1.2 percent below the government estimate. This project contains many different and complex systems. Volume IV is a summary of the cost associated with construction, activation and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) design, estimating, fabrication, installation, testing, termination, and verification of this project. Included are 13 reasons the government estimate was so accurate; abstract of bids, for 8 bidders and government estimate with additive alternates, special labor and materials, budget comparison and system summaries; and comments on the energy credit from local electrical utility. This report adds another project to our continuing study of 'How Does the Low Bidder Get Low and Make Money?' which was started in 1967, and first published in the 1973 AACE Transaction with 10 more ways the low bidder got low. The accuracy of this estimate proves the benefits of our Kennedy Space Center (KSC) teamwork efforts and KSC Cost Engineer Tools which are contributing toward our goals of the Space Station.

  19. SPIDER image processing for single-particle reconstruction of biological macromolecules from electron micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Tanvir R; Gao, Haixiao; Baxter, William T; Asturias, Francisco J; Boisset, Nicolas; Leith, Ardean; Frank, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes the reconstruction of biological molecules from the electron micrographs of single particles. Computation here is performed using the image-processing software SPIDER and can be managed using a graphical user interface, termed the SPIDER Reconstruction Engine. Two approaches are described to obtain an initial reconstruction: random-conical tilt and common lines. Once an existing model is available, reference-based alignment can be used, a procedure that can be iterated. Also described is supervised classification, a method to look for homogeneous subsets when multiple known conformations of the molecule may coexist. PMID:19180078

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Automated Process Application in Steel Fabrication and Subassembly Facilities; Phase I (Process Analysis)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    6 Automated Process Application in Steel Fabrication and Subassembly Facilities; Phase I ( Process Analysis ) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK...Subassembly Facilities; Phase I ( Process Analysis ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  1. Application of three-dimensional digital image processing for reconstruction of microstructural volume from serial sections

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.

    2000-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of the three-dimensional microstructure. The three-dimensional microstructural reconstruction clearly revealed that the tungsten grains are almost completely connected in three-dimensional space. Both the matrix and the grains are topologically co-continuous, although the alloy was liquid-phase sintered in microgravity. Therefore, absence of gravity did not produced a microstructure consisting of discrete isolated W grains uniformly dispersed in the liquid Ni-Fe alloy matrix at the sintering temperature.

  2. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  3. EUPHORE: Research facility to study tropospheric transformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, K.

    2003-04-01

    The EUPHORE simulation chamber consists of two half-spherical Teflon bags, each with a volume of 200 m^3 and a base diameter of 9.2 m. The FEP Teflon has a transmission of about 75% at 280 nm and of more than 80% above 300 nm. Purified and dried ambient air is used to fill the chamber and flush it between experiments. The humidity in the chamber is measured by a dew point hygrometer, and the temperature is monitored by several thermocouples located at different positions inside the chamber. The solar flux is monitored with spectral resolution in the photochemically active spectral region. The simulation chamber is equipped with a number of analytical instruments for the measurement of single VOC components, NO, NO_2, O_3 and other species. In-situ measurements in the ppb range are performed using long-path absorption spectroscopy, in the UV/VIS by DOAS and in the IR by FT-IR. A GC-MS system is used for the sensitive analysis of a variety of reaction products. A newly installed LIF technique allows the in situ measurement of OH and HO_2 radicals during the reaction processes. The technological concept and the organisation structure of the EUPHORE facility will be presented. The integration of quality control measures is an obvious and necessary second step for the successful exploitation of the technically advanced outdoor smog chamber EUPHORE as a research tool. This will underline the leadership of the European scientific community in the important research areas of investigating transformation processes in the troposphere and tracking the influence of human activities on photooxidant formation and its interaction with processes related to global change. In the coming years the main scientific focus will be on testing chemical mechanisms in order to improve the models which describe the atmospheric processes of complex chemical systems. The collaborative work at the EUPHORE outdoor simulation chamber will provide all the users of the installation with a basic

  4. Proposal for a new categorization of aseptic processing facilities based on risk assessment scores.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hirohito; Toda, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Yuji; Katoh, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    Risk assessment of aseptic processing facilities was performed using two published risk assessment tools. Calculated risk scores were compared with experimental test results, including environmental monitoring and media fill run results, in three different types of facilities. The two risk assessment tools used gave a generally similar outcome. However, depending on the tool used, variations were observed in the relative scores between the facilities. For the facility yielding the lowest risk scores, the corresponding experimental test results showed no contamination, indicating that these ordinal testing methods are insufficient to evaluate this kind of facility. A conventional facility having acceptable aseptic processing lines gave relatively high risk scores. The facility showing a rather high risk score demonstrated the usefulness of conventional microbiological test methods. Considering the significant gaps observed in calculated risk scores and in the ordinal microbiological test results between advanced and conventional facilities, we propose a facility categorization based on risk assessment. The most important risk factor in aseptic processing is human intervention. When human intervention is eliminated from the process by advanced hardware design, the aseptic processing facility can be classified into a new risk category that is better suited for assuring sterility based on a new set of criteria rather than on currently used microbiological analysis. To fully benefit from advanced technologies, we propose three risk categories for these aseptic facilities.

  5. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  6. 62 FR 46525 - Chemical Process Safety at Fuel Cycle Facilities; Availability of NUREG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Chemical Process Safety at Fuel Cycle Facilities; Availability of NUREG AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... completion and availability of NUREG-1601, ``Chemical Process Safety at Fuel Cycle Facilities,'' dated July.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NRC is announcing the availability of NUREG-1601, ``Chemical Process Safety at...

  7. Accelerating frequency-domain diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jaya; Chandrasekharan, Venkittarayan; Upendra, Vishwajith; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction uses advanced numerical models that are computationally costly to be implemented in the real time. The graphics processing units (GPUs) offer desktop massive parallelization that can accelerate these computations. An open-source GPU-accelerated linear algebra library package is used to compute the most intensive matrix-matrix calculations and matrix decompositions that are used in solving the system of linear equations. These open-source functions were integrated into the existing frequency-domain diffuse optical image reconstruction algorithms to evaluate the acceleration capability of the GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C 1060) with increasing reconstruction problem sizes. These studies indicate that single precision computations are sufficient for diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction. The acceleration per iteration can be up to 40, using GPUs compared to traditional CPUs in case of three-dimensional reconstruction, where the reconstruction problem is more underdetermined, making the GPUs more attractive in the clinical settings. The current limitation of these GPUs in the available onboard memory (4 GB) that restricts the reconstruction of a large set of optical parameters, more than 13,377.

  8. Development and Validation of Pathogen Environmental Monitoring Programs for Small Cheese Processing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Beno, Sarah M; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Andrus, Alexis D; Ralyea, Robert D; Kent, David J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2016-12-01

    Pathogen environmental monitoring programs (EMPs) are essential for food processing facilities of all sizes that produce ready-to-eat food products exposed to the processing environment. We developed, implemented, and evaluated EMPs targeting Listeria spp. and Salmonella in nine small cheese processing facilities, including seven farmstead facilities. Individual EMPs with monthly sample collection protocols were designed specifically for each facility. Salmonella was detected in only one facility, with likely introduction from the adjacent farm indicated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data. Listeria spp. were isolated from all nine facilities during routine sampling. The overall Listeria spp. (other than Listeria monocytogenes ) and L. monocytogenes prevalences in the 4,430 environmental samples collected were 6.03 and 1.35%, respectively. Molecular characterization and subtyping data suggested persistence of a given Listeria spp. strain in seven facilities and persistence of L. monocytogenes in four facilities. To assess routine sampling plans, validation sampling for Listeria spp. was performed in seven facilities after at least 6 months of routine sampling. This validation sampling was performed by independent individuals and included collection of 50 to 150 samples per facility, based on statistical sample size calculations. Two of the facilities had a significantly higher frequency of detection of Listeria spp. during the validation sampling than during routine sampling, whereas two other facilities had significantly lower frequencies of detection. This study provides a model for a science- and statistics-based approach to developing and validating pathogen EMPs.

  9. Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2006-02-27

    A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

  10. Exploration, Sampling, And Reconstruction of Free Energy Surfaces with Gaussian Process Regression.

    PubMed

    Mones, Letif; Bernstein, Noam; Csányi, Gábor

    2016-10-11

    Practical free energy reconstruction algorithms involve three separate tasks: biasing, measuring some observable, and finally reconstructing the free energy surface from those measurements. In more than one dimension, adaptive schemes make it possible to explore only relatively low lying regions of the landscape by progressively building up the bias toward the negative of the free energy surface so that free energy barriers are eliminated. Most schemes use the final bias as their best estimate of the free energy surface. We show that large gains in computational efficiency, as measured by the reduction of time to solution, can be obtained by separating the bias used for dynamics from the final free energy reconstruction itself. We find that biasing with metadynamics, measuring a free energy gradient estimator, and reconstructing using Gaussian process regression can give an order of magnitude reduction in computational cost.

  11. New signal processing technique for density profile reconstruction using reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Ricaud, B.; Briolle, F.; Heuraux, S.

    2011-08-15

    Reflectometry profile measurement requires an accurate determination of the plasma reflected signal. Along with a good resolution and a high signal to noise ratio of the phase measurement, adequate data analysis is required. A new data processing based on time-frequency tomographic representation is used. It provides a clearer separation between multiple components and improves isolation of the relevant signals. In this paper, this data processing technique is applied to two sets of signals coming from two different reflectometer devices used on the Tore Supra tokamak. For the standard density profile reflectometry, it improves the initialization process and its reliability, providing a more accurate profile determination in the far scrape-off layer with density measurements as low as 10{sup 16} m{sup -1}. For a second reflectometer, which provides measurements in front of a lower hybrid launcher, this method improves the separation of the relevant plasma signal from multi-reflection processes due to the proximity of the plasma.

  12. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards systems to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  13. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction, and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards system to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  14. A novel data processing technique for image reconstruction of penumbral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongwei; Li, Hongyun; Xu, Zeping; Song, Guzhou; Zhang, Faqiang; Zhou, Lin

    2011-06-01

    CT image reconstruction technique was applied to the data processing of the penumbral imaging. Compared with other traditional processing techniques for penumbral coded pinhole image such as Wiener, Lucy-Richardson and blind technique, this approach is brand new. In this method, the coded aperture processing method was used for the first time independent to the point spread function of the image diagnostic system. In this way, the technical obstacles was overcome in the traditional coded pinhole image processing caused by the uncertainty of point spread function of the image diagnostic system. Then based on the theoretical study, the simulation of penumbral imaging and image reconstruction was carried out to provide fairly good results. While in the visible light experiment, the point source of light was used to irradiate a 5mm×5mm object after diffuse scattering and volume scattering. The penumbral imaging was made with aperture size of ~20mm. Finally, the CT image reconstruction technique was used for image reconstruction to provide a fairly good reconstruction result.

  15. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  16. 40 CFR 60.100a - Applicability, designation of affected facility, and reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU), fluid coking units (FCU), delayed coking units, fuel gas...: (1) Any new piping from a refinery process unit or fuel gas system is physically connected to the...

  17. The application of MUSIC algorithm in spectrum reconstruction and interferogram processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chunmin; Zhao, Baochang; Zhu, Baohui

    2008-05-01

    Three different methods of spectrum reproduction and interferogram processing are discussed and contrasted in this paper. Especially, the nonparametric model of MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm is firstly brought into the practical spectrum reconstruction processing. The experimental results prove that this method has immensely improved the resolution of reproduced spectrum, and provided a better math model for super advanced resolving power in spectrum reconstruction. The usefulness and simplicity of the technique will lead the interference imaging spectrometers to almost every field into which the spectroscopy has ventured and into some where it has not gone before.

  18. The epithelialization process in the healing temporalis myofascial flap in oral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cheung, L K

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the epithelialization process in the healing temporalis myofascial flap (TMF). Eight cats underwent maxillectomy and immediate reconstruction with TMF. They were killed at the determined time and the reconstructed maxillae were processed for examination by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results revealed that epithelialization of the healing TMF was initiated by hyperplastic changes followed by active migration of epithelial cells deriving from the wound margins. The partial maxillectomy wound was completely covered by a smooth oral mucosa at postoperative week 24. The mucosa had histological and ultrastructural features different from normal palatal mucosa.

  19. 77 FR 823 - Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Change Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... electronically under ADAMS Accession Number ML100890016. The regulatory analysis may be found in ADAMS under.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: R. A. Jervey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC... for tracking, evaluating, and documenting changes made to fuel cycle facilities, and to...

  20. State-of-the-Art Facility: A Planning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William; Speicher, A. Dean

    Chief executive officers of school districts and facility planners must assume the role of change agent to meet the information needs of the 21st century. Public school learning, which will serve more groupings of people on a continual basis, will be disseminated through media learning centers. Management should follow six steps in planning…

  1. Process Control Manual for Aerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publication is an operations manual for activated sludge and trickling filter wastewater treatment facilities. The stated purpose of the manual is to provide an on-the-job reference for operators of these two types of treatment plants. The overall objective of the manual is to aid the operator in…

  2. Facilities and the Air Force Systems Acquisition Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    to provide es- senti-l fLcilitio-s by, system Initial Cperatlcnal Capability (’-0C) . And secondly, vince the systems ;acjui. tior proceso is event...funds exclusively for systems acquisition. This change will remove the current military construction calendar constraint and allow facilities to be

  3. Integrating Sustainability Programs into the Facilities Capital Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    With detailed information about the costs and benefits of potential green investments, educational facilities can effectively evaluate which initiatives will ultimately provide the greatest results over the short and long term. Based on its overall goals, every school, college, or university will have different values and therefore different…

  4. 10 CFR 1016.8 - Approval for processing access permittees for security facility approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for processing access permittees for security facility approval. 1016.8 Section 1016.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.8 Approval for processing access permittees for security facility...

  5. 71 FR 56344 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-27

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY... facility change process involving items relied on for safety. Additionally, the 10 CFR part 70 subpart H...) is amending its regulations to clarify a requirement pertaining to items relied on for safety...

  6. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  7. Fast direct reconstruction strategy of dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maomao; Zhang, Jiulou; Cai, Chuangjian; Gao, Yang; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (DFMT) is a valuable method to evaluate the metabolic process of contrast agents in different organs in vivo, and direct reconstruction methods can improve the temporal resolution of DFMT. However, challenges still remain due to the large time consumption of the direct reconstruction methods. An acceleration strategy using graphics processing units (GPU) is presented. The procedure of conjugate gradient optimization in the direct reconstruction method is programmed using the compute unified device architecture and then accelerated on GPU. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments are performed to validate the feasibility of the strategy. The results demonstrate that, compared with the traditional method, the proposed strategy can reduce the time consumption by ˜90% without a degradation of quality.

  8. Rheological Fluids under Perturbation: Reconstruction and Relaxation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Calleja, Elsa Maria; Carrillo, Jose Luis

    2006-03-01

    We study the evolution of the structure of electro rheological as well as magneto rheological fluids in the presence of perturbation fields. We have previously shown that the fibrous structure acquired by these dispersions in the presence of a static, electric or magnetic, field has multifractal characteristics[1]. If in addition to the static field a perpendicular pulsed field is applied, under certain conditions it is possible to rearrange the structure into an ordered one[2]. Based on the measured mass fractal dimension and the radial distribution of mass, we discuss these processes and other structural characteristics of the system approaching these phenomena as a glass transition. [1] J. L. Carrillo, F. Donado, and M. E. Mendoza: Fractal patterns, cluster dynamics, and elastic properties. Phys. Rev. E 68, 061509 (2003); J. L. Carrillo, M. E. Mendoza, and F. Donado: Fractal patterns and aggregation processes in rheological dispersions. J. Stat. Mech. P06001 (2005). [2] J. L. Carrillo, E. M. De la Calleja, M. E. Mendoza, and F. Donado, Ferroelectrics (in press).

  9. Evaluation of the DYMAC demonstration program. Phase III report. [LASL Plutonium Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malanify, J.J.; Bearse, R.C.

    1980-12-31

    An accountancy system based on the Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System has been in operation at the Plutonium Processing Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since January 1978. This system, now designated the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System (PF/LASS), has enhanced nuclear material accountability and process control at the Los Alamos facility. The nondestructive assay instruments and the central computer system are operating accurately and reliably. As anticipated, several uses of the system, notably scrap control and quality control, have developed in addition to safeguards. The successes of this experiment strongly suggest that implementation of DYMAC-based systems should be attempted at other facilities.

  10. Neural information processing and self-organizing maps as a tool in safeguarding storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Fuyat, C.

    1993-08-01

    Storage facilities for nuclear materials and weapons dismantlement facilities could have a large number of sensors with the potential for generating large amounts of data. Because of the anticipated complexity and diversity of the data, efficient automatic algorithms are necessary to make interpretations and ensure secure and safe operation. New, advanced safeguards systems are needed to process the information gathered from monitors and make interpretations that are in the best interests of the facility or agency. In this paper we present a conceptual design for software to assist with processing these large quantities of data from storage facilities.

  11. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  12. Technology Readiness Assessment of Department of Energy Waste Processing Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    in support of that mission; and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. The Office of Environmental...Management (EM) is responsible for the risk reduction and cleanup of the environmental legacy of the Nation’s nuclear weapons program, one of the largest...Cleanup and/or closure of sites ; • Constructing and operating facilities to treat radioactive liquid tank waste into a safe, stable form to enable

  13. Metal nanofoams via a facile microwave-assisted solvothermal process.

    PubMed

    Kreder, K J; Manthiram, A

    2017-01-16

    A novel, facile, non-hazardous, low temperature/pressure microwave solvothermal method of producing pure copper, silver, and nickel metal nanofoams is presented. The nanofoams have been produced using inexpensive metal acetates and polyglycol solvent. The nanofoam formation proceeds in two steps within a single-pot synthesis: formation of metal nanoparticles, followed by the sintering of nanoparticles into nanofoams. The nanofoams have many potential uses in clean energy applications, particularly lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  15. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement results.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Austin L; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Martinez, David M; Vaughn, Timothy L; Williams, Laurie L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Floerchinger, Cody; Omara, Mark; Subramanian, R; Zimmerle, Daniel; Marchese, Anthony J; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Facility-level methane emissions were measured at 114 gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in the United States natural gas system. At gathering facilities, the measured methane emission rates ranged from 0.7 to 700 kg per hour (kg/h) (0.6 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm)). Normalized emissions (as a % of total methane throughput) were less than 1% for 85 gathering facilities and 19 had normalized emissions less than 0.1%. The range of methane emissions rates for processing plants was 3 to 600 kg/h (3 to 524 scfm), corresponding to normalized methane emissions rates <1% in all cases. The distributions of methane emissions, particularly for gathering facilities, are skewed. For example, 30% of gathering facilities contribute 80% of the total emissions. Normalized emissions rates are negatively correlated with facility throughput. The variation in methane emissions also appears driven by differences between inlet and outlet pressure, as well as venting and leaking equipment. Substantial venting from liquids storage tanks was observed at 20% of gathering facilities. Emissions rates at these facilities were, on average, around four times the rates observed at similar facilities without substantial venting.

  16. Birth-death models and coalescent point processes: the shape and probability of reconstructed phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Amaury; Stadler, Tanja

    2013-12-01

    Forward-in-time models of diversification (i.e., speciation and extinction) produce phylogenetic trees that grow "vertically" as time goes by. Pruning the extinct lineages out of such trees leads to natural models for reconstructed trees (i.e., phylogenies of extant species). Alternatively, reconstructed trees can be modelled by coalescent point processes (CPPs), where trees grow "horizontally" by the sequential addition of vertical edges. Each new edge starts at some random speciation time and ends at the present time; speciation times are drawn from the same distribution independently. CPPs lead to extremely fast computation of tree likelihoods and simulation of reconstructed trees. Their topology always follows the uniform distribution on ranked tree shapes (URT). We characterize which forward-in-time models lead to URT reconstructed trees and among these, which lead to CPP reconstructed trees. We show that for any "asymmetric" diversification model in which speciation rates only depend on time and extinction rates only depend on time and on a non-heritable trait (e.g., age), the reconstructed tree is CPP, even if extant species are incompletely sampled. If rates additionally depend on the number of species, the reconstructed tree is (only) URT (but not CPP). We characterize the common distribution of speciation times in the CPP description, and discuss incomplete species sampling as well as three special model cases in detail: (1) the extinction rate does not depend on a trait; (2) rates do not depend on time; (3) mass extinctions may happen additionally at certain points in the past. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility science data processing architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Bicknell, Thomas; Miller, Carol L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at Fairbanks, being developed to generate science data products for supporting research in sea ice motion, ice classification, sea-ice-ocean interaction, glacier behavior, ocean waves, and hydrological and geological study areas. Special attention is given to the individual substructures of the ASF: the Receiving Ground Station (RGS), the SAR Processor System, and the Interactive Image Analysis System. The SAR data will be linked to the RGS by the ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2, the Japanese ERS-1, and the Canadian Radarsat.

  18. Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility science data processing architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Bicknell, Thomas; Miller, Carol L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture of the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at Fairbanks, being developed to generate science data products for supporting research in sea ice motion, ice classification, sea-ice-ocean interaction, glacier behavior, ocean waves, and hydrological and geological study areas. Special attention is given to the individual substructures of the ASF: the Receiving Ground Station (RGS), the SAR Processor System, and the Interactive Image Analysis System. The SAR data will be linked to the RGS by the ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2, the Japanese ERS-1, and the Canadian Radarsat.

  19. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Workers at an Indium Processing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Donat, Walter E.; Ettensohn, David B.; Roggli, Victor L.; Ingram, Peter; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage–colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have an elevated level. These cases suggest that inhalational exposure to ITO causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which may occur via an autoimmune mechanism. PMID:20019344

  20. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D.; Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  1. Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-05-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

  2. 78 FR 69539 - Removal of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB67 Removal of Attestation Process for Facilities Using H-1A Registered Nurses AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Department of Labor... governing health care facilities using nonimmigrant foreign workers as registered nurses under the H-1A visa...

  3. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1972-01-01

    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  4. Design and implementation of a high-throughput biological sample processing facility using modern manufacturing principles.

    PubMed

    Downey, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a prospective study that is collecting biological samples and health and lifestyle data from 500 000 volunteer participants over a 4-year period. These data will be used to facilitate biological and medical research. Modern manufacturing principles were used to direct the development of the sample processing facility and automated systems. A fit for purpose facility comprising technology, systems, dedicated process, infrastructure and an appropriate staff structure has been implemented that will deliver and maintain a resource that will support the long-term goals of the UK Biobank study. Modern manufacturing principles are appropriate for use in the development of a high throughput biological sample processing facility.

  5. 17 CFR 37.406 - Trade reconstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade reconstruction. 37.406 Section 37.406 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP EXECUTION FACILITIES Monitoring of Trading and Trade Processing § 37.406 Trade reconstruction. The swap...

  6. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  7. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  8. Facility Siting as a Decision Process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2001-07-24

    This document is based upon previous site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities. It develops the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardizes the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  9. Integration of TomoPy and the ASTRA toolbox for advanced processing and reconstruction of tomographic synchrotron data

    SciTech Connect

    Pelt, Daniël M.; Gürsoy, Doğa; Palenstijn, Willem Jan; Sijbers, Jan; De Carlo, Francesco; Batenburg, Kees Joost

    2016-05-01

    The processing of tomographic synchrotron data requires advanced and efficient software to be able to produce accurate results in reasonable time. In this paper, the integration of two software toolboxes, TomoPy and the ASTRA toolbox, which, together, provide a powerful framework for processing tomographic data, is presented. The integration combines the advantages of both toolboxes, such as the user-friendliness and CPU-efficient methods of TomoPy and the flexibility and optimized GPU-based reconstruction methods of the ASTRA toolbox. It is shown that both toolboxes can be easily installed and used together, requiring only minor changes to existing TomoPy scripts. Furthermore, it is shown that the efficient GPU-based reconstruction methods of the ASTRA toolbox can significantly decrease the time needed to reconstruct large datasets, and that advanced reconstruction methods can improve reconstruction quality compared with TomoPy's standard reconstruction method.

  10. Integration of TomoPy and the ASTRA toolbox for advanced processing and reconstruction of tomographic synchrotron data.

    PubMed

    Pelt, Daniël M; Gürsoy, Dogˇa; Palenstijn, Willem Jan; Sijbers, Jan; De Carlo, Francesco; Batenburg, Kees Joost

    2016-05-01

    The processing of tomographic synchrotron data requires advanced and efficient software to be able to produce accurate results in reasonable time. In this paper, the integration of two software toolboxes, TomoPy and the ASTRA toolbox, which, together, provide a powerful framework for processing tomographic data, is presented. The integration combines the advantages of both toolboxes, such as the user-friendliness and CPU-efficient methods of TomoPy and the flexibility and optimized GPU-based reconstruction methods of the ASTRA toolbox. It is shown that both toolboxes can be easily installed and used together, requiring only minor changes to existing TomoPy scripts. Furthermore, it is shown that the efficient GPU-based reconstruction methods of the ASTRA toolbox can significantly decrease the time needed to reconstruct large datasets, and that advanced reconstruction methods can improve reconstruction quality compared with TomoPy's standard reconstruction method.

  11. Integration of TomoPy and the ASTRA toolbox for advanced processing and reconstruction of tomographic synchrotron data

    PubMed Central

    Pelt, Daniël M.; Gürsoy, Doǧa; Palenstijn, Willem Jan; Sijbers, Jan; De Carlo, Francesco; Batenburg, Kees Joost

    2016-01-01

    The processing of tomographic synchrotron data requires advanced and efficient software to be able to produce accurate results in reasonable time. In this paper, the integration of two software toolboxes, TomoPy and the ASTRA toolbox, which, together, provide a powerful framework for processing tomographic data, is presented. The integration combines the advantages of both toolboxes, such as the user-friendliness and CPU-efficient methods of TomoPy and the flexibility and optimized GPU-based reconstruction methods of the ASTRA toolbox. It is shown that both toolboxes can be easily installed and used together, requiring only minor changes to existing TomoPy scripts. Furthermore, it is shown that the efficient GPU-based reconstruction methods of the ASTRA toolbox can significantly decrease the time needed to reconstruct large datasets, and that advanced reconstruction methods can improve reconstruction quality compared with TomoPy’s standard reconstruction method. PMID:27140167

  12. Lax regulation of oil vessels and processing facilities continues

    SciTech Connect

    Sankovitch, N.

    1993-12-31

    Four years after the grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in 1989, oil spills continue to occur with alarming frequency: In 1992 the Shoko Maru spilled more than 96,000 gallons of crude oil into the Texas City Channel and a leak at an offshore well in Louisiana spilled at least 30,000 gallons; in 1991 alone, there were 677 spills in the Port of New Orleans, 398 spills in New York Harbor, 239 spills in Port of Hampton Roads, 235 spills in Port of Philadelphia, 130 spills in Seattle, and 116 spills in Boston Harbor. The amount of oil spilled in these ports alone in one year exceeded 300,000 gallons. The recent huge spills off foreign coasts-the Shetland Islands, the coasts of Spain and Indonesia-reinforce the importance of regulation. The Oil Pollution Act, passed in August 1992 mandates that all vessels traveling in US waters and all oil transfer and storage facilities take measurable and enforceable actions to reduce spills. However, major problems remain, both with the act and with enforcing it. This article discusses both the problems and the solutions to pollution control of oil spills.

  13. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  14. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  15. REPORT ON TWO PROCESS EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR FEDERAL PAINTING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has actively participated in the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to develop innovative technologies and processes for the reduction of environmental pollution. Technology developments fro...

  16. REPORT ON TWO PROCESS EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR FEDERAL PAINTING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has actively participated in the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to develop innovative technologies and processes for the reduction of environmental pollution. Technology developments fro...

  17. Evaluation of the antipsychotic medication review process at four long-term facilities in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Birney, Arden; Charland, Paola; Cole, Mollie; Aslam Arain, Mubashir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this evaluation was to understand how four long-term care (LTC) facilities in Alberta have implemented medication reviews for the Appropriate Use of Antipsychotics (AUA) initiative. We aimed to determine how interprofessional (IP) collaboration was incorporated in the antipsychotic medication reviews and how the reviews had been sustained. Methods Four LTC facilities in Alberta participated in this evaluation. We conducted semistructured interviews with 18 facility staff and observed one antipsychotic medication review at each facility. We analyzed data according to the following key components that we identified as relevant to the antipsychotic medication reviews: the structure of the reviews, IP interactions between the staff members, and strategies for sustaining the reviews. Results The duration of antipsychotic medication reviews ranged from 1 to 1.5 hours. The number of professions in attendance ranged from 3 to 9; a pharmacist led the review at two sites, while a registered nurse led the review at one site and a nurse practitioner at the remaining site. The number of residents discussed during the review ranged from 6 to 20. The process at some facilities was highly IP, demonstrating each of the six IP competencies. Other facilities conducted the review in a less IP manner due to challenges of physician involvement and staff workload, particularly of health care aides. Facilities that had an nurse practitioner on site were more efficient with the process of implementing recommendations resulting from the medication reviews. Conclusion The LTC facilities were successful in implementing the medication review process and the process seemed to be sustainable. A few challenges were observed in the implementation process at two facilities. IP practice moved forward the goals of the AUA initiative to reduce the inappropriate use of antipsychotics. PMID:27785044

  18. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    SciTech Connect

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  19. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

    2004-02-01

    A zero-release offgas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotarykiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release offgas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the offgas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the offgas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the offgas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing offgas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system offgas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated particle filter framework for positron emission tomography image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengchao; Liu, Huafeng; Hu, Zhenghui; Shi, Pengcheng

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the random nature of photon emissions and detections, the data collected by a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system can be shown to be Poisson distributed. Meanwhile, there have been considerable efforts within the tracer kinetic modeling communities aimed at establishing the relationship between the PET data and physiological parameters that affect the uptake and metabolism of the tracer. Both statistical and physiological models are important to PET reconstruction. The majority of previous efforts are based on simplified, nonphysical mathematical expression, such as Poisson modeling of the measured data, which is, on the whole, completed without consideration of the underlying physiology. In this paper, we proposed a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated reconstruction strategy that can take both statistical model and physiological model into consideration with the aid of state-space evolution equations. The proposed strategy formulates the organ activity distribution through tracer kinetics models and the photon-counting measurements through observation equations, thus making it possible to unify these two constraints into a general framework. In order to accelerate reconstruction, GPU-based parallel computing is introduced. Experiments of Zubal-thorax-phantom data, Monte Carlo simulated phantom data, and real phantom data show the power of the method. Furthermore, thanks to the computing power of the GPU, the reconstruction time is practical for clinical application.

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tara E.; Newell, J. David; Woodham, Wesley H.

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  2. Bulk processing of radionuclide generator parents at the Los Alamos Hot Cell Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, M. E.; Nortier, F. M.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Peterson, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk radionuclide processing at Los Alamos includes isotopes with short-lived radioactive daughter nuclides ('generator parents') for medical applications. The generator radionuclide parents {sup 68}Ge, {sup 82}Sr, {sup 88}Zr and {sup 109}Cd are regularly processed at the Los Alamos Hot Cell Facility. Nuclear chemical aspects related to the production and processing of these generator parents are briefly outlined.

  3. Quality Assurance Program description, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Maslar, S.R.

    1992-11-02

    This document describes the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Quality Assurance Program for Defense Waste Processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC is the operating contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the SRS. The following objectives are achieved through developing and implementing the Quality Assurance Program: (1) Ensure that the attainment of quality (in accomplishing defense high-level waste processing objectives at the SRS) is at a level commensurate with the government's responsibility for protecting public health and safety, the environment, the public investment, and for efficiently and effectively using national resources. (2) Ensure that high-level waste from qualification and production activities conform to requirements defined by OCRWM. These activities include production processes, equipment, and services; and products that are planned, designed, procured, fabricated, installed, tested, operated, maintained, modified, or produced.

  4. Application of artificial intelligence to melter control: Realtime process advisor for the scale melter facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jr, R E

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is currently under construction and when completed will process high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform. This facility will consist of numerous batch chemical processing steps as well as the continuous operation of a joule-heated melter and its off-gas treatment system. A realtime process advisor system based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques has been developed and is currently in use at the semiworks facility, which is operating a 2/3 scale of the DWPF joule-heated melter. The melter advisor system interfaces to the existing data collection and control system and monitors current operations of this facility. The advisor then provides advice to operators and engineers when it identifies process problems. The current system is capable of identifying process problems such as feed system pluggages and thermocouple failures and providing recommended actions. The system also provides facilities normally with distributed control systems. These include the ability to display process flowsheets, monitor alarm conditions, and check the status of process interlocks. 7 figs.

  5. SSOPs and GMPs for commercial shell egg processing facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  6. A chain of processes - from past climate variations to paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfeld, Kira; Laepple, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Paleoclimate proxy data cover large sections of the Earth's past dynamics and hold information that is crucial to improve climate models on timescales from decades to millennia. The attribution of proxy variability to different physical climate parameters and seasons, such as, e.g., summer temperature or winter precipitation, is necessary for most model-data intercomparisons. This is, however, complicated by time-scale dependence, underdeterminacy and short overlapping periods in the calibration to modern-day data. Non-climatic and potentially archive-specific and local effects further decrease the signal-to-noise-ratio and increase the uncertainty of a paleoclimate reconstruction. The proxy data have heterogeneous origins, e.g. from marine or terrestrial archives, which grew biologically or resulted from sedimentation processes. This amplifies reconstruction uncertainty due to proxy- and archive- specific technical challenges like record sparsity, age uncertainty and sampling time irregularity. Despite these obstacles, paleoclimate reconstructions are essential to test how adequately climate models simulate long-term climate variability, and to identify potentially lacking mechanisms that propagate internal climate variability on annual to millennial timescales. Improving our understanding of paleoclimate archives and proxies will therefore enable us to obtain better climate reconstructions that are more suitable to be compared to modeled data or modern-day observations. In this contribution we aim to identify and survey the chain of processes that occurred from the moment when past environmental variations were recorded in natural paleoclimate proxies, through the human sampling, calibration and attribution process to the final reconstruction. We distinguish paleoclimate archive classes for example according to their origin, such as terrestrial, marine or biogenic, and geographical occurrence, such as alpine, tropical or polar. We are further interested in the

  7. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES...

  8. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES...

  9. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES...

  10. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES...

  11. 42 CFR 82.32 - How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH make changes in scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process, based on scientific progress? 82.32 Section 82.32 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES METHODS FOR CONDUCTING DOSE RECONSTRUCTION UNDER THE ENERGY EMPLOYEES...

  12. Reconstruction of dose equivalent to the public on University of California, Davis, property from the sup 60 Co Irradiator Facility. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, T.E.

    1991-05-01

    The {sup 60}Co Irradiator Facility, located at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) was an indoor-outdoor gamma irradiation facility designed to study the effects of low-level continuous whole body exposure to mammals. From 1970 to 1985 outdoor radiation exposure experiments were conducted at the facility to study the effects of continuous low-level radiation exposure on beagles. Although direct exposure to the outdoor portion of the irradiator beam was controlled to within a fenced area, environmental monitoring data show that low-level radiation exposure rates were present outside of the fence perimeter. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to determine the potential radiation dose equivalents received by the public in UCD-operated areas adjacent to the LEHR site and to provide estimates of the associated risks to these individuals from the outdoor irradiations. EMO has reconstructed the radiation dose equivalent rates to the off-site areas using actual environmental radiation monitoring data augmented by Monte Carlo computer modeling of the radiation dose equivalent rates where necessary. This report describes the irradiator and adjacent areas, the available environmental radiation data, the computer modeling and dose equivalent rate projections, occupancy determinations, and reconstructed dose equivalents. Also a risk factor is estimated for each of the dose equivalents calculated for the public. 5 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

  14. Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

  15. 324 Facility B-Cell quality process plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1998-06-10

    B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. This includes: (1) Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment. This activity is the restart of hotwork in B-Cell to size reduce the remainder of Tank 119 and other miscellaneous pieces of equipment into sizes that can be loaded into a grout container. This activity also includes the process of preparing the containers for shipment from the cell. The specific activities and procedures used are detailed in a table. (2) Load and Ship Low-Level Waste. This activity covers the process of taking a grouted LLW container from B-Cell and loading it into the cask in the REC airlock and Cask Handling Area (CHA) for shipment to the LLBG. The detailed activities and procedures for this part of cell cleanout are included in second table.

  16. Development of Advanced Multizone Facilities for Microgravity Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been interested in experimental ground based study to investigate the fundamental processes involved in phase transformation processes during growth of metallic, nonmetallic and electronic materials. Solidification, vapor growth and solution growth techniques of growing crystals are of special interest because of the inherent importance of convection in the nutrient solution. Convection enhances the mass transport through the nutrient and results in faster growth rates. Availability of low gravity environment of space has provided scientists a new variable to control the extent of convection and thus isolate the diffusive phenomena for their better understanding. The thermal gradient at the liquid-solid interface is determined by the alloy characteristics, the hot zone temperature, cold zone temperature and the width of the insulating zone. The thermal profiles get established by the existing material and geometrical constraints of the experimental set up. The major effort under this research was devoted to designing a programmable furnace which can be used to obtain thermal profiles along the length of the sample as per the demands of the scientists. The furnace did not have active cooling of the zones. Only active heating and passive cooling were utilized.

  17. Multi-user real-time speech processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisoni, D. B.

    1985-03-01

    Research projects requiring the VAX 11/750 and related peripherals have all focused on speech analysis, perception and recognition. We compared perceptual confusions occurring for natural and synthetic speech syllables which showed that synthetic speech is not equivalent to noisy or degraded natural speech. We conducted a study that indicated that perception of synthetic speech is improved by training. Training with fluent synthetic sentences improves performance for both isolated words and sentences. Training with isolated words improves performance on isolated words but does not improve performance on fluent synthetic sentences. A large-scale series of experiments investigated the effects of noise in a talker's ears on speech production. Words produced in noise are longer, louder and higher in pitch than words produced in the quiet. The tilt of the power spectrum decreased and formant frequencies shifted in noise. nition, I/O, human factors, cognitive processes, and communication sciences.

  18. Preliminary technical data summary No. 3 for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, L.F.

    1980-05-01

    This document presents an update on the best information presently available for the purpose of establishing the basis for the design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility. Objective of this project is to provide a facility to fix the radionuclides present in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste in a high-integrity form (glass). Flowsheets and material balances reflect the alternate CAB case including the incorporation of low-level supernate in concrete. (DLC)

  19. Development of Infrastructure Facilities for Superconducting RF Cavity Fabrication, Processing and 2 K Characterization at RRCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, S. C.; Raghavendra, S.; Jain, V. K.; Puntambekar, A.; Khare, P.; Dwivedi, J.; Mundra, G.; Kush, P. K.; Shrivastava, P.; Lad, M.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-02-01

    An extensive infrastructure facility is being established at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) for a proposed 1 GeV, high intensity superconducting proton linac for Indian Spallation Neutron Source. The proton linac will comprise of a large number of superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities ranging from low beta spoke resonators to medium and high beta multi-cell elliptical cavities at different RF frequencies. Infrastructure facilities for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and performance characterization at 2 K are setup to take-up manufacturing of large number of cavities required for future projects of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). RRCAT is also participating in a DAE’s approved mega project on “Physics and Advanced technology for High intensity Proton Accelerators” under Indian Institutions-Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). In the R&D phase of IIFC program, a number of high beta, fully dressed multi-cell elliptical SCRF cavities will be developed in collaboration with Fermilab. A dedicated facility for SCRF cavity fabrication, tuning and processing is set up. SCRF cavities developed will be characterized at 2K using a vertical test stand facility, which is already commissioned. A Horizontal Test Stand facility has also been designed and under development for testing a dressed multi-cell SCRF cavity at 2K. The paper presents the infrastructure facilities setup at RRCAT for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and testing at 2K.

  20. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Design and construction of the world's largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  1. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  2. 30 CFR 947.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 947.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  3. 30 CFR 910.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 910.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  4. 30 CFR 922.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 922.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities not Located at or near...

  5. 30 CFR 921.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... MASSACHUSETTS § 921.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  6. 30 CFR 939.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... ISLAND § 939.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  7. 30 CFR 910.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 910.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  8. 30 CFR 941.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... DAKOTA § 941.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  9. 30 CFR 912.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 912.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  10. 30 CFR 933.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... CAROLINA § 933.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  11. 30 CFR 921.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... MASSACHUSETTS § 921.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  12. 30 CFR 937.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 937.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  13. 30 CFR 922.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 922.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities not Located at or near...

  14. 30 CFR 912.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 912.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  15. Absence of high-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci isolated from meat-processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Bodnaruk, P W; Krakar, P J; Tompkin, R B

    2001-01-01

    Enterococci isolated from packaging areas of meat-processing facilities that produce ready-to-eat meat products were examined for high-level vancomycin resistance. A total of 406 enterococci isolates from the plants' packaging areas were examined for vancomycin resistance. High-level vancomycin resistance was not demonstrated in any enterococci isolated from 12 meat-processing plants.

  16. Absence of high-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci isolated from meat-processing facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Bodnaruk, P. W.; Krakar, P. J.; Tompkin, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Enterococci isolated from packaging areas of meat-processing facilities that produce ready-to-eat meat products were examined for high-level vancomycin resistance. A total of 406 enterococci isolates from the plants' packaging areas were examined for vancomycin resistance. High-level vancomycin resistance was not demonstrated in any enterococci isolated from 12 meat-processing plants. PMID:11747735

  17. AERIAL SHOWING COMPLETED REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) ADJOINING FUEL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL SHOWING COMPLETED REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) ADJOINING FUEL PROCESSING BUILDING AND EXCAVATION FOR HOT PILOT PLANT TO RIGHT (CPP-640). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1221. J. Anderson, Photographer, 3/22/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Data reduction complex analog-to-digital data processing requirements for onsite test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debbrecht, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The analog to digital processing requirements of onsite test facilities are described. The source and medium of all input data to the Data Reduction Complex (DRC) and the destination and medium of all output products of the analog-to-digital processing are identified. Additionally, preliminary input and output data formats are presented along with the planned use of the output products.

  19. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs ...

  20. Radon Reduction Experience at a Former Uranium Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eger, K. J.; Rutherford, L.; Rickett, K.; Fellman, R.; Hungate, S.

    2004-02-29

    Approximately 6,200 cubic meters of waste containing about 2.0E8 MBq of radium-226 are stored in two large silos at the Fernald Site in southwest Ohio. The material is scheduled for retrieval, packaging, off site shipment and disposal by burial. Air in the silos above the stored material contained radon-222 at a concentration of 7.4 E5 Bq/L. Short-lived daughters formed by decay in these headspaces generated dose rates at contact with the top of the silos up to 1.05 mSv/hr and there complicate the process of retrieval. A Radon Control System (RCS) employing carbon adsorption beds has been designed under contract with the Fluor Fernald to remove most of the radon in the headspaces and maintain lower concentrations during periods when work on or above the domes is needed. Removing the radon also removes the short-lived daughters and reduces the dose rate near the domes to 20 to 30 {mu}Sv/hr. Failing to remove the radon would be costly, in the exposure of personnel needed to work extended periods at these moderate dose rates, or in dollars for the application of remote retrieval techniques. In addition, the RCS minimizes the potential for environmental releases. This paper describes the RCS, its mode of operation, and early experiences. The results of the test described herein and the experience gained from operation of the RCS during its first phase of continuous operation, will be used to determine the best air flow, and air flow distribution, the most desirable number and sequence number and sequence of adsorption beds to be used and the optimum application of air recycle within the RCS.

  1. Sedimentological discontinuties as chances for enhancing process-based palaeo-environmental reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Kai; Lockot, Gregori; Wünnemann, Bernd; Ramisch, Arne; Diekmann, Bernhard; Yan, Dada

    2014-05-01

    Morpho-stratigraphic approaches in the field of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction are time consuming, have a low temporal resolution and the problem of equifinality in terms of processes or simply the reputation of fuzziness. Nevertheless, investigations of seemingly continuous archives such as lake sediments are more effective if climate driven catchment signals are considered. Lake level data sets provide valuable indices for modelling the palaeoclimatic history and feedback-mechanisms on regional, supra-regional or even hemispherical scales. However, they are frequently used without considering the role of sediment trapping, signal buffering and random events (tectonic, mass-movements, etc.) along related sediment cascades. Moreover, dating inversions, record gaps and unlikely high or low SARs are considered as archive-internal disturbances or simply measurement errors which have to be smoothed by increasingly sophisticated tools of statistics or simply eliminated. This poster examines the value of such discontinuities and random events within continuous lake record for deciphering catchment-wide feedbacks/responses and their related processes. Our first example shows the influence of lake level changes and permafrost uplift on the reservoir effect of Lake Heihai, Northern Tibetan Plateau. A drop in lake level induced the reworking of sediment sequences, which is not identifiable by disturbances of the stratighraphy. This problem only becomes apparent, if several on-shore sediment records and at least two lake cores are compared. Several lake records from Hala Lake, Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau confirm highly diverse stratigraphies and sediment properties, thus underpinning the necessity of data comparison from different locations (within the lake) for a reliable reconstruction of climate-driven hydrological variations within a lake-catchment system. A third example from a large endorheic foreland basin of the Tibetan Plateau (Ejina Basin also

  2. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) is to examine assay, characterize, treat, and repackage solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. WRAP 1 will contain equipment and facilities necessary for non-destructive examination (NDE) of wastes and to perform a non-destructive examination assay (NDA) of the total radionuclide content of the wastes, without opening the outer container (e.g., 55-gal drum). WRAP 1 will also be equipped to open drums which do not meet waste acceptance and shipping criteria, and to perform limited physical treatment of the wastes to ensure that storage, shipping, and disposal criteria are met. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and transuranic and low level mixed wastes (LLMW). The WRAP 1 facility will only accept contact handler (CH) waste containers. A Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (TBACT) assessment has been completed for the WRAP 1 facility (WHC 1993). Because toxic emissions from the WRAP 1 facility are sufficiently low and do not pose any health or safety concerns to the public, no controls for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and installation of HEPA filters for particulates satisfy TBACT for the facility.

  3. Evaluating contextual processing in diffusion MRI: application to optic radiation reconstruction for epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Tax, Chantal M W; Duits, Remco; Vilanova, Anna; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M; Hofman, Paul; Wagner, Louis; Leemans, Alexander; Ossenblok, Pauly

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion MRI and tractography allow for investigation of the architectural configuration of white matter in vivo, offering new avenues for applications like presurgical planning. Despite the promising outlook, there are many pitfalls that complicate its use for (clinical) application. Amongst these are inaccuracies in the geometry of the diffusion profiles on which tractography is based, and poor alignment with neighboring profiles. Recently developed contextual processing techniques, including enhancement and well-posed geometric sharpening, have shown to result in sharper and better aligned diffusion profiles. However, the research that has been conducted up to now is mainly of theoretical nature, and so far these techniques have only been evaluated by visual inspection of the diffusion profiles. In this work, the method is evaluated in a clinically relevant application: the reconstruction of the optic radiation for epilepsy surgery. For this evaluation we have developed a framework in which we incorporate a novel scoring procedure for individual pathways. We demonstrate that, using enhancement and sharpening, the extraction of an anatomically plausible reconstruction of the optic radiation from a large amount of probabilistic pathways is greatly improved in three healthy controls, where currently used methods fail to do so. Furthermore, challenging reconstructions of the optic radiation in three epilepsy surgery candidates with extensive brain lesions demonstrate that it is beneficial to integrate these methods in surgical planning.

  4. Evaluating Contextual Processing in Diffusion MRI: Application to Optic Radiation Reconstruction for Epilepsy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tax, Chantal M. W.; Duits, Remco; Vilanova, Anna; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Hofman, Paul; Wagner, Louis; Leemans, Alexander; Ossenblok, Pauly

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion MRI and tractography allow for investigation of the architectural configuration of white matter in vivo, offering new avenues for applications like presurgical planning. Despite the promising outlook, there are many pitfalls that complicate its use for (clinical) application. Amongst these are inaccuracies in the geometry of the diffusion profiles on which tractography is based, and poor alignment with neighboring profiles. Recently developed contextual processing techniques, including enhancement and well-posed geometric sharpening, have shown to result in sharper and better aligned diffusion profiles. However, the research that has been conducted up to now is mainly of theoretical nature, and so far these techniques have only been evaluated by visual inspection of the diffusion profiles. In this work, the method is evaluated in a clinically relevant application: the reconstruction of the optic radiation for epilepsy surgery. For this evaluation we have developed a framework in which we incorporate a novel scoring procedure for individual pathways. We demonstrate that, using enhancement and sharpening, the extraction of an anatomically plausible reconstruction of the optic radiation from a large amount of probabilistic pathways is greatly improved in three healthy controls, where currently used methods fail to do so. Furthermore, challenging reconstructions of the optic radiation in three epilepsy surgery candidates with extensive brain lesions demonstrate that it is beneficial to integrate these methods in surgical planning. PMID:25077946

  5. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    SciTech Connect

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  7. Providing security for automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Y. S.; Zegzhda, P. D.; Zegzhda, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    This article suggests the concept of a cyberphysical system to manage computer security of automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities. According to the authors, this system consists of a set of information processing tools and computer-controlled physical devices. Examples of cyber attacks on power engineering facilities are provided, and a strategy of improving cybersecurity of hydropower engineering systems is suggested. The architecture of the multilevel protection of the automated process control system (APCS) of power engineering facilities is given, including security systems, control systems, access control, encryption, secure virtual private network of subsystems for monitoring and analysis of security events. The distinctive aspect of the approach is consideration of interrelations and cyber threats, arising when SCADA is integrated with the unified enterprise information system.

  8. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for Characterization of the 224-T Facility Process Cells

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2001-03-14

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for entering and characterizing the 224-T Facility process cells. The 224-T Facility is a small canyon building with six process cells separated from three levels of operating galleries by a 0.3-meter thick concrete wall. The original mission was to concentrate dilute solutions of plutonium received from the 221-T Plutonium Separation Facility from 1945 until 1956. Various shutdown activities were carried out including flushing the tanks and piping during the 1960s. During the second mission from 1975 to 1985, the operating gallery areas of the structure were converted into a storage area for plutonium-bearing scrap and liquids. The third and final mission converted the operating galleries for use as the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (224-T TRUSAF). All stored waste from the gallery areas was removed in the late 1990s. The process cells were not considered part of the waste storage areas and were isolated from storage activities. The 224-T Facility has been excessed with no anticipated plans for further missions. The purpose of the characterization effort is to determine the condition and contents of the cells, tanks, and vessels. This information is needed to update the Facility's Authorization Basis, maintain appropriate managing practices, and ensure there is no potential threat to the public or environment. The information also will be used to establish operational criteria for the decontamination and decommissioning of this facility. Using the currently approved unit dose conversion factors in HNF-3602, the estimated potential total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) resulting from the unabated, fugitive emissions from characterization of the 224-T process cells is 7

  9. Cutting the Cost of New Community College Facilities: Streamlining the Facilities Approval Process. Commission on Innovation Policy Discussion Paper Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BW Associates, Berkeley, CA.

    Intended to provide background information and preliminary options for the California Community Colleges' Commission on Innovation, this document proposes that approval processes for new facilities be simplified and that restrictions on the lease or purchase of off-campus facilities be eased. Following introductory materials detailing the…

  10. Tritium confinement in a new tritium processing facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.; Owen, J.H.; Hsu, R.H.; Hashinger, R.F.; Ward, D.E.; Bandola, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new tritium processing facility, named the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF), has been completed and is being prepared for startup at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The RTF has the capability to recover, purify and separate hydrogen isotopes from recycled gas containers. A multilayered confinement system is designed to reduce tritium losses to the environment. This confinement system is expected to confine and recover any tritium that might escape the process equipment, and to maintain the tritium concentration in the nitrogen glovebox atmosphere to less than 10{sup {minus}2} {mu}Ci/cc tritium.

  11. Tritium confinement in a new tritium processing facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.; Owen, J.H.; Hsu, R.H.; Hashinger, R.F.; Ward, D.E.; Bandola, P.E.

    1991-12-31

    A new tritium processing facility, named the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF), has been completed and is being prepared for startup at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The RTF has the capability to recover, purify and separate hydrogen isotopes from recycled gas containers. A multilayered confinement system is designed to reduce tritium losses to the environment. This confinement system is expected to confine and recover any tritium that might escape the process equipment, and to maintain the tritium concentration in the nitrogen glovebox atmosphere to less than 10{sup {minus}2} {mu}Ci/cc tritium.

  12. The Establishment of a New Friction Stir Welding Process Development Facility at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Full-scale weld process development is being performed at MSFC to develop the tools, fixtures, and facilities necessary for Ares I production. Full scale development in-house at MSFC fosters technical acuity within the NASA engineering community, and allows engineers to identify and correct tooling and equipment shortcomings before they become problems on the production floor. Finally, while the new weld process development facility is currently being outfitted in support of Ares I development, it has been established to support all future Constellation Program needs. In particular, both the RWT and VWT were sized with the larger Ares V hardware in mind.

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  14. Materials Processing Facility and Multipurpose Furnace System - Skylab Experiments M512 and M518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This photograph shows the Skylab Materials Processing Facility (M512) and the Multipurpose Furnace System (M518). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab,and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  15. Materials Processing Facility and Multipurpose Furnace System - Skylab Experiments M512 and M518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This photograph shows the Skylab Materials Processing Facility (M512) and the Multipurpose Furnace System (M518). This facility, located in the Multiple Docking Adapter, was developed for Skylab and accommodated 14 different experiments that were carried out during the three marned missions. The abilities to melt and mix without the contaminating effects of containers, to suppress thermal convection and buoyancy in fluids, and to take advantage of electrostatic and magnetic forces and otherwise masked by gravitation opened the way to new knowledge of material properties and processes. This beginning would ultimately lead to the production of valuable new materials for use on Earth.

  16. Pattern reconstruction and sequence processing in feed-forward layered neural networks near saturation.

    PubMed

    Metz, F L; Theumann, W K

    2005-08-01

    The dynamics and the stationary states for the competition between pattern reconstruction and asymmetric sequence processing are studied here in an exactly solvable feed-forward layered neural network model of binary units and patterns near saturation. Earlier work by Coolen and Sherrington on a parallel dynamics far from saturation is extended here to account for finite stochastic noise due to a Hebbian and a sequential learning rule. Phase diagrams are obtained with stationary states and quasiperiodic nonstationary solutions. The relevant dependence of these diagrams and of the quasiperiodic solutions on the stochastic noise and on initial inputs for the overlaps is explicitly discussed.

  17. A recommended entry reconstruction process for the Pioneer Venus multi-probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for determining the entry trajectories for the Pioneer Venus multi-probe mission is presented that utilizes earth based Doppler and onboard accelerometry as observables to provide updates for the spacecraft state and atmospheric parameters. The evolution of this method, based on error analyses and actual simulation results, is discussed. A derivative of the Viking radio science orbit determination software is recommended for the reconstruction. Telemetry data pre-processing requirements were defined. A cubic spline derivative routine is recommended to extract accelerations from the accumulated velocity decrements.

  18. Onboard experiment data support facility. Task 2 report: Definition of onboard processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The onboard experiment data support facility (OEDSF) will provide data processing support to various experiment payloads on board the space shuttle. The OEDSF study will define the conceptual design and generate specifications for an OEDSF which will meet the following objectives: (1) provide a cost-effective approach to end-to-end processing requirements, (2) service multiple disciplines (3) satisfy user needs, (4) reduce the amount and improve the quality of data collected, stored and processed, and (5) embody growth capacity.

  19. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  20. Compressed sensing reconstruction for whole-heart imaging with 3D radial trajectories: a graphics processing unit implementation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seunghoon; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic acquisition in whole-heart coronary MRI is the prolonged data acquisition time. Isotropic 3D radial trajectories allow undersampling of k-space data in all three spatial dimensions, enabling accelerated acquisition of the volumetric data. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction can provide further acceleration in the acquisition by removing the incoherent artifacts due to undersampling and improving the image quality. However, the heavy computational overhead of the CS reconstruction has been a limiting factor for its application. In this article, a parallelized implementation of an iterative CS reconstruction method for 3D radial acquisitions using a commercial graphics processing unit is presented. The execution time of the graphics processing unit-implemented CS reconstruction was compared with that of the C++ implementation, and the efficacy of the undersampled 3D radial acquisition with CS reconstruction was investigated in both phantom and whole-heart coronary data sets. Subsequently, the efficacy of CS in suppressing streaking artifacts in 3D whole-heart coronary MRI with 3D radial imaging and its convergence properties were studied. The CS reconstruction provides improved image quality (in terms of vessel sharpness and suppression of noise-like artifacts) compared with the conventional 3D gridding algorithm, and the graphics processing unit implementation greatly reduces the execution time of CS reconstruction yielding 34-54 times speed-up compared with C++ implementation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The time-dependent reconstructed evolutionary process with a key-role for mass-extinction events.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian

    2015-09-07

    The homogeneous reconstructed evolutionary process is a birth-death process without observed extinct lineages. Each species evolves independently with the same diversification rate-speciation rate, λ(t), and extinction rate, μ(t)-that may change over time. The process is commonly applied to model species diversification where the data are reconstructed phylogenies, e.g. trees estimated from present-day molecular data, and used to infer diversification rates. In the present paper I develop the general probability density of a reconstructed tree under any homogeneous, time-dependent birth-death process. I demonstrate how to adapt this probability density when conditioning on the survival of one or two initial lineages, or on the process realizing n species, and also how to transform between the probability density of a reconstructed tree and the probability density of the speciation times. I demonstrate the use of the general time-dependent probability density functions by deriving the probability density of a reconstructed tree under a birth-death-shift model with explicit mass-extinction events. I extend these functions to several special cases, including the pure-birth process, the pure-death process, the birth-death process, and the critical-branching process. Thus, I specify equations for the most commonly used birth-death models in a unified framework (e.g. same condition and same data) using a common notation.

  2. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Agulleiro, J I; Vázquez, F; Garzón, E M; Fernández, J J

    2012-04-01

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-03-01

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  4. WASS: an open-source stereo processing pipeline for sea waves 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, Filippo; Benetazzo, Alvise; Torsello, Andrea; Barbariol, Francesco; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Stereo 3D reconstruction of ocean waves is gaining more and more popularity in the oceanographic community. In fact, recent advances of both computer vision algorithms and CPU processing power can now allow the study of the spatio-temporal wave fields with unprecedented accuracy, especially at small scales. Even if simple in theory, multiple details are difficult to be mastered for a practitioner so that the implementation of a 3D reconstruction pipeline is in general considered a complex task. For instance, camera calibration, reliable stereo feature matching and mean sea-plane estimation are all factors for which a well designed implementation can make the difference to obtain valuable results. For this reason, we believe that the open availability of a well-tested software package that automates the steps from stereo images to a 3D point cloud would be a valuable addition for future researches in this area. We present WASS, a completely Open-Source stereo processing pipeline for sea waves 3D reconstruction, available at http://www.dais.unive.it/wass/. Our tool completely automates the recovery of dense point clouds from stereo images by providing three main functionalities. First, WASS can automatically recover the extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig (up to scale) so that no delicate calibration has to be performed on the field. Second, WASS implements a fast 3D dense stereo reconstruction procedure so that an accurate 3D point cloud can be computed from each stereo pair. We rely on the well-consolidated OpenCV library both for the image stereo rectification and disparity map recovery. Lastly, a set of 2D and 3D filtering techniques both on the disparity map and the produced point cloud are implemented to remove the vast majority of erroneous points that can naturally arise while analyzing the optically complex nature of the water surface (examples are sun-glares, large white-capped areas, fog and water areosol, etc). Developed to be as fast as possible, WASS

  5. Process-based reconstruction of sedimentary rocks, sandy soils and soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Roman; Gerke, Kirill; Čapek, Pavel; Karsanina, Marina; Korost, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    There are three main approaches to model and reconstruct (using 2D cut(s), grain size distribution or some other limited information/properties) porous media: 1) statistical methods (correlation functions and simulated annealing, multi-point statistics, entropy methods), 2) sequential methods (sphere or other shapes granular packs), and 3) morphological methods. Each method has its own advantages and shortcomings, so there is no readily available solution and methods should be carefully chosen and tested for each particular media. Here we mainly focus on sequential process-based method due to its general simplicity and straightforward usability for different transformation modeling: diagenesis, mechanical compaction, erosion, etc. It is well known that process-based models for sandstone thin-sections give good transport properties after 3D reconstruction. This method is also useful for pore-network extraction validation. At first, polydisperse sphere packs are created using two different techniques: (1) modified Lubachevsky-Stillinger method, and (2) original Øren-Bakke method with global minimal or local minimal energy ballistic disposition rules. The latter are known to create anisotropic packs with kissing numbers different from real sedimentary materials. During the next step, the third phase (clay minerals for rocks and clay and organic matter for soils) is grown within pore space based on Voronoi tesselation to determine distances to the nearest grains. Input parameters, i.e., grain size distributions and porosities are determined using laboratory methods or image analysis for real porous media: sandstones, sandy soils and soil aggregates. To model soil aggregate structure a gravitational algorithm is used there a set of granules falls onto a gravity center in the middle of the aggregate. All further steps are similar to that of sedimentary rocks and soils. Resulted 3D reconstructions are compared with original 3D structures obtained using X

  6. Macrophage infiltration regulates the adipose ECM reconstruction and the fibrosis process after fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junrong; Li, Bin; Liu, Kaiyang; Li, Guanghui; Lu, Feng

    2017-08-19

    Fat grafting experiences a regeneration process from free lipoaspirate to intact adipose tissue. The adipose extracellular matrixes (ECM) provide the structure and biochemical support for surrounding cells; inflammatory cells, like macrophages, regulate the process. Our hypothesis states that transferred fat undergoes ECM remodeling after fat grafting and this process is regulated by macrophage infiltration. Lipoaspirate was injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. The micro-structure of the fat grafts was observed and evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and collagen I immunohistostaining. The gene transcription level of collagen proteins and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were assessed by qRT-PCR. Local injection of clodronate-encapsulated liposome was used to evaluate the role of macrophages of fat grafts at different stages in ECM remodeling, depletion of macrophages, at different time points (Week 1 and Week 4). Results from the SEM analysis showed that liposuction caused severe damage to the ECM structure in freshly aspirated adipose tissue. On Day 1 post-transplantation, the surface of adipocytes was covered with platelets and this secreted fibrin network on the fat grafts. An integral adipose structure was already established with an intact ECM at the end of Week 1. The early depletion of macrophages remarkably hindered ECM reconstruction process by down-regulating the expression of collagen proteins and MMPs. Expression of Collagen I was significantly decreased after depletion of macrophages in both gene and protein levels. Results also showed that the depletion of macrophages at the later stage of fat grafting resulted in less fibrosis and capsule formation. Free fat aspirates undergo a prompt ECM reconstruction process and completed in the first week; this process can be initiated with platelets and mainly modulated by inflammatory cells such as macrophages. It was also observed that prolonged macrophage infiltration

  7. A 60Co multipurpose radiation processing facility at Bahia Blanca, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    The aim of the project is to have a multipurpose facility which will enable us to show the techno-economic viability of the irradiation process applied to regional products, important from the economic point of view. The topics will fundamentally be connected with regional themes such as food preservation and the modification of polymer structures. This project will make it possible to carry out basic and applied studies related to radiation chemistry, dosimetry and engineering irradiation processes. The facility will operate in the Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) with a maximum activity of 18.5 PBq of Co-60. The viability and design of the irradiation facility is supported by the Government of the Buenos Aires Province since it is interested in the socio-economic benefit of this technology at the regional level.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  9. A New Concept: Use of Negotiations in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permitting Process in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.J.; Rose, W.M.; Domenici, P.V.; Hollingsworth, L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a unique negotiation process leading to authorization of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and dispose remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The negotiation process involved multiple entities and individuals brought together under authority of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) to discuss and resolve technical and facility operational issues flowing from an NMED-issued hazardous waste facility Draft Permit. The novel negotiation process resulted in numerous substantive changes to the Draft Permit, which were ultimately memorialised in a 'Draft Permit as Changed'. This paper discusses various aspects of the negotiation process, including events leading to the negotiations, regulatory basis for the negotiations, negotiation participants, and benefits of the process. (authors)

  10. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  11. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Qu, Z G; Ding, T; Miao, J Y

    2016-04-01

    The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Ding, T.; Miao, J. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems.

  14. How work context affects operating room processes: using data mining and computer simulation to analyze facility and process design.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, André; Denz, Christof; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of the operating room (OR) requires that both structural (eg, department layout) and behavioral (eg, staff interactions) patterns of work be considered when developing quality improvement strategies. In our study, we investigated how these contextual factors influence outpatient OR processes and the quality of care delivered. The study setting was a German university-affiliated hospital performing approximately 6000 outpatient surgeries annually. During the 3-year-study period, the hospital significantly changed its outpatient OR facility layout from a decentralized (ie, ORs in adjacent areas of the building) to a centralized (ie, ORs in immediate vicinity of each other) design. To study the impact of the facility change on OR processes, we used a mixed methods approach, including process analysis, process modeling, and social network analysis of staff interactions. The change in facility layout was seen to influence OR processes in ways that could substantially affect patient outcomes. For example, we found a potential for more errors during handovers in the new centralized design due to greater interdependency between tasks and staff. Utilization of the mixed methods approach in our analysis, as compared with that of a single assessment method, enabled a deeper understanding of the OR work context and its influence on outpatient OR processes.

  15. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission, and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual-tracer flux measurements and on-site observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with on-site tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  16. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  17. 40 CFR 372.20 - Process for modifying covered chemicals and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemicals and facilities. 372.20 Section 372.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TOXIC CHEMICAL RELEASE REPORTING: COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW Reporting Requirements § 372.20 Process for modifying covered...

  18. 71 FR 56413 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-27

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Nuclear... on for safety (IROFS). This rulemaking corrects an inconsistency in the regulations pertaining...

  19. 71 FR 69430 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety: Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-01

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety... requirement pertaining to items relied on for safety (IROFS). This rulemaking corrected an inconsistency in... for safety (IROFS). In the direct final rule, NRC stated that if no significant adverse comments...

  20. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms recovered from biofilms in a commercial shell egg processing facility.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During six visits, biofilms from egg contact and non-contact surfaces in a commercial shell egg processing facility were sampled. Thirty-five different sample sites were selected: Pre-wash and wash tanks (lids, screens, tank interiors, nozzle guards), post-wash spindles, blower filters, belts (far...

  1. Design and Evaluation of Wood Processing Facilities Using Object-Oriented Simulation

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Managers of hardwood processing facilities need timely information on which to base important decisions such as when to add costly equipment or how to improve profitability subject to time-varying demands. The overall purpose of this paper is to introduce a tool that can effectively provide such timely information. A simulation/animation modeling procedure is described...

  2. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

  3. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements. 319.40-8 Section 319.40-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  4. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements. 319.40-8 Section 319.40-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  5. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements. 319.40-8 Section 319.40-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  6. 7 CFR 319.40-8 - Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing at facilities operating under compliance agreements. 319.40-8 Section 319.40-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES...

  7. Spatio-temporal distribution of stored-product inects around food processing and storage facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain storage and processing facilities consist of a landscape of indoor and outdoor habitats that can potentially support stored-product insect pests, and understanding patterns of species diversity and spatial distribution in the landscape surrounding structures can provide insight into how the ou...

  8. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix E: Experiment M512 Materials processing facility (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, O. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M512, Materials Processing Facility (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  9. Safeguards design strategies: designing and constructing new uranium and plutonium processing facilities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Long, Jon D

    2010-09-28

    In the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) is transforming its outdated and oversized complex of aging nuclear material facilities into a smaller, safer, and more secure National Security Enterprise (NSE). Environmental concerns, worker health and safety risks, material security, reducing the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy while maintaining the capability for an effective nuclear deterrence by the United States, are influencing this transformation. As part of the nation's Uranium Center of Excellence (UCE), the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, will advance the U.S.'s capability to meet all concerns when processing uranium and is located adjacent to the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF), designed for consolidated storage of enriched uranium. The HEUMF became operational in March 2010, and the UPF is currently entering its final design phase. The designs of both facilities are for meeting anticipated security challenges for the 21st century. For plutonium research, development, and manufacturing, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) building at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico is now under construction. The first phase of the CMRR Project is the design and construction of a Radiological Laboratory/Utility/Office Building. The second phase consists of the design and construction of the Nuclear Facility (NF). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) selected these two sites as part of the national plan to consolidate nuclear materials, provide for nuclear deterrence, and nonproliferation mission requirements. This work examines these two projects independent approaches to design requirements, and objectives for safeguards, security, and safety (3S) systems as well as the subsequent construction of these modern processing facilities. Emphasis is on the use of Safeguards-by-Design (SBD

  10. Simplified electroholographic color reconstruction system using graphics processing unit and liquid crystal display projector.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Takada, Naoki; Niwa, Masashi; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2009-08-31

    We have constructed a simple color electroholography system that has excellent cost performance. It uses a graphics processing unit (GPU) and a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector. The structure of the GPU is suitable for calculating computer-generated holograms (CGHs). The calculation speed of the GPU is approximately 1,500 times faster than that of a central processing unit. The LCD projector is an inexpensive, high-performance device for displaying CGHs. It has high-definition LCD panels for red, green and blue. Thus, it can be easily used for color electroholography. For a three-dimensional object consisting of 1,000 points, our system succeeded in real-time color holographic reconstruction at rate of 30 frames per second.

  11. Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. ); Ehinger, M.H. ); Franssen, F. )

    1991-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Gemini Observatory base facility operations: systems engineering process and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, Andy; Close, Madeline; Coulson, Dolores; Nitta, Atsuko; Nunez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Gemini North Observatory successfully began nighttime remote operations from the Hilo Base Facility control room in November 2015. The implementation of the Gemini North Base Facility Operations (BFO) products was a great learning experience for many of our employees, including the author of this paper, the BFO Systems Engineer. In this paper we focus on the tailored Systems Engineering processes used for the project, the various software tools used in project support, and finally discuss the lessons learned from the Gemini North implementation. This experience and the lessons learned will be used both to aid our implementation of the Gemini South BFO in 2016, and in future technical projects at Gemini Observatory.

  13. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  14. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, E.C. II

    1994-09-09

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-026). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  16. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Data Management System software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnick, C.K.

    1996-04-19

    This document provides the software requirements for Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is one of the plant computer systems for the new WRAP 1 facility (Project W-0126). The DMS will collect, store and report data required to certify the low level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste items processed at WRAP 1 as acceptable for shipment, storage, or disposal.

  17. Process cost and facility considerations in the selection of primary cell culture clarification technology.

    PubMed

    Felo, Michael; Christensen, Brandon; Higgins, John

    2013-01-01

    The bioreactor volume delineating the selection of primary clarification technology is not always easily defined. Development of a commercial scale process for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins requires scale-up from a few liters to thousands of liters. While the separation techniques used for protein purification are largely conserved across scales, the separation techniques for primary cell culture clarification vary with scale. Process models were developed to compare monoclonal antibody production costs using two cell culture clarification technologies. One process model was created for cell culture clarification by disc stack centrifugation with depth filtration. A second process model was created for clarification by multi-stage depth filtration. Analyses were performed to examine the influence of bioreactor volume, product titer, depth filter capacity, and facility utilization on overall operating costs. At bioreactor volumes <1,000 L, clarification using multi-stage depth filtration offers cost savings compared to clarification using centrifugation. For bioreactor volumes >5,000 L, clarification using centrifugation followed by depth filtration offers significant cost savings. For bioreactor volumes of ∼ 2,000 L, clarification costs are similar between depth filtration and centrifugation. At this scale, factors including facility utilization, available capital, ease of process development, implementation timelines, and process performance characterization play an important role in clarification technology selection. In the case study presented, a multi-product facility selected multi-stage depth filtration for cell culture clarification at the 500 and 2,000 L scales of operation. Facility implementation timelines, process development activities, equipment commissioning and validation, scale-up effects, and process robustness are examined.

  18. Unity connecting module viewed from above in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is viewed from above while it awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the side can be seen the connecting hatch. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  19. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  20. Unity connecting module viewed from above in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is viewed from above while it awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the side can be seen the connecting hatch. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  1. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Quantitative fractography by digital image processing: NIH Image macro tools for stereo pair analysis and 3-D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hein, L R

    2001-10-01

    A set of NIH Image macro programs was developed to make qualitative and quantitative analyses from digital stereo pictures produced by scanning electron microscopes. These tools were designed for image alignment, anaglyph representation, animation, reconstruction of true elevation surfaces, reconstruction of elevation profiles, true-scale elevation mapping and, for the quantitative approach, surface area and roughness calculations. Limitations on time processing, scanning techniques and programming concepts are also discussed.

  3. Establishing a cGMP pancreatic islet processing facility: the first experience in Iran.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Arjmand, Babak; Amoli, Mahsa M; Ao, Ziliang; Jafarian, Ali; Mahdavi-Mazdah, Mitra; Ghanaati, Hossein; Baradar-Jalili, Reza; Sharghi, Sasan; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Aghayan, Hamid Reza

    2012-12-01

    It has been predicted that one of the greatest increase in prevalence of diabetes will happen in the Middle East bear in the next decades. The aim of standard therapeutic strategies for diabetes is better control of complications. In contrast, some new strategies like cell and gene therapy have aimed to cure the disease. In recent years, significant progress has occurred in beta-cell replacement therapies with a progressive improvement of short-term and long term outcomes. In year 2005, considering the impact of the disease in Iran and the promising results of the Edmonton protocol, the funding for establishing a current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) islet processing facility by Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Several islet isolations were performed following establishment of cGMP facility and recruitment of all required equipments for process validation and experimental purpose. Finally the first successful clinical islet isolation and transplantation was performed in September 2010. In spite of a high cost of the procedure it is considered beneficial and may prevent long term complications and the costs associated with secondary cares. In this article we will briefly describe our experience in setting up a cGMP islet processing facility which can provide valuable information for regional countries interested to establish similar facilities.

  4. STS-34 Galileo processing at KSC's SAEF-2 planetary spacecraft facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-07-21

    At the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Spacecraft and Assembly Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF-2), the planetary spacecraft checkout facility, clean-suited technicians work on the Galileo spacecraft prior to moving it to the Vehicle Processing Facility (VPF) for mating with the inertial upper stage (IUS). Galileo is scheduled for launch aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, on Space Shuttle Mission STS-34 in October 1989. It will be sent to the planet Jupiter, a journey which will taken more than six years to complete. In December 1995 as the two and one half ton spacecraft orbits Jupiter with its ten scientific instruments, a probe will be released to parachute into the Jovian atmosphere. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) manages the Galileo project. View provided by KSC.

  5. [Development of a ground-based experimental facility for space waste material processing with microorganism].

    PubMed

    Ai, Wei-dang; Guo, Shuang-sheng; Wang, Xiao-xia; Fu, Lan

    2004-06-01

    To develop a ground-based experimental facility for microorganism waste processing, which will be used to recover nutrient from plant inedible biomass essential for growth and development of plants. After technical parameters and performance requirements were defined, planning demonstration, drawing design, fabrication, debug and plant inedible residue-biodegradation tests by microorganisms were conducted. The facility worked well, and the parameters, such as energy consumption, volume and weight, met the design requirement. The water-treated quality and the ability of treating plant residual by microorganism were better than the demands. The ground-based results demonstrated that total organic carbon (TOC) degradation above 92.1%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction over 95.5% could be maintained. The facility has reasonable technical indexes, and smooth and reliable performances. Its major working principle is suitable for the demand of space conditions. It is capable of being utilized for biodegradation of plant inedible biomass in space.

  6. THE TIBIAL APERTURE SURFACE ANALYSIS IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Milojević, Zoran; Tabaković, Slobodan; Vićević, Marija; Obradović, Mirko; Vranjes, Miodrag; Milankov, Miroslav Z

    2016-01-01

    The tibial tunnel aperture in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is usually analyzed as an ellipse, generated as an intersection between a tibial plateau and a tibial bone tunnel. The aim of this study is to show that the tibial tunnel aperture, which utilizes 3D tibial surface bone model, differs significantly from common computations which present the tibial tunnel anterior cruciate ligament aperture surface as an ellipse. An interactive program system was developed for the tibial tunnel aperture analysis which included the real tibia 3D surface bone model generated from a series of computed tomography images of ten male patients, their mean age being 25 years. In aperture calculation, the transverse drill angle of 10 degrees was used, whereas sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees were used with the drill-bit diameter set to 10 mm. The real 3D and 2D tibial tunnel aperture surface projection was calculated and compared with an ellipse. According to the calculations, generated 3D aperture surfaces were different for every patient even though the same drill parameters were used. For the sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, the mean difference between the projected 3D and 2D area on the tibial plateau was 19.6 +/- 5.4%, 21.1 +/- 8.0% and 21.3 +/- 9.6%, respectively. The difference between the projected 3D area on the tibial plateau and ellipse surface was 54.8 +/- 16.3%, 39.6 +/- 10.4% and 25.0 +/- 8.0% for sagittal drill angles of 40 degrees, 50 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. The tibial tunnel aperture surface area differs significantly from the ellipse surface area, which is commonly used in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction analysis. Inclusion of the 3D shape of the tibial attachment site in the preoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction planning process can lead to a more precise individual anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the tibial bone. Both

  7. Probabilistic Feasibility of the Reconstruction Process of Russian-Orthodox Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhova, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    The cultural human heritage is important for the identity of following generations and has to be preserved in a suitable manner. In the course of time a lot of information about former cultural constructions has been lost because some objects were strongly damaged by natural erosion or on account of human work or were even destroyed. It is important to capture still available building parts of former buildings, mostly ruins. This data could be the basis for a virtual reconstruction. Laserscanning offers in principle the possibility to take up extensively surfaces of buildings in its actual status. In this paper we assume a priori given 3d-laserscanner data, 3d point cloud for the partly destroyed church. There are many well known algorithms, that describe different methods of extraction and detection of geometric primitives, which are recognized separately in 3d points clouds. In our work we put them in a common probabilistic framework, which guides the complete reconstruction process of complex buildings, in our case russian-orthodox churches. Churches are modeled with their functional volumetric components, enriched with a priori known probabilities, which are deduced from a database of russian-orthodox churches. Each set of components represents a complete church. The power of the new method is shown for a simulated dataset of 100 russian-orthodox churches.

  8. 3D TEM reconstruction and segmentation process of laminar bio-nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Iturrondobeitia, M. Okariz, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, R.; Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Ibarretxe, J.

    2015-03-30

    The microstructure of laminar bio-nanocomposites (Poly (lactic acid)(PLA)/clay) depends on the amount of clay platelet opening after integration with the polymer matrix and determines the final properties of the material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique is the only one that can provide a direct observation of the layer dispersion and the degree of exfoliation. However, the orientation of the clay platelets, which affects the final properties, is practically immeasurable from a single 2D TEM image. This issue can be overcome using transmission electron tomography (ET), a technique that allows the complete 3D characterization of the structure, including the measurement of the orientation of clay platelets, their morphology and their 3D distribution. ET involves a 3D reconstruction of the study volume and a subsequent segmentation of the study object. Currently, accurate segmentation is performed manually, which is inefficient and tedious. The aim of this work is to propose an objective/automated segmentation methodology process of a 3D TEM tomography reconstruction. In this method the segmentation threshold is optimized by minimizing the variation of the dimensions of the segmented objects and matching the segmented V{sub clay} (%) and the actual one. The method is first validated using a fictitious set of objects, and then applied on a nanocomposite.

  9. Comparison Between Two Generic 3d Building Reconstruction Approaches - Point Cloud Based VS. Image Processing Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, D.; Linkiewicz, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares two generic approaches for the reconstruction of buildings. Synthesized and real oblique and vertical aerial imagery is transformed on the one hand into a dense photogrammetric 3D point cloud and on the other hand into photogrammetric 2.5D surface models depicting a scene from different cardinal directions. One approach evaluates the 3D point cloud statistically in order to extract the hull of structures, while the other approach makes use of salient line segments in 2.5D surface models, so that the hull of 3D structures can be recovered. With orders of magnitudes more analyzed 3D points, the point cloud based approach is an order of magnitude more accurate for the synthetic dataset compared to the lower dimensioned, but therefor orders of magnitude faster, image processing based approach. For real world data the difference in accuracy between both approaches is not significant anymore. In both cases the reconstructed polyhedra supply information about their inherent semantic and can be used for subsequent and more differentiated semantic annotations through exploitation of texture information.

  10. Image Reconstruction, Recognition, Using Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and the Hough Transform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    In this dissertation research, we have demonstrated the need for integration of various imaging methodologies, such as image reconstruction from projections, image processing, pattern and feature recognition using chain codes and the Hough transform. Further an integration of these image processing techniques have been brought about for medical imaging systems. An example of this is, classification and identification of brain scans, into normal, haemorrhaged, and lacunar infarcted brain scans. Low level processing was performed using LOG and a variation of LOG. Intermediate level processing used contour completion and chain encoding. Hough transform was used to detect any analytic shapes in the edge images. All these information were used by the data abstraction routine which also extracted information from the user, in the form of a general query. These were input into a backpropagation, which is a very popular supervised neural network. During learning process an output vector was supplied by the expert to the neural network. While performing the neural network compared the input and with the help of the weight matrix computed the output. This output was compared with the expert's opinion and a percentage deviation was calculated. In the case of brain scans this value was about 95%, when the test input vector did not vary, by more than two pixels with the training or learning input vector. A good classification of the brain scans were performed using the integrated imaging system. Identification of various organs in the abdominal region was also successful, within 90% recognition rate, depending on the noise in the image.

  11. Electromagnetic containerless processing requirements and recommended facility concept and capabilities for space lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. T.; Bloom, H. L.; Napaluch, L. J.; Stockhoff, E. H.; Wouch, G.

    1974-01-01

    Containerless melting, reaction, and solidification experiments and processes which potentially can lead to new understanding of material science and production of new or improved materials in the weightless space environment are reviewed in terms of planning for spacelab. Most of the experiments and processes discussed are amenable to the employment of electromagnetic position control and electromagnetic induction or electron beam heating and melting. The spectrum of relevant properties of materials, which determine requirements for a space laboratory electromagnetic containerless processing facility are reviewed. Appropriate distributions and associated coil structures are analyzed and compared on the basis of efficiency, for providing the functions of position sensing, control, and induction heating. Several coil systems are found capable of providing these functions. Exchangeable modular coils in appropriate sizes are recommended to achieve the maximum power efficiencies, for a wide range of specimen sizes and resistivities, in order to conserve total facility power.

  12. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  13. Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    TRINER, G.C.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  14. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  15. A preliminary study on the safeguardability of a Korean advanced pyro-processing facility (KAPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Thomas, K.E.; Marlow, J.B.; Menlove, H.O.; Ko, W.I.; Yang, M.S.; Park, S.W.

    2007-07-01

    A preliminary study on the safeguardability of the Korean Advanced Pyro-processing Facility (KAPF) was performed. The main processes of the facility include voloxidation, electrolytic reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and salt recycling with a transuranic (TRU) recovery process. The subprocesses and material flow of the conceptually designed KAPF with a unit capacity of 100 tHM/year were analysed, and subsequently, the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. Uncertainty in material accounting was evaluated with designed MBA and KMP, together with measurement uncertainties of analytic methods identified for the KAPF. It was found that the major safeguards challenges were Pu input accountability and U/Pu inventory measurement at each subprocess. The continuous association of Pu with Cm presents measurement options in both cases. It was concluded that a safeguards system for the KAPF could be designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's comprehensive safeguards objective. (authors)

  16. Development of a safeguards data acquisition system for the process monitoring of a simulated reprocessing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Fuel Recycle Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an Integrated Process Demonstration (IPD) facility has been constructed for development of reprocessing plant technology. Through the use of cold materials, the IPD facility provides for the integrated operation of the major equipment items of the chemical-processing portion of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The equipment, processes, and the extensive use of computers in data acquisition and control are prototypical of future reprocessing facilities and provide a unique test-bed for nuclear safeguards demonstrations. The data acquisition and control system consists of several microprocessors that communicate with one another and with a host minicomputer over a common data highway. At intervals of a few minutes, a ''snapshot'' is taken of the process variables, and the data are transmitted to a safeguards computer and minicomputer work station for analysis. This paper describes this data acquisition system and the data-handling procedures leading to microscopic process monitoring for safeguards purposes.

  17. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report: October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary User Centers including: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing including (extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, high density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials data bases. A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state of the art materials characterization capabilities, high performance computing, to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized User-submitted Proposal and a User Agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provides free of charge while

  18. Metals Processing Laboratory Users (MPLUS) Facility Annual Report FY 2002 (October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P

    2004-04-27

    The Metals Processing Laboratory Users Facility (MPLUS) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, user facility designated to assist researchers in key industries, universities, and federal laboratories in improving energy efficiency, improving environmental aspects, and increasing competitiveness. The goal of MPLUS is to provide access to the specialized technical expertise and equipment needed to solve metals processing issues that limit the development and implementation of emerging metals processing technologies. The scope of work can also extend to other types of materials. MPLUS has four primary user centers: (1) Processing--casting, powder metallurgy, deformation processing (including extrusion, forging, rolling), melting, thermomechanical processing, and high-density infrared processing; (2) Joining--welding, monitoring and control, solidification, brazing, and bonding; (3) Characterization--corrosion, mechanical properties, fracture mechanics, microstructure, nondestructive examination, computer-controlled dilatometry, and emissivity; and (4) Materials/Process Modeling--mathematical design and analyses, high-performance computing, process modeling, solidification/deformation, microstructure evolution, thermodynamic and kinetic, and materials databases A fully integrated approach provides researchers with unique opportunities to address technologically related issues to solve metals processing problems and probe new technologies. Access is also available to 16 additional Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) user facilities ranging from state-of-the-art materials characterization capabilities, and high-performance computing to manufacturing technologies. MPLUS can be accessed through a standardized user-submitted proposal and a user agreement. Nonproprietary (open) or proprietary proposals can be submitted. For open research and development, access to capabilities is provided free of charge

  19. A robust method for the reconstruction of disparity maps based on multilevel processing of stereo color image pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Ponomaryov, V. I.; Pustovoit, V. I.; Sadovnychiy, S. N.

    2017-08-01

    A novel method for the reconstruction of disparity maps (DMs) with robust properties to nonideal registration conditions, reflections, and noise in stereo color image pairs has been substantiated for the first time. The novel approach proposes a scheme for image DM reconstruction where Jaccard distance metric is used as a proximity criterion in stereo image pair matching. A physical interpretation of the method that allows the quality of the formed DMs to be improved significantly is given. A processing block diagram has been developed in accordance with the novel approach. Simulations of the novel DM reconstruction method have shown an advantage of the proposed DM reconstruction scheme in terms of generally recognized criteria, such as the structural similarity index measure and the bad matching pixels, and when visually comparing the formed DMs.

  20. Performance improvements for iterative electron tomography reconstruction using graphics processing units (GPUs).

    PubMed

    Palenstijn, W J; Batenburg, K J; Sijbers, J

    2011-11-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms are becoming increasingly important in electron tomography of biological samples. These algorithms, however, impose major computational demands. Parallelization must be employed to maintain acceptable running times. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have been demonstrated to be highly cost-effective for carrying out these computations with a high degree of parallelism. In a recent paper by Xu et al. (2010), a GPU implementation strategy was presented that obtains a speedup of an order of magnitude over a previously proposed GPU-based electron tomography implementation. In this technical note, we demonstrate that by making alternative design decisions in the GPU implementation, an additional speedup can be obtained, again of an order of magnitude. By carefully considering memory access locality when dividing the workload among blocks of threads, the GPU's cache is used more efficiently, making more effective use of the available memory bandwidth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  2. Paleobathymetric Reconstruction of Ross Sea: seismic data processing and regional reflectors mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo, Elisabetta; De Santis, Laura; Wardell, Nigel; Geletti, Riccardo; Busetti, Martina; Sauli, Chiara; Bergamasco, Andrea; Colleoni, Florence; Vanzella, Walter; Sorlien, Christopher; Wilson, Doug; De Conto, Robert; Powell, Ross; Bart, Phil; Luyendyk, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    PURPOSE: New maps of some major unconformities of the Ross Sea have been reconstructed, by using seismic data grids, combined with the acoustic velocities from previous works, from new and reprocessed seismic profiles. This work is carried out with the support of PNRA and in the frame of the bilateral Italy-USA project GLAISS (Global Sea Level Rise & Antarctic Ice Sheet Stability predictions), funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Paleobathymetric maps of 30, 14 and 4 million years ago, three 'key moments' for the glacial history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, coinciding with global climatic changes. The paleobathymetric maps will then be used for numeric simulations focused on the width and thickness of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: The first step was to create TWT maps of three main unconformity (RSU6, RSU4, and RSU2) of Ross Sea, revisiting and updating the ANTOSTRAT maps, through the interpretation of sedimentary bodies and erosional features, used to infer active or old processes along the slope, we identified the main seismic unconformities. We used the HIS Kingdom academic license. The different groups contribution was on the analysis of the Eastern Ross Sea continental slope and rise (OGS), of the Central Basin (KOPRI) of the western and central Ross Sea (Univ. of Santa Barbara and OGS), where new drill sites and seismic profiles were collected after the publication of the ANTOSTRAT maps. Than we joined our interpretation with previous interpretations. We examined previous processing of several seismic lines and all the old acoustic velocity analysis. In addiction we reprocessed some lines in order to have a higher data coverage. Then, combining the TWT maps of the unconformity with the old and new speed data we created new depth maps of the study area. The new depth maps will then be used for reconstructing the paleobathymetry of the Ross Sea by applying backstripping technique.

  3. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2017-04-24

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  4. Meaning Reconstruction Process After Suicide: Life-Story of a Japanese Woman Who Lost Her Son to Suicide.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Daisuke; Kawano, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Although Japan has a high suicide rate, there is insufficient research on the experiences of suicide-bereaved individuals. We investigated the qualitative aspects of the meaning reconstruction process after a loss to suicide. We conducted a life-story interview using open-ended questions with one middle-aged Japanese woman who lost her son to suicide. We used a narrative approach to transcribe and code the participant's narratives for analysis. The analysis revealed three meaning groups that structured the participant's reactions to the suicide: making sense of her son's death and life, relationships with other people, and reconstruction of a bond with the deceased. The belief that death is not an eternal split and that there is a connection between the living and the deceased reduced the pain felt by our participant. Furthermore, the narratives worked as scaffolds in the meaning reconstruction process. We discuss our results in the light of cross-cultural differences in the grieving process.

  5. Unconfined alluvial flow processes: Recognition and interpretation of their deposits, and the significance for palaeogeographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Colin P.; Davidson, Stephanie K.

    2012-02-01

    Palaeogeographic interpretation of the sedimentary rock record depends on correct recognition from the preserved evidence of the processes responsible for transporting and depositing the sediment. This in turn depends on robust knowledge transfer from previous workers, and the successful exchange of ideas between workers requires consistent use of a well-defined vocabulary. We have identified serious breakdowns in all these interpretation steps in the case of terrestrial unconfined flow and its deposits, and these failures are leading to unreliable environmental and climatic interpretation. This is significant because such alluvial deposits commonly form a majority of the rock record of continental environments. Working from the basic principles of geomorphology and fluid dynamics, we have undertaken a wide-ranging analysis of the nature of out-of-channel flow and from this make predictions about the characteristics of its deposits. We identify the range of possible locations and conditions that lead to the development of unconfined flow, review the processes operating in each case, and examine the range of lithological features that can be produced by these processes. This allows us to evaluate the reliability of the criteria claimed for identification of out-of-channel flow deposits, and examine how our new insights might alter palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographic reconstructions published previously by others. The sedimentary record of unconfined flows is much more diverse and complex than usually portrayed. The received wisdom that the record of unconfined flow consists solely of upwards-fining thin beds produced from shallow waning flows is shown to be flawed. A wide range of lithofacies are possible, and the variation in both flow steadiness and uniformity needs to be taken into account. The previously published criteria for recognition of flows of this type are not diagnostic of process or location; unconfined flow deposits cannot reliably be identified from

  6. Real-time reconstruction of sensitivity encoded radial magnetic resonance imaging using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Atkinson, David; Schaeffter, Tobias; Hansen, Michael Schacht

    2009-12-01

    A barrier to the adoption of non-Cartesian parallel magnetic resonance imaging for real-time applications has been the times required for the image reconstructions. These times have exceeded the underlying acquisition time thus preventing real-time display of the acquired images. We present a reconstruction algorithm for commodity graphics hardware (GPUs) to enable real time reconstruction of sensitivity encoded radial imaging (radial SENSE). We demonstrate that a radial profile order based on the golden ratio facilitates reconstruction from an arbitrary number of profiles. This allows the temporal resolution to be adjusted on the fly. A user adaptable regularization term is also included and, particularly for highly undersampled data, used to interactively improve the reconstruction quality. Each reconstruction is fully self-contained from the profile stream, i.e., the required coil sensitivity profiles, sampling density compensation weights, regularization terms, and noise estimates are computed in real-time from the acquisition data itself. The reconstruction implementation is verified using a steady state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence and quantitatively evaluated. Three applications are demonstrated; real-time imaging with real-time SENSE 1) or k- t SENSE 2) reconstructions, and 3) offline reconstruction with interactive adjustment of reconstruction settings.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated materials they handle. (2) A schematic of the process unit or affected facility, enclosure, and... limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities. 63.1037 Section 63.1037 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  9. The Mixed Waste Management Facility: Technology selection and implementation plan, Part 2, Support processes

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.; Couture, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish the foundation for the selection and implementation of technologies to be demonstrated in the Mixed Waste Management Facility, and to select the technologies for initial pilot-scale demonstration. Criteria are defined for judging demonstration technologies, and the framework for future technology selection is established. On the basis of these criteria, an initial suite of technologies was chosen, and the demonstration implementation scheme was developed. Part 1, previously released, addresses the selection of the primary processes. Part II addresses process support systems that are considered ``demonstration technologies.`` Other support technologies, e.g., facility off-gas, receiving and shipping, and water treatment, while part of the integrated demonstration, use best available commercial equipment and are not selected against the demonstration technology criteria.

  10. Critical Protection Item Classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    As a part of its compliance with the Department of Energy requirements for safety of nuclear facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) assigns functional classifications to structures, systems and components (SSCs). As a result, changes in design, operations, maintenance, testing, and inspections of SSCs are performed and backfit requirements are established. This paper describes the Critical Protection Item (CPI) Classification for waste processing facility (WPF) at SRS. The descriptions of the WPF and the processes considered are provided elsewhere. The proposed CPI classification methodology includes the evaluation of the onsite radiological consequences, and the onsite and offsite non-radiological consequences from postulated accidents at the WPF, and comparison of these consequences with allowable frequency-dependent limits. When allowable limits are exceeded, CPIs are identified for accident mitigation.

  11. Payload/GSE/data system interface: Users guide for the VPF (Vertical Processing Facility)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Payload/GSE/data system interface users guide for the Vertical Processing Facility is presented. The purpose of the document is three fold. First, the simulated Payload and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) Data System Interface, which is also known as the payload T-0 (T-Zero) System is described. This simulated system is located with the Cargo Integration Test Equipment (CITE) in the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) that is located in the KSC Industrial Area. The actual Payload T-0 System consists of the Orbiter, Mobile Launch Platforms (MLPs), and Launch Complex (LC) 39A and B. This is referred to as the Pad Payload T-0 System (Refer to KSC-DL-116 for Pad Payload T-0 System description). Secondly, information is provided to the payload customer of differences between this simulated system and the actual system. Thirdly, a reference guide of the VPF Payload T-0 System for both KSC and payload customer personnel is provided.

  12. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  13. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  14. Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor: A Near-Real-Time Monitor For Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The threat of protracted diversion of Pu from commercial reprocessing operations is perhaps the greatest concern to national and international agencies tasked with safeguarding these facilities. While it is generally understood that a method for direct monitoring of process on-line and in near-real time (NRT) would be the best defense against protracted diversion scenarios, an effective method with these qualities has yet to be developed. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an on-line NRT process monitoring method that should be sensitive to minor alterations in process conditions and compatible with small, easily deployable, detection systems. This Approach is known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and involves the determination and recognition of the contaminant pattern within a process stream for a suite of indicator (radioactive) elements present in the spent fuel as a function of process variables. Utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, decreases the likelihood that attempts to divert Pu by altering the ReDox environment within the process would go undetected. In addition, by identifying gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, this Approach might eliminate the need for bulky neutron detection systems, relying instead on small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors easily deployable throughout the facility.

  15. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  16. New NRO Eastern Processing Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida. Environmental Assessment:

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    presumably by feral cats (A. Bard, personal communication 2004). Urbanization of coastal habitat could also lead to potential competition of beach mice with...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT NRO Eastern Processing Facility Cape...on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations, 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1500-1508, and 32 CFR Part 989, Environmental Impact Analysis

  17. Design and verification of shielding for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process facility.

    PubMed

    Cho, I J; Kook, D H; Kwon, K C; Lee, E P; Choung, W M; You, G S

    2008-05-01

    An Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF) has recently been constructed by a modification of previously unused cells. ACPF is a hot cell with two rooms located in the basement of the Irradiated Materials Experiment Facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. This is for demonstrating the advanced spent fuel conditioning process being proposed in Korea, which is an electrolytic reduction process of spent oxide fuels into a metallic form. The ACPF was designed with a more than 90 cm thick high density concrete shield wall to handle 1.38 PBq (37,430 Ci) of radioactive materials with dose rates lower than 10 muSv h in the operational areas (7,000 zone) and 150 muSv h in the service areas (8,000 zone). In Monte Carlo calculations with a design basis source inventory, the results for the bounding wall showed a maximum of 3 muSv h dose rate at an exterior surface of the ACPF for gamma radiation and 0.76 muSv h for neutrons. All the bounding structures of the ACPF were investigated to check on the shielding performance of the facility to ensure the radiation safety of the facility. A test was performed with a 2.96 TBq (80 Ci) 60Co source unit and the test results were compared with the calculation results. A few failure points were discovered and carefully fixed to meet the design criteria. After fixing the problems, the failure points were rechecked and the safety of the shielding structures was confirmed. In conclusion, it was confirmed that all the investigated parts of the ACPF passed the shielding safety limits by using this program and the ACPF is ready to fulfill its tasks for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process.

  18. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  19. STS-99 Payload Door Closure in Orbiter Processing Facility # 2, Endeavour, (SRTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a specially modified radar system. This videotape shows the SRTM in Endeavour's payload bay, while the payload bay doors are being closed. There are some views of the Orbiter Processing Facility and technicians in the clean room environment.

  20. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF ("Heating") Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    by ground based high power HF (’ heating ’) facilities 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dr. Alexander...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Grant SPC 00-4010 Final Report STUDIES OF PLASMA INSTABILITY PROCESSES EXCITED BY GROUND BASED HIGH POWER HF (" HEATING ...growing field of ionospheric HF heating . The main new results can be summarized as following: 1. Two sets of observations of suprathermal electrons

  1. Industrial waste treatment process engineering. Volume 1: Facility evaluation and pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problems based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 1 include: pollution prevention evaluation; preliminary central treatment evaluation; waste treatment system process design; equalization; chemical processes; chemical precipitation; chemical oxidation-reduction; neutralization and pH control; coagulation/flocculation; and flotation.

  2. Kinect Posture Reconstruction Based on a Local Mixture of Gaussian Process Models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Zhou, Liuyang; Leung, Howard; Shum, Hubert P H

    2016-11-01

    Depth sensor based 3D human motion estimation hardware such as Kinect has made interactive applications more popular recently. However, it is still challenging to accurately recognize postures from a single depth camera due to the inherently noisy data derived from depth images and self-occluding action performed by the user. In this paper, we propose a new real-time probabilistic framework to enhance the accuracy of live captured postures that belong to one of the action classes in the database. We adopt the Gaussian Process model as a prior to leverage the position data obtained from Kinect and marker-based motion capture system. We also incorporate a temporal consistency term into the optimization framework to constrain the velocity variations between successive frames. To ensure that the reconstructed posture resembles the accurate parts of the observed posture, we embed a set of joint reliability measurements into the optimization framework. A major drawback of Gaussian Process is its cubic learning complexity when dealing with a large database due to the inverse of a covariance matrix. To solve the problem, we propose a new method based on a local mixture of Gaussian Processes, in which Gaussian Processes are defined in local regions of the state space. Due to the significantly decreased sample size in each local Gaussian Process, the learning time is greatly reduced. At the same time, the prediction speed is enhanced as the weighted mean prediction for a given sample is determined by the nearby local models only. Our system also allows incrementally updating a specific local Gaussian Process in real time, which enhances the likelihood of adapting to run-time postures that are different from those in the database. Experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate high quality postures even under severe self-occlusion situations, which is beneficial for real-time applications such as motion-based gaming and sport training.

  3. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  4. In situ imaging and height reconstruction of phase separation processes in polymer blends during spin coating.

    PubMed

    Ebbens, Stephen; Hodgkinson, Richard; Parnell, Andrew J; Dunbar, Alan; Martin, Simon J; Topham, Paul D; Clarke, Nigel; Howse, Jonathan R

    2011-06-28

    Spin coating polymer blend thin films provides a method to produce multiphase functional layers of high uniformity covering large surface areas. Applications for such layers include photovoltaics and light-emitting diodes where performance relies upon the nanoscale phase separation morphology of the spun film. Furthermore, at micrometer scales, phase separation provides a route to produce self-organized structures for templating applications. Understanding the factors that determine the final phase-separated morphology in these systems is consequently an important goal. However, it has to date proved problematic to fully test theoretical models for phase separation during spin coating, due to the high spin speeds, which has limited the spatial resolution of experimental data obtained during the coating process. Without this fundamental understanding, production of optimized micro- and nanoscale structures is hampered. Here, we have employed synchronized stroboscopic illumination together with the high light gathering sensitivity of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera to optically observe structure evolution in such blends during spin coating. Furthermore the use of monochromatic illumination has allowed interference reconstruction of three-dimensional topographies of the spin-coated film as it dries and phase separates with nanometer precision. We have used this new method to directly observe the phase separation process during spinning for a polymer blend (PS-PI) for the first time, providing new insights into the spin-coating process and opening up a route to understand and control phase separation structures.

  5. EEG Source Reconstruction Reveals Frontal-Parietal Dynamics of Spatial Conflict Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30–50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8–12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4–8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions. PMID:23451201

  6. Virtual head rotation reveals a process of route reconstruction from human vestibular signals.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2005-09-01

    The vestibular organs can feed perceptual processes that build a picture of our route as we move about in the world. However, raw vestibular signals do not define the path taken because, during travel, the head can undergo accelerations unrelated to the route and also be orientated in any direction to vary the signal. This study investigated the computational process by which the brain transforms raw vestibular signals for the purpose of route reconstruction. We electrically stimulated the vestibular nerves of human subjects to evoke a virtual head rotation fixed in skull co-ordinates and measure its perceptual effect. The virtual head rotation caused subjects to perceive an illusory whole-body rotation that was a cyclic function of head-pitch angle. They perceived whole-body yaw rotation in one direction with the head pitched forwards, the opposite direction with the head pitched backwards, and no rotation with the head in an intermediate position. A model based on vector operations and the anatomy and firing properties of semicircular canals precisely predicted these perceptions. In effect, a neural process computes the vector dot product between the craniocentric vestibular vector of head rotation and the gravitational unit vector. This computation yields the signal of body rotation in the horizontal plane that feeds our perception of the route travelled.

  7. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  8. Advanced system experimental facility: solid waste to methane gas. Background and process description

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, R.; Pfeffer, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Refuse Conversion to Methane Facility in Pompano Beach, Florida, a 100-ton/day experimental plant to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to methane for fuel, has been built and is being tested. The facility has been designed to assess the technical merit of anaerobic digestion of the MSW process. Approximately 40 ton/day of volatile solids are fed to the digesters; of this, about 25 ton/day will be converted to gases. For each pound of volatile solids destroyed, 6.6 std. ft/sup 3/ of methane gas and 6.6 std. ft/sup 3/ of CO/sub 2/ will be produced. Thus, the plant will yield approximately 330,000 std. ft/sup 3//day each of methane and CO/sub 2/. This project provides a critical test of the most important process variables, thus allowing judgments to be made on scale-up considerations. The successful operation of this facility will yield information with a significant impact on potential commercial-scale plant developments. The background and theory involved in applying this technology to MSW, as well as details of the specific process line, are presented.

  9. Martian groundwater outflow processes and morphology; reconstruction of paleohydrology using landscape evolution experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; de Jong, Steven M.; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater played an important role in the aqueous history of Mars but how, how long, and with what intensity remains unclear. Two types of fluvial landforms related to groundwater emergence are the giant outflow channels and the disputed sapping valleys. Understanding of the relation between subsurface and surface processes is slim, which limits inferences of climate implications from the observable morphology. We aim to increase this understanding and to apply this knowledge to Martian cases to reconstruct former hydrological conditions. Using a series of sandbox experiments, we investigated formative processes of valleys formed by groundwater. These experiments showed the morphology and processes of groundwater sapping and pressurized groundwater outflow (see Marra et al, 2014, Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.12.026) and further focused on landscape characteristics of groundwater sapping sourced locally or distally, and identified various processes linked to pressurized groundwater outbursts including the formation and eruption of subsurface reservoirs that can explain the high reconstructed discharges of large outflow valleys (see Marra et al, 2014, JGR doi:10.1002/2014JE004701). Based on the experiments, we identified novel morphological indicators for groundwater outflow in the outflow channel region of Lunae and Ophir Plana. These, in combination with the classic outflow features, show a clear trend of increasing outflow magnitude with decreasing elevation to the northeast, indicating a head from a common aquifer. The putative aquifer we identified was likely recharged by infiltration over the Tharsis region. Outflow channel activity peaked in the Hesperian, but continued in the Amazonian at a lower magnitude. Our results agree well with groundwater recharge in the Noachian and Early Hesperian, corresponding to a climate that sustained an active hydrological cycle. Furthermore, the large outflow events require a confining layer to build up enough pressure

  10. Monte Carlo-based fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction method accelerated by a cluster of graphic processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Guotao; Gong, Hui; Deng, Yong; Fu, Jianwei; Luo, Qingming

    2011-02-01

    High-speed fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) reconstruction for 3-D heterogeneous media is still one of the most challenging problems in diffusive optical fluorescence imaging. In this paper, we propose a fast FMT reconstruction method that is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and accelerated by a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Based on the Message Passing Interface standard, we modified the MC code for fast FMT reconstruction, and different Green's functions representing the flux distribution in media are calculated simultaneously by different GPUs in the cluster. A load-balancing method was also developed to increase the computational efficiency. By applying the Fréchet derivative, a Jacobian matrix is formed to reconstruct the distribution of the fluorochromes using the calculated Green's functions. Phantom experiments have shown that only 10 min are required to get reconstruction results with a cluster of 6 GPUs, rather than 6 h with a cluster of multiple dual opteron CPU nodes. Because of the advantages of high accuracy and suitability for 3-D heterogeneity media with refractive-index-unmatched boundaries from the MC simulation, the GPU cluster-accelerated method provides a reliable approach to high-speed reconstruction for FMT imaging.

  11. Monte Carlo-based fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction method accelerated by a cluster of graphic processing units.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guotao; Gong, Hui; Deng, Yong; Fu, Jianwei; Luo, Qingming

    2011-02-01

    High-speed fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) reconstruction for 3-D heterogeneous media is still one of the most challenging problems in diffusive optical fluorescence imaging. In this paper, we propose a fast FMT reconstruction method that is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and accelerated by a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Based on the Message Passing Interface standard, we modified the MC code for fast FMT reconstruction, and different Green's functions representing the flux distribution in media are calculated simultaneously by different GPUs in the cluster. A load-balancing method was also developed to increase the computational efficiency. By applying the Fréchet derivative, a Jacobian matrix is formed to reconstruct the distribution of the fluorochromes using the calculated Green's functions. Phantom experiments have shown that only 10 min are required to get reconstruction results with a cluster of 6 GPUs, rather than 6 h with a cluster of multiple dual opteron CPU nodes. Because of the advantages of high accuracy and suitability for 3-D heterogeneity media with refractive-index-unmatched boundaries from the MC simulation, the GPU cluster-accelerated method provides a reliable approach to high-speed reconstruction for FMT imaging.

  12. Reconstruction of 2D x-ray radiographs at the National Ignition Facility using pinhole tomography (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J. E. Rygg, J. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Town, R. P. J.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional radiographs of imploding fusion capsules are obtained at the National Ignition Facility by projection through a pinhole array onto a time-gated framing camera. Parallax among images in the image array makes it possible to distinguish contributions from the capsule and from the backlighter, permitting correction of backlighter non-uniformities within the capsule radiograph. Furthermore, precise determination of the imaging system geometry and implosion velocity enables combination of multiple images to reduce signal-to-noise and discover new capsule features.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the feeding process of the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Slomianny, C

    1990-01-01

    The use of serial sectioning followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is a convenient way to study the spatial morphology of any structure (organ, cell, organelle). This method was applied to the study of the feeding mechanism of some strains of murine and human Plasmodium and enabled clarification of morphological features of this process. The feeding and digestive system of Plasmodium is polymorphic: in single sections, it shows rounded or elongated vesicles or vacuoles of very different sizes and content. The 3D reconstruction allowed us to describe the phenomenon both in space and in time. The contents of the host cell are taken up through the cytostome to form a sausage-shaped cytostomal tube. Individual digestive vesicles are either pinched off from the terminal portion of the tube or by the individualization of the different portions of the tube itself. The cytosomal system can be made of several tubes or vesicles always originating from cytostomes that can disappear when the tube is fully developed. A second feeding mechanism is also observed. Smaller vesicles are formed from the cytostomal vacuoles or tubes, or from the surface of the so-called "food vacuole, " or from the whole erythrocyte/parasite interface. Very few differences appear when the different strains are compared. In the chloroquine-resistant strain of P. berghei or in the P. falciparum FCR3 strain, there appears to be a large increase in the number of cytostomal vesicles, with several functional cytostomes in P. falciparum. The chronology of the appearance of the two systems is comparable between the different species except in P. falciparum, where the pigment vesicles fuse together very rapidly to form a large residual vacuole with which the subsequently formed and degraded digestive vacuoles fuse.

  14. Atmospheric circulation processes contributing to a multidecadal variation in reconstructed and modeled Indian monsoon precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianru; Hu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    analysis of the recently reconstructed gridded May-September total precipitation in the Indian monsoon region for the past half millennium discloses significant variations at multidecadal timescales. Meanwhile, paleo-climate modeling outputs from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 4.0 show similar multidecadal variations in the monsoon precipitation. One of those variations at the frequency of 40-50 years per cycle is examined in this study. Major results show that this variation is a product of the processes in that the meridional gradient of the atmospheric enthalpy is strengthened by radiation loss in the high-latitude and polar region. Driven by this gradient and associated baroclinicity in the atmosphere, more heat/energy is generated in the tropical and subtropical (monsoon) region and transported poleward. This transport relaxes the meridional enthalpy gradient and, subsequently, the need for heat production in the monsoon region. The multidecadal timescale of these processes results from atmospheric circulation-radiation interactions and the inefficiency in generation of kinetic energy from the potential energy in the atmosphere to drive the eddies that transport heat poleward. This inefficiency creates a time delay between the meridional gradient of the enthalpy and the poleward transport. The monsoon precipitation variation lags that in the meridional gradient of enthalpy but leads that of the poleward heat transport. This phase relationship, and underlining chasing process by the transport of heat to the need for it driven by the meridional enthalpy gradient, sustains this multidecadal variation. This mechanism suggests that atmospheric circulation processes can contribute to multidecadal timescale variations. Interactions of these processes with other forcing, such as sea surface temperature or solar irradiance anomalies, can result in resonant or suppressed variations in the Indian monsoon precipitation.

  15. Potential applications of fusion neutral beam facilities for advanced material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Surface processing techniques involving high energy ion implantation have achieved commercial success for semiconductors and biomaterials. However, wider use has been limited in good part by economic factors, some of which are related to the line-of-sight nature of the beam implantation process. Plasma source ion implantation is intended to remove some of the limitations imposed by directionality of beam systems and also to help provide economies of scale. The present paper will outline relevant technologies and areas of expertise that exist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in relation to possible future needs in materials processing. Experience in generation of plasmas, control of ionization states, pulsed extraction, and sheath physics exists. Contributions to future technology can be made either for the immersion mode or for the extracted beam mode. Existing facilities include the High Power Test Facility, which could conservatively operate at 1 A of continuous current at 100 kV delivered to areas of about 1 m{sup 2}. Higher instantaneous voltages and currents are available with a reduced duty cycle. Another facility, the High Heat Flux Facility can supply a maximum of 60 kV and currents of up to 60 A for 2 s on a 10% duty cycle. Plasmas may be generated by use of microwaves, radio-frequency induction or other methods and plasma properties may be tailored to suit specific needs. In addition to ion implantation of large steel components, foreseeable applications include ion implantation of polymers, ion implantation of Ti alloys, Al alloys, or other reactive surfaces.

  16. Discrete event simulation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1992-02-01

    A discrete event simulation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory has been constructed in the GPSS language. It was used to estimate laboratory analysis times at process analytical hold points and to study the effect of sample number on those times. Typical results are presented for three different simultaneous representing increasing levels of complexity, and for different sampling schemes. Example equipment utilization time plots are also included. SRS DWPF laboratory management and chemists found the simulations very useful for resource and schedule planning.

  17. Space Station microgravity and materials processing facility A national laboratory dedicated to U.S. interests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.; Pevey, E. R.; Mookherji, T.

    1986-01-01

    The Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (MMPF) of the Space Station is examined. The MMPF is designed to accommodate individual experiments and associated hardware and is to be housed in the Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory Module. The objectives of the microgravity and materials processing study and the user, experiment/equipment, MMPF system requirements, and programmatics and planning development tasks of the study are described. Consideration is given to the acceleration environment, on-orbit sample preparation and analysis, mission-time-line analyses, and payload complement trades. Diagrams of the MMPF are presented.

  18. Startup of Savannah River`s Defense Waste Processing Facility to produce radioactive glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.M.

    1997-08-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) began production of radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) in 1996 following an extensive test program discussed earlier. Currently DWPF is operating in a `sludge only` mode to produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge and glass frit. Future operations will produce radioactive glass consisting of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of processing activities to date, operational problems encountered since entering radioactive operations, and the programs underway to solve them.

  19. DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) glass composition control based on glass properties

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J T; Brown, K G; Bickford, D F

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize Savannah River Plant (SRP) High Level Waste as a durable borosilicate glass for permanent disposal in a civilian repository. The DWPF will be controlled based on glass composition. The waste glass physical and chemical properties, such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and durability are functions of glass chemistry. Preliminary models have been developed to evaluate the effects of feed composition variability on the glass properties. These properties are presently being related to the waste glass composition in order to develop process control paradigms that include batching algorithms, hold points, and transfer limits. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Space Station microgravity and materials processing facility A national laboratory dedicated to U.S. interests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.; Pevey, E. R.; Mookherji, T.

    1986-01-01

    The Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (MMPF) of the Space Station is examined. The MMPF is designed to accommodate individual experiments and associated hardware and is to be housed in the Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory Module. The objectives of the microgravity and materials processing study and the user, experiment/equipment, MMPF system requirements, and programmatics and planning development tasks of the study are described. Consideration is given to the acceleration environment, on-orbit sample preparation and analysis, mission-time-line analyses, and payload complement trades. Diagrams of the MMPF are presented.

  1. A process for establishing a financial assurance plan for LLW disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1993-04-01

    This document describes a process by which an effective financial assurance program can be developed for new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The report identifies examples of activities that might cause financial losses and the types of losses they might create, discusses mechanisms that could be used to quantify and ensure against the various types of potential losses identified and describes a decision process to formulate a financial assurance program that takes into account the characteristics of both the potential losses and available mechanisms. A sample application of the concepts described in the report is provided.

  2. Containerless Processing in Reduced Gravity Using the TEMPUS Facility during MSL-1 and MSL-1R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan R.

    1998-01-01

    Containerless processing provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, very reactive materials. It is an important method which provides access to the metastable state of an undercooled melt. In the absence of container walls, the nucleation rate is greatly reduced and undercooling up to (Tm-Tn)/Tm approx. equal to 0.2 can be obtained, where Tm and Tn are the melting and nucleation temperatures, respectively. Electromagnetic levitation represents a method particularly well-suited for the study of metallic melts. The TEMPUS (Tiegelfreies ElektroMagnetisches Prozessieren Unter Schwerelosgkeit) facility is a research instrument designed to perform electromagnetic levitation studies in reduced gravity. TEMPUS is a joint undertaking between DARA, the German Space Agency, and the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center provides the leadership for scientific and management efforts which support the four US PI teams which performed experiments in the TEMPUS facility. The facility is sensitive to accelerations in the 1-10 Hz range. This became evident during the MSL-1 mission. Analysis of accelerometer and video data indicated that loss of sample control occurred during crew exercise periods which created disturbances in this frequency range. Prior to the MSL-1R flight the TEMPUS team, the accelerometer support groups and the mission operations team developed a strategy to provide for the operation of the facility without such disturbances. The successful implementation of this plan led to the highly successful operation of this facility during MSL-1R.

  3. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-07

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  4. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  5. Dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes colonisation in a newly-opened meat processing facility.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Borda, Daniela; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Stessl, Beatrix; Gurgu, Leontina; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    This study determined the colonisation scenario of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly-opened ready-to-eat meat processing facility using a combination of classical microbiology and molecular biology techniques. Samples (n=183), including food contact surfaces, non-food contact surfaces, raw materials and food samples, collected on four sampling occasions, were analysed for L. monocytogenes by the ISO 11290:1996 standard method and by real-time PCR applied to the second enrichment broth from the ISO method. No L. monocytogenes were detected on the first sampling occasion, but by the second sampling occasion a persistent clone had colonised the facility. Analysis of the second enrichment of the ISO method by real-time PCR was more sensitive for the detection of L. monocytogenes than the ISO method alone. In order to reduce the risk of cross contamination and the public health risk, awareness and proactive measures are required to control L. monocytogenes from the first days of production in a newly opened meat processing facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DOE final report, phase one startup, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jasen, W.G.

    1998-01-07

    This document is to validate that the WRAP facility is physically ready to start up phase 1, and that the managers and operators are prepared to safely manage and operate the facility when all pre-start findings have been satisfactorily corrected. The DOE Readiness Assessment (RA) team spent a week on-site at Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP-1) to validate the readiness for phase 1 start up of facility. The Contractor and DOE staff were exceptionally cooperative and contributed significantly to the overall success of the RA. The procedures and Conduct of Operations areas had significant discrepancies, many of which should have been found by the contractor review team. In addition the findings of the contractor review team should have led the WRAP-1 management team to correcting the root causes of the findings prior to the DOE RA team review. The findings and observations include many issues that the team believes should have been found by the contractor review and corrective actions taken. A significantly improved Operational Readiness Review (ORR) process and corrective actions of root causes must be fully implemented by the contractor prior to the performance of the contractor ORR for phase 2 operations. The pre-start findings as a result of this independent DOE Readiness Assessment are presented.

  7. Solid waste facilities location using of analytical network process and data envelopment analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Khadivi, M R; Fatemi Ghomi, S M T

    2012-06-01

    Selection of the appropriate site for solid waste facilities is a complex problem and requires an extensive evaluation process, because it is very difficult to develop a selection criterion that can precisely describe the preference of one location over another. Therefore selection of these sites can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision-making or multiple attributes decision-making problem. For this purpose, we propose a technique that can effectively take managerial preferences and subjective data into consideration, along with quantitative factors. The tool proposed here relies on the use of the analytical network process (ANP) and to help integrate managerial evaluations into a more quantitatively based decision tool, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied. In this paper, a location selection procedure is presented to construct an undesirable facility applying ANP and DEA approaches in two stages. In the first stage ANP approach is used, results of this stage are inputs for the second stage. In this stage, DEA is applied to select the best location. Finally, to illustrate the proposed framework, at "Results and discussion" section, a total of four undesirable facility locations are evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A knowledge acquisition process to analyse operational problems in solid waste management facilities.

    PubMed

    Dokas, Ioannis M; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios C

    2006-08-01

    The available expertise on managing and operating solid waste management (SWM) facilities varies among countries and among types of facilities. Few experts are willing to record their experience, while few researchers systematically investigate the chains of events that could trigger operational failures in a facility; expertise acquisition and dissemination, in SWM, is neither popular nor easy, despite the great need for it. This paper presents a knowledge acquisition process aimed at capturing, codifying and expanding reliable expertise and propagating it to non-experts. The knowledge engineer (KE), the person performing the acquisition, must identify the events (or causes) that could trigger a failure, determine whether a specific event could trigger more than one failure, and establish how various events are related among themselves and how they are linked to specific operational problems. The proposed process, which utilizes logic diagrams (fault trees) widely used in system safety and reliability analyses, was used for the analysis of 24 common landfill operational problems. The acquired knowledge led to the development of a web-based expert system (Landfill Operation Management Advisor, http://loma.civil.duth.gr), which estimates the occurrence possibility of operational problems, provides advice and suggests solutions.

  9. Corrosion Testing of Monofrax K-3 Refractory in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Alternate Reductant Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.

    2016-04-06

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) uses a combination of reductants and oxidants while converting high level waste (HLW) to a borosilicate waste form. A reducing flowsheet is maintained to retain radionuclides in their reduced oxidation states which promotes their incorporation into borosilicate glass. For the last 20 years of processing, the DWPF has used formic acid as the main reductant and nitric acid as the main oxidant. During reaction in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), formate and formic acid release measurably significant H2 gas which requires monitoring of certain vessel’s vapor spaces. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (NG) flowsheet from the nitric-formic (NF) flowsheet is desired as the NG flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing from a safety standpoint as close monitoring of the H2 gas concentration could become less critical. In terms of the waste glass melter vapor space flammability, the switch from the NF flowsheet to the NG flowsheet showed a reduction of H2 gas production from the vitrification process as well. Due to the positive impact of the switch to glycolic acid determined on the flammability issues, evaluation of the other impacts of glycolic acid on the facility must be examined.

  10. PCR-SSCP-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Dorn-In, Samart; Hölzel, Christina S; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Balsliemke, Joachim; Bauer, Johann

    2013-03-01

    Food processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. In general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. However, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat products with certain preserving conditions. In case that unhygienic meat is used to produce heat processed products, the microorganisms will be deactivated by heat, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and apply a molecular biological method--polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)--to reconstruct the original fungal flora of heat processed meat. Twenty primer pairs were tested for their specificity for fungal DNA. Since none of them fully complied with all study criteria (such as high specificity and sensitivity for fungal DNA; suitability of the products for PCR-SSCP) in the matrix "meat", we designed a new reverse primer, ITS5.8R. The primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R amplified DNA from all tested fungal species, but not DNA from meat-producing animals or from ingredients of plant origin (spices). For the final test, 32 DNA bands in acrylamide gel from 15 meat products and 1 soy sauce were sequenced-all originating from fungal species, which were, in other studies, reported to contaminate meat e.g. Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida rugosa, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Eurotium amstelodami and Pichia membranifaciens, and/or spices such as Botrytis aclada, Guignardia mangiferae, Itersonilia perplexans, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lewia infectoria, Neofusicoccum parvum and Pleospora herbarum. This confirms the suitability of PCR-SSCP to specifically detect fungal DNA in heat processed meat products, and thus provides an overview of fungal species contaminating raw material such as meat and spices.

  11. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-02

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level.

  12. Reconstruction of midface defect from idiopathic destructive process using Medpor implant.

    PubMed

    Franco, Joel; Harris, Michael S; Vernon, Dominic; Shipchandler, Taha Z

    Reconstruction of the midface remains a challenging task for even the most experienced surgeon, with a host of reconstructive options including free tissue transfer, allografts, or prosthetic implants. Presented here is a case of idiopathic bony destruction of the right midface in a 19year old female, creating a unique defect requiring repair. Demonstrate a unique case of severe maxillary degeneration and discuss the associated reconstructive challenges and final repair with a prosthetic implant. Case report. The patient presented with a 7month history of an idiopathic progressive deformity of the right cheek. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses revealed extensive bone loss of the right midface and orbit. The patient underwent facial reconstruction using a customized Medpor (Stryker Corp, Kalamazoo, MI) implant. At 6month follow-up the patient and physician were both pleased with the patient's overall appearance. The patient did have some residual lower lid retraction present as well as some lateral pull at the lateral canthus outward from the orbit itself. Preoperative planning for midface reconstruction requires a deep understanding of the aesthetic, functional, and supportive roles this structure holds. Computer assistance allows the creation of custom made implants, providing the reconstructive surgeon with innovative options for reconstruction with minimal morbidity to the patient. As the technology around the design and creation of the custom implants continues to improve, the role of computer assistance in reconstruction will become more prominent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluids and Combustion Facility Acoustic Emissions Controlled by Aggressive Low-Noise Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Young, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a dual-rack microgravity research facility that is being developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology (NGIT) for the International Space Station (ISS) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. As an on-orbit test bed, FCF will host a succession of experiments in fluid and combustion physics. The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) must meet ISS acoustic emission requirements (ref. 1), which support speech communication and hearing-loss-prevention goals for ISS crew. To meet these requirements, the NGIT acoustics team implemented an aggressive low-noise design effort that incorporated frequent acoustic emission testing for all internal noise sources, larger-scale systems, and fully integrated racks (ref. 2). Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ref. 3) provided acoustical testing services (see the following photograph) as well as specialized acoustical engineering support as part of the low-noise design process (ref. 4).

  14. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Public Address System Review Findings

    SciTech Connect

    HUMPHRYS, K.L.

    1999-11-03

    Public address system operation at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility was reviewed. The review was based on an Operational Readiness Review finding that public address performance was not adequate in parts of the WRAP facility. Several improvements were made to the WRAP Public Address (PA) system to correct the deficiencies noted. Speaker gain and position was optimized. A speech processor was installed to boost intelligibility in high noise areas. Additional speakers were added to improve coverage in the work areas. The results of this evaluation indicate that further PA system enhancements are not warranted. Additional speakers cannot compensate for the high background sound and high reverberation levels found in the work areas. Recommendations to improve PA system intelligibility include minor speaker adjustments, enhanced PA announcement techniques, and the use of sound reduction and abatement techniques where economically feasible.

  15. Conceptual design of a solar cogeneration facility industrial process heat, category A. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, P.; Brzeczek, M.; Seilestad, H.; Silverman, C.; Yenetchi, G.

    1981-07-01

    The conceptual design of a central receiver solar cogeneration facility at a California oil field is described. The process of selecting the final cogeneration system configuration is described and the various system level and subsystem level tradeoff studies are presented, including the system configuration study, technology options, and system sizing. The facility is described, and the functional aspects, requirements operational characteristics, and performance are discussed. Capital and operating costs, safety, environmental, regulatory issues and potential limiting considerations for the design are included. Each subsystem is described in detail including a discussion of the functional requirements, design, operating characteristics performance estimates and a top level cost estimate. An economic assessment is performed to determine the near-term economic viability of the project and to examine the impact of variations in major economic parameters such as capital and operating and maintenance costs on economic viability. Two measures of economic viability used are levelized energy cost and net present value.

  16. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), the overhead crane lifts Chandra X-ray Observatory completely out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  17. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers begin lifting the Chandra X-ray Observatory out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  18. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), the overhead crane lifts Chandra X-ray Observatory completely out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  19. The Chandra X-ray Observatory removed from its container in the Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers begin lifting the Chandra X-ray Observatory out of its protective container. While in the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  20. Environmetrics of synfuels. I. Processing the automated PDP-11 data components for the UMD gasifier facility

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, R.H.; Farrell, M.P.; Gudmundson, C.W.; Birchfield, T.K.; Casada, S.S.; Vansuch, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the techniques and procedures used to handle automated data collected at the University of Minnesota-Duluth (UMD) campus coal gasification facility. This facility, which is partially funded by the Department of Energy, is being evaluated by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for its potential health and environmental effects. Automatic data collections and manually collected and sample results data are used for this assessment. A data management project at ORNL handles these and other UMD data for the Gasifiers in Industry Program (GIIP). Specifically, this report documents the procedures developed within the data management project for handling two categories of automated data: (1) process and (2) environmental. The examples included use actual data from the first one and a half years of gasifier operation.

  1. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  2. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  3. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes in Seafood Processing Facilities and Smoked Salmon in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Zaouali, Sarah; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare but life-threatening disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the seafood processing industry in the Republic of Ireland. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was determined by regular sampling of both food samples and processing environment swabs at eight seafood processing facilities over two calendar years. All samples were analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1 standard method, and the isolates were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, serotyping, and the occurrence of some genes related to survival under stress (SSI-1, Tn6188, and bcrABC). A prevalence of 2.5% in 508 samples (433 environmental swabs and 75 food samples) was found. From the isolates obtained, eight different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified, two occurring in more than one facility and one occurring in food and the environment. Five of the eight pulsotypes identified contained at least one of the three stress survival-related genes tested. The tolerance of the isolates to benzalkonium chloride, a representative quaternary ammonium compound, was also examined and ranged from 5.5 ± 0.5 to 8.5 ± 0.5 ppm of benzalkonium chloride. To evaluate the ability of smoked salmon to support the growth of L. monocytogenes, including the T4 widespread pulsotype that was isolated, a challenge test was performed on cold-smoked salmon obtained from two separate producers. The results showed clearly that both types of smoked salmon supported the growth of L. monocytogenes. Although occurrence of L. monocytogenes on seafood was low, this study showed that the smoked salmon used in this study can support the growth of L. monocytogenes; therefore, vigilance is required in the processing facilities to reduce the associated risk.

  4. Darlington tritium removal facility and station upgrading plant dynamic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Busigin, A.; Williams, G. I. D.; Wong, T. C. W.; Kulczynski, D.; Reid, A.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station has been operating a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) and a D{sub 2}O station Upgrading Plant (SUP) since 1989. Both facilities were designed with a Distributed Control System (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for process control. This control system was replaced with a DCS only, in 1998. A dynamic plant simulator was developed for the Darlington TRF (DTRF) and the SUP, as part of the computer control system replacement. The simulator was used to test the new software, required to eliminate the PLCs. The simulator is now used for operator training and testing of process control software changes prior to field installation. Dynamic simulation will be essential for the ITER isotope separation system, where the process is more dynamic than the relatively steady-state DTRF process. This paper describes the development and application of the DTRF and SUP dynamic simulator, its benefits, architecture, and the operational experience with the simulator. (authors)

  5. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.'' This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992.

  6. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to ``review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.`` This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992.

  7. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-12-31

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility.

  8. Elemental properties of coal slag and measured airborne exposures at two coal slag processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Christopher; Boylstein, Randy; Gibbs, Jenna L

    2017-05-01

    In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of silica sand abrasives containing >1% silica due to the risk of silicosis. This gave rise to substitutes including coal slag. An Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigation in 2010 uncovered a case cluster of suspected pneumoconiosis in four former workers at a coal slag processing facility in Illinois, possibly attributable to occupational exposure to coal slag dust. This article presents the results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at the same coal slag processing facility and a second facility. The industrial hygiene survey consisted of the collection of: (a) bulk samples of unprocessed coal slag, finished granule product, and settled dust for metals and silica; (b) full-shift area air samples for dust, metals, and crystalline silica; and (c) full-shift personal air samples for dust, metals, and crystalline silica. Bulk samples consisted mainly of iron, manganese, titanium, and vanadium. Some samples had detectable levels of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and cobalt. Unprocessed coal slags from Illinois and Kentucky contained 0.43-0.48% (4,300-4,800 mg/kg) silica. Full-shift area air samples identified elevated total dust levels in the screen (2-38 mg/m(3)) and bag house (21 mg/m(3)) areas. Full-shift area air samples identified beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, manganese, and vanadium. Overall, personal air samples for total and respirable dust (0.1-6.6 mg/m(3) total; and 0.1-0.4 mg/m(3) respirable) were lower than area air samples. All full-shift personal air samples for metals and silica were below published occupational exposure limits. All bulk samples of finished product granules contained less than 1% silica, supporting the claim coal slag may present less risk for silicosis than silica sand. We note that the results presented here are solely from two coal slag

  9. Elemental properties of coal slag and measured airborne exposures at two coal slag processing facilities

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Christopher; Boylstein, Randy; Gibbs, Jenna L

    2017-01-01

    In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of silica sand abrasives containing >1% silica due to the risk of silicosis. This gave rise to substitutes including coal slag. An Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigation in 2010 uncovered a case cluster of suspected pneumoconiosis in four former workers at a coal slag processing facility in Illinois, possibly attributable to occupational exposure to coal slag dust. This article presents the results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at the same coal slag processing facility and a second facility. The industrial hygiene survey consisted of the collection of: a) bulk samples of unprocessed coal slag, finished granule product, and settled dust for metals and silica; b) full-shift area air samples for dust, metals, and crystalline silica; and c) full-shift personal air samples for dust, metals, and crystalline silica. Bulk samples consisted mainly of iron, manganese, titanium, and vanadium. Some samples had detectable levels of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and cobalt. Unprocessed coal slags from Illinois and Kentucky contained 0.43–0.48% (4,300–4,800 mg/kg) silica. Full-shift area air samples identified elevated total dust levels in the screen (2–38 mg/m3) and bag house (21 mg/m3) areas. Full-shift area air samples identified beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, manganese, and vanadium. Overall, personal air samples for total and respirable dust (0.1–6.6 mg/m3 total; and 0.1–0.4 mg/m3 respirable) were lower than area air samples. All full-shift personal air samples for metals and silica were below published occupational exposure limits. All bulk samples of finished product granules contained less than 1% silica, supporting the claim coal slag may present less risk for silicosis than silica sand. We note that the results presented here are solely from two coal slag processing

  10. Modeling of batch operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    1995-02-01

    A computer model is in development to provide a dynamic simulation of batch operations within the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The DWPF will chemically treat high level waste materials from the site tank farm and vitrify the resulting slurry into a borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The DWPF consists of three major processing areas: Salt Processing Cell (SPC), Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and the Melt Cell. Separate models have been developed for each of these process units using the SPEEDUP{trademark} software from Aspen Technology. Except for glass production in the Melt Cell, all of the chemical operations within DWPF are batch processes. Since the SPEEDUP software is designed for dynamic modeling of continuous processes, considerable effort was required to devise batch process algorithms. This effort was successful and the models are able to simulate batch operations and the dynamic behavior of the process. In this paper, we will describe the SPC model in some detail and present preliminary results from a few simulation studies.

  11. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any Operation...

  12. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any Operation...

  13. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  14. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  15. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE...

  16. Electrodynamics sensor for the image reconstruction process in an electrical charge tomography system.

    PubMed

    Rahmat, Mohd Fua'ad; Isa, Mohd Daud; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Hussin, Tengku Ahmad Raja

    2009-01-01

    Electrical charge tomography (EChT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is aimed to reconstruct the image of materials being conveyed based on data measured by an electrodynamics sensor installed around the pipe. Image reconstruction in electrical charge tomography is vital and has not been widely studied before. Three methods have been introduced before, namely the linear back projection method, the filtered back projection method and the least square method. These methods normally face ill-posed problems and their solutions are unstable and inaccurate. In order to ensure the stability and accuracy, a special solution should be applied to obtain a meaningful image reconstruction result. In this paper, a new image reconstruction method - Least squares with regularization (LSR) will be introduced to reconstruct the image of material in a gravity mode conveyor pipeline for electrical charge tomography. Numerical analysis results based on simulation data indicated that this algorithm efficiently overcomes the numerical instability. The results show that the accuracy of the reconstruction images obtained using the proposed algorithm was enhanced and similar to the image captured by a CCD Camera. As a result, an efficient method for electrical charge tomography image reconstruction has been introduced.

  17. A unified treatment of some iterative algorithms in signal processing and image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Let T be a (possibly nonlinear) continuous operator on Hilbert space {\\cal H} . If, for some starting vector x, the orbit sequence {Tkx,k = 0,1,...} converges, then the limit z is a fixed point of T; that is, Tz = z. An operator N on a Hilbert space {\\cal H} is nonexpansive (ne) if, for each x and y in {\\cal H} , \\[ \\| Nx-Ny\\| \\leq \\| x-y\\|. \\] Even when N has fixed points the orbit sequence {Nkx} need not converge; consider the example N = -I, where I denotes the identity operator. However, for any \\alpha \\in (0,1) the iterative procedure defined by \\[ x^{k+1}=(1-\\alpha)x^k+\\alpha Nx^k \\] converges (weakly) to a fixed point of N whenever such points exist. This is the Krasnoselskii-Mann (KM) approach to finding fixed points of ne operators. A wide variety of iterative procedures used in signal processing and image reconstruction and elsewhere are special cases of the KM iterative procedure, for particular choices of the ne operator N. These include the Gerchberg-Papoulis method for bandlimited extrapolation, the SART algorithm of Anderson and Kak, the Landweber and projected Landweber algorithms, simultaneous and sequential methods for solving the convex feasibility problem, the ART and Cimmino methods for solving linear systems of equations, the CQ algorithm for solving the split feasibility problem and Dolidze's procedure for the variational inequality problem for monotone operators.

  18. Ripple scalings in geothermal facilities, a key to understand the scaling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Grundy, James; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants. The majority of the scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin are carbonates. They are formed due to a disruption of the lime-carbonic-acid equilibrium during production caused by degassing of CO2. These scalings are found in the production pipes, at the pumps and at filters and can nicely be described using existing hydrogeochemical models. This study proposes a second mechanism for the formation of scalings in ground-level facilities. We investigated scalings which accumulated at the inlet to the heat exchanger. Interestingly, the scalings were recovered after the ground level facilities had been cleaned. The scalings showed distinct ripple structures, which is likely a result of solid particle deposition. From the ripple features the the flow conditions during their formation were calculated based on empirical equations (Soulsby, 2012). The calculations suggest that the deposits were formed during maintenance works. Thin section images of the sediments indicate a two-step process: deposition of sediment grains, followed by stabilization with a calcite layer. The latter likely occured during maintenance. To prevent this type of scalings blocking the heat exchangers, the maintenance procedure has to be revised. References: Soulsby, R. L.; Whitehouse, R. J. S.; Marten, K. V.: Prediction of time-evolving sand ripples in shelf seas. Continental Shelf Research 2012, 38, 47-62

  19. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1993-01-01

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  20. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Cradled in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System, the Chandra X-ray Observatory waits to be moved inside the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Chandra arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  1. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Cradled in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System, the Chandra X-ray Observatory reaches the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF). Chandra arrived at the Shuttle Landing Facility on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  2. The Chandra X-ray Observatory arrives at Vertical Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF), workers (left) drive, by remote control, the rear bogie away from the VPF. The bogie is part of the tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System that helped move the Chandra X-ray Observatory (right) from the Shuttle Landing Facility into the VPF. Chandra arrived at KSC on Thursday, Feb. 4, aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft. In the VPF, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components; it will also be tested, fueled and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93 . Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  3. Fluorescence molecular tomography using a two-step three-dimensional shape-based reconstruction with graphics processing unit acceleration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daifa; Qiao, Huiting; Song, Xiaolei; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2012-12-20

    In fluorescence molecular tomography, the accurate and stable reconstruction of fluorescence-labeled targets remains a challenge for wide application of this imaging modality. Here we propose a two-step three-dimensional shape-based reconstruction method using graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration. In this method, the fluorophore distribution is assumed as the sum of ellipsoids with piecewise-constant fluorescence intensities. The inverse problem is formulated as a constrained nonlinear least-squares problem with respect to shape parameters, leading to much less ill-posedness as the number of unknowns is greatly reduced. Considering that various shape parameters contribute differently to the boundary measurements, we use a two-step optimization algorithm to handle them in a distinctive way and also stabilize the reconstruction. Additionally, the GPU acceleration is employed for finite-element-method-based calculation of the objective function value and the Jacobian matrix, which reduces the total optimization time from around 10 min to less than 1 min. The numerical simulations show that our method can accurately reconstruct multiple targets of various shapes while the conventional voxel-based reconstruction cannot separate the nearby targets. Moreover, the two-step optimization can tolerate different initial values in the existence of noises, even when the number of targets is not known a priori. A physical phantom experiment further demonstrates the method's potential in practical applications.

  4. High-performance iterative electron tomography reconstruction with long-object compensation using graphics processing units (GPUs).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Fang; Jones, Mel; Keszthelyi, Bettina; Sedat, John; Agard, David; Mueller, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms pose tremendous computational challenges for 3D Electron Tomography (ET). Similar to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), graphics processing units (GPUs) offer an affordable platform to meet these demands. In this paper, we outline a CT reconstruction approach for ET that is optimized for the special demands and application setting of ET. It exploits the fact that ET is typically cast as a parallel-beam configuration, which allows the design of an efficient data management scheme, using a holistic sinogram-based representation. Our method produces speedups of about an order of magnitude over a previously proposed GPU-based ET implementation, on similar hardware, and completes an iterative 3D reconstruction of practical problem size within minutes. We also describe a novel GPU-amenable approach that effectively compensates for reconstruction errors resulting from the TEM data acquisition on (long) samples which extend the width of the parallel TEM beam. We show that the vignetting artifacts typically arising at the periphery of non-compensated ET reconstructions are completely eliminated when our method is employed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Performance Iterative Electron Tomography Reconstruction with Long-Object Compensation using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Fang; Jones, Mel; Keszthelyi, Bettina; Sedat, John; Agard, David; Mueller, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms pose tremendous computational challenges for 3D Electron Tomography (ET). Similar to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), graphics processing units (GPUs) offer an affordable platform to meet these demands. In this paper, we outline a CT reconstruction approach for ET that is optimized for the special demands and application setting of ET. It exploits the fact that ET is typically cast as a parallel-beam configuration, which allows the design of an efficient data management scheme, using a holistic sinogram-based representation. Our method produces speedups of about an order of magnitude over a previously proposed GPU-based ET implementation, on similar hardware, and completes an iterative 3D reconstruction of practical problem size within minutes. We also describe a novel GPU-amenable approach that effectively compensates for reconstruction errors resulting from the TEM data acquisition on (long) samples which extend the width of the parallel TEM beam. We show that the vignetting artifacts typically arising at the periphery of non-compensated ET reconstructions are completely eliminated when our method is employed. PMID:20371381

  6. Clavicle and coracoid process drilling technique for truly anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Zhang, Ming; Zheng, Tian-Sheng; Zhang, Guo-Ying; Fu, Peng; Fang, Jia-Hu; Li, Xiang

    2013-10-01

    High-grade acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations require surgical treatment, as conservative treatment may result in functional decline or persistent pain. Although many surgical techniques have been described in the literature, there is still no non-controversial gold standard procedure for AC joint dislocation. The different orientation of the two components of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments has been proven to account for different functions. However, the majority of the techniques reconstruct the CC ligaments with a single structure. The purposes of this study were to assess the feasibility of truly anatomic coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction (TACCR) and to determine the corresponding drilling parameter. We constructed virtual three-dimensional (3D) models of 105 shoulders from computed tomography (CT) scan data by using SuperImage software. For each model, the attachment sites and footprint dimensions of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments were defined and adjusted according to previously defined anatomic parameters and individual measurement results. Virtual drilling and 3D measurement were carried out in each model separately. Guided by the drilling parameter, we performed TACCR on 24 shoulders from 12 whole cadavers after transecting the AC and CC ligaments. The collinear drilling technique was noted to breach the bone cortex of the clavicle and/or the coracoid process in 95 of 105 virtual models (90.5%). No cortical breach was observed using a non-collinear drilling technique. The anteversion angulation of the conoid-coracoid tunnel ranged from 10° to 15° (mean value 12.4°). The extraversion angulation of the conoid-coracoid tunnel varied from 5° to 10° (mean value 6.8°). The anteversion angulation of the trapezoid-coracoid tunnel ranged from 20° to 30° (mean value 25.2°). There were no failures when performing the non-collinear drilling technique on cadaver models. The collinear drilling technique is not technically feasible for TACCR

  7. Enhancing the performance of model-based elastography by incorporating additional a priori information in the modulus image reconstruction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyley, Marvin M.; Srinivasan, Seshadri; Dimidenko, Eugene; Soni, Nirmal; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Model-based elastography is fraught with problems owing to the ill-posed nature of the inverse elasticity problem. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a novel inversion scheme that incorporates a priori information concerning the mechanical properties of the underlying tissue structures, and the variance incurred during displacement estimation in the modulus image reconstruction process. The information was procured by employing standard strain imaging methodology, and introduced in the reconstruction process through the generalized Tikhonov approach. In this paper, we report the results of experiments conducted on gelatin phantoms to evaluate the performance of modulus elastograms computed with the generalized Tikhonov (GTK) estimation criterion relative to those computed by employing the un-weighted least-squares estimation criterion, the weighted least-squares estimation criterion and the standard Tikhonov method (i.e., the generalized Tikhonov method with no modulus prior). The results indicate that modulus elastograms computed with the generalized Tikhonov approach had superior elastographic contrast discrimination and contrast recovery. In addition, image reconstruction was more resilient to structural decorrelation noise when additional constraints were imposed on the reconstruction process through the GTK method.

  8. Putative Cross-Contamination Routes of Listeria monocytogenes in a Meat Processing Facility in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Jordan, Kieran; Nicolau, Anca Ioana

    2015-09-01

    Putative routes of Listeria monocytogenes contamination, based on the workflow of the employees, were studied in a meat processing facility by investigating 226 samples collected from food contact surfaces, non-food contact surfaces, raw materials, and ready-to-eat meat products on four occasions over a 1-year period. In total, 19.7% of non-food contact surfaces, 22.9% of food contact surfaces, 45% of raw materials, and 20% of ready-to-eat meat products were positive for L. monocytogenes (analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization standard method ISO 11290). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were determined for a representative subset of these isolates, and 11 distinct pulsotypes were identified, two of which were frequently isolated (T4 and T8) and considered persistent. Strains from the various pulsotypes were screened for the presence of bcrABC and qacH, the genes responsible for tolerance responses to quaternary ammonium compounds. Two strains harbored bcrABC, and these strains had a higher benzalkonium chloride tolerance; however, they were not considered persistent strains. The frequently isolated PFGE pulsotype T8 strains were highly adhesive to abiotic surfaces at 10 and 20°C; however, the pulsotype T6 strain, which was isolated only at the last sampling time, had the highest adhesion ability, and the pulsotype T4 strain (the second most persistent pulsotype) had only modest adhesion. Four putative cross-contamination routes were confirmed by mapping the persistent and other isolates. This information could allow a food safety manager to adjust the work flow to improve the hygienic conditions in a meat processing facility. This study revealed the prevalence and persistence of L. monocytogenes strains in a meat processing facility and established the importance of developing strategies to avoid cross-contamination, recalls, and outbreaks of listeriosis.

  9. [The 'ideal therapy process': testing a new approach for assessing process quality in inpatient parent-child facilities].

    PubMed

    Musekamp, G; Lukasczik, M; Gerlich, C; Saupe-Heide, M; Löbmann, R; Vogel, H; Neuderth, S

    2014-12-01

    Instruments for external quality assurance in inpatient parent-child rehabilitation and prevention facilities were developed in 2 projects. For the assessment of process quality, we sought an alternative test to the peer review procedure which also places a stronger emphasis on patient perspectives. The aim was to define an "ideal process" as a standard, to develop quantifiable criteria, and to test a multimethod approach which involves different data levels. On the basis of different sources, the "ideal process" for parent-child rehabilitation and prevention and associated criteria were defined by involving an accompanying expert group during a consensus process. Criteria were assessed on different levels: on the rehabilitation/prevention centre level, a questionnaire of process-relevant structural features was used; on the patient level, a case-related routine documentation filled in by clinic staff and an incident-related patient questionnaire were applied. Data were collected in 37 centres (prevention: 19; rehabilitation: 11; 7 offering both types of programmes). Analysis of patient-related data is based on a sample of 1 513 prevention patients and 286 rehabilitation patients. The resulting "ideal process" consists of the stages "preparation", "arrival", "treatment planning", "treatment", "completion of treatment", and "organisation", each containing specific criteria. Exemplarily, the outcomes for the stages "treatment planning" and "treatment" are presented. There is variability both between features and between clinics. The majority of the patients report that the criteria are fulfilled while there are medium to high levels of fulfillment regarding the routine documentation. The criteria of the questionnaire of process-relevant structural features are mostly fulfilled according to the clinics. Agreement between the 3 data levels can be observed. On the basis of the defined "ideal process", the methods that were tested seem to be appropriate to illustrate

  10. Radioactive Air Emmission Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-12-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07 for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. The rewrite of this NOC incorporates all the approved revisions (Sections 5.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0), a revised potential to emit (PTE) based on the revised maximally exposed individual (MEI) (Sections 8.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, and 15.0), the results of a study on fugitive emissions (Sections 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0), and reflects the current operating conditions at the WRAP Facility (Section 5.0). This NOC replaces DOE/RL-93-15 and DOE/RL-93-16 in their entirety. The primary function of the WRAP Facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, verify, and repackage radioactive material and mixed waste. There are two sources of emissions from the WRAP Facility: stack emissions and fugitive emissions. The stack emissions have an unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 1.13 E+02 millirem per year. The abated TEDE for the stack emissions is estimated at 5.63 E-02 millirem per year to the MEI. The fugitive emissions have an unabated TEDE estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 5.87 E-04. There is no abatement for the fugitive emissions.

  11. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Day, Gregory A; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Stanton, Marcia L; Deubner, David C; Kent, Michael S; Schuler, Christine R; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  12. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  13. Design analysis of levitation facility for space processing applications. [Skylab program, space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. T.; Kornrumpf, W. P.; Napaluch, L. J.; Harden, J. D., Jr.; Walden, J. P.; Stockhoff, E. H.; Wouch, G.; Walker, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Containerless processing facilities for the space laboratory and space shuttle are defined. Materials process examples representative of the most severe requirements for the facility in terms of electrical power, radio frequency equipment, and the use of an auxiliary electron beam heater were used to discuss matters having the greatest effect upon the space shuttle pallet payload interfaces and envelopes. Improved weight, volume, and efficiency estimates for the RF generating equipment were derived. Results are particularly significant because of the reduced requirements for heat rejection from electrical equipment, one of the principal envelope problems for shuttle pallet payloads. It is shown that although experiments on containerless melting of high temperature refractory materials make it desirable to consider the highest peak powers which can be made available on the pallet, total energy requirements are kept relatively low by the very fast processing times typical of containerless experiments and allows consideration of heat rejection capabilities lower than peak power demand if energy storage in system heat capacitances is considered. Batteries are considered to avoid a requirement for fuel cells capable of furnishing this brief peak power demand.

  14. An ecological perspective of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms in food processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Cutter, Catherine N

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can enter the food chain at virtually any point. However, food processing environments seem to be of particular importance. From an ecological point of view, food processing facilities are microbial habitats that are constantly disturbed by cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Although L. monocytogenes is considered ubiquitous in nature, it is important to recognize that not all L. monocytogenes strains appear to be equally distributed; the distribution of the organism seems to be related to certain habitats. Currently, no direct evidence exists that L. monocytogenes-associated biofilms have played a role in food contamination or foodborne outbreaks, likely because biofilm isolation and identification are not part of an outbreak investigation, or the definition of biofilm is unclear. Because L. monocytogenes is known to colonize surfaces, we suggest that contamination patterns may be studied in the context of how biofilm formation is influenced by the environment within food processing facilities. In this review, direct and indirect epidemiological and phenotypic evidence of lineage-related biofilm formation capacity to specific ecological niches will be discussed. A critical view on the development of the biofilm concept, focused on the practical implications, strengths, and weaknesses of the current definitions also is discussed. The idea that biofilm formation may be an alternative surrogate for microbial fitness is proposed. Furthermore, current research on the influence of environmental factors on biofilm formation is discussed.

  15. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  16. First Results from the CARIBU Facility: Mass Measurements on the r-Process Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Bertone, P. F.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Morgan, G. E.; Orford, R.; Segel, R. E.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the Sn132 double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A=135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100 ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations.

  17. Ohio Senator John Glenn tours the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ohio Senator John Glenn, at right, enjoys a tour of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. With Senator Glenn is Stephen Francois, director, Space Station and Shuttle Payloads, NASA. Senator Glenn arrived at KSC on Jan. 20 to tour KSC operational areas and to view the launch of STS-89. Glenn, who made history in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth, completing three orbits in a five-hour flight aboard Friendship 7, will fly his second space mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery this October. Glenn is retiring from the Senate at the end of this year and will be a payload specialist aboard STS-95.

  18. Work continues on Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), work continues on the U.S. Lab module, Destiny, which is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the International Space Station. Destiny shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The SRTM is targeted for launch on mission STS-99 in September 1999. Leonardo is scheduled to launch on mission STS- 102 in June 2000.

  19. A general and facile one-pot process of isothiocyanates from amines under aqueous conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nan; Li, Bin; Shao, Jianping; Hu, Baoxiang; Shen, Zhenlu

    2012-01-01

    Summary A general and facile one-pot protocol for the preparation of a broad range of alkyl and aryl isothiocyanates has been developed from their corresponding primary amines under aqueous conditions. This synthetic process involves an in situ generation of a dithiocarbamate salt from the amine substrate by reacting with CS2 followed by elimination to form the isothiocyanate product with cyanuric acid as the desulfurylation reagent. The choice of solvent is of decisive importance for the successful formation of the dithiocarbamate salt particularly for highly electron-deficient substrates. This novel and economical method is suitable for scale-up activities. PMID:22423272

  20. Implementation of nondestructive assay instrumentation in the Rocky Flats Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, F.X.; Gilmer, J.E.; Goebel, G.R.; Lawless, J.L.; Pigg, J.L.; Scott, D.L.; Tindall, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive assay equipment for the Rocky Flats Processing Facility is described. In-line assay equipment includes calorimeters, passive gamma-ray counters for measurement of residues, a segmented gamma-ray scanner for the assay of electrorefined salts, a liquid assay system, and a thermal neutron coincidence counter for measurement of oxide. Bismuth germanate detectors are used in the inventory station to verify material type using a gamma-ray signature. A portable assay instrument was developed which employs a detector and single channel analyzer whose functions and output are controlled by a programmable calculator. This instrument is applied primarily to hold-up measurements. 5 references, 4 figures.

  1. A facile water-based process for preparation of stabilized Bi nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yi; Zhao Jingzhe Zhao Xu; Tang Lanqin; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen

    2009-01-08

    Stabilized bismuth nanoparticles have been prepared by reducing bismuth chloride with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of sodium oleate under a facile water-based process. The obtained samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA/TG). The present results indicate that the bismuth nanoparticles are spherical, small diameter and in a high purity. In addition, measurement of water contact angle indicates that Bi samples are hydrophobic, which gives defense to samples from further oxidation, samples are steady in 6 months without obvious oxidation.

  2. Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J.M.; Land, B.; Strachan, D.M.; Perez, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the US is in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. This paper describes a relatively simple concept of stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rocky Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters with high-level waste glass. The proposal described in this paper offers an integrated national approach for early stabilization and disposition of the nation`s plutonium-bearing residues.

  3. Paleotemperature reconstruction from mammalian phosphate δ18O records - an alternative view on data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Sadler, Rohan; Wiśniewski, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    recommendations for processing mammal phosphate δ18O data for paleotemperature reconstruction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 446, 162-167.

  4. Design of a lunar propellant processing facility. NASA/USRA advanced program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batra, Rajesh; Bell, Jason; Campbell, J. Matt; Cash, Tom; Collins, John; Dailey, Brian; France, Angelique; Gareau, Will; Gleckler, Mark; Hamilton, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Mankind's exploration of space will eventually lead to the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. Essential to the economic viability of such an undertaking will be prudent utilization of indigenous lunar resources. The design of a lunar propellant processing system is presented. The system elements include facilities for ore processing, ice transportation, water splitting, propellant storage, personnel and materials transportation, human habitation, power generation, and communications. The design scenario postulates that ice is present in the lunar polar regions, and that an initial lunar outpost was established. Mining, ore processing, and water transportation operations are located in the polar regions. Water processing and propellant storage facilities are positioned near the equator. A general description of design operations is outlined below. Regolith containing the ice is mined from permanently-shaded polar craters. Water is separated from the ore using a microwave processing technique, and refrozen into projectiles for launch to the equatorial site via railgun. A mass-catching device retrieves the ice. This ice is processed using fractional distillation to remove impurities, and the purified liquid water is fed to an electrolytic cell that splits the water into vaporous hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are condensed and stored separately in a tank farm. Electric power for all operations is supplied by SP-100 nuclear reactors. Transportation of materials and personnel is accomplished primarily using chemical rockets. Modular living habitats are used which provide flexibility for the placement and number of personnel. A communications system consisting of lunar surface terminals, a lunar relay satellite, and terrestrial surface stations provides capabilities for continuous Moon-Moon and Moon-Earth transmissions of voice, picture, and data.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1158 - Emission standards for new or reconstructed sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1158 Emission standards for new or... percent. (b) Hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. (1) No owner or operator of a new or reconstructed...

  6. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a discussion of proposed

  7. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  8. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  9. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  10. Salmonella collected from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Shaw, J D; Harrison, M A

    2012-09-01

    Salmonella, a member of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Salmonella. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to a central processing facility before they are washed, graded, and packed. Two plants in the Southeastern United States were sampled; one was a mixed operation and the other was an off-line operation. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n = 25/visit). A 12 × 12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Each swab was preenriched in buffered peptone at 37°C for 24 h, selectively enriched using TT and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth at 42°C overnight, then plated onto brilliant green sulfa and XLT-4 incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive colonies were transferred to lysine iron agar and triple sugar iron slants for 24 h at 37°C. Isolates with presumptive reactions were confirmed using commercial polyclonal antisera. After initial confirmation, serogrouping was performed using commercial antisera. Mixed-operation swab samples were 12% positive for Salmonella, whereas off-line samples were 36% positive for Salmonella; isolates were confirmed as serogroups B, C1, and C2. Kauffman-White serotyping was performed by a contract laboratory. Serotypes (n = 30) recovered were Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandanka, and Typhimurium. This work demonstrated that nest run egg carts may serve as reservoirs for Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment.

  11. Simultaneous reconstruction of multiple depth images without off-focus points in integral imaging using a graphics processing unit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Lee, Jieun; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-05-01

    The reconstruction of multiple depth images with a ray back-propagation algorithm in three-dimensional (3D) computational integral imaging is computationally burdensome. Further, a reconstructed depth image consists of a focus and an off-focus area. Focus areas are 3D points on the surface of an object that are located at the reconstructed depth, while off-focus areas include 3D points in free-space that do not belong to any object surface in 3D space. Generally, without being removed, the presence of an off-focus area would adversely affect the high-level analysis of a 3D object, including its classification, recognition, and tracking. Here, we use a graphics processing unit (GPU) that supports parallel processing with multiple processors to simultaneously reconstruct multiple depth images using a lookup table containing the shifted values along the x and y directions for each elemental image in a given depth range. Moreover, each 3D point on a depth image can be measured by analyzing its statistical variance with its corresponding samples, which are captured by the two-dimensional (2D) elemental images. These statistical variances can be used to classify depth image pixels as either focus or off-focus points. At this stage, the measurement of focus and off-focus points in multiple depth images is also implemented in parallel on a GPU. Our proposed method is conducted based on the assumption that there is no occlusion of the 3D object during the capture stage of the integral imaging process. Experimental results have demonstrated that this method is capable of removing off-focus points in the reconstructed depth image. The results also showed that using a GPU to remove the off-focus points could greatly improve the overall computational speed compared with using a CPU.

  12. Migration of Beryllium via Multiple Exposure Pathways among Work Processes in Four Different Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Day, Gregory A.; Park, Ji Young; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Deubner, David C.; Kent, Michael S.; Schuler, Christine R.; Virji, M. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of beryllium is associated with the development of sensitization; however, dermal exposure may also be important. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among exposure pathways in four different manufacturing and finishing facilities. Secondary aims were to identify jobs with increased levels of beryllium in air, on skin, and on surfaces; identify potential discrepancies in exposure pathways, and determine if these are related to jobs with previously identified risk. Beryllium was measured in air, on cotton gloves, and on work surfaces. Summary statistics were calculated and correlations among all three measurement types were examined at the facility and job level. Exposure ranking strategies were used to identify jobs with higher exposures. The highest air, glove, and surface measurements were observed in beryllium metal production and beryllium oxide ceramics manufacturing jobs that involved hot processes and handling powders. Two finishing and distribution facilities that handle solid alloy products had lower exposures than the primary production facilities, and there were differences observed among jobs. For all facilities combined, strong correlations were found between air-surface (rp ≥ 0.77), glove-surface (rp ≥ 0.76), and air-glove measurements (rp ≥ 0.69). In jobs where higher risk of beryllium sensitization or disease has been reported, exposure levels for all three measurement types were higher than in jobs with lower risk, though they were not the highest. Some jobs with low air concentrations had higher levels of beryllium on glove and surface wipe samples, suggesting a need to further evaluate the causes of the discrepant levels. Although such correlations provide insight on where beryllium is located throughout the workplace, they cannot identify the direction of the pathways between air, surface, or skin. Ranking strategies helped to identify jobs with the highest combined air, glove, and/or surface exposures

  13. Cancer incidence in municipalities near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania--an update.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Heath, Clark W; Blot, William J

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies of cancer incidence among persons living in municipalities within one mile of two nuclear materials processing and fabrication plants in Pennsylvania were extended for the years 1998-2004. It had been shown that mailing addresses for residents of rural areas often did not reflect the actual municipality of residence and, if not corrected, would bias study results. The previous studies had corrected for this bias. Accordingly for the extended study, we obtained mailing addresses from the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PDH) for 866 persons with cancer who presumably lived in one of eight minor civil divisions (MCDs) near or encompassing the former nuclear facilities, designated as Area 1 in previous studies conducted by the PDH. Street addresses were geocoded and local postmasters were asked to place rural delivery addresses, post office boxes and street addresses that could not be geocoded into the correct MCD of actual residence. Over 15% of the mailing addresses were found not to be within the boundaries of the Area 1 municipalities. After the mailing addresses of individuals with cancer were placed in their proper MCD of residence, the number of persons diagnosed with cancer (n = 708) and confirmed to have lived in Area 1 was as expected (728.4) based on cancer incidence rates in the general population of Pennsylvania (SIR 0.97; 95% CI 0.90-1.05). To further evaluate the patterns of cancer rates near these nuclear facilities and the influence of improved reporting and geocoding of addresses over time, analyses were conducted of publicly available cancer incidence data from 1990 through 2004. Based on mailing addresses, a steady decrease in the number of cancers reported in the Area 1 proximal MCDs was seen, in contrast to a steady rise in the number of cancers reported in seven adjacent but more distant MCDs from the nuclear facilities, designated as Area 2. These patterns were attributed to improvements over time in the geocoding of

  14. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  15. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  16. National Deep Submergence Facility Data Report: Data Systems, Processing and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegg, S.; Ferrini, V.; Chandler, R.

    2006-12-01

    The vehicles operated by the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) include the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason2, the submersible Alvin and the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE). All of these vehicles are equipped with precision navigational systems and can utilize a variety of sensors for high-resolution data acquisition. Advances in deep submergence vehicle technology and data quality require the continued development of data display and processing tools to ensure that science objectives can be met efficiently. The NDSF utilizes a variety of software tools to display data in real-time or near real-time, including the Alvin Frame-grabber system and the Jason2 Virtual Control Van. Three-dimensional visualization software has recently been installed in the Jason2 control van, to provide science users with a perspective view of real-time vehicle position within the framework of bathymetric data sets. Additional software tools are available through the facility for advanced processing of sonar data and high-resolution imagery. We summarize the status of current NDSF data tools and standard products as well as future directions for NDSF data management and manipulation.

  17. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Shwiekani, R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 microSvh(-1)) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 microSvh(-1) was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m(-3) and 1141 Bq m(-3); natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m(-3) was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m(-3) was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m(-3).

  18. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, March--May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1994-06-01

    The project described in this report was the result of a Memorandum of Cooperation between the US and the former-USSR following the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. A joint program was established to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. The task of Working Group 7 was ``to develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (Biospheric Model Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains. In the future, this project will be considered separately from the Chernobyl Studies Project and the essential activities of former Task 7.1D will be folded within the broader umbrella of the BIOMOVS and VAMP projects. The Working Group Leader of Task 7.1D will continue to provide oversight for this project.

  19. Comparison of doses and risks obtained from dose reconstructions for historical operations of federal facilities that supported the development, production, or testing of nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Reed, E W; Thiessen, K M; Hoffman, F O; Apostoaei, A I

    2003-06-01

    Five dose reconstruction projects focusing on historical public exposures from U.S. government nuclear facilities have been completed in the last 12 y (Fernald, Hanford, Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats). Using information available in published reports, doses and excess health risks of the most serious contaminants in each study are compared for representative maximally and typically exposed individuals. For both the representative maximally exposed individual and the representative typically exposed individual, the highest excess risks of cancer incidence were from 131I released from Hanford, Nevada Test Site, and Oak Ridge and 222Rn released from Fernald (with central estimates for maximally exposed individuals approaching or exceeding 10(-2)); the lowest risks for both maximally and typically exposed individuals were from 239/240Pu and carbon tetrachloride released from Rocky Flats. Excess health risks to the representative maximally exposed individual were at or below 10(-40 for releases from Rocky Flats. For representative typically exposed individuals, the excess risks from releases of mixed radionuclides in the Clinch River (Oak Ridge), PCBs in East Fork Poplar Creek (Oak Ridge), and both plutonium and carbon tetrachloride released from Rocky Flats were mostly below 10(-5).

  20. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The DWPF will soon be receiving wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) containing increased concentrations of TiO2, Na2O, and Cs2O . The SWPF is being built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to process TiO2 concentrations >2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new viscosity data were developed over the range of 1.90 to 6.09 wt% TiO2 and evaluated against the 2005 viscosity model. An alternate viscosity model is also derived for potential future use, should the DWPF ever need to process other titanate-containing ion exchange materials. The ultimate limit on the amount of TiO2 that can be accommodated from SWPF will be determined by the three PCCS models, the waste composition of a given sludge

  2. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong; Dae, Dongsun; Whitehouse, Andrew I.

    2015-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  3. Real-time computation of parameter fitting and image reconstruction using graphical processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locans, Uldis; Adelmann, Andreas; Suter, Andreas; Fischer, Jannis; Lustermann, Werner; Dissertori, Günther; Wang, Qiulin

    2017-06-01

    In recent years graphical processing units (GPUs) have become a powerful tool in scientific computing. Their potential to speed up highly parallel applications brings the power of high performance computing to a wider range of users. However, programming these devices and integrating their use in existing applications is still a challenging task. In this paper we examined the potential of GPUs for two different applications. The first application, created at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), is used for parameter fitting during data analysis of μSR (muon spin rotation, relaxation and resonance) experiments. The second application, developed at ETH, is used for PET (Positron Emission Tomography) image reconstruction and analysis. Applications currently in use were examined to identify parts of the algorithms in need of optimization. Efficient GPU kernels were created in order to allow applications to use a GPU, to speed up the previously identified parts. Benchmarking tests were performed in order to measure the achieved speedup. During this work, we focused on single GPU systems to show that real time data analysis of these problems can be achieved without the need for large computing clusters. The results show that the currently used application for parameter fitting, which uses OpenMP to parallelize calculations over multiple CPU cores, can be accelerated around 40 times through the use of a GPU. The speedup may vary depending on the size and complexity of the problem. For PET image analysis, the obtained speedups of the GPU version were more than × 40 larger compared to a single core CPU implementation. The achieved results show that it is possible to improve the execution time by orders of magnitude.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility hot test report

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Prior to initial operation with radioactive feed or ``hot`` operation, the Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal (LET&D) Facility underwent extensive testing. This report provides a detailed description and analysis of this testing. Testing has determined that LET&D is capable of processing radioactive solutions between the design flowrates of 275 gph to 550 gph. Modifications made to prevent condensation on the off-gas HEPA filters, to the process vacuum control, bottoms cooler rupture disks, and feed control system operation were successful. Unfortunately, two mixers failed prior to ``hot`` testing due to manufacturer`s error which limited operation of the PEW Evaporator System and sampling was not able to prove that design removal efficiencies for Mercury, Cadmium, Plutonium, and Non-Volatile Radionuclides.

  5. Facile synthesis of single-crystal silver nanowires through a tannin-reduction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xuelin; Li, Juan; Pan, Shilie

    2009-10-01

    A facile aqueous-phase approach for the synthesis of silver nanowires is reported, in which tannin (C76H52O46) is used as a mild reducing agent for silver nitrate. This synthesis is a root-temperature, seedless process, and does not need any surfactant or capping agent to direct the anisotropic growth of the nanoparticles. The obtained silver nanowires are about 25 nm in diameter and up to 20 μm in length. Unlike the usually reported cases of silver nanowires or nanorods, in which the silver nanocrystals were often generated with a multi-twinned structure, in our experiments the nanowires adopt a single-crystal structure with their growth direction along the [100] axis. Investigations on the influence of different experimental conditions indicate that slow rate of the reduction process is a key factor for inducing the anisotropic growth of the nanowires.

  6. The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  7. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    PubMed

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  8. Cancer mortality in counties near two former nuclear materials processing facilities in Pennsylvania, 1950-1995.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D; Bigbee, William L; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J

    2003-12-01

    There has been concern that living near nuclear installations might increase the risk of cancer, including childhood leukemia, in surrounding communities. Such concern has been voiced by residents in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties in Western Pennsylvania in conjunction with the operation of two former nuclear materials processing facilities located in the Apollo borough and the Parks township, just three miles apart. These facilities began operating in 1957 and 1960 and processed uranium and plutonium for commercial and naval applications. To evaluate the possibility of increased cancer rates in communities around the Apollo-Parks nuclear facilities, a cancer incidence and a cancer mortality survey were conducted. The county mortality findings are reported here. Nearly 40,000 cancer deaths occurred in the population residing in Armstrong and Westmoreland Counties from 1950 through 1995. Each of these two study counties was matched for comparison to three control counties in the same region on the basis of age, race, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors available from the 1990 U.S. Census. There were over 77,000 cancer deaths in the 6 control counties during the 45 y studied. Following similar methods used by the National Cancer Institute, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed as the ratio of observed numbers of cancers in the study and control counties compared to the expected number derived from general population rates of the United States. Relative risks (RR) were computed as the ratios of the SMRs for the study and the control counties. There were no significant increases in the study counties for any cancer when comparisons were made with either the U.S. population or the control counties. In particular, deaths due to cancers of the lung, bone, liver, and kidney were not more frequent in the study counties than in the control counties. These are the cancers of a priori interest given that uranium and/or plutonium might be expected to

  9. Studsvik Processing Facility - A proven solution for the conservation of a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, M.; Hill, M.; Harrison, J.; Wise, D.

    2007-07-01

    Studsvik has completed over 7.5 years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 13.3 million pounds (4.96 million kg) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, granular activated carbon (GAC), and filter cartridges which comprised a cumulative total activity of 87,396 Curies (3.23E+09 MBq), with the highest radiation level for any incoming resin container being 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/hr). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF-Erwin) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Spent Filter Cartridges (Metal or Poly), Ion Exchange Resins (IER), powered filter media, GAC, organic solids, graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions. In 2005 Studsvik added advanced robotic technology to the SPF greatly increasing its capabilities to safely handle waste streams with radiation levels in excess of 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h), saving personnel exposure and maximizing ALARA. The most recent addition to Studsvik's capabilities is the cost and volume efficient processing of filter cartridges (both metal and poly). The SPF-Erwin employs the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) process, developed and patented by Studsvik, which utilizes pyrolysis/steam reforming technology. THOR{sup sm} reliably and safely processes these wide varieties of LLRWs in a unique, moderate temperature, pyrolysis/steam reforming, fluidized bed treatment system. The THOR{sup sm} technology is also suitable for processing hazardous, mixed, and dry active LLRW with appropriate licensing and waste feed modifications. Studsvik has proven to be an experienced and reliable source for the cost efficient disposition of LLRW for the nuclear industry. These processing concepts and capabilities have helped generators maximize the utilization of the limited available burial space - extending the Class-A, Class-B, and Class-C burial capabilities

  10. 40 CFR 63.1037 - Alternative means of emission limitation: Enclosed-vented process units or affected facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-vented process units or affected facilities. (a) Use of closed vent system and control device. Process... device or routed to a fuel gas system or process meeting the requirements of § 63.1034 are exempt from... all emissions are routed to a control device. (b) Recordkeeping. Owners and operators choosing to...

  11. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  12. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  13. Gains in efficiency and scientific potential of continental climate reconstruction provided by the LRC LacCore Facility, University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, A.; Brady, K.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

    2007-12-01

    , and stores metadata and analytical data for all cores processed at the facility. Any researcher may submit sample requests for material in archived cores. Supplies for field (e.g., polycarbonate pipe, endcaps), lab (e.g., sample containers, pollen sample spike), and curation (e.g., D-tubes) are sold at cost. In collaboration with facility users, staff continually develop new equipment, supplies, and procedures as needed in order to provide the best and most comprehensive set of services to the research community.

  14. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  15. Development of CFC-Free Cleaning Processes at the NASA White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-113- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. The presentation will include the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification processes that are based on a draft of a proposed NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) cleaning procedure. Verification testing with known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils, established correlations between nonvolatile residue and CFC-113. Recoveries ranged from 35 to 60 percent of theoretical. WSTF is also investigating enhancements to aqueous sampling for organics and particulates. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225), tert-butylmethylether, and n-Hexane was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC-113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autoignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  16. Reconstruction of the coronoid process using the tip of the ipsilateral olecranon.

    PubMed

    Alolabi, Bashar; Gray, Alia; Ferreira, Louis M; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S; King, Graham J W

    2014-04-02

    Autograft reconstruction of the coronoid using the tip of the olecranon has been described as a treatment option for comminuted coronoid fractures or coronoid nonunions that are not repairable. The purpose of this in vitro biomechanical study of the coronoid-deficient elbow was to determine whether coronoid reconstruction using the tip of the ipsilateral olecranon would restore elbow kinematics. An elbow motion simulator was used to perform active and passive extension of six cadaveric arms in the horizontal, valgus, varus, and vertical orientations. Elbow kinematics were quantified with use of the screw displacement axis of the ulna with respect to the humerus. Testing was performed with an intact coronoid, a 40% coronoid deficiency, and a coronoid reconstruction using the tip of the ipsilateral olecranon. Creation of a 40% coronoid deficiency resulted in significant changes (range, 3.6° to 10.9°) in the angular deviations of the screw displacement axis relative to the intact state during simulated active and passive extension in the varus orientation with the forearm in pronation and in supination (p < 0.05). Reconstruction of the coronoid using the ipsilateral olecranon tip restored the angular deviations to those in the intact state (p > 0.05) with the arm in all orientations except valgus, in which there was a small but significant difference (0.4° ± 0.2°, p = 0.04) during passive motion with forearm supination. Reconstruction of the coronoid using the tip of the ipsilateral olecranon was an effective method for restoring normal kinematics over a range of elbow motion from 20° to 120° in a cadaveric model of an elbow with a 40% coronoid deficiency. This reconstruction technique may prove beneficial for patients with elbow instability due to coronoid deficiency.

  17. Modified reconstruction algorithm based on space-time adaptive processing for multichannel synthetic aperture radar systems in azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojiang; Gao, Yesheng; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao

    2016-07-01

    A spectrum reconstruction algorithm based on space-time adaptive processing (STAP) can effectively suppress azimuth ambiguity for multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems in azimuth. However, the traditional STAP-based reconstruction approach has to estimate the covariance matrix and calculate matrix inversion (MI) for each Doppler frequency bin, which will result in a very large computational load. In addition, the traditional STAP-based approach has to know the exact platform velocity, pulse repetition frequency, and array configuration. Errors involving these parameters will significantly degrade the performance of ambiguity suppression. A modified STAP-based approach to solve these problems is presented. The traditional array steering vectors and corresponding covariance matrices are Doppler-variant in the range-Doppler domain. After preprocessing by a proposed phase compensation method, they would be independent of Doppler bins. Therefore, the modified STAP-based approach needs to estimate the covariance matrix and calculate MI only once. The computation load could be greatly reduced. Moreover, by combining the reconstruction method and a proposed adaptive parameter estimation method, the modified method is able to successfully achieve multichannel SAR signal reconstruction and suppress azimuth ambiguity without knowing the above parameters. Theoretical analysis and experiments showed the simplicity and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  18. People, Process and Technology: Strategies for Assuring Sustainable Implementation of EMRs at Public-Sector Health Facilities in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kang'a, Samuel G; Muthee, Veronica M; Liku, Nzisa; Too, Diana; Puttkammer, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MoH) rollout of electronic medical record systems (EMRs) has continuously been embraced across health facilities in Kenya since 2012. This has been driven by a government led process supported by PEPFAR that recommended standardized systems for facilities. Various strategies were deployed to assure meaningful and sustainable EMRs implementation: sensitization of leadership; user training, formation of health facility-level multi-disciplinary teams; formation of county-level Technical Working Groups; data migration; routine data quality assessments; point of care adoption; successive release of software upgrades; and power provision. Successes recorded include goodwill and leadership from the county management (22 counties), growth in the number of EMR trained users (2561 health care workers), collaboration in among other things, data migration(90 health facilities completed) and establishment of county TWGs (13 TWGs). Sustenance of EMRs demand across facilities is possible through; county TWGs oversight, timely resolution of users' issues and provision of reliable power.

  19. Final deactivation project report on the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility, Building 7602 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility (Building 7602) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities by the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP). This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This report provides a history and description of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan, remaining hazardous and radioactive materials inventory, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed.

  20. People, Process and Technology: Strategies for Assuring Sustainable Implementation of EMRs at Public-Sector Health Facilities in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kang’a, Samuel G.; Muthee, Veronica M.; Liku, Nzisa; Too, Diana; Puttkammer, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MoH) rollout of electronic medical record systems (EMRs) has continuously been embraced across health facilities in Kenya since 2012. This has been driven by a government led process supported by PEPFAR that recommended standardized systems for facilities. Various strategies were deployed to assure meaningful and sustainable EMRs implementation: sensitization of leadership; user training, formation of health facility-level multi-disciplinary teams; formation of county-level Technical Working Groups; data migration; routine data quality assessments; point of care adoption; successive release of software upgrades; and power provision. Successes recorded include goodwill and leadership from the county management (22 counties), growth in the number of EMR trained users (2561 health care workers), collaboration in among other things, data migration(90 health facilities completed) and establishment of county TWGs (13 TWGs). Sustenance of EMRs demand across facilities is possible through; county TWGs oversight, timely resolution of users’ issues and provision of reliable power. PMID:28269864