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Sample records for reconstruction technical aspects

  1. Free Microsurgical and Pedicled Flaps for Oncological Mandibular Reconstruction: Technical Aspects and Evaluation of Patient Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Hassid, Victor J.; Maqusi, Suhair; Culligan, Emmett; Cohen, Mimis N.; Antony, Anuja K.

    2012-01-01

    Oncologic mandibular reconstruction has changed significantly over the years and continues to evolve with the introduction of newer technologies and techniques. Patient demographic, reconstructive, and complication data were obtained from a prospectively maintained clinical database of patients who underwent head and neck reconstruction at our institution. The free fibular flap is now considered the gold standard for mandibular reconstruction. However, in patients with multiple comorbidities, lengthy procedures may be less optimal and pedicled flaps, with specific modifications, can yield reasonable outcomes. Technical aspects and comorbidity profiles are examined in the oncological mandibular reconstruction cohort. PMID:22550602

  2. [Free flap reconstruction in the head and neck. Indications, technical aspects and outcomes].

    PubMed

    Llorente, José Luis; López, Fernando; Suárez, Vanessa; Fueyo, Angel; Carnero, Susana; Martín, Clara; López, Victoria; Camporro, Daniel; Suárez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The use of microvascular free flaps (MFF) has become a common method of head and neck reconstruction because of its high success rates and better functional results. We report our experience in reconstructing complex defects with MFF. We analysed a series of 246 patients that underwent reconstruction using MFF in our Department from 1991 to 2013. There were 259 interventions performed in 246 patients. The most common reason for surgery was tumour recurrence (46%), followed by primary tumour resection (25%). The hypopharynx (52%) and the craniofacial region (22%) were the most frequently reconstructed sites. The free flaps most commonly used were the radial forearm free flap (41%) and the anterolateral thigh free flap (35%). Overall success and complication rates of 92% and 20% respectively were reported. The microvascular free flap is a reliable and useful tool for reconstructing complex head and neck defects and continues to be the reconstructive modality of choice for these defects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical aspects and outcome after prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction in 30 consecutive high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Marie; Sandelin, Kerstin; Arver, Brita

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a consecutive series of patients operated on with prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with implants, focusing on preoperative assessment, technical aspects of surgical outcome, and number of postoperative complications on a short-term basis. Thirty consecutive healthy women with an increased risk of breast cancer who were therefore operated on with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction are reported. A multidisciplinary approach with a geneticist, general surgeon, plastic surgeon, specially trained nurse, psychologist, gynecologist, and oncologist was used preoperatively, with thorough information provided to the patient about the surgery. Eleven patients had gene mutations, and in all patients, the geneticist had performed a risk assessment. The mean age of the patients was 41 years. The technique was modified over time with smaller or special incisions and tailor-made adjustments for each patient. Great care was taken to remove all breast tissue. The tops of the breast nipples were regrafted for cosmetic purposes, and the base was sent for histopathologic examination. In most cases, permanent expander prostheses with detachable valves were used. The areolas were tattooed, if they were not left in place. No patient had occult cancer or carcinoma in situ. Four postoperative complications occurred, including two hematomas, one infection (treated with antibiotics), and one pneumothorax in a patient with severe asthma. All reconstructions were fulfilled. The mean hospital stay was 5.7 days. The time from mastectomy to the final tattooing of the areolas was 260 days. All patients returned to normal daily activities after fulfilled reconstruction.

  4. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  5. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-31

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.

  6. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000. (ATT)

  7. Technical aspects of bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Brown, M L; O'Connor, M K; Hung, J C; Hayostek, R J

    1993-07-01

    Optimal bone scintigraphy is obtained by using a current generation gamma camera with a high-resolution collimator, minimizing the patient-to-collimator distance, using scatter reduction techniques where possible, and obtaining a 500,000 to 1 million count image for 40-cm field of view camera. Hard copy images from an analog or digital formatter should be optimized to display all intensities either on the same images or, when necessary, to display the low count information on one image and the high count information on another. Additional images using different collimators, such as converging or pinhole collimators, and oblique and lateral views should be obtained when necessary to demonstrate or define the pathologic area. To optimize SPECT imaging, the following parameters should be used: a high-resolution collimator, a 128 x 128 acquisition matrix, and minimum separation between the patient and the collimator, which may require the use of an elliptic orbit. Between 64 and 128 views should be obtained, and depending on preference, the planar data should be prefiltered with a Butterworth, order 8-12 and a cutoff at 0.5 Nyquist. The data should then be reconstructed using a simple ramp filter. This method provides a good technique when one is first beginning to perform bone SPECT. Attenuation correction is not generally beneficial for SPECT bone studies, although sometimes weighted backprojection may improve image contrast and resolution. Finally, the use of volume rendering may help clarify the location of suspect lesions.

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, noninvasive, 3D imaging technique with great potential in both clinical and fundamental research applications in many areas. Owing to its exceptionally high spatial resolution and velocity sensitivity, the functional extension of OCT techniques can simultaneously provide tissue structure, blood perfusion, birefringence, and other physiological information and it has great potential for basic biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT has the far-reaching potential to be a quantitative imaging technique that could impact many, as yet unexplored, areas and should therefore be considered a vital measurement tool. In this chapter, we will first discuss the principle of operation and then the practical aspects of the OCT system; we will also provide detailed discussion on different OCT schemes and its functional extensions.

  9. DXA: Technical aspects and application.

    PubMed

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Ponti, Federico; Albisinni, Ugo; Battista, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The key role of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the management of metabolic bone diseases is well known. The role of DXA in the study of body composition and in the clinical evaluation of disorders which directly or indirectly involve the whole metabolism as they may induce changes in body mass and fat percentage is less known or less understood. DXA has a range of clinical applications in this field, from assessing associations between adipose or lean mass and the risk of disease to understanding and measuring the effects of pathophysiological processes or therapeutic interventions, in both adult and paediatric human populations as well as in pre-clinical settings. DXA analyses body composition at the molecular level that is basically translated into a clinical model made up of fat mass, non-bone lean mass, and bone mineral content. DXA allows total and regional assessment of the three above-mentioned compartments, usually by a whole-body scan. Since body composition is a hot topic today, manufacturers have steered the development of DXA technology and methodology towards this. New DXA machines have been designed to accommodate heavier and larger patients and to scan wider areas. New strategies, such as half-body assessment, permit accurate body scan and analysis of individuals exceeding scan field limits. Although DXA is a projective imaging technique, new solutions have recently allowed the differential estimate of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral fat. The transition to narrow fan-beam densitometers has led to faster scan times and better resolution; however, inter- or intra-device variation exists depending on several factors. The purposes of this review are: (1) to appreciate the role of DXA in the study of body composition; (2) to understand potential limitations and pitfalls of DXA in the analysis of body composition; (3) to learn about technical elements and methods, and to become familiar with biomarkers in DXA. Copyright © 2016

  10. Safe eye surgery: non-technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Azuara-Blanco, A; Reddy, A; Wilkinson, G; Flin, R

    2011-09-01

    The traditional training of surgeons focused exclusively on developing knowledge, clinical expertise, and technical (surgical) skills. However, analyses of the reasons for adverse events in surgery have revealed that many underlying causes originate from behavioural or non-technical aspects of performance (eg, poor communication among members of the surgical team) rather than from a lack of surgical (ie, technical) skills. Therefore, technical skills appear to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure patient safety. Paying attention to non-technical skills, such as team working, leadership, situation awareness, decision making, and communication, will increase the likelihood of maintaining high levels of error-free performance. Identification and training of non-technical skills has been developed for high-risk careers, such as civil aviation and nuclear power. Only recently, training in non-technical skills has been adopted by the surgical world and anaesthetists. Non-technical skills need to be tailored to the environment where they are used, and eye surgery has some substantial differences compared with other surgical areas, for example, high volume of surgery, use of local anaesthetics, and very sophisticated equipment. This review highlights the need for identification of the non-technical skills relevant to eye surgeons and promotion of their use in the training of eye surgeons.

  11. Technical aspects of ileoanal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Carne, Peter W G; Pemberton, John H

    2004-02-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical procedure of choice for chronic ulcerative colitis. Since the initial description of the technique, various modifications have facilitated its evolution into a safe operation with excellent long-term outcomes. However, some aspects of the operation remain contentious. Our aim is to describe the technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and review the current literature in the areas of controversy.

  12. Databases for technical aspects of immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Nagaike, Mika; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    With the aims of sharing information about the technical aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and making it possible to make a suitable choice of antibody for histopathological examination, this technical report describes the results of a questionnaire administered during the period of 2014 to 2015 to members of the Conference on Experimental Animal Histopathology. It also describes the immunological properties of primary antibodies (clone, supplier, catalog number, species reactivity, etc.) and the IHC staining conditions (fixing solution, fixing time, embedding, antigen retrieval method, antibody dilution, incubation time, incubation temperature, positive control tissue, secondary antibody information, etc.) for a total number of 733 primary antibodies (425 kinds of primary antibody). PMID:28190929

  13. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  14. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly Technical Report, November 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Haerer, H. A.

    1987-11-01

    This monthly report for November 1987 summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

  16. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF LAPAROSCOPIC SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; BASTOS, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; BERTIN, Nestor Tadashi Suguitani; GALVÃO, Thales Delmondes; de LUCENA, Raphael Torres Figueiredo; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins

    2015-01-01

    Background : The vertical gastrectomy indications for surgical treatment of morbid obesity have increased worldwide. Despite this increase, many aspects of surgical technique still remains in controversy. Aim : To contribute presenting surgical details in order to better realize the vertical gastrectomy technique in bariatric surgery. Methods : Technical systematization, patient preparation, positioning of the trocars, operative technique and postoperative care are presented in details. Results : During 12 months were enrolled 120 patients undergoing GV according to the technique described herein. The results are published in another ABCD article (ABCD 2015;28(Supl.1):61-64) in this same volume and number. Conclusion : The surgical technique proposed here presented itself viable and facilitating the surgeon's work on difficult points of the vertical gastrectomy. PMID:26537278

  17. Technical aspects of dental CBCT: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Araki, K; Siewerdsen, J H; Thongvigitmanee, S S

    2015-01-01

    As CBCT is widely used in dental and maxillofacial imaging, it is important for users as well as referring practitioners to understand the basic concepts of this imaging modality. This review covers the technical aspects of each part of the CBCT imaging chain. First, an overview is given of the hardware of a CBCT device. The principles of cone beam image acquisition and image reconstruction are described. Optimization of imaging protocols in CBCT is briefly discussed. Finally, basic and advanced visualization methods are illustrated. Certain topics in these review are applicable to all types of radiographic imaging (e.g. the principle and properties of an X-ray tube), others are specific for dental CBCT imaging (e.g. advanced visualization techniques). PMID:25263643

  18. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bambauer, Rolf; Bambauer, Carolin; Lehmann, Boris; Latza, Reinhard; Schiel, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a) levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application. PMID:22654591

  19. Aspects of 3D shape reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, Peter F.; Arnold, Gregory; Ferrara, Matthew

    2009-02-01

    The ability to reconstruct the three dimensional (3D) shape of an object from multiple images of that object is an important step in certain computer vision and object recognition tasks. The images in question can range from 2D optical images to 1D radar range profiles. In each case, the goal is to use the information (primarily invariant geometric information) contained in several images to reconstruct the 3D data. In this paper we apply a blend of geometric, computational, and statistical techniques to reconstruct the 3D geometry, specifically the shape, from multiple images of an object. Specifically, we deal with a collection of feature points that have been tracked from image (or range profile) to image (or range profile) and we reconstruct the 3D point cloud up to certain transformations-affine transformations in the case of our optical sensor and rigid motions (translations and rotations) in the radar case. Our paper discusses the theory behind the method, outlines the computational algorithm, and illustrates the reconstruction for some simple examples.

  20. The NIOSH Radiation Dose Reconstruction Project: managing technical challenges.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Matthew P; Townsend, Ronald D; Dooley, David A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately two years after promulgation of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Office of Compensation and Analysis Support selected a contractor team to perform many aspects of the radiation dose reconstruction process. The project scope and schedule necessitated the development of an organization involving a comparatively large number of health physicists. From the initial stages, there were many technical and managerial challenges that required continuous planning, integration, and conflict resolution. This paper identifies those challenges and describes the resolutions and lessons learned. These insights are hopefully useful to managers of similar scientific projects, especially those requiring significant data, technical methods, and calculations. The most complex challenge has been to complete defensible, individualized dose reconstructions that support timely compensation decisions at an acceptable production level. Adherence to applying claimant-favorable and transparent science consistent with the requirements of the Act has been the key to establishing credibility, which is essential to this large and complex project involving tens of thousands of individual stakeholders. The initial challenges included garnering sufficient and capable scientific staff, developing an effective infrastructure, establishing necessary methods and procedures, and integrating activities to ensure consistent, quality products. The continuing challenges include maintaining the project focus on recommending a compensation determination (rather than generating an accurate dose reconstruction), managing the associated very large data and information management challenges, and ensuring quality control and assurance in the presence of an evolving infrastructure. The lessons learned concern project credibility, claimant favorability, project priorities, quality and consistency, and critical

  1. Food irradiation facilities: Requirements and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, Josef

    2016-12-01

    This survey presents some aspects and requirement for food irradiation facilities. Topics like radiation source, dose ranges and dose rate are discussed, together with logistics and operational considerations

  2. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project and represents the interests of the federal government and the public. The organization for the project is outlined.

  3. Technical aspects of the culotte technique.

    PubMed

    Erglis, Andrejs; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Di Mario, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The culotte technique provides near perfect coverage of the carina and side branch ostium at the expense of an excess of metal covering the proximal end. It can be used in almost all true bifurcation lesions, but should be avoided in bifurcations when there is a large mismatch between the proximal main branch and the side branch diameters. The main disadvantage of this technique is that rewiring of both branches through the stent struts is required, which can be difficult, technically demanding, and time-consuming.

  4. [Subcranial approach. Technical aspects and application in craneofacial traumatic pathology].

    PubMed

    Zubillaga-Rodríguez, I; Falguera-Uceda, M I; Sánchez-Aniceto, G; Montalvo-Moreno, J J; Díez-Lobato, R

    2010-12-01

    INTRODUCTION. Suitable approach to anterior cranial base is mandatory to get global satisfactory surgical outcomes. In the beginning it depends on the exactly anatomical position into the cranial fossa and tridimensional spread. Surgical approach implies the evaluation of the patient status, reconstructive options and surgical team experience. Subcranial approach is a safe surgical option in the treatment of frontal traumatic pathology. It allows adequate management of frontal sinus and its obliteration with easy radiologic follow-up. OBJECTIVES. To analyse subcranial approach as a treatment option in traumatic pathology of the anterior cranial base and to present our review of subcranial approach. Valuation of surgical technical aspects. and related complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Retrospective analysis of 50 patients operated (subcranial approach) from January 2004 to December 2009 by Maxillofacial and Neurosurgery Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid. 34 patients presented craniofacial trauma or postraumatic sequela and 16 patients presented craniofacial tumours. Oncological cases offers experience to discuss surgical aspects. Results are related to traumatic pathology and sequela. Main items review were surgical technique including materials used for frontal sinus obliteration, associated traumatic pathology, hospital stay and complication rates. RESULTS. No perioperatory mortality was found. Patients´ age ranged 15-76 years. 22 were male and 12 female. Description of frontal fractures involved. Frontal sinus obliteration was made with calvarian bone dust. Morbidity rates was 29% in posttraumatic patients. Mean hospital stay was 13 days. Subcranial approach to anterior cranial base is a safe and reliable treatment option to the pathology of this area. It allows outstanding exposure of the nasal cavity, orbits, ethmoidal cells-sphenoid sinus and great access to anterior fossa without frontal lobe retraction.

  5. [Hepatic cell transplantation. Technical and methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Martínez, Amparo; Cortés, Miriam; Bonora, Ana; Moya, Angel; Sanjuán, Fernando; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Mir, José

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic cell transplantation consists of grafting already differentiated cells such as hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes are viable and functionally active. Liver cell transplantation is carried out by means of a 3-step method: isolation of hepatocytes from donor liver rejected for orthotopic transplantation, preparing a cell suspension for infusion and, finally, hepatocytes are implanted into the recipient. There are established protocols for the isolation of human hepatocytes from unused segments of donor livers, based on collagenase digestion of cannulated liver tissue at 37 degrees C. The hepatocytes can be used fresh or cryopreserved. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes would then be available for planned use. In cell transplant, the important aspects are: infusion route, number of cells, number of infusions and viability of the cells. The cells are infused into the patient through a catheter inserted via portal vein or splenic artery. Liver cell transplantation allows liver tissue to be used that would, otherwise, be discarded, enabling multiple patients to be treated with hepatocytes from a single tissue donor. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Total lower lid reconstruction: technical details.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W L

    1976-01-01

    The main complications of this type of lower lid reconstruction are lash loss or malposition, entropion of the upper lid, upper lid retraction, undue laxity of the lower lid, and lid margin deformities. These can all be avioded by meticulous attention to surgical details and dressing techniques. I believe that this is the best and simplest method of providing a lid of acceptable function and appearance. The advantages of this type of operation are: (1) The new lower lid is constructed of lid tissue including the tarsus and conjunctiva from the upper lid. (2) The function and appearance of the new lower lid are acceptable with practically no tendency to late retraction. (3) The function and appearance of the upper lid need not be interfered with. (4) No external scars are produced except when a lash transplant is done. This transplant leaves a small, hardly noticeable scar in the lower part of the opposite brow. (5) The technique is relatively simple and well within the realm of any well-trained ophthalmic surgeon. The obvious disadvantages are the surgeon's inability to inspect the eye for two to four months and the inconvenience to the patient of having one eye closed for such a long period of time. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:867633

  7. Reconstructing contralateral fiber tracts: methodological aspects of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Palesi, Fulvia; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Calamante, Fernando; Muhlert, Nils; Castellazzi, Gloria; Chard, Declan; D’Angelo, Egidio; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia Gandini

    2016-01-01

    Summary The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to the cerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-resolution maps, created with track density imaging (TDI), were compared with those reconstructed by defining regions of interest (ROIs) on non-diffusion weighted images (b0). We observed that the reconstruction of the pathways was more anatomically accurate when using ROIs placed on TDI rather than on b0 maps, while inter-subject variability and reproducibility were similar between the two methods. Diffusion indices along pathways showed a position-dependent specificity that will need to be taken into consideration in future clinical investigations. PMID:28072383

  8. Psychological Aspects of Recovery Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Christino, Melissa A; Fantry, Amanda J; Vopat, Bryan G

    2015-08-01

    Recovery following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an arduous process that requires a significant mental and physical commitment to rehabilitation. Orthopaedic research in recent years has focused on optimizing anterior cruciate ligament surgical techniques; however, despite stable anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, many athletes still never achieve their preinjury ability or even return to sport. Psychological factors associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are important to acknowledge and understand. Issues related to emotional disturbance, motivation, self-esteem, locus of control, and self-efficacy can have profound effects on patients' compliance, athletic identity, and readiness to return to sport. The psychological aspects of recovery play a critical role in functional outcomes, and a better understanding of these concepts is essential to optimize the treatment of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, particularly those who plan to return to sport. Identifying at-risk patients, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, and providing early referral to a sports psychologist may improve patient outcomes and increase return-to-play rates among athletes.

  9. Accuracy of Gradient Reconstruction on Grids with High Aspect Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James

    2008-01-01

    Gradient approximation methods commonly used in unstructured-grid finite-volume schemes intended for solutions of high Reynolds number flow equations are studied comprehensively. The accuracy of gradients within cells and within faces is evaluated systematically for both node-centered and cell-centered formulations. Computational and analytical evaluations are made on a series of high-aspect-ratio grids with different primal elements, including quadrilateral, triangular, and mixed element grids, with and without random perturbations to the mesh. Both rectangular and cylindrical geometries are considered; the latter serves to study the effects of geometric curvature. The study shows that the accuracy of gradient reconstruction on high-aspect-ratio grids is determined by a combination of the grid and the solution. The contributors to the error are identified and approaches to reduce errors are given, including the addition of higher-order terms in the direction of larger mesh spacing. A parameter GAMMA characterizing accuracy on curved high-aspect-ratio grids is discussed and an approximate-mapped-least-square method using a commonly-available distance function is presented; the method provides accurate gradient reconstruction on general grids. The study is intended to be a reference guide accompanying the construction of accurate and efficient methods for high Reynolds number applications

  10. Single Incision Laparoscopic Colectomy: Technical Aspects, Feasibility, and Expected Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, F.; Champagne, B. J.; Augestad, K. M.; Stein, S. L.; Marderstein, E.; Reynolds, H. L.; Delaney, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    Background. This paper studied technical aspects and feasibility of single incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC). Methods. Bibliographic search was carried out up to October 2009 including original articles, case reports, and technical notes. Assessed criteria were techniques, operative time, scar length, conversion, complications, and hospitalization duration. Results. The review analyzed seventeen SILCs by seven surgical teams. A single port system was used by four teams. No team used the same laparoscope. Two teams used two laparoscopes. All teams used curved instruments. SILC time was 116 ± 34 minutes. Final scar was longer than port incision (31 ± 7 versus 24 ± 8 mm; P = .036). No conversion was reported. The only complication was a bacteremia. Hospitalization was 5 ± 2 days. Conclusion. SILC is feasible. A single incision around the umbilical scar represents cosmetic progress. Comparative studies are needed to assess potential abdominal wall and recovery benefits to justify the increased cost of SILC. PMID:20585367

  11. Technical nuances of commonly used vascularised flaps for skull base reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tang, I P; Carrau, R L; Otto, B A; Prevedello, D M; Kasemsiri, P; Ditzel, L; Muto, J; Kapucu, B; Kirsch, C

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction with a vascularised flap provides the most reliable outcome, with post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak rates of less than 5 per cent. This article aims to review and summarise the critical technical aspects of the vascularised flaps most commonly used for skull base reconstruction. Vascularised flaps are classified as intranasal or extranasal. The intranasal group includes the Hadad-Bassagaisteguy nasoseptal flap, the Caicedo reverse nasoseptal flap, the nasoseptal rescue flap, the posteriorly or anteriorly based lateral wall flaps, and the middle turbinate flap. Extranasal flaps include the transfrontal pericranial and transpterygoid temporoparietal flaps. The Hadad-Bassagaisteguy nasoseptal flap is overwhelmingly favoured for reconstructing extensive defects of anterior, middle and posterior cranial base. Its pertinent technical features are described. However, it is essential to master the skills required for the various extranasal or regional vascularised flaps because each can offer a reconstructive alternative for specific patients, especially when open approaches are needed and/or intranasal vascularised flaps are not feasible.

  12. Brain-Mind Operational Architectonics Imaging: Technical and Methodological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2008-01-01

    This review paper deals with methodological and technical foundations of the Operational Architectonics framework of brain and mind functioning. This theory provides a framework for mapping and understanding important aspects of the brain mechanisms that constitute perception, cognition, and eventually consciousness. The methods utilized within Operational Architectonics framework allow analyzing with an incredible detail the operational behavior of local neuronal assemblies and their joint activity in the form of unified and metastable operational modules, which constitute the whole hierarchy of brain operations, operations of cognition and phenomenal consciousness. PMID:19526071

  13. Organ culture preservation for corneal tissue. Technical and quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Pels, E; Rijneveld, W J

    2009-01-01

    The technical and quality aspects of organ culture as a storage method for human donor corneas are described. Data electronically stored since 1989 of > 41,000 corneas, processed in the Cornea Bank Amsterdam, are analysed. The technical information of eye banks collected in the Directory of the European Eye Bank Association (EEBA) is used as comparison. European Union (EU) directive for tissue banking and EEBA technical guidelines are references for the quality aspects. Organ culture allows the storage of donor corneas up to 4-5weeks. The storage phase is followed by a generally much shorter phase of 1-7 days, to reverse the corneal swelling occurring in the first phase and to transport the tissue to the clinic. Selection of the corneas based on inspection of the endothelium after storage as well as microbiological testing of the storage solution after a quarantine period are mandatory for this technique. General agreement exists about the outline of the method, but technical variations are applied to suit local circumstances and preferences of corneal surgeons. Agreement exists about a minimum endothelial cell count as selection criterion in case the donor endothelium is meant to be grafted. The use and cutoff points of other selection parameters for the cornea, e.g. the endothelial cell mosaic, are varying. According to EU regulations, a quality management system should be installed. This way each bank is able to issue a standardized product, while the production process is monitored with quality registrations. With the clinical outcome of the graft, the quality of the selection and storage procedures is verified. With the notification of adverse reactions such as primary graft failure and endophthalmitis, minimum risks will be assessed. The organ-cultured cornea is a well-documented product concerning microbiological safety and quality of the tissue. However, variations in performance and materials and no definite cut-off points for selection do not make an

  14. Technical aspects of quality assurance in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Saw, Cb; Ferenci, Ms; Wanger, H

    2008-07-01

    The technical aspects of quality assurance (QA) in radiation oncology as practice in the United States will be reviewed and updated in the spirit of offering the experience to the radiation oncology communities in the Asia-Pacific region. The word "technical" is used to express the organisational components or processes and not the materials within the QA program. A comprehensive QA program in radiation oncology will have an official statement declaring the quality plan for effective patient care services it provides in a document. The QA program will include all aspects of patient care: physical, clinical, and medical aspects of the services. The document will describe the organisational structure, responsibilities, checks and procedures, and resources allocated to ensure the successful implementation of the quality of patient management. Regulatory guidelines and guidelines from accreditation agencies should be incorporated in the QA program to ensure compliance. The organisational structure will have a multidisciplinary QA committee that has the authority to evaluate continuously the effectiveness of the QA program to provide prompt corrective recommendations and to request feedback as needed to monitor the response. The continuous monitoring aspects require meetings to be held at regular intervals with the minutes of the meetings officially recorded and documented. To ensure that a QA program is effective, the program itself should be audited for quality at regular intervals at least annually. It has been recognised that the current QA program has not kept abreast with the rapid implementation of new and advanced radiation therapy technologies with the most recent in image-based radiation therapy technology. The societal bodies (ASTRO and AAPM) and federal agency (NCI) acknowledge this inadequacy and have held workshops to address this issue. The challenges for the societal bodies and federal agency are numerous that include (a) the prescriptive methodology

  15. Technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    St John, T J; Cassata, J R; Blake, P K; Wallace, W H; Minniti, R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) quality programme. The Navy has been formally monitoring personnel for occupational exposure to ionising radiation since at least 1946. The current system, the DT-702/PD, is the Harshaw 8840 holder and 8841 card. New card and holder checks are performed to verify that the correct LiF elements and holder filters are in the correct location and are of the correct composition. Element correction coefficient (ECC) magnitude and repeatability are also verified. Several quality assurance parameters are checked by a specially designed shipping machine. Calibration cards are used to calibrate each reader and quality control cards are inserted throughout a group of field cards to verify reader operation during the read process. The success of the programme is measured by annual proficiency tests administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Programme and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories.

  16. Occipital nerve stimulation: technical and surgical aspects of implantation.

    PubMed

    Trentman, Terrence L; Zimmerman, Richard S

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this article is to review the surgical aspects of occipital stimulation. Since 1999 there has been a growing interest in neuromodulation of the distal branches of C2-3 in an effort to treat refractory headache disorders. This is accomplished via implantation of subcutaneous electrodes to stimulate peripheral nerves in the occipital region. "Occipital nerve stimulation" is a term generically used to describe the technique. Mechanisms and outcome of this modality are beyond the scope of this review, which will focus on the technical aspects of the procedure with its associated complications such as lead migration, localized pain, and infection. The history of peripheral nerve and spinal cord stimulation as pain treatment modalities will be briefly reviewed. The equipment and surgical technique for both trial and permanent implantation of occipital nerve stimulators will be described, in addition to patient selection considerations. The available literature will be summarized and a discussion of future directions will be provided. Occipital nerve stimulation may be an effective minimally invasive treatment modality for refractory headache disorders; clearly, further studies are needed.

  17. Robotic liver surgery: technical aspects and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Francesco Maria; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis Fernando; Kim, Jihun; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for liver resections has a defined role and represents an accepted alternative to open techniques for selected cases. Robotic technology can overcome some of the disadvantages of the laparoscopic technique, mainly in the most complex cases. Precise dissection and microsuturing is possible, even in narrow operative fields, allowing for a better dissection of the hepatic hilum, fine lymphadenectomy, and biliary reconstruction even with small bile ducts and easier bleeding control. This technique has the potential to allow for a greater number of major resections and difficult segmentectomies to be performed in a minimally invasive fashion. The implementation of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) also allows for a more accurate recognition of vascular and biliary anatomy. The perspectives of this kind of virtually implemented imaging are very promising and may be reflected in better outcomes. The overall data present in current literature suggests that robotic liver resections are at least comparable to both open and laparoscopic surgery in terms of perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This article provides technical details of robotic liver resections and a review of the current literature. PMID:27500143

  18. Robotic liver surgery: technical aspects and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo; Bianco, Francesco Maria; Daskalaki, Despoina; Gonzalez-Ciccarelli, Luis Fernando; Kim, Jihun; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for liver resections has a defined role and represents an accepted alternative to open techniques for selected cases. Robotic technology can overcome some of the disadvantages of the laparoscopic technique, mainly in the most complex cases. Precise dissection and microsuturing is possible, even in narrow operative fields, allowing for a better dissection of the hepatic hilum, fine lymphadenectomy, and biliary reconstruction even with small bile ducts and easier bleeding control. This technique has the potential to allow for a greater number of major resections and difficult segmentectomies to be performed in a minimally invasive fashion. The implementation of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) also allows for a more accurate recognition of vascular and biliary anatomy. The perspectives of this kind of virtually implemented imaging are very promising and may be reflected in better outcomes. The overall data present in current literature suggests that robotic liver resections are at least comparable to both open and laparoscopic surgery in terms of perioperative and postoperative outcomes. This article provides technical details of robotic liver resections and a review of the current literature.

  19. Technical aspects of quality assurance in radiation oncology

    PubMed Central

    Saw, CB; Ferenci, MS; Wanger, H

    2008-01-01

    The technical aspects of quality assurance (QA) in radiation oncology as practice in the United States will be reviewed and updated in the spirit of offering the experience to the radiation oncology communities in the Asia-Pacific region. The word “technical” is used to express the organisational components or processes and not the materials within the QA program. A comprehensive QA program in radiation oncology will have an official statement declaring the quality plan for effective patient care services it provides in a document. The QA program will include all aspects of patient care: physical, clinical, and medical aspects of the services. The document will describe the organisational structure, responsibilities, checks and procedures, and resources allocated to ensure the successful implementation of the quality of patient management. Regulatory guidelines and guidelines from accreditation agencies should be incorporated in the QA program to ensure compliance. The organisational structure will have a multidisciplinary QA committee that has the authority to evaluate continuously the effectiveness of the QA program to provide prompt corrective recommendations and to request feedback as needed to monitor the response. The continuous monitoring aspects require meetings to be held at regular intervals with the minutes of the meetings officially recorded and documented. To ensure that a QA program is effective, the program itself should be audited for quality at regular intervals at least annually. It has been recognised that the current QA program has not kept abreast with the rapid implementation of new and advanced radiation therapy technologies with the most recent in image-based radiation therapy technology. The societal bodies (ASTRO and AAPM) and federal agency (NCI) acknowledge this inadequacy and have held workshops to address this issue. The challenges for the societal bodies and federal agency are numerous that include (a) the prescriptive methodology

  20. Key Technical Aspects Influencing the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2016-09-01

    Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.

  1. The coronary sinus reducer: clinical evidence and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Francesco; Aurelio, Andrea; Jabbour, Richard J; Ferri, Luca; Colombo, Antonio; Latib, Azeem

    2017-01-01

    Chronic refractory angina is often a disabling condition, predominantly due to severe obstructive coronary artery disease, that is inadequately controlled by optimal medical therapy and not amenable to further percutaneous or surgical revascularization. mortality rates associated with this condition are relatively low in clinically stable patients. however, it is associated with a high hospitalization rate and a reduction in both exercise capacity and quality of life. due to the paucity of available treatment options, there is an unmet need for new therapies for these patients and for a reduction in the associated economic healthcare burden. Areas covered: This review is focusing on the clinical evidence and technical aspects of this new therapeutic modality in refractory angina patients unsuitable for revascularization. Expert commentary: The Coronary Sinus Reducer (Neovasc Inc. Richmond B.C., Canada) is a new percutaneous device designed to achieve a controlled narrowing of the coronary sinus that may alleviate myocardial ischemia, possibly by redistributing blood from the less ischemic sub-epicardium to the more ischemic sub-endocardium, or by neoangiogenesis. Recently, a randomized, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial demonstrated a benefit in improving symptoms in 104 refractory angina patients, when compared to placebo.

  2. Perforating the atretic pulmonary valve with CTO hardware: Technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilkanth C; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Mishra, Sundeep; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S

    2016-11-01

    To review the success and technical aspects of pulmonary valve (PV) perforation using chronic total occlusion (CTO) hardware in patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS). Interventional therapy is possible in selected patients with PA-IVS. Among the various interventional options available, radiofrequency and laser assisted perforation may be more successful, but require expertise and may be substantially costly. We describe the technique of mechanical catheter PV perforation using currently available coronary hardware meant for coronary CTO in nine cases with PA-IVS. After complete echocardiographic evaluation and informed parental consent was obtained, patients were electively intubated, mechanically ventilated, adequately heparinized and were placed on intravenous prostaglandin infusion. Basic steps involved were-localizing the atretic segment and accomplishing coaxial alignment of catheters using biplane fluoroscopy, crossing the atretic segment with the soft end of perforating guidewire, stabilizing the assembly and performing graded balloon dilatation with the balloon size never exceeding 130% of pulmonary annulus diameter. For crossing the atretic PV, a retrograde approach was used in one patient where the antegrade approach was not possible. The procedure was successful in 8/9 cases (89%). Valve opening was achieved in all eight patients with immediate fall in right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures. One neonate died following surgery after catheter induced RV perforation. All surviving cases were discharged from the hospital in good general condition with no evidence of heart failure and a room air oxygen saturation of >85%. No patient required an additional pulmonary irrigation procedure. With appropriate patient and hardware selection, PV perforation using readily available coronary hardware is feasible in PA-IVS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Astrophysical and Technical Aspects of Astrometric Methods on Hubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, D. G.

    2005-10-01

    The astrometric analysis of eta Carinae, the associated homunculus, the surrounding ejected debris field and the inner core region with its more recent ejecta has provided both a wide variety of astrophysical results and a study on the use, methods and accuracy of astrometric procedures, both for the "plane of the sky" and for radial velocity or 3D astrometry, on extended or diffuse objects. From an astrophysical point of view, it has revealed the origin, history and 3D structure of the homunculus that was ejected in the Great Eruption of 1842. Additional information on the structure of the homunculus has been provided by the use of the Fabry-Perot with ADONIS on the European Southern Observatory's 3.6 meter telescope at La Silla, Chile. The analysis of the surrounding ejected debris has yielded information on the history of previous eruptions and may yield information as to the physical nature of these earlier eruptions. The interaction of the debris from various eruptions addresses the current state of the circumstellar media. Finally, recent analysis of the inner core region, using both the UVES spectrograph on the ESO's VLT at Paranal, Chile and the WFPC and the HRC/ACS on HST has yielded a definitive determination of the date of the origin of the Weigelt blobs. It should also yield definitive information on the motion of the inner disk. In general, it has yielded a large body of new information and, in addition, it has also greatly constrained theories and conjectures as to the history, structure, origin and evolution of eta Carinae and its ejecta. On the other hand, eta CAR has also been a very interesting object for the technical development of astrometric methods for use on diffuse objects. It is bright enough to allow multiple observations to understand the reproducibility of the results without a large penalty for telescope time. It is also bright enough to provide sufficient photons in an acceptable exposure time to obtain a very good signal

  4. On The Human, Organizational, and Technical Aspects of Software Development and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    Information systems are designed, constructed, and used by people. Therefore, a software design process is not purely a technical task, but a complex psycho-socio-technical process embedded within organizational, cultural, and social structures. These structures influence the behavior and products of the programmer's work such as source code and documentation. This chapter (1) discusses the non-technical (organizational, social, cultural, and psychological) aspects of software development reflected in program source code; (2) presents a taxonomy of the social disciplines of computer science; and (3) discusses the socio-technical software analysis methods for discovering the human, organizational, and technical aspects embedded within software development artifacts.

  5. Reconstruction of the System for Technical Education and Improvement of Teachers' Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioiri, Mutsuo

    It is necessary to reconstruct the system for technical education and to improve teachers' abilities in order to educate children who have a great interest in creation. This paper describes that, the revised education ministry guidelines, the relation between the reconstruction of system for technical education and the combined primary and junior-high school, the improvement of teachers' abilities, the change of teacher service examination, the technical education in junior high school, and the advertisement of the importance of technical education according to the report of the central education council.

  6. Aspects of Machine-Assisted Translation in Technical Sublanguage Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Arne

    Technical sublanguages are discussed as a medium for communication between individuals, corporations, and non-commercial organizations. The technical translator's professional activities are regarded as a means for achieving specific goals in communication. Features of languages for specific purposes (LSP) and sublanguages are discussed briefly.…

  7. Technical aspects related to direct broadcasting satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattan, B.

    1980-09-01

    A collection of technical memoranda relating to Direct Braodcasting Satellite (DBS) systems is presented. The material includes a general description of DBS satellites, technical tradeoffs in the design of a system which includes ground receivers, advances in the technology, some information on satellite planning for the ITU Region 2 and a description of experimental DBS satellite systems.

  8. Aspects of Machine-Assisted Translation in Technical Sublanguage Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Arne

    Technical sublanguages are discussed as a medium for communication between individuals, corporations, and non-commercial organizations. The technical translator's professional activities are regarded as a means for achieving specific goals in communication. Features of languages for specific purposes (LSP) and sublanguages are discussed briefly.…

  9. Some Aspects of Applying Psychoacoustic Principles to Soundfield Reconstruction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, Steven David

    Too few loudspeakers are applied with current technology to reproduce a soundfield exactly to high audio frequencies over a large region. However, it is feasible to use reasonable numbers of speakers to reproduce a soundfield in a lower frequency range. The prior work of this nature has primarily grown out of transaural techniques, noise control approaches and applications of the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral theorem, either explicitly or implicitly. These approaches to soundfield reconstruction are essentially similar in that they all use some form of a linear transfer matrix to relate the speaker array output to the soundfield. Knowing this allows seemingly disparate techniques to be combined. Possible perceptual tradeoffs are discussed in the context of optimizing with a clear perceptual goal depending on carefully weighed considerations. The necessary steps to achieve this 'perceptual' reconstruction are discussed on a higher level before details of possible implementations are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on a class of iterative algorithms wherein the target soundfield is replaced by a perceptually similar target soundfield which is easier to obtain using loudspeakers and simple methods such as least squares approximation. To explore various techniques and ideas, simple models are used consisting of monopole monochromatic sources in a simulated anechoic environment. The iterative algorithms are discussed in the context of implications for a simple psychoacoustic model. By taking the difference between the target soundfield and the reconstructed soundfield, it was found that modest improvement is possible, reducing amplitude error at a set of sample locations, and relative phase error between members of such a set. The cost of this improvement is a worsened absolute phase error, which is much less perceptually relevant. A direct implementation based on some of these discrete frequency results using the short time Fourier transform is examined. Also, a simple

  10. Technical aspects of internet-based knowledge presentation in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lütttgau, A; Bendl, R

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning is a complex and time-consuming optimization process which requires much experience. To simplify and to speed up the process of treatment planning as well as to exchange experience and therapeutic knowledge, the department of Medical Physics at the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg is developing an Internet-based 3D Radiotherapy planning and Information System (IRIS). IRIS designed internet-based client-server application, implemented using Java, CORBA and PVM. The concept of IRIS combines the functionality of an interactive tutorial with a discussion forum, teleconferencing tool and an atlas of dose distributions. Furthermore an integral knowledge-based system provides automatically generated, preoptimized treatment plans. This paper explains the technical design of the system and gives an overview of experiences gained by the technical realization of a first prototype using currently available internet technology. The prototype is currently running for testing in the intranet of DKFZ.

  11. Technical aspects of the provisional side branch stenting strategy.

    PubMed

    Darremont, Olivier; Leymarie, Jean Louis; Lefèvre, Thierry; Albiero, Remo; Mortier, Peter; Louvard, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Provisional side branch (SB) stenting is the recommended treatment strategy in the vast majority of bifurcation lesions. Over the past 10 years, advances in fundamental knowledge have led to a better understanding and to improvements of this technical approach. This strategy has reached maturity, and long-term clinical results are now comparable to those of non-bifurcation lesions. This paper describes in detail simple rules and tips and tricks which may help physicians in daily practice to use provisional side branch (SB) stenting as the gold standard treatment for the majority of bifurcation lesions.

  12. Dedicated bifurcation stents - Mechanistic, hardware, and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in bifurcation lesions is associated with lower success rate, higher acute complication rates and higher event rates in follow-up. The reason for this higher than usual complication rate relates to the relationship between anatomy, flow, and atheroma distribution in bifurcation lesions. Further, stenting these lesions can be a prolonged procedure and can be technically more demanding. The most common complication is the loss of significant side branch (SB). Main vessel (MV) stenting may enhance the carina displacement and atheroma shift across the SB ostium leading to SB ostium narrowing. Finally, complications, if they occur, are more difficult to manage. Dedicated bifurcation stent has been developed to overcome the number of limitations associated with conventional bifurcation PCI. The main advantage of most dedicated bifurcation stents is to allow the operator to perform the procedure on a bifurcation lesion without the need to rewire the SB.

  13. Technical and economic aspects of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R.

    1981-01-01

    The recovery of hydrogen from such metal hydrides as LiH, MgH2, TiH2, CaH2 and FeTiH compounds is studied, with the aim of evaluating the viability of the technique for the storage of hydrogen fuel. The pressure-temperature dependence of the reactions, enthalpies of formation, the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption, and the mechanical and chemical stability of the metal hydrides are taken into account in the evaluation. Economic aspects are considered. Development of portable metal hydride hydrogen storage reservoirs is also mentioned.

  14. The superomedial thigh flap in scrotal reconstruction: Technical steps to improve cosmetic results

    PubMed Central

    Oufkir, Ayat Allah; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; El Alami, Mohammed Noureddine El Amine

    2013-01-01

    The superomedial thigh flap is a reliable and easy method for scrotal reconstruction described in 1980 and infrequently reported in the literature since its description. We used it for four patients presenting scrotal defects after Fournier's gangrene with some technical modifications to improve the esthetic results and to facilitate the closure of the donor area. We describe the technical steps and the results. PMID:24235804

  15. Technical aspects of double-skeletonized internal mammary artery grafting.

    PubMed

    Gurevitch, J; Kramer, A; Locker, C; Shapira, I; Paz, Y; Matsa, M; Mohr, R

    2000-03-01

    Bilateral internal mammary artery (IMA) grafting is performed to provide complete arterial myocardial revascularization with the intention of decreasing postoperative return of angina and the need for reoperation. We present here technical views of double-skeletonized IMA grafting, and evaluate its clinical outcome. Skeletonized IMA is harvested gently with scissors and silver clips, without use of cauterization, and embedded in a small syringe filled with papaverine. Three strategies for arterial revascularization were employed in 762 consecutive patients: (1) the cross arrangement (242 patients, 32%), where the in situ right internal mammary artery (RIMA) is used for the left anterior descending artery (LAD), in situ left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to circumflex marginal branches and the gastroepiploic artery for the right coronary artery (RCA); (2) the composite arrangement (476 patients, 62%), where free IMA is attached end-to-side to the other in situ IMA; and (3) the natural arrangement (44 patients, 6%), where the in situ RIMA is connected to the RCA and in situ LIMA to LAD. Mean age was 66 years (range 30 to 92). Two hundred ninety-two patients (38%) were older than 70, and 229 (30%) were diabetic. Operative mortality was 2.5% (n = 19). The mortality of urgent and elective cases was 1.2% (8 of 663), and that of emergency operation was 11% (11 of 99). There were 9 (1.2%) perioperative myocardial infarctions, and 10 patients (1.3%) sustained strokes. Sternal wound infection occurred in 14 (1.8%). The three strategies described here provide the surgeon with the versatility required for arterial revascularization with bilateral IMAs in most patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting.

  16. Clinical and technical aspects of bipolar transurethral prostate resection.

    PubMed

    Faul, Peter; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Hahn, Robert Gustaw

    2008-01-01

    This review aims to provide an overview and critical assessment of the developments in transurethral electroresection in non-conductive and conductive irrigants. In the 1970s, measurements of the electric pathway in saline were performed for different locations of the neutral electrode. It was then concluded that the current pathway and the possible hazards of burn injuries to the patient should be investigated separately for each arrangement of the neutral electrode. The position and shape of the neutral electrode have decisive effects on the current flow in the patient. Thus, different electrode arrangements of the various bipolar resection systems need to be analysed separately. Furthermore, not only electrical power, but also conductivity and quality of the lubricant gel have to be considered as critical factors with regard to electrothermal injuries of the urethra. The supposedly better cutting quality seems to be based more on subjective observations than on scientific valid data. When performing "bipolar" TUR it is necessary to consider all electrotechnical and clinical aspects, particularly with regard to the potential risk of thermoelectrical urethral damage.

  17. The technical and interpersonal aspects of telemedicine: effects on doctor-patient communication.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edward Alan

    2003-01-01

    The influence of telemedicine on the nature and content of doctor-patient communication stems from both its technical and its interpersonal aspects. While the technical aspects are concerned with the communication technologies used and the clinical processes enabled by those technologies, the interpersonal aspects are concerned with relationships between system personnel, providers and patients, and the way in which those relationships are organized. On the one hand, this paper posits that the influence of the technical environment stems from depersonalization of the doctor-patient relationship, participatory enhancements and impediments, and sensory and non-verbal limitations. On the other hand, it posits that the influence of the interpersonal environment stems from third-party participation, social and professional distancing, and underdeveloped norms and standards. A combined positivist and interpretivist evaluation strategy would enable researchers to make better-informed connections between telemedicine, medical encounter behaviour and health outcomes.

  18. Noninvasive Spinal Cord Stimulation: Technical Aspects and Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Orioli, Andrea; Frey, Vanessa; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    pathophysiologic aspects of spinal cord function. Moreover, transcutaneous direct current stimulation and repetitive magnetic stimulation may hold therapeutic promise in patients with spinal cord disorders, although future well-controlled studies are needed to corroborate and extend the preliminary findings. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  19. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  20. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    improved. The paper refers to some of the most important and significant examples in Italy, and underlines the possibility of extending, by underground quarrying, the exploitation of important and well-appreciated natural stones, as the quartzite-sandstone of the Tosco-Emiliano Appennini (Firenzuola Stone) and the Alpine gneisses. In order to pass from the simple experimental stage (explorative drift) to the more complex 3D design of the underground voids, detailed geo-structural reconstruction of the rock body and specific lithological in situ surveys are needed: such important aspects represent a very interesting common field between mining engineers and geologists.

  1. Endovascular Iliocaval Stent Reconstruction for Inferior Vena Cava Filter-Associated Iliocaval Thrombosis: Approach, Technical Success, Safety, and Two-Year Outcomes in 120 Patients.

    PubMed

    Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Jo, Alexandria; Meadows, J Matthew; Abramowitz, Steven D; Khaja, Minhaj S; Cooper, Kyle J; Williams, David M

    2017-07-01

    To report technical success, outcomes, and patency of iliocaval stent reconstruction for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter-bearing iliocaval thrombosis. A total of 120 patients with 123 IVC filters and symptomatic iliocaval thrombosis underwent stent reconstruction. Mean patient age was 55 years (range, 19-88 y). Filters included 70 (57%) retrievable and 53 (43%) permanent filters. Symptoms included lower extremity swelling or pain (n = 93), ulcers (n = 8), phlegmasia (n = 7), back pain (n = 5), shortness of breath (n = 4), worsening renal function (n = 2), and stenosis identified during translumbar catheter placement (n = 1). Clinical success was defined as decrease in clinical, etiology, anatomy, and pathophysiology (CEAP) score of at least 1; resolution of presenting symptoms; or normalization of renal function in patients with juxtarenal or suprarenal thrombosis on presentation. Technical aspects of reconstruction, technical success, complications, 6-month clinical response, and 6-, 12-, and 24-month primary, primary-assisted, and secondary stent patency rates were recorded. Stent reconstruction was technically successful in all 120 patients, 63 of whom (53%) underwent thrombolysis. Thirty filters (24%) were retrieved, and 93 (76%) were excluded with stent placement across the indwelling filter. Six minor and 2 major complications occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 115 patients (96%) at 6 months. Six-, 12-, and 24-month primary iliocaval stent patency rates were 96.4%, 94.8%, and 87.2%, respectively. Twenty-four month primary-assisted and secondary patency rates were 90.3% and 94.2%, respectively. Iliocaval stent reconstruction is an effective treatment for filter-associated thrombosis with 100% technical success and 96% clinical success at 6 months. Technical and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent filter retrieval versus filter exclusion were similar. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas

    2016-04-01

    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces using structured light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettel, Johannes; Müller, Claas; Reinecke, Holger

    2014-11-01

    In computer assisted quality control the three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces is playing an ever more important role. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution for the three-dimensional measurement of technical surfaces with high vertical and lateral resolution. However, the three-dimensional reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces with very low surface-roughness and local slopes still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. Furthermore the high data acquisition rates of current optical measurement systems depend on highly complex and expensive scanning-techniques making them impractical for inline quality control. In this paper we present a novel measurement principle based on a multi-pinhole structured light solution without moving parts which enables the threedimensional reconstruction of specular and diffuse reflecting technical surfaces. This measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point-measurements. These point measurements are realized by spatially locating and analyzing the resulting Point Spread Function (PSF) in parallel for each point measurement. Analysis of the PSF is realized by pattern recognition and model-fitting algorithms accelerated by current Graphics-Processing-Unit (GPU) hardware to reach suitable measurement rates. Using the example of optical surfaces with very low surface-roughness we demonstrate the three-dimensional reconstruction of these surfaces by applying our measurement principle. Thereby we show that the resulting high measurement accuracy enables cost-efficient three-dimensional surface reconstruction suitable for inline quality control.

  4. Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification: Technical Team Report on the First Industry Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael; Knight, John C.; Leveson, Nancy G.; Yang, Jeffrey C.; Dorsey, Cheryl A.; McCormick, G. Frank

    1998-01-01

    To address concerns about time and expense associated with software aspects of certification, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began the Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification (SSAC) program. As part of this program, a Technical Team was established to determine whether the cost and time associated with certifying aircraft can be reduced while maintaining or improving safety, with the intent of impacting the FAA's Flight 2000 program. The Technical Team conducted a workshop to gain a better understanding of the major concerns in industry about software cost and schedule. Over 120 people attended the workshop, including representatives from the FAA,commercial transport and general aviation aircraft manufacturers and suppliers, and procurers and developers of non-airborne systems; and, more than 200 issues about software aspects of certification were recorded. This paper provides an overview of the SSAC program, motivation for the workshop, details of the workshop activities and outcomes, and recommendations for follow-on work.

  5. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in repeat calvarial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis: technical note.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Melissa; Daniels, Bradley; Buchanan, Edward P; Monson, Laura; Lam, Sandi

    2017-04-01

    Repeat surgery for restenosis after initial nonsyndromic craniosynostosis intervention is sometimes needed. Calvarial vault reconstruction through a healed surgical bed adds a level of intraoperative complexity and may benefit from preoperative and intraoperative definitions of biometric and aesthetic norms. Computer-assisted design and manufacturing using 3D imaging allows the precise formulation of operative plans in anticipation of surgical intervention. 3D printing turns virtual plans into anatomical replicas, templates, or customized implants by using a variety of materials. The authors present a technical note illustrating the use of this technology: a repeat calvarial vault reconstruction that was planned and executed using computer-assisted design and 3D printed intraoperative guides.

  6. Comparison of psychological aspects and patient satisfaction following breast conserving surgery, simple mastectomy and breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghazal, S K; Fallowfield, L; Blamey, R W

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the psychological outcome and satisfaction of patients whom underwent wide local excision, mastectomy alone and mastectomy with breast reconstruction. A total of 577 patients had different types of operations for primary breast cancer (254 (44%) had wide local excision, 202 (35%) had simple mastectomy and 121 (21%) had breast reconstruction). Psychosocial morbidity and satisfaction were studied retrospectively using self-evaluation questionnaires. The three different surgical groups were cross-matched into four different age group. Significant statistical differences existed between the three procedures regarding satisfaction and psychosocial morbidity (anxiety, depression, body image, sexuality and self-esteem) in favour of wide local excision followed by breast reconstruction. Greatest morbidity was seen in the mastectomy group. Patient satisfaction of cosmetic outcome and psychosocial aspects was greater with wide local excision than with breast reconstruction or mastectomy. However, since wide local excision is indicated in only a group of patients, breast reconstruction should be an option available to patients requiring mastectomy.

  7. Positive and negative aspects of well-being as correlates of breast reconstruction decision.

    PubMed

    Zycinska, Jolanta; Gruszczynska, Ewa; Choteborska, Alina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of positive and negative aspects of well-being in a breast reconstruction decision, described in terms of the trans-theoretical model of change (TTM). The study comprised 216 women after total mastectomy in the cross-sectional design. The positive aspects of well-being were measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale; the negative aspects were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (T-Anxiety scale). The multinomial logistic regression analyses were implemented, and the action stage was chosen as a relevant category. McFadden's pseudo R-squared for positive, negative and combined aspects of well-being models equalled 0.28, 0.13 and 0.27, respectively. For the first model, the differential effects were observed for well-being, age and relationship status (54 % correctly classified cases), whereas for the model with negative aspects-only age and well-being (44 % correctly classified cases). For a model combining two aspects of well-being, the pattern was similar to the one observed for positive well-being (53 % correctly classified cases). The likelihood of classifying women in the action stage rather than in the pre-contemplation stage was determined by three variables: being in a relationship, better well-being and younger age. For the contemplation stage, the same relations were obtained for well-being and age. Finally, for the preparation stage, the well-being effect disappeared. The results suggest that positive rather than negative aspects of well-being, after control for sociodemographic variables, may be significant correlates of breast reconstruction decision.

  8. Technical Aspects of Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report.

    PubMed

    Wahidi, Momen M; Herth, Felix; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Shepherd, Ray Wesley; Yarmus, Lonny; Chawla, Mohit; Lamb, Carla; Casey, Kenneth R; Patel, Sheena; Silvestri, Gerard A; Feller-Kopman, David J

    2016-03-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) was introduced in the last decade, enabling real-time guidance of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of mediastinal and hilar structures and parabronchial lung masses. The many publications produced about EBUS-TBNA have led to a better understanding of the performance characteristics of this procedure. The goal of this document was to examine the current literature on the technical aspects of EBUS-TBNA as they relate to patient, technology, and proceduralist factors to provide evidence-based and expert guidance to clinicians. Rigorous methodology has been applied to provide a trustworthy evidence-based guideline and expert panel report. A group of approved panelists developed key clinical questions by using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format that addressed specific topics on the technical aspects of EBUS-TBNA. MEDLINE (via PubMed) and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for relevant literature, which was supplemented by manual searches. References were screened for inclusion, and well-recognized document evaluation tools were used to assess the quality of included studies, to extract meaningful data, and to grade the level of evidence to support each recommendation or suggestion. Our systematic review and critical analysis of the literature on 15 PICO questions related to the technical aspects of EBUS-TBNA resulted in 12 statements: 7 evidence-based graded recommendations and 5 ungraded consensus-based statements. Three questions did not have sufficient evidence to generate a statement. Evidence on the technical aspects of EBUS-TBNA varies in strength but is satisfactory in certain areas to guide clinicians on the best conditions to perform EBUS-guided tissue sampling. Additional research is needed to enhance our knowledge regarding the optimal performance of this effective procedure. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. C-arm cone-beam computed tomography in interventional oncology: technical aspects and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Floridi, Chiara; Radaelli, Alessandro; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Grass, Micheal; Lin, Ming De; Chiaradia, Melanie; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Kobeiter, Hishman; Squillaci, Ettore; Maleux, Geert; Giovagnoni, Andrea; Brunese, Luca; Wood, Bradford; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Rotondo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new imaging technology integrated in modern angiographic systems. Due to its ability to obtain cross-sectional imaging and the possibility to use dedicated planning and navigation software, it provides an informed platform for interventional oncology procedures. In this paper, we highlight the technical aspects and clinical applications of CBCT imaging and navigation in the most common loco-regional oncological treatments. PMID:25012472

  10. Multi-Scale Measures of Rugosity, Slope and Aspect from Benthic Stereo Image Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ariell; Pizarro, Oscar; Williams, Stefan B.; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect can be derived from fine-scale bathymetric reconstructions created from geo-referenced stereo imagery. We generate three-dimensional reconstructions over large spatial scales using data collected by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), manned submersibles and diver-held imaging systems. We propose a new method for calculating rugosity in a Delaunay triangulated surface mesh by projecting areas onto the plane of best fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Slope and aspect can be calculated with very little extra effort, and fitting a plane serves to decouple rugosity from slope. We compare the results of the virtual terrain complexity calculations with experimental results using conventional in-situ measurement methods. We show that performing calculations over a digital terrain reconstruction is more flexible, robust and easily repeatable. In addition, the method is non-contact and provides much less environmental impact compared to traditional survey techniques. For diver-based surveys, the time underwater needed to collect rugosity data is significantly reduced and, being a technique based on images, it is possible to use robotic platforms that can operate beyond diver depths. Measurements can be calculated exhaustively at multiple scales for surveys with tens of thousands of images covering thousands of square metres. The technique is demonstrated on data gathered by a diver-rig and an AUV, on small single-transect surveys and on a larger, dense survey that covers over . Stereo images provide 3D structure as well as visual appearance, which could potentially feed into automated classification techniques. Our multi-scale rugosity, slope and aspect measures have already been adopted in a number of marine science studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the method and thoroughly validates it against traditional in

  11. Multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect from benthic stereo image reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Ariell; Pizarro, Oscar; Williams, Stefan B; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how multi-scale measures of rugosity, slope and aspect can be derived from fine-scale bathymetric reconstructions created from geo-referenced stereo imagery. We generate three-dimensional reconstructions over large spatial scales using data collected by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), manned submersibles and diver-held imaging systems. We propose a new method for calculating rugosity in a Delaunay triangulated surface mesh by projecting areas onto the plane of best fit using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Slope and aspect can be calculated with very little extra effort, and fitting a plane serves to decouple rugosity from slope. We compare the results of the virtual terrain complexity calculations with experimental results using conventional in-situ measurement methods. We show that performing calculations over a digital terrain reconstruction is more flexible, robust and easily repeatable. In addition, the method is non-contact and provides much less environmental impact compared to traditional survey techniques. For diver-based surveys, the time underwater needed to collect rugosity data is significantly reduced and, being a technique based on images, it is possible to use robotic platforms that can operate beyond diver depths. Measurements can be calculated exhaustively at multiple scales for surveys with tens of thousands of images covering thousands of square metres. The technique is demonstrated on data gathered by a diver-rig and an AUV, on small single-transect surveys and on a larger, dense survey that covers over [Formula: see text]. Stereo images provide 3D structure as well as visual appearance, which could potentially feed into automated classification techniques. Our multi-scale rugosity, slope and aspect measures have already been adopted in a number of marine science studies. This paper presents a detailed description of the method and thoroughly validates it against traditional

  12. Technical aspects and outcomes of living donor liver transplantation for pediatric patients with situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Rodrigo; Seda-Neto, Joao; Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes da; Ketzer, Bernardo Mazzini; Benavides, Marcel; Cândido, Helry Lopes; Porta, Gilda; Miura, Irene Kazue; Pugliese, Renata; Danesi, Vera Baggio; Guimaraes, Teresa Cristina; Porta, Adriana; Borges, Cristian Barbieri; Kondo, Mario; Chapchap, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The vascular anomalies encountered in patients with biliary atresia associated with polysplenia syndrome and situs inversus (SI) demand technical refinements when liver transplantation is being performed. The available data describing the technique used in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in this population are limited; the short vascular stumps of the donor's liver can impart additional technical difficulties during vascular reconstruction. Here we describe our experience with 9 children with biliary atresia and SI who underwent LDLT. In our series, the retrohepatic vena cava was absent for 7 patients, 7 had a preduodenal portal vein (PV), and 4 had a variant arterial anatomy. The donor's left hepatic vein was anastomosed to the confluence of the recipient's 3 hepatic veins in 7 patients. Vascular grafts were used for PV reconstruction in 3 cases. A left lateral segment graft was used in all but 1 patient who needed a graft reduction. All grafts were placed in the upper left abdomen. There were no vascular complications after transplantation. All patients were alive and well at a median follow-up of 55 months. In conclusion, LDLT can be successfully performed in pediatric patients with SI. Complex vascular anomalies associated with the use of partial liver grafts obtained from living donors are not associated with an increased occurrence of vascular complications.

  13. Full-aspect 3D target reconstruction of interferometric circular SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yun; Bao, Qian; Hou, Liying; Yu, Lingjuan; Hong, Wen

    2016-10-01

    Circular SAR has several attractive features, such as full-aspect observation, high resolution, and 3D target reconstruction capability, thus it has important potential in fine feature description of typical targets. However, the 3D reconstruction capability relies on the scattering persistence of the target. For target with a highly directive scattering property, the resolution in the direction perpendicular to the instantaneous slant plane is very low compared to the range and azimuth resolutions, and the 3D structure of target can hardly be obtained. In this paper, an Interferometric Circular SAR (InCSAR) method is proposed to reconstruct the full-aspect 3D structure of typical targets. InCSAR uses two sensors with a small incident angle difference to collect data in a circular trajectory. The method proposed in this paper calculates the interferometric phase difference (IPD) of the image pair at equally spaced height slices, and mask the original image with an IPD threshold. The main principle is that when a scatterer is imaged at a wrong height, the image pair has an offset, which results in a nonzero IPD, and only when the scatterer is correctly imaged at its true height, the IPD is near zero. The IPD threshold is used to retain scatterers that is correctly imaged at the right height, and meanwhile eliminate scatterers that is imaged at a wrong height, thus the 3D target structure can be retrieved. The proposed method is validated by real data processing, both the data collected in the microwave chamber and the GOTCHA airborne data.

  14. Integration of FDG-PET/CT into external beam radiation therapy planning: technical aspects and recommendations on methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Thorwarth, D; Beyer, T; Boellaard, R; de Ruysscher, D; Grgic, A; Lee, J A; Pietrzyk, U; Sattler, B; Schaefer, A; van Elmpt, W; Vogel, W; Oyen, W J G; Nestle, U

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the clinical adoption of FDG-PET/CT for image-guided radiation therapy planning (RTP). As such, important technical and methodological aspects of PET/CT-based RTP are reviewed and practical recommendations are given for routine patient management and clinical studies. First, recent developments in PET/CT hardware that are relevant to RTP are reviewed in the context of quality control and system calibration procedures that are mandatory for a reproducible adoption of PET/CT in RTP. Second, recommendations are provided on image acquisition and reconstruction to support the standardization of imaging protocols. A major prerequisite for routine RTP is a complete and secure data transfer to the actual planning system. Third, state-of-the-art tools for image fusion and co-registration are discussed briefly in the context of PET/CT imaging pre- and post-RTP. This includes a brief review of state-of-the-art image contouring algorithms relevant to PET/CT-guided RTP. Finally, practical aspects of clinical workflow and patient management, such as patient setup and requirements for staff training are emphasized. PET/CT-guided RTP mandates attention to logistical aspects, patient set-up and acquisition parameters as well as an in-depth appreciation of quality control and protocol standardization. Upon fulfilling the requirements to perform PET/CT for RTP, a new dimension of molecular imaging can be added to traditional morphological imaging. As a consequence, PET/CT imaging will support improved RTP and better patient care. This document serves as a guidance on practical and clinically validated instructions that are deemed useful to the staff involved in PET/CT-guided RTP.

  15. Arthroscopic anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments: A technical simplification.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Decante, C; Geffroy, L; Brulefert, K; Noailles, T

    2016-12-01

    Anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments has become a pivotal component of the treatment strategy for chronic ankle instability. The recently described arthroscopic version of this procedure is indispensable to ensure that concomitant lesions are appropriately managed, yet remains technically demanding. Here, we describe a simplified variant involving percutaneous creation of the calcaneal tunnel for the distal attachment of the calcaneo-fibular ligament. The rationale for this technical stratagem was provided by a preliminary cadaver study that demonstrated a correlation between the lateral malleolus and the distal footprint of the calcaneo-fibular ligament. The main objectives are simplification of the operative technique and decreased injury to tissues whose function is crucial to the recovery of proprioception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Susceptibility weighted magnetic resonance sequences "SWAN, SWI and VenoBOLD": technical aspects and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hodel, J; Rodallec, M; Gerber, S; Blanc, R; Maraval, A; Caron, S; Tyvaert, L; Zuber, M; Zins, M

    2012-05-01

    Susceptibility-weighted MR sequences, T2 star weighted angiography (SWAN, General Electric), Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI, Siemens) and venous blood oxygen level dependant (VenoBOLD, Philips) are 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence that provide a high sensitivity for the detection of blood degradation products, calcifications, and iron deposits. For all these sequences, an appropriate echo time allows for the visualization of susceptibility differences between adjacent tissues. However, each of these sequences presents a specific technical background. The purpose of this review was to describe 1/the technical aspects of SWAN, VenoBOLD and SWI sequences, 2/the differences observed in term of contrast within the images, 3/the key imaging findings in neuroimaging using susceptibility-weighted MR sequences.

  17. Socio-technical aspects of the use of health related personal information for management and research.

    PubMed

    Iversen, K R; Grøtan, T O

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses on the organisational, technical and ethical aspects related to the use of person identifiable health information for various health care management, administration, finance, research and educational purposes. It is based on the ethical standpoint that to the individuals in question, the identifiable health information represents the uttermost sensitive and critical information. In addition, nobody, possibly apart from the patients themselves, may claim ownership of such information. Thus identifiable health information should be (per individual) kept as collected and protected as possible, within the scope of the patient provider relationship. Identifiable health information should, whenever possible and reasonable, be restricted to the health care professionals providing the treatment and care to the patient, and only be made available to others, e.g. for management, research or educational purposes, either in anonymous or pseudonymous form. Secure information management (SIM) is presented as the socio-technical means to facilitate our ethical standpoint in a practical health care environment.

  18. International Clinical Guidelines for the Adoption of Digital Pathology: A Review of Technical Aspects.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital slides, also called whole-slide images, are being evaluated to replace conventional microscopy, and several guidelines have been published. This paper reviews technical specifications of digital pathology systems that have been included in the guidelines and position papers from the Canadian Association of Pathologists, the College of American Pathologists, the American Telemedicine Association, the Digital Pathology Association, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, the European Commission, the Spanish Society of Anatomic Pathology, The Royal College of Pathologists and The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. In conclusion, most technical aspects are well covered by these guidelines, although they offer limited information regarding image quality and compression, and file formats. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Organizational and surgical-technical aspects of the service of abdominal hernioplasty].

    PubMed

    Zanghì, G; Brancato, G; Privitera, A; Rinaldi, E; Donati, M

    1998-01-01

    The authors guided by the experience matured from 1/01/94 to 30/06/97 (435 abdominal hernioplasties performed, mainly inguinal and femoral) illustrate the organizational formalities and the technical aspects of a Hernia Surgery Service. In particular, they highlight the advantages of the routine use of local anaesthesia and of tension-free techniques, carried out on a day surgery rule (immediate rehabilitation, greater facilitation to elective surgery, access to the elderly at high anaesthetic risk). Eventually, they emphasize the remarkable reduction of sanitary costs and the outstanding social, practical and didactic value of such Hernia Centers.

  20. Technical Aspects of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  1. Pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporotic spine: indications, limitations and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, S; Keel, M J B

    2017-02-01

    The need for spinal instrumented fusion in osteoporotic patients is rising. In this review, we try to give an overview of the current spectrum of pedicle screw augmentation techniques, safety aspects and indications. Review of literature and discussion of indications, limitations and technical aspects. Various studies have shown higher failure rates in osteoporotic patients, most probably due to reduced bone quality and a poor bone-screw interface. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, such as polymethylmethacrylate or calcium based cements, is one valid option to enhance fixation if required. Crucial factors for success in the use of augmented screws are careful patient selection, a proper technique and choice of the ideal cement augmentation option.

  2. New totally intracorporeal reconstructive approach after robotic total gastrectomy: Technical details and short-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Amilcare; Ricci, Francesco; Gemini, Alessandro; Trastulli, Stefano; Cirocchi, Roberto; Palazzini, Giorgio; D’Andrea, Vito; Desiderio, Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To show outcomes of our series of patients that underwent a total gastrectomy with a robotic approach and highlight the technical details of a proposed solution for the reconstruction phase. METHODS Data of gastrectomies performed from May 2014 to October 2016, were extracted and analyzed. Basic characteristics of patients, surgical and clinical outcomes were reported. The technique for reconstruction (Parisi Technique) consists on a loop of bowel shifted up antecolic to directly perform the esophago-enteric anastomosis followed by a second loop, measured up to 40 cm starting from the esojejunostomy, fixed to the biliary limb to create an enteroenteric anastomosis. The continuity between the two anastomoses is interrupted just firing a linear stapler, so obtaining the Roux-en-Y by avoiding to interrupt the mesentery. RESULTS Fifty-five patients were considered in the present analysis. Estimated blood loss was 126.55 ± 73 mL, no conversions to open surgery occurred, R0 resections were obtained in all cases. Hospital stay was 5 (3-17) d, no anastomotic leakage occurred. Overall, a fast functional recovery was shown with a median of 3 (3-6) d in starting a solid diet. CONCLUSION Robotic surgery and the adoption of a tailored reconstruction technique have increased the feasibility and safety of a minimally invasive approach for total gastrectomy. The present series of patients shows its implementation in a western center with satisfying short-term outcomes. PMID:28694670

  3. Recurrent Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Reconstruction, a Systematic Review of Surgical Technical Factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Landon; Rothermel, Shane; Joshi, Rajat; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-08-30

    Recurrent instability remains of concern after arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction. We evaluated various technical factors including anchor design, anchor material, number of anchors used, and interval closure on risk of recurrent instability after arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction. A systematic review of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines. Extracted data were recorded on a standardized form. Methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) were used to assess study quality and risk bias. Because of study heterogeneity and low levels of evidence, meta-analysis was not possible. Pooled weighted means were calculated and individual study evaluation and comparisons (qualitative analysis) were performed for systematic review. Of 2097 studies identified, 26 met criteria for systematic review. Pooled weighted means revealed 11.4% versus 15% recurrent instability with 3 or more suture anchors versus fewer than 3 anchors, 10.1% versus 7.8% with absorbable versus nonabsorbable suture anchors, respectively, and 8.0% versus 9.4% with knotless versus standard anchors, respectively. Interval closure did not qualitatively decrease recurrent instability or decrease range of motion. Our systematic review reveals that despite individual study, and previous systematic reviews pointing to the contrary, the composite contemporary published literature would support no difference in the risk of recurrent instability after arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction with rotator interval closure, differing numbers of anchors used for the repair, use of knotless versus standard anchors, or use of bioabsorbable versus nonabsorbable anchors. We recommend surgeons focus on factors that have been shown to modify the risk factors after arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction, such as patient selection. Level IV, systematic review of Level III and IV studies. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  4. Exemplar-based inpainting: technical review and new heuristics for better geometric reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Buyssens, Pierre; Daisy, Maxime; Tschumperle, David; Lezoray, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a technical review of exemplar-based inpainting approaches with a particular focus on greedy methods. Several comparative and illustrative experiments are provided to deeply explore and enlighten these methods, and to have a better understanding on the state-of-the-art improvements of these approaches. From this analysis, three improvements over Criminisi et al. algorithm are then presented and detailed: 1) a tensor-based data term for a better selection of pixel candidates to fill in; 2) a fast patch lookup strategy to ensure a better global coherence of the reconstruction; and 3) a novel fast anisotropic spatial blending algorithm that reduces typical block artifacts using tensor models. Relevant comparisons with the state-of-the-art inpainting methods are provided that exhibit the effectiveness of our contributions.

  5. Technical aspects on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine at 1.5 tesla.

    PubMed

    Holtås, S L; Plewes, D B; Simon, J H; Ekholm, S; Kido, D K; Utz, R

    1987-01-01

    Technical aspects on surface coil magnetic resonance imaging of the spine using a superconducting system with a field strength of 1.5 tesla are described. By using a flat surface coil instead of the body coil the image quality was markedly improved and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was increased approximately 2.6 times. Small voxels resulted in low S/N. The best image quality was achieved with a slice thickness of 5 mm, a field of view of 20 to 24 cm and a matrix of 256 X 256. Interleaved slices provided superior image quality compared with contiguous slices at the expense of acquisition time. For sagittal images the phase encoding gradient should be in the cranio-caudal direction to minimize motion artifacts. To obtain T1 and T2 images of high quality, spin echo pulse sequences with TR 600/TE 20 ms and TR 2000/TE 40 to 80 ms are useful.

  6. Technical Aspects of the Advanced Camera For Surveys Repair (ACS-R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen; Cheng, Edward S.; Sirianni, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The ACS Repair (ACS-R) team includes contributors from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Ball Aerospace, and Teledyne Imaging Sensors; It determined that all of the capabilities of the ACS could be restored and created a concept for the ACS-R component of SN4. ACSR will restore the WFC of ACS by replacing the existing CCD Electronics Box (CEB) with the CEB-Replacement (CEB-R) and providing power from a new Low Voltage Power Supply Replacement (LVPS-8). The new LVPS-R will also attempt to restore the HRC function by providing power through the original power bus. In this presentation, we faeus on the concept and technical aspects of the ACS-R.

  7. Technical aspects of a large size industrial process turbo compressor revamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świder, Piotr; Kozanecki, Zbigniew, Jr.; Graczykowski, Marek; Kryłłowicz, Władysław

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes several modernization aspects of the process 8 MW air compressor and its driver. The main aim of the revamp was to increase internal efficiencies of both the compressor and turbine and increase the load of the compressor without additional power consumption. The original pressure ratio was preserved. To meet these requirements a redesign of the flow path of both machineswas necessary.Moreover, the turbineworking conditions were changed from extraction-condensing to condensing. In terms of compressor, impeller blade redesign, adaptation of diffusers and Abradable seals were a part of the scope. The revamp was completed in April 2014 with all the requirements met. This paper covers the general outline and a comparison of the original and modernized machine operating parameters, design and technical assumptions and also describes some problematic issues which occurred during the realization of the project.

  8. Minimal residual disease detection in mantle cell lymphoma: technical aspects and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Pott, Christiane

    2011-07-01

    The prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been demonstrated for several hematologic malignancies. While in acute lymphoblastic leukemias MRD assessment by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods has been established as an important tool for clinical risk assessment and is part of clinical management, data demonstrating a prognostic value of MRD in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) were sparse and results from randomized trials have been published only recently. In the present review technical aspects of different MRD detection methods are discussed, as well as the prognostic relevance of MRD in the context of clinical trials in patients with MCL. Furthermore, recommendations are given for workflow and useful implication of MRD in future clinical trials design.

  9. Inhibition of the mixed leukocyte reaction by alloantisera in man. I. Technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jonker, M; van Rood, J J

    1977-05-01

    Some technical aspects of MLC inhibition by sera obtained from multiparous women were studied. The variability of the MLC response was very high. The serum source used in the cultures was probably to a large extent responsible for this variability. Aspecific inhibition, which was observed with some test sera, could be removed by dialysis against PBS. To make the evaluation of inhibition by immune sera objective, a scoring system was introduced for the degree of inhibition. Test sera were usually added to the cultures. Alternatively, stimulator and responder cells were preincubated with the test serum. Preincubation of the stimulator cells did not show a difference in inhibition pattern when this was compared with serum addition. Preincubation of the responder cells showed a completely different inhibition pattern. The MLC inhibition test compared very well with an indirect immunofluorescence test and a cytotoxicity test using B-cell enriched cell suspensions.

  10. Technical and Organizational Aspects of Protection from Ionizing Radiations within the Defence

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbatini, Vittorio

    2000-12-31

    When the Defence is not interested in the nuclear aspects connected with energy production or basic research, it must feel compelled to follow the nuclear activities for what concerns the nuclear protection needs within the operational forces. During the years, this has caused the installation and utilization of a nuclear reactor, laboratories specialized in radiological and nuclear matters and the management and utilization of radioactive material and radiogenic machines to satisfy additional requirements. A specific structure (CISAM) has been created within the Defence for these activities; it is able both to offer a valid protection organization to the forces assigned to operate militarily and to operate in peace time for the safety of personnel and the protection of environment. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quick analysis of the Defence nuclear and radioprotection needs and to illustrate CISAM's function, the technical methods adopted and some specific protection arrangements connected with radiological emergencies.

  11. Regulatory transparency: social, technical, and ethical aspects of clinical trial data access.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Varley Dias; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2015-06-01

    In the field of health regulation, enabling public access to data from clinical trials is a process currently undergoing consolidation by the principal regulators worldwide. This paper discusses recent developments in public policy regarding regulatory transparency, and the risks and benefits of a regulatory impact-analysis on clinical trial reports, from the perspective of the key stakeholders (i.e., patients, prescribers, government, society, industry, and regulators). Additionally, the social, technical, and ethical aspects of the datasharing process are highlighted, including access limits, commercially-confidential data and patent rights, privacy of research subjects, arrangements and publicity tools, and clinical trials registration. Furthermore, perspectives on improvement and expansion of regulatory transparency policies are presented, contextualizing North American, Latin American, and European experiences, and highlighting in-teragency cooperation and collaboration initiatives that aim to harmonize health programs and regulatory convergence.

  12. Technical Aspects of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Repair (STIS-R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In August 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) ceased operation, due to a failure in the Side 2 Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS2). LVPS2 provided power to the entire instrument, including all detectors and mechanisms. Following the LVPS2 failure, a team was assembled to analyze the fault and to determine if STIS repair (STIS-R) was feasible. The team concluded that by replacing a power supply board within LVPS2, STIS could be brought back to full functionality. STIS-R will be conducted during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), and will consist of replacing the power supply board and a new passive cooling system. STIS-R will restore full function of the instrument with one of the two redundant sides of the instrument. In this presentation, we focus on the technical aspects associated with STISR.

  13. Endovascular Recanalization of a Thrombosed Native Arteriovenous Fistula Complicated with an Aneurysm: Technical Aspects and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Su Yeon; Choi, Young Ho; Jung, In Mok; Chung, Jung Kee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technical aspects and outcomes of endovascular recanalization of a thrombosed native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) complicated with an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Sixteen patients who had a thrombosed AVF complicated with an aneurysm (two radiocephalic and 14 brachiocephalic) were included in this study. Recanalization procedures were performed by mechanical thrombectomy using the Arrow-Trerotola percutaneous thrombectomy device and adjunctive treatments. We evaluated dose of thrombolytic agent, underlying stenosis, procedure time, technical and clinical success, and complications. The primary and secondary patency rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The thrombolytic agents used were 100000 U urokinase mixed with 500 IU heparin (n = 10) or a double dose of the mixture (n = 6). The thrombi in aneurysms were removed in all but two patients with non-flow limiting residual thrombi. One recanalization failure occurred due to a device failure. Aspiration thrombectomy was performed in 87.5% of cases (n = 14). Underlying stenoses were found in the outflow draining vein (n = 16), arteriovenous anastomosis or juxtaanastomosis area (n = 5), and the central vein (n = 3). Balloon angioplasty was performed for all stenoses in 15 patients. Two patients with a symptomatic central vein stenosis underwent insertion of a stent after balloon angioplasty. Mean procedure time was 116.3 minutes. Minor extravasation (n = 1) was resolved by manual compression. Both technical and clinical success rates were 93.8% (n = 15). The primary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%, 54.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. The secondary patency rates at 3, 6, and 12 months were 70.5%, 70.5%, and 47.0%, respectively. Conclusion Thrombosed AVF complicated with an aneurysm can be successfully recanalized, and secondary patency can be prolonged with endovascular treatment. PMID:25741197

  14. Open Stented Grafts for Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique: Technical Aspects and Current Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zheng, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhong; Elefteriades, John A.

    2015-01-01

    With growing experience in patients with aneurysms and dissections in the arch and proximal descending aorta, the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique has been shown to be safe and effective, and has achieved favorable short to mid-term outcomes. As the FET technique is gaining wider acceptance, there is a growing need for versatile, technically simple, and highly durable open stented grafts involving less complicated deployment mechanisms enabling use in various indications. This paper gives a brief review on the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of currently available open stented grafts used in the FET technique, including the E-vita Open Plus, Thoraflex Hybrid, Cronus, and J Graft. While none of these grafts can claim to be an ideal device, technology continues to improve towards this goal. As newer devices and systems are developed, more widespread use of the FET technique can be expected; such progress promises to improve the clinical outcomes and quality of life for patients with complex aortic diseases. PMID:27069943

  15. Open Stented Grafts for Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique: Technical Aspects and Current Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Zheng, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhong; Elefteriades, John A

    2015-08-01

    With growing experience in patients with aneurysms and dissections in the arch and proximal descending aorta, the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique has been shown to be safe and effective, and has achieved favorable short to mid-term outcomes. As the FET technique is gaining wider acceptance, there is a growing need for versatile, technically simple, and highly durable open stented grafts involving less complicated deployment mechanisms enabling use in various indications. This paper gives a brief review on the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of currently available open stented grafts used in the FET technique, including the E-vita Open Plus, Thoraflex Hybrid, Cronus, and J Graft. While none of these grafts can claim to be an ideal device, technology continues to improve towards this goal. As newer devices and systems are developed, more widespread use of the FET technique can be expected; such progress promises to improve the clinical outcomes and quality of life for patients with complex aortic diseases.

  16. Social media and nursing practice: changing the balance between the social and technical aspects of work.

    PubMed

    Casella, Evan; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Modern communication methods are drastically changing the way people interact with each other. Professions such as nursing need to evolve to remain relevant as social infrastructure changes. In the 1960s, researchers developed a sociotechnical theory that stated workers were more motivated and productive if there was a good balance between the social and technical aspects of their work. Today's technology is blurring the boundaries between the social and the technical thereby transforming human contact and communication into a multi-method process. In Australia, people are adept at utilising social media technology to become more efficient, creative and connected; Australian nurses also need to embrace changing technology to capitalise on the professional opportunities offered by social media. This paper imagines a world where nurses integrate social media into assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing and evaluating care. Discussion draws on a combination of real-world examples of best-practice and blue-sky thinking to demonstrate that evidence-based care must be combined with the adoption of future-forward technology.

  17. Technical options for outflow reconstruction in domino liver transplantation: A single European center experience.

    PubMed

    De la Serna, Sofía; Llado, Laura; Ramos, Emilio; Fabregat, Joan; Baliellas, Carme; Busquets, Juli; Secanella, Lluis; Pelaez, Nuria; Torras, Jaume; Rafecas, Antoni

    2015-08-01

    Venous outflow is critical to the success of liver transplantation (LT). In domino liver transplantation (DLT), the venous cuffs should be shared between the donor and the recipient, and the length can be compromised. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the technical options for outflow reconstruction used at our institution. This was a retrospective analysis of 39 consecutive DLT recipients between January 1997 and May 2013. Twenty-seven men and 12 women (mean age, 61.8 ± 4.3 years) underwent LT and consented to receive a liver from a donor with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). The main indications were hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis C virus cirrhosis. All recipients underwent transplantation by a piggyback technique. Liver procurement in the FAP donors was performed with the classic technique in 22 patients and with the piggyback technique in the last 17. In these latter cases, for vascular outflow reconstruction, a cadaveric venous graft was interposed between the hepatic vein (HV) stump of the FAP liver and the recipient HV in 11 cases (28%). Since 2011, we have employed arterial grafts to be interposed between the vessels stumps: a tailored arterial graft in 5 patients and an aortic graft in 1 case. There was no postoperative mortality. Arterial and portal complications presented in 2 (5.1) and 4 patients (10.3), respectively. Postoperative outflow complications (post-LT subacute Budd-Chiari syndrome) occurred in 4 patients, and all of them had received a venous interposed graft for reconstruction. The incidence of outflow complications tended to be higher among patients with venous grafts than those with arterial graft interposition. Overall patient survival at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years was 97%, 79%, respectively. Arterial grafts constitute a feasible and safe option for vascular outflow reconstruction in DLT because they are associated with a relatively low incidence of complications. The recently proposed Bellvitge arterial

  18. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  19. Assessment of secondary materials for pavement construction: Technical and environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, M.C.M. |; Bridges, M.G.; Dawson, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Current research at the University of Nottingham to enable the use of secondary materials in road construction covers technical aspects, mechanical properties of waste materials and the environmental implications of their use. Materials studied are minestone, china clay sand, slate waste, pulverized fuel ash and furnace bottom ash. The laboratory program set up for this research and the methodologies suggested for the study of the properties of these materials are presented. The test methods currently used to select pavement aggregates are presented along with current methods for the assessment of the environmental impact of secondary aggregates. The potential of the secondary aggregates is assessed within the current technical and environmental procedures previously presented. Two new methodologies are presented, one for the mechanical examination of secondary aggregates and one for the environmental assessment. The mechanical assessment encompasses conventional characterization and classification tests on both unbound and lightly treated pavement materials, and fundamental tests such as repeated load triaxial tests (RLTT) and repeated load indirect tensile tests (RLITT). Some sample results are presented, suggesting the feasibility and adequacy of this methodology for material discrimination, and evaluation of mechanical properties for design purposes. The environmental assessment indicates how the leaching concentration of contaminants from intensive testing can be used as the first step in assessing the environmental acceptability of a secondary material, and the means of determining a more realistic measure of in situ performance is discussed. The advantages and advancements of the presented methodologies over the basic and inappropriate techniques currently used to assess the suitability of secondary aggregates for use as pavement construction materials are discussed.

  20. Digital Aquifer - Integrating modeling, technical, software and policy aspects to develop a groundwater management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupathi, S.; McKenna, S. A.; Fleming, K.; Wambua, M.; Waweru, P.; Ondula, E.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater management has traditionally been observed as a study for long term policy measures to ensure that the water resource is sustainable. IBM Research, in association with the World Bank, extended this traditional analysis to include realtime groundwater management by building a context-aware, water rights management and permitting system. As part of this effort, one of the primary objectives was to develop a groundwater flow model that can help the policy makers with a visual overview of the current groundwater distribution. In addition, the system helps the policy makers simulate a range of scenarios and check the sustainability of the groundwater resource in a given region. The system also enables a license provider to check the effect of the introduction of a new well on the existing wells in the domain as well as the groundwater resource in general. This process simplifies how an engineer will determine if a new well should be approved. Distance to the nearest well neighbors and the maximum decreases in water levels of nearby wells are continually assessed and presented as evidence for an engineer to make the final judgment on approving the permit. The system also facilitates updated insights on the amount of groundwater left in an area and provides advice on how water fees should be structured to balance conservation and economic development goals. In this talk, we will discuss the concept of Digital Aquifer, the challenges in integrating modeling, technical and software aspects to develop a management system that helps policy makers and license providers with a robust decision making tool. We will concentrate on the groundwater model developed using the analytic element method that plays a very important role in the decision making aspects. Finally, the efficiency of this system and methodology is shown through a case study in Laguna Province, Philippines, which was done in collaboration with the National Water Resource Board, Philippines and World

  1. Technical Aspects: Problems of Scale Development, Norms, Item Differences By Sex, and the Rate of Change in Occupational Group Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    The paper considers how the technical aspects of interest measurement can contribute to sex bias and suggests guidelines for evaluating interest inventories for sex bias and for developing interest inventories which minimize sex bias. An overview is given of interest measurement techniques: in selecting a pool of items, developing scales, and…

  2. Technical Aspects of Acoustical Engineering for the ISS [International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic levels on manned space flight vehicles and habitats to protect crew-hearing, allow for voice communications, and to ensure a healthy and habitable environment in which to work and live. For the International Space Station (ISS) this is critical because of the long duration crew-stays of approximately 6-months. NASA and the JSC Acoustics Office set acoustic requirements that must be met for hardware to be certified for flight. Modules must meet the NC-50 requirement and other component hardware are given smaller allocations to meet. In order to meet these requirements many aspects of noise generation and control must be considered. This presentation has been developed to give an insight into the various technical activities performed at JSC to ensure that a suitable acoustic environment is provided for the ISS crew. Examples discussed include fan noise, acoustic flight material development, on-orbit acoustic monitoring, and a specific hardware development and acoustical design case, the ISS Crew Quarters.

  3. Cryo-technical design aspects of the superconducting SIS100 quadrupole doublet modules

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J. P.; Bleile, A.; Fischer, E.; Hess, G.; Macavei, J.; Spiller, P.

    2014-01-29

    The FAIR project was initiated to build an international accelerator and experimental facility for basic research activities in various fields of modern physics. The core component of the project will be the SIS100 heavy ion accelerator, producing heavy ion beams of uniquely high intensities and qualities. The superconducting main quadrupoles and corrector magnets are assembled within complex quadrupole doublet modules (QDMs), combining two superconducting quadrupole (focusing and defocusing), sextupole and steering magnets in one cryostat. In addition a cryo-catcher, a beam position monitor and a cold beam pipe will be integrated. In accordance with the magnet lattice structure, the QDM series for the SIS100 consists of four main families composed of eleven different configurations. The common technical feature of all configurations is a sophisticated common girder structure, mechanically integrating all functional components in one cold mass and being suspended in a corresponding cryostat system. The requirements to position preservation during thermal cycling are to be fulfilled by a precise and stable support of the functional elements, as well as by a reliable, reproducible and stable cold mass suspension system. The main design aspects of the QDMs will be discussed as a result of these requirements.

  4. A soil biotechnology system for wastewater treatment: technical, hygiene, environmental LCA and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Singh, Anju; Chubilleau, Caroline; Starkl, Markus; Bawa, Itee

    2017-05-01

    Soil biotechnology (SBT) is a green engineering approach for wastewater treatment and recycling. Five SBT units located in the Mumbai region were under consideration of which holistic assessment of two SBT plants was carried out considering its technical, environmental and economic aspects and was compared with published research of other three. LCA has been done to evaluate the environmental impacts of construction and operation phase of SBT. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal of more than 90% can be achieved using this technology. Also, the nutrient removal proficiency (nitrate, nitrite, ammoniacal nitrogen, TKN, total nitrogen and phosphates) of this technique is good. On the other hand, SBT has low annual operation and maintenance cost, comparable to land-based systems and lower than conventional or advanced technologies. From the life cycle impact assessment, the main contributors for overall impact from the plant were identified as electricity consumption, discharges of COD, P-PO4(3-) and N-NH4(+) and disposal of sludge. The construction phase was found to have significantly more impact than the operation phase of the plant. This study suggests plant I is not relatively as efficient enough regarding sanitation. SBT provides several benefits over other conventional technologies for wastewater treatment. It is based on a bio-conversion process and is practically maintenance free. It does not produce any odorous bio-sludge and consumes the least energy.

  5. [The German Clinical Trials Register: reasons, general and technical aspects, international integration].

    PubMed

    Dreier, G; Hasselblatt, H; Antes, G; Schumacher, M

    2009-04-01

    In order to provide a central portal for information on clinical research in Germany and thus to facilitate the search of planned, ongoing and completed clinical trials, the German Clinical Trials Register (GermanCTR) was implemented in cooperation with the WHO's registries network. It is an open access online register of clinical trials conducted in Germany, which allows all users to search for, register and share information on clinical trials. The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and is implemented at the Institute for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics of the University Medical Center Freiburg as a joint project of the Clinical Trials Center Freiburg and the German Cochrane Center. Since October 2008 the GermanCTR is an approved WHO Primary Registry and allows clinical trial registration in Germany according to the requirements of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Reasons for a national trials register, general and technical aspects of implementing the GermanCTR as well as the national and international integration are described here.

  6. Technical aspects of oxygen level regulation in primary cell cultures: A review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses. To this end, a range of technologies (e.g. gas-permeable technology) and instruments (e.g. gas-tight boxes and gas-controlled incubators) have been developed. It should be noted, however, that some of these have limitations and they are still undergoing refinement. Nevertheless, better results should be possible when technical concerns are taken into account. This paper aims to review various aspects of O2 level adjustment in primary cell cultures, regulation of pericellular O2 gradients and possible effects of the cell culture medium. PMID:28652851

  7. Pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the lumbar spine: indications, technical aspects, results and complications.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Michel, Frederic; Vital, Jean-Marc; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2014-07-01

    Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) consists of creating posteriorly trapezoidal shape of a vertebra, usually L3 or L4, in order to recreate lordosis in the lumbar spine. It is usually indicated to treat rigid kyphotic lumbar spine associated with sagittal imbalance and due to degenerative changes or to iatrogenic flat back. PSO is technically demanding with high rates of complications and should be performed by experienced teams. We presently report our experience about PSO performed in the lumbar spine (below L1) through a series of 25 cases with a special focus on technical aspects and complications associated with the surgical procedure. Mean age was 64 ± 11 years old. PSO was performed at L4 in the majority of cases. Mean blood loss was 1,070 ± 470 ml, and mean duration of the surgery was 241 ± 44 min. VAS decreased from 7.5 ± 2 preoperatively to 3.2 ± 2.5 at 1 year, and ODI decreased from 64 ± 12 preoperatively to 32 ± 18 at 1 year, p < 0.05. Mean gain of lordosis after PSO varies from 20° to 40° and was measured to 27° ± 10° on average. Lumbar lordosis (T12-S1) was measured to 21° ± 10° preoperatively to 50° ± 11° postoperatively at 1 year, p < 0.05. A total of five major complications (20 %) were observed (two mechanical, one neurological and two infections) necessitating five reoperations. In conclusion, PSO was highly efficient to restore lumbar lordosis and correct sagittal imbalance. It was associated with a non-negligible, but acceptable rate of complications. To limit the risk of mechanical complications, we recommend fusing the adjacent disks whatever the approach (PLIF/TLIF/XLIF). Most complications can be reduced with adequate environment, informed anesthesiologists and experienced surgical team.

  8. An analysis of technical aspects of the arthroscopic Bankart procedure as performed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burks, Robert T; Presson, Angela P; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intersurgeon variation in technical aspects of performing an arthroscopic Bankart repair. A unique approach with experienced equipment representatives from 3 different arthroscopic companies was used. Experienced representatives were identified by DePuy Mitek, Smith & Nephew, and Arthrex and filled out questionnaires on how their surgeons performed arthroscopic Bankart procedures. This was performed in a blinded fashion with no knowledge of the identities of the specific surgeons or representatives by us. A video on different aspects of the procedure was observed by each representative before filling out the questionnaire to help standardize responses. Data were collected using REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture). Data were analyzed as an infrequent observation with 0% to 30% of representatives reporting the observation; sometimes, 31% to 70% reporting the observation; and often, greater than 70% of representatives reporting. Seventy-six percent of representatives had 6 or more years of arthroscopic experience. Forty-three percent of representatives reported that their surgeons use 3 portals for the procedure often. Forty-four percent reported that viewing was performed exclusively from the posterior portal while the surgeon was performing the repair. Seventy-three percent reported that the Hill-Sachs lesion was observed often, and 61% reported that the posterior labrum was evaluated often before the repair. Only 25% of representatives reported that the Bankart lesion was extensively released and mobilized often. Thirty-three percent reported 3 anchors as being used often. Seventy-five percent reported biocomposite anchors as being used often. Single-loaded anchors were reported as being used often by 47%. Eighty-one percent reported that sutures were placed in a simple fashion. Eighty-three percent reported the use of any posterior sutures or anchors for additional plication as infrequent. There is significant

  9. Plasma exchange in the intensive care unit: Technical aspects and complications.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Aurélie; Parquet, Nathalie; Galicier, Lionel; Boutboul, David; Bertinchamp, Rémi; Malphettes, Marion; Dumas, Guillaume; Mariotte, Eric; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Souppart, Virginie; Schlemmer, Benoit; Azoulay, Elie; Canet, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    Data on plasma exchange therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting are scarce. We aimed to describe the technical aspects and the adverse events associated with the procedure in critically ill patients. All adult patients treated by plasma exchange in the medical ICU of the Saint-Louis university hospital between January 1, 2013 and March 31, 2015 were prospectively included. We report on 260 plasma exchange procedures performed in 50 patients. The centrifugation technique was used for 159 (61%) procedures and the filtration technique for the other 101 (39%) procedures. Both techniques had similar efficacy to treat hyperviscosity syndrome (n = 18). Seventy (26.9%) of the 260 plasma exchange procedures were reported with at least one adverse reaction. Centrifugation and filtration techniques had similar rates of adverse reactions (23.9 vs. 31.7%, P = .19). Hypotension was the most reported (n = 21, 8%) and correlates with a low hematocrit before therapy. Most complications were related to allergic reactions to the replacement fluids. Coagulation disorders depended on the type of replacement fluid. The post-exchange fibrinogen level was decreased by 54% [48;66] with albumin 5%, and 4% [-5;17] with plasma frozen within 24 h. Twenty-three (22.8%) of the 101 filtration procedures experienced filter clotting. Filter clotting was associated with a higher volume exchange prescribed when compared to procedures without filter clotting (4600 [4000;5000] ml vs. 3900 [3600;4800] ml, P < .01). Plasma exchange is a relatively safe and generally well-tolerated procedure in the ICU setting. Most adverse events are unpredictable and related to minor allergic reactions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Technical Aspects for the Creation of a Multi-Dimensional Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Charalabos; Potsiou, Chryssy; Soile, Sofia; Verykokou, Styliani; Mourafetis, George; Doulamis, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of modern urban environments and civil demands for fast, reliable and affordable decision-making requires not only a 3D Land Information System, which tends to replace traditional 2D LIS architectures, but also the need to address the time and scale parameters, that is, the 3D geometry of buildings in various time instances (4th dimension) at various levels of detail (LoDs - 5th dimension). This paper describes and proposes solutions for technical aspects that need to be addressed for the 5D modelling pipeline. Such solutions include the creation of a 3D model, the application of a selective modelling procedure between various time instances and at various LoDs, enriched with cadastral and other spatial data, and a procedural modelling approach for the representation of the inner parts of the buildings. The methodology is based on automatic change detection algorithms for spatial-temporal analysis of the changes that took place in subsequent time periods, using dense image matching and structure from motion algorithms. The selective modelling approach allows a detailed modelling only for the areas where spatial changes are detected. The procedural modelling techniques use programming languages for the textual semantic description of a building; they require the modeller to describe its part-to-whole relationships. Finally, a 5D viewer is developed, in order to tackle existing limitations that accompany the use of global systems, such as the Google Earth or the Google Maps, as visualization software. An application based on the proposed methodology in an urban area is presented and it provides satisfactory results.

  11. Neuroimaging findings with MDMA/ecstasy: technical aspects, conceptual issues and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; de Win, Maartje M L; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2006-03-01

    Users of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) may be at risk of developing MDMA-induced injury to the serotonin (5-HT) system. Previously, there were no methods available for directly evaluating the neurotoxic effects of MDMA in the living human brain. However, development of in vivoneuroimaging tools have begun to provide insights into the effects of ecstasy on the human brain. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission computed tomography (PET) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies which have evaluated ecstasy's neurotoxic potential will be reviewed and discussed in terms of technical aspects, conceptual issues and future prospects. Although PET and SPECT may be limited by several factors such as the low cortical uptake and the use of a non-optimal reference region (cerebellum) the few studies conducted so far provide suggestive evidence that people who heavily use ecstasy are at risk of developing subcortical, and probably also cortical reductions in serotonin transporter (SERT) densities, a marker of 5-HT neurotoxicity. There seem to be dose-dependent and transient reductions in SERT for which females may be more vulnerable than males. 1H-MRS appears to be a less sensitive technique for studying ecstasy's neurotoxic potential. Whether individuals with a relatively low ecstasy exposure also demonstrate loss of SERT needs to be determined. Because most studies have had a retrospective design, in which evidence is indirect and differs in the degree to which any causal links can be implied, longitudinal studies in human ecstasy users are needed to draw definite conclusions.

  12. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  13. Technical procedures for template-guided surgery for mandibular reconstruction based on digital design and manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The occurrence of mandibular defects caused by tumors has been continuously increasing in China in recent years. Conversely, results of the repair of mandibular defects affect the recovery of oral function and patient appearance, and the requirements for accuracy and high surgical quality must be more stringent. Digital techniques — including model reconstruction based on medical images, computer-aided design, and additive manufacturing — have been widely used in modern medicine to improve the accuracy and quality of diagnosis and surgery. However, some special software platforms and services from international companies are not always available for most of researchers and surgeons because they are expensive and time-consuming. Methods Here, a new technical solution for guided surgery for the repair of mandibular defects is proposed, based on general popular tools in medical image processing, 3D (3 dimension) model reconstruction, digital design, and fabrication via 3D printing. First, CT (computerized tomography) images are processed to reconstruct the 3D model of the mandible and fibular bone. The defect area is then replaced by healthy contralateral bone to create the repair model. With the repair model as reference, the graft shape and cutline are designed on fibular bone, as is the guide for cutting and shaping. The physical model, fabricated via 3D printing, including surgical guide, the original model, and the repair model, can be used to preform a titanium locking plate, as well as to design and verify the surgical plan and guide. In clinics, surgeons can operate with the help of the surgical guide and preformed plate to realize the predesigned surgical plan. Results With sufficient communication between engineers and surgeons, an optimal surgical plan can be designed via some common software platforms but needs to be translated to the clinic. Based on customized models and tools, including three surgical guides, preformed titanium plate for

  14. Technical procedures for template-guided surgery for mandibular reconstruction based on digital design and manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-feng; Xu, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hui-yong; Liu, Sean Shih-Yao

    2014-05-23

    The occurrence of mandibular defects caused by tumors has been continuously increasing in China in recent years. Conversely, results of the repair of mandibular defects affect the recovery of oral function and patient appearance, and the requirements for accuracy and high surgical quality must be more stringent. Digital techniques--including model reconstruction based on medical images, computer-aided design, and additive manufacturing--have been widely used in modern medicine to improve the accuracy and quality of diagnosis and surgery. However, some special software platforms and services from international companies are not always available for most of researchers and surgeons because they are expensive and time-consuming. Here, a new technical solution for guided surgery for the repair of mandibular defects is proposed, based on general popular tools in medical image processing, 3D (3 dimension) model reconstruction, digital design, and fabrication via 3D printing. First, CT (computerized tomography) images are processed to reconstruct the 3D model of the mandible and fibular bone. The defect area is then replaced by healthy contralateral bone to create the repair model. With the repair model as reference, the graft shape and cutline are designed on fibular bone, as is the guide for cutting and shaping. The physical model, fabricated via 3D printing, including surgical guide, the original model, and the repair model, can be used to preform a titanium locking plate, as well as to design and verify the surgical plan and guide. In clinics, surgeons can operate with the help of the surgical guide and preformed plate to realize the predesigned surgical plan. With sufficient communication between engineers and surgeons, an optimal surgical plan can be designed via some common software platforms but needs to be translated to the clinic. Based on customized models and tools, including three surgical guides, preformed titanium plate for fixation, and physical models of

  15. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  16. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells from sources other than bone marrow: biological and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, F; de Vincentiis, A; Lanata, L; Lemoli, R M; Maccario, R; Majolino, I; Ponchio, L; Rondelli, D; Tabilio, A; Zanon, P; Tura, S

    1997-01-01

    Identification and characterization of hematopoietic stem cells in peripheral blood (PB) and cord blood (CB) have suggested feasible alternatives to conventional allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The growing interest in this use of allogeneic stem cells has prompted the Working Group on CD34-positive Hematopoietic Cells to review this subject by analyzing its biological and technical aspects. The method used for preparing this review was informal consensus development. Members of the Working Group met three times, and the participants at these meetings examined a list of problems previously prepared by the chairman. They discussed the individual points in order to reach an agreement on the various concepts, and eventually approved the final manuscript. Some of the authors of the present review have been working in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology and processing, and have contributed original papers published in peer-reviewed journals. In addition, the material examined in the present review includes articles and abstracts published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline. Several studies have now shown that hematopoietic stem cells collected from peripheral blood after the administration of G-CSF, or from cord blood upon delivery, are capable of supporting rapid and complete reconstitution of BM function in allogeneic recipients. Perhaps more importantly, reinfusion of large numbers of HLA-matched T-cells from PB collections or T-cells with various degrees of HLA disparity from CB did not result in a higher incidence or greater severity of acute graft-versus-host disease than expected with BM. Based on the data reviewed, operative guidelines for mobilization, collection and graft processing are provided. It should be remembered that despite the growing interest, these procedures must be still considered as advanced clinical research and should be included in formal clinical trials aimed at demonstrating their definitive

  17. Resection and debridement of chest-wall tumors and general aspects of reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    el-Tamer, M.; Chaglassian, T.; Martini, N. )

    1989-10-01

    The main criterion for adequate local control of a chest-wall malignancy remains wide excision. With the available techniques of skeletal and soft-tissue reconstruction, even large lesions can be resected with safe margins. The primary purpose is to achieve a curative resection, although a significant number of symptomatic patients can benefit from palliative resection provided by such procedures. A key element in the success in treating chest-wall tumors is a multidisciplinary approach by all participating physicians, namely the thoracic surgeon, the plastic and reconstructive surgeon, the radiotherapist, and the medical oncologist. 70 references.

  18. Technical Note: Algebraic iterative image reconstruction using a cylindrical image grid for tetrahedron beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joshua; Ionascu, Dan; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To accelerate iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithms using a cylindrical image grid. Methods: Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is designed to overcome the scatter and detector problems of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Iterative algebraic reconstruction algorithms have been shown to mitigate approximate reconstruction artifacts that appear at large cone angles, but clinical implementation is limited by their high computational cost. In this study, a cylindrical voxelization method on a cylindrical grid is developed in order to take advantage of the symmetries of the cylindrical geometry. The cylindrical geometry is a natural fit for the circular scanning trajectory employed in volumetric CT methods such as CBCT and TBCT. This method was implemented in combination with the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). Both two- and three-dimensional numerical phantoms as well as a patient CT image were utilized to generate the projection sets used for reconstruction. The reconstructed images were compared to the original phantoms using a set of three figures of merit (FOM). Results: The cylindrical voxelization on a cylindrical reconstruction grid was successfully implemented in combination with the SART reconstruction algorithm. The FOM results showed that the cylindrical reconstructions were able to maintain the accuracy of the Cartesian reconstructions. In three dimensions, the cylindrical method provided better accuracy than the Cartesian methods. At the same time, the cylindrical method was able to provide a speedup factor of approximately 40 while also reducing the system matrix storage size by 2 orders of magnitude. Conclusions: TBCT image reconstruction using a cylindrical image grid was able to provide a significant improvement in the reconstruction time and a more compact system matrix for storage on the hard drive and in memory while maintaining the image quality provided by the Cartesian voxelization on a

  19. Reconstruction of superficial deltoid ligaments with allograft tendons in medial ankle instability: A technical report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Geun; Park, Jong-Tae; Eom, Joon-Sang; Jung, Myung-Gon; Lee, Dong-Oh

    2016-03-01

    Deltoid ligament insufficiency can cause arthritic changes with various symptoms in the ankle joint. However, reconstruction procedures of the medial collateral and deltoid ligaments have drawn less attention than those of the lateral ankle ligaments. Few techniques for reconstructing deltoid ligaments are available, and those that are can be complex. We introduce a new surgical method for reconstructing superficial deltoid ligaments that is simple and straightforward. With this method, the tibionavicular and tibiocalcaneal ligaments can be reconstructed efficiently and easily. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical Analysis of the Quality, Readability, and Technical Aspects of Online Information Provided for Neck-Lifts.

    PubMed

    Rayess, Hani; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Gupta, Amar; Svider, Peter F; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Carron, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients using the internet to obtain health information is growing. This material is unregulated and heterogeneous and can influence patient decisions. To compare the quality, readability, and technical aspects of online information about neck-lifts provided by private practice websites vs academic medical centers and reference sources. In this cross-sectional analysis conducted between November 2015 and January 2016, a Google search of the term neck-lift was performed, and the first 45 websites were evaluated. The websites were categorized as private practice vs other. Private websites (PWs) included sites created by private practice physicians. Other websites (OWs) were created by academic medical centers or reference sources. Quality, readability, and technical aspects of online websites related to neck-lifts. Quality was assessed using the DISCERN criteria and the Health on the Net principles (HONcode). Readability was assessed using 7 validated and widely used criteria. Consensus US reading grade level readability was provided by a website (readabilityformulas.com). Twelve technical aspects were evaluated based on criteria specified by medical website creators. Forty-five websites (8 OWs [18%] and 37 PWs [82%]) were analyzed. There was a significant difference in quality between OWs and PWs based on the DISCERN criteria and HONcode principles. The DISCERN overall mean (SD) scores were 2.3 (0.5) for OWs and 1.3 (0.3) for PWs (P < .001). Of a total possible score of 14 using the HONcode analysis, the mean (SD) was 8.6 (1.8) (range, 5-11) for OW, and the mean (SD) was 5.8 (1.7) (range, 2-9) for PW. The mean (SD) readability consensus reading grade level scores were 11.7 (1.9) for OWs and 10.6 (1.9) for PWs. Of a total possible score of 12, the mean (SD) technical scores were 6.3 (1.8) (range, 4-9) for OWs and 6.4 (1.5) (range, 3-9) for PWs. Compared with PWs, OWs had a significantly higher quality score based on both the DISCERN criteria and

  1. Some clinical aspects of reconstruction for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dandy, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A total of 250 patients was reviewed 71.8 months (range 49-105 months) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for disabling instability that had not responded to conservative treatment or correction of internal derangements. Knees that had undergone previous operation or had damage to other ligaments were excluded. Four techniques were used; MacIntosh extra-articular lateral substitution alone (n = 18), extra-articular reconstruction plus intra-articular carbon fibre (n = 29), extra-articular reconstruction plus a free graft from the medial third of the patellar tendon (n = 74), or extra-articular reconstruction plus a Leeds-Keio prosthesis (n = 129). The knees were assessed 1, 3 and 6 years after reconstruction using the Lysholm score and clinical examination for the anterior drawer, Lachman and pivot shift signs. The mean Lysholm score after 6 years was 77.4 (range 31-100) in the extra-articular group; 74.4 (range 34-100) in the carbon fibre group; 95.4 (range 43-100) in the patellar tendon group; and 91.2 (range 45-100) in the Leeds-Keio group. The patellar tendon group had the highest scores (P < 0.003). The pivot shift sign returned in 39% of the extra-articular group; 48% of the carbon fibre group; 1% of the patellar tendon group, and 36% of the Leeds-Keio group. The pivot shift returned least often in the patellar tendon group (P < 0.001). There were 44% satisfactory results (pivot shift negative and Lysholm score 77 or more) in the extra-articular group; 55% in the carbon fibre group; 92% in the patellar tendon group; and 60% in the Leeds-Keio group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574323

  2. ATS-6 - Technical aspects of the Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boor, J. L.; Braunstein, J.; Janky, J. M.; Ogden, D.; Potter, J. G.; Harper, E. L.; Volkmer, E.; Whalen, A. A.; Henderson, E.; Hupe, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the HET experiment on ATS-6. The paper is divided into nine parts, including a technical overview, a preliminary evaluation of the HET demonstration, a review of operations at the Denver uplink terminal, a discussion of remote ground terminals, a review of C-band comprehensive terminals and of S-band comprehensive terminals, and parts devoted to general network operations, technical management and effectiveness of the network, and the site equipment operator.

  3. ATS-6 - Technical aspects of the Health/Education Telecommunications Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boor, J. L.; Braunstein, J.; Janky, J. M.; Ogden, D.; Potter, J. G.; Harper, E. L.; Volkmer, E.; Whalen, A. A.; Henderson, E.; Hupe, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the HET experiment on ATS-6. The paper is divided into nine parts, including a technical overview, a preliminary evaluation of the HET demonstration, a review of operations at the Denver uplink terminal, a discussion of remote ground terminals, a review of C-band comprehensive terminals and of S-band comprehensive terminals, and parts devoted to general network operations, technical management and effectiveness of the network, and the site equipment operator.

  4. Technical aspects of real time positron emission tracking for gated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberland, Marc; Xu, Tong; McEwen, Malcolm R.

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion can lead to treatment errors in the delivery of radiotherapy treatments. Respiratory gating can assist in better conforming the beam delivery to the target volume. We present a study of the technical aspects of a real time positron emission tracking system for potential use in gated radiotherapy. Methods: The tracking system, called PeTrack, uses implanted positron emission markers and position sensitive gamma ray detectors to track breathing motion in real time. PeTrack uses an expectation–maximization algorithm to track the motion of fiducial markers. A normalized least mean squares adaptive filter predicts the location of the markers a short time ahead to account for system response latency. The precision and data collection efficiency of a prototype PeTrack system were measured under conditions simulating gated radiotherapy. The lung insert of a thorax phantom was translated in the inferior–superior direction with regular sinusoidal motion and simulated patient breathing motion (maximum amplitude of motion ±10 mm, period 4 s). The system tracked the motion of a {sup 22}Na fiducial marker (0.34 MBq) embedded in the lung insert every 0.2 s. The position of the was marker was predicted 0.2 s ahead. For sinusoidal motion, the equation used to model the motion was fitted to the data. The precision of the tracking was estimated as the standard deviation of the residuals. Software was also developed to communicate with a Linac and toggle beam delivery. In a separate experiment involving a Linac, 500 monitor units of radiation were delivered to the phantom with a 3 × 3 cm photon beam and with 6 and 10 MV accelerating potential. Radiochromic films were inserted in the phantom to measure spatial dose distribution. In this experiment, the period of motion was set to 60 s to account for beam turn-on latency. The beam was turned off when the marker moved outside of a 5-mm gating window. Results: The precision of the tracking in the IS

  5. Technical innovations in ear reconstruction using a skin expander with autogenous cartilage grafts.

    PubMed

    Dashan, Yu; Haiyue, Jiang; Qinghua, Yang; Bo, Pan; Lin, Lin; Tailing, Wang; Yanmei, Wang; Xiao, Qin; Hongxing, Zhuang

    2008-01-01

    Pioneers such as Tanzer and Brent have established the foundations of microtia reconstruction using an autogenous costal cartilage framework. The framework and its skin coverage are the two limiting factors in ear reconstruction. At the present time autogenous rib cartilage and mastoid skin are still first choice materials for most surgeons. They have the combined advantages of well-matched texture and colour. To reconstruct a symmetrical, accurate, prominent auricle and minimise as much as possible the chest wall deformity caused by rib cartilage harvesting, we set out to improve our techniques for cartilaginous framework definition and to use the remnant ear to enhance the projection of the reconstructed ear. Since 2000, 342 cases (366 ears) were treated using our current techniques. Data pertaining to complications were recorded. Final results were assessed a minimum of 1 year postoperatively. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 6 years. Most of the patients with microtia were satisfied with the results of their ear reconstruction. In conclusion, our techniques help to reduce the quantity of rib cartilage needed to fabricate ear framework and minimise chest wall deformity. The frameworks are accurate, prominent and stable. Reconstructed ears are similar in colour and appearance to the normal side. Our innovations are practical and reliable for microtia reconstruction using skin expanders in combination with a sculpted autogenous rib cartilage framework.

  6. The impact of immediate breast reconstruction on the technical delivery of postmastectomy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Motwani, Sabin B.; Strom, Eric A. . E-mail: estrom@mdanderson.org; Schechter, Naomi R.; Butler, Charles E.; Lee, Gordon K.; Langstein, Howard N.; Kronowitz, Steven J.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ibrahim, Nuhad K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) planning. Methods: A total of 110 patients (112 treatment plans) who had mastectomy with immediate reconstruction followed by radiotherapy were compared with contemporaneous stage-matched patients who had undergone mastectomy without intervening reconstruction. A scoring system was used to assess optimal radiotherapy planning using four parameters: breadth of chest wall coverage, treatment of the ipsilateral internal mammary chain, minimization of lung, and avoidance of heart. An 'optimal' plan achieved all objectives or a minor 0.5 point deduction; 'moderately' compromised treatment plans had 1.0 or 1.5 point deductions; and 'major' compromised plans had {>=}2.0 point deductions. Results: Of the 112 PMRT plans scored after reconstruction, 52% had compromises compared with 7% of matched controls (p < 0.0001). Of the compromised plans after reconstruction, 33% were considered to be moderately compromised plans and 19% were major compromised treatment plans. Optimal chest wall coverage, treatment of the ipsilateral internal mammary chain, lung minimization, and heart avoidance was achieved in 79%, 45%, 84%, and 84% of the plans in the group undergoing immediate reconstruction, compared respectively with 100%, 93%, 97%, and 92% of the plans in the control group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0015, and p = 0.1435). In patients with reconstructions, 67% of the 'major' compromised radiotherapy plans were left-sided (p < 0.16). Conclusions: Radiation treatment planning after immediate breast reconstruction was compromised in more than half of the patients (52%), with the largest compromises observed in those with left-sided cancers. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer, the potential for compromised PMRT planning should be considered when deciding between immediate and delayed reconstruction.

  7. Technical aspects of neurostimulation: Focus on equipment, electric field modeling, and stimulation protocols.

    PubMed

    Klooster, D C W; de Louw, A J A; Aldenkamp, A P; Besseling, R M H; Mestrom, R M C; Carrette, S; Zinger, S; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Vonck, K; Carrette, E; Breuer, L E M; Bernas, A; Tijhuis, A G; Boon, P

    2016-06-01

    Neuromodulation is a field of science, medicine, and bioengineering that encompasses implantable and non-implantable technologies for the purpose of improving quality of life and functioning of humans. Brain neuromodulation involves different neurostimulation techniques: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS), which are being used both to study their effects on cognitive brain functions and to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanisms of action of neurostimulation remain incompletely understood. Insight into the technical basis of neurostimulation might be a first step towards a more profound understanding of these mechanisms, which might lead to improved clinical outcome and therapeutic potential. This review provides an overview of the technical basis of neurostimulation focusing on the equipment, the present understanding of induced electric fields, and the stimulation protocols. The review is written from a technical perspective aimed at supporting the use of neurostimulation in clinical practice.

  8. Direct imaging in interferometry: technical aspects and preliminary results of a fibered pupil densifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patru, Fabien; Mourard, Denis; Delage, Laurent; Reynaud, François; Clausse, Jean-Michel; Bonneau, Daniel; Dubreuil, Michael; Roussel, Alain; Hugues, Yves; Bosio, Sandra; Bresson, Yves; Lardière, Olivier

    2006-06-01

    We present a test bench designed to study the performances of interferometric recombination systems, mainly for direct imaging applications (hypertelescope principle). It aims at comparing the aperture synthesis, Fizeau and densified pupils beam combination schemes. It allows identification of the technical requirements like photometry and cophasing correction of the future imaging recombiners for large arrays. A densified assembly has been designed in the visible wavelengths, using a multi-apertures mask associated with a wavefront sensor. It allows pupil rearrangement and spatial filtering by using single mode fibers. The technical specifications and the conception of the fiber densifier are described here, with a particular attention to the correction of the differential chromatic dispersion.

  9. Technical aspects of a demonstration tape for three-dimensional sound displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    This document was developed to accompany an audio cassette that demonstrates work in three-dimensional auditory displays, developed at the Ames Research Center Aerospace Human Factors Division. It provides a text version of the audio material, and covers the theoretical and technical issues of spatial auditory displays in greater depth than on the cassette. The technical procedures used in the production of the audio demonstration are documented, including the methods for simulating rotorcraft radio communication, synthesizing auditory icons, and using the Convolvotron, a real-time spatialization device.

  10. Tongue musculomucosal flap for soft palate reconstruction in patients with OSAHS - clinical experience in technical strategy.

    PubMed

    Ying, B; Ye, W; Li, Z

    2013-07-01

    With the idea of "replacing lost tissure with similar tissure in kind", vessel-pedicled palate mucosal flap, pedicled buccal musculomucosal flap and adjacent tongue musculomucosal flap could be the ideal approaches to soft palate reconstruction. To assess the adjacent tongue musculomucosal flap for soft palate reconstruction. From August 2010 to July 2011, we applied tongue musculomucosal flap for soft palate reconstruction in three patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea/Hypopnoes Syndrome (OSAHS) in order to release OSAHS symptom by glossal volume reduction. All patients recovered from intraoral operations with good objective as subjective speech and swallowing. Suffice it to say that OSAHS symptom was released for these patients. Here we provide a case to deal with problems related to OSAHS symptom when one works on oral surgery or reconstructing oral structure.

  11. Technical aspects of image-based treatment planning of rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Robert; Drzymala, Robert

    2003-10-01

    The role of 3-dimensional treatment planning in the management of rectal cancer is not well defined. This report reviews technical guidelines for simulation, defining target volumes, and suggested beam configurations. Outcome from pilot clinical trials, with emphasis on the impact of volume and dose on tumor response and treatment morbidity is discussed.

  12. A Tanzanian Perspective of the Technical Aspects of IT Service Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Jyri; Tedre, Matti; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) professionals face markedly different kinds of challenges in developing countries from the ones in developed countries. Based on the research literature and our fourteen years of fieldwork in Iringa, Tanzania, we have identified eight groups of technical characteristics of IT work that significantly affect the work of…

  13. A Tanzanian Perspective of the Technical Aspects of IT Service Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Jyri; Tedre, Matti; Sutinen, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) professionals face markedly different kinds of challenges in developing countries from the ones in developed countries. Based on the research literature and our fourteen years of fieldwork in Iringa, Tanzania, we have identified eight groups of technical characteristics of IT work that significantly affect the work of…

  14. [Technical aspects of treatments with single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses].

    PubMed

    Wiersema, E J; Kreulen, C M; Latzke, P; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2014-05-01

    For the manufacture of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses, effective communication between dentist and dental technician is required. Mutual insight concerning the (im)possibilities of available treatments and technical options is prerequisitefor this communication. The manufacture of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses involves 4 phases: recording the required detailed information on the relevant teeth and the occlusal system, the technical adjustments, the technical design and the technical fabrication. These phases can be accomplished through an analogue or (semi)digital procedure. Pioneering developments are computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and computerised milling machines. Associated with this are 3 manufacturing methods which can be distinguished: the dental practice method, the dental laboratory method and the milling centre method. Materials applied are metal alloys and ceramics, while resins are used for provisional and transitional constructions. Due to the fact that the choice of material in the analogue procedure is limited, CAD/CAM offers more options, the digital procedure is expected to gain ground gradually. It is expected that this development will provide an impulse to higher quality.

  15. How experienced therapists introduce the technical aspects in the initial alliance formation: powerful decision makers supporting clients' agency.

    PubMed

    Oddli, Hanne Weie; Rønnestad, Michael Helge

    2012-01-01

    The initial work on the technical aspects of the working alliance was explored in a naturalistic study of the practices of nine experienced teacher therapists. Using the qualitative method of Grounded theory, eight therapist action descriptions were identified, forming two categories: (1) Supporting the client's agency: (a) exploring the clients' solution strategies, (c) underlining the clients' choice/authority, (d) sharing the basis for the decision, (e) demonstrating collaboration linguistically by hedging; (2) Expressing agency: (a) immediate implementation of method, (b) educating, (c) challenging, (d) constituting oneself as an expert. Implications for the view of therapist power, negotiation, consensus and collaboration are discussed.

  16. [Tattooing of the nipple-areola complex in breast reconstruction: Technical note].

    PubMed

    Riot, S; Devinck, F; Aljudaibi, N; Duquennoy-Martinot, V; Guerreschi, P

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex is an essential step in breast reconstruction. It announces the end of the reconstruction process, which is often long and sometimes difficult to live for the patient and will significantly improve the perception of body image. Concerning the reconstruction of the areola, tattooing is one of the preferred techniques. It's a simple, quick and safe procedure with a high satisfaction rate. This technique is still perfectible in our opinion, because the random lifetime of pigmentation is a recognized disadvantage of this procedure. We propose a modification of the conventional technique for improving the quality of dermopigmentation while reducing its completion time. Our method is to perform a dermabrasion before starting the tattoo. Indeed, dermabrasion allows better penetration of the pigments inside the dermis and thus offers two advantages: a more durable result over time and reduced operation time by reducing the number of passing of the machine tattoo. Finally, our tattooing technique seems relevant and totally appropriate: its realization is simple, reproducible, does not increase the overall cost of reconstruction, provides timesavings and gives a better long-term result.

  17. Technical report on the surface reconstruction of stacked contours by using the commercial software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Park, Jin Seo

    2007-03-01

    After drawing and stacking contours of a structure, which is identified in the serially sectioned images, three-dimensional (3D) image can be made by surface reconstruction. Usually, software is composed for the surface reconstruction. In order to compose the software, medical doctors have to acquire the help of computer engineers. So in this research, surface reconstruction of stacked contours was tried by using commercial software. The purpose of this research is to enable medical doctors to perform surface reconstruction to make 3D images by themselves. The materials of this research were 996 anatomic images (1 mm intervals) of left lower limb, which were made by serial sectioning of a cadaver. On the Adobe Photoshop, contours of 114 anatomic structures were drawn, which were exported to Adobe Illustrator files. On the Maya, contours of each anatomic structure were stacked. On the Rhino, superoinferior lines were drawn along all stacked contours to fill quadrangular surfaces between contours. On the Maya, the contours were deleted. 3D images of 114 anatomic structures were assembled with their original locations preserved. With the surface reconstruction technique, developed in this research, medical doctors themselves could make 3D images of the serially sectioned images such as CTs and MRIs.

  18. Technical Note: Probabilistically constraining proxy age-depth models within a Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, J. P.; Tingley, M. P.

    2015-03-01

    Reconstructions of the late-Holocene climate rely heavily upon proxies that are assumed to be accurately dated by layer counting, such as measurements of tree rings, ice cores, and varved lake sediments. Considerable advances could be achieved if time-uncertain proxies were able to be included within these multiproxy reconstructions, and if time uncertainties were recognized and correctly modeled for proxies commonly treated as free of age model errors. Current approaches for accounting for time uncertainty are generally limited to repeating the reconstruction using each one of an ensemble of age models, thereby inflating the final estimated uncertainty - in effect, each possible age model is given equal weighting. Uncertainties can be reduced by exploiting the inferred space-time covariance structure of the climate to re-weight the possible age models. Here, we demonstrate how Bayesian hierarchical climate reconstruction models can be augmented to account for time-uncertain proxies. Critically, although a priori all age models are given equal probability of being correct, the probabilities associated with the age models are formally updated within the Bayesian framework, thereby reducing uncertainties. Numerical experiments show that updating the age model probabilities decreases uncertainty in the resulting reconstructions, as compared with the current de facto standard of sampling over all age models, provided there is sufficient information from other data sources in the spatial region of the time-uncertain proxy. This approach can readily be generalized to non-layer-counted proxies, such as those derived from marine sediments.

  19. Technical Note: Probabilistically constraining proxy age-depth models within a Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, J. P.; Tingley, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Reconstructions of late-Holocene climate rely heavily upon proxies that are assumed to be accurately dated by layer counting, such as measurement on tree rings, ice cores, and varved lake sediments. Considerable advances may be achievable if time uncertain proxies could be included within these multiproxy reconstructions, and if time uncertainties were recognized and correctly modeled for proxies commonly treated as free of age model errors. Current approaches to accounting for time uncertainty are generally limited to repeating the reconstruction using each of an ensemble of age models, thereby inflating the final estimated uncertainty - in effect, each possible age model is given equal weighting. Uncertainties can be reduced by exploiting the inferred space-time covariance structure of the climate to re-weight the possible age models. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Hierarchical climate reconstruction models can be augmented to account for time uncertain proxies. Critically, while a priori all age models are given equal probability of being correct, the probabilities associated with the age models are formally updated within the Bayesian framework, thereby reducing uncertainties. Numerical experiments show that updating the age-model probabilities decreases uncertainty in the climate reconstruction, as compared with the current de-facto standard of sampling over all age models, provided there is sufficient information from other data sources in the region of the time-uncertain proxy. This approach can readily be generalized to non-layer counted proxies, such as those derived from marine sediments.

  20. [Forum: dermopigmentation or medical tattooing. Brief notes on technical aspects of dermopigmentation].

    PubMed

    Chavoin, J P; Oksman, B

    1992-08-01

    Tattooing is a very old procedure widespread throughout the world. Recently dermatologists and plastic surgeons have applied this procedure for medical dermography. Incarcerating a pigment in the depth of the dermis has caused no problems for professionals and aestheticiens performing tattoos. Medical ethics oblige us to specify the nature of the pigment used. The instrument used for injecting the pigment should be well adapted for safety, technically, ergonomically and for asepsis.

  1. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  2. Technical Aspects of Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography: Current Status and New Applications.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Stephen J; Stinson, Eric G; Weavers, Paul T

    2017-08-31

    This article is based on a presentation at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine in September 2016. The purpose is to review the technical developments which have contributed to the current status of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and to indicate related emerging areas of study. Technical developments include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics-based innovations as well as improvements in MRI engineering. These have collectively addressed not only early issues of timing and venous suppression but more importantly have led to an improvement in spatiotemporal resolution of CE-MRA of more than two orders of magnitude compared to early results. This has allowed CE-MRA to be successfully performed in virtually all vascular territories of the body. Contemporary technical areas of study include improvements in implementation of high rate acceleration, extension of high performance first-pass CE-MRA across multiple imaging stations, expanded use of compressive sensing techniques, integration of Dixon-based fat suppression into CE-MRA sequences, and application of CE-MRA sequences to dynamic-contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging.

  3. A Composite Buccal Flap for Alar Based Defect Reconstruction: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Pourdanesh, F.; Khojasteh, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to reconstruct an alar defect with cartilage involvement. Here in the authors report a case of traumatic alar loss during childhood in which an alar reconstruction was carried out with a composite auricular graft put over the pedicle buccal flap which was rotated and passed through the intraoral side. The lining skin and auricular cartilage for the flap was obtained from the auricular region which was acceptable for the patient. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. One year follow up revealed satisfactory results with minimal contracture of the graft. PMID:22509460

  4. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament using interlinked hamstrings - technical note.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation.

  5. Four Studies on Aspects of Assessing Computational Performance. Technical Report No. 297.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.

    The four studies reported in this document deal with aspects of assessing students' performance on computational skills. The first study grew out of a need for an instrument to measure students' speed at recalling addition facts. This had seemed to be a very easy task, but it proved to be much more difficult than anticipated. The second study grew…

  6. The silk flow-diverting stent in the endovascular treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms: technical aspects and midterm results in 24 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Tähtinen, Olli I; Manninen, Hannu I; Vanninen, Ritva L; Seppänen, Janne; Niskakangas, Tero; Rinne, Jaakko; Keski-Nisula, Leo

    2012-03-01

    The flow-diverting stent is a new option in endovascular therapy specifically designed for the endovascular reconstruction of a segmentally diseased artery. The safety of flow-diverting stents is still equivocal. To evaluate the technical aspects, thromboembolic events, adjunctive therapies, and midterm results in patients with complex intracranial aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent (Silk; Balt Extrusion, Montmorency, France). We retrospectively examined angiographic images and clinical reports of 24 consecutive patients (29 stents) treated (n = 23) or attempted to treat (n = 1) with a flow-diverting device in 2 Finnish centers between March 2009 and October 2010. The primary technical success rate was 67% (16/24). Adjunctive therapies were required in 6 (25%) patients, including 4 cases where intra-arterial abciximab was administered for the treatment of intraprocedural thromboembolic events. Technique-related complication rate and the 30-day mortality rate were each 4% (1/24). Follow-up imaging revealed 1 case of delayed in-stent thrombosis resulting in permanent disability of the patient, 1 asymptomatic occlusion, and 1 asymptomatic stenosis of the stented artery. Complete occlusion of the aneurysm with fully patent parent artery was observed in 16 of the 23 aneurysms (70%) where follow-up images were available. Many previously untreatable cerebral aneurysms may be successfully treated with the Silk flow-diverting stent, but the associated risk of thromboembolic events is justifiable only if conventional endovascular or surgical treatment options are not applicable. Perioperative thromboembolic events should be prepared for and treated without unnecessary delays because they frequently respond to adjunctive medical therapy.

  7. Evaluation of Angiographic and Technical Aspects of Carotid Stenting with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blasel, Stella Hattingen, Elke; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kurre, Wiebke; Morawe, Gerald; Zanella, Friedhelm; Rochemont, Richard Du Mesnil de

    2009-07-15

    The detection of clinically silent ischemic lesions on postprocedural diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images has become a preferred method for the description of embolic risks. The purpose of this single-center study was to evaluate whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) could determine material related or technical risk factors of filter-protected carotid stenting. Eighty-four patients with symptomatic severe ({>=}60%) carotid artery stenoses received filter-protected carotid stenting. Standard DWI (b = 1000) was performed within 48 h before and after carotid stenting. The occurrence and load of new postinterventional DWI lesions were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors associated with DWI lesions, with emphasis on technical factors such as use of different access devices (guiding catheter method vs. long carotid sheath method), type of stent (open-cell nitinol stent vs. closed-cell Wallstent), and protective device (filters with 80-{mu}m vs. 110-120-{mu}m pore size). Markers for generalized atherosclerosis and for degree and site of stenosis were assessed to allow comparison of adequate risk profiles. Access, protective device, and stent type were not significantly associated with new embolic DWI lesions when we compared patients with equivalent risk profiles (long carotid sheath method 48% [11 of 23] vs. guiding catheter method 44% [27 of 61], Wallstent 47% [15 of 32] vs. nitinol stent 44% [23 of 52], and small pore size filter 61% [11 of 18] vs. large pore size filter 41% [27 of 66]). Single-center DWI studies with a moderate number of cases are inadequate for proper assessment of the embolic risk of technical- or material-related risk factors in carotid stenting. Larger multicenter studies with more cases are needed.

  8. Technical and Tactical Aspects that Differentiate Winning and Losing Performances in Elite Male Karate Fighters.

    PubMed

    Vidranski, Tihomir; Sertić, Hrvoje; Jukić, Josefina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the fighters' technical and tactical activity indicators in order to determine indicator significance regarding situational efficiency and designation between winning and losing performances in a karate match. We scientifically observed a sample of 274 male contesters of 137 karate matches during the 2008 World Karate Championship in Tokyo. Each individual competitor was observed in maximum of three matches. The matches were recorded using a DVD camera in order to collect data for further analysis, and the sample was further described using 48 technical and tactical indicators of situational efficiency and match outcome variables. The obtained results indicate that a karate match is composed of 91% of non-scoring techniques and 9% of scoring techniques in the total technique frequency. On this basis a significant difference in the situational efficiency between the match winners and the losing contesters has been discovered. Those two groups of fighters exhibit a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in 11 out of 21 observed variables of situational efficiency in the table of derived situational indicators. A prevalence of non-scoring techniques suggests that energy demand and technical and tactical requirements of a karate match are in the largest extent defined by non-scoring techniques. Therefore, it would be a grave mistake to disregard non-scoring karate techniques in any future situational efficiency studies. It has been discovered that the winners differ from the defeated contesters by a higher level of situational efficiency in their executed techniques, which incorporate versatility, biomechanical and structural complexity, topological diversity and a specific tactical concept of technique use in the attack phase.

  9. Technical aspects of clinical videoconferencing: a large scale review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Armfield, Nigel R; Dimitrijevic, Mila; Gray, Leonard C

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine has been increasingly researched during the past few decades and the technology used by health care providers and recipients has changed dramatically. However, little has been published on technical characteristics of video consultations and how these characteristics have changed over time due to rapid advancement of information and communication technology. We aimed to summarize various types of technologies used for interactive videoconferencing between health care providers and patients, and identify the trend of their change from 2002 to 2012. A comprehensive electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase and CINAHL databases which yielded 2,411 unique records. After screening at title/abstract level, full texts of 505 articles were retrieved and explored for technical information of videoconferencing. The trend of number of publications fluctuated between 41 and 47 articles with no specific pattern, though a dip in 2004 (n = 35) and drastic increase in 2012 (n = 68) was evident. The equipment used for videoconferencing was not mentioned in 15% of the papers. Dedicated VC systems (CODECs), were the most commonly used hardware, followed by computer/laptop/notebook. The connection speed (bandwidth) was not reported in 46% of the papers. The proportion of articles reporting the connection speed declined over time. Details of image quality and frame rate were mentioned in 11% and 5% of the papers, respectively. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of telemedicine papers lack sufficient technical details that limits their repeatability and generalizability. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Technical Aspects of Larmor Precession with Inclined Front and End Faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekveldt, M. Th.; Bouwman, W. G.; Kraan, W. H.; Uca, O.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Kreuger, R.

    Some technical and physical features of Larmor precession techniques will be discussed. Various options to encode the transmission angle of the neutron beam by inclined front and end faces using DC fields are considered, under which magnetized foils and wedge shaped precession regions. The use of shaped pole faces as precession regions to avoid material in the transmitted beam are considered together with correction methods for the inhomogeneous field line integrals accompanied by those magnetic fields. It appears that the use of pi flippers as occurring in the resonance method are of great advantage.

  11. [Reconstruction of the mandibular symphysis using a revascularized free flap of the scapula. Surgical technic].

    PubMed

    Mayot, D; Perrin, C; Lindas, P; Dron, K

    1993-01-01

    In cases of surgically removed mandibular symphysis malignancies, the bone and mouth floor were reconstructed using osteo-musculo-cutaneous flaps. In our experience, the latter provide the best results. Removed in dorsal decubitus, they allow floor replacement. During the dissection of the tumor site, we also preserve labial and chin structures, which favours a good restoration of phonation and swallowing.

  12. [Biophysical aspects of reconstruction of a single cell by the methods of cell engineering].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V A; Fesenko, E E

    2006-01-01

    The problems of a low efficiency of mammalian cloning are discussed with emphasis on the necessity of the expertise of each step of single cell reconstruction, beginning with microsurgical manipulations. The fact of cell content leakage when the cell is held during microsurgery or microinjections with the help of the conventional method using negative pressure in the holding micropipette was demonstrated in experiments on murine embryos. It was shown that the rate of cell content efflux depends on the value of negative pressure generated in the holding micropipette, and is directly proportional to the dimensions of its orifice and the duration of micromanipulations. An alternative method of cell fixation using the capillary forces of the holding micropipette was proposed. The method optimizes the process of cell fixation, reducing the holding effort by two orders of magnitude. As a result, 92% of embryos remain viable after fixation of embryo, as compared with 39% in the conventional technique. In order to diminish the cell damage produced by the tip of a microinstrument, a new technique of fabricating micropipettes was proposed. The improved method of filling the micropipette with viscous liquids, including DNA, which is described in details in the paper, enabled constant (non-stop) microinjection of more than 1000 cells by hand, without any special automatic device.

  13. Chest wall reconstruction after en bloc Pancoast tumour resection with the use of MatrixRib and SILC fixation systems: technical note.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Marcin; Addae-Boateng, Emmanuel; Boszczyk, Bronek M

    2015-10-01

    Technical note. In cases in which partial resection of the rib cage is accomplished with vertebrectomy, reconstruction of the chest wall may be challenging. That is because of lack of the anchor point which normally would be a proximal end of a rib or transverse process. We report a straightforward technique for chest wall reconstruction with the novel use of two systems of fixation commonly applied in spinal practice. The operation of a squamous cell carcinoma (Pancoast tumour) of the right lung infiltrating T2, T3 and T4 vertebrae was performed though T4 lateral thoracotomy. Posterior instrumentation with transpedicular screws T1-3-5 on the left and T1-5 on the right side was followed with the right upper lobectomy and hemivertebrectomy. The laminae and facet joints of T2-T4 vertebrae were removed on the side of the tumour. An osteotomy was performed medial to the pedicle at the lateral aspect of the dural sac on the side of the tumour. Proximal parts of four adjacent ribs were removed allowing radical en bloc resection with tumour-free margins. The distal end of each of four rib plates used (MatrixRib Precontoured Plate system) was attached to the proximal end of the rib. The proximal end of the plate was then attached to the rod of posterior fixation construct with the use of a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PeT) band of the SILC™ fixation system. The other end of the PeT band was then passed through the top-loading clamp subsequently attached to the rod of the posterior fixation. The patient did not require additional procedures for chest wall reconstruction. On the 7-month follow-up, in chest CT he was found with satisfactory expansion of the remaining lung tissue with proper spinal alignment and anatomical shape of the rib cage. The reported technique can be applied for chest wall reconstruction in cases of total or subtotal vertebrectomy accomplished with the resection extending towards rib cage. It appears to be straightforward, safe and effective

  14. Lining in nasal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sebastian; Fischer, Helmut; Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Restoring nasal lining is one of the essential parts during reconstruction of full-thickness defects of the nose. Without a sufficient nasal lining the whole reconstruction will fail. Nasal lining has to sufficiently cover the shaping subsurface framework. But in addition, lining must not compromise or even block nasal ventilation. This article demonstrates different possibilities of lining reconstruction. The use of composite grafts for small rim defects is described. The limits and technical components for application of skin grafts are discussed. Then the advantages and limitations of endonasal, perinasal, and hingeover flaps are demonstrated. Strategies to restore lining with one or two forehead flaps are presented. Finally, the possibilities and technical aspects to reconstruct nasal lining with a forearm flap are demonstrated. Technical details are explained by intraoperative pictures. Clinical cases are shown to illustrate the different approaches and should help to understand the process of decision making. It is concluded that although the lining cannot be seen after reconstruction of the cover it remains one of the key components for nasal reconstruction. When dealing with full-thickness nasal defects, there is no way to avoid learning how to restore nasal lining.

  15. Managed care's reconstruction of human existence: the triumph of technical reason.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James

    2002-01-01

    To achieve its goals of managing and restricting access to psychiatric care, managed care organizations rely on an instrument, the outpatient treatment report, that carries significant implications about how they view psychiatric patients and psychiatric care. In addition to involving ethical transgressions such as violation of patient confidentiality, denial of access to care, spurious use of concepts like quality of care, and harassment of practitioners, the managed care approach also depends on an overly technical, instrumental interpretation of human beings and psychiatric treatment. It is this grounding of managed care in technical reason that I will explore in this study. I begin with a review of a typical outpatient treatment report and show how, with its dependence on the DSM-IV, on behavioral symptoms and patient 'functioning', on the biomedical model of psychiatric illness, and on gross quantitative measures, the report results in a crude, skeletonized view of the human being as a congeries of behavioral symptoms and functions. I then develop the managed care construal of human existence further by showing its grounding in technical reason, exploring the latter in its modern embodiment and deriving it and its opposite, practical reason, from Aristotle's distinction between technical and practical reason, techne and phronesis. In this analysis of the role of technical reason in managed care, I point out that managed care did not have to develop its rationale de novo but could rather lift its arguments, e.g. the biomedical model, from contemporary psychiatry and simply apply them in a restrictive manner. Finally, I conclude this study by arguing for psychiatry's status as a discipline of practical knowledge.

  16. Integrated PET/CT in lung cancer imaging: history and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    De Wever, W; Stroobants, S; Verschakelen, J A

    2007-01-01

    Integrated PET/CT is a new anatomo-metabolic imaging modality combining two different techniques: Computed Tomography (CT) that provides very detailed anatomic information and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) that provides metabolic information. Integrated PET/CT has several advantages. One of the advantages is the use of CT data for attenuation correction that is significantly faster compared to that in conventional PET systems. Due to the use of CT data for attenuation correction, artefacts can be generated on PET images related to the use of intravenous or oral CT contrast agents, CT beam-hardening artefacts due to metallic implants and motion artefacts (respiratory motion, physical bowel motion, cardiac motion). The purpose of this review is to discuss some technical considerations concerning the CT protocol that can be used for PET/CT in lung cancer imaging and to give a short overview of the initial results of staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

  17. SVI interstitial brachytherapy for primary malignant brain tumors: technical aspects of treatment planning and implantation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, P.A.; Wright, D.C.; Rosenow, U.; Harrington, F.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    Use of interstitial radiation holds promise in the treatment of primary malignant brain tumors, but optimal technical factors have yet to be determined. We have developed a method of precise CT directed stereotactic placement of radioactive sources in a predetermined target volume. We use low activity (1-2 millicurie/speed) sources of SVI loaded in silastic catheters, which are positioned in a parallel array in the target. Positioning of such multiple sources toward the periphery of the volume enhances achievable dose homogeneity. Seeds of various activities can be differentially loaded into each catheter and the catheters can be positioned at various radii from the central target so that the treated volume corresponds to the identified (often irregular) target volume. Although the implant is designed to be permanent, the sources can be removed easily in a second procedure.

  18. [Regional electro-hyperthermia--technical principles, clinical results and health insurance aspects].

    PubMed

    Heyll, Uwe

    2012-06-01

    The method of electro-hyperthermia is based on the production of alternating currents from capacitive coupled electrodes. Because of the associated heating of body tissues, the electro-hyperthermia is promoted as an alternative to the more sophisticated methods of scientific hyperthermia, which find use in oncologic diseases. The analysis of technical data, however, reveals that the electro-hyperthermia is not qualified for a focused, effective and therapeutically useful heating of circumscribed target areas. Data from clinical studies demonstrating efficacy for defined indications are not available. The application of electro-hyperthermia is excluded form the German system of public health insurance. As proof of medical necessity cannot be provided, there is also no claim for reimbursement from private health insurance. According to legal regulations in Germany, an invoice as hyperthermia treatment is usually not possible. Rather, an item from the electrotherapy section of the official provision of medical fees (GOA) has to be chosen.

  19. Total arthroplasty in displaced dysplastic hips with acetabular reconstruction and femoral shortening - technical note.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo; de Oliveira, Leandro Alves; Coelho, Danilo Lopes; do Amaral, Rogério Andrade; Rebello, Percival Rosa; de Moraes, Frederico Barra

    2014-01-01

    To describe a new procedure of total hip replacement in patient with severe developmental dysplasia of the left hip, using technique of acetabular reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts and subtrochanteric shortening femoral osteotomy. Total hip replacement done in January of 2003. The Eftekhar's classification was used and included type D, neglected dislocations. Bone graft incorporated in acetabular shelf and femoral osteotomy. Our contribution is the use of an Allis plate to better fix acetabular grafts, avoiding loosening, and cerclage around bone graft in femoral osteotomy site, which diminish pseudoarthrosis risk. This technique shows efficiency, allowing immediately resolution for this case with pain and range of motion of hip improvement. It also allows the acetabular dysplasia reconstruction, equalization of the limb length (without elevated risk of neurovascular lesion) and repairs the normal hip biomechanics due to the correction of the hip's center of rotation.

  20. A mini-invasive adductor magnus tendon transfer technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Petri J; Mäenpää, Heikki M; Mattila, Ville M; Visuri, Tuomo; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2009-05-01

    Patellar dislocations are associated with injuries to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Several techniques for MPFL reconstruction have been recently published with some disadvantages involved, including large skin incisions and donor site morbidity. Arthroscopic stabilizing techniques carry the potential of inadequate restoration of MPFL function. We present a minimally invasive technique for MPFL reconstruction using adductor magnus tendon autograft. This technique is easily performed, safe, and provides a stabilizing effect equal to current MPFL reconstructions. Skin incision of only 3-4 cm is located at the level of the proximal half of the patella. After identifying the distal insertion of the adductor magnus tendon, a tendon harvester is introduced to harvest the medial two-thirds of the tendon, while the distal insertion is left intact. The adductor magnus tendon is cut at 12-14 cm from its distal insertion and transferred into the patellar medial margin. Two suture anchors are inserted through the same incision at the superomedial aspect of the patella in the anatomic MPFL origin. The graft is tightened at 30 degrees knee flexion. Aftercare includes 4 weeks of brace treatment with restricted range of motion.

  1. IFFN Evaluation Program. Concept Definition. Volume 2: Technical and Programmatic Aspects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    ETCIW AUG 79 S H STARR, J M ALLEN. J H DANIEL MDA90379-C001S UNCLASSIFIED IOA-PlNGO0VOL-2 IDA /HQ-79-21894 N2EEEEEE j r 0) Q .*J0~ Ad’& 0 A to4 .4 be I...and Programmatic Aspects 6 9PENONMING 0mG, REPORT Numeen 7 ~ IDA Paper P-1460 S. ASta J.Frema CONTRACT On GRANT NUMUIENISJ J. Allen E. Legere MDA903 79-C...mmmn off-.*) IS SECUNITY CLASS. (of th,. *ert) DoD- IDA Management Office (OUSDRE) Unclassified 400 Army-Navy Drive --61C O ASSFCTO OOM5ON Arlington

  2. Review of biomedical aspects of CB masks and their relationship to military performance. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Muza, S.R.

    1986-11-01

    This review describes the most important factors affecting military work performance while wearing a CB mask: (1) the additional inspiratory and expiratory breathing resistance; (2) increased external dead space; (3) thermal stress of the mask and hood; (4) restriction of functional vision; (5) hindrance of speech transmission and reception; (6) weight, size, and pressure on the face by the CB mask; (7) claustrophobic reactions, and (8) sleep loss and lack of nutrient intake due to long-term wear. In assessing the biomedical aspects of these factors, rather than making comparisons between specific models of CB masks, the review addresses these factors as they apply to CB masks in general.

  3. Orbital Wall Reconstruction with Two-Piece Puzzle 3D Printed Implants: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y.; Büttner, Michael; Vercruysse, Herman; Wauters, Lauri; Beerens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for secondary reconstruction of traumatic orbital wall defects using titanium implants that act as three-dimensional (3D) puzzle pieces. We present three cases of large defect reconstruction using implants produced by Xilloc Medical B.V. (Maastricht, the Netherlands) with a 3D printer manufactured by LayerWise (3D Systems; Heverlee, Belgium), and designed using the biomedical engineering software programs ProPlan and 3-Matic (Materialise, Heverlee, Belgium). The smaller size of the implants allowed sequential implantation for the reconstruction of extensive two-wall defects via a limited transconjunctival incision. The precise fit of the implants with regard to the surrounding ledges and each other was confirmed by intraoperative 3D imaging (Mobile C-arm Systems B.V. Pulsera, Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven, the Netherlands). The patients showed near-complete restoration of orbital volume and ocular motility. However, challenges remain, including traumatic fat atrophy and fibrosis. PMID:26889349

  4. Paediatric distal fibula reconstruction using a pedicled composite second metatarsal flap: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiguo; Trimaille, Alexandra; De Vries, Philine; Philandrianos, Cécile; Kerfant, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    The case of a 4-year-old boy in whom a pedicled second metatarsal flap was used for lateral malleolar reconstruction after lawnmower injury is presented. Leg initial assessment demonstrated a 5cm bone loss at the distal fibula combined with severe soft tissue damage. Immediate healing was achieved with split-thickness skin graft but secondary reconstruction was necessary to obtain bone replacement with soft tissue coverage to allow bone growth and shoe donning. To avoid microsurgical fibular epiphyseal transplant morbidity and complications, we used a pedicled second metatarsal flap based on the dorsalis pedis vessels including the second metatarsal bone, the skin of the second toe and the brevis pedis muscle. Repair of the donor side was performed with direct suture and no post-operative course complication was noted. At seven-year follow-up, transferred bone had excellent growth and the patient had adequate ankle function and stable ride. The case provides technique descriptions, considerations in the paediatric population, an overview of other techniques and a seven-year follow-up. It suggests that vascularized chimeric second metatarsal flap may be a useful option in paediatric distal fibula reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M.; Lemm, G.; Hohenstein, E.; Bellemann, N.; Stampfl, U.; Goezen, A. S.; Rassweiler, J.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.; Pereira, P. L.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 {+-} 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 {+-} 13.6 min and 43.7 {+-} 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 {+-} 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 {+-} 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 {+-} 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} before RF ablation vs. 47.2 {+-} 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  6. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers' peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers' location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual 'map' of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the locations

  7. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers’ peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers’ location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual ‘map’ of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the

  8. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Nigro, Roberta; Oliviero, Caterina; Marchioni, Chiara; Esposito, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Mancosu, Pietro; Marino, Carmelo; Russo, Serenella; Stasi, Michele; Strigari, Lidia; Veronese, Ivan; Landoni, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

  9. Technical aspects of nuclear microprobe analysis of senile plaques from alzheimer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, N. P.-O.; Tapper, U. A. S.; Sturesson, K.; Odselius, R.; Brun, A.

    1990-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a common form of senile dementia, has been proposed to be caused by aluminium. One of the interesting structures to be studied, senile plaque cores in the brain, have centres of only about 10 μm. We have investigated the possibility of applying nuclear microprobes to sections containing senile plaques. An alternative staining procedure, TMToluidin blue staining using a spray technique, is also presented. An outline is given of a procedure for preparing senile plaque specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis. This includes a technique for accurate ion beam positioning, utilizing electron microscopy-grids. The subject may be of general interest since sample preparation is one of the most important aspects in microprobe analysis of biological matter.

  10. Technical Aspects on the Use of Ultrasonic Bone Shaver in Spine Surgery: Experience in 307 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Yaşar, Barış; Rosberg, Hans-Eric; Akbaş, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We discuss technical points, the safety, and efficacy of ultrasonic bone shaver in various spinal surgeries within our own series. Methods. Between June 2010 and January 2014, 307 patients with various spinal diseases were operated on with the use of an ultrasonic bone curette with microhook shaver (UBShaver). Patients' data were recorded and analyzed retrospectively. The technique for the use of the device is described for each spine surgery procedure. Results. Among the 307 patients, 33 (10.7%) cases had cervical disorder, 17 (5.5%) thoracic disorder, 3 (0.9%) foramen magnum disorder, and 254 (82.7%) lumbar disorders. Various surgical techniques were performed either assisted or alone by UBShaver. The duration of the operations and the need for blood replacement were relatively low. The one-year follow-up with Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were improved. We had 5 cases of dural tears (1.6%) in patients with lumbar spinal disease. No neurological deficit was found in any patients. Conclusion. We recommend this device as an assistant tool in various spine surgeries and as a primary tool in foraminotomies. It is a safe device in spine surgery with very low complication rate. PMID:27195299

  11. Design and Technical Aspects of a New in Vacuum Transfocator at ESRF Beamline ID11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossat, M.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Snigirev, A.; Wright, J. P.; Bytchkov, A.; Dabin, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2010-06-01

    A tunable X-Ray focusing apparatus based on compound refractive lenses (CRL), referred to as a transfocator, has been installed for monochromatic beam (IAT in air transfocator) two years ago in the second optics hutch at ID11 at the ESRF. By varying the number of lenses in the beam, the energy focused and the focal length can be varied continuously throughout a large range of energies and distances. Based the success of the IAT, an in-vacuum transfocator (IVT) has now been built and installed at ID11. The aim of this poster is to describe and show the mechanical and technical solutions used to design and manufacture this new IVT. The IVT was installed last January in the first optics hutch at ID11. The IVT consists of nine water cooled cartridges containing 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 Be lenses, and 32 and 64 Al lenses, and a protective aperture of O/ 900 μm. The mechanical design is based on a system of pneumatically actuated cartridges with an auto positioning on two stainless steel rods. The vacuum vessel has translations and rotations perpendicular to the beam direction in order to align the axis of the cartridges with the x-ray beam.

  12. Development of a Clinical Pathway and Technical Aspects of Upper Airway Stimulation Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Vanderveken, Olivier M.; Beyers, Jolien; Op de Beeck, Sara; Dieltjens, Marijke; Willemen, Marc; Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease with high morbidity and related mortality. Narrowing and collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep characterize the disease, resulting in a decrease (hypopnea) or a complete cessation (apnea) of oronasal airflow. Upper airway stimulation (UAS), using electrical neurostimulation of the hypoglossal nerve (n. XII) synchronized with ventilation, is a novel, evolving treatment option. UAS was found to be an effective treatment in CPAP-intolerant patients. The treatment success is partly due to the strict selection of the patients, based on previous findings. Furthermore, post-operative follow-up is needed in order to maintain or improve treatment outcome. Therefore, a clinical pathway, which provides structure and standardization, is crucial. In this paper, the aim is to discuss the technical aspects of UAS therapy and to describe a clinical pathway to organize the care process of UAS for OSA in a structured and standardized way.

  13. Extracorporeal machine perfusion of the pancreas: technical aspects and its clinical implications--a systematic review of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation is an important treatment option for insulin-dependent diabetes and its complications. However, as the pancreas is particularly susceptible to ischaemic-reperfusion injury, the criteria for pancreas and islet donation are especially strict. With a chronic shortage of donors, one critical challenge is to maximise organ availability and expand the donor pool. To achieve that, continuous improvement in organ preservation is required, with the aims of reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury, prolong preservation time and improve graft function. Static cold storage, the only method used in clinical pancreas and islet cell transplant currently, has likely reached its plateau. Machine perfusion, hypothermic or normothermic, could hold the key to improving donor pancreas quality as well as quantity available for transplant. This article reviews the literature on experimental models of pancreas machine perfusion, examines the benefits of machine perfusion, the technical aspects and their clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview and technical and practical aspects for use of geostatistics in hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste-site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bossong, C.R.; Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.; Vecchia, A.V.

    1999-10-01

    Technical and practical aspects of applying geostatistics are developed for individuals involved in investigation at hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste sites. Important geostatistical concepts, such as variograms and ordinary, universal, and indicator kriging, are described in general terms for introductory purposes and in more detail for practical applications. Variogram modeling using measured ground-water elevation data is described in detail to illustrate principles of stationarity, anisotropy, transformations, and cross validation. Several examples of kriging applications are described using ground-water-level elevations, bedrock elevations, and ground-water-quality data. A review of contemporary literature and selected public domain software associated with geostatistics also is provided, as is a discussion of alternative methods for spatial modeling, including inverse distance weighting, triangulation, splines, trend-surface analysis, and simulation.

  15. Direct carotid artery puncture access for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke: technical aspects, advantages, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-02-01

    Challenging anatomy for carotid artery access can result in a delay to achieve successful recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our objective was to study emergent direct percutaneous carotid artery puncture as an alternative access approach for acute endovascular stroke interventions. We reviewed cases of acute ischemic stroke in which direct carotid artery puncture was used for access. We also reviewed current literature relevant to this subject. We describe the technical aspects, limits, and potential complications associated with direct carotid artery puncture for intracranial acute ischemic stroke interventions, and present cases to illustrate the utility of this access approach. Direct carotid artery puncture is a feasible alternative to transfemoral artery access in cases of stroke with difficult anatomy, including unfavorable arch type, carotid tortuosity, or an ostial lesion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Microscopic and Metallurgical Aspects of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was descending for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on February 1, 2003. Approximately 20 minutes prior to touchdown, the Columbia began disintegrating over the western United States; the majority of debris eventually impacted in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. A monumental effort eventually recovered approximately 84,000 pieces of debris, approximately 38% of the Orbiter's original dry weight. The debris was transported to KSC, where the items were catalogued and evaluated. Critical areas of interest, such as the left and right leading edge surfaces and the underside of the ship, were placed upon a grid to aid in the reconstruction. Items of interest included metallic structures, reinforced carbon-carbon composites, and ceramic heat insulation tiles. Many of the leading edge elements had re-solidified metallic deposits spattered on them. These deposits became known as slag and were one of the main focuses of the investigation. In order to help determine the sequence of events inside the left wing during the accident, the slag's composition, layering order, and directionality of deposition were studied. A myriad of analytical tests were performed in an attempt to ascertain the compositional and depositional characteristics of selected slag deposits, including the ordering of deposited layers within each individual slag deposit harvested. Initially, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) were performed to quickly characterize the overall composition of individual slag deposits: SEM utilizes a narrowlyfocused high-energy electron beam impinging upon a specimen. The incident beam excites and liberates lower energy secondary electrons, which are detected and analyzed, providing a visual representation of the sample's surface topography. EDX also relies on an incident electron beam, except an EDX unit measures X-ray energies generated by the impinging beam. Each element generates a

  17. Where no flag has gone before: Political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platoff, Anne M.

    1993-01-01

    The flag on the Moon represents an important event in vexillological history. The political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon, focusing on the first Moon landing, is examined. During their historic extravehicular activity, the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the Moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to 'fly' without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the Moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items. As NASA plans a return to the Moon and an expedition to Mars, we will likely see flags continue to go 'where no flag has gone before'.

  18. Coronary computed tomography angiography: overview of technical aspects, current concepts, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Cadrin-Chênevert, Alexandre; Bordeleau, Edith; Ugolini, Patricia; Ouellet, Robert; Sablayrolles, Jean-Louis; Prenovault, Julie

    2007-04-01

    Multidetector-row electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) will probably be a major noninvasive imaging option in the near future. Recent developments indicate that this new technology is improving rapidly. This article presents an overview of the current concepts, perspectives, and technical capabilities in coronary CT angiography (CTA). We have reviewed the recent literature on the different applications of this technology; of particular note are the many studies that have demonstrated the high negative predictive value (NPV) of coronary CTA, when performed under optimal conditions, for significant stenoses in native coronary arteries. This new technology's level of performance allows it to be used to evaluate the presence of calcified plaques, coronary bypass graft patency, and the origin and course of congenital coronary anomalies. Despite a high NPV, the robustness of the technology is limited by arrhythmias, the requirement of low heart rates, and calcium-related artifacts. Some improvements are needed in the imaging of coronary stents, especially the smaller stents, and in the detection and characterization of noncalcified plaques. Further studies are needed to more precisely determine the role of CTA in various symptomatic and asymptomatic patient groups. Clinical testing of 64-slice scanners has recently begun. As the technology improves, so does the spatial and temporal resolution. To date, this is being achieved through the development of systems with an increased number of detectors and shorter gantry rotation time, as well as the development of systems equipped with 2 X-ray tubes and the eventual development of flat-panel technology. Thus further improvement of image quality is expected.

  19. Role of the technical aspects of hypofractionated radiation therapy treatment of prostate cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Stefania; Nigro, Roberta; Oliviero, Caterina; Marchioni, Chiara; Esposito, Marco; Giglioli, Francesca Romana; Mancosu, Pietro; Marino, Carmelo; Russo, Serenella; Stasi, Michele; Strigari, Lidia; Veronese, Ivan; Landoni, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multispectral imaging: a review of its technical aspects and applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, J R

    2014-01-01

    The field of anatomic pathology has changed significantly over the last decades and, as a result of the technological developments in molecular pathology and genetics, has had increasing pressures put on it to become quantitative and to provide more information about protein expression on a cellular level in tissue sections. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has a long history as an advanced imaging modality and has been used for over a decade now in pathology to improve quantitative accuracy, enable the analysis of multicolor immunohistochemistry, and drastically reduce the impact of contrast-robbing tissue autofluorescence common in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. When combined with advanced software for the automated segmentation of different tissue morphologies (eg, tumor vs stroma) and cellular and subcellular segmentation, MSI can enable the per-cell quantitation of many markers simultaneously. This article covers the role that MSI has played in anatomic pathology in the analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections, discusses the technological aspects of why MSI has been adopted, and provides a review of the literature of the application of MSI in anatomic pathology.

  1. Platform development for merging various information sources for water management: methodological, technical and operational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvao, Diogo

    2013-04-01

    As a result of various economic, social and environmental factors, we can all experience the increase in importance of water resources at a global scale. As a consequence, we can also notice the increasing need of methods and systems capable of efficiently managing and combining the rich and heterogeneous data available that concerns, directly or indirectly, these water resources, such as in-situ monitoring station data, Earth Observation images and measurements, Meteorological modeling forecasts and Hydrological modeling. Under the scope of the MyWater project, we developed a water management system capable of satisfying just such needs, under a flexible platform capable of accommodating future challenges, not only in terms of sources of data but also on applicable models to extract information from it. From a methodological point of view, the MyWater platform obtains data from distinct sources, and in distinct formats, be they Satellite images or meteorological model forecasts, transforms and combines them in ways that allow them to be fed to a variety of hydrological models (such as MOHID Land, SIMGRO, etc…), which themselves can also be combined, using such approaches as those advocated by the OpenMI standard, to extract information in an automated and time efficient manner. Such an approach brings its own deal of challenges, and further research was developed under this project on the best ways to combine such data and on novel approaches to hydrological modeling (like the PriceXD model). From a technical point of view, the MyWater platform is structured according to a classical SOA architecture, with a flexible object oriented modular backend service responsible for all the model process management and data treatment, while the information extracted can be interacted with using a variety of frontends, from a web portal, including also a desktop client, down to mobile phone and tablet applications. From an operational point of view, a user can not only see

  2. Historical reconstruction of contamination using sediment cores: A review. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, N.

    1992-03-01

    Historical reconstructions of contamination using cored sediments have been performed in the United States and abroad, in marine as well as freshwater environments. Most studies have dealt with trace metals, while a few reported results for organic contaminants. With some exceptions, these studies show an increase in sediment contamination during the late 1800s, followed by an acceleration in the rate of contamination in the 1940s, and a plateau or a maximum in the 1960-1970s. Little is known about the trends of coastal pollution over the last decade, as only a few studies have been carried out since 1980. From these studies, however, it appears that Pb concentrations have decreased in most areas of the world following the implementation of laws regulating the use of leaded gasoline in automobiles.

  3. Charging of the Electric Vehicles in Private Sector: Technical and Economic Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Oleinikova, I.; Klavs, G.

    2014-12-01

    The economic aspect considered in the work is related to the charging of an electric vehicle (EV) at a single private house when this is done every day. To perform the relevant cost estimation it was necessary to determine: the average annual electricity consumption under the condition of everyday charging an EV and the average electricity consumption off the mains for covering a distance of 100 km by an EV and the time in hours for its charging. Comparison is made for the day-time intervals from which it is possible to choose the preferable for proper loading the electric line and the most beneficial for the consumer. Under analysis are two EV connection scenarios for 100 individual households from which 10%, 20% and 30% have EVs, with 8-h duration of each charging at the current of 13A. The authors consider the consumption and electric energy payment packages which - with planned opening of the electric energy market on January 1, 2015 - will offer the clients the enterprises rendering services on the electric energy sale. Šajā rakstā tiek analizēts vidējais diennakts elektroenerģijas patēriņš un diennakts slodzes grafiki privātmājās apstākļos, kad privātmājas īpašnieki lādē elektroautomobili katru dienu vidējam brauciena attālumam 100 km. Elektroautomobiļa uzlādes režīmi tiek analizēti, ņemot vērā patēriņa elektriskās slodzes grafika kvalitāti raksturojošos rādītājus un patērētāja ekonomiskos ieguvumus. Lai novērtētu ekonomiski stimulētu patērētāju elektroautomobiļa uzlādes laika izvēles ietekmi uz diennakts elektriskās slodzes aizpildījuma koeficientu, tika izveidoti un analizēti 2 scenāriji, kas apraksta 100 privātmāju ar dažādu elektroautomobiļu piederības īpatsvaru divas atšķirīgas automobiļu uzlādes gadījumus.

  4. Total sacrectomy and Galveston L-rod reconstruction for malignant neoplasms. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Gokaslan, Z L; Romsdahl, M M; Kroll, S S; Walsh, G L; Gillis, T A; Wildrick, D M; Leavens, M E

    1997-11-01

    Although radical resection is the best treatment for malignant sacral tumors, total sacrectomy for such tumors has been performed in only a few instances. Total sacral resection requires reconstruction of the pelvic ring plus establishment of a bilateral union between the lumbar spine and iliac bone. This technique is illustrated in two patients harboring large, painful, sacral giant-cell tumors that were unresponsive to prior treatment. These patients were treated with complete en bloc resection of the sacrum and complex iliolumbar reconstruction/stabilization and fusion. Surgery was performed in two stages, the first consisting of a midline celiotomy, dissection of visceral/neural structures, and ligation of internal iliac vessels, followed by an anterior L5-S1 discectomy. The second stage consisted of mobilization of an inferiorly based myocutaneous rectus abdominis pedicle flap for wound closure, followed by an L-5 laminectomy, bilateral L-5 foraminotomy, ligation of the thecal sac, division of sacral nerve roots, and transection of the ilia lateral to the tumor and sacroiliac joints. Placement of the instrumentation required segmental fixation of the lumbar spine from L-3 down by means of pedicle screws and the establishment of a bilateral liaison between the lumbar spine and the ilia by using the Galveston L-rod technique. The pelvic ring was then reestablished by means of a threaded rod connecting left and right ilia. Both autologous (posterior iliac crest) and allograft bone were used for fusion, and a tibial allograft strut was placed between the remaining ilia. The patients were immobilized for 8 weeks postoperatively and underwent progressive rehabilitation. At the 1-year follow-up review, one patient could walk unassisted, and the other ambulated independently using a cane. Both patients controlled bowel function satisfactorily with laxatives and diet and could maintain continence but required self-catheterization for bladder emptying. The authors

  5. Complex single step skull reconstruction in Gorham's disease - a technical report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ohla, Victoria; Bayoumi, Ahmed B; Hefty, Markus; Anderson, Matthew; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2015-03-11

    Gorham's disease is a rare osteolytic disorder characterized by progressive resorption of bone and replacement of osseous matrix by a proliferative non-neoplastic vascular or lymphatic tissue. A standardized treatment protocol has not yet been defined due to the unpredictable natural history of the disease and variable clinical presentations. No single treatment has proven to be superior in arresting the course of the disease. Trials have included surgery, radiation and medical therapies using drugs such as calcium salts, vitamin D supplements and hormones. We report on our advantageous experience in the management of this osteolyic disorder in a case when it affected only the skull vault. A brief review of pertinent literature about Gorham's disease with skull involvement is provided. A 25-year-old Caucasian male presented with a skull depression over the left fronto-temporal region. He noticed progressive enlargement of the skull defect associated with local pain and mild headache. Physical examination revealed a tender palpable depression of the fronto-temporal convexity. Conventional X-ray of the skull showed widespread loss of bone substance. Subsequent CT scans showed features of patchy erosions indicative of an underlying osteolysis. MRI also revealed marginal enhancement at the site of the defect. The patient was in need of a pathological diagnosis as well as complex reconstruction of the afflicted area. A density graded CT scan was done to determine the variable degrees of osteolysis and a custom made allograft was designed for cranioplasty preoperatively to allow for a single step excisional craniectomy with synchronous skull repair. Gorham's disease was diagnosed based on histopathological examination. No neurological deficit or wound complications were reported postoperatively. Over a two-year follow up period, the patient had no evidence of local recurrence or other systemic involvement. A single step excisional craniectomy and cranioplasty can be an

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft for adolescents with open physes- a technical note

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One major concern in the treatment of ACL lesions in children and adolescents with open physes is the risk of iatrogenic damage to the physes and a possibly resulting growth disturbance. Purpose The primary purpose of this article is to describe our technique of a transphyseal ACL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-bone autograft in children and adolescents with open growth plates. The secondary aim is to report our early results in terms of postoperative growth disturbances which are considered to be a major concern in this challenging group of patients. It was our hypothesis that with our proposed technique no significant growth disturbances would occur. Methods From January 1997 to December 2007 49 consecutive children and adolescents with open growth plates were treated for a torn ACL using the aforementioned surgical technique. The patients (28 males and 21 females) with a median age at surgery of 13 (range 8-15) years were retrospectively evaluated. Outcome measures were follow-up radiographs (weight-bearing long leg radiographs of the injured and uninjured knee, anteroposterior and lateral views, a tangential view of the patella and a tunnel view of the injured knee) and follow-up notes (6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months and until closing of physes) for occurrence of any tibial and/or femoral growth changes. Results: All of the 49 patients had a sufficient clinical and radiological follow-up (minimum 5 years, rate 100%). 48 cases did not show any clinical and radiological growth disturbance. One case of growth disturbance in a 10.5 years old girl was observed. She developed a progressive valgus-flexion deformity which was attributed to a malplacement of the autograft bone block within the femoral posterolateral epiphyseal plate leading to an early localized growth stop. None of the patients were reoperated due to ACL graft failure. Five of the patients underwent revision ACL surgery due to another adequate sports trauma after the growth-stop. The

  7. Five-level sub-axial cervical vertebrectomy and reconstruction: technical report.

    PubMed

    Reig, Adam; Parker, Scott L; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-05-01

    Regardless of the etiology, severe cervical deformities can be extremely debilitating and are a challenge to correct. Often a multi-modality team approach is required to safely and effectively reduce the deformity, provide adequate decompression, and ensure solid fixation and fusion. In cases of iatrogenic cervical deformity necessitating five-level corpectomy and fixation, the feasibility, safety, and durability of this procedure remains unknown. We describe a patient who presented with debilitating pain and inability to eat due to an iatrogenic chin-on-chest cervical kyphotic deformity. The patient underwent a back-front-back staged procedure requiring five-level cervical vertebrectomy, C3-T1 anterior fixation, and occipital to T5 posterior fusion, resulting in successful reduction of cervical kyphosis from 75 to 0 degrees. At 6 months post-operatively, the patient demonstrated marked improvement in neurologic function and reported substantial improvements in neck pain-specific disability (NDI) and quality of life (SF-12 and EQ-5D). The feasibility and safety of five-level vertebrectomy and reconstruction for chin-on-chest deformity remains poorly described. The current case suggests that thoughtful planning that involves maximizing the patient's health status, judicious use of traction under direct neurological examination, staged circumferential release, and design of a construct that provides anterior and posterior column support with several points of fixation beyond the axis of rotation will attenuate the risk of peri-operative morbidity and potentiate the durability of deformity correction.

  8. Reconstruction of chronic tearing of the distal triceps using the double-row configuration: technical note.

    PubMed

    Paniago, Alexandre Firmino; Storti, Thiago Medeiros; Faria, Rafael Salomon Silva; Morais, Dennys Carlos Aragão de; Souza, Murillo Pablo de

    2015-01-01

    Tearing of the distal triceps is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose, especially in situations of partial tearing. Imaging methods such as ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging should be used to confirm the diagnosis and define the extent of the injury. The preferred treatment for complete tearing of the triceps is surgical, unlike in cases of partial tearing, in which the treatment depends on factors such as pain, functional deficit and the patient's expectations. Here, we describe the case of a patient with partial tearing of the distal triceps after falling to the ground, which was not diagnosed at the time of first attendance and evolved with pain and great functional loss. The surgical procedure was performed nine months after the injury, with reconstruction of the triceps by means of reinforcement using the tendon of the ipsilateral semitendinosus and fixation in the olecranon using the double-row configuration. The patient remained immobilized using a sling for one week and then gains in passive range of motion (ROM) were introduced. Three weeks later, the patient was released for gains in active ROM. Muscle strengthening was started after 12 weeks. Six weeks after the surgical procedure, the patient was free from pain and presented complete ROM, grade V elbow extension force and hypertrophy of the triceps. The technique described here was shown to be useful for treating tears of the tendon of the distal triceps.

  9. Technical Aspects of Open Repair for Degenerative Aneurysmal Evolution Despite Early Thoracic Endovascular Repair of Type B Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Aguir, Sonia; El Batti, Salma; Achouh, Paul; Julia, Pierre; Bel, Alain; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Alsac, Jean-Marc

    2017-04-01

    Closure of the proximal tear by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) at the acute phase appears to be a safe effective treatment to prevent aneurysmal degeneration type B dissection. However, it appears to be inefficient in up to a third of the patient. We report the technical aspects of our experience with patients undergoing secondary open repair after TEVAR for dissecting thoracoabdominal aneurysm despite early closure proximal tear by TEVAR. During a period of 5 years, 96 patients presenting acute type B aortic dissections were treated by TEVAR and followed-up in our institution. Among them, 5 patients experienced an evolution to a dissecting thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Their demographic data and initial medical conditions, delay to reintervention, operative technical details, perioperative and mid-term outcomes were collected and analyzed. All 5 patients (4 male, mean age 58 ± 9) were operated under peripheral normothermic bypass without deep circulatory arrest using the thoracic stent graft as an elephant trunk for completion of the proximal anastomosis. In cases of patency, the false lumen was reapproximated in the anastomosis, 6 visceral arteries were revascularized selectively. One patient died at day 1 of perioperative ventricular fibrillation due to an acute myocardial infarction. The 4 others are alive without complication after a median of 30 months, range (13-22). In our experience, TEVAR was not only efficient at the acute phase to deal with complications, but in cases of subsequent aneurysmal evolution, it made open repair even easier by avoiding very proximal cross-clamping/anastomosis and circulatory arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's water polo world championships: technical and tactical aspects of winning and losing teams in close and unbalanced games.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Corrado; Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the technical and tactical aspects between winning and losing teams in close (i.e., 1-3 goals of difference) and unbalanced (i.e., >3 goals of difference) elite women's water polo games. A notational analysis was performed on 45 games to evaluate occurrence of action, mean duration, action outcome, origin and execution of shot, offensive and defensive role, and arrangement of even, counterattack, power play, and transition situations. Independent 2-sided t-tests were applied to show differences (p < 0.05) between teams. Regarding close games, effects emerged for action outcome (counterattack: lost possessions; power play: goals, no goal shots), origin (even: zone 1, zone 4; counterattack: zone 1, zone 5) and execution (even: off-the-water shots; counterattack: shots after > than 2 fakes; power play: drive shots) of shots, offensive even arrangements (6 vs. 6/5 vs. 5; 2 vs. 2/1 vs. 1), and role. Regarding unbalanced games, differences emerged for the occurrence of action (even, counterattack), duration (even; power play), action outcome (even: goals, penalties; counterattack: goals, no goal shots, penalties; power play: goals, no goal shots; transition: lost possessions), origin (even: zone 2, zone 4; counterattack: zone 5) and execution (even: free throws, drive shots; counterattack: drive shots, shots after > 2 fakes; power play: drive shots, shots after 1 fake) of shots; offensive even arrangements (2 vs. 2/1 vs. 1), and role; and defensive even arrangements (pressing, zones 1-2, zone M, zones 2-3-4). Differences between close and unbalanced games underlining that water polo performance should be analyzed in relation to specific margins of victory. Therefore, water polo coaches and physical trainers can plan a sound training session according to the most important aspects of close (opponent's exclusion, center forward play, and power play actions) and unbalanced (defensive skills) games.

  11. Technical Aspects: Problems of Scale Development, Norms, Item Differences by Sex, and the Rate of Change in Occupational Group Characteristics (Revised February 6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Charles B.

    The scope of the paper is to review the two major interest inventories, exploring the nuances and complexities of the technical aspects in their development, their item sampling, norming, scoring, reporting of results, and changing patterns of interests in relation to the differential treatment of sexes; and to suggest guidelines to eliminate or…

  12. Manual Arts to Technology Education: Are We Ripe for Infusing Aspects of a Green Technology into Career and Technical Education Constituent Subjects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual essay that reviews industrial and economic changes that have shaped vocational education to present day Career and Technical Education (CTE) curriculum, and specifically the role of technology education in meeting societal needs. An argument is presented that CTE is ripe to integrate aspects of green technology and…

  13. Manual Arts to Technology Education: Are We Ripe for Infusing Aspects of a Green Technology into Career and Technical Education Constituent Subjects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asunda, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual essay that reviews industrial and economic changes that have shaped vocational education to present day Career and Technical Education (CTE) curriculum, and specifically the role of technology education in meeting societal needs. An argument is presented that CTE is ripe to integrate aspects of green technology and…

  14. Anterolateral corridor approach to the infratemporal fossa and central skull base in maxillectomy: rationale and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeremy D; Crowther, John; Taylor, William M; Wong, Ling Siew; Paterson, Tom; Devine, John; Wales, Craig; MacIver, Colin

    2015-11-01

    We describe the technical aspects and report our clinical experience of a surgical approach to the infratemporal fossa that aims to reduce local recurrence after operations for cancer of the posterior maxilla. We tested the technique by operating on 3 cadavers and then used the approach in 16 patients who had posterolateral maxillectomy for disease that arose on the maxillary alveolus or junction of the hard and soft palate (maxillary group), and in 19 who had resection of the masticatory compartment and central skull base for advanced sinonasal cancer (sinonasal group). Early proximal ligation of the maxillary artery was achieved in all but one of the 35 patients. Access to the infratemporal fossa enabled division of the pterygoid muscles and pterygoid processes under direct vision in all cases. No patient in the maxillary group had local recurrence at median follow up of 36 months. Four patients (21%) in the sinonasal group had local recurrence at median follow up of 27 months. Secondary haemorrhage from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery resulted in the only perioperative death. The anterolateral corridor approach enables controlled resection of tumours that extend into the masticatory compartment. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical Aspects and Validation of a New Biofeedback System for Measuring Lower Limb Loading in the Dynamic Situation

    PubMed Central

    Raaben, Marco; Holtslag, Herman R.; Augustine, Robin; van Merkerk, Rutger O.; Koopman, Bart F. J. M.; Blokhuis, Taco J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A variety of techniques for measuring lower limb loading exists, each with their own limitations. A new ambulatory biofeedback system was developed to overcome these limitations. In this study, we described the technical aspects and validated the accuracy of this system. Methods: A bench press was used to validate the system in the static situation. Ten healthy volunteers were measured by the new biofeedback system and a dual-belt instrumented treadmill to validate the system in the dynamic situation. Results: Bench press results showed that the sensor accurately measured peak loads up to 1000 N in the static situation. In the healthy volunteers, the load curves measured by the biofeedback system were similar to the treadmill. However, the peak loads and loading rates were lower in the biofeedback system in all participants at all speeds. Conclusions: Advanced sensor technologies used in the new biofeedback system resulted in highly accurate measurements in the static situation. The position of the sensor and the design of the biofeedback system should be optimized to improve results in the dynamic situation. PMID:28327505

  16. The Reverse-Flow Facial Artery Buccinator Flap for Skull Base Reconstruction: Key Anatomical and Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Farzal, Zainab; Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Rawal, Rounak B; Overton, Lewis J; Sreenath, Satyan B; Patel, Mihir R; Zanation, Adam M

    2015-12-01

    Objective To highlight key anatomical and technical considerations for facial artery identification, and harvest and transposition of the facial artery buccinator (FAB) flap to facilitate its future use in anterior skull base reconstruction. Only a few studies have evaluated the reverse-flow FAB flap for skull base defects. Design Eight FAB flaps were raised in four cadaveric heads and divided into thirds; the facial artery's course at the superior and inferior borders of the flap was measured noting in which incisional third of the flap it laid. The flap's reach to the anterior cranial fossa, sella turcica, clival recess, and contralateral cribriform plate were studied. A clinical case and operative video are also presented. Results The facial artery had a near vertical course and stayed with the middle (⅝) or posterior third (⅜) of the flap in the inferior and superior incisions. Seven of eight flaps covered the sellar/planar regions. Only four of eight flaps covered the contralateral cribriform region. Lastly, none reached the middle third of the clivus. Conclusions The FAB flap requires an understanding of the facial artery's course, generally seen in the middle third of the flap, and is an appropriate alternative for sellar/planar and ipsilateral cribriform defects.

  17. Technical aspects of CNG

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.; Jones, K.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the following information: the volumetric Efficiency of Engines using Liquid and Gaseous Fuels (Why do CNG vehicles suffer a power loss.); Facilities and Procedures for CNG Testing at the University of Auckland. (What tests are the University of Auckland CNG Research Group able to do.); Carbon Monoxide Exhaust Emissions and the CNG Engine. (How can a CO exhaust emissions analyser be used to get the best fuel economy.); Ignition Timing and the Performance of a Dual-Fuel CNG-Petrol Engine. (How should ignition timing be set.); Ignition System Performance and Requirements for Dual Fuel CNG-Petrol Operation. (What are the spark plug temperature and voltage requirements.)

  18. Tumour ablation: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-10-02

    Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours.

  19. Dosimetric and technical aspects of intraoperative I-125 brachytherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark; Colonias, Athanasios; Parda, David; Trombetta, Mark; Gayou, Olivier; Reitz, Bodo; Miften, Moyed

    2007-03-01

    Initial treatment outcome data from our institution for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have shown that sublobar resection in combination with iodine-125 (I-125) brachytherapy is associated with recurrence rates of 2.0%, compared to 18.6% with sublobar resection alone. In this work, the technical and dosimetric aspects required to execute this procedure from the radiation oncology perspective as well as an analysis of the dose distributions of patients treated with this technique are presented. In this treatment technique, I-125 seeds in vicryl suture are embedded into vicryl mesh and surgically inserted providing a 2.0 cm margin on each side of the resection staple line. A nomogram is developed to determine the suture spacing in the vicryl mesh, as a function of seed activity in order to deliver 120 Gy at a distance of 0.5 cm above and below the seed array. Post-operative dosimetry consists of a CT-based planning and dose volume analysis. Dose distributions, dose volume histograms and mean dose data for lung are analysed in a group of patients. Dosimetric results show significant lung sparing with only a small volume of lung irradiated for all patients with mean lung dose values ranging from 1.5 Gy to 5.4 Gy. Lung brachytherapy with I-125 at the time of sublobar resection is a highly conformal option of dose delivery for stage I NSCLC patients with compromised physiologic reserve. Patient-related toxicity clinically measured by loss of pulmonary function and radiation-induced pneumonitis have not been linked to this procedure.

  20. [Stereomodel-assisted fibula free flap harvest and mandibular reconstruction: A technical note. Literature review of CAS and CAM applied to mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pauchot, J; Lachat, J; Floret, F; Badet, J-M; Tavernier, L; Aubry, S

    2013-08-05

    Mandibular reconstruction with fibula free flap harvest is currently the reference technique. Various preoperative processes have been developed to optimize this reconstruction. We report our experience with a simple, inexpensive, preoperative technique requiring a 3D printer, a device for maintaining mandibular reduction, a paper-cutting guide. Stereomodels of the mandible were obtained from computed tomography scan data and printed 3D in ABS. It allowed planning mandibular osteotomies, determine the angle between two bone fragments, and preoperatively modeling the osteosynthesis plate. A paper-cutting guide, and a simple device for maintaining mandibular reduction were also built. Two patients were operated on with this technique, with follow-up at 6 and 8 months. Reconstructions were successful with good clinical outcome in terms of mandibular contour and reconstructed segments positions. Preoperative planning of reconstruction may be used for mandibular osteotomies, fibular osteotomies, maintaining mandibular reduction, osteosynthesis, or placing implants for dental rehabilitation. The most complex procedures can virtually plan all these steps, but they are expensive and long to implement. Nevertheless, such procedures are quite expansive and require time not always compatible with carcinoma. Using a mandibular stereomodel is fast, easy, and cheap. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical aspects of pediatric epilepsy surgery: Report of a multicenter, multinational web-based survey by the ILAE Task Force on Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cukiert, Arthur; Rydenhag, Bertil; Harkness, William; Cross, J Helen; Gaillard, William D

    2016-02-01

    Surgical techniques may vary extensively between centers. We report on a web-based survey aimed at evaluating the current technical approaches in different centers around the world performing epilepsy surgery in children. The intention of the survey was to establish technical standards. A request was made to 88 centers to complete a web-based survey comprising 51 questions. There were 14 questions related to general issues, 13 questions investigating the different technical aspects for children undergoing epilepsy surgery, and 24 questions investigating surgical strategies in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Fifty-two centers covering a wide geographic representation completed the questionnaire. The median number of resective procedures per center per year was 47. Some important technical practices appeared (>80% of the responses) such as the use of prophylactic antibiotics (98%), the use of high-speed drills for bone opening (88%), nonresorbable material for bone flap closure (85%), head fixation (90%), use of the surgical microscope (100%), and of free bone flaps. Other questions, such as the use of drains, electrocorticography (ECoG) and preoperative withdrawal of valproate, led to mixed, inconclusive results. Complications were noted in 3.8% of the patients submitted to cortical resection, 9.9% hemispheric surgery, 5% callosotomy, 1.8% depth electrode implantation, 5.9% subdural grids implantation, 11.9% hypothalamic hamartoma resection, 0.9% vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and 0.5% deep brain stimulation. There were no major differences across regions or countries in any of the subitems above. The present data offer the first overview of the technical aspects of pediatric epilepsy surgery worldwide. Surprisingly, there seem to be more similarities than differences. That aside many of the evaluated issues should be examined by adequately designed multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Further knowledge on these technical issues might lead to increased

  2. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES); an airborne remote sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated optimally-estimated-retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were: 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to be: +0.06 (±0.02 at 1σ) %, +3.95 (±3

  3. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES): an airborne remote-sensing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated maximum a posteriori retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system operating in the nadir-viewing geometry. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively, for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to

  4. Expose and Biopan - Technical and operational aspects in the development of exposure platforms for exobiology and radiation biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, P.; Demets, R.; Brillouet, C.; von Heise-Rotenburg, R.; Schulte, W.

    , protected with a variety of windows and filters. This paper focuses mainly on the technical aspects related to the development of the experiment-dedicated hardware and the sensor packages for these exposure platforms; in particular, it analyses the impact of the scientific requirements and of the constraints due to resources limitation and to safety issues (ISS operations) on the design and on the operational scenarios. Improvements and possible upgrading of the existing design solutions are also explored in view of a future and more intensive utilization of these facilities, in the frame of the new ESA Exploration Programme.

  5. Algorithmic aspects for the reconstruction of spatio-spectral data cubes in the perspective of the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mary, D.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, C.; Deguignet, J.; Vannier, M.

    2016-12-01

    With millions of receivers leading to TerraByte data cubes, the story of the giant SKA telescope is also that of collaborative efforts from radioastronomy, signal processing, optimization and computer sciences. Reconstructing SKA cubes poses two challenges. First, the majority of existing algorithms work in 2D and cannot be directly translated into 3D. Second, the reconstruction implies solving an inverse problem and it is not clear what ultimate limit we can expect on the error of this solution. This study addresses (of course partially) both challenges. We consider an extremely simple data acquisition model, and we focus on strategies making it possible to implement 3D reconstruction algorithms that use state-of-the-art image/spectral regularization. The proposed approach has two main features: (i) reduced memory storage with respect to a previous approach; (ii) efficient parallelization and ventilation of the computational load over the spectral bands. This work will allow to implement and compare various 3D reconstruction approaches in a large scale framework.

  6. Osseointegration aspects of placed implant in bone reconstruction with newly developed block-type interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    DOI, Kazuya; KUBO, Takayasu; MAKIHARA, Yusuke; OUE, Hiroshi; MORITA, Koji; OKI, Yoshifumi; KAJIHARA, Shiho; TSUGA, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial bone has been employed to reconstruct bone defects. However, only few reports on implant placement after block bone grafting exist. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of dental implant in bone reconstructions with interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). Material and Methods The IP-CHA cylinders (D; 4.3 mm, H; 10.0 mm) were placed into bone sockets in each side of the femurs of four male dogs. The IP-CHA on the right side was a 24-week sample. Twelve weeks after placement, a titanium implant was placed into a socket that was prepared in half of the placed IP-CHA cylinder on the right side. On the left side, another IP-CHA cylinder was placed as a 12-week sample. After another 12 weeks, the samples were harvested, and the bone regeneration and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratios were measured. Results New bone formation area was superior in the 24-week IP-CHA compared with the 12-week IP-CHA. BIC was not significantly different between IP-CHA and the parent sites. Osseointegration was detected around the implant in IP-CHA-reconstructed bone. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that IP-CHA may be a suitable bone graft material for reconstructing bones that require implant placement. PMID:27556202

  7. Anterior Spinal Reconstruction to the Clivus Using an Expandable Cage After C2 Chordoma Resection Via a Labiomandibular Glossotomy Approach: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Ozpinar, Alp; Liu, Jesse J; Whitney, Nathaniel L; Tempel, Zachary J; Choi, Philip A; Andersen, Peter E; Coppa, Nicholas D; Hamilton, D Kojo

    2016-06-01

    En bloc resection of high-cervical chordomas is a technically challenging procedure associated with significant morbidity. Two key components of this procedure include the approach and the method of spinal reconstruction. A limited number of reported cases of en bloc resection of high-cervical chordomas have been reported in the literature. We report a novel case using an expandable cage to reconstruct the anterior spinal column above C2 with fixation to the clivus. We also report a novel anterior approach to the high-cervical spine via a midline labiomandibular glossotomy. We detail the management of complications related to 2 instances of wound dehiscence and hardware exposure requiring two additional operations. The final surgical procedure involved explantation of the anterior cervical plate and use of a vascularized radial graft to close the posterior pharyngeal defect and protect the hardware. At 26-month follow-up, the patient remained disease free without any neurologic deficit. We report the novel use of the midline labiomandibular glossotomy for surgical approach and reconstruction of the anterior column to the clivus with an expandable cage. The unique features of this operative strategy allowed the surgical team to tailor the construct intraoperatively, resulting in solid arthrodesis without significant neurologic sequelae. Labiomandibular glossotomy for approach to high anterior cervical chordomas followed by craniospinal reconstruction to the clivus with an expandable cage represents a novel technique for managing high cervical chordomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  9. Theoretical Aspects of the Patterns Recognition Statistical Theory Used for Developing the Diagnosis Algorithms for Complicated Technical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obozov, A. A.; Serpik, I. N.; Mihalchenko, G. S.; Fedyaeva, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the article, the problem of application of the pattern recognition (a relatively young area of engineering cybernetics) for analysis of complicated technical systems is examined. It is shown that the application of a statistical approach for hard distinguishable situations could be the most effective. The different recognition algorithms are based on Bayes approach, which estimates posteriori probabilities of a certain event and an assumed error. Application of the statistical approach to pattern recognition is possible for solving the problem of technical diagnosis complicated systems and particularly big powered marine diesel engines.

  10. Enterprise Planning for Change; Co-ordination of Manpower and Technical Planning. Industrial Relations Aspects of Manpower Policy, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedderburn, Dorothy

    Forty case studies made by research teams of independents or governmental agencies in Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States were analyzed to provide managements and trade unions with illustrations of present systems of technical and manpower changes at the enterprise level and to describe the…

  11. Reconstruction of the Unified Soviet National Economic Balance Tables, 1970 - 1983: A Replication and Evaluation of Steinberg’s Reconstruction Methodology. Volume 1: Technical

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-09

    I ct(•~ ~r , frilormation era~n ad• l:i••.tr ~I ’i" 1111 11111lilt 11 e h Utice at Management g , aperw 4 1 8 8 ) 1 AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2...DSA version and the original Steinberg version of the reconstruction are based on the same fundamental methodology, the resulting tables are not...Balance) (3) FINANCIAL WT061 Distribution of State Profit WT071 Capital Invesment in Current Prices WT049* Unified Balance of Household Income and

  12. Assessment of flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery: effects of technical aspects of the FMD measurement on the FMD response.

    PubMed

    Bots, Michiel L; Westerink, Jan; Rabelink, Ton J; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2005-02-01

    The ability to assess endothelial function non-invasively with B-mode ultrasound has lead to its widespread application in a variety of studies. However, the absolute values obtained using this approach vary considerably across studies. We studied whether technical aspects of the methodology can explain the wide variety in absolute values across studies. A literature search was performed to identify published reports on flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery published between 1992 and 2001. Information on type of equipment (wall track/B-mode), location of the measurement (antecubital fossa/upper arm), occlusion site (lower/upper arm), occlusion duration (min), and occlusion pressure was extracted. Patient characteristics were also extracted. For the healthy populations, mean FMD varied from 0.20 to 19.2%; for the coronary heart disease (CHD) patients FMD varied from -1.3 to 14%; for subjects with diabetes mellitus FMD varied from 0.75 to 12%. Compared with occlusion at the upper arm, lower arm occlusion was related to decreased FMD (mean difference in FMD -2.47%; 95% CI 0.55-4.39). An occlusion duration of > or =4.5 min was related to an increased FMD compared with an occlusion time of < or =4 min (mean difference 1.30%; 95% CI 0.35-2.46). These findings were adjusted for other technical aspects of the methodology and for differences in risk factors between populations. Mean FMD differs widely between studies. There is a great overlap between populations (healthy, CHD, diabetics). Our findings suggest that the technical aspects of the measurements, the location, and the duration of the occlusion may explain some of these differences, whereas type of equipment, location of the measurement, and occlusion pressure do not.

  13. Practical aspects of complex permittivity reconstruction with neural-network-controlled FDTD modeling of a two-port fixture.

    PubMed

    Eves, E Eugene; Murphy, Ethan K; Yakovlev, Vadim V

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses characteristics of a new modeling-based technique for determining dielectric properties of materials. Complex permittivity is found with an optimization algorithm designed to match complex S-parameters obtained from measurements and from 3D FDTD simulation. The method is developed on a two-port (waveguide-type) fixture and deals with complex reflection and transmission characteristics at the frequency of interest. A computational part is constructed as an inverse-RBF-network-based procedure that reconstructs dielectric constant and the loss factor of the sample from the FDTD modeling data sets and the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. As such, it is applicable to samples and cavities of arbitrary configurations provided that the geometry of the experimental setup is adequately represented by the FDTD model. The practical implementation of the method considered in this paper is a section of a WR975 waveguide containing a sample of a liquid in a cylindrical cutout of a rectangular Teflon cup. The method is run in two stages and employs two databases--first, built for a sparse grid on the complex permittivity plane, in order to locate a domain with an anticipated solution and, second, made as a denser grid covering the determined domain, for finding an exact location of the complex permittivity point. Numerical tests demonstrate that the computational part of the method is highly accurate even when the modeling data is represented by relatively small data sets. When working with reflection and transmission coefficients measured in an actual experimental fixture and reconstructing a low dielectric constant and the loss factor the technique may be less accurate. It is shown that the employed neural network is capable of finding complex permittivity of the sample when experimental data on the reflection and transmission coefficients are numerically dispersive (noise-contaminated). A special modeling test is proposed for validating the

  14. Restoring tactile and erogenous penile sensation in low-spinal-lesion patients: procedural and technical aspects following 43 TOMAX nerve transfer procedures.

    PubMed

    Overgoor, Max L E; de Jong, Tom P V M; Kon, Moshe

    2014-08-01

    The "TOMAX" (TO MAX-imize sensation, sexuality, and quality of life) procedure restores genital sensation in men with low spinal lesions, improving sexual health, as shown previously. It connects the dorsal nerve of the penis to the intact ipsilateral ilioinguinal nerve, unilaterally or bilaterally. This study reports on the technical aspects based on 43 TOMAX nerve transfers. In 40 patients with no penile but intact groin sensation, 43 nerve transfers were performed. Data on patient selection, surgical history, anatomy of the ilioinguinal nerve and dorsal nerve of the penis, unilateral or bilateral surgery, surgical technique, complications, and patient information were collected prospectively. Regardless of origin, all patients with no penile but good groin sensation are eligible for the procedure, provided the ilioinguinal nerve is not damaged because of former inguinal surgery or absent because of anatomical variations. Selection of a unilateral or bilateral procedure depends on the presence or absence of reflex erections and bulbocavernosus reflex. Preliminary experience with the first three bilateral cases shows that it is technically feasible, with encouraging results. The surgical technique has evolved (described in detail, including video) to enhance outcome and reduce complications. Patients are better informed, resulting in realistic expectations. This article synthesizes the procedural and technical experience of 43 TOMAX nerve transfers. Anyone skilled in peripheral nerve surgery and microsurgery can adopt this concept and further develop it. The TOMAX procedure can then be used to restore erogenous penile sensation and improve the quality of sexual health in patients with absent penile but good groin sensation.

  15. Technical and practical aspects of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients in Poland - preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Koperska, Joanna; Maciag, Aleksander; Derejko, Paweł; Orczykowski, Michał; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek

    2009-05-01

    The aim of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) is to increase the patient's safety by early detection of technical or medical malfunctions and decrease the number of follow-up visits. To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of internet-based home monitoring of ICD recipients in Poland. Twenty-seven patients with ICD with remote monitoring options were evaluated; 20 (74%) patients had a single chamber ICD, 6 (22%) patients had a dual chamber ICD and one had an ICD with a resynchronisation therapy option. Medical and technical events reported by the remote monitoring system as well as interruptions in monitoring longer than 14 days were analysed. The patients were followed for 12.7 +/- 10.5 months. Two of them died because of heart failure (6 and 13 months after ICD implantation, respectively). The remote monitoring system reported medical events in 13 (48%) patients. In total, we received 32 event reports (from 1 to 19 per patient, mean 2.6) which were generated due to the detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) (17 events in 9 patients), ventricular fibrillation (VF) (9 episodes in 6 patients), ineffective defibrillation with the maximal energy (5 reports in 3 patients) and supraventricular tachycardia in the VT detection window (1). Two patients had more than 3 VT/VF episodes during 24 h. There were no reports on technical abnormalities of the ICD system. Interruptions in home monitoring longer than 14 days occurred in 5 (18.5%) patients and lasted 2 to 14 weeks (mean 2.8 +/- 7.1). The longest break was caused by the patient's stay abroad. The remaining interruptions were caused by: journeys (5 episodes), hospitalisations (4), and a temporary stay in a place without sufficient GSM coverage (3). During the follow-up period there were no interruptions in monitoring caused by transmitter or ICD failure. All data received by the home monitoring system were confirmed during the follow-up visits. Remote monitoring of ICD recipients

  16. Local aspects of the As-stabilized 2×3 reconstructed (001) surface of strained Inx Ga1-xAs alloys: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaiche, L.; Kunc, K.; Sauvage-Simkin, M.; Garreau, Y.; Pinchaux, R.

    1996-03-01

    Using the first-principles total-energy pseudopotential method, we study local aspects of an anion-terminated model of the (2×3) reconstructed (001) surface of strained InxGa1-xAs alloys. The structural model is based on recent in-plane x-ray-diffraction data [M. Sauvage-Simkin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3485 (1995)] and the in-plane coordinates of atoms are found in excellent agreement with the experiment. We demonstrate that values of some atomic coordinates are mainly due to strongly local features, such as arsenic dimerization and indium adaptation to the GaAs substrate. We finally discuss a way leading to some unknown quantities in this experiment, i.e., the atomic coordinates along the z axis.

  17. Fifteen years' experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using bare stents: retrospective review of clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Gazzera, C; Righi, D; Valle, F; Ottobrelli, A; Grosso, M; Gandini, G

    2009-02-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of a large series of patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. Between March 1992 and December 2006, 658 patients were referred to our centre for TIPS placement. Indications for the procedure were digestive tract bleeding (52.8%), refractory ascites (35.3%), preservation of portal vein patency prior to liver transplantation (3.0%) and thrombosis of the suprahepatic veins (2.3%). Other indications (6.6%) included pleural ascites, portal thrombosis and hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndromes. All patients were evaluated with colour Doppler ultrasonography and in a few cases with computed tomography. The portal system was punctured under sonographic guidance. Wallstent, Palmaz and Nitinol thermosensitive stents were used. Embolisation of persistent varices was performed in 6.8% of cases. Technical success was 98.9%. During a 1,500-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of stent revision was 25.7% (Nitinol), 32.9% (Wallstent) and 1.8% (Palmaz). Mortality rates were 31.1%, 38.5% and 56.4%, respectively. The technical complications included six cases of heart failure, six of haematobilia, three of stent migration, two of intrahepatic haematoma and one of haemoperitoneum. Eight patients with severe portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) were treated with a reduction stent. TIPS placement is safe and effective and may act as a bridge to liver transplantation. Ultrasonography plays a fundamental role in the preliminary assessment, in portal vein puncture and during the follow-up. Stent patency is satisfactory.

  18. Total arthroplasty in displaced dysplastic hips with acetabular reconstruction and femoral shortening – technical note☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paulo; de Oliveira, Leandro Alves; Coelho, Danilo Lopes; do Amaral, Rogério Andrade; Rebello, Percival Rosa; de Moraes, Frederico Barra

    2014-01-01

    To describe a new procedure of total hip replacement in patient with severe developmental dysplasia of the left hip, using technique of acetabular reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts and subtrochanteric shortening femoral osteotomy. Total hip replacement done in January of 2003. The Eftekhar's classification was used and included type D, neglected dislocations. Bone graft incorporated in acetabular shelf and femoral osteotomy. Our contribution is the use of an Allis plate to better fix acetabular grafts, avoiding loosening, and cerclage around bone graft in femoral osteotomy site, which diminish pseudoarthrosis risk. This technique shows efficiency, allowing immediately resolution for this case with pain and range of motion of hip improvement. It also allows the acetabular dysplasia reconstruction, equalization of the limb length (without elevated risk of neurovascular lesion) and repairs the normal hip biomechanics due to the correction of the hip's center of rotation. PMID:26229775

  19. Endonasal management of pediatric congenital transsphenoidal encephaloceles: nuances of a modified reconstruction technique. Technical note and report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Zeinalizadeh, Mehdi; Sadrehosseini, Seyed Mousa; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; Silva, Harley Brito da; Singh, Harminder

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital transsphenoidal encephaloceles are rare malformations, and their surgical treatment remains challenging. This paper reports 3 cases of transsphenoidal encephalocele in 8- to 24-month-old infants, who presented mainly with airway obstruction, respiratory distress, and failure to thrive. METHODS The authors discuss the surgical management of these lesions via a minimally invasive endoscopic endonasal approach, as compared with the traditional transcranial and transpalatal approaches. A unique endonasal management algorithm for these lesions is outlined. The lesions were repaired with no resection of the encephalocele sac, and the cranial base defects were reconstructed with titanium mesh plates and vascular nasoseptal flaps. RESULTS Reduction of the encephalocele and reconstruction of the skull base was successfully accomplished in all 3 cases, with favorable results. CONCLUSIONS The described endonasal management algorithm for congenital transsphenoidal encephaloceles is a safe, viable alternative to traditional transcranial and transpalatal approaches, and avoids much of the morbidity associated with these open techniques.

  20. [Strategy for technical evaluation in radiation oncology: methodological and ethical aspects, the French society for radiation oncology's opinion].

    PubMed

    Chauvet, B; Mornex, F; Mahé, M-A

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine is a paradigm founded on a hierarchy of research design, accepted as a dogma. Applied to radiation oncology, and specifically to radiotherapy technical comparisons, evidence-based medicine implies methodological and ethical problems. The concept of "incremental" evolution and the dosimetric evidence are proposed as an acceptable alternative to comparative clinical trials if total dose, time, fractionation, and target volumes are not modified. For other situations, either randomized comparative trials or observational studies are needed. When randomized comparative trials are not possible, observational studies, whose validity can be enhanced by appropriate methodology, must be considered as a valid method. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Autologous bone marrow graft and treatment of delayed and non-unions of long bones: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Galois, Laurent; Bensoussan, Danièle; Diligent, Jérôme; Pinzano, Astrid; Henrionnet, Cristel; Choufani, Elie; Stoltz, Jean-François; Mainard, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the technique of percutaneous autologous bone marrow injection as a minimally invasive method alternative to open grafting techniques in the treatment of delayed unions and non-unions. Despite continuous advances in the treatment of long bone fractures, disturbances of healing processes remain a difficult challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Percutaneous administration of substances with osteoinductive and osteogenic properties offers the advantage of decreased morbidity associated with the classic open grafting techniques. This makes it worth exploring before embarking on more extensive open surgery. The authors present the main technical stages of the percutaneous bone marrow grafting (bone marrow aspiration, concentration, intra-osseous re-injection and post-operative protocol) with a short literature review about this topic.

  2. Nanoscale tomographic reconstruction of the subsurface mechanical properties of low-k high-aspect ratio patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Gheorghe; Mays, Ebony; Yoo, Hui Jae; King, Sean W.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, intermittent contact resonance atomic force microscopy (ICR-AFM) was performed on high-aspect ratio a-SiOC:H patterned fins (100 nm in height and width from 20 to 90 nm) to map the depth and width dependencies of the material stiffness. The spatial resolution and depth sensitivity of the measurements were assessed from tomographic cross-sections over various regions of interest within the 3D space of the measurements. Furthermore, the depth-dependence of the measured contact stiffness over the scanned area was used to determine the sub-surface variation of the elastic modulus at each point in the scan. This was achieved by iteratively adjusting the local elastic profile until the depth dependence of the resulted contact stiffness matched the depth dependence of the contact stiffness measured by ICR-AFM at that location. The results of this analysis were assembled into nanoscale sub-surface tomographic images of the elastic modulus of the investigated SiOC:H patterns. A new 3D structure-property representation emerged from these tomographic images with direct evidence for the alterations sustained by the structures during processing.

  3. Technical note: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the presence of an intramedullary femoral nail using anteromedial drilling.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Matthew; Lamplot, Joseph; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-18

    To describe an approach to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous hamstring by drilling via the anteromedial portal in the presence of an intramedullary (IM) femoral nail. Once preoperative imagining has characterized the proposed location of the femoral tunnel preparations are made to remove all of the hardware (locking bolts and IM nail). A diagnostic arthroscopy is performed in the usual fashion addressing all intra-articular pathology. The ACL remnant and lateral wall soft tissues are removed from the intercondylar, to provide adequate visualization of the ACL footprint. Femoral tunnel placement is performed using a transportal ACL guide with desired offset and the knee flexed to 2.09 rad. The Beath pin is placed through the guide starting at the ACL's anatomic footprint using arthroscopic visualization and/or fluoroscopic guidance. If resistance is met while placing the Beath pin, the arthroscopy should be discontinued and the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. When the Beath pin is successfully placed through the lateral femur, it is overdrilled with a 4.5 mm Endobutton drill. If the Endobutton drill is obstructed, the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. In this case, the obstruction is more likely during Endobutton drilling due to its larger diameter and increased rigidity compared to the Beath pin. The femoral tunnel is then drilled using a best approximation of the graft's outer diameter. We recommend at least 7 mm diameter to minimize the risk of graft failure. Autologous hamstring grafts are generally between 6.8 and 8.6 mm in diameter. After reaming, the knee is flexed to 1.57 rad, the arthroscope placed through the anteromedial portal to confirm the femoral tunnel position, referencing the posterior wall and lateral cortex. For a quadrupled hamstring graft, the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons are then harvested in the standard fashion. The tendons are whip

  4. Technical note: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the presence of an intramedullary femoral nail using anteromedial drilling

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Matthew; Lamplot, Joseph; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To describe an approach to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autologous hamstring by drilling via the anteromedial portal in the presence of an intramedullary (IM) femoral nail. METHODS Once preoperative imagining has characterized the proposed location of the femoral tunnel preparations are made to remove all of the hardware (locking bolts and IM nail). A diagnostic arthroscopy is performed in the usual fashion addressing all intra-articular pathology. The ACL remnant and lateral wall soft tissues are removed from the intercondylar, to provide adequate visualization of the ACL footprint. Femoral tunnel placement is performed using a transportal ACL guide with desired offset and the knee flexed to 2.09 rad. The Beath pin is placed through the guide starting at the ACL’s anatomic footprint using arthroscopic visualization and/or fluoroscopic guidance. If resistance is met while placing the Beath pin, the arthroscopy should be discontinued and the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. When the Beath pin is successfully placed through the lateral femur, it is overdrilled with a 4.5 mm Endobutton drill. If the Endobutton drill is obstructed, the obstructing hardware should be removed under fluoroscopic guidance. In this case, the obstruction is more likely during Endobutton drilling due to its larger diameter and increased rigidity compared to the Beath pin. The femoral tunnel is then drilled using a best approximation of the graft’s outer diameter. We recommend at least 7 mm diameter to minimize the risk of graft failure. Autologous hamstring grafts are generally between 6.8 and 8.6 mm in diameter. After reaming, the knee is flexed to 1.57 rad, the arthroscope placed through the anteromedial portal to confirm the femoral tunnel position, referencing the posterior wall and lateral cortex. For a quadrupled hamstring graft, the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons are then harvested in the standard fashion. The

  5. Atomic and molecular collision aspects of thermospheric uranium-vapor releases. Technical report, 15 February 1980-31 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, D.A.

    1990-05-01

    The DNA Uranium (Oxides) LWIR Review Committee considered the effectiveness of field measurements of the LWIR from uranium oxides produced by (hypothetical) controlled releases of uranium vapor from rockets in the thermosphere. Collated here is the writer's work supporting the committee on atomic and molecular collision aspects of such releases. Included is an essential auxiliary study to (a) understand, in terms of atomic and molecular parameters, coefficients for Ba+ diffusion along the magnetic field as measured and predicted for Ba-release events and (b) apply that (limited) understanding to U-release studies. For particles colliding with neutral atmospheric species, several interaction potentials are used to compute velocity-dependent momentum-transfer cross sections, stopping power and range versus energy, and diffusion coefficients. The momentum-transfer cross sections are also compared with cross sections for certain uranium oxide reactions specially atom-transfer reactions.

  6. [Technical aspects and relevance of energy expenditure and physical activity assessment in clinical research for cystic fibrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Michaud, L; Turck, D; Gottrand, F

    2005-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by deteriorating lung function and mal-digestion, which result in growth failure and/or under-nutrition. Several factors, alone or combined, contribute to malnutrition in CF: poor energy intake, elevation of energy loss as a result of malabsorption, increasing resting energy expenditure due to genetic mutation and/or pulmonary exacerbation. Several techniques have been used to assess energy expenditure and physical activity in order to better understand mechanisms of malnutrition in CF and follow therapeutic interventions. Indirect calorimetry (IC) studies have shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) was 10-22% higher than predictive values. This increase could be attributed to chronic inflammation as a result of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection. Indeed, intravenous antibiotic therapy decreases REE. Doubly labelled water technique and heart rate monitoring calibrated against IC techniques shows that total energy expenditure (TEE) was not different than in healthy children. Physical activity level assessed by the ratio TEE-REE is also not different between CF of healthy children. Recently, new accelerometry technics, easier to use and less invasive have been successfully used in order to assess physical activity level in CF. Precise and ambulatory assessment of energy expenditure and physical activity permit to check and adapt dietary allowances in CF. These techniques could be simultaneously used and be helpful to assess efficacy of intervention studies.

  7. Third place 1989 Alpha Cradle Award winner. Technical aspects in the use of "belly boards" for small bowel minimization.

    PubMed

    Frank, L E; Rowley, L A; Shanahan, T G; Mehta, M P

    1990-03-01

    The position in which a patient is treated for pelvic irradiation has been shown to have dramatic significance in regard to the volume of small bowel within the treatment field. Previous studies in the literature have repeatedly supported the fact that volume may be the leading factor in both acute and chronic morbidity. We have prospectively evaluated and treated 30 patients utilizing a custom-made polyurethane foam and styrofoam "belly board" with a dropout cut from the level of the xyphoid process to the superior border of the treatment field, specifically designed to allow maximal superior and anterior displacement of small bowel by bladder distention and gravity, while allowing reliable daily reproducibility, accurate immobilization and equally important, increased patient comfort and compliance. By evaluating all patients (in both the supine position alone, and prone in the "Belly Board") with a dedicated treatment planning CT scanner, we have been able to achieve 80-100% reduction in the volume of small bowel within the radiation portals. We will discuss data on the technical set-up, cost, and variations which allow the "Belly Board" to be specifically tailored for use when treating other intraabdominal sites. This technique is simple, inexpensive, highly reproducible, and permits maximal bowel displacement outside the treatment fields.

  8. Donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells in organ transplantation: technical aspects and hurdles yet to be cleared.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Patrick

    2003-05-15

    The use of hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) therapy in organ transplantation is a challenge to promote chimerism with the aim of enhancing organ tolerance. Several HSC sources are available, including bone marrow (most of the time), peripheral blood after stem-cell mobilization, and placental blood. HSC collection techniques from vertebral bodies or iliac crests require a number of complex manipulations. The best yield of HSC is obtained from vertebral bodies. HSC harvesting by cytapheresis after cell mobilization with a cytokine such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor should be preferred with a live donor. The number of CD3+ T cells is more than 10-fold higher in peripheral blood than in bone marrow. Cell separation by the immunoselection technique (positive selection of the CD34+ cell population) eliminates erythrocytes, granulocytes, and T cells, thus preventing the possible occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease. In the future, an accreditation will be required for HSC collection and processing. In Europe, the reference tool is the Joint Accreditation Committee of Ishage-Europe or the Foundation for the Accreditation of Haematopoietic Cell Therapy manual, which provides standards for every technical step of these procedures.

  9. A novel graft material for preventing cerebrospinal fluid leakage in skull base reconstruction: technical note of perifascial areolar tissue.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Mitsuya, Koichi; Gorai, Katsuya; Inoue, Keita; Ito, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Nakasu, Yoko

    2015-02-01

    Objectives Perifascial areolar tissue (PAT), a layer of loose connective tissue on the deep fascias with a rich vascular plexus, serves as a vital cover over defects with scarce vascularity. We report the usefulness of PAT as a nonvascularized alternative to flaps for reconstruction of dural defects in skull base surgery and transsphenoidal surgery while evaluating its effect on control of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Design A retrospective chart analysis was performed on patients who had undergone repair of a dural defect with PAT during skull base surgery or transsphenoidal surgery between December 2004 and October 2011. Results Twenty-one patients were included: 11 patients had received surgical treatment and/or irradiation. Fourteen of the 21 patients had pre- and/or intraoperative CSF leakage. Only one patient (4.8%) had postoperative CSF leakage requiring additional surgical repair. Ten patients underwent postoperative irradiation from 1 to 15 months after transplant of the PAT. None of the patients had postoperative CSF leakage after irradiation. Conclusion We successfully repaired dural defects using PAT in skull base surgery and transsphenoidal surgery, even in patients with a history of multiple operations and radiotherapy. PAT may serve as a valuable tool for skull base reconstruction.

  10. An assessment of scientific and technical aspects of closed investigations of canine forensics DNA--case series from the University of California, Davis, USA.

    PubMed

    Scharnhorst, Günther; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2011-06-01

    To describe and assess the scientific and technical aspects of animal forensic testing at the University of California, Davis. The findings and recommendations contained in this report are designed to assess the past, evaluate the present, and recommend reforms that will assist the animal forensic science community in providing the best possible services that comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. A batch of 32 closed files of domestic dog DNA cases processed at the University of California, Davis, between August 2003 and July 2005 were reviewed in this study. The case files comprised copies of all original paperwork, copies of the cover letter or final report, laboratory notes, notes on analyses, submission forms, internal chains of custody, printed images and photocopies of evidence, as well as the administrative and technical reviews of those cases. While the fundamental aspects of animal DNA testing may be reliable and acceptable, the scientific basis for forensic testing animal DNA needs to be improved substantially. In addition to a lack of standardized and validated genetic testing protocols, improvements are needed in a wide range of topics including quality assurance and quality control measures, sample handling, evidence testing, statistical analysis, and reporting. This review implies that although a standardized panel of short tandem repeat and mitochondrial DNA markers and publicly accessible genetic databases for canine forensic DNA analysis are already available, the persistent lack of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and quality control programs, still plagues the animal forensic community. This report focuses on closed cases from the period 2003-2005, but extends its scope more widely to include other animal DNA forensic testing services.

  11. Expanding indications and regional diversity in laparoscopic liver resection unveiled by the International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection (INSTALL) study.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2016-07-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has undergone widespread dissemination after the first international consensus conference in 2008, and specialized centers continue to report remarkable achievements. However, little is known about the global adoption of LLR. This study aimed to illuminate geographical variances in the indications and technical aspects of LLR and to delineate the evolution of this approach worldwide. In advance of the Second International Consensus Conference in Morioka, Japan, a web-based, anonymous questionnaire comprising 46 questions, named the International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection study, was sent via e-mail to the members of regional and International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association offices. The results of the 13 questions concerning the global diffusion of LLR have been reported previously. Responses to the remaining 33 questions that corresponded to indications and surgical techniques used in LLR were collected and analyzed. Survey responses were received from 412 LLR surgeons in 42 countries on five continents. The majority of surgeons in North America had no restrictions on the maximum size or number of tumors to be resected laparoscopically. Likewise, >50 % of surgeons in East Asia and North America performed LLR for the postero-superior 'difficult' segments. Major resection was performed in 40 to >60 % of centers in North America, Europe, and East Asia. Donor hepatectomy was performed only in specialized centers. More than 75 % of respondents had adopted a pure laparoscopic approach. A flexible laparoscope was most commonly used in East Asia. Most surgeons used pneumoperitoneal pressure at around 9-16 mmHg. Other techniques and devices were used at the discretion of each surgeon. Indications for LLR continue to expand with some regional diversity. Surgical approaches and devices used in LLR are a matter of preference and availability, as in open liver resection.

  12. An assessment of scientific and technical aspects of closed investigations of canine forensics DNA – case series from the University of California, Davis, USA

    PubMed Central

    Scharnhorst, Günther; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2011-01-01

    Aim To describe and assess the scientific and technical aspects of animal forensic testing at the University of California, Davis. The findings and recommendations contained in this report are designed to assess the past, evaluate the present, and recommend reforms that will assist the animal forensic science community in providing the best possible services that comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. Methods A batch of 32 closed files of domestic dog DNA cases processed at the University of California, Davis, between August 2003 and July 2005 were reviewed in this study. The case files comprised copies of all original paperwork, copies of the cover letter or final report, laboratory notes, notes on analyses, submission forms, internal chains of custody, printed images and photocopies of evidence, as well as the administrative and technical reviews of those cases. Results While the fundamental aspects of animal DNA testing may be reliable and acceptable, the scientific basis for forensic testing animal DNA needs to be improved substantially. In addition to a lack of standardized and validated genetic testing protocols, improvements are needed in a wide range of topics including quality assurance and quality control measures, sample handling, evidence testing, statistical analysis, and reporting. Conclusion This review implies that although a standardized panel of short tandem repeat and mitochondrial DNA markers and publicly accessible genetic databases for canine forensic DNA analysis are already available, the persistent lack of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and quality control programs, still plagues the animal forensic community. This report focuses on closed cases from the period 2003-2005, but extends its scope more widely to include other animal DNA forensic testing services. PMID:21674824

  13. The Candy-Plug Technique: Technical Aspects and Early Results of a New Endovascular Method for False Lumen Occlusion in Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Rohlffs, Fiona; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Fiorucci, Beatrice; Heidemann, Franziska; Debus, Eike Sebastian; Kölbel, Tilo

    2017-08-01

    To describe the technical aspects and early results of the Candy-Plug technique for endovascular false lumen occlusion in chronic aortic dissection. A retrospective single-center study analyzing 18 consecutive patients (mean age 63 years, range 44-76; 16 men) with thoracic false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. All patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair with false lumen occlusion using the Candy-Plug technique. Primary endpoints consisted of technical success (successful deployment) and clinical success (no false lumen backflow). Secondary endpoints included 30-day mortality and morbidity as well as aortic remodeling during follow-up. Technical success was 100%. Additional intraprocedural false lumen embolization at the Candy-Plug level was needed in 1 patient due to persisting false lumen backflow on the final angiogram (clinical success 94%). There were no intraprocedural complications. In the perioperative period, there were 3 minor complications: transient mild spinal cord ischemia, cervical hematoma after carotid-subclavian bypass, and a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm. No deaths or reinterventions occurred. Complete distal false lumen occlusion was present on postoperative computed tomography in 15 patients, while 3 had minor contrast enhancement in the distal false lumen. Over a mean 9-month follow-up (range 0-26), 1 patient died due to rupture. Follow-up >6 months was available in 10 patients (mean 14.7 months, range 7-26): 7 patients showed aortic remodeling, while aneurysm size was stable in 3 patients. The Candy-Plug technique is a feasible endovascular method to achieve false lumen occlusion and aortic remodeling in chronic aortic dissection. It is associated with low morbidity and mortality due to its minimal invasiveness.

  14. Technical And Economical Aspects Of Integrating, Handling And Exploiting High Power Laser Beams In Industrial Welding Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayegh, Georges

    1989-03-01

    Analysis of the different factors which affect the improvement of high power laser systems are presented. It concerns ; the laser sources and their power and mode structure stability, their pointing stability and their efficiency, the beam transport and handling with different morphologies of machines according to the dimensions of the parts and the production rate ; the control of the industrial process through a central computer which takes in charge all the functions of the machine. Next, factors to be considered in the economical analysis for installing high power laser systems are discussed ; this covers the investment cost for the source and the associated system, the cost for consummables, for maintenance for training and labor. Comparison of the investment cost as function of power for both laser and electrons beam welding, shows that, generally speaking, there are two regions of beam power : the first located at less than 3 to 4kW where the laser is more advantageous economically, the second located at higher than 10kW where the E.B. is more advantageous. An example of a multi-stations mock-up (12 welding heads) supplied by a single laser beam is finally presented. Located at about 20m from the laser source the welding heads receive the laser beam through a distributor of high alignement precision. A spot weld similar to what is usually obtained with resistance spot welding can be achieved in about 0,5 second. Some technical and scientific problems relative to this application and concerning the transfer of laser beam are presented.

  15. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  16. Minimal Incision Scar-Less Open Umbilical Hernia Repair in Adults – Technical Aspects and Short-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Kolathur, Najeeb Mohamed; Balakrishnan, Mahesh; Parakkadath, Arun Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is no gold standard technique for umbilical hernia (UH) repair. Conventional open UH repair often produces an undesirable scar. Laparoscopic UH repair requires multiple incisions beyond the umbilicus, specialized equipments, and expensive tissue separating mesh. We describe our technique of open UH repair utilizing a small incision. The technique was derived from our experience with single incision laparoscopy. We report the technical details and short-term results. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 20 patients, who underwent minimal incision scar-less open UH repair, from June 2011 to February 2014. A single intra-umbilical curved incision was used to gain access to the hernia sac. Primary suture repair was performed for defects up to 2 cm. Larger defects were repaired using an onlay mesh. In patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater, onlay mesh hernioplasty was performed irrespective of the defect size. Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females underwent the procedure. Mean age was 50 (range 29–82) years. Mean BMI was 26.27 (range 20.0–33.1) kg/m2. Average size of the incision was 1.96 range (1.5–2.5) cm. Mesh hernioplasty was done in nine patients. Eleven patients underwent primary suture repair alone. There were no postoperative complications associated with this technique. Average postoperative length of hospital stay was 3.9 (range 2–10) days. Mean follow-up was 29.94 months (2 weeks to 2.78 years). On follow-up there was no externally visible scar in any of the patients. There were no recurrences on final follow-up. Conclusion: This technique provides a similar cosmetic effect as obtained from single port laparoscopy. It is easy to perform, safe, offers good cosmesis, does not require incisions beyond the umbilicus, and cost effective, with encouraging results on short-term follow-up. Further research is needed to assess the true potential of the technique and the long-term results. PMID

  17. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Anatomical bases of the second toe composite dorsal flap for simultaneous skin defect coverage and tendinous reconstruction of the dorsal aspect of the fingers.

    PubMed

    Wavreille, G; Cassio, J-B; Chantelot, C; Mares, O; Guinand, R; Fontaine, C

    2007-01-01

    Coverage of the dorsal aspect of the fingers is difficult, especially when the soft tissue defect is large and involves extensor apparatus and joints. Tendinous and/or articular reconstruction is not usually performed simultaneously with cutaneous repair. The aims of this study were: (1) to accurately determine the precise position of the first common dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) on the dorsal aspect of the foot, and (2) to enumerate the anatomical structures which could be harvested 'en-bloc' in order to design composite flaps. The precise position of the FDMA was studied from 22 anatomical specimens after selective injection of the arterial network. Its cutaneous area measured 75 x 40 mm on average. The extensor apparatus of the second toe was supplied by the FDMA and its lateral branch to the second toe by 2.7 branches on average over a length of approximately 75 mm. The medial dorsal digital artery was generally the main source of blood supply to the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), capsule, ligaments, head of proximal phalanx and base of middle phalanx. It is then possible to design composite flaps including both skin and extensor apparatus, and total or partial PIP joint, if necessary, based on the FDMA and the medial dorsal digital artery, without prejudice to the second toe. The average length of the arterial pedicle (60 mm) makes its suture to the dorsal metacarpal artery, the dorsal carpal branch or the radial artery easy. The harvesting technique for such a flap is described for each anatomical type of FDMA; it has to be adapted to both the type and extent of the defect. Its use is in accordance with the modern classical principle of 'all in one stage with early mobilisation', thanks to adequate coverage whose blood supply does not depend on local vascularisation, and which brings its own physiological vascular supply.

  19. Creation of false pedicles and a neo-pelvis for lumbopelvic reconstruction following en bloc resection of an iliosacral chondrosarcoma with lumbar spine extension: technical note.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Ehud; Nathoo, Narendra; Scharschmidt, Thomas; Schmidt, Carl; Boehmler, James; Mayerson, Joel L

    2014-03-01

    En bloc resection with negative tumor margins remains the principal treatment option for control or cure of primary pelvic chondrosarcomas, as current adjuvant therapies remain ineffective. Iliosacral chondrosarcomas with involvement of the sciatic notch are sufficiently challenging tumors. However, when there is concomitant lumbar extension requiring resection of the pedicles to maintain negative surgical margins, transpedicular screw fixation is not possible, making reconstruction of the lumbopelvic junction extremely challenging. A patient with an iliosacral chondrosarcoma with lumbar spine extension is presented in this report to illustrate a novel lumbopelvic spinal construct. Following combined external pelvectomy and hemisacrectomy with contralateral L3-5 hemilaminectomy and ipsilateral pediculotomy, bicortical transvertebral body screws were substituted for the missing pedicles, resulting in the creation of "false pedicles," which were further supplemented with an autologous vascularized fibular strut graft from the amputated lower limb and applied to the lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies. The creation of false pedicles allowed for a robust reconstruction of the lumbopelvic junction, including maintaining pelvic ring integrity with a "neo-pelvis", creating a functional load-bearing construct adequate for early mobilization and ambulation. The biomechanical dynamics of this unique construct are also discussed.

  20. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  1. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Seelaus, Rosemary; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Cohen, Mimis

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D) computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis. PMID:27843356

  2. Endoscopic endonasal suturing of dural reconstruction grafts: a novel application of the U-Clip technology. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Paul; Kassam, Amin; Snyderman, Carl; Mintz, Arlan; Carrau, Ricardo; Moossy, John J

    2008-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage following endoscopic endonasal skull base resection can be a significant problem. A method for securing tissue grafts is needed. In this paper the authors used an endonasal suturing device to secure the graft reconstruction following endonasal tumor resection. The U-Clip anastomotic device (Medtronic), developed for cardiovascular anastomoses, was used to secure the tissue graft to native dura. A specialized needle driver and hemoclip applier were used for the application and deployment of this device. No suture tying was necessary, facilitating its endonasal application. The graft was successfully secured in its desired position to native dura by using the U-Clip anastomotic device. The patient did not suffer a postoperative CSF leak, and postoperative imaging and endoscopy revealed that the graft was in a good position. There was no complication from the use of the device. The U-Clip anastomotic device can be used as a suture device during endonasal surgery. It may prevent tissue graft migration and help prevent CSF leakage.

  3. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in prosthetic orbital reconstruction with percutaneous implants: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui; Seelaus, Rosemary; Zhao, Linping; Patel, Pravin K; Cohen, Mimis

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated titanium implants to the cranial skeleton for retention of facial prostheses have proven to be a reliable replacement for adhesive systems. However, improper placement of the implants can jeopardize prosthetic outcomes, and long-term success of an implant-retained prosthesis. Three-dimensional (3D) computer imaging, virtual planning, and 3D printing have become accepted components of the preoperative planning and design phase of treatment. Computer-aided design and computer-assisted manufacture that employ cone-beam computed tomography data offer benefits to patient treatment by contributing to greater predictability and improved treatment efficiencies with more reliable outcomes in surgical and prosthetic reconstruction. 3D printing enables transfer of the virtual surgical plan to the operating room by fabrication of surgical guides. Previous studies have shown that accuracy improves considerably with guided implantation when compared to conventional template or freehand implant placement. This clinical case report demonstrates the use of a 3D technological pathway for preoperative virtual planning through prosthesis fabrication, utilizing 3D printing, for a patient with an acquired orbital defect that was restored with an implant-retained silicone orbital prosthesis.

  4. Arthroscopic reconstruction of chronic AC joint dislocations by transposition of the coracoacromial ligament augmented by the Tight Rope device: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Friedmann, Svenja; Tröger, Markus; Lobenhoffer, Philipp; Agneskirchner, Jens D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new arthroscopic technique for chronic AC joint dislocations with coracoacromial ligament transposition and augmentation by the Tight Rope device (Arthrex, Naples, USA). First the glenohumeral joint is visualised to repair concomitant lesions, such as SLAP lesions, if needed. Once the rotator interval is opened and the coracoid is identified, the arthroscope is moved to an additional anterolateral portal. A 1.5 cm incision is made 2 cm medial to the AC joint. After drilling a 4 mm hole with a cannulated drill through the clavicle and coracoid a Tight Rope is inserted, the clavicule is reduced and stabilized with the implant. The arthroscope is moved to the subacromial space and a partial bursectomy is performed to visualise the CA ligament and lateral clavicle. The CA ligament is armed with a strong braided suture using a Lasso stitch and dissected from the undersurface of the acromion. It is then reattached to the distal part of the clavicle by transosseous suture fixation after abrasion of its undersurface. Although this combined arthroscopic procedure of AC joint augmentation with a Tight Rope combined with a ligament transposition is technically demanding, it is a safe method to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligaments and achieve a sufficient reduction of the clavicle without the need of further implant removal or autologous tendon transplantation.

  5. Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a novel strategy to protect the central nervous system: technical aspects, preclinical studies, and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dalous, Jérémie; Larghero, Jérome; Baud, Olivier

    2012-04-01

    The prevention of perinatal neurological disabilities remains a major challenge for public health, and no neuroprotective treatment to date has proven clinically useful in reducing the lesions leading to these disabilities. Efforts are, therefore, urgently needed to test other neuroprotective strategies including cell therapies. Although stem cells have raised great hopes as an inexhaustible source of therapeutic products that could be used for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in disorders affecting the brain and spinal cord, certain sources of stem cells are associated with potential ethical issues. The human umbilical cord (hUC) is a rich source of stem and progenitor cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived either from the cord or from cord blood. hUC MSCs (hUC-MSCs) have several advantages as compared to other types and sources of stem cells. In this review, we will summarize the most recent findings regarding the technical aspects and the preclinical investigation of these promising cells in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, and their potential use in the developing human brain. However, extensive studies are needed to optimize the administration protocol, safety parameters, and potential preinjection cell manipulations before designing a controlled trial in human neonates.

  6. Technical aspects of compliance assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoeks, A P; Brands, P J; Reneman, R S

    1991-09-01

    Basically 2 methods are available to transcutaneously assess the compliance of arteries using ultrasound. One method is based on the pulse wave velocity (mean compliance over a segment), while the other is based on the local distension waveform of an artery (local compliance). Both methods assume compliance to be independent of local blood pressure. The latter method requires accurate assessment of the diameter of the artery under investigation at the onset of a cardiac cycle, the distension during the cardiac cycle and the local pulse pressure. A new method is described to obtain reliable estimates for the arterial diameter and the change in diameter as function of time.

  7. Technical aspects of CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Kuszyk, B S; Fishman, E K

    1998-10-01

    The basic tasks of spiral CT acquisition, image processing, and image display are the foundations underlying CT angiography regardless of the anatomic region of interest. Volume rendering is a rapidly emerging image processing technique for creating three-dimensional (3D) images from CT datasets, which has important advantages over other 3D rendering techniques including maximum intensity projection and surface rendering. This articles reviews the techniques that are commonly used in CT angiography and key considerations for optimization.

  8. Reconstruction of the bronchus and pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Bronchovascular reconstructive procedures employed in order to avoid pneumonectomy (PN) in patients functionally unsuitable have provided, over time, excellent results, similar or even better than those obtained by PN. In recent years, new successful techniques have been developed that pertain in particular the prevention of major complications and the reconstruction of the pulmonary artery (PA). Encouraging data from increasing number of published experiences support the choice of parenchymal sparing procedures for lung cancer also in patients with good functional reserve. This is even more true if considering trials published in the last 10 years, thus indicating that improved outcome can be achieved with increased experience in reconstructive techniques and perioperative management. This article discusses the main technical aspects and results of literature. PMID:26981268

  9. Femoral tunnel malposition in ACL revision reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Joseph A; Dahm, Diane; Levy, Bruce; Stuart, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    The Multicenter Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Revision Study (MARS) group was formed to study a large cohort of revision ACL reconstruction patients. The purpose of this subset analysis study of the MARS database is to describe specific details of femoral tunnel malposition and subsequent management strategies that surgeons chose in the revision setting. The design of this study is a case series. The multicenter MARS database is compiled from a questionnaire regarding 460 ACL reconstruction revision cases returned by 87 surgeons. This subset analysis described technical aspects and operative findings in specifically those cases in which femoral tunnel malposition was cited as the cause of primary ACL reconstruction failure. Of the 460 revisions included for study, 276 (60%) cases cited a specific "technical cause of failure." Femoral tunnel malposition was cited in 219 (47.6%) of 460 cases. Femoral tunnel malposition was cited as the only cause of failure in 117 cases (25.4%). Surgeons judged the femoral tunnel too vertical in 42 cases (35.9%), too anterior in 35 cases (29.9%), and too vertical and anterior in 31 cases (26.5%). Revision reconstruction involved the drilling of an entirely new femoral tunnel in 91 cases (82.1%). For primary reconstruction, autograft tissue was used in 82 cases (70.1%). For revision reconstruction, autograft tissue was used in 61 cases (52.1%) and allograft tissue in 56 cases (47.9%). Femoral tunnel malposition in primary ACL reconstruction was the most commonly cited reason for graft failure in this cohort. Graft selection is widely variable among surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  11. Assessment of quality of life and sociocultural aspects in patients with ameloblastoma after immediate mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Juanfang; Yang, Yanjie; Li, Wenlu

    2014-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) in patients with ameloblastoma who had been treated by immediate mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap, and to analyse the association between QoL and their sociocultural and medical characteristics. We assessed the QoL outcomes of 33/45 patients using the University of Washington quality of life (UW-QoL) questionnaire and the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Thirty-three of the 45 questionnaires were returned (73%). In the UW-QoL the best-scoring domain was "shoulder", whereas the lowest scores were for "chewing" and "activity". In the OHIP-14 the lowest-scoring domain was "handicap", followed by "social disability" and "psychological discomfort". Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap significantly influenced the patients' QoL and oral function. Their sociocultural data showed that most patients had a fairly low level of education.

  12. [The use of the myocutaneous flap of m. latissimus dorsi in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery. An analysis and the technical considerations of 42 cases].

    PubMed

    Iriarte Ortabe, J I; Reychler, H

    1992-01-01

    The AA. report their experience about 42 of latissimus dorsi flaps, used in the maxillofacial reconstruction of 40 patients, during the last 4 years. After a brief historic and anatomic descriptions, the operative technique used for them is detailed with the solution for the encountered problems. The discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of this flap which should deserve a preferential place in the reconstructive surgery of large losses of the maxillofacial sphere (besides the microsurgical methods) ends the paper.

  13. Changes in Aspects of Students' Self-Reported Personal, Social and Technical Skills during a Six-Week Wilderness Expedition in Arctic Greenland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim; Hall, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This investigation focuses on students' self-reported changes in personal, social and technical skills that took place during a six-week long expedition to East Greenland. A 105-item pre-and post-expedition questionnaire was completed by 60 young expeditioners aged 16 to 20. Before the expedition participants generally felt that they had high…

  14. Changes in Aspects of Students' Self-Reported Personal, Social and Technical Skills during a Six-Week Wilderness Expedition in Arctic Greenland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim; Hall, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This investigation focuses on students' self-reported changes in personal, social and technical skills that took place during a six-week long expedition to East Greenland. A 105-item pre-and post-expedition questionnaire was completed by 60 young expeditioners aged 16 to 20. Before the expedition participants generally felt that they had high…

  15. Three-dimensional localization of implanted biomaterials in anatomical and histological specimens using combined X-ray computed tomography and three-dimensional surface reconstruction: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Vincent M J I; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A

    2010-02-01

    For adequate histological processing of implanted biomaterials or tissue-engineered constructs, it is sometimes essential to obtain insight into the localization of structures inside the tissue samples. Observation of three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction, including basic photorealistic texture characteristics as surface pattern and color combined with X-ray computed tomography 3D reconstruction at different levels, is a useful approach to localize anatomical or implanted structures within experimental tissue samples. Because of the possible observation of structures of interest in a 3D environment, fusion of these techniques can greatly facilitate histological processing.

  16. On the Necessity of Changes in the Strategy of Utilization Ship Boiler Technical Condition Maintenance in the Aspect of LNG Applied as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Zeńczak, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Heavy oils (HFO fuels) used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utilization boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degradation. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, therefore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO), which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG), onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  17. Whole-Arch Single-Stage Free Flap Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of the Mandible: A Case Report and Technical Considerations on a New Technique.

    PubMed

    Yetzer, Jacob G; Ettinger, Kyle S; Arce, Kevin; Salinas, Thomas J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the techniques used in the reconstruction of a complete angle-to-angle mandibular defect in the absence of any remaining mandibular teeth. Because no remaining dental or occlusal landmarks remain in such a case, additional challenges must be considered.

  18. New aspects of the application of sterane isomerization and steroid aromatization to petroleum exploration and the reconstruction of geothermal histories of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Rullkoetter, J.; Marzi, R. , Julich )

    1989-03-01

    Two organic geochemical biological marker reactions, i.e. isomerization of C{sub 29} steranes at C-20 and transformation of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, could be efficiently simulated by hydrous pyrolysis. It was shown that both reactions proceed through a maximum instead of leading to a maximum end value. Pseudokinetic constants for both reactions were determined using the ascending parts of the evolution curves. Application of the kinetics of sterane isomerization to the reconstruction of the geothermal history of the Michigan Basin supports the idea of higher geothermal heat flow and deeper subsidence particularly of Devonian but probably also of Pennsylvanian sediments, presently outcropping at the surface, in the geological past. Oil generation from Devonian strata thus is feasible.

  19. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  20. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  1. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  2. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  3. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  4. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  5. Submarine disposal of mill tailings from on-land sources: An overview and bibliographic compilation of references on the biological, chemical, environmental, and technical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, R.L.; Sherman, G.E.; Plumb, P.D.

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (BOM) has undertaken studies of the disposal of mining and milling wastes in the marine environment. The BOM Alaska Field Operations Center, Juneau, initiated a review of the technology, regulations, and economic aspects of submarine tailings disposal (STD). The review illuminated the need for organization of literature on the subject, therefore the Bureau compiled this extensive bibliography on marine disposal of mill tailings. The bibliography presented here contains 1483 references and is also available through diskette in the WordPerfect format. A review of the references indicates that literature on submarine disposal inadequately covers the subject. The majority of the references listed only peripherally relate to the subject. Published literature on the engineering and environmental aspects of STD is severely limited.

  6. Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific northwest: A preface to managing commercial harvest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, R.; O'Dell, T.; Luoma, D.; Amaranthus, M.; Costellano, M.

    1993-02-01

    The commercial harvest of edible, forest fungi has a multimillion dollar industry with several thousand tons harvested annually. The primary objectives of the overview paper are to provide information on the biology of forest fungi, describe the major edible fungi harvested in the Pacific Northwest, integrate a perspective on the social aspects of the mushroom harvest issue, summarize the development of the commercial mushroom industry, and suggest research and monitoring protocols for developing management guidelines.

  7. Single- vs. double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a new aspect of knee assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation.

    PubMed

    Czamara, Andrzej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Łukasz; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have compared single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the knee joint during activities involving change-of-direction maneuvers and knee rotation. This study examined whether the type of ACLR contributes to postphysiotherapy outcomes, with an emphasis on knee function assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. Fifteen male patients after SB ACLR and 15 male patients after DB ACLR took part in the same physiotherapy program. Twenty-four weeks after ACLR, both groups underwent anterior laxity measurement, pivot shift tests, range of movement and joint circumference measurements, subjective assessment of pain and stability levels in the knee joint, peak torque measurement of the muscles rotating the tibia toward the femur, and a run test with maximal speed and change-of-direction maneuvers. Comparative analysis did not show any differences between the results of anterior tibial translation, pivot shift test, range of movement and joint circumference, and subjective assessment of pain and knee joint stability levels. No differences were noted between the groups in peak torque values obtained from the muscles responsible for internal and external tibial rotation or results of the run test. The data obtained from this study can be used by research teams to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various study protocols involving surgical and physiotherapy treatment. The data are especially useful when combined with the clinical assessment of patients who would like to return to sport.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance to Beichuan Reconstruction: Creating and Designing Low- to Zero-carbon Communities in New Beichuan, Sichuan Province

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Wang, Chuang; Hong, Tianzhen; Levine, Mark

    2009-10-29

    Beichuan county, located in north of Sichuan Province, was the most severely damaged township in last May's Sichuan earthquake. Reconstruction of a new Beichuan is a high-profiled project by the governments. In addition to constructing structurally-sound, quake-safe buildings in the new development, rebuilding Beichuan presents an opportunity for constructing new low- to zero-carbon communities in the region. In fact, building up greener communities in the reconstruction has become a top priority for the county, which, at an estimated 7 square km, is expected to have 50,000 residents in 2015 and 70,000 in 2020. The recent focus of construction projects is on the east side of the river, while land on its west bank will be reserved for development in the mid- to long-term. In the near term, a number of new public buildings are scheduled to be constructed starting in November 2009. As indicated by the deputy county chief, Mr. He Wang, the construction timeframe is unusually tight. Many buildings, although in various stages of planning and design, will be constructed starting in November 2009. Timely expert advice on design improvement and planning considerations will benefit the integration of energy efficiency and environmental benign elements in Beichuan's reconstruction, and will help promoting integrated development of green communities with low- to zero-carbon emission from the region.

  9. Giant eccrine adenocarcinoma of the scalp with intracranial invasion: resection and reconstruction using a vacuum-assisted closure device: technical case report.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Daniel J; Person, Donald A

    2006-04-01

    Carcinoma of the adnexal structures of the skin is a rare malignancy, and is even more unusual in the scalp. We report an unusual case of scalp adnexal carcinoma of eccrine origin that went untreated for years, resulting in a giant tumor with extension through the cranium. The tumor resection and reconstruction of the cranium and scalp defects posed unique challenges. A 54-year-old woman experienced a large recurrence of her scalp adnexal carcinoma after an incomplete wide local excision, which invaded through the cranium. The entire vertex of the scalp and cranium were removed en bloc. After cranioplasty, a free vascularized muscle flap was used for soft tissue coverage, but failed owing to poor vascular inflow. A large area of dura was left open, using a vacuum-assisted wound closure device to generate granulation tissue by secondary intention. Another split thickness skin graft was used to provide a cosmetically acceptable outcome. Scalp adnexal tumors of eccrine origin rarely metastasize and can be resected for cure with complete removal. Reconstruction options for large scalp and cranial tumors may be limited, and allowing the dura to granulate by secondary intention has been very rarely described. The novel use of a vacuum-assisted wound closure device was a very useful adjunct in this situation, and may be beneficial in the reconstruction of other patients with large scalp and cranial defects after neurosurgical procedures. It should be used with caution, since it may risk injury to a major venous sinus, especially when used in the midline, or cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

  10. Hepatic artery reconstruction first for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma bismuth type IIIB with contralateral arterial invasion: a novel technical strategy

    PubMed Central

    de Santibañes, Eduardo; Ardiles, Victoria; Alvarez, Fernando A; Pekolj, Juan; Brandi, Claudio; Beskow, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Background En-bloc liver resection with the extrahepatic bile duct is mandatory to obtain tumour-free surgical margins and better long-term outcomes in hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). One of the most important criteria for irresectability is local extensive invasion to major vessels. As hilar CC Bismuth type IIIB often requires a major left hepatic resection, the invasion of the right hepatic artery (RHA) usually contraindicates this procedure. Methods The authors describe a novel technique that allowed an oncological resection in two patients with hilar CC Bismuth type IIIB and contralateral arterial invasion. Arterial reconstruction between the posterior branch of the RHA and the left hepatic artery (LHA) was performed as the first surgical step. Once arterial vascular flow was restored, a left trisectionectomy with caudate lobe resection and portal vein reconstruction was performed. Results In both patients an R0 resection was achieved. Both patients made a full recovery and were discharged within 14 days of surgery. Both patients remain free of disease at 18 months. Conclusions This new technique allows a R0 resection to be achieved in patients with Bismuth type IIIB hilar CC with contralateral arterial involvement. PMID:22151454

  11. Hepatic artery reconstruction first for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma bismuth type IIIB with contralateral arterial invasion: a novel technical strategy.

    PubMed

    de Santibañes, Eduardo; Ardiles, Victoria; Alvarez, Fernando A; Pekolj, Juan; Brandi, Claudio; Beskow, Axel

    2012-01-01

    En-bloc liver resection with the extrahepatic bile duct is mandatory to obtain tumour-free surgical margins and better long-term outcomes in hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). One of the most important criteria for irresectability is local extensive invasion to major vessels. As hilar CC Bismuth type IIIB often requires a major left hepatic resection, the invasion of the right hepatic artery (RHA) usually contraindicates this procedure. The authors describe a novel technique that allowed an oncological resection in two patients with hilar CC Bismuth type IIIB and contralateral arterial invasion. Arterial reconstruction between the posterior branch of the RHA and the left hepatic artery (LHA) was performed as the first surgical step. Once arterial vascular flow was restored, a left trisectionectomy with caudate lobe resection and portal vein reconstruction was performed. In both patients an R0 resection was achieved. Both patients made a full recovery and were discharged within 14 days of surgery. Both patients remain free of disease at 18 months. This new technique allows a R0 resection to be achieved in patients with Bismuth type IIIB hilar CC with contralateral arterial involvement. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. Optimizing the nipple-areola sparing mastectomy with double concentric periareolar incision and biodimensional expander-implant reconstruction: aesthetic and technical refinements.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Aldrighi, Claudia; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo; Aldrighi, José Mendes; Filassi, José Roberto; Ricci, Marcos; Brasil, Jose Augusto; Rezende, Valdemir; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2009-12-01

    Although the biodimensional anatomical expander-implant system (BEIS) is a reliable technique, little information has been available regarding outcome following nipple-areola sparing mastectomy (NSM). To perform the resection of glandular tissue, while improving the surgical access and maintaining the nipple-areola vascularization we have developed a new approach for NSM based on the double concentric periareolar incision (DCPI). The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility, surgical planning and its outcome following NSM. 18 patients underwent NSM reconstructions. Mean time of follow-up was 29 months. The technique was indicated in patients with small/moderate volume breasts. Flap complications were evaluated and information on aesthetic results and patient satisfaction were collected. 83.3% had tumors measuring 2cm or less (T1) and 72.1% were stage 0 and I. All patients presented peripherally tumors located (at least 5cm from the nipple). Skin complications occurred in 11.1%. One patient (5.5%) presented small skin necrosis and a wound dehiscence was observed in one patient (5.5%). The aesthetic result was good/very good in 94.4 percent and the majority of patients were very satisfied/satisfied. No local recurrences were observed. All complications except one were treated by a conservative approach. DCPI-BEIS is a simple and reliable technique for NSM reconstruction. The success depends on patient selection, coordinated planning with the oncologic surgeon and careful intra-operative and post-operative management.

  13. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays.

  14. A review of technical aspects of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bergamino, M; Bonzano, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G L; Roccatagliata, L

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, several imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, have been used to investigate the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and brain tumors. One promising MRI method for assessing the BBB permeability of patients with neurological diseases in vivo is T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Here we review the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI in the study of human brain tumors. In the first part of this paper, theoretical models for the DCE-MRI analysis will be described, including the Toft-Kety models, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model and the two-compartment exchange model. These models can be used to estimate important kinetic parameters related to BBB permeability. In the second part of this paper, details of the data acquisition, issues related to the arterial input function, and procedures for DCE-MRI image analysis are illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of circumferential stapler in reconstruction following resections for carcinoma of the cardia.

    PubMed

    Molina, J E; Lawton, B R; Avance, D

    1981-04-01

    The use of the End-to-End Anastomosis (EEA) circumferential stapler for reconstruction following resection of the esophagus and stomach for carcinoma of the cardia is reported here in 9 consecutive patients with fifteen anastomoses performed with this unit. The technical aspects of the EEA stapler are emphasized. Two frequent problems associated with this type of operation namely, stenosis or leak at the suture line, are completely avoided by the use of this stapler unit. Its use is recommended.

  16. ICCS 2009 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram, Ed.; Ainley, John, Ed.; Fraillon, Julian, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This report is structured so as to provide technical detail about each aspect of International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). The overview is followed by a series of chapters that provide detail about different aspects of ICCS. Chapters, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are concerned with the instruments. Chapter 2 provides information about the…

  17. Analysis of the architecture and urbanism aspects of the reconstruction after the l'Aquila earthquake in the context of European social housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, Maria

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes to analyse the architectural and urbanism aspects of the progetto C.A.S.E. The new architecture of the progetto C.A.S.E. is put in the context of similar developments, namely: - buildings for student dormitories, as the foreseen development is that the dwellings in progetto C.A.S.E. are only temporarily in this use, and will later build a campus. For this purpose the HaDiKo (Hans Dickmann Kolleg) from Karlsruhe, Germany, is considered. This features an award winning building from the 1960s, four others from the 1970s and an extension from 2006, with also a tight construction shedule which was followed by the author; - Italian buildings from the 20th century which do not feature Modernism, in connection with other rather traditional buildings of the Modernity, namely the Vienneise "Hof"s; - social housing from the 20th and 21st century, taking as examples the construction of the office Kramm et Strigl from the 1990s and on in Germany. Particularly the example of Bürgerparkviertel in Darmstadt from 1999 was also seen when in construction; - from the later a case is particulary considered: the prefabricated housing in Wiesbaden, which has been, in a former research of the author, put in connection with the prefabricated buildings from seismically prone Bucharest, where they proved earthquake resistant. A first interpretation is in the context of the so-called "Zeilenbau" - the opposite of the traditional urban tissue with blocks. This interpretation is helpful since in case of the social housing investigted above this was always building at the periphery as it is the case in l'Aquila. When social housing reaches the core of the towns, it becomes block building, as the "Hof"s are different from the "Neues Bauen" siedlungen. The Italian examples are helpful to see how middle class housing in Italy is seen, not only social. Construction times are also relevant, and two of the examples were investigated as such, as the progetto C.A.S.E. is currently

  18. Clinical, microbiological, and immunological aspects of healthy versus peri-implantitis tissue in full arch reconstruction patients: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ata-Ali, Javier; Flichy-Fernández, Antonio Juan; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Ata-Ali, Fadi; Palacio, Jose; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Due to the world-wide increase in treatments involving implant placement, the incidence of peri-implant disease is increasing. Late implant failure is the result of the inability to maintain osseointegration, whose most important cause is peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, microbiological, and immunological aspects in the peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) of patients with healthy dental implants and patients with peri-implantitis. PISF samples were obtained from 24 peri-implantitis sites and 54 healthy peri-implant sites in this prospective cross-sectional study. The clinical parameters recorded were: modified gingival index (mGI), modified plaque index (mPI) and probing pocket depth (PPD). The periodontopathogenic bacteria Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis were evaluated, together with the total bacterial load (TBL). PISF samples were analyzed for the quantification of Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α using flow cytometry (FACS). The mGI and PPD scores in the peri-implantitis group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p < 0.001). A total of 61.5% of the patients with peri-implantitis had both arches rehabilitated, compared with 22.7% of patients with healthy peri-implant tissues; there was no implant with peri-implantitis in cases that received mandibular treatment exclusively (p < 0.05). Concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p < 0.01), association with bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola (p < 0.05), as well as the TBL (p < 0.05) are significantly higher in the peri-implantitis group. IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01), IL-10 (p < 0.05) and TNF-α (p < 0.01) are significantly higher at the sites with peri-implantitis compared to healthy peri-implant tissue, while IL-8 did not increase significantly. The results of the present study involving a limited patient sample suggest that the peri-implant microbiota and

  19. Geographical aspects of a territory and the velocity of liquidation natural-technical emergency situations' consequences (the case of Leningradskaya oblast in Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashalova, Tatiana; Gavrilova, Sofia

    2013-04-01

    The velocity of liquidation of consequences of emergency situation or natural hazards is on of two main components of nonmonetized evaluation of their graveness. Besides the level of technical and economical securance of repair works the big role in their differentiation plays macro and mesolocation of the repaire object in phisical- and economicalgeographical space. The enlistment of theses factors differs very much for the accidents of various origin and for various territories with their own combination of phisical- and economicalgeographical conditions. In this work the first attempt of analysis of influence of the phisical- and economicalgeographical conditions on the duration of repair the electricity supplies, broken down by the hazardous hydrometeorological phenomena in Leneigradskaya oblast in Russia was made. This region, situated on north-west of the country, outstands with variety of phisical- and economicalgeographical conditions. In this project the data of Laboratory of snow avalanches and mudflows (geographical faculty, MSU), open-sourced map data and the archive of newspapers of Leningradskaya oblast were used. It is very important to understand, that the transportation of the electricity by electric power lines is the main way of transportation energy in Russia. The interruption of power supply, caused by dangerous phenomena, happens in majority cases because of kinking or break of the cable. The break takes places during the strong winds and fall of the trees on the cable or icing and their break during the strong winds. The frequency of strong winds in the terms of one sinoptical cicle (5-7 days) appears as an independent factor of elongation of terms of repairing the power supply. Such phisicogeographical singularities of landscape of Leningradkaya oblast as the grade of loiss soil and swampiness of different districts apears as a factor, wgich modulate the dependence of the velocity of repairing the power supply from the characteristics of

  20. Recanalization strategy of retrograde angioplasty in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion -analysis of 24 cases, focusing on technical aspects and complications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Sun; Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Suh, Jon; Cho, Yoon Haeng

    2010-10-08

    Retrograde approach through collateral channels was recently proposed to increase the success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO), but this approach is still an incompletely described technique. We analyzed 24 cases of retrograde PCI for CTO, which were done from July 2006 to April 2008. Septal collaterals were more frequently used than epicardial collaterals (75% vs. 25%), without showing statistical differences in wire passage rate according to the size or location of the collaterals. Once the retrograde wire successfully crossed collateral (18/24 cases), CTO lesion was successfully crossed in all cases by using 4 different kinds of techniques: retrograde wire crossing (44%), kissing wire (22%), controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (22%), and reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (11%). Among them, successful recanalization was achieved in 17 cases, yielding 71% retrograde PCI success rate. In failed cases with retrograde approach, 4 cases were recanalized by switching to antegrade approach. Thus, total PCI success rate was 88% (21/24 cases). There were several cases of unexpected complications mainly related to collateral-donor artery without in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE). During clinical follow-up (median 10.3 months), overall MACE rate was 18% in the successful retrograde PCI group. The retrograde approach can improve the success rate with PCI for CTO. However, strict case selection with systemized approach is essential due to the technical complexities accompanied by the potential risk of unexpected complications. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical aspects of the integration of three-dimensional treatment planning dose parameters (GEC-ESTRO Working Group) into pre-implant planning for LDR gynecological interstitial brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Chi, A; Gao, M; Nguyen, N P; Albuquerque, K

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates the technical feasibility of pre-implant image-based treatment planning for LDR GYN interstitial brachytherapy(IB) based on the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. Initially, a virtual plan is generated based on the prescription dose and GEC-ESTRO defined OAR dose constraints with a pre-implant CT. After the actual implant, a regular diagnostic CT was obtained and fused with our pre-implant scan/initial treatment plan in our planning software. The Flexi-needle position changes, and treatment plan modifications were made if needed. Dose values were normalized to equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (LQED 2 Gy) derived from the linear-quadratic model with alpha/beta of 3 for late responding tissues and alpha/beta of 10 for early responding tissues. D(90) to the CTV, which was gross tumor (GTV) at the time of brachytherapy with a margin to count for microscopic disease, was 84.7 +/- 4.9% of the prescribed dose. The OAR doses were evaluated by D(2cc) (EBRT+IB). Mean D(2cc) values (LQED(2Gy)) for the rectum, bladder, sigmoid, and small bowel were the following: 63.7 +/- 8.4 Gy, 61.2 +/- 6.9 Gy, 48.0 +/- 3.5 Gy, and 49.9 +/- 4.2 Gy. This study confirms the feasibility of applying the GEC-ESTRO recommended dose parameters in pre-implant CT-based treatment planning in GYN IB. In the process, this pre-implant technique also demonstrates a good approximation of the target volume dose coverage, and doses to the OARs.

  2. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  3. Reconstruction of intracranial vertebral artery with radial artery and occipital artery grafts for fusiform intracranial vertebral aneurysm not amenable to endovascular treatment: technical note.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Katsuno, Makoto; Noda, Kosumo; Ota, Nakao; Miyata, Shiro; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Izumi, Naoto; Bulsara, Ketan R; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2013-08-01

    Symptomatic fusiform intracranial vertebral artery aneurysms pose a formidable treatment challenge when not amenable to endovascular treatment. In this paper, we illustrate the microsurgical management of such an aneurysm. To prevent neurological deterioration, anatomical reconstruction preserving all vessels including posterior inferior cerebellar artery and perforators is essential. In this case illustration, the occipital artery was used as a donor to a perforator originating from the aneurysmal segment. This bypass was performed in an end-to-side fashion. Subsequently, the aneurysmal component of the vertebral artery was resected and an end-to-side (V4 to V3) bypass was performed using a radial artery graft. The patient achieved complete resection of the aneurysm preserving normal anatomy of the posterior circulation without any ischemic complications. Complex cerebral artery bypass techniques are essential in the armamentarium of cerebrovascular for the treatment of complex lesions not amenable to endovascular therapy.

  4. Patients With Ligament Hiperlaxity With Rupture Of Previous Plastic For ACL. Reconstruction With Intra-articular And Extra-articular Combined Technics

    PubMed Central

    Astore, Ignacio; Agotegaray, Juan Ignacio; Comba, Ignacio; Bisiach, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of patients with ligament hiperlaxity with rupture of ACL, the use of a BTB graft is recommended for its reconstruction. Our job consists of the clinical and functional assessment of a group of 10 patients with ligament laxaty according to Beighton scale, who, after surgery for ACL rupture with BTB technique, suffered a rupture of the plastic. For its reconstruction a combination of intra-articular and extra-articular techniques was used with a BTB graft in the contralateral knee, associated with a modified Lemaire technique. Methods: The series consists of 10 patients, male, average age of 24.2 years, amateur athletes, operated for a second time in March, 2011 and November, 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. They were evaluated before surgery and 24 months after surgery based on Lysholm scale, IKDC evaluation form and a physical exam (Lachman - Pivot Shift). Results: After surgery, the average in Lysholm scale was of 87.6 and 86.3 for the IKDC subjetive form. In the physical exam, 8 patients showed Lachman 1+, while none of the patients showed Pivot Shift positive. 7 patients were able to return to their usual sport activities. As a postoperative disadvantage, 6 patients reported pain in the external face of the knee in the first 6 months. And 4 patients reported a subjetive loss of full extension that did not interfere with their sport activities. Conclusion: Based on our experience and literature, we believe that the combination of both techniques, intra-articular (BTB) and extra-articular (Lemaire), is a good alternative for patients with ligament laxaty, providing positive clinical and functional results.

  5. [Special artificial respiration procedures and intracranial pressure. Animal experiment studies, development and use of a new pressure measuring technic, clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Schedl, R

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Forced Diffusion Ventilation (FDV), a special form of High Frequency Ventilation (HFV), on elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in 5 dogs. Elevation of ICP was standardized by inflation of an epidural balloon. A typical finding with FDV is a reduced intrapleural pressure and therefore one could expect a better cerebrovenous drainage influencing ICP. Nevertheless, we found no changes in mean ICP under conditions of FDV compared with IPPV. Respirator-synchronous fluctuations of ICP, cisternal cerebrospinal fluid pressure and intrapleural pressure were drastically reduced with FDV. This phenomenon has been already reported by other groups as a typical effect of HFV with rates of 100/min. One can speculate, that this immediate impact of HFV on ICP-curves might be of some advantage in patients with critically reduced intracranial compliance requiring long-term artificial ventilation, because peaks and amplitudes of ICP are reduced. Our clinical experience with High Frequency Pulsation (HFP) includes 11 patients with severe brain trauma. In clinical routine this method of HFV is more facile to applicate than FDV, because there is no need of a special endotracheal tube and sufficient CO2-elimination is not strongly dependent on precise position of the tube. But HFP, as FDV, includes all advantages of respiratory systems, that are open against atmosphere (coughing and simultaneous breathing, without drastically increasing airway pressure, suction during respiration, etc.). However, we could find no special advantages or disadvantages in ICP-course during long-term application of HFP (up to 10 days). Because application of HFV is dependent on special technical equipment, we investigated in 6 patients the influence of respiratory frequency, tidal volume and inspiratory flow on ICP-fluctuations using conventional ventilators. ICP was recorded by a new, self constructed pneumatic epidural pressure sensor. Ventilator-related ICP

  6. A scientometric analysis of 20 years of research on breast reconstruction surgery: a guide for research design and journal selection.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Mehrdad; Fathi, Mehdi; Marashi, Ali; Kamani, Freshteh; Habibi, Gholamreza; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Ghaemi, Marjan; Hosseinian-Sarajehlou, Mahdi

    2013-03-01

    Breast reconstruction refers to the rebuilding of a woman's breast using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to form a natural-looking breast. It is increasingly offered to women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer. However, there is no systematic analysis available for the expanding area of research on breast reconstruction. A bibliometric method was used to obtain a view of the scientific production about breast reconstruction by data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Specific parameters were retrieved from the ISI. Articles about breast reconstruction were analyzed to obtain a view of the topic's structure, history, and document relationships using HistCite software. Trends in the most influential publications and authors were analyzed. The number of articles was constantly increasing. Most highly cited articles described the methods of flap construction in the surgery. Other highly cited articles discussed the psychological or emotional aspects of breast reconstruction, skin sparing mastectomy, and breast reconstruction in the irradiated breast. This was the first breast reconstruction scientometric analysis, representing the characteristics of papers and the trends of scientific production. A constant increase in the number of breast reconstruction papers and also the increasing number of citations shows that there is an increasing interest in this area of medical science. It seems that most of the research in this field is focused on the technical aspects of surgery.

  7. [AN ENTRY FOR A "DICTIONARY OF GENETICS" GENERATION AND ASPECTS OF HEREDITY FROM THE PRESOCRATICS TO GALEN: THE MAIN NOTIONS AND THE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, Franco; Provenza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one. Semen comes from each part of both parents, so it is sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. It is considered as the "foam of blood" (Diogenes, A 24 DK), gathering itself into a web of blood vessels that bring it to the genital organs. The mixed semen keeps on fixing itself in the womb thanks to pneuma ('breath'), until the embryo takes human shape. Generation is influenced by both the environment (Airs, Waters, Places) and dietetics (On Regimen, I). Male and female are on different levels in CH, since the former is characterized as hot and strong, and the latter is considered as cold and weak; as a consequence of this, the articulation takes longer in the case of a female embryo. On the other hand, the pangenesis and the preformism theory claim for a strong mutual relationship. Sex determination depends from the 'prevalence' of the male or female semen. The generation of twins of different sex depends from such 'prevalence', as well as from the conformation of the womb and its places (right/male, left/female). Both nature (physis) and use (nomos) have a role in the mechanism of inheritance, as the case of the Macrocephalians in Airs Waters Places shows. On the other hand, Plato's Timaeus exemplifies the theory according to which semen derives from the spinal marrow. The structures of the body - bones, flesh, nerves - aim at protecting marrow itself for the sake of maintaining the continuity

  8. Breast Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... rebuild the shape of the breast. Instead of breast reconstruction, you could choose to wear a breast form ... one woman may not be right for another. Breast reconstruction may be done at the same time as ...

  9. International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver Resection: a web-based study on the global diffusion of laparoscopic liver surgery prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Cherqui, Daniel; Geller, David A; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-10-01

    The technique of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been greatly improved since the first international consensus conference. Our aim was to evaluate the worldwide spread of LLR prior to the 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection in Iwate, Japan (4-6 October 2014). The International Survey on Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Liver resection was designed to assess dissemination of LLR, indications, and the surgical techniques. The anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed to liver surgeons worldwide. A total of 448 liver surgeons responded to the survey. The peak age range of surgeons performing LLR was 41-50 years. Japan had by far the largest number of respondents (n = 223), followed by the US (n = 38) and France (n = 20). In Japan, the majority of surgeons performing LLR belonged to community hospitals, where LLR has been increasingly used since its implementation in 2009 or later, comprising up to 40% of all liver resection cases. In contrast, in North America and Europe, LLR was mostly performed at academic medical centers. LLR has undergone global dissemination after the first international consensus conference in 2008. Japan has experienced unparalleled, explosive diffusion characterized by the adoption of LLR at middle-tier, regional institutions.

  10. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  11. Left colectomy with intracoporeal anastomosis: technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sérgio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney; Bertoncini, Alexandre Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Oncologic laparoscopic colectomy represents a fully validated surgical approach to the management of colorectal cancer. However, laparoscopic surgery for distal transverse and descending colon lesions remains a challenging procedure. A total laparoscopic approach to the left colectomy is an interesting option for critically ill patients although reports in the literature on this subject are scarce and its approach still not standardized because of its selective nature for indication. There are several advantages associated with conduction of totally laparoscopic approach to the left colon. Intracorporeal vessel sealing ensures an adequate lymph node dissection. Moreover, it enables the construction of a well-vascularized anastomosis. Ultimately, the occurrence of late wound complications are possibly reduced for the placement of a low abdominal incision exclusively used for specimen extraction. This paper aimed at describing our technique for a totally laparoscopic left colectomy for distal transverse and descending colon lesions. PMID:25295460

  12. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M.; Lappas, Andreas S.; Tzortzi, Anna S.; Behrakis, Panagiotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice. PMID:26106641

  13. Technical aspects of lasers in urology.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Heinrich-O; Herrmann, Thomas R; Bach, Thorsten

    2007-06-01

    During the course of history a variety of laser principles have been introduced in surgery. Some erroneous developments probably could have been kept out of the market place if not for the magic which accompanies the acronym LASER and with more understanding for the underlying principles governing the process when light meets tissue. The interaction of light with tissue is exemplified on the basis of natural body chromophores when compared with available lasers at different wavelengths and operational modes. Furthermore the meaning of fibre flexibility and durability is elucidated.

  14. Uterus retrieval in cadaver: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Akar, M Erman; Ozkan, O; Ozekinci, M; Sindel, M; Yildirim, F; Oguz, N

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe uterus retrieval in cadavers. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature could be successfully achieved in four of the presented cases. Special attention was given to dissection of bilateral ureters and hypogastric vasculature. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature and supporting sacrouterine,vesicouterine peritoneal folds is an anatomically feasible procedure in preparation for uterus transplantation.

  15. Percutaneous Nephrostomy: Technical Aspects and Indications

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, Mandeep; Ramchandani, Parvati

    2011-01-01

    First described in 1955 by Goodwin et al as a minimally invasive treatment for urinary obstruction causing marked hydronephrosis, percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) placement quickly found use in a wide variety of clinical indications in both dilated and nondilated systems. Although the advancement of modern endourological techniques has led to a decline in the indications for primary nephrostomy placement, PCNs still play an important role in the treatment of multiple urologic conditions. In this article, the indications, placement, and postprocedure management of percutaneous nephrostomy drainage are described. PMID:23204641

  16. Endoscopic craniofacial resection. Indications and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Llorente, José Luis; López, Fernando; Suárez, Vanessa; Costales, María; Moreno, Carla; Suárez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Anterior craniofacial resection (CFR) is a standardised procedure for the treatment of tumours involving the anterior skull base. We present our experience in the endoscopic treatment of these tumours. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated by endoscopic anterior CFR in our Department from 2004 until 2011. Thirty-two patients were analysed. Mean follow-up was 28 months (range: 6-84 months). The most frequent pathological entity was adenocarcinoma (60%), followed by undifferentiated carcinoma (13%). According to TNM classification, malignant epithelial tumour staging was T3 in 9%, T4a in 53% and T4b in 19% of the malignant epithelial tumours. The complication rate was 6% and the resection was complete in 91% of cases. During follow-up, 9% of patients developed recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 70% and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 85% These results seem to indicate that properly planned endoscopic CFR may be a valid alternative to traditional open approaches for the management of malignancies of the anterior skull base. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  18. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  19. [Cloning: applications in humans 1. Technical aspects].

    PubMed

    Geraedts, J P; de Wert, G M

    2001-04-01

    The successful cloning experiments in mammals such as the sheep and mouse prompted speculations on clinical application in humans. Cloning is possible by nucleus transplantation and by embryo splitting. Nucleus transplantation does not result in a genetically completely identical individual because the mitochondrial DNA originates from the ovum donor. Embryo splitting may be regarded as the artificial production of a monozygotic multiplet. Possible applications of cloning in humans belong in the context of reproduction (treatment of couples with subfertility, with genetic problems or with a 'replica motive'), transplantation of genetically identical tissue, and scientific research.

  20. [Cloning: applications in humans. I. Technical aspects].

    PubMed

    Geraedts, J P; de Wert, G M

    2000-05-13

    The successful cloning experiments in mammals such as the sheep and mouse prompted speculations on clinical application in humans. Cloning is possible by nucleus transplantation and by embryo splitting. Nucleus transplantation does not result in a genetically completely identical individual because the mitochondrial DNA originates from the ovum donor. Embryo splitting may be regarded as the artificial production of a monozygotic multiplet. Possible applications of cloning in humans belong in the context of reproduction (treatment of couples with subfertility, with genetic problems or with a 'replica motive'), transplantation of genetically identical tissue, and scientific research.

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-09-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, food habits, environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  2. Anatomic Variations in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bien-Keem; Wong, Chin-Ho; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck reconstruction is a technically challenging procedure. Variations encountered in the recipient vessels and commonly used flaps add to the complexity of surgery. This article reviews the commonly encountered variations in the recipient vessels in the neck with emphasis on alternatives and techniques to circumvent these variations. Flaps commonly used in head and neck reconstruction are also reviewed in detail. Furthermore, safety, potential pitfalls, and technical pearls are highlighted. PMID:22550436

  3. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  5. Penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Ralph, David J

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years, a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature. This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease, in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique, cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22426595

  6. Aesthetic microtia reconstruction with Medpor.

    PubMed

    Romo, Thomas; Reitzen, Shari D

    2008-01-01

    The complex architecture of the auricle makes it one of the most challenging structures for the reconstructive surgeon to re-create. Overlying the ear's unique cartilage framework are layers of varied soft tissues forming a three-dimensional organ, which is distinctively positioned on the head. Arguably, the most challenging auricle to reconstruct is third-degree microtia due to a near-total absence of native tissue and a need for lifelong durability of the reconstruction. Many methods of reconstruction have been studied; autogenous costal cartilage reconstruction has been one of the more traditional methods, with favorable long-term results reported by several surgeons. However, this technique requires tremendous artistic and technical skill on the part of the surgeon-sculptor to construct a realistic-appearing ear. High-density porous polyethylene (Medpor) is a stable, alloplastic implant that can integrate with host tissues, is resistant to infection, and has been successfully applied to reconstruction of the head and neck. For auricular reconstruction, Medpor--enveloped in a temporoparietal fascial flap with full-thickness skin graft coverage--is a durable and aesthetically gratifying alternative in microtic patients. This alternative surgical technique reduces surgical time and morbidity, standardizes results among surgeons, and facilitates an aesthetic, natural-appearing reconstruction of the auricle.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  8. Ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  9. "Technical" Writing vs. Technical "Writing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, J. W.

    Technical writers must have a working knowledge of technology in order to rearrange material others provide, but they do not have the expertise needed to originate materials; that is the job of the technical author. Another job function is that of technical editor--a person who can write, can perform the policy making tasks of an editor, and who…

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-07-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates. 3 figs.

  11. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ... When other ligaments are also injured When your meniscus is torn Before surgery, talk to your health ...

  12. Breast Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... senos Preguntas Para el Médico Datos Para la Vida Komen El cuidado de sus senos:Consejos útiles ... can help . Cost Federal law requires most insurance plans cover the cost of breast reconstruction. Learn more ...

  13. Iterative initial condition reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

  14. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-10-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Trends and Concepts in Post-Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Farhangkhoee, Hana; Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors have contributed to a paradigm shift in US post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. The increasing numbers of contralateral prophylactic mastectomies strongly correlated to a rise in implant-based reconstructions. Autologous reconstruction, however, has faced a number of barriers including technically complicated perforator flaps and declining reimbursements. As such, a market concentration has developed within high volume microsurgical centers. As more patients receive radiation, the timing and method of reconstruction has become a controversial topic. PMID:26876921

  16. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIGIOLA, NICHOLAS F.

    THE CONSENSUS OF OUR NATION'S LEADERS AFFIRMS THAT THE COUNTRY'S GREATEST TECHNICAL EDUCATION VOID IS IN THE AREA BETWEEN THE 12TH GRADE AND THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE. THE IMPACT OF ACCELERATED PROGRESS IN TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS MAKES TECHNICAL EDUCATION MANDATORY IF THE MANPOWER SHORTAGE IS NOT TO BECOME A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. BECAUSE NEARLY 80…

  17. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  18. D Virtual Reconstructions of Minoan Rural Sites: the Case of Livari Cheromylia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alusik, T.; Chalupka, M.; Kopernicky, D.

    2011-09-01

    The use of 3D sophisticated visualizations and reconstructions is still not common during the process of reconstruction or recreation of the appearance of any preserved architecture of prehistoric (Bronze Age) Crete. However, the author believes that in modern archaeology the use of the up-to-date computer technologies and sophisticated software is necessary. In their opinion, in case of presenting of sites with preserved architecture a creation of ideal 3D reconstruction should become a standard feature of final publications in the near future. The author deals with the study of Minoan architecture, settlement pattern and rural aspect of Minoan Crete in the last years. In this paper, the author - in cooperation with an architect and a specialist in technical modelling - is presenting an ideal 3D virtual reconstruction of the small rural site of Livari Cheromylia (consisting of 4 main structures and several terrace walls), situated on the southern coast in the Bay of Livari, between Goudouras and Aghia Irini. The 3D reconstruction of the individual structures and the site as a whole based on the up-to-date scholarship on Minoan architecture and the actual archaeological/architectural parallels in situ as well as on the iconographical sources, is presented below.

  19. Prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage and delayed loss of preserved hearing after vestibular schwannoma removal: reconstruction of the internal auditory canal in the suboccipital transmeatal approach--technical note.

    PubMed

    Yamakami, I; Kobayashi, E; Ono, J; Yamaura, A

    2000-11-01

    The suboccipital transmeatal approach uses packing of a muscle or fat graft into the internal auditory canal (IAC) to prevent postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, preserved hearing after removal of vestibular schwannomas may decline over time because of the progressive constriction of cochlear vascular supply due to scarring of the IAC. We propose a surgical technique for IAC reconstruction, which separates the preserved cochlear nerve and vasculature from the graft, and regains the CSF space in the IAC. Prior to the drilling of the posterior wall of the IAC, the dura mater of the petrous bone forming the posterior wall of the IAC is harvested for IAC reconstruction. After completion of tumor removal, a "roof" of the IAC is reconstructed using the dura mater, and a muscle or fat graft soaked with fibrin glue is placed on the "roof" of the IAC. The IAC was reconstructed using this technique in 26 consecutive patients with vestibular schwannomas who underwent tumor removal via the suboccipital transmeatal approach. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the regained CSF space in the IAC. No delayed hearing loss occurred in four patients with preserved hearing. No CSF leakage occurred after surgery. This new technique of IAC reconstruction may prevent delayed hearing loss as well as postoperative CSF leakage after removal of vestibular schwannomas via the suboccipital transmeatal approach.

  20. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  1. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  2. Reconstructing the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ambjoern, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

    2005-09-15

    We provide detailed evidence for the claim that nonperturbative quantum gravity, defined through state sums of causal triangulated geometries, possesses a large-scale limit in which the dimension of spacetime is four and the dynamics of the volume of the universe behaves semiclassically. This is a first step in reconstructing the universe from a dynamical principle at the Planck scale, and at the same time provides a nontrivial consistency check of the method of causal dynamical triangulations. A closer look at the quantum geometry reveals a number of highly nonclassical aspects, including a dynamical reduction of spacetime to two dimensions on short scales and a fractal structure of slices of constant time.

  3. Pulmonary artery reconstruction with a tailor-made bovine pericardial conduit following sleeve resection of a long segmental pulmonary artery for the treatment of lung cancer: technical details of the dog-ear method for adjusting diameter during vascular anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kimihiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toru; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Sleeve resection of the pulmonary artery (PA) is always required for lung-sparing operations in which half or more of the vessel circumference is infiltrated by the primary tumor or metastatic hilar nodes. Following sleeve resection, conduit reconstruction may be indicated if there is excessive distance between the two vascular stumps, because there is a high degree of tension when repaired by direct anastomosis. We herein present a case of PA reconstruction using a tailor-made bovine pericardial conduit after sleeve resection of PA during lung cancer surgery. The length of resection was longer than 3 cm, and the difference in diameter between the conduit and peripheral PA stump was larger than 0.5 cm. We describe the surgical and oncological merits of a bovine pericardial conduit, and provide details of our reconstruction technique, focusing on adjustment of diameter between the conduit and peripheral PA (dog-ear method).

  4. The Technical Research Paper for Two-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis S.

    1980-01-01

    Lists suggested term paper topics and discusses the positive aspects of requiring a technical research paper and accompanying oral report of students who are mathematically and technically, rather than verbally, oriented. (CS)

  5. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  8. Scapholunate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Mark; Loveridge, Jeremy; Cutbush, Kenneth; Couzens, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Background Scapholunate reconstruction poses a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Materials and Methods Prospective cohort. Description of Technique Our technique for scapholunate (SL) reconstruction involves ligament reconstruction utilizing a portion of the flexor carpi radialis tendon rerouted via transosseous tunnels across the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum (scapholunotriquetral tenodesis). The tendon graft is secured with interference screw fixation into the triquetrum. The philosophy of this new technique is to reduce subluxation and maintain the relationship between scaphoid and lunate by placing a graft through the center of the SL articulation. This graft is then tensioned by passing it centrally through the lunate and triquetrum and secured using an interference screw in the triquetrum. Secondary stabilizers, including the dorsal intercarpal ligament, are then augmented by passing the graft back to the scaphoid, crossing from the triquetrum over the proximal capitate. This further reinforces the translational relationship between the scaphoid and the triquetrum and, therefore, augments stability of the SL articulation. Results We have utilized this technique successfully in over 40 patients since 2009. We report on a prospective consecutive series of 11 patients with over 12 months follow-up (range 12 to 24 months) demonstrating good early radiological and clinical outcomes. Conclusions In developing this technique, we aimed to take the best features of previously described techniques and address the perceived shortcomings of each. We believe there are several benefits of our technique. Moreover, few other techniques address as many of the aspects of chronic SL instability as our technique does. PMID:24436802

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-05-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-06-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into technical tasks which address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  11. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University's College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor's assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on human (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits and; Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  13. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  14. Parallel ptychographic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Vine, David J.; Peterka, Tom; Deng, Junjing; Ross, Rob; Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ptychography is an imaging method whereby a coherent beam is scanned across an object, and an image is obtained by iterative phasing of the set of diffraction patterns. It is able to be used to image extended objects at a resolution limited by scattering strength of the object and detector geometry, rather than at an optics-imposed limit. As technical advances allow larger fields to be imaged, computational challenges arise for reconstructing the correspondingly larger data volumes, yet at the same time there is also a need to deliver reconstructed images immediately so that one can evaluate the next steps to take in an experiment. Here we present a parallel method for real-time ptychographic phase retrieval. It uses a hybrid parallel strategy to divide the computation between multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) and then employs novel techniques to merge sub-datasets into a single complex phase and amplitude image. Results are shown on a simulated specimen and a real dataset from an X-ray experiment conducted at a synchrotron light source. PMID:25607174

  15. Parallel ptychographic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Vine, David J.; Peterka, Tom; Deng, Junjing; Ross, Rob; Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-19

    Ptychography is an imaging method whereby a coherent beam is scanned across an object, and an image is obtained by iterative phasing of the set of diffraction patterns. It is able to be used to image extended objects at a resolution limited by scattering strength of the object and detector geometry, rather than at an optics-imposed limit. As technical advances allow larger fields to be imaged, computational challenges arise for reconstructing the correspondingly larger data volumes, yet at the same time there is also a need to deliver reconstructed images immediately so that one can evaluate the next steps to take in an experiment. Here we present a parallel method for real-time ptychographic phase retrieval. It uses a hybrid parallel strategy to divide the computation between multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) and then employs novel techniques to merge sub-datasets into a single complex phase and amplitude image. Results are shown on a simulated specimen and a real dataset from an X-ray experiment conducted at a synchrotron light source.

  16. MEA Technical Manual, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this technical manual is to document the technical aspects of the 2002-2003 Maine Educational Assessment (MEA). In the fall of 2002, students in grades 4, 8, and 11 participated in the administration of the MEA in writing, reading, and health education. In the spring of 2003, students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were administered tests…

  17. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlordane ( Technical ) ; CASRN 12789 - 03 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  19. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  20. Hanford environmental dose reconstruction project: Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The Technical Steering Panel consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included among the members are appointed technical members representing the States of Oregon and Washington, cultural and technical experts nominated by the Indian tribes in the region, and an individual representing the public.

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1990-04-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates for radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. [Reconstructive surgery in larynx cancer].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Szyfter, W; Leszczyńska, M; Wierzbicka, M; Golusiński, W; Dabrowski, P; Karlik, M

    2000-01-01

    Subtotal laryngectomies with larynx reconstruction are an acceptable alternative to the total laryngectomy in T2, T3 larynx cancer treatment. One procedure resection and reconstruction allow for radical oncological treatment with simultaneous preservation of air passage continuity and the function of the neolarynx. In the years 1988-1997 in ENT Dept. of Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences 38 subtotal laryngectomies with larynx reconstruction were performed. They were: 34 supracricoid laryngectomies with cricohyoidopexy, 2 with epiglotohyoidopexy and 3 supraglotic laryngectomies with reconstruction. The basic criterion of the evaluation of such procedures effectiveness was their oncological radicality. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 9 years. Local relapse was observed in none of the cases, nodal relapse was started in 2 patients. Another aspect taken into consideration was the function of the neolarynx. In 3 cases two or three laser procedures were performed because of neolarynx lumen structure which were followed by T-dren plasty. In 10 patients temporary swallowing difficulties, especially liquids, were observed in the first three month. Gastrostomy was performed in one case. The authors discuss indications to this type of surgery, operation technique, oncological and functional results. Spirometry results and voice analyses after larynx resection and reconstruction in these patients are presented.

  3. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue ... it harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. The advantage of breast reconstruction with ...

  4. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  5. The Roles of Technical Communication Researchers in Design Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Design has come to be understood as an essential aspect of the work that technical communicators claim. As a result, research in the field of technical communication has approached studies of design in numerous ways. This article showcases how technical communication researchers assume the roles of observers, testers, critics, creators, and…

  6. 48 CFR 3419.870 - Acquisition of technical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 3419.870 Acquisition of technical... SBA through a limited technical competition if technical aspects, methodology, or approach are of...

  7. Space Station Freedom - Technical and management challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Space Station is reviewed, focusing on the technical and managerial aspects of the program. The optimization of the Space Station configuration, utilization impacts on design, technical aspects of the distribution systems, and the problems of designing for a lifetime of 30 years or more are discussed. In addition, cost reduction studies, testing and verification, determining the assembly sequence, and operational communications and support systems are examined. Managerial aspects of the program include organization, program control, management tools and processes, and the integration of elements from the international partners.

  8. Scrotal reconstruction and testicular prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jacob W; Lester, Kyle M; Chen, Andrew; Simhan, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Scrotal surgery encompasses a wide-variety of surgical techniques for an even wider variety of indications. In this manuscript, we review our indications, techniques, and pit-falls for various reconstructive scrotal surgeries as-well-as surgical tips for placement of testicular prostheses. Penoscrotal webbing (PSW) is an abnormal, often-problematic distal insertion of scrotal skin onto the ventral penile shaft. There are several effective and straightforward techniques used to revise this condition, which include simple scrotoplasty, single- or double-Z-plasty, or the VY-flap scrotoplasty. Reconstruction is also commonly indicated following scrotal skin loss caused by infection, trauma, lymphedema, hidradenitis, and cancer. Although initial management of these conditions often involves scrotal skin removal, repair of expansive scrotal skin loss can be technically difficult and can be accomplished by using one of several skin flaps or skin grafting. Split-thickness skin grafting of scrotal defects can be accomplished easily, and provides durable results.

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  10. 76 FR 67725 - Technical Conference on Penalty Guidelines; Second Notice of Technical Conference on Penalty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Technical Conference on Penalty Guidelines; Second Notice of Technical... 2:45 p.m.-3 p.m.--Break 3 p.m.-4:15 p.m.--Second Panel--Various Issues Affecting Penalty... specific aspects of the compliance-related sections in the Penalty Guidelines. The second panel will...

  11. A novel method of anterior lumbosacral cage reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Kaloostian, Paul Edward; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Witham, Timothy F

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction is a considerable challenge for spinal surgeons due to the unique anatomical constraints of this region as well as the vectors of force that are applied focally in this area. The standard cages, both expandable and nonexpendable, often fail to reconstitute the appropriate anatomical alignment of the lumbosacral junction. This inadequate reconstruction may predispose the patient to continued back pain and neurological symptoms as well as possible pseudarthrosis and instrumentation failure. The authors describe their preoperative planning and the technical characteristics of their novel reconstruction technique at the lumbosacral junction using a cage with adjustable caps. Based precisely on preoperative measurements that maintain the appropriate Cobb angle, they performed reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction in a series of 3 patients. All 3 patients had excellent installation of the cages used for reconstruction. Postoperative CT scans were used to radiographically confirm the appropriate reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction. All patients had a significant reduction in pain, had neurological improvement, and experienced no instrumentation failure at the time of latest follow-up. Taking into account the inherent morphology of the lumbosacral junction and carefully planning the technical characteristics of the cage installation preoperatively and intraoperatively, the authors achieved favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes in all 3 cases. Based on this small case series, this technique for reconstruction of the lumbosacral junction appears to be a safe and appropriate method of reconstruction of the anterior spinal column in this technically challenging region of the spine.

  12. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  13. Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wenkai; Yin Fangfang

    2004-12-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency.

  14. Peroneal Flap for Tongue Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Chung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2017-07-01

    Background For large tongue defects, reconstructive surgeons have devised a variety of feasible options, such as radial forearm free flap and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. In our institution, peroneal flap has been the workhorse flap for the soft tissue defect in head and neck reconstruction. We present our experience using peroneal flap in tongue reconstruction. Patients and Methods The study included 47 patients who had undergone tongue reconstructions with peroneal flaps after tumor resection. The size and location of the defect after tumor resection determined whether the peroneal flaps could be harvested as pure septocutaneous flaps to solely reconstruct the neotongue or to carry an additional muscle bulk to fill the adjacent defect. Retrospective chart review was used to look for postoperative complications and to perform functional assessments (which were also performed through telephone inquiry). Results Of the 47 patients, 3 (6%) had flap failure and 1 (2.1%) had partial flap necrosis. The hemiglossectomy group had better results than the total glossectomy group with respect to speech and diet, but neither of these results reached statistical significance (p = 1.0 for speech and p = 0.06 for diet). The results of the subtotal glossectomy group were better than those of the total glossectomy group with respect to diet (p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted among the three groups with respect to cosmetic aspect (p = 0.64). Conclusions Considering its reasonable postoperative complication rates and functional results, peroneal flap can be considered a feasible option for tongue reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. An alternative method of middle vault reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Friedman, Oren; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2006-01-01

    Surgery of the nasal valves is a challenging aspect of rhinoplasty surgery. The middle nasal vault assumes an important role in certain aspects of nasal valve collapse. Techniques that address pathologies of the middle vault include the placement of spreader grafts and the butterfly graft. We present an alternative technique of middle vault reconstruction that allows simultaneous repair of nasal valve collapse and creation of a smooth dorsal profile. The surgical technique is described in detail and representative cases are discussed.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assembles, evaluates, and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. In addition to population and demographic data, the food and water resources and consumption patterns for populations are estimated because they provide a primary pathway for the intake of radionuclides. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task use the information produced by the other tasks to estimate the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford radiation. Project progress is documented in this monthly report, which is available to the public. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  18. Mandibular Reconstruction: Overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Batchu Pavan; Venkatesh, V; Kumar, K A Jeevan; Yadav, B Yashwanth; Mohan, S Ram

    2016-12-01

    Mandibular reconstruction has changed significantly over the years and continues to evolve with the introduction of newer technologies and techniques. This article reviews the history of oromandibular reconstruction, biomechanics of mandible, summarizes the reconstruction options available for mandible with defect classification, goals in reconstruction, the various donor sites, current reconstructive options, dental rehabilitation and persistent associated problems. Oromandibular reconstruction, although a challenge for the head and neck reconstructive surgeon, is now reliable and highly successful with excellent long-term functional and aesthetic outcomes with the use of autogenous bone grafts and current reconstructive options. The ideal reconstruction would provide a solid arch to articulate with the upper jaw, restoring swallowing speech, mastication, and esthetics. Autogenous vascularized bone grafts in combination with microsurgical techniques have revolutionized mandibular reconstruction in oral cancer surgery. Current trends in mandibular reconstruction aim to achieve reestablishment of a viable mandible of proper form and maxillary mandibular relationship while decreasing the need for invasive autogenous graft procurement. However the optimal reconstruction of mandibular defects is still controversial in regards to reconstructive options which include the donor site selection, timing of surgery and method of reconstruction.

  19. Da Capo Reconstructions: Time and Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Vernon A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the down side of a personal/professional makeover at any age, less to discourage risk-taking than to render it transparent, even plausible. He explores one aspect of the experience of redevelopment, what John Dewey called the "reconstruction of experience", with attention to the role of personality,…

  20. Da Capo Reconstructions: Time and Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Vernon A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the down side of a personal/professional makeover at any age, less to discourage risk-taking than to render it transparent, even plausible. He explores one aspect of the experience of redevelopment, what John Dewey called the "reconstruction of experience", with attention to the role of personality,…

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Monthly report, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of independent Technical Steering Panel. The Technical Steering Panel consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included among the members are appointed technical members representing the States of Oregon and Washington, cultural and technical experts nominated by the Indian tribes in the region, and an individual representing the public.

  2. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  3. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from released to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and, environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits, Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the technical tasks which correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environment monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have been have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Sensation Following Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implants.

    PubMed

    Lagergren, Jakob; Wickman, Marie; Hansson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Sensation is a neglected aspect of the outcome of breast reconstructions with implants. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the cutaneous somatosensory status in breasts following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with permanent adjustable prostheses and to analyze the patients' subjective experience of the sensation. Twenty-four consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive or in situ breast carcinoma were examined preoperatively and 2 years after mastectomy and reconstruction, for assessment of perception thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, and heat pain above and below the areola. Von Frey filaments and a Peltier element-based thermode were used. The patients completed a questionnaire concerning their experienced sensation in the reconstructed breast. Using quantitative somato-sensory testing, the sensation to all the examined modalities was significantly impaired compared to preoperatively. Most affected was the area above the areola. Patients given postoperative radiotherapy (n = 9) did not differ from those without radiotherapy (n = 15) regarding any of the modalities. All patients reported reduced sensation in the reconstructed breast compared to that preoperatively. Twenty-three patients stated that the reconstructed breast felt different from the other breast; nevertheless 16 reported that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast. The study revealed sensation impairment following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with implants. Patients should be informed about this effect preoperatively to allow adequate expectations regarding the sensation outcome. However, two-thirds of the study patients considered that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast, which must be one of the main purposes of a breast reconstruction.

  9. Practical Aspects of Posttrauma Reconstruction With an Intramedullary Lengthening Nail.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Mitchell

    2017-06-01

    Limb equalization using the Ilizarov method has evolved and adapted the use of internal lengthening devices. One of the newest devices, termed "PRECICE," is a magnetically controlled telescoping nail. Complications such as pin site infection and skin irritation are eliminated. Despite trauma surgeons' familiarity with intramedullary nailing, the Ilizarov method requires sound knowledge of deformity analysis and awareness of specific complications associated with distraction osteogenesis. This manuscript discusses some of the practical preoperative and intraoperative components of limb lengthening.

  10. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  11. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... removes your breast to treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone gel or salt water (saline) — to reshape your breasts. Breast reconstruction ...

  12. Total sacrectomy and reconstruction for sacral tumors.

    PubMed

    Doita, Minoru; Harada, Toshihiko; Iguchi, Tetsuhiro; Sumi, Masatoshi; Sha, Hidenori; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2003-08-01

    Report of three patients in whom the lumbosacral junctions were successfully restored by spinal instrumentations after total sacrectomies. To describe the surgical technique of the reconstruction of the continuity between the pelvic ring and spinal column by using a transpedicular and iliac screw system. Although there have been case reports about reconstruction methods after total sacrectomy, biomechanical, and technical problems still remain unresolved. Total sacrectomy was carried out in three cases: two with chordomas and one with a recurrent giant cell tumor. In the first case, reconstruction was achieved with Zielke transpedicular screw and rod system and a sacral rod. The other two patients were reconstructed using a transpedicular and iliac screw system and a sacral rod for bilateral fixation of the iliac wings. In the third patient, the vertical rods were connected to transverse rod with rod connectors. No instrumentation failure was observed, and the continuity between the pelvic wing and spinal column was established with the instrumentation and bone grafting. Although one patient died of metastatic chordoma, the lumbosacral junction was successfully reconstructed with the instrumentation. The other two patients could stand with double crutches 13 and 2 years after surgery, respectively. Total sacrectomy is a feasible operation for primary malignant tumors involving the entire sacrum. Reconstruction of the union between the lumbar spine and the ilia with spinal instrumentation achieves stabilization suitable for ambulation.

  13. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  14. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  17. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doeses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  18. Solid waste disposal facility criteria. Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The technical manual has been developed to assist municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owners and operators in achieving compliance with the revised MSWLF Criteria, promulgated on October 9, 1991 in Title 40, Part 258, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The manual is not a regulatory document, and does not provide mandatory technical guidance, but does provide assistance for coming into compliance with the technical aspects of the revised landfill Criteria. The document is intended for use by landfill owners/operators and their consultants and contractors who provide advice on demonstrating compliance with the Part 258 standards.

  19. Microvascular free flaps in skull base reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Herr, Marc W; Lin, Derrick T

    2013-01-01

    The anatomical challenges of skull base surgery are well known. Furthermore, ablative and traumatic defects in this region produce complex reconstructive problems with a high risk of significant postoperative morbidity and mortality. Over the past two decades, microvascular free tissue reconstruction following open resection has been shown to improve outcomes and reduce complication rates when compared to the traditional use of pedicled flaps. The increasing use of free tissue transfer has been further strengthened by improved technical expertise and high flap success rates. Since the size and type of free tissue to be utilized must be individualized to each defect, the accomplished reconstructive surgeon should be extremely versatile and, by extension, facile with a several types of free flaps. Thus, four of the most commonly used flaps--the rectus abdominis, radial forearm, latissimus dorsi and anterolateral thigh flaps--are discussed.

  20. Radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer—technical aspects and alternate fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Gen; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yoshida, Ken; Konishi, Koji; Teshima, Teruki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Early laryngeal, especially glottic, cancer is a good candidate for radiotherapy because obvious early symptoms (e.g. hoarseness) make earlier treatment possible and with highly successful localized control. This type of cancer is also a good model for exploring the basic principles of radiation oncology and several key findings (e.g. dose, fractionation, field size, patient fixation, and overall treatment time) have been noted. For example, unintended poor outcomes have been reported during transition from 60Cobalt to linear accelerator installation in the 1960s, with usage of higher energy photons causing poor dose distribution. In addition, shell fixation made precise dose delivery possible, but simultaneously elevated toxicity if a larger treatment field was necessary. Of particular interest to the radiation therapy community was altered fractionation gain as a way to improve local tumor control and survival rate. Unfortunately, this interest ceased with advancements in chemotherapeutic agents because alternate fractionation could not improve outcomes in chemoradiotherapy settings. At present, no form of acceleration can potentially compensate fully for the lack of concurrent chemotherapy. In addition, the substantial workload associated with this technique made it difficult to add extra fractionation routinely in busy clinical hospitals. Hypofractionation, on the other hand, uses a larger single fractionation dose (2–3 Gy), making it a reasonable and attractive option for T1–T2 early glottic cancer because it can improve local control without the additional workload. Recently, Japan Clinical Oncology Group study 0701 reprised its role in early T1–T2 glottic cancer research, demonstrating that this strategy could be an optional standard therapy. Herein, we review radiotherapy history from 60Cobalt to modern linear accelerator, with special focus on the role of alternate fractionation. PMID:28898958

  1. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  2. Dirty Bombs: The Technical Aspects of Radiological Dispersion Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    due to high penetrability, gamma radiation can result in whole-body exposure. X-rays that we will consider may simply be low-energy gamma rays......sources. Cosmic radiation comes from our sun and from other outer space sources in the form of positively charged particles and gamma rays. At higher

  3. Interventional radiology in infants and children: clinical and technical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Diament, M.J.; Boechat, M.I.; Kangarloo, H.

    1985-02-01

    The authors performed 53 extravascular interventional procedures in 47 pediatric patients between July 1981 and September 1983. Except for transhepatic cholangiography in patients without intrahepatic biliary dilatation, the success rate was high. There were few complications, and none that were life-threatening or required surgery. Factors essential to safe and successful intervention in infants, children, and adolescents, in the authors' opinion, include (a) active involvement by the radiologist, (b) guidance by real-time imaging, (c) careful matching of needles, catheters, and guidewires to patient size, and (d) adequate sedation and analgesia.

  4. Technical and anatomical aspects of novalis stereotactic radiosurgery sphenopalatine ganglionectomy

    SciTech Connect

    De Salles, Antonio A.F. . E-mail: adesalles@mednet.ucla.edu; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Golish, S. Raymond Ph.D.; Medin, Paul M.; Malkasian, Dennis; Solberg, Timothy D.; Selch, Michael T.

    2006-11-15

    Background: Several techniques have been applied for destruction of the sphenopalatine ganglion to control cluster headache and ocular pain with sympathetic component. Cluster headache has responded to radiofrequency ablation or phenol destruction. Radiosurgery of the sphenopalatine ganglion is promising due to the excellent visualization of the target on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and skull X-rays. Material and Methods: Six patients and one cadaver head were analyzed in this study. The cadaver-head dissection confirmed the location of the sphenopalatine ganglion on X-rays and CT imaging. One patient undergoing radiofrequency sphenopalatine ablation participated for confirmation of the location of the ganglion on plain X-rays. Five patients received radiosurgery of the sphenopalatine ganglion. One patient had classic unilateral cluster headache. Two patients had neuropathic pain and 1 had bilateral migrainous neuralgia. The fifth patient had bilateral atypical facial pain. All received a single maximal dose of 90 Gy with a 5- or 7.5-mm circular collimator. MRI, CT, and skull X-rays identified and confirmed the target. Results: The sphenopalatine fossa is seen in the skull X-ray as an inverse tear drop just caudal to the sphenoid sinus. This location is readily correlated to the CT target by the stereotactic coordinates and confirmed with the presence of the ganglion visualized in the MRI scan. Only the patient with cluster headache experienced lasting pain relief. Conclusion: Multiple imaging modalities confirmed the location of the sphenopalatine ganglion for radiosurgery. The procedure was performed safely with CT and MRI fusion. Radiosurgery was significantly beneficial only on classic cluster headache.

  5. Orbital Debris Mitigation Techniques: Technical, Legal, and Economic Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    radioisotope thermoelectric generators - RTGs) from the spacecraft prior to the spacecraft’s reentry into the atmosphere, and boosting the reactor cores...space programs . There are four general sources or classifica- tions of orbital debris: discarded rocket bod- ies, inactive payloads, debris from...they did. Estimating the conse- quences for space program quality , safety, and economics thus involves practical diffi- culties-namely, a lack of

  6. The radiotherapy clinical trials projects at the ESRF: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Renier, M; Brochard, Th; Nemoz, C; Requardt, H; Bräuer, E; Esteve, F; Balosso, J; Suortti, P; Baruchel, J; Elleaume, H; Berruyer, G; Berkvens, P; Bravin, A

    2008-12-01

    The radiotherapy clinical trials projects, both aiming at treating aggressive brain tumors, require several major modifications and new constructions at the ESRF ID17 Biomedical beamline. The application of the Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiation Therapy (SSRT) technique mainly necessitates an upgrade of the existing patient positioning system, which was formerly used for the angiography program. It will allow for accurate positioning, translation and rotation of the patient during the treatment. For the Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) clinical trials project, a new white beam hutch will be constructed to accommodate a dedicated patient positioning system. Consequently, the existing control hutches and the related installations will also be completely refurbished. Furthermore, the foreseen installation of a second X-ray source, which will allow doubling the currently available photon flux at high energies, requires a redesign of most optical components to handle the increased power and power densities. Starting from the current ID17 Biomedical beamline layout, the paper will present an update of the different modification/construction projects, including the general organization and planning.

  7. Radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer-technical aspects and alternate fractionation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Suzuki, Gen; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yoshida, Ken; Konishi, Koji; Teshima, Teruki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Early laryngeal, especially glottic, cancer is a good candidate for radiotherapy because obvious early symptoms (e.g. hoarseness) make earlier treatment possible and with highly successful localized control. This type of cancer is also a good model for exploring the basic principles of radiation oncology and several key findings (e.g. dose, fractionation, field size, patient fixation, and overall treatment time) have been noted. For example, unintended poor outcomes have been reported during transition from 60Cobalt to linear accelerator installation in the 1960s, with usage of higher energy photons causing poor dose distribution. In addition, shell fixation made precise dose delivery possible, but simultaneously elevated toxicity if a larger treatment field was necessary. Of particular interest to the radiation therapy community was altered fractionation gain as a way to improve local tumor control and survival rate. Unfortunately, this interest ceased with advancements in chemotherapeutic agents because alternate fractionation could not improve outcomes in chemoradiotherapy settings. At present, no form of acceleration can potentially compensate fully for the lack of concurrent chemotherapy. In addition, the substantial workload associated with this technique made it difficult to add extra fractionation routinely in busy clinical hospitals. Hypofractionation, on the other hand, uses a larger single fractionation dose (2-3 Gy), making it a reasonable and attractive option for T1-T2 early glottic cancer because it can improve local control without the additional workload. Recently, Japan Clinical Oncology Group study 0701 reprised its role in early T1-T2 glottic cancer research, demonstrating that this strategy could be an optional standard therapy. Herein, we review radiotherapy history from 60Cobalt to modern linear accelerator, with special focus on the role of alternate fractionation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Technical and economical aspects concerning shotcreting in tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Maidl, B.; Feyerabend, B.

    1995-12-31

    After almost a century of pragmatic application of shotcrete, shotcrete technology is facing an extensive innovation today. Both in the field of material requirements and in the field of requirements of the construction technology extensive concepts respectively promises of solutions are tested for the most different conditions. The variety of offered possibilities is manifold and contradictory. The current state of the art for shotcrete applications is to be presented in a detailed way in this paper.

  9. Some technical aspects of trimming lumber in the planing mill

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1952-01-01

    This paper discusses four classes of lumber timming machines applicable to the planning mill. The classification is made according to function as follows: Irregularity or defect removal to increase the value of residual portion. Double end trimming to a length standard acceptable by the trade, trimming to specified length of the higher grades of stock after it has been...

  10. A simple approach to the technical aspects of radiosurgery treatments.

    PubMed

    Prasad, S C; Bassano, D A; King, G A; Winfield, J A

    1993-01-01

    An approach to radiosurgery treatment that can be readily adopted in most radiotherapy centers with linear accelerators is presented. In our institution, a Leksell-type of neurosurgical frame, a computed tomography scanner, locally fabricated cones, and 6 MV X-ray beams are used to perform radiosurgery treatments. Collimated arcs with dose distributions, that conform to the shape of the lesion in the transverse and the sagittal planes are used. It is argued that the uncertainties in the localization of the isocenter within a lesion and the specifications of the size of the target volume do not justify high precision mechanical devices for most radiosurgery treatments.

  11. Technical aspects of amyloid imaging for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Edison, Paul; Hinz, Rainer; Brooks, David J

    2011-08-31

    [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography has now been extensively used to evaluate the amyloid load in different types of dementia and has become a powerful research tool in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present short review we discuss the properties of amyloid imaging agent [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B, the different modalities of molecular imaging, image processing and data analysis, and newer amyloid imaging agents.

  12. Technical design aspects of Feasibility Study-II

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2001-08-15

    Feasibility Study-II examined a high-performance Neutrino Factory providing 1 x 10{sup 20} neutrinos per year aimed at a long-baseline detector. The Study was sponsored jointly by BNL and the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration ration (MC) and is based on a 1 MW proton driver operating at 24 GeV, i.e., an upgraded version of the AGS accelerator. Compared with the earlier FNAL-sponsored study (Feasibility Study-I), there is a sixfold improvement in performance. Here we describe details of the implementation of Study-II concepts and discuss their efficacy. Alternative approaches that will be pursued in follow-on R and D activities are also described briefly.

  13. Botulinum toxin for chronic migraine: Clinical trials and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Tassorelli, Cristina; Sances, Grazia; Avenali, Micol; De Icco, Roberto; Martinelli, Daniele; Bitetto, Vito; Nappi, Giuseppe; Sandrini, Giorgio

    2017-09-04

    OnabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine following the demonstration of efficacy in two large controlled trials. Data collected from pragmatic studies in the real-life setting have contributed important additional information useful for the management of this group of extremely disabled and challenging patients. The main findings from these studies are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical aspects of the INTELSAT V solar array

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, H.E.; Baron, W.R.

    1982-09-01

    The INTELSAT V solar array is the largest rigid solar array used for a commercial commucation satellite. This paper describes salient technology applications of the electrical design, development and manufacture of the INTELSAT V solar array. The circuits including cells, interconnects and wiring are being assembled using solderless welding techniques; the first solar array of this size to do so. Special welding process controls are described including monitor of electrical pulse, resistance and head pressure which provide the quality control to assure satisfactory welds. With the extensive use of solderless cells, various techniques were employed to ensure humidity resistance. The use of the Scanning Auger Microprobe as well as X-ray fluorescense for Palladium measurements are summarized. The electrical and environmental test program for the project is reviewed.

  15. [Cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiotherapy: technical aspects and recent developments].

    PubMed

    Thariat, J; Marcié, S; Marcy, P-Y; Trimaud, R; Angellier, G; Mammar, H; Bondiau, P-Y; Gerard, J-P

    2010-07-01

    Cyberknife (Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, USA) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) involves the delivery of a small number of large doses of radiation to a target volume using continuously evolving advanced technology. It has emerged as a novel treatment modality for cancer and modified some concepts of cancer treatment. It is indicated in early-stage primary cancer, sometimes as an alternative to surgery. It is also indicated for patients with oligometastatic disease who have relatively long survival with the aim to optimize disease control with a good quality of life. Although there remain some uncertainties regarding the radiobiology of hypofractionation, local control and tolerance have been promising. Indications are increasing under strict quality assurance programs worldwide and prospective clinical evaluation.

  16. The daytime breath hydrogen profile: technical aspects and normal pattern.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Bijleveld, C M; Fernandes, J

    1985-04-30

    A method is described for breath sampling which can be used for breath hydrogen estimations not only in clinical practice, but also at home. Sampling of end-expiratory air is performed using a 10-ml syringe with a side hole. The samples are transferred to 3-ml vacuum tubes, which can be stored and mailed without significant loss of hydrogen. The hydrogen concentration is estimated gas chromatographically using 0.4 ml of sampled air. This method was used to assess the breath hydrogen pattern under normal circumstances: the daytime breath hydrogen profile. Fourteen children sampled their breath at 30-min intervals during one full day, and recorded diet and activity. The normal daytime breath hydrogen profile showed a typical pattern. Morning values were low, but the evening values were markedly increased in half of the children. These patterns differed markedly from those registered in three children with carbohydrate malabsorption. The daytime breath hydrogen profile, which is easy to perform and applicable at home, might provide valuable additional information in the investigation of children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption.

  17. Anodic oxidation of titanium: from technical aspects to biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Maria Vittoria; Del Curto, Barbara; Pedeferri, Mariapia

    2011-01-01

    Titanium biomaterials are widely employed to produce medical components, such as hip and knee-joint prostheses, bone plates and screws, dental implants, pacemaker cases, surgical equipment, etc. Their diffusion is ascribed to the broad spectrum of optimal mechanical and surface properties, such as the corrosion resistance and correlated low ionic release, the biocompatibility, and especially, the enhanced osseointegration that can be achieved by surface modifications, particularly by suitable anodizing treatments. This review is intended to provide a survey of the wide class of anodic oxidation treatments on titanium, focusing on the oxide structures, morphologies, and compositions that best apply to the variegated fields of titanium applications.

  18. The principles and technical aspects of diuresis renography

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    It is intuitive that dilation of the urinary tract is most likely caused by obstruction. However, the opposite is more often true. That is, dilation is not associated with obstruction, especially in children. The most common causes for hydronephrosis and hydroureter include infection, vesicoureteral reflux, congenital megacalyces and megaureter, previous obstruction, and bladder noncompliance. Theoretically, one can consider obstruction on the basis of its significance, which is that there may be a loss of renal function with time. Techniques such as intravenous pyelography and ultrasonography, which anatomically document the degree of dilation of the urinary tract, cannot quantitatively determine the presence of obstruction or its significance. Radionuclide renography more readily quantifies abnormal renal function. Serial renographic studies with furosemide can document renal function loss and, thus, determine the significance of the obstruction. Diuresis renography with furosemide provides an objective quantitative means for determining the renal function changes over time.

  19. The cutaneous nerve biopsy: technical aspects, indications, and contribution.

    PubMed

    Mellgren, Svein Ivar; Nolano, Maria; Sommer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Skin biopsy with a 3mm disposable circular punch is easy to perform and allows, after proper processing, the visualization of epidermal, dermal, and sweat gland nerve fibers. A technique of sampling the epidermis alone by applying a suction capsule, the "blister" technique, has also been developed. It is most common to stain immunohistochemically for the pan-axonal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), an ubiquitin C-terminal hydroxylase. The sections are then observed and analyzed with bright-field microscopy or with indirect immunofluorescence with or without confocal microscopy. Most studies report quantification of intraepidermal nerve fiber density displayed in bright-field microscopy. Normative values have been established, particularly from the distal part of the leg, 10cm above the external malleolus. In diabetes mellitus early degeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibers is induced and there is slower regeneration even when there is no evidence of neuropathy. Skin biopsy is of particular value in the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy when nerve conduction studies are normal. It may also be repeated in order to study the progressive nature of the disease and also has the potential of studying regeneration of nerve fibers and thus the effects of treatment. Inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies may also involve loss of small-diameter nerve fibers and IgM deposits in dermal myelinated nerve fibers in anti-MAG neuropathy. In some cases the presence of vasculitis in skin may indicate a nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy and in HIV neuropathy intraepidermal nerve fiber density is reduced in a length-dependent manner. In several hereditary neuropathies intraepidermal nerve fiber density may be reduced but other abnormalities can also be demonstrated in dermal myelinated fibers. Some small swellings and varicosities may be present in the distal leg skin biopsy of healthy individuals but large axonal swellings are considered as evidence of a pathological process affecting the normal structure of nerves. The indirect immunofluorescence technique with confocal microscopy provides the opportunity to study the complex structure of sensory receptors and cutaneous myelinated fibers and the innervation of sweat glands, arrector pilorum muscles, and vessels.

  20. Selective reduction in multifetal pregnancies: technical and psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Lefebvre, G

    1992-05-01

    To evaluate efficiency and safety of a very early transvaginal selective reduction procedure in multifetal pregnancies. Prospective study. Obstetric and Gynecology Department, University of Paris VI. Twenty-two patients with multifetal pregnancies: 14 triplets, 8 quadruplets, and 1 quintuplet. Selective embryonic reduction was performed at 7 weeks of amenorrhea under general anesthesia by transvaginal embryo puncture and aspiration. Two embryos were left in place. Pregnancy outcome (immediate or delayed complication, term of delivery, newborns) and psychological impact. No complication occurred. The 22 patients now have delivered at 36.5 weeks of amenorrhea, on average giving birth to 44 neonates with no congenital malformation. If the procedure generates anxiety, it is nevertheless perceived as necessary for the successful outcome of the pregnancy. Early mechanical transvaginal embryo reduction performed at 7 weeks of amenorrhea, leaving two embryos is, in our opinion, a simple and safe procedure with no affect on remaining fetuses. It is necessary when there are four or more embryos, and it should also be proposed for triplets. In these circumstances, patients saw reduction as a necessary procedure.

  1. [Technical aspects of protontherapy: Setup, equipment and radioprotection].

    PubMed

    Ferrand, R

    2016-10-01

    The number of protontherapy facilities is still increasing rapidly with more than 30 ongoing projects and close to 60 currently under operation. Although the technology is now validated and robust, a proton facility cannot be considered as a standard radiation therapy equipment: its constraints in terms of building, services, project management are of paramount impact at the level of the hospital. Therefore, a protontherapy project must be carefully considered and prepared, which is mandatory for further fluid and efficient clinical operation.

  2. Technical aspects of amyloid imaging for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography has now been extensively used to evaluate the amyloid load in different types of dementia and has become a powerful research tool in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present short review we discuss the properties of amyloid imaging agent [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B, the different modalities of molecular imaging, image processing and data analysis, and newer amyloid imaging agents. PMID:21888692

  3. Technical aspects of radiation therapy for anal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Eli D.; Ahmed, Inaya; Yue, Ning J.

    2014-01-01

    Historically treated with surgery, current practice recommends anal carcinoma to be treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. This review will examine the anatomy, modes of disease spread and recurrence, and evaluate the existing evidence for treatment options for these tumors. An in-depth examination of specific radiation therapy (RT) techniques—such as conventional 3D-conformal RT and intensity-modulated RT—will be discussed along with modern dose constraints. RT field arrangement, patient setup, and recommended gross and clinical target volume (CTV) contours will be considered. Areas in need of further investigation, such as the role in treatment for positron emission tomography (PET) will be explored. PMID:24982768

  4. Technical aspects of future photovoltaic-power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. J.

    Future photovoltaic systems which will need to be designed to increase acceptance by the potential system owner and the host utility are discussed. The systems will maximize their output of high signal quality electricity to the utility through a safe and controlled interconnection, while minimizing the total cost. These systems will emphasize the use of modular array field designs and state of the art power conditioning equipment in all applications and tracking collectors wherever practical. The systems will be designed as a supplier of energy to the utility and only in the residential case will PV be colocated with a load. The major remaining hardware developments necessary to obtain these systems are the modular residential array design, modular tracking flat panel field development, and central station power conditioning definition.

  5. A Simple Approach to the Technical Aspects of Radiosurgery Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.C.; Bassano, D.A.; King, G.A.; Winfield, J.A.

    2015-01-15

    An approach to radiosurgery treatment that can be readily adopted in most radiotherapy centers with linear accelerators is presented. In our institution, a Leksell-type of neurosurgical frame, a computed tomography scanner, locally fabricated cones, and 6 MV X-ray beams are used to perform radiosurgery treatments. Collimated arcs with dose distributions that conform to the shape of the lesion in the transverse and the sagittal planes are used. It is argued that the uncertainties in the localization of the isocenter within a lesion and the specifications of the size of the target volume do not justify high precision mechanical devices for most radiosurgery treatments.

  6. Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.

  7. Microsurgical Burn Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Seth, Akhil K; Friedstat, Jonathan S; Orgill, Dennis P; Pribaz, Julian J; Halvorson, Eric G

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of burn-related wounds requires consideration of several factors, including defect size, available donor sites, exposure of critical structures, and the ultimate functional and aesthetic result of reconstruction. Although skin grafts and locoregional flaps are workhorses in burn reconstruction, they have inherent limitations that can directly impact reconstructive outcomes. Microsurgical free tissue transfer represents a viable option for the reconstruction of burn-related wounds in certain patients. Each anatomic region of the body has unique challenges that must be addressed to achieve a successful reconstruction. Therefore, the choice of free flap must be individualized to the wound and patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urology technical and non-technical skills development: the emerging role of simulation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Prem; Gianduzzo, Troy R J

    2016-04-01

    To review the emerging role of technical and non-technical simulation in urological education and training. A review was conducted to examine the current role of simulation in urology training. A PUBMED search of the terms 'urology training', 'urology simulation' and 'urology education' revealed 11,504 titles. Three hundred and fifty-seven abstracts were identified as English language, peer reviewed papers pertaining to the role of simulation in urology and related topics. Key papers were used to explore themes. Some cross-referenced papers were also included. There is an ongoing need to ensure that training time is efficiently utilised while ensuring that optimal technical and non-technical skills are achieved. Changing working conditions and the need to minimise patient harm by inadvertent errors must be taken into account. Simulation models for specific technical aspects have been the mainstay of graduated step-wise low and high fidelity training. Whole scenario environments as well as non-technical aspects can be slowly incorporated into the curriculum. Doing so should also help define what have been challenging competencies to teach and evaluate. Dedicated time, resources and trainer up-skilling are important. Concurrent studies are needed to help evaluate the effectiveness of introducing step-wise simulation for technical and non-technical competencies. Simulation based learning remains the best avenue of progressing surgical education. Technical and non-technical simulation could be used in the selection process. There are good economic, logistic and safety reasons to pursue the process of ongoing development of simulation co-curricula. While the role of simulation is assured, its progress will depend on a structured program that takes advantage of what can be delivered via this medium. Overall, simulation can be developed further for urological training programs to encompass technical and non-technical skill development at all stages, including

  9. Aspects of computer vision in surgical endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, Vincent; Ayache, Alain; Berreni, N.

    1993-09-01

    This work is related to a project of medical robotics applied to surgical endoscopy, led in collaboration with Doctor Berreni from the Saint Roch nursing-home in Perpignan, France). After taking what Doctor Berreni advises, two aspects of endoscopic color image processing have been brought out: (1) The help to the diagnosis by the automatic detection of the sick areas after a learning phase. (2) The 3D reconstruction of the analyzed cavity by using a zoom.

  10. AFOSR Technical Report Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    The Air Force of Scientific Research Technical Report Summaries are published quarterly of each calendar year. They consist of a brief summary of...each AFOSR technical report received in the Technical Information Division and submitted to the Defense Technical Information Center for that quarter. (sdw)

  11. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.S.

    1989-08-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, and food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. The environmental transport task will reconstruct the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. Movement via the atmosphere, surface water (Columbia River), and ground water will be studied. The environmental monitoring task will assemble, evaluate, and report historical environmental monitoring data. A major effort of this task is to separate Hanford as a source of radionuclide concentrations in the environment from concentrations due to natural sources and nuclear testing fallout.

  13. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  14. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-03-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

  15. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-03-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP).

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Flexible Reamer System: Technique and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Judd; Saluan, Paul; Richter, Dustin L; Huff, Nathan; Schenck, Robert C

    2015-07-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been shown to improve stability of the knee, particularly rotational stability, potentially leading to superior clinical outcomes and a shorter return to sport. Nonanatomic ACL reconstruction has been linked to graft failure and abnormal cartilage loading thought to contribute to progression of degenerative joint disease. Use of the far anteromedial portal (FAMP) to uncouple the tibial and femoral tunnels has led to improved reproduction of the femoral footprint and facilitates drilling of the femoral tunnel in an anatomic position. The use of the FAMP and straight reamer systems introduces its own set of potential complications, including short femoral tunnels and peroneal nerve injury. These potential complications have been addressed by drilling the femoral tunnel in a hyperflexed position, which can lead to difficulty with positioning the operative extremity, visualization, and identification of anatomic landmarks. The purpose of this case report was to review the advantages and technical aspects of using a flexible reamer system and the FAMP to achieve an anatomic ACL reconstruction while avoiding potential complications and pitfalls. Flexible reamer systems allow an additional way of uncoupling the tibial and femoral tunnels to clearly visualize and establish an anatomic starting point within the femoral footprint of the native ACL while avoiding the complications associated with knee hyperflexion and straight reamers with the far anteromedial portal. In the authors' experience, an anatomic reconstruction of the ACL can be achieved safely using flexible reamers while avoiding some of the difficulties seen with straight reamers used in conjunction with an uncoupled, far anteromedial approach.

  17. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  18. [Surgical treatment of tumors of the carotid body with reconstruction of the internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Reparaz, L; Magallón, P; Riera, L; Capilla, M T; Merino, M J; Martínez, I; Hernández, A; Sáez, L; Alamo, O; Jiménez Cossío, J A

    1990-01-01

    The experience about treatment in infiltrating tumors of Carotid Corpus, III Degree (Shamblin), is presented. Different methods of carotid reconstruction, and biologic and evolutive characteristics are emphasized, discussing preoperatory study and surgical technics.

  19. Pediatric penile reconstruction using autologous split-thickness skin graft.

    PubMed

    Diaz, E C; Corcoran, J F; Johnson, E K

    2016-06-01

    This video provides a case report of penis entrapment secondary to excessive skin removal during circumcision. It highlights the technical aspects of pediatric penile reconstruction using autologous split-thickness skin graft (STSG). Key points include: 1. Infection prevention is paramount and antibiotic prophylaxis is routine. 2. The usual harvest site for the STSG is the lateral thigh because of its source of glabrous skin and convenient proximity to the penis. The lateral thigh is also outside of the diapered area, which helps lessen postoperative pain and infectious risks. 3. A dermatome is used to harvest the STSG. Skin thickness for penis coverage at this age is usually 10-12/1000 of an inch. 4. Direct contact of the graft and wound bed is essential for graft uptake. Hemostasis of the wound bed is critical to prevent hematoma formation. Elimination of redundant tissue is also important to ensure maximal contact between the graft and underlying wound bed. 5. A pressure dressing or bolster is used to prevent shear, and provide contact between the graft and wound bed for at least the first 5 days. 6. A semi-occlusive dressing, Tegaderm, was used on the donor site and it is believed that it provides a moist environment conducive for epithelial and dermal healing. 7. Lymphedema can result if excess distal penile skin is not excised. It is prudent to limit the amount of mucosal collar or consider direct anastomosis to the glans.

  20. A Basic Definition of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Patrick M.

    This paper defines technical writing as writing about subjects in the sciences in which the writer informs the reader through an objective presentation of facts. The emphasis in the definition is on three aspects of writing: the writer's subject; the writer's purpose; and the writer's attitude. A stanza from Shelley's "To a Skylark" and the entry…

  1. INFCE technical co-ordinating committee documents

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    A collection of the documents covering the period December 1977 through February 1980 submitted to or generated by the Technical Co-ordinating Comittee is presented. The documents cover primarily the organizational aspects of INFCE, but conclusions from the various Working Groups are summarized.

  2. Engineer's Needs for Scientific and Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, A., Ed.; And Others

    This study has as its main object the formulation of an approach, as global and comprehensive as possible, to the multiple aspects of the engineer's needs for scientific and technical information. The basis of the study is an analysis of the engineer's role, its characteristics, different specialties, levels of training, and categories of…

  3. High Technology Training at Greenville Technical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Thomas E.; And Others

    These three papers focus on various aspects of high technology training at Greenville Technical College (GTC). First, "High Technology and the Community College," by Thomas E. Barton, discusses what high technology should mean to educators and argues that changes in the nature of industrial production require that community colleges not only keep…

  4. Northern goshawk inventory and monitoring technical guide

    Treesearch

    B. Woodbridge; C.D. Hargis

    2006-01-01

    This technical guide provides information on all aspects of inventory and monitoring related to the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and is to be used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service consistent with national direction, local priorities, and available funding, and also by interested partners and collaborators. When the protocols...

  5. The new ATLAS track reconstruction (NEWT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, T.; Elsing, M.; Gavrilenko, I.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.

    2008-07-01

    The track reconstruction of modern high energy physics experiments is a very complex task that puts stringent requirements onto the software realisation. The ATLAS track reconstruction software has been in the past dominated by a collection of individual packages, each of which incorporating a different intrinsic event data model, different data flow sequences and calibration data. Recently, the ATLAS track reconstruction has undergone a major design revolution to ensure maintainability during the long lifetime of the ATLAS experiment and the flexibility needed for the startup phase. The entire software chain has been re-organised in modular components and a common event data model has been deployed. A complete new track reconstruction that concentrates on common tools aimed to be used by both ATLAS tracking devices, the Inner Detector and the Muon System, has been established. It has been already used during many large scale tests with data from Monte Carlo simulation and from detector commissioning projects such as the combined test beam 2004 and cosmic ray events. This document concentrates on the technical and conceptual details of the newly developed track reconstruction.

  6. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 2. Technical appendix

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The technical appendix presents the technical aspects of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: the survey questionnaire, exhibit cards, instructions for interviewers, and a description of the survey plan. A description of the sample plan (method used to determine which 4000 households) is given. (MCW)

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S. M.; McMakin, A. H.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into five technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (i.e., dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movements of radioactive particles from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assemblies, evaluates and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture and Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task used the information derived from the other Tasks to estimate the radiation doses individuals could have received from Hanford radiation. This document lists the progress on this project as of September 1991. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

  9. [Psychophysiologic aspects of occupational flying].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with advanced research on psychophysiology of flying activity to solve a triune task: to humanize the character and means of labour, to maintain a high level of working capacity and to develop professionally important psychophysiological features of flying personnel. The solution of the first task is associated with consecutive realization of the principle of actualization, an increase of psychophysiological capabilities of a man with the use of technical means in designing aeronautical engineering. Assurance of high functional reliability of flying personnel requires the development of the methods to evaluate and predict the state of psychophysiologic reserves during flying activities; the refinement of the norms of flight load on the basis of determining the quantitative interactions between a complexity level of flight assignments and a degree of decrease in reserve capabilities; the search for means and methods of correcting functional state directly in flight and accelerated recovery of performance postflight. The solution of psychophysiologic aspects of the professional reliability of pilot should be the development of a flight capabilities theory and theory-based improvement of estimation methods, development of methods and technical means for their improvements.

  10. Surgical reconstruction of TMJ.

    PubMed

    Ramil Novo, V M; Garcìa, A G; Berini Aytès, L; Escoda, C G

    1999-01-01

    Certain situations and pathological processes that arise with temporomandibular joint destruction can only be resolved with surgical reconstructive procedures in order to attempt a functional and anatomical rehabilitation of this joint. Many of these situations can be surgically treated with the patient's own autologous tissues. However, in some patients reconstruction is complex and the use of autologous tissues is unadvisable whereas reconstruction utilizing alloplastic materials may be an appropriate alternative. The following report describes 4 clinical cases in which autologous grafts or Christensen joint prosthesis are employed in temporomandibular joint reconstruction.

  11. Science, Education, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Technical Department Series. World Bank Technical Paper No. 124.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zymelman, Manuel

    This paper deals with one aspect of technical change in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): the production of scientific and technical knowledge. Part I presents a quantitative view of the scientific output in SSA based on data from the Science Citation Index that provides information on scientific publications and citations by field and by country. Science…

  12. [Reconstructive surgery in head and neck oncology: indication and technic].

    PubMed

    Kolb, F; Julieron, M

    2005-02-01

    Oncologic cervicofacial surgery and plastic surgery have had a common evolution over the last 50 years where progress erasing from one was beneficial to the other one. We review here the historical evolution of these specialties and present the state of the art of plastic surgery in the field of cervicofacial oncology.

  13. Two-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Cvetanovich, Gregory; Waliullah, Khalid; Khair, Michael; Smith, Patrick; Bach, Bernard; Sherman, Seth

    2016-05-01

    The number of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears is rapidly increasing. In patients who wish to return to their preoperative level of function, specifically as it pertains to participation in sports, the gold standard of treatment following an ACL tear remains an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Despite a majority of good/excellent results following primary ACL reconstruction, there is a growing subset of patients with persistent or recurrent functional instability who require revision ACL reconstruction. Preoperative planning for revision ACL reconstruction requires a careful understanding of the root cause of ACL failure, including possible technical causes of primary ACL failure and the presence of combined knee pathology that was not addressed at the index ACL reconstruction. The decision to perform 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction is multifactorial and is reached by technical considerations that may make a 1-stage revision less optimal, including tunnel widening, arthrofibrosis, active infection, and others. Concomitant knee pathology such as meniscal deficiency, malalignment (including an increase in posterior tibial slope), chondral lesions, and other ligamentous laxity may also require a staged approach to treatment. This evidence-based review covers the indications for 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction, surgical techniques, evidence for and technique of bone grafting prior ACL tunnels, and outcomes of 2-stage revision stratified by initial cause of ACL reconstruction failure. With proper preoperative planning and an understanding of the cause of failure following the primary ACL reconstruction, revision ACL reconstruction can offer excellent outcomes in the motivated patient. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e456-e464.].

  14. Technical assessment of the HELLODOC service.

    PubMed

    Scattareggia Marchese, Sandro; Baratta, Silvano; Cingolani, Pasquale; Fadda, Antonello; Giacomozzi, Claudia; Macellari, Velio; Magni, Riccardo; Magnino, Fabio; Opisso Salleras, Eloy; Paolizzi, Mariano; Rogante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A technical assessment activity has been conducted by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) in the European project HELLODOC (Healthcare service linking tele-rehabilitation to disabled people and clinicians) for evaluating the tele-rehabilitation service. The activity was mainly focussed on architectural aspects and a step by step monitoring of the service. It was mainly related to the following aspects: service implementation, service performances, service integration and fault management. The technical assessment analysis demonstrated that the service worked in a quite satisfactory way, also considering the pioneering aspect of the project; the set of malfunctioning occurred, which had a low impact on the service continuity, are typical of a post-debug phase.

  15. Is the deltopectoral flap born again? Role in postburn head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bey, Eric; Hautier, Aurélie; Pradier, Jean-Philippe; Duhamel, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    After extensive use for head and neck reconstruction, the deltopectoral flap has been supplanted by alternative methods of reconstruction and relegated to historical references. However, it remains a very valuable skin flap and should keep its place in the armamentarium of reconstructive surgeons for postburn head and neck reconstruction. We report here five cases of head and neck reconstruction using the deltopectoral flap: one case of perioral reconstruction after ballistic trauma, one case of nasal reconstruction after burn and three cases of neck reconstruction after burn contracture. Technical simplicity and reliability are the main features of this flap. The skin paddle is thin and pliable, and its surface can be extended after a flap delay. Previous tissue expansion can minimize donor site morbidity. The flap division necessitates a second surgical procedure. The major burn contractures of the neck are, in our opinion, an excellent indication of the deltopectoral flap.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report, June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  17. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; McMakin, A.H.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle's contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.

  18. Project Management Plan for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; McMakin, A.H.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach being used to manage the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The plan describes the management structure and the technical and administrative control systems used to plan and control HEDR Project performance. The plan also describes the relationship among key project participants: Battelle, the Centers for Disease control (CDC), and the Technical Steering Panel (TSP). Battelle`s contract with CDC only extends through May 1994 when the key technical work will be completed. There-fore, this plan is focused only on the period during which Battelle is a participant.

  19. Some technical writing skills industry needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is suggested that engineers and other technical students be taught three classes of skills in technical writing. First, "Big Picture Things", which includes: the importance of clear writing, the wide scope of writing, the wide scope of writing tasks that will be faced in industry, and the principles of organization of technical materials such as; how to analyze, classify, partition, and interpret. Second, "Writing Procedures", which encompasses: how to get words on paper efficiently and team-write. Third, "Writing Details", in which two considerations are important: how to achieve precision in the use of language and the aspects of style. Three problems in style are cited: the problem of sentence transition, overuse of attributive adjectives, and verbosity in paragraph structure. The most important thing in technical writing is considered to be functionality, economy and clarity.

  20. Technical note on complete excision of choledochal cysts.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tan To; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2013-04-01

    Choledochal cysts are congenital cystic dilatations of the extrahepatic or intrahepatic portion of the biliary tree. Complete excision of choledochal cysts is currently regarded as the gold standard treatment, while less extensive procedures including cystoduodenostomy have become obsolete due to the potential for malignant change in the remnant cyst. For type-1 choledochal cysts, which sometimes extend to the main pancreatic duct closely, some surgeons may adopt a less aggressive approach in order to avoid damage to the main pancreatic duct as such damage can lead to serious consequences. However, incomplete excision of choledochal cysts may also cause problems. Here we report on a reoperation treating incomplete excision of a choledochal cyst with focus on the technical aspect. In the reoperation, meticulous dissection of the liver hilum which had been previously operated on was performed. The hepaticojejunostomy was left intact. With the assistance of intraoperative cholangiography, the residual pancreatic portion of the choledochal cyst was completely excised. The pancreatic opening and the lower end of the common bile duct were reconstructed. Whipple operation was avoided. Careful planning with the aid of precise imaging before and during the operation largely enhanced the accuracy of the excision of the choledochal cyst.

  1. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Technical report writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  3. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  4. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  5. 2013 Technical Roundtable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On December 9, 2013, EPA reconvened the study’s Technical Roundtable. Subject-matter experts discussed the outcomes of the 2013 Technical Workshops, stakeholder engagement, and plans for draft assessment report.

  6. Book Review: New Perspectives on Technical Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, A. J. (Ed.); Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-08-01

    New Perspectives on Technical Editing by Avon J. Murphy (ed.) ISBN : 978-0895033949 (2010) Baywood Publishing Company Inc, Hardcover, 210 pages, 35.5 GBP This book presents a collection of 10 chapters dealing with diverse aspects of technical editing (ie, editorial planning, and analysis and structural changes made to other people's technological documents): research in technical editing, trends and teaching of technical editing, copyediting, and technical journal editing. The role and function of the modern journal and book editor is also dealt with in detail. Each chapter is written by an expert in the field: senior editors, university professors in technical communication, technical writers and linguists. The ever-evolving role of the editor is clearly elucidated in several historical reviews, and in the descriptions of the expectations for the future. A very striking aspect of this book is its extensive collection of bibliographic resources: every chapter lists dozens of very useful references, and the closing chapter, and annotated bibliography, contain many not so well known references, and are most useful. All in all, the book is a treasure trove listing more than 400 references, in addition to numerous webpage URLs embedded in the texts. The book is designed to help the reader to understand current practices and norms in technical editing, and to help to take action in editing as well as in teaching and educating would-be editors. The audience for this book thus includes editors and teachers, but also writers, researchers and students. A deep reading of this book will result in a better understanding of the difference between full technical editing and its much narrower component so well known as copyediting, and will convince any prospective editor that editing should not be undertaken if the people involved do not master the art of precision and accuracy in technical (as well as in human) communication, do not possess the technical know how and computer

  7. Reconstruction of Japanese Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between linguistic reconstructions and their historical validity using the case of Old Japanese (8th century A.D.) vowels as an example. Reconstructions throughout the paper include only those cases in which the modern reflexes and phonological correspondences between two or more genetically related languages…

  8. Breast reconstruction - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100156.htm Breast reconstruction - series—Indication, part 1 To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Reconstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  9. Education for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David; And Others

    This report describes the main questions that various international agencies must address in order to reconstruct education in countries that have experienced crisis. "Crisis" is defined as war, natural disaster, and extreme political and economic upheaval. Many of the problems of educational reconstruction with which the Allies contended in…

  10. Editing Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Donald C., Jr.

    Intended for students in upper-division technical communication courses and professionals in business and government who want to learn how to edit technical writing, this book describes what technical editors do and how they do it. Throughout the book are exercises that students can use as self-tests; answer keys are provided for checking work.…

  11. AFOSR Technical Report Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research Technical Report Summaries are published quarterly as of March, June, September, and December of each...calendar year. They consist of a brief summary of each AFOSR technical report received in the Technical Information Division and submitted to the Defense

  12. Factors Influencing Graft Choice in Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the MARS Group.

    PubMed

    Group, Mars

    2016-08-01

    It has not been known what drives revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction graft choice in the past. We undertook this study to utilize the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) group and propensity score statistical analysis to determine the drivers of revision ACL reconstruction graft choice. We hypothesized that propensity analysis would demonstrate that individual surgeons still have significant impact on revision ACL reconstruction. Twelve hundred patients were enrolled in this longitudinal revision cohort by 83 surgeons at 52 sites. The median age was 26 years and 505 (42%) were females. One thousand forty-nine (87%) patients were undergoing their first ACL revision. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction for these patients was 48% autograft, 49% allograft, and 3% combination. The independent variables of this model included gender, age, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking status, sport, activity level, previous graft, revision number, surgeon, surgeon's opinion of failure, previous technical aspects, etc. Surgeons were defined as those who contributed more than 15 patients during the enrollment period. . We calculated a propensity score for graft type based on the predicted probability of receiving an allograft from a logistic regression model. Propensity scores demonstrated that surgeon, prior graft choice, and patient age each had significant influence on which graft type was chosen for the revision ACL reconstruction (p  < 0.0001). The revising surgeon had the largest impact upon graft choice: ∼ 5 times that of the second-most important factor (prior graft). If the prior graft type was an autograft, then an allograft was 3.6 times more likely to be chosen for the revision. This current study demonstrates that the individual surgeon is ultimately the most important factor in revision ACL reconstruction graft choice. Additional statistically significant influences of graft choice included age, gender, previous graft choice, ACL

  13. Transoral Robotic Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Selber, Jesse C.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Ibrahim, Amir E.; Holsinger, Floyd C.

    2014-01-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a technique that allows head and neck surgeons to safely resect large and complex oropharyngeal tumors without dividing the mandible or performing a lip-split incision. These resections provide a reconstructive challenge because the cylinder of the oropharynx remains closed and both physical access and visualization of oropharyngeal anatomy is severely restricted. Transoral robotic reconstruction (TORRS) of such defects allows the reconstructive surgeon to inset free flaps or perform adjacent tissue transfer while seeing what the resecting surgeon sees. Early experience with this technique has proved feasible and effective. Robotic reconstruction has many distinct advantages over conventional surgery, and offers patients a less morbid surgical course. In this review, we discuss the clinical applicability of transoral robotic surgery in head and neck reconstruction, highlighting the benefits and limitations of such an approach, and outlining the guidelines for its utilization. PMID:24872777

  14. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  15. Inframammary Fold Reconstruction: A Biomechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Julia; Uener, Jens; Prescher, Andreas; Scaal, Martin; Puppe, Julian; Warm, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inframammary fold reconstruction has scarcely been evaluated in literature. No biomechanical analyses have been performed comparing different reconstructive methods. This evaluation compares the gold-standard suture reconstruction with an intrarib anchor system (Micro BioComposite SutureTak, Arthrex). Methods: Three analysis groups were compared including 8 Sawbone blocks, 22 embalmed cadaver, and 27 regular cadaver specimens (N = 57). Transient mechanical analysis was performed at 5 N/s using an Instron 5565 test frame. Results: Ultimate load favored the anchor system (compared with the gold-standard suture) by a factor of 9.8 (P < 0.0001) for the regular cadaver group and a factor of 1.7 (P < 0.038) for the embalmed cadaver group. A similar statistically significant benefit was shown for stiffness and load at 2-mm displacement. Conclusions: This analysis showed an anchor system to be the biomechanically superior fixation method in terms of ultimate load, fixation stiffness, and displacement at failure when compared with the gold-standard suture method in inframammary fold reconstruction. Because of superior stability in every aspect, an anchor system may be considered for inframammary fold reconstruction. PMID:27257564

  16. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  17. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Breast reconstruction with flap surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer. Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a type of breast ...

  18. Reconstructive surgery for giant penoscrotal elephantiasis: about one case.

    PubMed

    Kirakoya, Brahima; Zango, Barnabé; Paré, Abdoul Karim; Kaboré, Aristide Fasnéwendé; Yaméogo, Clotaire

    2014-01-01

    Elephantiasis of the external genitalia is characterized by lymphedema and thickening of the subcutaneous tissues. This gives the skin an appearance similar to a pachyderm skin. This pathology is invalidating for the patient. Reconstructive surgery is often the only way to restaure aesthetic and functional aspects of the external genitalia. We aim to report a 52 year man with huge penoscrotal elephantiasis who underwent excision and penoscrotal reconstruction at the department of Urology, Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital at Ouagadougou.

  19. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. SPECT reconstruction using DCT-induced tight framelet regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiahan; Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Schmidtlein, C. R.; Lipson, Edward D.; Feiglin, David H.; Krol, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Wavelet transforms have been successfully applied in many fields of image processing. Yet, to our knowledge, they have never been directly incorporated to the objective function in Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) image reconstruction. Our aim has been to investigate if the ℓ1-norm of non-decimated discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the estimated radiotracer distribution could be effectively used as the regularization term for the penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction, where a regularizer is used to enforce the image smoothness in the reconstruction. In this study, the ℓ1-norm of 2D DCT wavelet decomposition was used as a regularization term. The Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm (PAPA), which we proposed in earlier work to solve penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction with non-differentiable regularizers, was used to solve this optimization problem. The DCT wavelet decompositions were performed on the transaxial reconstructed images. We reconstructed Monte Carlo simulated SPECT data obtained for a numerical phantom with Gaussian blobs as hot lesions and with a warm random lumpy background. Reconstructed images using the proposed method exhibited better noise suppression and improved lesion conspicuity, compared with images reconstructed using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with Gaussian post filter (GPF). Also, the mean square error (MSE) was smaller, compared with EM-GPF. A critical and challenging aspect of this method was selection of optimal parameters. In summary, our numerical experiments demonstrated that the ℓ1-norm of discrete cosine transform (DCT) wavelet frame transform DCT regularizer shows promise for SPECT image reconstruction using PAPA method.

  1. Technical communication in aeronautics - Results of an exploratory study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken that explored several aspects of technical communications in aeronautics. The study utilized survey research. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to 2,000 randomly selected members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) in the U.S. with academic, government, or industrial affiliations. Six hundred and six (606) usable questionnaires were received. The findings add considerable information to the knowledge of technical communications among aeronautical engineers and scientists; reinforce some of the conventional wisdom about technical communications and question other widely-held notions; and hold significant implications for technical communicators, information managers, research and development managers, and curriculum developers.

  2. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, J.; Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Salinas, E. Álvarez; Autorino, CM; Escobar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in daily practice with 75 to 97% excellent long-term results. But in certain cases, some patients perceive rotational instability, for this reason the revision rate can be 10 to 15%. Objectives: evaluate functional outcome in revisions of ACL reconstruction associated with ALL. Methods: Between July 2015 and February 2016 (11 knees) Eleven Revision ACL reconstruction were performed with ALL with double incision technique performed by the same surgical team. Inclusion criteria were: ACL reconstruction failures with a grade 2 or 3 Lachman test, a grade 3 pivot-shift without other ligamentary injury lesions associated and complete range of motion. Results: The concept of rotational instability associated with ACL injury has been described more than a decade ago. However, there is no consensus on how to quantify rotational instability in ACL injuries; so when associating an extracapsular technique. Currently there is a lack of high-level evidence comparing isolated ACL repair and associated with the modified reconstruction of ALL that allows us to define therapeutic approaches. The ALL reconstruction associate an ACL reconstruction remains a matter of study. Conclusion: We obtain excellent results in antero – posterior and rotational stability after performing the procedure.

  3. Reconstruction of perineal defects

    PubMed Central

    Baker, RJ; Muneer, A; Mosahebi, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Perineal defects are commonly encountered in an oncological setting although they may also present as a result of trauma and infection (eg following Fournier’s gangrene). Reconstruction of these poses functional as well as aesthetic challenges. Skin coverage and tissue volume may both be required in addition to anogenital preservation or reconstruction. General prerequisites of an adequate reconstruction of perineal defects include provision of skin cover, well vascularised tissue to fill the dead space (reducing fluid collection and infection), vulvovaginal reconstruction and no faecal or urinary contamination. Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE®. The search terms included ‘perineal defects’, ‘perineal reconstruction’, ‘perforator flaps for perineum’, ‘vulval flaps’, ‘secondary healing of wound’ and ‘vacuum assisted closure’. Backward chaining of reference lists from retrieved papers was also used to expand the search. Findings Modern developments have led to an increased expectation in improved quality of life as the main goal of reconstruction, therefore necessitating surgery with less morbidity and early return to normal activity. Progress in microsurgical procedures has been the main recent advance in perineal reconstruction and, in future, refinements in perforator flap design and tissue engineering techniques will lead to even better reconstructions. PMID:24165333

  4. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun.

  5. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  6. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Darin P; Badea, Cristian T

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  7. Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nasal reconstruction after epithelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present our procedure for the treatment, histopathological diagnosis, and resection of skin cancer in the nasal pyramid and its subsequent reconstruction. Because we are dealing with the most important anatomical feature of the face our goal is an aesthetic reconstruction [2,4] according to the anatomical subunits criterion of Burget [3]. First, a histopathological diagnosis is made to determine the nature of the tumor. Then, we proceed with the resection according to the Mohs Micrographic Surgery [1,5,7]. Then we begin with the first step of the nasal reconstruction.

  9. Interaction of policy choices and technical requirements for a space transportation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Annalisa L.; Hastings, Daniel E.

    This paper first presents a framework and analysis methodology for understanding the environment in which political aspects and technical aspects of politico-technical space system design interact, as well as how impacts flow from the political domain to the technical domain in this environment. Next, a space transportation infrastructure is presented, describing its elements, objectives and relevant policy directions. Then the space transportation infrastructure is analyzed according to the framework, and important insights are discussed.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  11. Sparsity regularized image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hero, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Most image reconstruction problems are under-determined: there are far more pixels to be resolved than there are measurements available. This means that the image space has more degrees of freedom than the measurement space. To make headway in such under-determined image reconstruction problems one must either incorporate domain knowledge or regularize. Domain knowledge restricts the size of the image space while regularization introduces bias, e.g., by forcing the reconstructed image to be smooth or have limited support. Both approaches are equivalent and can be interpreted as making the image sparse in some domain. This paper will provide a selective overview of some of the principal methods of sparsity regularized image reconstruction.

  12. Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Defects requiring reconstruction in the mandible are commonly encountered and may result from resection of benign or malignant lesions, trauma, or osteoradionecrosis. Mandibular defects can be classified according to location and extent, as well as involvement of mucosa, skin, and tongue. Vascularized bone flaps, in general, provide the best functional and aesthetic outcome, with the fibula flap remaining the gold standard for mandible reconstruction. In this review, we discuss classification and approach to reconstruction of mandibular defects. We also elaborate upon four commonly used free osteocutaneous flaps, inclusive of fibula, iliac crest, scapula, and radial forearm. Finally, we discuss indications and use of osseointegrated implants as well as recent advances in mandibular reconstruction. PMID:22550439

  13. Craniofacial reconstruction - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Patients requiring craniofacial reconstruction have: birth defects (such as hypertelorism, Crouzon's disease, Apert's syndrome) injuries to the head, face, or jaws (maxillofacial) tumors deformities caused by treatments of tumors

  14. Vaginal and penile reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

    2003-11-01

    Reconstructive surgery for patients with genital abnormalities or for patients who require reconstructive efforts is challenging. This review highlights those articles, which are outstanding among all those important papers, which have been published during the last year (2002-2003). A greater understanding of embryonal development improves the success of reconstructive surgery. Other factors, such as the patient's sex, influence the surgical technique used and the degree of invasiveness or complexity. In the adult the pressure to shorten hospital stays has played a big part in the continual modification and enhancement of surgical techniques. In addition to modified techniques, new off-the-shelf materials are introduced to the clinic, which seem to have the potential to improve the surgical outcome and shorten hospital stays. With the continued successful basic anatomy and basic research, reconstructive surgery brings higher success rates. Long-term results are still required to validate the reliability of these new surgical techniques and materials.

  15. Breast reconstruction - implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of well-being and your quality of life. Alternative Names Breast implants surgery References Roehl KR, Wilhelmi BJ, Phillips LG. Breast reconstruction. ...

  16. A retrospective study of combined fixed-removable reconstructions with their analysis of failures.

    PubMed

    Studer, S P; Mäder, C; Stahel, W; Schärer, P

    1998-07-01

    The survival rate and the reasons for failures of 130 combined fixed-removable reconstructions (CFR), incorporated in 112 patients, were assessed. Each CFR reconstruction was classified depending on its attachments: 76 reconstructions were attached with rigid, precise attachments, and constituted the rigid group; 54 reconstructions were attached with either semi-precision or individual attachments and were defined as the semi-rigid group. Of the 130 reconstructions, 41 were determined as complete successes, 39 as partial successes and 50 as failures, leading to 37 major repairs and to 13 new reconstructions. Three reconstructions failed due to technical reasons, 36 due to biological reasons and for 11 reconstructions, both categories of reasons were responsible for their failure. In total, technical reasons were counted 15 times in comparison to 73 biological reasons for those 50 failed reconstruction, with 29 fractured abutment teeth as the most common biological reason. Within the rigid group, 45 failed reconstructions were observed, whereas within the semi rigid group only 5 failures occurred, leading to an 8-year survival estimate (+/- SD) of 30.1% (+/- 6.9%) for the rigid group and 93.1% (+/- 3.9%) for the semi rigid group. Beside the attachment type, the anatomy of the partially edentulous tooth arch in form of the free-end situation and the dentate opposing jaw were identified as risk factors.

  17. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-14

    In the RLV Hangar, a Columbia Reconstruction Project Team member examines a piece of debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia. The debris has begun arriving at KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  18. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-15

    A Columbia Reconstruction Project Team member uses a laptop computer to catalog debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia in the RLV Hangar. The debris is being shipped to KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  19. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-15

    Columbia Reconstruction Project Team members examine a piece of debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia in the RLV Hangar. The debris is being shipped to KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  20. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-15

    Columbia Reconstruction Project Team members steady a piece of debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia as they position it in a designated sector of the RLV Hangar. The debris is being shipped to KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  1. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-15

    Columbia Reconstruction Project Team members study diagrams to aid in the placement of debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia in the RLV Hangar. The debris is being shipped to KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  2. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-15

    Columbia Reconstruction Project Team members cautiously examine potentially hazardous debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia in the RLV Hangar. The debris is being shipped to KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  3. Columbia Reconstruction Project Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-14

    In the RLV Hangar, a Columbia Reconstruction Project Team member examines pieces of debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia. The debris has begun arriving at KSC from the collection point at Barksdale Air Force Base, Shreveport, La. As part of the ongoing investigation into the tragic accident that claimed Columbia and her crew of seven, workers will attempt to reconstruct the orbiter inside the hangar.

  4. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  5. Chest wall reconstruction using iliac bone allografts and muscle flaps.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tutor, Emilio; Yeste, Luis; Murillo, Julio; Aubá, Cristina; Sanjulian, Mikel; Torre, Wenceslao

    2004-01-01

    Technically we can divide full-thickness thoracic reconstruction into 2 parts: providing a rigid support and ensuring well-vascularized coverage. Since 1986, the authors' center has had ample experience with bone banks and the use of cryopreserved bone grafts, which led them to consider the possibility of using these grafts for full-thickness chest wall reconstruction. They describe 3 patients in whom resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the thorax were carried out using iliac bone allografts covered with muscle flaps (1 pectoralis major and 2 rectus abdominis). None of the patients experienced breathing difficulties, pain, or instability after 14 months, 18 months, and 11 years of follow-up. The result of the reconstruction was excellent in all 3 patients in terms of function and aesthetics. The advantage of allografts compared with synthetic materials is their potential integration; they can become part of the host patient's living tissue.

  6. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal-Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo E; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical indication or inappropriate surgical technique/patient selection; (2) a technical error; and (3) an incorrect assessment of the concomitant risk factors for instability. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the MPFL and cautiousness with the imaging techniques while favoring clinical over radiological findings and the use of common sense to determine the adequate surgical technique for each particular case, are critical to minimizing MPFL surgery failure. Additionally, our approach to dealing with failure after primary MPFL reconstruction is also presented. PMID:28251062

  7. Causal MRI reconstruction via Kalman prediction and compressed sensing correction.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul

    2017-02-04

    This technical note addresses the problem of causal online reconstruction of dynamic MRI, i.e. given the reconstructed frames till the previous time instant, we reconstruct the frame at the current instant. Our work follows a prediction-correction framework. Given the previous frames, the current frame is predicted based on a Kalman estimate. The difference between the estimate and the current frame is then corrected based on the k-space samples of the current frame; this reconstruction assumes that the difference is sparse. The method is compared against prior Kalman filtering based techniques and Compressed Sensing based techniques. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more accurate than these and considerably faster.

  8. Efficient holoscopy image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Dierck; Franke, Gesa; Lührs, Christian; Koch, Peter; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2012-09-10

    Holoscopy is a tomographic imaging technique that combines digital holography and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to gain tomograms with diffraction limited resolution and uniform sensitivity over several Rayleigh lengths. The lateral image information is calculated from the spatial interference pattern formed by light scattered from the sample and a reference beam. The depth information is obtained from the spectral dependence of the recorded digital holograms. Numerous digital holograms are acquired at different wavelengths and then reconstructed for a common plane in the sample. Afterwards standard Fourier-domain OCT signal processing achieves depth discrimination. Here we describe and demonstrate an optimized data reconstruction algorithm for holoscopy which is related to the inverse scattering reconstruction of wavelength-scanned full-field optical coherence tomography data. Instead of calculating a regularized pseudoinverse of the forward operator, the recorded optical fields are propagated back into the sample volume. In one processing step the high frequency components of the scattering potential are reconstructed on a non-equidistant grid in three-dimensional spatial frequency space. A Fourier transform yields an OCT equivalent image of the object structure. In contrast to the original holoscopy reconstruction with backpropagation and Fourier transform with respect to the wavenumber, the required processing time does neither depend on the confocal parameter nor on the depth of the volume. For an imaging NA of 0.14, the processing time was decreased by a factor of 15, at higher NA the gain in reconstruction speed may reach two orders of magnitude.

  9. The Reconstruction Problem Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, Ambaby

    1999-01-01

    The role of reconstruction in avoiding oscillations in upwind schemes is reexamined, with the aim of providing simple, concise proofs. In one dimension, it is shown that if the reconstruction is any arbitrary function bounded by neighboring cell averages and increasing within a cell for increasing data, the resulting scheme is monotonicity preserving, even though the reconstructed function may have overshoots and undershoots at the cell edges and is in general not a monotone function. In the special case of linear reconstruction, it is shown that merely bounding the reconstruction between neighboring cell averages is sufficient to obtain a monotonicity preservinc,y scheme. In two dimensions, it is shown that some ID TVD limiters applied in each direction result in schemes that are not positivity preserving, i.e. do not give positive updates when the data are positive. A simple proof is given to show that if the reconstruction inside the cell is bounded by the neighboring cell averages (including corner neighbors), then the scheme is positivity preserving. A new limiter that enforces this condition but is not as dissipative as the Minmod limiter is also presented.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.M.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, cultural and technical experts nominated by the regional Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Project reports and references used in the reports are made available to the public in a public reading room. Project progress is documented in this monthly report, which is available to the public. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  12. Datacomputer Project Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-28

    34IM " "■ mmmam DATACOMPUTER PROJECT TECHNICAL REPORT Computer Corporation of America AD/A-002 083 Prepared for: Army Research Office...021 Computer Corporation of America 575 Technology Square Cambridge, Massachusetts Ü2139 0 DATACOMPUTER PROJECT TECHNICAL REPORT August 1...applications and user programs. The present document is the final technical report under Contract No. DAHC04-71-C-0Q11. The project is continuing

  13. Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Remmert, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF). The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects. The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues. Minor defects (extent (1/4) or less) required no reconstructive procedure at any area. Major defect closure (extent (1/2)-3/4) was accomplished with a combination of IMF covered by a radial forearm flap (RFF). A complete reconstruction of the OT was achieved with a combination of a bilateral IMF covered by a RFF. Whenever the complete BT has to be removed, interposition of a vein graft to establish a sufficient arterial blood supply to the remaining OT is mandatory. Moreover, a larynx lift to prevent aspiration is recommendable. Resection of adjacent soft tissues requires a larger RFF (OT; BT) or flaps from the shoulder-back region (BT and OT). Whenever the integrity of the mandible has to be sacrificed, a free fibula graft serves as an excellent tool for reconstruction. IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue. Reliability and versatility of IMF may contribute to a reduced time required for surgery since harvesting is performed in the neck area immediately after neck dissection. Moreover, harvesting of the IMF does not result in an increased postoperative morbidity. Hence, functional restoration can be achieved with a more cost-effective procedure.

  14. Eyebrow composite graft for eyelash reconstruction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Pochat, Victor Diniz; Costa, Thiago Vial; Castro, Manuela Perez; dos Anjos Neto, Jorge Cabral; Alonso, Nivaldo; Meneses, José Valber Lima

    2011-09-01

    Reconstructing the eyelash margin is a challenge for plastic surgeons because eyelashes have specific characteristics. There is still no gold standard procedure for this type of reconstruction, which seeks to protect the eyeball and make the eyelid appear natural. The eyebrow composite graft can be a good option for reconstructing the eyelash margin because it is technically simple and safe, and takes advantage of the structural similarity between the eyelashes and eyebrow. The results presented showed the effectiveness of the technique by providing improved occlusion and a good aesthetic result. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Feasibility of ossicular chain reconstruction with resin cement.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fernando de Andrade Quintanilha; Tamaoki, Yumi; Cabral, Gabriel Wynne

    Disjunction of ossicular chain is a common finding in middle ear chronic disease. In addition to ossicular interposition, various materials have been used for reconstruction, such as ceramic prostheses, polyethylene, and titanium. Because of the high cost of the available options, the authors propose to reconstruct the ossicular chain with resin cement, a material typically used in dental reconstruction and fixation. Two anatomical parts of the temporal bones were used, creating a disjunction of the ossicular chain between the incus and staples and then reconstructing with resin cement. These reconstructions were repeated four times by three different surgeons to ensure the feasibility of the method. A total of 12 reconstructions were carried out, four per surgeon. After applying the cement, it could be verified by touch that the space was filled properly by the used material. Proper articulation with motion transfer to the entire ossicular chain was also observed. Resin cement is a suitable material in the reconstruction of ossicular chain injury, and it is inexpensive and technically simple. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Fragility of estimated spatial temperature patterns in climate field reconstructions of the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Vaccaro, A.; Guillot, D.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2013-12-01

    updated multi-proxy network and produce a new 2000-year-long global temperature reconstruction. The network expands upon the existing M08 network by screening tree-ring proxies for the 'divergence problem' [D'Arrigo et al., 2008] and adds 58 non tree-ring proxies, of which 28 are located in the tropics and 11 are available within at least the past 1500 years. Overall, considerable differences are still evident among reconstructions using different CFR methods. Yet such differences are smaller using the updated proxy network compared with using the M08 network, consistent with pseudoproxy studies [Wang et al, 2013]. Our results collectively highlight the fragility of reconstructed patterns in the current state of proxy networks and CFR methods. We conclude that dynamical interpretations of such patterns are premature until these technical aspects are resolved. Reference: Wang, J., Emile-Geay, J., Guillot, D., Smerdon, J. E., and Rajaratnam, B.: Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 3015-3060, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-3015-2013, 2013.

  17. Technical principles of MR angiography methods.

    PubMed

    Ivancevic, Marko K; Geerts, Liesbeth; Weadock, William J; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2009-02-01

    Magnetic resonance provides a wide variety of possibilities for arterial and venous blood vessel imaging in all vascular territories. This article provides a brief review of the technical principles of MR angiography. The first section is dedicated to non-contrast-enhanced angiography techniques and includes several distinct approaches: time-of-flight, phase contrast, triggered angiography non-contrast-enhanced, and balanced steady-state free precession. The second section relates to the contrast-enhanced and time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography methods. The latest technical developments in MR imaging hardware, sequences and software, coil technology, and reconstruction capability allow dynamic MR angiography performance similar to CT angiography, without risks of iodine contrast agent and ionizing radiation exposure.

  18. Aspects of Malpractice in Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2017-06-09

    Crowns, fixed partial dentures, and removable dentures are the popular prosthetic dental restorations in current dental practice. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of the mouth, particularly in advanced and complex cases, requires careful planning, adequate clinical skills, and exacting technical standards. While a successful outcome is the ultimate goal for any prosthodontic treatment, complications, injuries, dissatisfaction, and/or failure may occur. When such events develop as a result of negligence or violation of standards of care, they are considered under the term of malpractice and may incur ethical and medico-legal implications. This paper reviews and highlights some aspects of malpractice in prosthodontics. The current state of prosthodontic malpractice on a global level will also be evaluated. Standards of prosthodontic care, current literature of prosthodontic malpractice, where and how prosthodontic malpractice occurs, and recommendations for the future are presented. A thorough understanding of what is quality prosthodontic care and what disrupts this care can be a useful guard against professional litigation and may protect patients from poor quality of dental prosthetic care. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  20. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…