Science.gov

Sample records for record show impact

  1. Ecological changes in Miocene mammalian record show impact of prolonged climatic forcing.

    PubMed

    Badgley, Catherine; Barry, John C; Morgan, Michèle E; Nelson, Sherry V; Behrensmeyer, Anna K; Cerling, Thure E; Pilbeam, David

    2008-08-26

    Geohistorical records reveal the long-term impacts of climate change on ecosystem structure. A 5-myr record of mammalian faunas from floodplain ecosystems of South Asia shows substantial change in species richness and ecological structure in relation to vegetation change as documented by stable isotopes of C and O from paleosols. Between 8.5 and 6.0 Ma, C(4) savannah replaced C(3) forest and woodland. Isotopic historical trends for 27 mammalian herbivore species, in combination with ecomorphological data from teeth, show three patterns of response. Most forest frugivores and browsers maintained their dietary habits and disappeared. Other herbivores altered their dietary habits to include increasing amounts of C(4) plants and persisted for >1 myr during the vegetation transition. The few lineages that persisted through the vegetation transition show isotopic enrichment of delta(13)C values over time. These results are evidence for long-term climatic forcing of vegetation structure and mammalian ecological diversity at the subcontinental scale.

  2. Millennial-scale isotope records from a wide-ranging predator show evidence of recent human impact to oceanic food webs.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Anne E; Ostrom, Peggy H; Welch, Andreanna J; Fleischer, Robert C; Gandhi, Hasand; Southon, John R; Stafford, Thomas W; Penniman, Jay F; Hu, Darcy; Duvall, Fern P; James, Helen F

    2013-05-28

    Human exploitation of marine ecosystems is more recent in oceanic than near shore regions, yet our understanding of human impacts on oceanic food webs is comparatively poor. Few records of species that live beyond the continental shelves date back more than 60 y, and the sheer size of oceanic regions makes their food webs difficult to study, even in modern times. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study the foraging history of a generalist, oceanic predator, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), which ranges broadly in the Pacific from the equator to near the Aleutian Islands. Our isotope records from modern and ancient, radiocarbon-dated bones provide evidence of over 3,000 y of dietary stasis followed by a decline of ca. 1.8‰ in δ(15)N over the past 100 y. Fishery-induced trophic decline is the most likely explanation for this sudden shift, which occurs in genetically distinct populations with disparate foraging locations. Our isotope records also show that coincident with the apparent decline in trophic level, foraging segregation among petrel populations decreased markedly. Because variation in the diet of generalist predators can reflect changing availability of their prey, a foraging shift in wide-ranging Hawaiian petrel populations suggests a relatively rapid change in the composition of oceanic food webs in the Northeast Pacific. Understanding and mitigating widespread shifts in prey availability may be a critical step in the conservation of endangered marine predators such as the Hawaiian petrel.

  3. Millennial-scale isotope records from a wide-ranging predator show evidence of recent human impact to oceanic food webs

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Anne E.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Gandhi, Hasand; Southon, John R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Penniman, Jay F.; Hu, Darcy; Duvall, Fern P.; James, Helen F.

    2013-01-01

    Human exploitation of marine ecosystems is more recent in oceanic than near shore regions, yet our understanding of human impacts on oceanic food webs is comparatively poor. Few records of species that live beyond the continental shelves date back more than 60 y, and the sheer size of oceanic regions makes their food webs difficult to study, even in modern times. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to study the foraging history of a generalist, oceanic predator, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), which ranges broadly in the Pacific from the equator to near the Aleutian Islands. Our isotope records from modern and ancient, radiocarbon-dated bones provide evidence of over 3,000 y of dietary stasis followed by a decline of ca. 1.8‰ in δ15N over the past 100 y. Fishery-induced trophic decline is the most likely explanation for this sudden shift, which occurs in genetically distinct populations with disparate foraging locations. Our isotope records also show that coincident with the apparent decline in trophic level, foraging segregation among petrel populations decreased markedly. Because variation in the diet of generalist predators can reflect changing availability of their prey, a foraging shift in wide-ranging Hawaiian petrel populations suggests a relatively rapid change in the composition of oceanic food webs in the Northeast Pacific. Understanding and mitigating widespread shifts in prey availability may be a critical step in the conservation of endangered marine predators such as the Hawaiian petrel. PMID:23671094

  4. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  5. The Martian impact cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Croft, Steven K.; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Martian impact cratering record is presented. The major differences in impact crater morphology and morphometry between Mars and the moon and Mercury are argued to be largely the result of subsurface volatiles on Mars. In general, the depth to these volatiles may decrease with increasing latitude in the southern hemisphere, but the base of this layer may be at a more or less constant depth. The Martial crustal dichotomy could have been the result of a very large impact near the end of the accretion of Mars. Monte Carlo computer simulations suggest that such an impact was not only possible, but likely. The Martian highland cratering record shows a marked paucity of craters less than about 30 km in diameter relative to the lunar highlands. This paucity of craters was probably the result of the obliteration of craters by an early period of intense erosion and deposition by aeolian, fluvial, and glacial processes.

  6. The Martian impact cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Croft, Steven K.; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Martian impact cratering record is presented. The major differences in impact crater morphology and morphometry between Mars and the moon and Mercury are argued to be largely the result of subsurface volatiles on Mars. In general, the depth to these volatiles may decrease with increasing latitude in the southern hemisphere, but the base of this layer may be at a more or less constant depth. The Martial crustal dichotomy could have been the result of a very large impact near the end of the accretion of Mars. Monte Carlo computer simulations suggest that such an impact was not only possible, but likely. The Martian highland cratering record shows a marked paucity of craters less than about 30 km in diameter relative to the lunar highlands. This paucity of craters was probably the result of the obliteration of craters by an early period of intense erosion and deposition by aeolian, fluvial, and glacial processes.

  7. The Martian impact cratering record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Croft, Steven K.; Barlow, Nadine G.

    A detailed analysis of the Martian impact cratering record is presented. The major differences in impact crater morphology and morphometry between Mars and the moon and Mercury are argued to be largely the result of subsurface volatiles on Mars. In general, the depth to these volatiles may decrease with increasing latitude in the southern hemisphere, but the base of this layer may be at a more or less constant depth. The Martial crustal dichotomy could have been the result of a very large impact near the end of the accretion of Mars. Monte Carlo computer simulations suggest that such an impact was not only possible, but likely. The Martian highland cratering record shows a marked paucity of craters less than about 30 km in diameter relative to the lunar highlands. This paucity of craters was probably the result of the obliteration of craters by an early period of intense erosion and deposition by aeolian, fluvial, and glacial processes.

  8. Impact cratering record of Fennoscandia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesonen, L. J.; Henkel, H.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of circular topographic, morphological, or geophysical structures in Fennoscandia and adjacent areas reveals 62 craterform structures of which 15 appear to be of extraterrestrial origin due to meteorite impact. The majority of the structures are probable and possible impact craters for which there is not yet sufficient proof for impact origin. Four of the proven impact craters contain large volumes of impact melt and many other features of intense shock metamorphism. The age of recognized impact craters vary from prehistoric to late Precambrian. We review the Fennoscandian impact cratering record giving examples of geophysical signatures of impact craters.

  9. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  10. The Impact of Plant Enemies Shows a Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Briggs, Heather M.; Magarey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The host ranges of plant pathogens and herbivores are phylogenetically constrained, so that closely related plant species are more likely to share pests and pathogens. Here we conducted a reanalysis of data from published experimental studies to test whether the severity of host-enemy interactions follows a similar phylogenetic signal. The impact of herbivores and pathogens on their host plants declined steadily with phylogenetic distance from the most severely affected focal hosts. The steepness of this phylogenetic signal was similar to that previously measured for binary-response host ranges. Enemy behavior and development showed similar, but weaker phylogenetic signal, with oviposition and growth rates declining with evolutionary distance from optimal hosts. Phylogenetic distance is an informative surrogate for estimating the likely impacts of a pest or pathogen on potential plant hosts, and may be particularly useful in early assessing risk from emergent plant pests, where critical decisions must be made with incomplete host records. PMID:25893581

  11. 29 CFR 785.47 - Where records show insubstantial or insignificant periods of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WORKED Recording Working Time § 785.47 Where records show insubstantial or insignificant periods of time. In recording working time under the Act, insubstantial or insignificant periods of time beyond the scheduled working hours, which cannot as a practical administrative matter be precisely recorded for payroll...

  12. 29 CFR 785.47 - Where records show insubstantial or insignificant periods of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WORKED Recording Working Time § 785.47 Where records show insubstantial or insignificant periods of time. In recording working time under the Act, insubstantial or insignificant periods of time beyond the scheduled working hours, which cannot as a practical administrative matter be precisely recorded for payroll...

  13. Controlled impact demonstration flight data recorders/cockpit voice recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garodz, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It was found that the sampling rates from flight recorders on a remotely piloted transport aircraft that crashed into the ground were too low, although they were higher than those required now by regulations. For example, the sampling rate for roll angle was one per second. The sampling rate for normal acceleration was also fairly low. Existing regulations require only 4 samples per second; researchers had 16 samples per second. Some data was lost during the initial impact. The frequency response data was adequate.

  14. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  15. Impact theory of mass extinctions and the invertebrate fossil record

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, W.; Kauffman, E.G.; Surlyk, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

    1984-03-16

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact. 50 references, 4 figures.

  16. Equatorial Pacific Coral Geochemical Records Show Recent Weakening of the Walker Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Mcgregor, H. V.; Gaudry, J. J.; Donner, S. D.; Gagan, M. K.; Stevenson, S. L.; Wong, H.; Fink, D.

    2014-12-01

    Equatorial Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions affect climate globally, and a key component of the coupled system is the Walker Circulation, which is driven by sea surface temperature (SST) gradients across the equatorial Pacific. There is conflicting evidence as to whether the SST gradient and Walker Circulation have strengthened or weakened over the late 20th century. We present new records of SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) spanning 1959-2010 based on paired measurements of Sr/Ca and d18O in a massive Porites coral from Butaritari atoll in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati, in the central-western equatorial Pacific. The records show 2-7 year variability correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and corresponding shifts in the extent of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool, and decadal-scale signals related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In addition, the Butaritari coral records reveal a small but significant increase in SST (0.39˚C) from 1959 to 2010 with no accompanying change in SSS, a trend that persists even when ENSO variability is removed. In contrast, larger increases in SST and SSS are evident in coral records from the equatorial Pacific Line Islands, located east of Butaritari. Taken together, the equatorial Pacific coral records suggest an overall reduction in the east-west SST and SSS gradient over the last several decades, and a recent weakening of the Walker Circulation.

  17. Evolving protected-area impacts in Panama: impact shifts show that plans require anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Akiko; Pfaff, Alexander; van den Ende, Sander; Joppa, Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are the leading forest conservation policy, so accurate evaluation of future PA impact is critical in conservation planning. Yet by necessity impact evaluations use past data. Here we argue that forward-looking plans should blend such evaluations with anticipation of shifts in threats. Applying improved methods to evaluate past impact, we provide rigorous support for that conceptual approach by showing that PAs’ impacts on deforestation shifted with land use. We study the Republic of Panama, where species-dense tropical forest faces real pressure. Facing variation in deforestation pressure, the PAs’ impacts varied across space and time. Thus, if shifts in pressure levels and patterns could be anticipated, that could raise impact.

  18. Strong Showing for AGU Journals in 2009 Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-06-01

    AGU publishes great science, which is recognized in several ways. One of the most widely recognized is from Thomson Reuters, which provides the Journal Citation Report (JCR) each year as a component of the Web of Science®. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2009 statistics released last week, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. For the twelfth time, two different AGU titles hold the top rank in their categories, and AGU titles hold the second spot in two other categories and third in two more.

  19. The Noachian Impact Cratering Record Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, N. G.

    2017-10-01

    New image and topographic data are being used to revised the author's Catalog of Large Martian Impact Craters. Additional craters have been identified, which adjusts the crater size-frequency distribution curves of Noachian terrains.

  20. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  1. New record shows pronounced changes in Arctic Ocean circulation and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, D.; Bischof, J.; Cutter, G.; de Vernal, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Dwyer, G.; McManus, J.; Osterman, L.; Polyak, L.; Poore, R.

    Does the Arctic Ocean surface circulation north of Alaska oscillate to and fro like a slow washing machine on millennial timescales? New evidence from the sediment record over the last 10,000 years suggests that it does and that in the recent past, the western Arctic Ocean was much warmer than it is today.Similar Holocene climatic fluctuations are seen in many records worldwide, yet their origin remains enigmatic. Modeling and observational studies suggest that the Arctic may play an important role in these climate fluctuations through changes in surface albedo, modifications of oceanic thermohaline circulation, and changes in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and radiatively important gases [PARCS, 1999].

  2. Florida doctors seeing Medicaid patients show broad interest in federal incentives for adopting electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Bilello, Lori; Harle, Christopher A; Sullivan, Christopher B; Siler-Marsiglio, Kendra I

    2011-08-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 aims to expand the use of electronic health records by offering financial incentives to physicians to fully adopt and implement them. We surveyed Florida physicians who deliver care to Medicaid participants to identify their interest in participating in the incentive program. More than 60 percent of all respondents expressed interest in applying for the incentives; of those already using electronic health record systems, 86 percent intend to apply for funding. This relatively high proportion of physicians creates the potential to reach the overall policy goals of the law. Among those not planning to seek incentives, common barriers--especially among nonusers of electronic health records--were "costs involved" (69 percent), "need more information about incentive program" (42 percent), and uncertainty about what system to purchase (42 percent). We suggest that these findings hold implications for the Regional Extension Centers working to help physicians achieve the federal meaningful-use criteria that are a condition of receiving the incentives. In particular, the centers should focus on providing physicians with information about costs of electronic health record systems.

  3. Synchronized High-Resolution Lacustrine Records in Iceland show Non-Linear Response to Holocene Insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsdottir, A.; Miller, G. H.; Larsen, D. J.; Thordarson, T.; Ólafsdóttir, S.; Stoner, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Icelandic lakes commonly have sedimentation rates in excess of 1 m ka-1 through the Holocene, offering the potential for records of environmental change at decadal or better resolution. Icelandic lake sediment contains numerous volcanic tephra layers of known age, which together with high-resolution sediment paleomagnetic secular variations (PSV) allow synchronization of sediment cores from both lacustrine and marine archives. We present synchronized high-resolution paleoclimatic records from two Icelandic lakes with very different catchment characteristics. By combining PSV records and key tephra tie points we are able to synchronize the lacustrine records with each other and with a well-dated marine core from the shelf north of Iceland. The large PSV signal that characterizes the Icelandic Holocene records allows 40 to 60 secure tie points over the past 10 ka of sediment records. The high frequency of tie points allows the reconstruction of sediment accumulation rate changes in the lacustrine records that were not apparent from the tephrochonological controls. The first order trends in the lacustine climate proxies (BSi and TOC) are similar. BSi climbs to a maximum value shortly after 8 ka, then declines toward present, reflecting a relatively late Holocene thermal maximum, lagging the Greenland ice core record by ca. 2 ka. The peak of the HTM in Iceland was warm enough to melt glaciers completely with temperatures estimated to have been 3.5°C higher relative to 1960-1990 averages. Decreasing summer insolation is reflected not by gradual cooling after the HTM, but by incremental changes in state. TOC and BSi track each other during warm times, but diverge, and sedimentation rates increase, during perturbations and cold times at 8.4 ka, 5.5 ka, 4.3 to 4 ka, 3.1 ka to 2.8 ka. Following these departures, BSi usually exhibits a step-function change, re-equilibrating at a lower BSi value. Some of the departures may be related to Icelandic volcanism influencing

  4. BEA Booms in Chicago: Librarians Attend Reinvigorated Show in Record Numbers, while Publishers Show Their Wares; Clinton Keynote Draws Rapt Crowd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Hoffert, Barbara; McCormack, Heather; Miller, Rebecca; Ward, Nathan; Williams, Wilda

    2004-01-01

    BookExpo America (BEA) had some extra zing this year, especially for librarians. A record 1800 library professionals preregistered for the book fair in Chicago, June 3-6, a leap beyond the 750 last year in Los Angeles. They found an industry that has shaken off post-9/11 doldrums. Bill Clinton's keynote to kick off the show and promote My Life…

  5. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  6. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds.

    PubMed

    Pope, Katherine S; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H; DeJong, Theodore M

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond (Prunus dulcis), pistachio (Pistacia vera), and walnut (Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  7. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Treesearch

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak. Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  8. How action selection can be embodied: intracranial gamma band recording shows response competition during the Eriksen flankers test

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Fausto; Uithol, Sebo; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sartori, Ivana; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in monkeys suggest that action selection is based on a competition between various action options that are automatically planned by the motor system. Here we discuss data from intracranial EEG recordings in human premotor cortex (PMC) during a bimanual version of the Eriksen flankers test that suggest that the same principles apply to human action decisions. Recording sites in the dorsal PMC show an early but undifferentiated activation, a delayed response that depends on the experimental conditions and, finally, a movement related activation during action execution. Additionally, we found that the medial part of the PMC show a significant increase in response for ipsilateral trials, suggesting a role in inhibiting the wrong response. The ventral PMC seems to be involved in action execution, rather than action selection. Together these findings suggest that the human PMC is part of a network that specifies, selects, and executes actions. PMID:25206328

  9. A tale of clusters: no resolvable periodicity in the terrestrial impact cratering record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Holm-Alwmark, Sanna

    2017-05-01

    Rampino & Caldeira carry out a circular spectral analysis (CSA) of the terrestrial impact cratering record over the past 260 million years (Ma), and suggest a ˜26 Ma periodicity of impact events. For some of the impacts in that analysis, new accurate and high-precision ('robust'; 2SE < 2 per cent) 40Ar-39Ar ages have recently been published, resulting in significant age shifts. In a CSA of the updated impact age list, the periodicity is strongly reduced. In a CSA of a list containing only impacts with robust ages, we find no significant periodicity for the last 500 Ma. We show that if we relax the assumption of a fully periodic impact record, assuming it to be a mix of a periodic and a random component instead, we should have found a periodic component if it contributes more than ˜80 per cent of the impacts in the last 260 Ma. The difference between our CSA and the one by Rampino & Caldeira originates in a subset of 'clustered' impacts (i.e. with overlapping ages). The ˜26 Ma periodicity seemingly carried by these clusters alone is strongly significant if tested against a random distribution of ages, but this significance disappears if it is tested against a distribution containing (randomly spaced) clusters. The presence of a few impact age clusters (e.g. from asteroid break-up events) in an otherwise random impact record can thus give rise to false periodicity peaks in a CSA. There is currently no evidence for periodicity in the impact record.

  10. A tale of clusters: No resolvable periodicity in the terrestrial impact cratering record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Holm-Alwmark, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Rampino & Caldeira (2015) carry out a circular spectral analysis (CSA) of the terrestrial impact cratering record over the past 260 million years (Ma), and suggest a ˜26 Ma periodicity of impact events. For some of the impacts in that analysis, new accurate and high-precision ("robust"; 2SE<2%) 40Ar-39Ar ages have recently been published, resulting in significant age shifts. In a CSA of the updated impact age list, the periodicity is strongly reduced. In a CSA of a list containing only impacts with robust ages, we find no significant periodicity for the last 500 Ma. We show that if we relax the assumption of a fully periodic impact record, assuming it to be a mix of a periodic and a random component instead, we should have found a periodic component if it contributes more than ˜80% of the impacts in the last 260 Ma. The difference between our CSA and the one by Rampino & Caldeira (2015) originates in a subset of "clustered" impacts (i.e., with overlapping ages). The ˜26 Ma periodicity seemingly carried by these clusters alone is strongly significant if tested against a random distribution of ages, but this significance disappears if it is tested against a distribution containing (randomly-spaced) clusters. The presence of a few impact age clusters (e.g., from asteroid break-up events) in an otherwise random impact record can thus give rise to false periodicity peaks in a CSA. There is currently no evidence for periodicity in the impact record.

  11. The impact of electronic health record use on physician productivity.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Huckman, Robert S

    2013-11-01

    To examine the impact of the degree of electronic health record (EHR) use and delegation of EHR tasks on clinician productivity in ambulatory settings. We examined EHR use in primary care practices that implemented a web-based EHR from athenahealth (n = 42) over 3 years (695 practice-month observations). Practices were predominantly small and spread throughout the country. Data came from athenahealth practice management system and EHR task logs. We developed monthly measures of EHR use and delegation to support staff from task logs. Productivity was measured using work relative value units (RVUs). Using fixed effects models, we assessed the independent impacts on productivity of EHR use and delegation. We then explored the interaction between these 2 strategies and the role of practice size. Greater EHR use and greater delegation were independently associated with higher levels of productivity. An increase in EHR use of 1 standard deviation resulted in a 5.3% increase in RVUs per clinician workday; an increase in delegation of EHR tasks of 1 standard deviation resulted in an 11.0% increase in RVUs per clinician workday (P <.05 for both). Further, EHR use and delegation had a positive joint impact on productivity in large practices (coefficient, 0.058; P <.05), but a negative joint impact on productivity in small practices (coefficient, -0.142; P <.01). Clinicians in practices that increased EHR use and delegated EHR tasks were more productive, but practice size determined whether the 2 strategies were complements or substitutes.

  12. Recording and labeling at a site along the cochlea shows alignment of medial olivocochlear and auditory nerve tonotopic mappings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons provide an efferent innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) of the cochlea, but their tonotopic mapping is incompletely known. In the present study of anesthetized guinea pigs, the MOC mapping was investigated using in vivo, extracellular recording, and labeling at a site along the cochlear course of the axons. The MOC axons enter the cochlea at its base and spiral apically, successively turning out to innervate OHCs according to their characteristic frequencies (CFs). Recordings made at a site in the cochlear basal turn yielded a distribution of MOC CFs with an upper limit, or “edge,” due to usually absent higher-CF axons that presumably innervate more basal locations. The CFs at the edge, normalized across preparations, were equal to the CFs of the auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) at the recording sites (near 16 kHz). Corresponding anatomical data from extracellular injections showed spiraling MOC axons giving rise to an edge of labeling at the position of a narrow band of labeled ANFs. Overall, the edges of the MOC CFs and labeling, with their correspondences to ANFs, suggest similar tonotopic mappings of these efferent and afferent fibers, at least in the cochlear basal turn. They also suggest that MOC axons miss much of the position of the more basally located cochlear amplifier appropriate for their CF; instead, the MOC innervation may be optimized for protection from damage by acoustic overstimulation. PMID:26823515

  13. Impacts of structuring nursing records: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saranto, Kaija; Kinnunen, Ulla-Mari; Kivekäs, Eija; Lappalainen, Anna-Mari; Liljamo, Pia; Rajalahti, Elina; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2014-12-01

    The study aims to describe the impacts of different data structuring methods used in nursing records or care plans. This systematic review examines what kinds of structuring methods have been evaluated and the effects of data structures on healthcare input, processes and outcomes in previous studies. Retrieval from 15 databases yielded 143 papers. Based on Population (Participants), Intervention, Comparators, Outcomes elements and exclusion and inclusion criteria, the search produced 61 studies. A data extraction tool and analysis for empirical articles were used to classify the data referring to the study aim. Thirty-eight studies were included in the final analysis. The study design most often used was a single measurement without any control. The studies were conducted mostly in secondary or tertiary care in institutional care contexts. The standards used in documentation were nursing classifications or the nursing process model in clinical use. The use of standardised nursing language (SNL) increased descriptions of nursing interventions and outcomes supporting daily care, and improving patient safety and information reuse. The nursing process model and classifications are used internationally as nursing data structures in nursing records and care plans. The use of SNL revealed various positive impacts. Unexpected outcomes were most often related to lack of resources. Indexing of SNL studies has not been consistent. That might cause bias in database retrieval, and important articles may be lacking. The study design of the studies analysed varied widely. Further, the time frame of papers was quite long, causing confusion in descriptions of nursing data structures. The value of SNL is proven by its support of daily workflow, delivery of nursing care and data reuse. This facilitates continuity of care, thus contributing to patient safety. Nurses need more education and managerial support in order to be able to benefit from SNL. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian

  14. The impact of multiple show-ups on eyewitness decision-making and innocence risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew M; Bertrand, Michelle; Lindsay, R C L; Kalmet, Natalie; Grossman, Deborah; Provenzano, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    If an eyewitness rejects a show-up, police may respond by finding a new suspect and conducting a second show-up with the same eyewitness. Police may continue finding suspects and conducting show-ups until the eyewitness makes an identification (Study 1). Relatively low criterion-setting eyewitnesses filter themselves out of the multiple show-ups procedure by choosing the first suspect with whom they are presented (Studies 2 and 3). Accordingly, response bias was more stringent on the second show-up when compared with the first, but became no more stringent with additional show-ups. Despite this stringent shift in response bias, innocence risk increased with additional show-ups, as false alarms cumulate (Studies 2 and 3). Although unbiased show-up instructions decreased innocent suspect identifications, the numbers were still discouraging (Study 4). Given the high number of innocent suspects who would be mistakenly identified through the use of multiple show-up procedures, using such identifications as evidence of guilt is questionable. Although evidence of guilt is limited to identifications from a single show-up, practical constraints might sometimes require police to use additional show-ups. Accordingly, we propose a stronger partition between evidentiary and investigative procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Basaltic impact melts in the Apollo collections: How many impacts and which events are recorded?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the rocks in the Apollo collections from the lunar highlands are impact melt breccias of basaltic bulk composition. They are known by a variety of names including low-K Fra Mauro basalt, VHA basalt, and basaltic impact melts. These rocks have been studied to understand the compositional nature of the lunar crust, to decipher the processes of large body impact, and to comprehend the record of impact bombardment of the Moon. Study of terrestrial craters has led to a model for impact melt generation whereby target lithologies are totally melted during impact. The impact melt makes up a few percent of the total volume of crater material; superheated silicate liquids of the impact melt have extremely low viscosities and mix intimately. This mixing thoroughly homogenizes the melt chemically during the excavation of the crater. Colder, unmelted debris is overridden by the melt sheet as the crater cavity grows. Incorporation of these cold clasts rapidly chills the melt, with zones of greater and lesser amounts of clasts being primarily responsible for modestly differing thermal regimes. The net effect of this process is the production of a suite of rocks that have extreme chemical homogeneity, but wide petrographic diversity. Strict application of this model to the petrogenesis of basaltic impact melts from the Moon has some fairly significant consequences for how we interpret early lunar history. The consequences are briefly discussed.

  16. Geologic record of Hurricane impacts on the New Jersey coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, Daria; Horton, Benjamin; Khan, Nicole; Clear, Jennifer; Shaw, Timothy; Enache, Mihaela; Frizzera, Dorina; Procopio, Nick; Potapova, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Hurricanes along the US Atlantic coast have caused significant damage and loss of human life over the last century. Recent studies suggest that intense-hurricane activity is closely related to changes of sea surface temperatures and therefore the risk of hurricane strikes may increase in the future. A clear understanding of the role of recent warming on tropical cyclone activity is limited by the shortness of the instrumental record. However, the sediment preserved beneath coastal wetlands is an archive of when hurricanes impacted the coast. We present two complimenting approaches that help to extend pre-historic record and assess frequency and intensity of hurricane landfalls along the New Jersey cost; dating overwash deposits and hurricane-induced salt-marsh erosion documented at multiple sites. The stratigraphic investigation of estuarine salt marshes in the southern New Jersey documented seven distinctive erosion events that correlate among different sites. Radiocarbon dates suggest the prehistoric events occurred in AD 558-673, AD 429-966, AD 558-673, Ad 1278-1438, AD 1526-1558 or AD 1630-1643 (Nikitina et al., 2014). Younger sequences correspond with historical land-falling hurricanes in AD 1903 and AD 1821 or AD 1788. Four events correlate well with barrier overwash deposits documented along the New Jersey coast (Donnelley et al., 2001 and 2004). The stratigraphic sequence of salt High resolution sedimentary-based reconstructions of past intense-hurricane landfalls indicate that significant variability in the frequency of intense hurricanes occurred over the last 2000 years.

  17. Impact Record of a Asteroid Regolith Recorded in a Carbonaceous Chrondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Le, Loan; Kring, David; Cato, Michael; Fagan, Amy L.; Gross, Juliane; Tanaka, Ayuna; Takegawa, Daichi; Hoshikawa, Takuya; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Sawa, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    C-class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamor-phosed carbonaceous chondrites [1], or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent [2]. One particularly important example appears to be asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of the Hayabusa 2 mission [1], although most spectra of Ryugu are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith [3]. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C-class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to ex-plain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites [4], but has rarely been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites [5]. Jbilet Winselwan (JW) is a very fresh CM breccia from Morocco, with intriguing characteristics. While some lithologies are typical of CM2s (Figure 1, top), other clasts show evidence of brief, though significant impact brecciation and heating. The first evidence for this came from preliminary petrographic and stable isotope studies [6,7]. We contend that highly-brecciated, partially-shocked, and dehydrated lithologies like those in JW dominate C-class asteroid regolith.

  18. Ratios of Record High to Record Low Temperatures in Europe Show an Accelerating Trend Since 2000 Despite a Slowdown in Mean Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, M.

    2014-12-01

    The present study has examined the behavior of extreme high and low temperatures in Euirope since the mid-20th century, in terms of the ratio of number of days per year with record Tmax and record Tmin. The investigations have shown that there has been a clear and massive increase in the number of high Tmax: low Tmin ratios in the most recent decade of the 1951-2013 temperature record for 30 selected observation stations in Europe. This sharp increase is seen to occur despite an apparent hiatus - or at least a reduction in the rate of warming - since the early 2000s, as observed not only in Europe but on a hemispheric basis too. The «explosion» of record high:record low temperature ratios since 2000, despite relatively small increases in mean temperatures in the last 10-15 years of the observational record, can be explained by a non-linear (quadratic) relation between mean temperatures and the Tmax:Tmin record ratios. It is suggested here that the increases are probably a consequence of increasing dryness during the summer in the Mediterranean region (where today there are on average 30 more dry days than in the 1950s), and a reduction in the cold season conducive to snow days in Arctic summers and Northern European springs (with up to 40 days less freezing days than 60 years previously). Both effects can serve to amplify positive temperature feedbacks in the lower atmosphere that result in strong increases in the number of Tmax record high temperatures and correspondingly strong reductions in the number of Tmin record low temperatures.

  19. Good Grubbin': impact of a TV cooking show for college students living off campus.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Dawn; Anderson, Jennifer; Auld, Garry; Champ, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    To determine if a series of 4 15-minute, theory-driven (Social Cognitive Theory) cooking programs aimed at college students living off campus improved cooking self-efficacy, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding fruit and vegetable intake. A randomized controlled trial with pre-, post- and follow-up tests. University campus. Students (n = 101) from upper-level nonhealth courses (n = 37 male and n = 94 living off campus). The intervention group (n = 50) watched 4 weekly episodes of the cooking show, Good Grubbin'. The control group (n = 51) watched 4 weekly episodes on sleep disorders. Demographic information; knowledge, self-efficacy, motivations, barriers of eating fruits and vegetables; self-efficacy, motivations, barriers and behaviors of cooking; fruit and vegetable intake food frequency questionnaire. Repeated-measure analysis of variance and chi-square analyses were used to compare outcome variables. There were significant improvements in knowledge of fruit and vegetable recommendations in the intervention group compared to the control group postintervention and at 4-month follow-up (P < .05). There were no significant changes in fruit and vegetable motivators, barriers, self-efficacy or intake. A television show on nutrition and cooking may be influential in changing students' knowledge, but it seems to have little impact on dietary behaviors. With a recent increase in popularity of cooking shows, future research should investigate the impact an extended cooking and nutrition show series might have on young adult viewers.

  20. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Wellness Program Medical Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Wellness Program Medical Records System collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected, used, accessed, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  1. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F

    2015-02-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Impact of Online Lecture Recordings on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andrew; Birch, Elisa; Hancock, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The use of online lecture recordings as a supplement to physical lectures is an increasingly popular tool at many universities. This paper combines survey data with student record data for students in a "Microeconomics Principles" class to examine the relative effects of lecture attendance and online lecture recordings. The main finding…

  3. The Impact of Online Lecture Recordings on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andrew; Birch, Elisa; Hancock, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The use of online lecture recordings as a supplement to physical lectures is an increasingly popular tool at many universities. This paper combines survey data with student record data for students in a "Microeconomics Principles" class to examine the relative effects of lecture attendance and online lecture recordings. The main finding…

  4. Peripubertal female athletes in high-impact sports show improved bone mass acquisition and bone geometry.

    PubMed

    Maïmoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Philibert, Pascal; Briot, Karine; Mura, Thibault; Galtier, Florence; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Paris, Françoise; Sultan, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intensive physical training may have a sport-dependent effect on bone mass acquisition. This cross-sectional study evaluated bone mass acquisition in girls practicing sports that put different mechanical loads on bone. Eighty girls from 10.7 to 18.0 years old (mean 13.83 ± 1.97) were recruited: 20 artistic gymnasts (AG; high-impact activity), 20 rhythmic gymnasts (RG; medium-impact activity), 20 swimmers (SW, no-impact activity), and 20 age-matched controls (CON; leisure physical activity <3h/wk). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was determined using DEXA. Hip structural analysis applied at the femur evaluated cross-sectional area (CSA, cm(2)), section modulus (Z, cm(3)), and buckling ratio. Bone turnover markers and OPG/RANKL levels were analyzed. AG had higher aBMD than SW and CON at all bone sites and higher values than RG in the lumbar spine and radius. RG had higher aBMD than SW and CON only in the femoral region. CSA and mean cortical thickness were significantly higher and the buckling ratio was significantly lower in both gymnast groups compared with SW and CON. In RG only, endocortical diameter and width were reduced, while Z was only increased in AG compared with SW and CON. Reduced bone remodeling was observed in RG compared with AG only when groups were subdivided according to menarcheal status. All groups showed similar OPG concentrations, while RANKL concentrations increased with age and were decreased in SW. High-impact activity clearly had a favorable effect on aBMD and bone geometry during the growth period, although the bone health benefits seem to be more marked after menarche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep-sea record of impact apparently unrelated to mass extinction in the Late Triassic.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Tetsuji; Sato, Honami; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Harada, Hideo; Orchard, Michael J; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2012-11-20

    The 34-million-year (My) interval of the Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on Earth. Late Triassic impact events have been considered a factor in biotic extinction events in the Late Triassic (e.g., end-Triassic extinction event), but this scenario remains controversial because of a lack of stratigraphic records of ejecta deposits. Here, we report evidence for an impact event (platinum group elements anomaly with nickel-rich magnetite and microspherules) from the middle Norian (Upper Triassic) deep-sea sediment in Japan. This includes anomalously high abundances of iridium, up to 41.5 parts per billion (ppb), in the ejecta deposit, which suggests that the iridium-enriched ejecta layers of the Late Triassic may be found on a global scale. The ejecta deposit is constrained by microfossils that suggest correlation with the 215.5-Mya, 100-km-wide Manicouagan impact crater in Canada. Our analysis of radiolarians shows no evidence of a mass extinction event across the impact event horizon, and no contemporaneous faunal turnover is seen in other marine planktons. However, such an event has been reported among marine faunas and terrestrial tetrapods and floras in North America. We, therefore, suggest that the Manicouagan impact triggered the extinction of terrestrial and marine organisms near the impact site but not within the pelagic marine realm.

  6. Deep-sea record of impact apparently unrelated to mass extinction in the Late Triassic

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Tetsuji; Sato, Honami; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yoshihiro; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Osawa, Takahito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Harada, Hideo; Orchard, Michael J.; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2012-01-01

    The 34-million-year (My) interval of the Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on Earth. Late Triassic impact events have been considered a factor in biotic extinction events in the Late Triassic (e.g., end-Triassic extinction event), but this scenario remains controversial because of a lack of stratigraphic records of ejecta deposits. Here, we report evidence for an impact event (platinum group elements anomaly with nickel-rich magnetite and microspherules) from the middle Norian (Upper Triassic) deep-sea sediment in Japan. This includes anomalously high abundances of iridium, up to 41.5 parts per billion (ppb), in the ejecta deposit, which suggests that the iridium-enriched ejecta layers of the Late Triassic may be found on a global scale. The ejecta deposit is constrained by microfossils that suggest correlation with the 215.5-Mya, 100-km-wide Manicouagan impact crater in Canada. Our analysis of radiolarians shows no evidence of a mass extinction event across the impact event horizon, and no contemporaneous faunal turnover is seen in other marine planktons. However, such an event has been reported among marine faunas and terrestrial tetrapods and floras in North America. We, therefore, suggest that the Manicouagan impact triggered the extinction of terrestrial and marine organisms near the impact site but not within the pelagic marine realm. PMID:23129649

  7. 76 FR 12342 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement for Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: Department of the... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement (OEIS) as the Preferred...

  8. Solar Argon Recorded in Dated Lunar Impact Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, J.; Renne, P. R.; Muller, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    The surface of the Moon is a uniquely accessible location for collecting samples of contemporary and fossil solar wind. Noble gases implanted by the solar wind have been particularly well studied, because the solar wind is the largest source of these elements in the lunar regolith. Elemental and isotopic abundances of noble gases in the present-day solar wind were first determined using foils exposed by the Apollo astronauts; improvements on these measurements are becoming possible only now, with the examination of Genesis mission samples. Lunar mineral grains and glasses collected during the Apollo missions are still unrivaled as records of the solar wind in the geological past. We have studied argon isotopes from 355 lunar impact spherules collected at the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 landing sites. We used the 40Ar/39Ar isochron method to determine formation ages of individual specimens, and distinguished cosmogenic and solar contributions of ^{38}Ar and ^{36}Ar by correlating the releases of these isotopes with the laboratory-induced calcium proxy 37Ar. The results of our work are relevant for both solar science and lunar science. The isotopic composition and release patterns of solar argon from the spherules are most simply explained by the presence of two distinct implanted components, an isotopically light solar wind and a higher-energy, isotopically heavier component which we identify with so- called solar energetic particles. Though these two components have been discussed in the literature, their origins and the relationship between them remain enigmatic. Our measurements favor a solar wind ^{38}Ar/^{36}Ar ratio lighter than that of the terrestrial atmosphere. We find no evidence of a secular change in the isotopic composition of the solar energetic particle component, which dominates the record of implanted solar noble gases. In some models, the solar energetic particles come from the high-energy tail of the solar wind energy distribution, representing 3

  9. Personnel viewing posters showing how NASA activities have made an impact on Costa Rican people

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-03

    L-R; Jorge Andres Diaz, Director of the Costa Rican National Hangar for Airborne Research division of the National Center for High Technology(CENAT); NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe; and Fernando Gutierrez, Costa Rican Minister of Science and Technology(MICIT), viewing posters showing how NASA activities have made an impact on Costa Rican people. Mr. O'Keefe was in Costa Rica to participate in the AirSAR 2004 Mesoamerica campaign, which used NASA DFRC's DC-8 airborne laboratory aircraft. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition by an international team of scientists that will use an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), in a mission ranging from the tropical rain forests of Central America to frigid Antarctica.

  10. Progressive deformation of feldspar recording low-barometry impact processes, Tenoumer impact structure, Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Kah, Linda C.; Harris, R. Scott

    2014-06-01

    The Tenoumer impact structure is a small, well-preserved crater within Archean to Paleoproterozoic amphibolite, gneiss, and granite of the Reguibat Shield, north-central Mauritania. The structure is surrounded by a thin ejecta blanket of crystalline blocks (granitic gneiss, granite, and amphibolite) and impact-melt rocks. Evidence of shock metamorphism of quartz, most notably planar deformation features (PDFs), occurs exclusively in granitic clasts entrained within small bodies of polymict, glass-rich breccia. Impact-related deformation features in oligoclase and microcline grains, on the other hand, occur both within clasts in melt-breccia deposits, where they co-occur with quartz PDFs, and also within melt-free crystalline ejecta, in the absence of co-occurring quartz PDFs. Feldspar deformation features include multiple orientations of PDFs, enhanced optical relief of grain components, selective disordering of alternate twins, inclined lamellae within alternate twins, and combinations of these individual textures. The distribution of shock features in quartz and feldspar suggests that deformation textures within feldspar can record a wide range of average pressures, starting below that required for shock deformation of quartz. We suggest that experimental analysis of feldspar behavior, combined with detailed mapping of shock metamorphism of feldspar in natural systems, may provide critical data to constrain energy dissipation within impact regimes that experienced low average shock pressures.

  11. 40 CFR 1505.2 - Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact statements. 1505.2 Section 1505.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY DECISIONMAKING § 1505.2 Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact...

  12. 76 FR 77249 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone... availability of a Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan.../2010 and 2010/2011. Up to 318 commercially guided, best-available-technology snowmobiles and...

  13. The Use of Recorded Lectures in Education and the Impact on Lecture Attendance and Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Nynke; Groeneveld, Caspar; van Bruggen, Jan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Universities increasingly record lectures and make them available online for students. Though the technology to record these lectures is now solidly implemented and embedded in many institutions, the impact of the usage of recorded lectures on exam performance is not clear. The purpose of the current study is to address the use of recorded…

  14. The Use of Recorded Lectures in Education and the Impact on Lecture Attendance and Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Nynke; Groeneveld, Caspar; van Bruggen, Jan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Universities increasingly record lectures and make them available online for students. Though the technology to record these lectures is now solidly implemented and embedded in many institutions, the impact of the usage of recorded lectures on exam performance is not clear. The purpose of the current study is to address the use of recorded…

  15. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  16. The cratering record at Uranus: Implications for satellite evolution and the origin of impacting objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    The crater size/frequency distributions on the major Uranian satellites show two distinctly different crater populations of different ages. Any hypothesis on the origin of the objects responsible for the period of heavy bombardment must account for the occurrence of different crater populations (size/frequency distributions) in different parts of the solar system. A computerized simulation using short-period comet impact velocities and a modified Holsapple-Schmidt crater scaling law was used to recover the size distribution of cometary nuclei from the observed cratering record. The most likely explanation for the cratering record is that the period of heavy bombardment was caused by different families of accretional remnants indigenous to the system in which the different crater populations occurred.

  17. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Libby Asbestos Exposure Assessment Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects health screening results for individuals in Libby, Montana. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies for this data.

  18. Grazing impacts on Mars: A record of lost satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.H.; Lutz-Garihan, A.B.

    1982-11-15

    Grazing impacts can be identified on the basis of the elongate shape of the resulting crater and a distinctive pattern of ejecta deposits. Over 170 such impact craters larger than 3 km are recognized on Mars, and they represent more than 5% of the total crater population of the ridged plains. In contrast, the moon exhibits only one comparable example larger than 3 km on the maria, a frequency consistent with theoretical estimates for an isotropic influx of impactors. Many Mars grazers appear to occur along great circles. The most recent examples generally impacted in an east-west direction, whereas older grazers impacted in more northerly directions. We interpret the excessive number of grazers and the common impact directions as the result of satellites whose orbits tidally decayed with time. If all orbits originally had small inclinations similar to the orbits of Phobos and Deimos as well as the most recent grazers, then the change in impact direction with time can be explained as the result of shifts in the crust due to changes in the martian moments of inertia. The locations of the projected orbital axes (orbit-pole points) on the martian surface indicate that the geographic poles of Mars originally were situated at lower latitudes. More than 95% of the mass represented by these proposed satellites impacted prior to the emplacement of the volcanic plains of Lunae Planum. The estimated combined mass of grazing impactors would form a satellite at least 225 km in diameter. These results may provide new clues for the origin of Phobos and Deimos and perhaps the angular momentum of Mars.

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis Shows That Neolithic Slate Plaques from the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula Are Not Genealogical Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500–2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. PMID:24558384

  20. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    PubMed

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  1. Rhodnius prolixus and R. robustus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) nymphs show different locomotor patterns on an automated recording system.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Márcio G; Corrêa-Antônio, Jessica; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Monteiro, Fernando A; Rivas, Gustavo B S

    2016-04-27

    Circadian rhythms of triatomines, vectors of the etiological agent Trypanosoma cruzi responsible for Chagas disease, have been extensively studied in adults of the two most epidemiologically relevant vector species, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans. However, little attention has been dedicated to the activity patterns in earlier developmental stages, even though triatomine nymphs are equally capable of transmitting T. cruzi to humans. Because circadian rhythms may differ even between closely related species, studies that focus on this behavioral trait can also be used to shed light on the taxonomy of controversial taxa, which becomes especially relevant regarding vector species. We compared the daily locomotor activity patterns of second- and third-instar nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus in order to unveil possible behavioral differences between these cryptic species. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were sequenced to confirm species identification. Nymphs of both species had a bimodal pattern of locomotion and similar daily activity patterns, but R. prolixus is more active under light/dark cycles and depicts a more pronounced activity rhythm under constant darkness conditions. We describe the implementation of an often-used automated method for the recording of individual locomotor activity to differentiate sibling species of Rhodnius with distinct epidemiological relevance. The higher levels of activity observed in the nymphs of R. prolixus could potentially contribute to increased vector capacity.

  2. New Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Four Stardust Impact Crater Residues Show IDP-Like Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We have measured the oxygen isotope compositions of four Stardust impact crater residues. These analyses reveal compositions that are similar to those found in interplanetary dust particles, antarctic micrometeorites and CI chondrite components.

  3. Paleoenvironmental recovery from the Chesapeake Bay bolide impact: The benthic foraminiferal record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay bolide impact transformed its offshore target site from an outer neritic, midshelf seafl oor into a bathyal crater basin. To obtain a depositional record from one of the deepest parts of this basin, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a 1.76-km-deep core hole near Eyreville, Virginia. The Eyreville core and eight previously cored boreholes contain a rarely obtainable record of marine deposition and microfossil assemblages that characterize the transition from synimpact to postimpact paleoenvironments inside and near a submarine impact crater. I used depositional style and benthic foraminiferal assemblages to recognize a four-step transitional succession, with emphasis on the Eyreville core. Step 1 is represented by small-scale, silt-rich turbidites, devoid of indigenous microfossils, which lie directly above the crater-fi lling Exmore breccia. Step 2 is represented by very thin, parallel, silt and clay laminae, which accumulated on a relatively tranquil and stagnant seafl oor. This stagnation created a dead zone, which excluded seafl oor biota, and it lasted ~3-5 ka. Step 3 is an interval of marine clay deposition, accompanied by a burst of microfaunal activity, as a species-rich pioneer community of benthic foraminifera repopulated the impact site. The presence of a diagnostic suite of agglutinated foraminifera during step 3 indicates that paleoenvironmental stress related to the impact lasted from ~9 ka to 400 ka at different locations inside the crater. During step 4, the agglutinated assemblage disappeared, and an equilibrium foraminiferal community developed that contained nearly 100% calcareous species. In contrast to intracrater localities, core sites outside and near the crater rim show neither evidence of the agglutinated assemblage, nor other indications of long-term biotic disruption from the bolide impact

  4. Rocket Impacts Recorded by the Apollo Seismic Network

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-22

    On April 14th 1970, the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB upper stage impacted the Moon North of Mare Cognitum, at -2.55° latitude, -27.88° East longitude. This image was taken by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  5. Electronic health record systems in ophthalmology: impact on clinical documentation.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David S; Lattin, Daniel J; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Wilson, David J; Hwang, Thomas S; Morrison, John C; Yackel, Thomas R; Chiang, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate quantitative and qualitative differences in documentation of the ophthalmic examination between paper and electronic health record (EHR) systems. Comparative case series. One hundred fifty consecutive pairs of matched paper and EHR notes, documented by 3 attending ophthalmologist providers. An academic ophthalmology department implemented an EHR system in 2006. Database queries were performed to identify cases in which the same problems were documented by the same provider on different dates, using paper versus EHR methods. This was done for 50 consecutive pairs of examinations in 3 different diseases: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and pigmented choroidal lesions (PCLs). Quantitative measures were used to compare completeness of documenting the complete ophthalmologic examination, as well as disease-specific critical findings using paper versus an EHR system. Qualitative differences in paper versus EHR documentation were illustrated by selecting representative paired examples. (1) Documentation score, defined as the number of examination elements recorded for the slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, and complete ophthalmologic examination and for critical clinical findings for each disease. (2) Paired comparison of qualitative differences in paper versus EHR documentation. For all 3 diseases (AMD, glaucoma, PCL), the number of complete examination findings recorded was significantly lower with paper than the EHR system (P ≤ 0.004). Among the 3 individual examination sections (general, slit lamp, fundus) for the 3 diseases, 5 of the 9 possible combinations had significantly lower mean documentation scores with paper than EHR notes. For 2 of the 3 diseases, the number of critical clinical findings recorded was significantly lower using paper versus EHR notes (P ≤ 0.022). All (150/150) paper notes relied on graphical representations using annotated hand-drawn sketches, whereas no (0/150) EHR notes contained drawings. Instead

  6. Spreadsheet Application Showing the Proper Elevation Angle, Points of Shot and Impact of a Projectile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for the elevation angle at which a projectile has to be fired in a vacuum from a general position to hit a target at a given distance. A spreadsheet application that models the trajectory is presented, and the problem of finding the points of shot and impact of a projectile moving in a vacuum if three points of the…

  7. Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

  8. Spreadsheet Application Showing the Proper Elevation Angle, Points of Shot and Impact of a Projectile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for the elevation angle at which a projectile has to be fired in a vacuum from a general position to hit a target at a given distance. A spreadsheet application that models the trajectory is presented, and the problem of finding the points of shot and impact of a projectile moving in a vacuum if three points of the…

  9. The Tethyan Himalayan detrital record shows that India-Asia terminal collision occurred by 54 Ma in the Western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, Y.; Jenks, D.; Godin, L.; Boudagher-Fadel, M.; Millar, I.; Garzanti, E.; Horstwood, M.; Bracciali, L.

    2017-02-01

    The Himalayan orogen is a type example of continent-continent collision. Knowledge of the timing of India-Asia collision is critical to the calculation of the amount of convergence that must have been accommodated and thus to models of crustal deformation. Sedimentary rocks on the Indian plate near the suture zone can be used to constrain the time of collision by determining first evidence of Asian-derived material deposited on the Indian plate. However, in the Himalaya, for this approach to be applied successfully, it is necessary to be able to distinguish between Asian detritus and detritus from oceanic island arcs that may have collided with India prior to India-Asia collision. Zircons from the Indian plate, Asian plate and Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc can be distinguished based on their U-Pb ages combined with Hf signatures. We undertook a provenance study of the youngest detrital sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalaya of the Indian plate, in the Western Himalaya. We show that zircons of Asian affinity were deposited on the Indian plate at 54 Ma. We thus constrain terminal India-Asia collision, when both sutures north and south of the Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc were closed, to have occurred in the Western Himalaya by 54 Ma.

  10. Impact of flood events on lacustrine carbonate isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Lucas; Plessen, Birgit; Lauterbach, Stefan; Nantke, Carla; Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; Höllerer, Hannes; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Stable oxygen (δ 18O) and carbon (δ 13C) isotope compositions of lacustrine carbonates are among the most frequently used proxies in palaeolimnological / -environmental studies. Stable isotope analyses are often carried out on bulk carbonate samples, which are prone to contamination with detrital carbonates, transported into the lake by runoff processes and carrying the isotopic signal of catchment rocks, thus hampering the interpretation of the data in terms of past climatic and/or environmental changes. Despite the awareness of a likely detrital bias, the degree of contamination in most cases remains unknown and discrete contaminated samples undetected due to a lack of methods to disentangle endogenic and detrital carbonates in sediment records. To address this issue and provide more comprehensive insights into effects of flood-related detrital input on the bulk carbonate isotopic composition, we conducted stable isotope measurements on sediments trapped on a 3-12 day basis over a three-year period (January 2011 to November 2013) at two locations in pre-Alpine Lake Mondsee, close to the inflow of the main tributary and in the deepest part of the lake basin. Lake Mondsee was chosen for the monitoring since the pelagic sediments are annually laminated consisting of couplets of light calcite layers and dark layers made up by a mixture of detrital clastic and organic matter. Maximum calcite flux rates >1.5 g m2 d-1 were trapped between May and September, indicating the seasonal endogenic precipitation of calcite crystals. The comparison of the δ 18O composition of trapped carbonates, rain and epilimnion lake water revealed equilibrium calcite precipitation, allowing us to infer purely endogenic δ 18O (-9 to -11.3‰ VPDB) and δ 13C values (-6 to -9‰ VPDB) throughout the summer season. The endogenic calcite precipitation was interrupted by 14 peaks in carbonate flux (4 to 175 g m2 d-1) triggered by runoff events of different magnitudes (10-110 m3 s-1 peak

  11. Reading the Record of Cometary Impacts into Jupiter's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Images from the Galileo spacecraft were recently re-interpreted to reveal a subtle pattern of vertical "ripples" in the Jovian ring. These were shown to have been triggered during in mid-1994, and were probably associated with the impact of SL9 into Jupiter {Showalter et al., 2011, Science 332, 711-713}. Additional patterns imaged by Galileo and also New Horizons indicate that these are common features of the ring; four different spiral patterns have been detected in the two data sets. Because any given pattern winds tighter at a known rate, these patterns can be used to infer the approximate the date on which the impact occurred. In addition, the vertical amplitude of the pattern constrains the impactor's mass. In Cycle 21, the rings of Jupiter are open to Earth by a small angle of 1.6 degrees, making this an ideal opportunity to detect similar patterns using HST. We will be able to detect any pattern in the ring that has an amplitude of > 1 km and that was triggered within the last 8-10 years. This information will provide valuable new constraints on the population of small bodies in the outer solar system.

  12. Reading the meteoroid impact record of the Stardust and Genesis spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, M.

    In 1990 a team of dedicated, hardworking scientists labored long and hard to document the micrometeorite and space debris impact record of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) (Zolensky M.E. et al., 1995, Advances in Space Research 16, (11) 53-65). The procedures hammered out and perfected for that spacecraft can now be applied to the next two missions to carry micrometeorite impacted hardware to Earth, the Genesis and Stardust spacecraft. Neither of these missions has as its central goal the collection of micrometeorite impact residues. However, both spacecraft were designed to permit the micrometeorite record to be read. The Genesis spacecraft is now collecting solar wind atoms, but it also carries numerous foil surfaces and polished materials that will serve to record the impact record of interplanetary dust particles and beta meteoroids. In fact, this spacecraft will permit our first look at the composition and mineralogy of the latter materials, whose existence was first established by an analysis of the LDEF impact record by Herb Zook. The Stardust spacecraft was designed to catch comet and interstellar dust grains 10 - 100 microns in diameter in silica aerogel. Smaller cometary dust and interplanetary dust particles will be very difficult to find and extract from the aerogel. Thus, polished aluminu m foil strips are exposed between the aerogel panes, which will better record the microparticle impact record. Plans are for the foils and polished surfaces on these spacecraft to be optically scanned soon after Earth return. The LDEF experience tells us to expect that on the order of 10% of the impact features on the Genesis and Stardust spacecraft should contain impactor residues in the form of vapor or melt deposits, and a few percent of the impact features will contain residues retaining mineralogic information. It will take some considerable time to locate and characterize these particular residues, but of course a principal value of returned samples is

  13. 75 FR 65463 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income Populations and EO 13045... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Renewal of Authorization To Use Pinecastle...

  14. 40 CFR 1505.2 - Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 1505.2 Section 1505.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY DECISIONMAKING § 1505.2 Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact... entered into its decision. (c) State whether all practicable means to avoid or minimize environmental...

  15. Show Me The Data! Data Visualizations Make Climate Change & Climate Impacts Real

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Porter, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    Today's learner is technology proficient. Whether we reference K12, undergraduate, or life long learners we expect that they are not only comfortable interacting with a range of digital media, from computer, to tablet, to a smart phone, but that they expect it. Technology is a central part of how most of us spend large portions of our day; connecting, communicating, recreating and learning. So why would we expect that today's learners would prefer to read about climate change and climate impacts from plain text? As educators we must embrace cutting edge methods and materials to engage our students and learners, meeting them where they are most comfortable. `Polar Explorer: Sea Level' is an app that uses interactive data maps to engage the users in the story of changing sea level. Designed for a general audience this free app (http://www.polarexplorer.org) is a great resource for life-long learners, teachers, students and the curious public. Built around a series of questions that are structured like book chapters, users select from a range of choices like: What is sea level? Why does sea level change? Where is it changing now? What about the polar regions? What about in the past? Who is vulnerable? Each section moves the user through layers of maps that address causes, impacts, future predictions and special vulnerabilities of a rising sea level. Users can select any pathway to build a story that captures their attention as they interact with the data and move through different layers of the app. Each map is interactive and supported by information 'snippits', audio clips and a link to further information. A series of `quests' are available for the app. Each quest is a story with a main science theme at its center that leads a planned excursion through a series of map layers while revealing a story in the data. The combination of physical science in what and where is sea level changing, with human impacts in the `who is vulnerable', builds a series of stories with

  16. Alteration of a Martian Impact Regolith Recorded in NWA 8114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; MacArthur, J. L.; Hicks, L. J.; Burgess, R.; Joy, K.

    2015-07-01

    A TEM, XANES, Ar-Ar study of martian breccia NWA 8114 shows it underwent high T oxidation and breakdown of px to Fe oxide, amorphous silicate and recrystallised px. This together with veining and accretionary rim formation reset the Ar-Ar.

  17. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  18. Development of the Second Generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    To quantitatively measure the impacts during blueberry harvesting and post-harvest handling, this study designed the second generation Berry Impact Recording Device (BIRD II) sensor with a size of 21 mm in diameter and a weight of 3.9 g, which reduced the size by 17% and the weight by 50% compared to the previous prototype. The sensor was able to measure accelerations up to 346 g at a maximum frequency of 2 KHz. Universal Serial Bus (USB) was used to directly connect the sensor with the computer, removing the interface box used previously. LabVIEW-based PC software was designed to configure the sensor, download and process the data. The sensor was calibrated using a centrifuge. The accuracy of the sensor was between −1.76 g to 2.17 g, and the precision was between 0.21 g to 0.81 g. Dynamic drop tests showed that BIRD II had smaller variance in measurements than BIRD I. In terms of size and weight, BIRD II is more similar to an average blueberry fruit than BIRD I, which leads to more accurate measurements of the impacts for blueberries. PMID:25664430

  19. Physical Records of Impacts in the Early and Modern Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauford, Robert E.

    The study of terrestrial meteorite impact craters and of impacted meteorites expands our understanding of cratered rocky surfaces throughout the solar system. Terrestrial craters uniquely expand upon data from remote imaging and planetary surface exploration by providing analogs for understanding the buried sub-surface portions of impact structures, while impacted meteorites provide examples of a much wider range of surface and subsurface impactite materials than we can directly sample thus far through solar system exploration. This report examines three facets of the impact record preserved in terrestrial impact craters and in meteorites. First, it looks at the macroscopic structure of the Sutters Mill meteorite, a brecciated regolithic CM chondrite that preserves a three-dimensional record of the one of the most primitive known impact gardened surfaces in the solar system. The report details distinct lithologies preserved in the meteorite and the ways in which these lithologies reflect impact and alteration processes, with the intention of contextualizing and illuminating the wider body of recently published instrumental work on the stone by the current authors and others. Second, this dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the origin and nature of unique sub-spherical `round rocks' commonly associated with the surface exposed sediments at the proposed Weaubleau impact structure, in west-central Missouri. Third, and finally, the dissertation looks at the nature of impact evidence for small impact pits and craters on earth. Unambiguously proving the impact origin of sub-kilometer terrestrial impact craters has presented significant historical challenges. A systematic analysis of field reports for all widely recognized sub-km terrestrial craters addresses both the nature of compelling evidence for impact origin for structures in this size range and the adequacy of the existing record of evidence for currently recognized structures.

  20. Impact of Medical TV Shows on Preprocedural Fear of Surgical In-House Patients.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Kai; Koch, Horst J; Kaminski, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background and Hypotheses: The growing number of medical television series and the increasing amount of time people spend watching TV will have an influence on what they expect from their treatment in a hospital. We suspect that reality as presented in the media and the actual reality of hospitals are not always conceived of as two different worlds. Many medical TV shows present dramatic, life-threatening operations much more often than they occur in reality. Patients who frequently watch such shows might be induced to believe that even routine operations are often dangerous, which could result in higher levels of fear before such an operation. We suspect then that there is a significant relation between preoperative levels of fear and TV viewing habits. A standardized questionnaire was used to interview 162 in-house patients who had come to the hospital for an elective standard operation in a German hospital. They were interviewed 1-2 days prior to operation and shortly before discharge from hospital. The questions aimed at their social situation, their TV viewing habits with special consideration of medical TV shows, and the patients' preprocedural fear. The links between levels of education, age, and gender on the one hand, and viewing habits on the other, which have been shown in cultivation research, are supported by our findings. Approximately 50% reported a relevant anxiety level above 4 (on a scale of 0-10). There is a significant association between levels of fear and TV viewing habits. Thirteen subjects (8%) indicated that they suffered the highest imaginable degree of fear, all of them frequent watchers of medical TV shows. Frequent viewers of medical TV shows were definitely more scared than all other patients (p = 0.039). The preoperative level of fear was highest in the age group of under 40 years and significantly lower (p = 0.0042) in the age group of over 70 years. The assumed effects of cultivation with in-house patients caused by watching TV

  1. Seismic reading taken at MSC recording impact of Apollo 13 S-IVB with surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A seismic reading taken from instruments at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) recording impact of the Apollo 13 S-IVB/Instrument Unit with lunar surface. The expended Saturn third stage and instrument unit impacted the lunar surface at 7:09 p.m., April 14, 1970. The location of the impact was 2.4 degrees south latitude and 27.9 degrees west longitude, about 76 nautical miles west-northwest of the Apollo 12 Lunar Surface Experiment package deployment site. The S-IVB/IU impact was picked up by the Passive Seismic Experiment, a component of the package and transmitted to instruments at the Mission Control Center.

  2. Pragmatic trial design elements showed a different impact on trial interpretation and feasibility than explanatory elements.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Joost B; Irving, Elaine; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Lloyd, Emily; Goetz, Iris; Grobbee, Diederick E; Stolk, Pieter; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Zuidgeest, Mira G P

    2016-09-01

    To illustrate how pragmatic trial design elements or inserting explanatory trial elements in pragmatic trials affect validity, generalizability, precision, and operational feasibility. From illustrative examples identified through the IMI Get Real Consortium, we selected randomized drug trials with a pragmatic design feature. We searched all publications on these trials for information on how pragmatic trial design features affect validity, generalizability, precision, or feasibility. We present examples from the Salford lung study, International Suicide Prevention Trial, Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression, and Cluster Randomized Usual care vs. Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk trial. These examples show that incorporating pragmatic trial design elements in trials may affect generalizability, precision and validity and may lead to operational challenges different from traditional explanatory trials. Inserting explanatory trial elements into pragmatic trials may also affect validity, generalizability, and operational feasibility, especially when these trial elements are incorporated in one arm of the trial only. Design choices that positively affect one of these domains (e.g., generalizability) may negatively affect others (e.g., feasibility). Consequences of incorporating pragmatic or explanatory trial design elements in pragmatic trials should be explicitly considered and balanced for all relevant domains, including validity, generalizability, precision, and operational feasibility. Tools are needed to make these consequences more transparent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geomagnetic field intensity recorded after impact in the Ries meteorite crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stephan A.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Pohl, Jean; Trepmann, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    We carried out palaeointensity experiments on 45 samples collected throughout the ca. 15 Ma Ries crater (Germany) to test whether meteorite impacts can influence the geodynamo. A Thellier-Thellier procedure with alteration, tail and additivity checks yields a weighted average palaeointensity of 19.1 ± 1.1 μT from 15 samples that pass stringent data selection criteria. The corresponding virtual dipole moment of 3.2 ± 0.2 × 1022 Am2 is relatively low, but indistinguishable from the global palaeointensity database between 20 and 10 Ma. Our results suggest that either the energy released during the Ries meteorite impact event was too low to affect the geodynamo, the Ries impact lithologies cooled too fast to record any effect, or the time averaged by the impact lithologies was long enough to record secular variation, but that the geodynamo was remarkably stable over that time.

  4. Experimental Technique for Producing and Recording Precise Particle Impacts on Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Perry; Guven, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    A new facility for making small particle impacts is being developed at NASA. Current sand/particle impact facilities are an erosion test and do not precisely measure and document the size and velocity of each of the impacting particles. In addition, evidence of individual impacts is often obscured by subsequent impacts. This facility will allow the number, size, and velocity of each particle to be measured and adjusted. It will also be possible to determine which particle produced damage at a given location on the target. The particle size and velocity will be measured by high speed imaging techniques. Information as to the extent of damage and debris from impacts will also be recorded. It will be possible to track these secondary particles, measuring size and velocity. It is anticipated that this additional degree of detail will provide input for erosion models and also help determine the impact physics of the erosion process. Particle impacts will be recorded at 90 degrees to the particle flight path and also from the top looking through the target window material.

  5. Reconstructing Droughts Beyond the Hydro-Meteorological Indicators: A Qualitative Analysis to Show What We Can Learn from Impacts in the US Drought Impact Reporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijdeman, E.; Smith, K. H.; Bachmair, S.; Knutson, C. L.; Barker, L. J.; Wall, N.; Bernadt, T.; Stahl, K.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-meteorological drought indicators are often used to reflect the drought hazard. The focus of some recent studies is to validate these drought indicators with the occurrence of drought impacts, using the US Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), a large-scale, systematic collection of impact reports, mainly from media. From a drought management perspective, it would be ideal to find a drought indicator and thresholds that perfectly match the occurrence of drought impacts in a certain region or sector. In practice, you have to deal with uncertainties that are related to the underlying impact data and the actual drivers of these impacts. To highlight causes of uncertainty, we reconstruct past drought events for some case study areas in North Carolina with data from three different sources: 1) drought impact data from the DIR, 2) drought indicators from the Drought Risk Atlas and 3) water usage restrictions, as reported by local utilities located in the case study areas. We show that in addition to below-normal water availability, management practices are an important driver for the occurrence of drought impacts. We also show that different drought indicators and thresholds match different stages of the drought event; short-term meteorological deficits relate better to the onset and long-term deficits to the persistence of and recovery from drought events. We further learn from the DIR that the most suitable indicators and thresholds might change due to adaptations that change the vulnerability of a region over time (such as the connection to new reservoirs). Altogether, this qualitative exercise shows the large potential of DIR data to reconstruct and learn from drought events beyond hydro-meteorological drought indicators. It further stresses the need to collect more impact data during different periods of the year and different stages of drought to fine-tune the drought indicator-to-impact linkage and validate our qualitative results with more quantitative research.

  6. The Impact of Online Video Lecture Recordings and Automated Feedback on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieling, M. B.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent a blended learning configuration of face-to-face lectures, online on-demand video recordings of the face-to-face lectures and the offering of online quizzes with appropriate feedback has an additional positive impact on the performance of these students compared to the traditional face-to-face course approach? In a between-subjects…

  7. 40 CFR 1505.2 - Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY DECISIONMAKING § 1505.2 Record of decision in cases requiring environmental impact... alternatives based on relevant factors including economic and technical considerations and agency statutory missions. An agency shall identify and discuss all such factors including any essential considerations of...

  8. 75 FR 10308 - Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Record of Decision, Grand Canyon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Doc No: 2010-4414] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Fire Management Plan, Final... Impact Statement for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... availability of the Record of Decision for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona....

  9. The Impact of Online Video Lecture Recordings and Automated Feedback on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieling, M. B.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent a blended learning configuration of face-to-face lectures, online on-demand video recordings of the face-to-face lectures and the offering of online quizzes with appropriate feedback has an additional positive impact on the performance of these students compared to the traditional face-to-face course approach? In a between-subjects…

  10. Impact of an electronic medication administration record on medication administration efficiency and errors.

    PubMed

    McComas, Jeffery; Riingen, Michelle; Chae Kim, Son

    2014-12-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the impact of electronic medication administration record implementation on medication administration efficiency and occurrence of medication errors as well as to identify the predictors of medication administration efficiency in an acute care setting. A prospective, observational study utilizing time-and-motion technique was conducted before and after electronic medication administration record implementation in November 2011. A total of 156 cases of medication administration activities (78 pre- and 78 post-electronic medication administration record) involving 38 nurses were observed at the point of care. A separate retrospective review of the hospital Midas+ medication error database was also performed to collect the rates and origin of medication errors for 6 months before and after electronic medication administration record implementation. The mean medication administration time actually increased from 11.3 to 14.4 minutes post-electronic medication administration record (P = .039). In a multivariate analysis, electronic medication administration record was not a predictor of medication administration time, but the distractions/interruptions during medication administration process were significant predictors. The mean hospital-wide medication errors significantly decreased from 11.0 to 5.3 events per month post-electronic medication administration record (P = .034). Although no improvement in medication administration efficiency was observed, electronic medication administration record improved the quality of care with a significant decrease in medication errors.

  11. Northern Rocky Mountain streamflow records: Global warming trends, human impacts or natural variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Sauchyn, David J.; Zhao, Yang

    2010-03-01

    The ˜60 year Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a major factor controlling streamflow in the northern Rocky Mountains, causing dryness during its positive phase, and wetness during its negative phase. If the PDO’s influence is not incorporated into a trend analysis of streamflows, it can produce detected declines that are actually artifacts of this low-frequency variability. Further difficulties arise from the short length and discontinuity of most gauge records, human impacts, and residual autocorrelation. We analyze southern Alberta and environs instrumental streamflow data, using void-filled datasets from unregulated and regulated gauges and naturalized records, and Generalized Least Squares regression to explicitly model the impacts of the PDO and other climate oscillations. We conclude that streamflows are declining at most gauges due to hydroclimatic changes (probably from global warming) and severe human impacts, which are of the same order of magnitude as the hydroclimate changes, if not greater.

  12. Impact of OSHA Final Rule—Recording Hearing Loss: An Analysis of an Industrial Audiometric Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Slade, Martin; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Sircar, Kanta; Cullen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The 2003 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Final Rule changed the definition of recordable work-related hearing loss. We performed a study of the Alcoa Inc. audiometric database to evaluate the impact of this new rule. The 2003 rule increased the rate of potentially recordable hearing loss events from 0.2% to 1.6% per year. A total of 68.6% of potentially recordable cases had American Academy of Audiology/American Medical Association (AAO/AMA) hearing impairment at the time of recordability. On average, recordable loss occurred after onset of impairment, whereas the non-age-corrected 10-dB standard threshold shift (STS) usually preceded impairment. The OSHA Final Rule will significantly increase recordable cases of occupational hearing loss. The new case definition is usually accompanied by AAO/AMA hearing impairment. Other, more sensitive metrics should therefore be used for early detection and prevention of hearing loss. PMID:14665813

  13. Impact of OSHA final rule--recording hearing loss: an analysis of an industrial audiometric dataset.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Slade, Martin; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Sircar, Kanta; Cullen, Mark

    2003-12-01

    The 2003 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Final Rule changed the definition of recordable work-related hearing loss. We performed a study of the Alcoa Inc. audiometric database to evaluate the impact of this new rule. The 2003 rule increased the rate of potentially recordable hearing loss events from 0.2% to 1.6% per year. A total of 68.6% of potentially recordable cases had American Academy of Audiology/American Medical Association (AAO/AMA) hearing impairment at the time of recordability. On average, recordable loss occurred after onset of impairment, whereas the non-age-corrected 10-dB standard threshold shift (STS) usually preceded impairment. The OSHA Final Rule will significantly increase recordable cases of occupational hearing loss. The new case definition is usually accompanied by AAO/AMA hearing impairment. Other, more sensitive metrics should therefore be used for early detection and prevention of hearing loss.

  14. Paleoclimatic impact on vertebrate activities: a speleothem record from Power Mill Creek Cave, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Schubert, B. W.; Wang, X.; Rowe, H. D.; Buckles, J.; Kaufmann, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Two speleothem samples were collected from Power Mill Creek Cave (PMCC), Missouri, for uranium-series dating at the University of Minnesota and stable isotopic analyses at the University of Kentucky. The speleothem samples found in the cave were attached to the bones of an extinct ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii). A femur was propped up on one stalagmite (PMCC1) and cemented to it by subsequent layers of flowstone. The other stalagmite (PMCC2) formed on top of a scapula. The ages of the speleothem samples range between 52,900 and 660 years old. Very few absolute dates on M. jefferesonii are known from the south-central United States and none of these are associated with paleoclimate data. With high-precision U-Th dates and the unique sample, PMCC1, we can narrow the age range of this M. jeffersonii to be between 42,100 ± 400 and 38,500 ± 500 years ago. In addition, we obtained carbon and oxygen isotope data on sample PMCC1 for a time period between 53 to 35 ka and reconstructed the regional climatic and vegetation changes. In general, climatic oscillations and vegetation changes in this region are consistent with the earlier study from speleothem samples of Crevice Cave, Missouri (Dorale et al., 1998). The midcontinental climate cooled and forest replaced grassland between 55 and 41 ka. Then, the temperature suddenly increased at 37 ka. Preliminary analysis of oxygen isotope oscillation shows that this warming around 37 ka was even more dramatic than that reported in the previous investigation at Crevice Cave. Based on these data, the sloth was living in a forested environment associated with a transitional climate. It is likely that these sudden cooling and subsequent warming changes between 42 and 37 ka had an impact on vertebrate communities in this region. Determining the degree of these impacts requires additional comparisons between well dated vertebrates and climatic records.

  15. The impact of converting to an electronic health record on organizational culture and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Cindy J; Becker, Susan M; Reynolds, Katherine S; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Caprini, Carol Ann; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Peres, Alan; Arnold, Benjamin J

    2007-06-01

    Implementing an information technology system can impact more than just quality of care and patient outcomes. The purpose of this 4-year, observational research project is to examine changes in organizational culture, quality improvement (QI) maturity, and quality of care following adoption of a single, electronic health record (EHR) system within an integrated healthcare network. The primary outcome measure, the Culture and Quality Questionnaire (CQQ), assesses the perceived culture of an organization and the degree of CQI maturity in seven quality management areas. Baseline surveys were distributed prior to conversion to the EHR. Subsequent data collection occurred at 12 months post "go live" and will occur at 24 and 36 months after the first hospital "go live". Secondary data were abstracted from routinely collected patient satisfaction measures and standard quality indicators. Contrary to expectation, our findings from the Baseline and 12-month follow-up data suggest that employees perceived the organizational culture as becoming more, rather than less, hierarchical. We also hypothesized that quality indicators would show improvement due to enhanced information flow and ease of information retrieval. This hypothesis was not supported by 1-year results. However, follow-up data from years two and three may provide different results.

  16. Porites corals as recorders of mining and environmental impacts: Misima Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Stewart J.; White , Jamie C.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2002-01-01

    In 1989 open-cut gold mining commenced on Misima Island in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Open-cut mining by its nature causes a significant increase in sedimentation via the exposure of soils to the erosive forces of rain and runoff. This increased sedimentation affected the nearby fringing coral reef to varying degrees, ranging from coral mortality (smothering) to relatively minor short-term impacts. The sediment associated with the mining operation consists of weathered quartz feldspar, greenstone, and schist. These rocks have distinct chemical characteristics (rare earth element patterns and high abundances of manganese, zinc, and lead) and are entering the near-shore environment in considerably higher than normal concentrations. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we analyzed eight colonies (two from high sedimentation, two transitional, two minor, and two unaffected control sites) for Y, La, Ce, Mn, Zn, and Pb. All sites show low steady background levels prior to the commencement of mining in 1988. Subsequently, all sites apart from the control show dramatic increases of Y, La, and Ce associated with the increased sedimentation as well as rapid decreases following the cessation of mining. The elements Zn and Pb exhibit a different behavior, increasing in concentration after 1989 when ore processing began and one year after initial mining operations. Elevated levels of Zn and Pb in corals has continued well after the cessation of mining, indicating ongoing transport into the reef of these metals via sulfate-rich waters. Rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns measured in two corals show significant differences compared to Coral Sea seawater. The corals display enrichments in the light and middle REEs while the heavy REEs are depleted relative to the seawater pattern. This suggests that the nearshore seawater REE pattern is dominated by island sedimentation. Trace element abundances of Misima Island corals clearly record

  17. Pomalidomide shows significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with a major impact on the tumor microenvironment in murine models.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Copland, John A; Tun, Han W

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  18. Pomalidomide Shows Significant Therapeutic Activity against CNS Lymphoma with a Major Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A.; Moghaddam, Mehran F.; Copland, John A.; Tun, Han W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  19. 75 FR 53980 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision; Elk Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision; Elk Management Plan/Environmental... Decision on the Elk Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Theodore Roosevelt National Park... the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Elk Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement (Plan/EIS)...

  20. Evaluating the Use and Impact of Lecture Recording in Undergraduates: Evidence for Distinct Approaches by Different Groups of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Wendy; Shuttleworth, Tom; Couperthwaite, John; Nightingale, Karl P.

    2013-01-01

    Lecture recordings are increasingly used to supplement lecture attendance within higher education, but their impact on student learning remains unclear. Here we describe a study to evaluate student use of lecture recordings and quantify their impact on academic performance. Questionnaire responses and online monitoring of student's access to…

  1. Evaluating the Use and Impact of Lecture Recording in Undergraduates: Evidence for Distinct Approaches by Different Groups of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Wendy; Shuttleworth, Tom; Couperthwaite, John; Nightingale, Karl P.

    2013-01-01

    Lecture recordings are increasingly used to supplement lecture attendance within higher education, but their impact on student learning remains unclear. Here we describe a study to evaluate student use of lecture recordings and quantify their impact on academic performance. Questionnaire responses and online monitoring of student's access to…

  2. 77 FR 41878 - Notice of Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement that Evaluated the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement that Evaluated the Proposed Airfield Improvement Project at Palm Beach International Airport, Palm... interested parties that it has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Final Environmental Impact...

  3. 50 CFR 23.34 - What kinds of records may I use to show the origin of a specimen when I apply for a U.S. CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plant nursery license. (ii) Records that document the breeding or propagating of specimens at the..., TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED...: Source of specimen Types of records (1) Captive-bred or cultivated 1 (i) Records that identify the...

  4. Impact spherules as a record of an ancient heavy bombardment of Earth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B C; Melosh, H J

    2012-05-03

    Impact craters are the most obvious indication of asteroid impacts, but craters on Earth are quickly obscured or destroyed by surface weathering and tectonic processes. Earth’s impact history is inferred therefore either from estimates of the present-day impactor flux as determined by observations of near-Earth asteroids, or from the Moon’s incomplete impact chronology. Asteroids hitting Earth typically vaporize a mass of target rock comparable to the projectile’s mass. As this vapour expands in a large plume or fireball, it cools and condenses into molten droplets called spherules. For asteroids larger than about ten kilometres in diameter, these spherules are deposited in a global layer. Spherule layers preserved in the geologic record accordingly provide information about an impact even when the source crater cannot be found. Here we report estimates of the sizes and impact velocities of the asteroids that created global spherule layers. The impact chronology from these spherule layers reveals that the impactor flux was significantly higher 3.5 billion years ago than it is now. This conclusion is consistent with a gradual decline of the impactor flux after the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  5. Impact spherules as a record of an ancient heavy bombardment of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J.

    2012-05-01

    Impact craters are the most obvious indication of asteroid impacts, but craters on Earth are quickly obscured or destroyed by surface weathering and tectonic processes. Earth's impact history is inferred therefore either from estimates of the present-day impactor flux as determined by observations of near-Earth asteroids, or from the Moon's incomplete impact chronology. Asteroids hitting Earth typically vaporize a mass of target rock comparable to the projectile's mass. As this vapour expands in a large plume or fireball, it cools and condenses into molten droplets called spherules. For asteroids larger than about ten kilometres in diameter, these spherules are deposited in a global layer. Spherule layers preserved in the geologic record accordingly provide information about an impact even when the source crater cannot be found. Here we report estimates of the sizes and impact velocities of the asteroids that created global spherule layers. The impact chronology from these spherule layers reveals that the impactor flux was significantly higher 3.5 billion years ago than it is now. This conclusion is consistent with a gradual decline of the impactor flux after the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  6. Titan's Impact Cratering Record: Erosion of Ganymedean (and other) Craters on a Wet Icy Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J.; Howard, A.

    2012-04-01

    We examine the cratering record of Titan from the perspective of icy satellites undergoing persistent landscape erosion. First we evaluate whether Ganymede (and Callisto) or the smaller low-gravity neighboring icy satellites of Saturn are the proper reference standard for evaluating Titan’s impact crater morphologies, using topographic and morphometric measurements (Schenk, 2002; Schenk et al. (2004) and unpublished data). The special case of Titan’s largest crater, Minrva, is addressed through analysis of large impact basins such as Gilgamesh, Lofn, Odysseus and Turgis. Second, we employ a sophisticated landscape evolution and modification model developed for study of martian and other planetary landforms (e.g., Howard, 2007). This technique applies mass redistribution principles due to erosion by impact, fluvial and hydrological processes to a planetary landscape. The primary advantage of our technique is the possession of a limited but crucial body of areal digital elevation models (DEMs) of Ganymede (and Callisto) impact craters as well as global DEM mapping of Saturn’s midsize icy satellites, in combination with the ability to simulate rainfall and redeposition of granular material to determine whether Ganymede craters can be eroded to resemble Titan craters and the degree of erosion required. References: Howard, A. D., “Simulating the development of martian highland landscapes through the interaction of impact cratering, fluvial erosion, and variable hydrologic forcing”, Geomorphology, 91, 332-363, 2007. Schenk, P. "Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from impact crater shapes". Nature, 417, 419-421, 2002. Schenk, P.M., et al. "Ages and interiors: the cratering record of the Galilean satellites". In: Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 427-456, 2004.

  7. The Argentine Impact Record: Implications for Episodes of Increased Flux during the Last 10 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    Schultz et al. [1-6] have identified 8 impact melt breccia deposits in late Cenozoic strata of the Argentine Pampas. 40Ar/39Ar and fission track dating, combined with sequence and biostratigraphic controls, demonstrate that they represent separate events between 9.24 Ma and 6 ka. These ejecta contain shocked minerals and excavated basement clasts indicative of crater-forming events rather than air blasts. If each involved iron bolides ≤ 50 m across, 8 impacts over ~1.1 x 106 km2 in 10 Myr does not represent an anomaly. However, the melt volumes and distributions observed suggest at least half of the collisions were much larger. One event close to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.28 Ma) appears to have spread microtektites as far as the South Tasman Rise. And three deposits contain meteoritic debris linked to stony and stony-iron asteroids (including HED and angrite-like material) [6,7]. Consequently, one or more increases in the impact flux since the mid-Miocene may be required to account for the Argentine record [8]. Farley et al. [9,10] propose that the disruption of a large main-belt asteroid 8.3 Ma increased the IDP flux in the inner solar system leading to a positive 3He anomaly in late Miocene (~6.8-8.3 Ma) sediments. The anomaly is comparable to the late Eocene (~34.2-36.4 Ma) 3He enhancement attributed to a comet [11] or asteroid [12] shower, which increased both the abundance of IDPs and large asteroids reaching the surface. But Farley et al. discount such a scenario in the late Miocene based on a perceived absence of coincident crater-forming impacts. Preserved ejecta and geochemical signatures, however, indicate the contrary. We suggest that the late Miocene contains at least as rich a record of terrestrial impacts as the late Eocene. The patterns of elevated 3He, main-belt breakups, and significant impact events are very similar through both intervals. Two reported asteroid breakups during the Pliocene and mid-Pleistocene [13,14] also appear to

  8. Community Health Worker Impact on Chronic Disease Outcomes Within Primary Care Examined Using Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Doubleday, Kevin; Bell, Melanie L; Lohr, Abby; Murrieta, Lucy; Velasco, Maria; Blackburn, John; Sabo, Samantha; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-10-01

    To investigate community health worker (CHW) effects on chronic disease outcomes using electronic health records (EHRs). We examined EHRs of 32 147 patients at risk for chronic disease during 2012 to 2015. Variables included contact with clinic-based CHWs, vitals, and laboratory tests. We estimated a mixed model for all outcomes. Within-group findings showed statistically significant improvements in chronic disease indicators after exposure to CHWs. In health center 1, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) decreased 0.15 millimoles per mole (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.24, -0.06), body mass index decreased 0.29 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.39, -0.20), and total cholesterol decreased 11.9 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -13.5, -10.2). In health center 2, HbA1c decreased 0.43 millimoles per mole (CI = -0.7, -0.17), body mass index decreased by 0.08 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.14, -0.02), and triglycerides decreased by 22.50 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -39.0, -6.0). Total cholesterol of 3.62 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -6.6, -0.6) in health center 1 was the only improvement tied to CHW contact. Although patients' chronic disease indicators consistently improved, between-group models provided no additional evidence of impact. EHRs' evolution may elucidate CHW contributions moving forward.

  9. The impact of electronic health records on healthcare quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Paolo; Lovato, Emanuela; Marone, Claudio; Fallacara, Lucia; Mancuso, Agostino; Ricciardi, Walter; Specchia, Maria Lucia

    2016-02-01

    To assess the impact of electronic health record (EHR) on healthcare quality, we hence carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on this topic. PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify studies that investigated the association between the EHR implementation and process or outcome indicators. Two reviewers screened identified citations and extracted data according to the PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model for each indicator. Heterogeneity was quantified using the Cochran Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias was assessed using the Egger's test. Of the 23 398 citations identified, 47 articles were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed an association between EHR use and a reduced documentation time with a difference in mean of -22.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) = -38.8 to -6.0%; P < 0.007]. EHR resulted also associated with a higher guideline adherence with a risk ratio (RR) of 1.33 (95% CI = 1.01 to 1.76; P = 0.049) and a lower number of medication errors with an overall RR of 0.46 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.55; P < 0.001), and adverse drug effects (ADEs) with an overall RR of 0.66 (95% CI = 0.44 to 0.99; P = 0.045). No association with mortality was evident (P = 0.936). High heterogeneity among the studies was evident. Publication bias was not evident. EHR system, when properly implemented, can improve the quality of healthcare, increasing time efficiency and guideline adherence and reducing medication errors and ADEs. Strategies for EHR implementation should be therefore recommended and promoted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of decision support in electronic medical records on lipid management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Gill, James M; Chen, Ying Xia; Glutting, Joseph J; Diamond, James J; Lieberman, Michael I

    2009-10-01

    Electronic decision-support tools may help to improve management of hyperlipidemia and other chronic diseases. This study examined the impact of lipid management tools integrated into an electronic medical record (EMR) in primary care practices. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national network of physicians who use an outpatient EMR. Adult primary care physicians were randomized by office to receive an electronic form that was embedded in the EMR. The form contained prompts regarding suboptimal care based on Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III) guidelines, as well as reporting tools to identify patients outside of office visits whose lipid management was suboptimal. All active patients, ages 20-79 years, whose physicians participated in the study, were categorized as high, moderate, or low cardiovascular risk, and the proportion who were tested for hyperlipidemia, at lipid goal, and on lipid-lowering medications if not at goal were measured according to ATP-III guidelines. A total of 105 physicians from 25 offices and 64,150 patients were included in the study. Outcomes improved for most measures from before to 1 year after the intervention (November 1, 2005 to October 31, 2006). However, after controlling for confounding variables and for clustering in multilevel modeling, only up-to-date lipid testing for high-risk patients was statistically better in the intervention group as compared to the control group (adjusted odds ratio 15.0, P < 0.05). This study showed few differences in quality of lipid management after implementing an EMR-based disease management intervention in primary care settings. Future studies may need to examine more comprehensive interventions that include office staff in a team approach to care.

  11. Assessment of the impact on time to complete medical record using an electronic medical record versus a paper record on emergency department patients: a study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jeffrey J; Sutherland, Jane; Symington, Cheryl; Dorland, Katie; Mansour, Marlene; Stiell, Ian G

    2014-12-01

    Electronic medical records are becoming an integral part of healthcare delivery. The goal of this study was to compare paper documentation versus electronic medical record for non-traumatic chest pain to determine differences in time for physicians to complete medical records using paper versus electronic mediums. We also assessed physician satisfaction with the electronic format. We conducted this before-after study in a single large tertiary care academic emergency department. In the 'Before Period', stopwatches determined the time for paper medical recording. In the 'After Period', a template-based electronic medical record was introduced and the time for electronic recording was measured. The time to record in the before and after periods were compared using a two-sided t test. We surveyed physicians to assess satisfaction. We enrolled 100 non-traumatic patients with chest pain in the before period and 73 in the after period. The documentation time was longer using electronic charting, (9.6±5.9 min vs 6.1±2.5 min; p<0.001). 18 of 20 physicians participating in the after period completed surveys. Physicians were not satisfied with the electronic patient recording for non-traumatic chest pain. This is the first study that we are aware of which compared paper versus electronic medical records in the emergency department. Electronic recording took longer than paper records. Physicians were not satisfied using this electronic record. Given the time pressures on emergency physicians, a solution to minimise the charting time using electronic medical records must be found before widespread uptake of electronic charting will be possible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Impact of Electronic Health Records on Long-Term Care Facilities: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Mileski, Michael; Vijaykumar, Alekhya Ganta; Viswanathan, Sneha Vishnampet; Suskandla, Ujwala; Chidambaram, Yazhini

    2017-09-29

    Long-term care (LTC) facilities are an important part of the health care industry, providing care to the fastest-growing group of the population. However, the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) in LTC facilities lags behind other areas of the health care industry. One of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoption in the United States is that LTC facilities are not eligible for incentives under the Meaningful Use program. Implementation of an EHR system in an LTC facility can potentially enhance the quality of care, provided it is appropriately implemented, used, and maintained. Unfortunately, the lag in adoption of the EHR in LTC creates a paucity of literature on the benefits of EHR implementation in LTC facilities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the potential benefits of implementing an EHR system in LTC facilities. The study also aims to identify the common conditions and EHR features that received favorable remarks from providers and the discrepancies that needed improvement to build up momentum across LTC settings in adopting this technology. The authors conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and MEDLINE databases. Papers were analyzed by multiple referees to filter out studies not germane to our research objective. A final sample of 28 papers was selected to be included in the systematic review. Results of this systematic review conclude that EHRs show significant improvement in the management of documentation in LTC facilities and enhanced quality outcomes. Approximately 43% (12/28) of the papers reported a mixed impact of EHRs on the management of documentation, and 33% (9/28) of papers reported positive quality outcomes using EHRs. Surprisingly, very few papers demonstrated an impact on patient satisfaction, physician satisfaction, the length of stay, and productivity using EHRs. Overall, implementation of EHRs has been found to be effective in the few LTC

  13. Sampling Impacts on the NVAP-M Global Water Vapor Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a fundamental ingredient both for regulating climate as a greenhouse gas and as a necessary precursor for high impact weather events such as heavy precipitation. Water vapor concentration varies geographically because of its close linkage with surface temperature and as a component of synoptic and mesoscale weather systems. Satellite observations provide the only means to quantify the global occurrence and variability of water vapor. In common with other long-term climate data records such as clouds and precipitation, intercalibrating and blending diverse measurements of water vapor to create a consistent record through time is a challenge. The NASA Making Earth Science Data Records for Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program supported the development of the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP-M) dataset. The dataset was released to the science community in 2013 via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The dataset is a global (land and ocean) water vapor dataset created by merging multiple satellite infrared and microwave sources of atmospheric water vapor along with surface data to form global gridded fields of total and layered precipitable water vapor. NVAP-M spans 22 years (1988-2009) of data. The challenges in creating this multisensor, multidecadal satellite-driven climate data record are illustrative of challenges for all satellite climate data records. While advances in sensor intercalibration and retrieval algorithms have improved the quality of the global water vapor climate data record, uncertainties arise due to sampling biases of the input sensors. These biases are particularly evident on a regional scale, in cloudy regions or over desert surfaces. The changing mixture of sensors with varying sensitivity to clear/cloudy, land/ocean and even day/night conditions can lead to different results on trends and variability of water vapor. We explore this variability via the NVAP-M data set. Connections and collaborations

  14. The Impact of an Integrated Electronic Health Record Adoption on Nursing Care Quality.

    PubMed

    Walker-Czyz, AnneMarie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of an integrated electronic health record (EHR) innovation adoption on the quality of nursing care delivered, including hospital-acquired falls, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and costs measured in nursing hours. The impact on quality, cost, and nurse satisfaction measured in turnover rates before, during, and after implementation of EHR tools was also investigated. Little is known about the adoption patterns of computerized documentation by nursing and the effects on the practice environment. A quantitative, retrospective analysis using interrupted time series model of a large data set was conducted in a 431-bed urban hospital, with 10 medical surgical units and 2 critical care units. The research was constructed using the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory. Incorporating electronic, evidenced-based practice (EBP) tools into bedside nurse's workflow promotes decision making at the point of care that may improve quality with no negative impact on direct cost. The data revealed that total falls, CAUTI, and CLABSI rates were positively impacted after the implementation of an integrated EHR. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and VAP rates were negatively impacted at the implementation period followed by a significant positive rate reduction that surpassed the preimplementation period. Cost indicators, measured in hours per patient day and overtime, were negatively impacted during the implementation period followed by a return to baseline. Nurse turnover had a significant increase from the preimplementation to postimplementation period and failed to return to baseline. This study confirms that nurses have the ability to positively impact the quality of patient care through successful innovation adoption related to the use of EBP computerized documentation tools

  15. The impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on immunization information system (IIS) data quality

    PubMed Central

    Woinarowicz, Mary; Howell, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on the quality of immunization data in the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). Methods: NDIIS doses administered data was evaluated for completeness of the patient and dose-level core data elements for records that belong to interoperable and non-interoperable providers. Data was compared at three months prior to electronic health record (EHR) interoperability enhancement to data at three, six, nine and twelve months post-enhancement following the interoperability go live date. Doses administered per month and by age group, timeliness of vaccine entry and the number of duplicate clients added to the NDIIS was also compared, in addition to, immunization rates for children 19 – 35 months of age and adolescents 11 – 18 years of age. Results: Doses administered by both interoperable and non-interoperable providers remained fairly consistent from pre-enhancement through twelve months post-enhancement. Comparing immunization rates for infants and adolescents, interoperable providers had higher rates both pre- and post-enhancement than non-interoperable providers for all vaccines and vaccine series assessed. The overall percentage of doses entered into the NDIIS within one month of administration varied slightly between interoperable and non-interoperable providers; however, there were significant changes between the percentage of doses entered within one day and within one week with the percentage entered within one day increasing and within one week decreasing with interoperability. The number of duplicate client records created by interoperable providers increased from 94 duplicates pre-enhancement to 10,552 at twelve months post-enhancement, while the duplicates from non-interoperable providers only increased from 300 to 637 over the same period. Of the 40 core data elements in the NDIIS, there was some difference in completeness between the interoperable versus

  16. The impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on immunization information system (IIS) data quality.

    PubMed

    Woinarowicz, Mary; Howell, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of electronic health record (EHR) interoperability on the quality of immunization data in the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). Methods: NDIIS doses administered data was evaluated for completeness of the patient and dose-level core data elements for records that belong to interoperable and non-interoperable providers. Data was compared at three months prior to electronic health record (EHR) interoperability enhancement to data at three, six, nine and twelve months post-enhancement following the interoperability go live date. Doses administered per month and by age group, timeliness of vaccine entry and the number of duplicate clients added to the NDIIS was also compared, in addition to, immunization rates for children 19 - 35 months of age and adolescents 11 - 18 years of age. Results: Doses administered by both interoperable and non-interoperable providers remained fairly consistent from pre-enhancement through twelve months post-enhancement. Comparing immunization rates for infants and adolescents, interoperable providers had higher rates both pre- and post-enhancement than non-interoperable providers for all vaccines and vaccine series assessed. The overall percentage of doses entered into the NDIIS within one month of administration varied slightly between interoperable and non-interoperable providers; however, there were significant changes between the percentage of doses entered within one day and within one week with the percentage entered within one day increasing and within one week decreasing with interoperability. The number of duplicate client records created by interoperable providers increased from 94 duplicates pre-enhancement to 10,552 at twelve months post-enhancement, while the duplicates from non-interoperable providers only increased from 300 to 637 over the same period. Of the 40 core data elements in the NDIIS, there was some difference in completeness between the interoperable versus non

  17. The Impact of an Electronic Medical Record on Repeat Laboratory Test Ordering Across Four Australian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrew; Vecellio, Elia; Li, Ling; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the impact of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) on repeat test rates (i.e., the same test ordered within a specified window of time) for a commonly ordered set of laboratory tests; Electrolytes, Urea, Creatinine [EUC], Full Blood Counts [FBC] and Liver Function Tests [LFT]. The results point to the potential that timely, evidence-based electronic decision support features can have on the efficiency and effectiveness of the pathology laboratory process and its contribution to quality patient care.

  18. Paul Lazarsfeld and Polish sociology: a historical record of contact, perception, and impact.

    PubMed

    Sułek, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper records the Polish aspects of P. F. Lazarsfeld's sociointellectual biography and examines his impact on Polish sociology. The analysis is divided into three chronological parts. In the 1930s, Lazarsfeld's empirical work inspired Polish sociologists in their studies on unemployment. In the late 1950s and 1960s, his model of empirical social research shaped the style of sociological practice in Poland. In the 1990s, some of Lazarsfeld's substantive contributions, mainly in the area of election studies, were taken up in Polish sociology. Lazarsfeld's influence on Polish sociology was conditioned by changes in Polish society and sociology, which is emphasized in this analysis.

  19. Predicting the impact of an electronic health record on practice patterns using computational modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas R; Delaney, Connie White; Segre, Alberto; Carley, Kathleen; Kuziak, Andrew; Yu, Hwanjo

    2007-10-11

    The overall purpose of this research study is to discover and apply new knowledge regarding methods to predict the impact of an electronic health record (EHR) on clinical practice guidelines in complex systems such as hospitals. Specifically, the aims of this study are: 1) to build, simulate and validate the accuracy of a computational model representing the current practice patterns in a sample of patients diagnosed with heart failure (HF) and treated in a community hospital; and 2) using computational modeling and simulation, develop a method to predict the effects of best practice guidelines on practice patterns after implementation of an EHR.

  20. Biospheric traumas caused by large impacts and predicted relics in the sedimentary record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When a large asteroid or comet impacts the Earth the supersonic plume ejected on impact causes severe shock heating and chemical reprocessing of the proximal atmosphere. The resultant NO is converted rapidly to NO2, foliage damage due to exposure to NO2 and HNO3, toxicosis resulting from massive mobilization of soil trace metals, and faunal asphyxiation due to exposure to NO2. One class of relic evidence for the above effects arises because extinction of species caused by these chemically induced traumas would be selective. A second class of relic evidence arises because the acid rain will cause massive weathering of continental rocks and soils characterized by large ratios of the relatively insoluble metals, to the more soluble metals. This weathering would be best recorded in fossils in unperturbed deltaic, neritic, or limnetic sediments and for metals with very long oceanic residence times in deep ocean sediments as well. This evidence is discussed.

  1. Impact of electronic health record systems on information integrity: quality and safety implications.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sue

    2013-01-01

    While the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems promises a number of substantial benefits, including better care and decreased healthcare costs, serious unintended consequences from the implementation of these systems have emerged. Poor EHR system design and improper use can cause EHR-related errors that jeopardize the integrity of the information in the EHR, leading to errors that endanger patient safety or decrease the quality of care. These unintended consequences also may increase fraud and abuse and can have serious legal implications. This literature review examines the impact of unintended consequences of the use of EHR systems on the quality of care and proposed solutions to address EHR-related errors. This analysis of the literature on EHR risks is intended to serve as an impetus for further research on the prevalence of these risks, their impact on quality and safety of patient care, and strategies for reducing them.

  2. Impact of Electronic Health Record Systems on Information Integrity: Quality and Safety Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Sue

    2013-01-01

    While the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems promises a number of substantial benefits, including better care and decreased healthcare costs, serious unintended consequences from the implementation of these systems have emerged. Poor EHR system design and improper use can cause EHR-related errors that jeopardize the integrity of the information in the EHR, leading to errors that endanger patient safety or decrease the quality of care. These unintended consequences also may increase fraud and abuse and can have serious legal implications. This literature review examines the impact of unintended consequences of the use of EHR systems on the quality of care and proposed solutions to address EHR-related errors. This analysis of the literature on EHR risks is intended to serve as an impetus for further research on the prevalence of these risks, their impact on quality and safety of patient care, and strategies for reducing them. PMID:24159271

  3. Impact and user satisfaction of a clinical information portal embedded in an electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tannery, Nancy H; Epstein, Barbara A; Wessel, Charles B; Yarger, Frances; LaDue, John; Klem, Mary Lou

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, a clinical information tool was developed and embedded in the electronic health record system of an academic medical center. In 2009, the initial information tool, Clinical-e, was superseded by a portal called Clinical Focus, with a single search box enabling a federated search of selected online information resources. To measure the usefulness and impact of Clinical Focus, a survey was used to gather feedback about users' experience with this clinical resource. The survey determined what type of clinicians were using this tool and assessed user satisfaction and perceived impact on patient care decision making. Initial survey results suggest the majority of respondents found Clinical Focus easy to navigate, the content easy to read, and the retrieved information relevant and complete. The majority would recommend Clinical Focus to their colleagues. Results indicate that this tool is a promising area for future development.

  4. Impact and User Satisfaction of a Clinical Information Portal Embedded in an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Tannery, Nancy H; Epstein, Barbara A; Wessel, Charles B; Yarger, Frances; LaDue, John; Klem, Mary Lou

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, a clinical information tool was developed and embedded in the electronic health record system of an academic medical center. In 2009, the initial information tool, Clinical-e, was superseded by a portal called Clinical Focus, with a single search box enabling a federated search of selected online information resources. To measure the usefulness and impact of Clinical Focus, a survey was used to gather feedback about users' experience with this clinical resource. The survey determined what type of clinicians were using this tool and assessed user satisfaction and perceived impact on patient care decision making. Initial survey results suggest the majority of respondents found Clinical Focus easy to navigate, the content easy to read, and the retrieved information relevant and complete. The majority would recommend Clinical Focus to their colleagues. Results indicate that this tool is a promising area for future development. PMID:22016670

  5. The nature of organic records in impact excavated rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, W.; Bromiley, G. D.; Sephton, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Impact ejected rocks are targets for life detection missions to Mars. The Martian subsurface is more favourable to organic preservation than the surface owing to an attenuation of radiation and physical separation from oxidising materials with increasing depth. Impact events bring materials to the surface where they may be accessed without complicated drilling procedures. On Earth, different assemblages of organic matter types are derived from varying depositional environments. Here we assess whether these different types of organic materials can survive impact events without corruption. We subjected four terrestrial organic matter types to elevated pressures and temperatures in piston-cylinder experiments followed by chemical characterisation using whole-rock pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data reveal that long chain hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter (types I and II; mainly microbial or algal) are unresistant to pressure whereas aromatic hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter types (types III and IV; mainly land plant, metamorphosed or degraded, displaying some superficial chemical similarities to abiotic meteoritic organic matter) are relatively resistant. This suggests that the impact excavated record of potential biology on Mars will be unavoidably biased, with microbial organic matter underrepresented while metamorphosed, degraded or abiotic meteoritic organic matter types will be selectively preserved.

  6. The nature of organic records in impact excavated rocks on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, W.; Bromiley, G. D.; Sephton, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Impact ejected rocks are targets for life detection missions to Mars. The Martian subsurface is more favourable to organic preservation than the surface owing to an attenuation of radiation and physical separation from oxidising materials with increasing depth. Impact events bring materials to the surface where they may be accessed without complicated drilling procedures. On Earth, different assemblages of organic matter types are derived from varying depositional environments. Here we assess whether these different types of organic materials can survive impact events without corruption. We subjected four terrestrial organic matter types to elevated pressures and temperatures in piston-cylinder experiments followed by chemical characterisation using whole-rock pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data reveal that long chain hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter (types I and II; mainly microbial or algal) are unresistant to pressure whereas aromatic hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter types (types III and IV; mainly land plant, metamorphosed or degraded, displaying some superficial chemical similarities to abiotic meteoritic organic matter) are relatively resistant. This suggests that the impact excavated record of potential biology on Mars will be unavoidably biased, with microbial organic matter underrepresented while metamorphosed, degraded or abiotic meteoritic organic matter types will be selectively preserved. PMID:27492071

  7. The nature of organic records in impact excavated rocks on Mars.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, W; Bromiley, G D; Sephton, M A

    2016-08-05

    Impact ejected rocks are targets for life detection missions to Mars. The Martian subsurface is more favourable to organic preservation than the surface owing to an attenuation of radiation and physical separation from oxidising materials with increasing depth. Impact events bring materials to the surface where they may be accessed without complicated drilling procedures. On Earth, different assemblages of organic matter types are derived from varying depositional environments. Here we assess whether these different types of organic materials can survive impact events without corruption. We subjected four terrestrial organic matter types to elevated pressures and temperatures in piston-cylinder experiments followed by chemical characterisation using whole-rock pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data reveal that long chain hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter (types I and II; mainly microbial or algal) are unresistant to pressure whereas aromatic hydrocarbon-dominated organic matter types (types III and IV; mainly land plant, metamorphosed or degraded, displaying some superficial chemical similarities to abiotic meteoritic organic matter) are relatively resistant. This suggests that the impact excavated record of potential biology on Mars will be unavoidably biased, with microbial organic matter underrepresented while metamorphosed, degraded or abiotic meteoritic organic matter types will be selectively preserved.

  8. An 8000-yr Record of Vegetation and Sedimentation Change from Kaau Crater, Hawaii Shows Mid-Holocene Climate Variability in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, O.; Beilman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Kaau Crater is located on Oahu, Hawaii, and was formed about 1 million years ago. The crater is a wetland about 450 m in diameter, which has been accumulating sediment since at least 25,866 cal yr BP. Sediment accumulation environments suitable for stratigraphic paleoscience studies in tropical mountaintop locations, relatively unaffected by humans, are scarce. This research aims to provide a comprehensive multi-millennial record of environmental change over time, including a reconstruction of precipitation and temperature. A continuous 450 cm organic sediment core was raised from Kaau Crater and analyzed for bulk density, organic matter (OM), stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and sediment accumulation rate as well as fossil pollen. Thirteen radiocarbon measurements show that the profile represents 14,087 years of sedimentation, and continuous sedimentation since ~8000 cal yr BP. Bulk density was typically about 0.17 g cm-3, but is particularly high (0.56 g cm-3) in sediments deposited between 5800 and 4400 cal yr BP. High variability during this time period is also seen in OM, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and sediment accumulation rate. The OM content varies greatly throughout the core, from 12 to 94%. The 13C and 15N range -28.3 to -26.1‰ and 0.7 to 5.7‰. Maximum sedimentation and organic matter accumulation is between 6810-3942 cal yr BP, during which time, the organic C accumulation rate is 46.1 g m-2 yr-1. The C:N ratio is most variable during the mid-Holocene and the maximum is at 6326 cal yr BP. Thirty-eight pollen types were identified representing a mixture of dry- to wet-tolerant taxa. A reconstruction of annual precipitation suggests substantial variation on multi-centennial and shorter scales, particularly during the mid-Holocene (-643.4-5654 mm anomaly), but a lack of Holocene-scale wetting or drying. A reconstruction of mean annual temperature shows an overall multi-millennial cooling trend at the crater more pronounced after 5400

  9. Sedimentary record of recent climate impacts on an insular coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar-Martinez, Tomasa; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

    2017-03-01

    Sedimentary records are useful to evaluate environmental changes, either from natural or anthropogenic causes, such as global and climate change. The recent changes in accumulation rates and geochemical characteristics (grain size distribution, elemental composition, organic carbon and carbonate concentrations) recorded in a sediment core from San Jose Island Lagoon (SJIL, Gulf of California) were evaluated to determine its relationship with anthropogenic impacts and climatic variability. The 210Pb-derived chronology was corroborated with 239+240Pu and 137Cs stratigraphic markers. The mass accumulation rate increased up to ∼3 times during the past ∼100 years (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.51 ± 0.06 g cm-2 yr-1). The contents of terrigenous and marine (salinity) indicator elements, as well as fine-grained sediments, also increased considerably, although no anthropization evidences were observed; indeed, the enrichment factor of trace elements indicated that the ecosystem is still a pristine environment. By using multivariate statistical techniques, we inferred that the larger input of fine-grained terrigenous sediments could be related to the enhancement of soil erosion from the catchment, under the influence of higher rainfall rates, especially during the last 20 years. In addition, the higher concentrations of salinity indicator elements most likely resulted from higher evaporation rates in the lagoon, caused by higher minimum atmospheric temperatures. We concluded that recent climate variability has become the main driver for sedimentary geochemical changes in San Jose Island Lagoon. These observations confirmed the usefulness of 210Pb-dated geochemical sediment records to study the impacts of recent climate variability where long-term environmental data is scarce or non-existent.

  10. 77 FR 54922 - Record of Decision for the General Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision for the General Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton National Historic Site, Maryland AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... (NEPA), the National Park Service (NPS) announces the availability of the Record of Decision for the...

  11. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  12. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  13. Analysis of data recorder optical scheme impact on quality of computer generated Fourier holograms in holographic memory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchenko, Sergey S.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Verenikina, Nina M.; Betin, Alexandr U.; Hanevich, Pavel; Zlokazov, Evgenii Y.

    2017-05-01

    Holographic memory systems provide such advantages as long data storage term, high data density and do not need a power supply. Instead of recording interference pattern, it is proposed to record computer generated 1D Fourier holograms (CGFH). High information density is reached by multiplexing 1D Fourier Holograms. In this work factors, which impact the quality of recorded CGFH are analyzed in mathematical modelling and experimental researches.

  14. Hydrothermal activity recorded in post Noachian-aged impact craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Stuart M. R.; Bridges, John C.; Grebby, Stephen; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal systems have previously been reported in ancient Noachian and Hesperian-aged craters on Mars using CRISM but not in Amazonian-aged impact craters. However, the nakhlite meteorites do provide evidence of Amazonian hydrothermal activity. This study uses CRISM data of 144 impact craters of ≥7 km diameter and 14 smaller craters (3-7 km diameter) within terrain mapped as Amazonian to search for minerals that may have formed as a result of impact-induced hydrothermal alteration or show excavation of ancient altered crust. No evidence indicating the presence of hydrated minerals was found in the 3-7 km impact craters. Hydrated minerals were identified in three complex impact craters, located at 52.42°N, 39.86°E in the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, at 8.93°N, 141.28°E in Elysium, and within the previously studied Stokes crater. These three craters have diameters 20 km, 62 km, and 51 km. The locations of the hydrated mineral outcrops and their associated morphology indicate that two of these three impact craters—the unnamed Ismenius Lacus Crater and Stokes Crater—possibly hosted impact-induced hydrothermal systems, as they contain alteration assemblages on their central uplifts that are not apparent in their ejecta. Chlorite and Fe serpentine are identified within alluvial fans in the central uplift and rim of the Ismenius Lacus crater, whereas Stokes crater contains a host of Fe/Mg/Al phyllosilicates. However, excavation origin cannot be precluded. Our work suggests that impact-induced hydrothermalism was rare in the Amazonian and/or that impact-induced hydrothermal alteration was not sufficiently pervasive or spatially widespread for detection by CRISM.

  15. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, N.; Roark, B.; Koenig, A.; Batista, F. C.; Kocar, B. D.; Selby, D. S.; Mccarthy, M. D.; Mienis, F.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150-200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  16. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Koenig, Alan E.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Batista, Fabian C.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Selby, David; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Mienis, Furu

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150-200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  17. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Koenig, Alan E.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Batista, Fabian C.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Selby, David; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Mienis, Furu

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150–200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  18. The impact of electronic health record usage on cancer registry systems in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Houser, Shannon H; Colquitt, Shannon; Clements, Kay; Hart-Hester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    As the use of information technology within the healthcare setting increases, the impact of bridging registry data with electronic health records (EHRs) must be addressed. Current EHR implementation may create benefits as well as challenges to cancer registries in areas such as policies and regulations, data quality, reporting, management, staffing, and training. The purpose of this study was to assess 1) the status of EHR usage in cancer registries, 2) the impact of EHR usage on cancer registries, and 3) the benefits and challenges of EHR usage for cancer registries in Alabama. The study method consisted of a voluntary survey provided to participants at the Alabama Cancer Registry Association 2009 annual conference. Forty-three respondents completed the survey. Data indicated that the major benefits of EHR use for the cancer registry included more complete treatment information available to clinicians and researchers, more time for retrieving and analyzing data for clinicians and researchers, and better tracking of patient follow-up. The major challenges included lack of adequate resources, lack of medical staff support, and changing data standards. The conclusion of the study indicates that understanding the impacts and challenges of EHR usage within cancer registries has implications for public health data management, data reporting, and policy issues.

  19. 76 FR 34096 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Impact Statement and the South Gillette Area West Coal Creek Coal Lease-by-Application, Wyoming AGENCY... of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the West Coal Creek Coal Lease-by- Application (LBA) included in the South Gillette Area Coal Lease Applications Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ADDRESSES...

  20. 75 FR 27056 - Record of Decision for Environmental Impact Statement: New Bedford Regional Airport, New Bedford, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...), resulting from an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared for a New Bedford Regional Airport... Federal Aviation Administration Record of Decision for Environmental Impact Statement: New Bedford Regional Airport, New Bedford, MA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  1. The impact of local topography on glacial geomorphological records in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Kathryn; Lane, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Holocene glacial record of Lyngmarksbræen, an ice cap in West Greenland, has been used to explore the impacts of local topography on landform generation and preservation. It is well-established that glacial response to regional climate drivers may be locally modulated by local-scale topography, but there has been little systematic investigation of its impacts on the geomorphological record. Establishing the relative influence of regional and local-scale drivers on landform development is important as it will allow us to make more robust reconstructions of past ice dynamics. Detailed geomorphological analysis of seven outlet valleys from Lyngmarksbræen, Disko Island has been undertaken. Satellite imagery and field mapping have been used to explore the topographic variations of neighbouring valleys, and the resulting geomorphological record. Comparisons between valleys are made on the basis of existing morphostratigraphic correlations (Ingólfsson, 1990) and recent surface exposure ages (Lane et al., In prep), which indicate that the majority of the landforms were deposited during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The valleys draining Lyngmarksbræen vary considerably in terms of geometry, landform characteristics (type, size, location), and ice extent (Holocene to present day). This allows us to explore geomorphological dynamics in contrasting, but geographically proximal, settings. During the LIA, ice extended up to 3 km beyond the present ice margins. In all outlets, glacial landforms are confined to the radial valleys and there is only limited evidence of deposition in the larger trunk valleys. To the north and east of Lyngmarksbræen, large latero-frontal moraines are well-preserved and often impound small proglacial lakes. In the west, the LIA and present day ice margins are more diffuse, and there is evidence of ice-cored moraine, kettle holes, and buried ice. To the south of the ice cap, landform preservation is limited. We discuss the extent to which these

  2. The impact of a growing minority population on identification of duplicate records in an enterprise data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Scott L; Fraser, Alison M; Kerber, Richard A; Mineau, Geraldine P; Thomas, Alun

    2010-01-01

    Patient medical records are often fragmented across disparate healthcare databases, potentially resulting in duplicate records that may be detrimental to health care services. These duplicate records can be found through a process called record linkage. This paper describes a set of duplicate records in a medical data warehouse found by linking to an external resource containing family history and vital records. Our objective was to investigate the impact database characteristics and linkage methods have on identifying duplicate records using an external resource. Frequency counts were made for demographic field values and compared between the set of duplicate records, the data warehouse, and the external resource. Considerations for understanding the relationship that records labeled as duplicates have with dataset characteristics and linkage methods were identified. Several noticeable patterns were identified where frequency counts between sets deviated from what was expected including how the growth of a minority population affected which records were identified as duplicates. Record linkage is a complex process where results can be affected by subtleties in data characteristics, changes in data trends, and reliance on external data sources. These changes should be taken into account to ensure any anomalies in results describe real effects and are not artifacts caused by datasets or linkage methods. This paper describes how frequency count analysis can be an effective way to detect and resolve anomalies in linkage results and how external resources that provide additional contextual information can prove useful in discovering duplicate records.

  3. Impacts of structuring the electronic health record: a systematic review protocol and results of previous reviews.

    PubMed

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Saranto, Kaija; Vuokko, Riikka; Mäkelä-Bengs, Päivi; Doupi, Persephone; Lindqvist, Minna; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2014-03-01

    This paper (1) presents the protocol of an on-going systematic literature review on the methods of structuring electronic health record (EHR) data and studying the impacts of implemented structures, thus laying basis for the analysis of the empirical articles (2) describes previous reviews published on the subject and retrieved during the search of bibliographic databases, and (3) presents a summary of the results of previous reviews. Cochrane instructions were exploited to outline the review protocol - phases and search elements. Test searches were conducted to refine the search. The abstracts and/or full texts of review papers captured by the search were read by two of the team members independently, with disagreements first negotiated between them and if necessary eventually resolved in the team meetings. Additional review articles were picked from the reference lists of the reviews included in our search results. The elements defined in the search strategy and analytic framework were converted to a data extraction tool, which was tested by extracting data from the reviews captured by the search. Descriptive analysis of the extracted data was conducted. The 12-stage review protocol that we developed includes definition of the problem, the search strategy and search terms, testing the strategy, conducting the search, updating search from references found, removing duplicates, defining the inclusion and exclusion criteria, exclusion and inclusion of papers, definition of the analytic framework to extract data, extracting data and reporting results. Our searches in fifteen electronic bibliographic databases retrieved 27 reviews, of which 14 were included for full text analysis. Of these, 11 focused on medical and three on nursing record structures. The data structures included forms, ontologies, classifications and terminologies. Some evidence was found on data structure impact on information quality, process quality and efficiency, but not on patients or

  4. Impacts of tourism hotspots on vegetation communities show a higher potential for self-propagation along roads than hiking trails.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Isabelle D; Croft, David B

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation communities along recreational tracks may suffer from substantial edge-effects through the impacts of trampling, modified environmental conditions and competition with species that benefit from disturbance. We assessed impacts on trackside vegetation by comparing high and low usage tourism sites at a 1-10 m distance from recreational tracks in a popular arid-lands tourism destination in South Australia. The central aim was quantification of the strengths and spatial extent of tourism impacts along recreational tracks with a qualitative comparison of roads and trails. Track-distance gradients were most prevalent at high usage sites. There, species community composition was altered, total plant cover decreased, non-native species cover increased, plant diversity increased or decreased (depending on the distance) and soil compaction increased towards recreational tracks. Roadside effects were greater and more pervasive than trailside effects. Further, plant diversity did not continuously increase towards the road verge as it did along trails but dropped sharply in the immediate road shoulder which indicated high disturbance conditions that few species were able to tolerate. To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that the access mode to a recreation site influences the potential of certain impacts, such as the increase of non-native species, to self-perpetuate from their points of introduction to disjointed sites with a predisposition to disturbance. Due to this propulsion of impacts, the overall spatial extent of roadside impacts was far greater than initially apparent from assessments at the road verge. We discuss possible means of mitigating these impacts.

  5. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills): Supplemental environmental impact statement. Record of decision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality regulations, which implement the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, and the US Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act regulations, the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, is issuing a Record of Decision on the continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The Department of Energy has decided to continue current operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and implement additional well drilling, facility development projects and other activities necessary for continued production of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, entitled ``Petroleum Production at Maximum Efficient Rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California (DOE/SEIS-0158),`` was released on September 3, 1993.

  6. Analysis of the Impact of Wildfire on Surface Ozone Record in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Sullivan, J. T.; Reddy, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone plays an important role on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, and at ground-level has negative impacts on human health and ecosystem processes. In order to understand the dynamics and variability of surface ozone, it is imperative to analyze individual sources, interactions between sources, transport, and chemical processes of ozone production and accumulation. Biomass burning and wildfires have been known to emit a suite of particulate matter and gaseous compounds into the atmosphere. These compounds, such as, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides are precursor species which aid in the photochemical production and destruction of ozone. The Colorado Front Range (CFR) is a region of complex interactions between pollutant sources and meteorological conditions which result in the accumulation of ozone. High ozone events in the CFR associated with fires are analyzed for 2003-2014 to develop understanding of the large scale influence and variability of ozone and wildfire relationships. This study provides analysis of the frequency of enhanced ozone episodes that can be confirmed to be transported within and affected by the fires and smoke plumes. Long-term records of surface ozone data from the CFR provide information on the impact of wildfire pollutants on seasonal and diurnal ozone behavior. Years with increased local fire activity, as well as years with increased long-range transport of smoke plumes, are evaluated for the effect on the long-term record and high ozone frequency of each location. Meteorological data, MODIS Fire detection images, NOAA HYSPLIT Back Trajectory analysis, NOAA Smoke verification model, Fire Tracer Data (K+), RAQMS Model, Carbon Monoxide data, and Aerosol optical depth retrievals are used with NOAA Global Monitoring Division surface ozone data from three sites in Colorado. This allows for investigation of the interactions between pollutants and meteorology which result in high surface ozone levels.

  7. Impact of immediate access to the electronic medical record on anatomic pathology performance.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Gould, Edwin W

    2013-07-01

    To assess the overall impact of access to the electronic medical record (EMR) on anatomic pathology performance. We reviewed the results of all use of the EMR by 1 pathologist over an 18-month period. Of the 10,107 cases (913 cytology and 9,194 surgical pathology) reviewed, the EMR (excluding anatomic pathology records) was accessed in 222 (2.2% of all cases, 6.5% of all cytology cases, and 1.8% of all surgical pathology cases). The EMR was used to evaluate a critical value in 20 (9.0%) cases and make a more specific diagnosis in 77 (34.7%) cases, a less specific diagnosis in 4 (1.8%) cases, and a systemic rather than localized diagnosis in 4 (1.8%) cases. The percentage of cases in which the physician was contacted decreased from 7.3% for the prior 18 months to 6.7%, but this change was not significant (P = .13). Twelve cases were subsequently sent for interinstitutional consultation, and no disagreements were identified. The EMR was accessed in 2.2% of all surgical pathology and cytology cases and affected the diagnosis in 48% of these cases.

  8. Enhancing Access, Retention, Attainment and Progression in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature Showing Demonstrable Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Oliver; Wyness, Lynne; Cotton, Debby

    2017-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of literature--published since 2008--that demonstrates significant impact in each of the key student outcomes of access, retention, attainment, and progression. This builds on a number of key Higher Education Academy (HEA) publications or projects from the past five years that have addressed issues associated with…

  9. Impact of Electronic Medical Record Use on the Patient-Doctor Relationship and Communication: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Alkureishi, Maria Alcocer; Lee, Wei Wei; Lyons, Maureen; Press, Valerie G; Imam, Sara; Nkansah-Amankra, Akua; Werner, Deb; Arora, Vineet M

    2016-05-01

    While Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use has increased dramatically, the EMR's impact on the patient-doctor relationship remains unclear. This systematic literature review sought to understand the impact of EMR use on patient-doctor relationships and communication. Parallel searches in Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, reference review of prior systematic reviews, meeting abstract reviews, and expert reviews from August 2013 to March 2015 were conducted. Medical Subject Heading terms related to EMR use were combined with keyword terms identifying face-to-face patient-doctor communication. English language observational or interventional studies (1995-2015) were included. Studies examining physician attitudes only were excluded. Structured data extraction compared study population, design, data collection method, and outcomes. Fifty-three of 7445 studies reviewed met inclusion criteria. Included studies used behavioral analysis (28) to objectively measure communication behaviors using video or direct observation and pre-post or cross-sectional surveys to examine patient perceptions (25). Objective studies reported EMR communication behaviors that were both potentially negative (i.e., interrupted speech, low rates of screen sharing) and positive (i.e., facilitating questions). Studies examining overall patient perceptions of satisfaction, communication or the patient-doctor relationship (n = 22) reported no change with EMR use (16); a positive impact (5) or showed mixed results (1). Study quality was not assessable. Small sample sizes limited generalizability. Publication bias may limit findings. Despite objective evidence that EMR use may negatively impact patient-doctor communication, studies examining patient perceptions found no change in patient satisfaction or patient-doctor communication. Therefore, our findings should encourage providers to adopt the EMR as a communication tool. Future research is needed to better understand how

  10. Geological record and reconstruction of the late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gersonde, R; Kyte, F T; Bleil, U; Diekmann, B; Flores, J A; Gohl, K; Grahl, G; Hagen, R; Kuhn, G; Sierro, F J; Volker, D; Abelmann, A; Bostwick, J A

    1997-11-27

    In 1995, an expedition on board the research vessel FS Polarstern explored the impact site of the Eltanin asteroid in the Southern Ocean, the only known asteroid impact into a deep ocean basin. Analyses of the geological record of the impact region place the event in the late Pliocene (approximately 2.15 Myr) and constrain the size of the asteroid to be >1 km. The explosive force inferred for this event places it at the threshold of impacts believed to have global consequences, and its study should therefore provide a baseline for the reconstruction and modelling of similar events, which are common on geological timescales.

  11. Mid- and late Holocene human impact recorded by the Coltrondo peat bog (NE Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segnana, Michela; Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Martino, Matteo; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Peat bogs are ideal archives for the study of environmental changes, whether these are natural or human induced. Indeed, receiving water and nutrients exclusively from dry and wet atmospheric depositions, they are among the most suitable matrices for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. The present study is focused on the Eastern sector of the Italian Alps, where we sampled the Coltrondo peat bog, in the Comelico area (ca. 1800 m a.s.l.) The knowledge of the human history in this area is rather scarce: the only pieces of archaeological evidence found in this area dates back to the Mesolithic and the absence of later archaeological finds makes it difficult to reconstruct the human settlement in the valley. With the main aim to obtain information about the human settlement in that area we selected a multi-proxy approach, combining the study of biotic and abiotic sedimentary components archived in the 7900 years-peat bog record. Pollen analysis is performed along the core registering human impacts on the area from ca. 2500 cal BP, when land-use changes are well evidenced by the presence of human-related pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), as well as by the increase in micro-charcoal particles. Periods of increased human impact are recorded at the end of the Middle Ages and later, at the end of the 19th century. The analysis of trace elements, such as lead, is performed by means of ICP-MS technique and its enrichment factor (EF) is calculated. A first slight increase of Pb EF during Roman Times is possibly related to mining activities carried out by the Romans. Mining activities carried out in the area are registered during the Middle Ages, while the advent of the industrialization in the 20th century is marked by the highest EF values registered on the top of the core. To help and support the interpretation of geochemical data, lead isotopes ratios are also measured using ICP-MS to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic sources of lead. The 206Pb/207Pb

  12. The Upstream and Downstream impact of Milankovitch cycles in continental nonmarine sedimentary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Luis; Garcés, Miguel; Huerta, Pedro; Cabrera, Lluís

    2016-04-01

    Discerning the effects of climate in the stratigraphic record is crucial for the comprehension of past climate changes. The signature of climate in sedimentary sequences is often assessed by the identification of Milankovitch cycles, as they can be recognized due to their (quasi) periodic behaviour. The integration of diverse stratigraphic disciplines is required in order to understand the different processes involved in the expression of the orbital cycles in the sedimentary records. New advances in Stratigraphy disclose the different variables that affect the sedimentation along the sediment routing systems. These variables can be summarized as the relationship between accommodation and sediment supply (AS/SS), because they account for the shifts of the total mass balance of a basin. Based in these indicators we propose a synthetic model for the understanding of the expression of climate in continental basins. Sedimentation in internally drained lake basins is particularly sensitive to net precipitation/evaporation variations. Rapid base level oscillations modify the AS/SS ratio sufficiently as to mask possible sediment flux variations associated to the changing discharge. On the other hand, basins lacking a central lacustrine system do not experience climatically-driven accommodation changes, and thus are more sensitive to archive sediment pulses. Small basins lacking carbonate facies are the ideal candidates to archive the impact of orbital forcing in the landscapes, as their small-scale sediment transfer systems are unable to buffer the upstream signal. Sedimentation models that include the relationship between accommodation and sediment supply, the effects of density and type of vegetation, and its coupled response with climate are needed to enhance their reliability.

  13. Multiple impact events recorded in the NWA 7298 H chondrite breccia and the dynamical evolution of an ordinary chondrite asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2014-05-01

    The major geologic process that has shaped the asteroids and led to development of their regoliths is impact. Petrofabrics in ordinary chondrites are undoubtedly the result of impact events on their asteroidal parent bodies and the foliation present in a chondrite serves as an enduring record of the magnitude of the most intense compacting event experienced by the material. An overwhelming majority of chondrites have an internally consistent petrofabric contained within the spatial dimensions of the entire rock, including across clasts or different petrographic domains. This indicates that the magnitude of the most recent impact to have affected the assembled chondrite was significant enough to impart a foliation across all lithologies. Information of any previous impacts is largely lost because of the consistent, realigned foliations. We present X-ray microtomography derived 3D petrofabric intensity and orientation data for three lithologies in the NWA 7298 breccia. The internally inconsistent petrofabrics among differing lithologies indicate that the magnitude of the final impact event was smaller than previous ones. This latter case preserves fabric information recorded during previous impacts and allows a more complete interpretation of the impact history of a local region of the asteroidal parent. We used our data to infer the sequence and intensity of distinct impact events affecting the NWA 7298 parent asteroid. We suggest a near-surface impact debris zone on the H chondrite parent asteroid as an origin for NWA 7298. These observations yield new opportunities for investigating and interpreting the dynamic collisional evolution of asteroids.

  14. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  15. Population-based study shows that Hirschsprung disease does not have a negative impact on education and income.

    PubMed

    Granström, Anna Löf; Svenningsson, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Wester, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a multifactorial disease, which is mainly treated during childhood. There is a risk of impaired bowel function for a long time after surgery, and its impact on adult life has not been well studied. This study assessed whether having Hirschsprung disease affected social parameters such as educational level and income. This nationwide, population-based cohort study included all patients with Hirschsprung disease, registered in the Swedish National Patient Register from 1964 and 2013, who were each matched by age and sex to ten individuals randomly selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study outcomes were the highest educational level and individual disposable income in 2013 registered by Statistics Sweden. The study comprised 389 patients and 3847 controls, both 76% male, with a median age of 25 years. There were no statistically significant differences in highest educational level between the groups (p = 0.327). The median individual disposable income was 142 200 (0-817 200) Swedish Krona in the patient group and 159 000 (0-3 418 900) in the control group (p = 0.615). The highest educational level and the individual disposable income did not differ between patients with Hirschsprung disease and controls, indicating that the disease had a low impact on these parameters. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Rock Magnetic Record Across the 12.9 ka Younger Dryas Boundary: Evidence for Impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadel, M.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M.

    2012-12-01

    The cause/s of the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) climactic event at 12.9 ka and the corresponding extinction of Pleistocene megafauna and drastic changes in human subsistence patterns in the Americas remain a geologic mystery. Firestone et. al. (2007) proposed a bolide impact on the Laurentide ice sheet to explain these dramatic environmental changes, citing as evidence an increase in the concentration of magnetic spherules (MSp) and magnetic grains, among several other parameters. Over the five and a half years since the idea was first proposed it has evolved and matured, and many of the original lines of evidence are no longer argued. However, peaks in MSp concentrations (along with the presence of nanodiamonds) continue to be central to pro-impact arguments. Soils and lacustrine sediments are the most common recording media across the YD time interval, and the sample procedure used by previous workers to isolate the magnetic component is noteworthy. Disaggregated sediment was suspended in water and a plastic-covered hand magnet was used to stir the suspension and attract magnetic grains. Adhered grains were transferred into a separate container, and the process was repeated until grains were no longer attracted to the magnet. The total magnetic fraction was weighed and MSp were hand-picked under a microscope, to quantify concentration. Here we present an alternative approach that uses a comprehensive suite of highly sensitive rock magnetic measurements on in-situ samples to examine two early human archaeological sites: the Debra L. Friedkin site in central Texas and the Topper site in South Carolina (one of the original sites in the Firestone et al. (2007) study). The depositional history at both sites is constrained by optically stimulated luminescence ages, and the stratigraphic position of the 12.9 ka YD event is non-controversial. Two continuous soil profiles were collected at Friedkin, using 9 cm3 plastic boxes as well as a separate 20 cm U-channel core

  17. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    similar to regional charcoal compilations from New Zealand and southeastern Australia. Evidence from Kilimanjaro demonstrates a major increase in fire activity centered around 800-1000 years ago, corresponding to both increased temperatures and aridity as recorded in regional lake cores. This peak in fire activity is an order of magnitude higher than at any other time in the record including the most recent period. Environmental and anthropological studies suggest that upslope human migrations have occurred in response to the warmer, drier conditions. Kilimanjaro is surrounded by flammable savanna vegetation, yet the Muztagh core is located in an especially arid section of the Tibetan Plateau and consistently contains levoglucosan concentrations that are 100 to 1000 times greater than the mean Kilimanjaro flux. These high concentrations and the lack of available fuel suggest that regional rather than local biomass burning may be the source of the fire products. Biomass burning aerosols are a major component of the South Asian Brown Cloud and may influence the composition and concentration of pyrogenic aerosols across the Tibetan Plateau. The relative impact of human activity versus climate change on Holocene biomass burning varies regionally. Combining ice and sediment core data with model output can help place these regional differences into a global context with implications for a warming climate.

  18. Thermal history recorded by the Apollo 17 impact melt breccia 73217

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, M. L.; Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Timms, N.; Muhling, J. R.; Kennedy, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    Lunar breccia 73217 is composed of plagioclase and pyroxene clasts originating from a single gabbronorite intrusion, mixed with a silica-rich glass interpreted to represent an impact melt. A study of accessory minerals in a thin section from this breccia (73217,52) identified three different types of zircon and anhedral grains of apatite which represent distinct generations of accessory phases and provide a unique opportunity to investigate the thermal history of the sample. Equant, anhedral zircon grains that probably formed in the gabbronorite, referred to as type-1, have consistent U-Pb ages of 4332 ± 7 Ma. A similar age of 4335 ± 5 Ma was obtained from acicular zircon (type-2) grains interpreted to have formed from impact melt. A polycrystalline zircon aggregate (type-3) occurs as a rim around a baddeleyite grain and has a much younger age of 3929 ± 10 Ma, similar to the 3936 ± 17 Ma age of apatite grains found in the thin section. A combined apatite-type-3 zircon age of 3934 ± 12 Ma is proposed as the age of the Serenitatis impact event and associated thermal pulse. X-ray mapping and electron probe analyses showed that Ti is inhomogeneous in the zircon grains on the sub-micrometer scale. However, model temperatures estimated from SHRIMP analyses of Ti-concentration in the 10 μm diameter spots on the polished surfaces of type-1 and type-2 zircons range between about 1300 and 900 °C respectively, whereas Ti-concentrations determined for the type-3 zircon are higher at about 1400-1500 °C. A combination of U-Pb ages, Ti-concentration data and detailed imaging and petrographic studies of the zircon grains shows that the gabbronorite parent of the zircon clasts formed shortly before the 4335 ± 5 Ma impact, which mixed the clasts and the felsic melt and projected the sample closer to the surface where fast cooling resulted in the crystallization of acicular zircon (type-2). The 3934 ± 12 Ma Serenitatis event resulted in partial remelting of the glass and

  19. The impact of electronic health records and teamwork on diabetes care quality.

    PubMed

    Graetz, Ilana; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard; Shortell, Stephen M; Rundall, Thomas G; Bellows, Jim; Hsu, John; Jaffe, Marc; Reed, Mary E

    2015-12-01

    Evidence of the impact electronic health records (EHRs) have on clinical outcomes remains mixed. The impact of EHRs likely depends on the organizational context in which they are used. This study focuses on one aspect of the organizational context: cohesion of primary care teams. We examined whether team cohesion among primary care team members changed the association between EHR use and changes in clinical outcomes for patients with diabetes. Retrospective longitudinal study. We combined provider-reported primary care team cohesion with lab values for patients with diabetes collected during the staggered EHR implementation (2005-2009). We used multivariate regression models with patient-level fixed effects to assess whether team cohesion levels changed the association between outpatient EHR use and clinical outcomes for patients with diabetes. Subjects were comprised of 80,611 patients with diabetes, in whom we measured changes in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). For A1C, EHR use was associated with an average decrease of 0.11% for patients with higher-cohesion primary care teams compared with a decrease of 0.08% for patients with lower-cohesion teams (difference = 0.02% in A1C; 95% CI, 0.01%-0.03%). For LDL-C, EHR use was associated with a decrease of 2.15 mg/dL for patients with higher-cohesion primary care teams compared with a decrease of 1.42 mg/dL for patients with lower-cohesion teams (difference = 0.73 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.41-1.11 mg/dL). Patients cared for by higher cohesion primary care teams experienced modest but statistically significantly greater EHR-related health outcome improvements, compared with patients cared for by providers practicing in lower cohesion teams.

  20. The Impact of Electronic Health Records and Teamwork on Diabetes Care Quality

    PubMed Central

    Graetz, Ilana; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard; Shortell, Stephen M.; Rundall, Thomas G.; Bellows, Jim; Hsu, John; Jaffe, Marc; Reed, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence of the impact Electronic Health Records (EHR) on clinical outcomes remains mixed. The impact EHRs likely depends on the organizational context in which they are used. We focus on one aspect of the organizational context: cohesion of primary care teams. We examined whether team cohesion among primary care team members changed the association of EHR use and changes in clinical outcomes for patients with diabetes. Study Design We combined provider-reported primary care team cohesion with lab values for patients with diabetes collected during the staggered EHR implementation (2005–2009). We used multivariate regression models with patient-level fixed effects to assess whether team cohesion levels changed the association between outpatient EHR use and clinical outcomes for patients with diabetes. Subjects 80,611 patients with diabetes mellitus. Measures Changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) Results For HbA1c, EHR use was associated with an average decrease of 0.11% for patients with higher cohesion primary care teams compared with a decrease of 0.08% for patients with lower cohesion teams (difference 0.02% in HbA1c, 95%CI: 0.01–0.03). For LDL-C, EHR use was associated with a decrease of 2.15 mg/dL for patients with higher cohesion primary teams compared with a decrease of 1.42 mg/dL for patients with lower cohesion teams (difference 0.73 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.41–1.11 mg/dL). Conclusions Patients cared for by higher cohesion primary care teams experienced modest but statistically significantly greater EHR-related health outcome improvements, compared with patients cared for by providers practicing in lower cohesion teams. PMID:26671699

  1. Estimating the impact of Saharan dust on the year 2001 PM 10 record of Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Barnaba, F.; Ammannato, L.

    This paper evaluates the role of Saharan dust advection in the exceeding of the PM 10 thresholds in the city of Rome, Italy. To this purpose, a series of observations and model forecasts recorded in the year 2001 are analysed and discussed. Lidar profiles collected over 168 days of the year are employed to both assess the presence and magnitude of Saharan dust layers over the city and to evaluate the depth of the planetary boundary layer. Backtrajectories are used to verify the Saharan origin of the lidar-sounded air masses. Model predictions of the presence of Saharan dust over the area are employed to fill the time gaps between lidar observations. PM 10 and carbon monoxide records of both a city background (Villa Ada) and a heavy traffic station (Magna Grecia) are cross-analysed with the dust events record and meteorological data. The analysis shows that: (1) Saharan dust was advected over Rome on about 30% of the days of 2001; (2) mean contribution of Saharan dust transport events to daily PM 10 levels was of the order of 20 μg m -3; (3) at the urban background station of Villa Ada, the Saharan contribution caused the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of 50 μg m -3 fixed by the current legislation (35 per year). Conversely, at the heavy traffic station of Magna Grecia the Saharan contribution was not determinant at causing the observed large exceeding of that limit, as well as of the maximum yearly average of 40 μg m -3; (4) 25% of the Saharan advection days (of the order of 100/year at Rome) led to a PM 10 increase >30 μg m -3, 4% caused an increase >50 μg m -3, thus leading on their own to surpassing the 50 μg m -3 daily limit.

  2. Hudson River Paleoclimate, Sea Level, and Human Impact: A Record From Piermont Marsh, NY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdyla; Peteet, Dorothy; Liberman, Louisa; Sugar; Wong; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A 13.77 meter sediment core from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 00 N, 73 55W) records the local and regional vegetational and foraminiferal history of the Hudson Estuary. The sediments were sampled every 4 cm, which represents a decadal to centuryscale resolution. Basal sediment dating is in progress, and the 11-m depth represents about 4000 years. Changes in plant macrofossils and charcoal appear to indicate differences in salinIty and drought, suggesting changes in climate. Scirpus, Salicornia, and high levels of charcoal seem to indicate drier/more saline conditions, while lack of these macrofossils and increases in Chara/Nitella, aquatic leaves, and very little charcoal suggests wetter conditions. Other macrofossils include Carex, Juncus, Polygonum, Zanichellia, Ruppia. High resolution AMS dating of plant macrofossils is in progress, and will be compared with changes in Hudson River sediment cores offshore. Foraminiferal assemblages from key intervals of the core will be presented. Human impact in the upper sediments is visible from the influx of grass seeds, primarily Phragmites, and the ragweed pollen rise.

  3. Hudson River Paleoclimate, Sea Level, and Human Impact: A Record From Piermont Marsh, NY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdyla; Peteet, Dorothy; Liberman, Louisa; Sugar; Wong; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A 13.77 meter sediment core from Piermont Marsh, NY (40 00 N, 73 55W) records the local and regional vegetational and foraminiferal history of the Hudson Estuary. The sediments were sampled every 4 cm, which represents a decadal to centuryscale resolution. Basal sediment dating is in progress, and the 11-m depth represents about 4000 years. Changes in plant macrofossils and charcoal appear to indicate differences in salinIty and drought, suggesting changes in climate. Scirpus, Salicornia, and high levels of charcoal seem to indicate drier/more saline conditions, while lack of these macrofossils and increases in Chara/Nitella, aquatic leaves, and very little charcoal suggests wetter conditions. Other macrofossils include Carex, Juncus, Polygonum, Zanichellia, Ruppia. High resolution AMS dating of plant macrofossils is in progress, and will be compared with changes in Hudson River sediment cores offshore. Foraminiferal assemblages from key intervals of the core will be presented. Human impact in the upper sediments is visible from the influx of grass seeds, primarily Phragmites, and the ragweed pollen rise.

  4. [The clinical impact of treatment discrepancies recorded for 200 patients in an acute geriatric unit].

    PubMed

    Saint-Germain, P; Ruelle, M; Mary, A; Sid Idris, S; Hannat, S; Pelloquin, N; Jouanny, P; Terrier-Lenglet, A

    2016-10-01

    Medication reconciliation is a process used to identify and prevent medication errors at care transition points in hospitals. The present study's main objectives were to quantify the frequency of inadvertent discrepancies (IDs) per patient and estimate the seriousness of the IDs' clinical impact. This was a prospective, single-center study performed in a 38-bed acute geriatric unit. All patients hospitalized over a 70-day period were included in the study. Over a 70-day period, 200 patients were included (mean±SD age: 85.5±5.9). A total of 316 IDs were recorded in 117 patients (58.5%, i.e. 1.58 per patient). One third of the IDs were considered to be serious or even life-threatening. Omission was the most common type of ID (58%). Cardiovascular drugs were most frequently involved in IDs (33%). We observed an average of more than one ID per patient, when comparing drug treatment at home and drug treatment upon admission to hospital. A third of these IDs may be clinically significant. Geriatric populations with polypharmacy and multiple comorbidities are particularly sensitive to this type of error. Medication reconciliation can detect and correct IDs. Collaboration between physicians and pharmacists will improve the quality of patient care and reduce the iatrogenic risk. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic health record impact on pediatric ophthalmologists’ productivity and efficiency at an academic center

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Travis K.; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R.; Tu, Daniel C.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Methods Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Results Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). Conclusions EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. PMID:25456030

  6. The long-term financial impact of electronic health record implementation.

    PubMed

    Howley, Michael J; Chou, Edgar Y; Hansen, Nancy; Dalrymple, Prudence W

    2015-03-01

    To examine the financial impact of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on ambulatory practices. We tracked the practice productivity (ie, number of patient visits) and reimbursement of 30 ambulatory practices for 2 years after EHR implementation and compared each practice to their pre-EHR implementation baseline. Reimbursements significantly increased after EHR implementation even though practice productivity (ie, the number of patient visits) decreased over the 2-year observation period. We saw no evidence of upcoding or increased reimbursement rates to explain the increased revenues. Instead, they were associated with an increase in ancillary office procedures (eg, drawing blood, immunizations, wound care, ultrasounds). The bottom line result-that EHR implementation is associated with increased revenues-is reassuring and offers a basis for further EHR investment. While the productivity losses are consistent with field reports, they also reflect a type of efficiency-the practices are receiving more reimbursement for fewer seeing patients. For the practices still seeing fewer patients after 2 years, the solution likely involves advancing their EHR functionality to include analytics. Although they may still see fewer patients, with EHR analytics, they can focus on seeing the right patients. Practice reimbursements increased after EHR implementation, but there was a long-term decrease in the number of patient visits seen in this ambulatory practice context. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The impact of resveratrol and hydrogen peroxide on muscle cell plasticity shows a dose-dependent interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bosutti, Alessandra; Degens, Hans

    2015-01-01

    While reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in muscle repair, excessive amounts of ROS for extended periods may lead to oxidative stress. Antioxidants, as resveratrol (RS), may reduce oxidative stress, restore mitochondrial function and promote myogenesis and hypertrophy. However, RS dose-effectiveness for muscle plasticity is unclear. Therefore, we investigated RS dose-response on C2C12 myoblast and myotube plasticity 1. in the presence and 2. absence of different degrees of oxidative stress. Low RS concentration (10 μM) stimulated myoblast cell cycle arrest, migration and sprouting, which were inhibited by higher doses (40–60 μM). RS did not increase oxidative capacity. In contrast, RS induced mitochondria loss, reduced cell viability and ROS production, and activated stress response pathways [Hsp70 and pSer36-p66(ShcA) proteins]. However, the deleterious effects of H2O2 (1000 µM) on cell migration were alleviated after preconditioning with 10 µM-RS. This dose also enhanced cell motility mediated by 100 µM-H2O2, while higher RS-doses augmented the H2O2-induced impaired myoblast regeneration and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. In conclusion, low resveratrol doses promoted in vitro muscle regeneration and attenuated the impact of ROS, while high doses augmented the reduced plasticity and metabolism induced by oxidative stress. Thus, the effects of resveratrol depend on its dose and degree of oxidative stress. PMID:25627702

  8. 77 FR 12877 - Record of Decision for the General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision for the General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental... Management Plan for New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. The Record of Decision selects the... the Record of Decision selecting Alternative 5 as the approved General Management Plan for New River...

  9. 77 FR 68751 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Impact Evaluation of Race to the Top and School Improvement Grants... Evaluation of Race to the Top and School Improvement Grants'' (18-13-32) (RTT-SIG). This notice corrects...

  10. 76 FR 29021 - Written Re-Evaluation and Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Relocation of the Panama City-Bay County International Airport (2006..., Environmental Protection Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950... Federal Aviation Administration Written Re-Evaluation and Record of Decision for the Final...

  11. Color tuning in alert macaque V1 assessed with fMRI and single-unit recording shows a bias toward daylight colors.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Liu, Yang O; Lafer-Sousa, Luis; Wiest, Michael C; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-05-01

    Colors defined by the two intermediate directions in color space, "orange-cyan" and "lime-magenta," elicit the same spatiotemporal average response from the two cardinal chromatic channels in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). While we found LGN functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to these pairs of colors were statistically indistinguishable, primary visual cortex (V1) fMRI responses were stronger to orange-cyan. Moreover, linear combinations of single-cell responses to cone-isolating stimuli of V1 cone-opponent cells also yielded stronger predicted responses to orange-cyan over lime-magenta, suggesting these neurons underlie the fMRI result. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that V1 recombines LGN signals into "higher-order" mechanisms tuned to noncardinal color directions. In light of work showing that natural images and daylight samples are biased toward orange-cyan, our findings further suggest that V1 is adapted to daylight. V1, especially double-opponent cells, may function to extract spatial information from color boundaries correlated with scene-structure cues, such as shadows lit by ambient blue sky juxtaposed with surfaces reflecting sunshine.

  12. Record of two species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) new for Madagascar and molecular study showing the paraphylies of the subgenus Oecacta and the Schultzei group.

    PubMed

    Augot, D; Randrianambinintsoa, F J; Gasser, A; Depaquit, J

    2013-08-01

    Culicoides are vectors of diseases of Veterinary Medicine importance (bluetongue, African horse sickness, Schmallenberg virus) all over the world. In the present study, we report two species new for Madagascar: C. nevilli and C. enderleini. They belong to the Schultzei group which is sometimes classified in the subgenus Oecacta and sometimes in the subgenus Remmia, depending on authors. Consequently, we carried out a molecular cladistics of these groups based on cytochrome C oxidase subunit I mtDNA sequences. We processed the Malagasy specimens and some C. furens (the Oecacta type-species) caught in Florida and we analyzed their sequences and those available in Genbank: C. schultzei, C. oxystoma, C. festivipennis, C. brunnicans, C. kibunensis, C. truncorum and C. vexans. C. (Avaritia) imicola have been selected as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony analysis showed the paraphylies of the Schultzei group (=Remmia) and of the subgenus Oecacta if the first group is excluded from the latter. Our results underline the doubtful current classification and need to be validated by other molecular markers in the future.

  13. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    South Asia represents a global "hot-spot" for air-quality and climate impacts. Since the end of the 20th Century, field experiments and satellite observations identified a thick layer of atmospheric pollutants extending from the Indian Ocean up to the atmosphere of the Himalayas. Since large amount of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) - like atmospheric aerosol (in particular, the light-absorbing aerosol) and ozone - characterize this region, severe implications were recognized for population health, ecosystem integrity as well as regional climate impacts, especially for what concerns hydrological cycle, monsoon regimes and cryosphere. Since 2006, the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95N, 86.82 E, 5079 m a.s.l.), a global station of the WMO/GAW programme has been active in the eastern Nepal Himalaya, not far from the Mt. Everest. NCO-P is located away from large direct anthropogenic pollution sources. The closest major urban area is Kathmandu (200 km south-west from the measurement site). As being located along the Khumbu valley, the observations are representative of synoptic-scale and mountain thermal circulation, providing direct information about the vertical transport of pollutants/climate-altering compounds to the Himalayas and to the free troposphere. In the framework of international programmes (GAW/WMO, UNEP-ABC, AERONET) the following continuous measurement programmes have been carried out at NCO-P: surface ozone, aerosol size distribution (from 10 nm to 25 micron), total particle number, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, equivalent BC, PM1-PM10, AOD by sun-photometry, global solar radiation (SW and LW), meteorology. Long-term sampling programmes for the off-line determination of halogenated gases and aerosol chemistry have been also activated. The atmospheric observation records at NCO-P, now representing the longest time series available for the high Himalayas, provided the first direct evidences about the systematic

  14. Impact of implementing alerts about medication black-box warnings in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Yu, Donghui Tony; Seger, Diane L; Lasser, Karen E; Karson, Andrew S; Fiskio, Julie M; Seger, Andrew C; Bates, David W

    2011-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration issues black-box warnings (BBWs) regarding medications with serious risks, yet physician adherence to the warnings is low. We evaluated the impact of delivering BBW-based alerts about drug-drug, drug-disease, and drug-laboratory interactions for prescription medications in outpatients in an electronic health record with clinical decision support. We compared the frequency of non-adherence to all BBWs about drug-drug, drug-disease, and drug-laboratory interactions for 30 drugs/drug classes, and by individual drugs/drug groups with BBWs between the pre- and post-intervention periods. We used multivariate analysis to identify independent risk factors for non-adherence to BBWs. There was a slightly higher frequency of non-adherence to BBWs after the intervention (4.8% vs. 5.1%, p=0.045). In multivariate analyses, after adjustment for patient and provider characteristics and site of care, medications prescribed during the pre-intervention period were less likely to violate BBWs compared to those prescribed during the post-intervention period (OR 0.67, 95% CI, 0.47-0.96). However, black-box warning violations did decrease after the intervention for BBWs about drug-drug interactions (6.1% vs. 1.8%, p<0.0001) and drug-pregnancy interactions (5.1% vs. 3.6%, p=0.01). Ambulatory care computerized order entry with prescribing alerts about BBWs did not improve clinicians' overall adherence to BBWs, though it did improve adherence for specific clinically important subcategories. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cost, staffing and quality impact of bedside electronic medical record (EMR) in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Hicks, Lanis; Petroski, Gregory F; Madsen, Richard W; Alexander, Greg; Galambos, Colleen; Conn, Vicki; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Zwygart-Stauffacher, Mary; Greenwald, Leslie

    2010-09-01

    There is growing political pressure for nursing homes to implement the electronic medical record (EMR) but there is little evidence of its impact on resident care. The purpose of this study was to test the unique and combined contributions of EMR at the bedside and on-site clinical consultation by gerontological expert nurses on cost, staffing, and quality of care in nursing homes. Eighteen nursing facilities in 3 states participated in a 4-group 24-month comparison: Group 1 implemented bedside EMR, used nurse consultation; Group 2 implemented bedside EMR only; Group 3 used nurse consultation only; Group 4 neither. Intervention sites (Groups 1 and 2) received substantial, partial financial support from CMS to implement EMR. Costs and staffing were measured from Medicaid cost reports, and staff retention from primary data collection; resident outcomes were measured by MDS-based quality indicators and quality measures. Total costs increased in both intervention groups that implemented technology; staffing and staff retention remained constant. Improvement trends were detected in resident outcomes of ADLs, range of motion, and high-risk pressure sores for both intervention groups but not in comparison groups. Implementation of bedside EMR is not cost neutral. There were increased total costs for all intervention facilities. These costs were not a result of increased direct care staffing or increased staff turnover. Nursing home leaders and policy makers need to be aware of on-going hardware and software costs as well as costs of continual technical support for the EMR and constant staff orientation to use the system. EMR can contribute to the quality of nursing home care and can be enhanced by on-site consultation by nurses with graduate education in nursing and expertise in gerontology. Copyright 2010 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inclusion of cow records in genomic evaluations and impact on bias due to preferential treatment.

    PubMed

    Dassonneville, Romain; Baur, Aurelia; Fritz, Sébastien; Boichard, Didier; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2012-12-27

    Today, genomic evaluations are an essential feature of dairy cattle breeding. Initially, genomic evaluation targeted young bulls but recently, a rapidly increasing number of females (both heifers and cows) are being genotyped. A rising issue is whether and how own performance of genotyped cows should be included in genomic evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of including yield deviations, i.e. own performance of cows, in genomic evaluations. Two different genomic evaluations were performed: one including only reliable daughter yield deviations of proven bulls based on their non-genotyped daughters, and one including both daughter yield deviations for males and own yield deviations for genotyped females. Milk yield, the trait most prone to preferential treatment, and somatic cell count, for which such a bias is very unlikely, were studied. Data consisted of two groups of animals from the three main dairy breeds in France: 11 884 elite females genotyped by breeding companies and 7032 cows genotyped for a research project (and considered as randomly selected from the commercial population). For several measures that could be related to preferential treatment bias, the elite group presented a different pattern of estimated breeding values for milk yield compared to the other combinations of trait and group: for instance, for milk yield, the average difference between estimated breeding values with or without own yield deviations was significantly different from 0 for this group. Correlations between estimated breeding values with or without yield deviations were lower for elite females than for randomly selected cows for milk yield but were very similar for somatic cell count. This study demonstrated that including own milk performance of elite females leads to biased (over-estimated) genomic evaluations. Thus, milk production records of elite cows require specific treatment in genomic evaluation.

  17. Circulating CD105 shows significant impact in patients of oral cancer and promotes malignancy of cancer cells via CCL20.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Han; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Lin, Yu-Tsai; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Mei; Lu, Hui; Chien, Chih-Yen

    2016-02-01

    CD105 is rich in endothelium cells and is involved in angiogenesis. Higher microvascular density of tumor is also related to the prognosis in a variety of cancers. In this present study, patients with positive N classification, advanced T classification, advanced TNM stage, extracapsular spread of lymph nodes (ECS), and perineural invasion had significantly higher levels of peripheral vein (pCD105) and venous return from tumor (tCD105) in 71 patients with OSCC compared to 13 healthy volunteers. Those with higher pCD105 or tCD105 levels had significantly poorer 5-year disease-specific survival rate (DDS) and overall survival rate (OS). The tCD105 and pCD105 levels and ECS were the independent prognostic factors by the multivariate analysis according to the Cox regression model in 5-year DDS and OS rate. SAS and SCC4 cells treated with CD105 showed the increase in migration, invasion, and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CCL20 expression participated in CD105-elicited cell motility in oral cancer cells. In conclusion, higher level of circulating CD105 is related to adverse pathological features among patients with OSCC. It is also a useful marker for evaluating the prognosis and targeting therapeutics of OSCC.

  18. Impact melting on Venus: Some considerations for the nature of the cratering record.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Cintala, Mark J.

    1995-03-01

    Modeling the volume of impact melt and its variation with the size of the impact event indicates that, for similar-sized final craters, venusian impacts create about 25% more impact melt than terrestrial impacts. More significantly, venusian impacts result in approximately a factor of three more impact melt than lunar events producing equivalent-sized craters. This difference is due to the higher average impact velocity and higher ambient temperatures on Venus, which enhance impact-melt production, combined with higher planetary gravity, which inhibits crater growth for a given impact event. The initial, higher intrinsic temperature of incorporated clastic debris also contributes to impact melts with higher initial temperatures, lower viscosities, and longer cooling times on Venus with respect to lunar impact melts. The enhanced production of relatively hot, low-viscosity impact melts under venusian impact conditions may account for the long exterior runout flows and also for the radar-smooth interior floors of some venusian craters. We also argue that the anomalously deep character of Cleopatra may be attributed to drainage of its interior impact-melt pool to form the smooth deposits in the adjacent Fortuna Tessera. Increasing depth of melting with increasing cavity size, resulting in the progressive weakening of transient-cavity floor material, is offered as a possible explanation for the replacement of uplifted central peaks by rings with increasing crater diameter. A consequence of this process is that interior rings will increase in diameter relative to the diameter of the final crater's rim crest with increasing crater size, a trend observed on Venus and other terrestrial planets. This weakening of the target due to relatively enhanced impact-melt production in the venusian environment makes it unlikely that Orientale-style impact basins ever formed on Venus.

  19. Chicago Record Shows Duncan as Collaborator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    This article features American educator administrator Arne Duncan, whose seven-year tenure as the head of the 408,000-student Chicago school district has been marked by innovations to improve the quality of teachers and principals and a focus on basic reading and math skills. His low-key, collaborative style was a key to his success in Chicago,…

  20. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P < .0001; and PRP-C, P < .0001) stimulated migration of MPCs. All platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce

  1. Impact of sea-level change on the paleo Primary Productivity record in the NW African coastal upwelling area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, X.; Paul, A.

    2009-04-01

    A sea level decrease of 120 m at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically modifies the shelf morphology of the North West African coastal upwelling area. Using a regional coupled circulation-ecosystem model subject to a set of boundary conditions that reflect Present Day (PD) and LGM conditions, we aim to quantify how changes in shelf morphology, as well as changes in sub-surface nutrient concentrations or local climatic conditions, influence the biological productivity and its record in the sediments. The oceanic circulation is simulated by the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), taking advantage of the AGRIF (Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran) technique to set-up an embedded grid structure. A high-resolution grid (1/10°) is centred on our study area, and is nested in a larger, coarser grid (1/2°) over the Atlantic domain. Boundary and initial conditions for PD and LGM are provided by global simulations performed with the University of Victoria Earth System-Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We used NPZD (Nutrient, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Detritus) biogeochemical models. We have identified the following issues in interpreting a sedimentary record at a fixed core location as an indicator of the total upwelling productivity: - Changes in the shelf morphology due to sea-level change appeared to have an impact on the productivity of the upwelling itself, but also to displace the high-productivity zone. - Comparing the Primary Production (PP) between PD and LGM at a given geographical location, or comparing the zonal mean of the PP, can show opposite results. The comparison at geographical locations assumes a direct connection between the production in the surface ocean and the underlying sediments. The comparison of the zonal mean of PP or sediment flux assumes that lateral advection of particulates and sediment transport are significant processes in producing the sedimentary signal at a given location. We illustrate the various situations, with or without

  2. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Lead-based Paint System of Records

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lead-based Paint System of Records collects personally identifiable information, test scores, and submitted fees. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies.

  3. Human Impact on Biogeochemical Cycles and Deposition Dynamics in Karstic Lakes: El Tobar Lake Record (Central Iberian Range, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro-Lostres, F.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Giralt, S.; Hillman, A. L.; Brown, E. T.; Abbott, M. B.; Valero-Garces, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Karstic lakes in the Iberian Range (Central Spain) provide a unique opportunity to test the human impact in the watersheds and the aquatic environments during historical times. We reconstruct the depositional evolution and the changes in biogeochemical cycles of El Tobar karstic lake, evaluating the response and the resilience of this Mediterranean ecosystem to both anthropogenic impacts and climate forcing during the last 1000 years. Lake El Tobar (40°32'N, 3°56'W; 1200 m a.s.l.; see Figure), 16 ha surface area, 20 m max. depth and permanent meromictic conditions, has a relatively large watershed (1080 ha). Five 8 m long sediment cores and short gravity cores where recovered, imaged, logged with a Geotek, described and sampled for geochemical analyses (elemental TOC, TIC, TN, TS), XRF scanner and ICP-MS, and dated (137Cs and 10 14C assays). The record is a combination of: i) laminated dark silts with terrestrial remains and diatoms and ii) massive to banded light silts (mm to cm -thick layers) interpreted as flood deposits. Sediments, TOC, and Br/Ti and Sr/Ca ratios identify four periods of increased sediment delivery occurred about 1500, 1800, 1850 and 1900 AD, coinciding with large land uses changes of regional relevance such as land clearing and increased population. Two main hydrological changes are clearly recorded in El Tobar sequence. The first one, marked by a sharp decrease in Mg, Ca and Si concentrations, took place about 1200 AD, and during a period of increasing lake level, which shifted from shallower to deeper facies and from carbonatic to clastic and organic-rich deposition. This change was likely related to increased water availability synchronous to the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age. The second one was a canal construction in 1967 AD when a nearby reservoir provided fresh water influx to the lake, and resulted in stronger meromictic conditions in the system after canal construction, which is marked by lower

  4. Use of the electronic medical record for trauma resuscitations: how does this impact documentation completeness?

    PubMed

    Bilyeu, Pam; Eastes, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Although many trauma centers across the country have implemented electronic medical records (EMRs) for inpatient documentation, they have avoided the use of EMR during the fast-paced trauma resuscitations. The objective of this study was to determine whether documenting electronically during trauma resuscitations has resulted in improvement or degradation of the completeness of data recorded. Forty critical data points were evaluated in 100 pre-EMR charts and 100 post-EMR charts. There was improvement in completeness of charting in 25% of the electronic records reviewed and degradation of completeness of charting in 18% of the records, for a net improvement in completeness of charting of 7% in the electronic records reviewed.

  5. Extraterrestrial Impact Event Recorded in the Late Triassic Deep-Sea Deposits from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Nozaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Onoue, T.; Kiyokawa, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on the Earth, including the 90-km-diameter Manicouagan crater in Canada (Spray and Kelly, 1998). Anomalously high platinum group element (PGE) concentrations have been reported from the Upper Triassic deep-sea deposits in Japan, which have been interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event forming the Manicouagan crater (Onoue et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013). However, previous studies have not clarified the composition of the projectile. Here we report the PGE element ratios and osmium (Os) isotopic compositions of the Upper Triassic ejecta layers in Japan in order to understand the projectile component. Evidence for the Late Triassic impact event has been discovered in the deep-sea claystone layers at four bedded chert sections in the Japanese accretionary complex. The claystone layers contain microspherules, Ni-rich magnetite grains and high abundance of PGEs (Onoue et al., 2012). Biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarian fossils from the studied sections revealed that the claystone layers occur embedded in the upper middle Norian (Sugiyama, 1997; Onoue et al., 2012). Identification of the projectile is attempted by comparing the isotope and elemental ratios of the ejecta deposit with similar data obtained from meteorites. The Ru/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios of all the claystone samples from the study sites are plotted along the mixing line between chondrites and upper continental crust. Although chondrites cannot be distinguished from iron meteorites by using PGE/Ir ratios, the claystone layers have Cr/Ir ratios between 104-105, indicating that the claystone layers are clearly contaminated by chondritic material. The Os isotope data show an abrupt and marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio of ~0.477 to unradiogenic values of ~0.126 in a claystone layer within a middle Norian bedded chert, indicating the input of chondrite-derived Os into seawater. The

  6. Impact of Holocene climate variability on lacustrine records and human settlements in South Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, T.; Bichet, V.; Simonneau, A.; Rius, D.; Massa, C.; Gauthier, E.; Richard, H.; Magny, M.

    2015-11-01

    Due to its sensitivity to climate changes, south Greenland is a particularly suitable area to study past global climate changes and their influence on locale Human settlements. A paleohydrological investigation was therefore carried out on two river-fed lakes: Lake Qallimiut and Little Kangerluluup, both located close to the Labrador Sea in the historic farming center of Greenland. Two sediment cores (QAL-2011 and LKG-2011), spanning the last four millennia, were retrieved and showed similar thin laminae, described by high magnetic susceptibility and density, high titanium and TOC / TN atomic ratio, and coarse grain size. They are also characterized either by inverse grading followed by normal grading or by normal grading only and a prevalence of red amorphous particles and lignocellulosic fragments, typical of flood deposits. Flood events showed similar trend in both records: they mainly occurred during cooler and wetter periods characterized by weaker Greenlandic paleo-temperatures, substantial glacier advances, and a high precipitation on the Greenlandic Ice Sheet and North Atlantic ice-rafting events. They can therefore be interpreted as a result of ice and snow-melting episodes. They occurred especially during rapid climate changes (RCC) such as the Middle to Late Holocene transition around 2250 BC, the Sub-boreal/Sub-atlantic transition around 700 BC and the Little Ice Age (LIA) between AD 1300 and AD 1900, separated by cycles of 1500 years and driven by solar forcing. These global RCC revealed by QAL-2011 and LKG-2011 flood events may have influenced Human settlements in south Greenland, especially the paleo-Eskimo cultures and the Norse settlement, and have been mainly responsible for their demise.

  7. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  8. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  9. A pilot study of the impact of an educational intervention aimed at improving medical record documentation.

    PubMed

    Farzandipour, M; Meidani, Z; Rangraz Jeddi, F; Gilasi, H; Shokrizadeh Arani, L; Fakharian, E; Saddik, B

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown the importance of medical staff education in improving chart documentation and accuracy of medical coding. This study aimed to examine the effect of an educational intervention on recording medical diagnoses among a sample of medical residents based at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. This pilot study was conducted in 2010 and involved 19 residents in different specialties (internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery). Guidelines for recording diagnostic information related to surgery, obstetrics and internal medicine were taught at a five-hour lecture. Five medical records from each resident from before and after the educational intervention were assessed using a checklist based on relevant diagnostic information related to each discipline. Data were analysed using a paired t-test and Wilcoxson signed rank test. There was no improvement in the quality and accuracy of the recording of obstetric diagnoses (type, place, outcome and complications of delivery) after the training. There was also no effect on the documentation of underlying causes and clinical manifestations of disease by internal medicine and surgery residents (p=0.285 and p=0.584, respectively). The single education session did not improve recording of diagnoses among residents. The gathering and recording of complete, accurate and high quality medical records requires interaction between the hospital management, health information management professionals and healthcare providers. It is therefore essential to develop a more sophisticated portfolio of strategies that involves these key stakeholders.

  10. The Impact of the Revised Sunspot Record on Solar Irradiance Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.; Krivova, N.; Wu, C. J.; Lean, J.

    2016-11-01

    Reliable historical records of the total solar irradiance (TSI) are needed to assess the extent to which long-term variations in the Sun's radiant energy that is incident upon Earth may exacerbate (or mitigate) the more dominant warming in recent centuries that is due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. We investigate the effects that the new Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations (SILSO) sunspot-number time series may have on model reconstructions of the TSI. In contemporary TSI records, variations on timescales longer than about a day are dominated by the opposing effects of sunspot darkening and facular brightening. These two surface magnetic features, retrieved either from direct observations or from solar-activity proxies, are combined in TSI models to reproduce the current TSI observational record. Indices that manifest solar-surface magnetic activity, in particular the sunspot-number record, then enable reconstructing historical TSI. Revisions of the sunspot-number record therefore affect the magnitude and temporal structure of TSI variability on centennial timescales according to the model reconstruction methods that are employed. We estimate the effects of the new SILSO record on two widely used TSI reconstructions, namely the NRLTSI2 and the SATIRE models. We find that the SILSO record has little effect on either model after 1885, but leads to solar-cycle fluctuations with greater amplitude in the TSI reconstructions prior. This suggests that many eighteenth- and nineteenth-century cycles could be similar in amplitude to those of the current Modern Maximum. TSI records based on the revised sunspot data do not suggest a significant change in Maunder Minimum TSI values, and from comparing this era to the present, we find only very small potential differences in the estimated solar contributions to the climate with this new sunspot record.

  11. The cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Neukum, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    The cratering records of terrestrial planets are discussed with special consideration given to Mercury. The geologic units on Mercury most relevant to its cratering record are reviewed, and new observations are presented on the issues of equilibrium and saturation. The implications of the Mercurian cratering record for geologic processes are examined. Particular attention is given to the origin of objects responsible for the period of late heavy bombardment on terrestrial planets; it is suggested that the impactors were accretional remnants left over from the formation of the terrestrial planets and confined to the inner solar system. The cratering record in the outer solar system may have been produced largely by objects in planetocentric orbits.

  12. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  13. Show Code.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    "Let's get one thing straight: there is no such thing as a show code," my attending asserted, pausing for effect. "You either try to resuscitate, or you don't. None of this halfway junk." He spoke so loudly that the two off-service consultants huddled at computers at the end of the unit looked up… We did four rounds of compressions and pushed epinephrine twice. It was not a long code. We did good, strong compressions and coded this man in earnest until the end. Toward the final round, though, as I stepped up to do compressions, my attending looked at me in a deep way. It was a look in between willing me as some object under his command and revealing to me everything that lay within his brash, confident surface but could not be spoken. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  14. Spatial distribution and historical records of mercury sedimentation in urban lakes under urbanization impacts.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Deng, Hong; Xu, Bo; Ding, Jing; Gao, Jin-Bo; Hong, You-Wei; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-02-15

    China is assumed one of the largest contributors to the world's total mercury (Hg) emissions, with a rapid increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions. However, little is known about Hg fate and transport in urban areas of China. In this study, total Hg contents in surface (0-5 cm) sediments from lakes in 14 parks (3 in the central urban core (CUC) area, 5 in the developed urban (DDU) area, 2 in the developing urban (DIU) area, and 4 in the suburban (SU) area) and (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from lakes in 5 parks (3 in the CUC and 2 in the DDU) in Shanghai were assessed to compare current patterns (urbanization effect) with the historical records of Hg emissions over the past century. Total Hg content in surface sediments showed a clear urbanization pattern. Dated sediment cores revealed a 2-3 fold increase in total Hg content, while Hg fluxes exponentially increased from ~1900 to present and accelerated since 1990 when China's economy and urbanization booms started. Anthropogenic Hg fluxes in post-2000 ranged from 253 to 1452 μg m(-2) yr(-1), 2-7 times greater than preindustrial (pre-1900) Hg fluxes. Total Hg and Pb contents in both surface sediments and sediment cores were highly correlated and Hg flux in sediment cores also significantly correlated with annual coal consumption in the period 1949-2008. The significant correlations suggest that coal combustion is a major source of Hg emission in Shanghai. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic Susceptibility and Geochemistry Records in the Yax-1 Borehole in the Chicxulub Impact Crater: A paleoclimatic approach in the K/Pg and P/E Boundaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marca-Castillo, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Buitrón Sánchez, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Chicxulub impact crater is located in the northwestern sector of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. It is the best-preserved multi-ring impact crater on Earth. Several studies have been focused in this crater structure due its association with the Cretaceous/Paleogenous boundary events. The aim of this study is document the abrupt climate changes during the K/Pg and P/E boundaries based on the stratigraphy, magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility) and geochemical (major elements) records in the Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) borehole in the Chicxulub impact crater. The Yax 1 was drilled at 20° 44' 38.45'' N, 89° 43' 6.70'' W. Two intervals from 830 to 750 and between 750 and 700 m depth were selected for this study. Magnetic susceptibility logs and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measures were taken every 10 cm using a Bartington magnetic susceptibility meter and a Thermo Scientific Niton XL3tGOLDD XRF analyzer. Results show variations in magnetic susceptibility logs and major elements (Ca, Si, Fe, Ti and Si) content in the K/Pg boundary at ca. 794 m depth. Magnetic susceptibility decrease abruptly, Ca values increase, and the other elements show low values. Geochemical results, manly the Ca-record, suggest that the P/E boundary might have happened around 745 m depth. These values are compared with 13C isotopes and they coincide with the Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE), suggesting their relationship with the abrupt climate change and with the ocean acidification.

  16. 78 FR 68465 - NiSource, Inc.; Record of Decision, Habitat Conservation Plan, Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... action that may affect the quality of the human environment and therefore is subject to ] review under... Impact Statement, and Permit Issuance AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... may obtain an electronic copy of the ROD, Final Environmental Impact Statement, and Multi-Species...

  17. Scaling Impact-Melt and Crater Dimensions: Implications for the Lunar Cratering Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala , Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of impact on the solid bodies of the solar system are manifest and legion. Although the visible effects on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon's, are the most obvious testimony to the spatial and temporal importance of impacts, less dramatic chemical and petrographic characteristics of materials affected by shock abound. Both the morphologic and petrologic aspects of impact cratering are important in deciphering lunar history, and, ideally, each should complement the other. In practice, however, a gap has persisted in relating large-scale cratering processes to petrologic and geochemical data obtained from lunar samples. While this is due in no small part to the fact that no Apollo mission unambiguously sampled deposits of a large crater, it can also be attributed to the general state of our knowledge of cratering phenomena, particularly those accompanying large events. The most common shock-metamorphosed lunar samples are breccias, but a substantial number are impact-melt rocks. Indeed, numerous workers have called attention to the importance of impact-melt rocks spanning a wide range of ages in the lunar sample collection. Photogeologic studies also have demonstrated the widespread occurrence of impact-melt lithologies in and around lunar craters. Thus, it is clear that impact melting has been a fundamental process operating throughout lunar history, at scales ranging from pits formed on individual regolith grains to the largest impact basins. This contribution examines the potential relationship between impact melting on the Moon and the interior morphologies of large craters and peaking basins. It then examines some of the implications of impact melting at such large scales for lunar-sample provenance and evolution of the lunar crust.

  18. Spreadsheet evaluation of computerized medical records: the impact on quality, time, and money.

    PubMed

    Pliskin, N; Glezerman, M; Modai, I; Weiler, D

    1996-04-01

    Information and communication technologies are presumed to play a critical role in improving effectiveness and efficiency of clinical care. Although the most promising directions of technological development are microcomputer-generated computerized medical record systems, documenting their value has been a major challenge for health care providers. This paper proposes a 15-item spreadsheet instrument for evaluating computerized medical records, and demonstrates how it was experimentally applied to a 6-year long experience at three sites. In conclusion, preliminary implications and guidelines are drawn with regard to practice and research in this area.

  19. Geohistorical records indicate no impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on oyster body size

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Documentation of the near- and long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, one of the largest environmental disasters in US history, is still ongoing. We used a novel before-after-control-impact analysis to test the hypothesis that average body size of intertidal populations of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) inhabiting impacted areas in Louisiana decreased due to increased stress/mortality related to the oil spill. Time-averaged death assemblages of oysters were used to establish a pre-spill baseline of body-size structure for four impacted and four control locations along a 350 km stretch of Louisiana's coastline. Post-spill body sizes were then measured from live oysters at each site in order to evaluate the differences in body size between oiled (i.e. impact) and unoiled (i.e. control) locations before and after the spill. Our results indicate that average body size of oysters remained relatively unchanged after the oil spill. There were also no temporal patterns in temperature, salinity or disease prevalence that could have explained our results. Together, these findings suggest that oysters either recovered rapidly following the immediate impact of the DWH oil spill, or that its impact was not severe enough to influence short-term population dynamics of the oyster beds. PMID:28018663

  20. Geohistorical records indicate no impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on oyster body size.

    PubMed

    Dietl, Gregory P; Durham, Stephen R

    2016-11-01

    Documentation of the near- and long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, one of the largest environmental disasters in US history, is still ongoing. We used a novel before-after-control-impact analysis to test the hypothesis that average body size of intertidal populations of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) inhabiting impacted areas in Louisiana decreased due to increased stress/mortality related to the oil spill. Time-averaged death assemblages of oysters were used to establish a pre-spill baseline of body-size structure for four impacted and four control locations along a 350 km stretch of Louisiana's coastline. Post-spill body sizes were then measured from live oysters at each site in order to evaluate the differences in body size between oiled (i.e. impact) and unoiled (i.e. control) locations before and after the spill. Our results indicate that average body size of oysters remained relatively unchanged after the oil spill. There were also no temporal patterns in temperature, salinity or disease prevalence that could have explained our results. Together, these findings suggest that oysters either recovered rapidly following the immediate impact of the DWH oil spill, or that its impact was not severe enough to influence short-term population dynamics of the oyster beds.

  1. The lacustrine record of the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event of the Boltysh Impact Crater, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation response to rapid climate change in the geological record is a fundamental element in our understanding of ancient environments; however, the relationships between climate change, plant ecosystems and geological processes are still not fully understood. The filling of the K/Pg Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine, comprise a complete terrestrial sedimentological, palynological and δ13C record of the negative carbon isotope excursion of the early Danian hyperthermal episode. The meteorite impact formed a crater of c. 24 km in diameter at c. 65.2 Ma, which was filled with more than 500 m of organic- and fossil-rich claystones, siltstones and marls, interbedded with sandstones and less frequently gravelly sandstones. The sedimentary succession indicates a deep lake setting that was characterised by fluvial input of reworked basement material via a marginal delta system. Palynological investigations indicate a post-impact early- to mid-successional flora followed by a barren zone which coincides with the age of the Chicxulub impact and therefore argues for a series of impact events at the K/Pg boundary. This barren zone was succeeded by a fern spike marking an initial plant re-colonization. The following palynoflora suggests moisture availability oscillations (MAOs) reflecting 41 k.y. obliquity cycles, which can be correlated with lithological fluctuations during lake evolution. The aim is to conduct a detailed, complete facies analysis, and to correlate lake evolutionary aspects with climatic oscillations and vegetation change within the catchment area. This study will be compared with records of similar hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Western Interior in North America. This integrated approach will help to better understand the controlling factors of global warming events, and their effects on ancient sedimentary environments and ecosystems.

  2. Electronic Medical Records and Their Impact on Resident and Medical Student Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Craig R.; Nguyen, Hien H.; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Electronic medical records (EMRs) are becoming prevalent and integral tools for residents and medical students. EMRs can integrate point-of-service information delivery within the context of patient care. Though it may be an educational tool, little is known about how EMR technology is currently used for medical learners. Method: The…

  3. Electronic Medical Records and Their Impact on Resident and Medical Student Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Craig R.; Nguyen, Hien H.; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Electronic medical records (EMRs) are becoming prevalent and integral tools for residents and medical students. EMRs can integrate point-of-service information delivery within the context of patient care. Though it may be an educational tool, little is known about how EMR technology is currently used for medical learners. Method: The…

  4. Impact of Electronic Health Records on Nurses' Information Seeking and Discriminating Skills for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Adria S.

    2013-01-01

    In February 2009, the United States government passed into law the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) providing incentive money for hospitals and care providers to implement a certified electronic health record (EHR) in order to promote the adoption and…

  5. 77 FR 74027 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ..., Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National... availability of the Amended Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park,...

  6. Impact of wind on ambient noise recorded by seismic array in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Grad, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Seismic interferometry and beam-forming techniques were applied to the ambient noise recorded during January 2014 at the `13 BB star' array composed of thirteen seismic stations located in northern Poland. The circular and symmetric geometry of the array allowed the evaluation of the azimuths of noise sources and the velocities of recovered surface waves with a good reliability. After having pre-processed the raw records of the ambient noise in time- and frequency-domain, we studied the associated power spectral density to identify the frequency bands suitable for the recovery of the surface waves. Then the cross-correlation was performed between all the station pairs of the array to retrieve the Green's function, from which the velocity range of the surface waves can be determined. Making use of that analysis, the direction of the noise wavefield was linked to the maximum amplitude of the beam-power, estimated by the mixing in the frequency-domain of all the corresponding noise records. The results were related day by day to the mean wind velocity around Europe at 10 m above ground level obtained from global surveys carried out during the same month. Significant correlation between the direction of maximum beam-power associated to the ambient noise recorded at `13 BB star' and the average wind velocity was found.

  7. 77 FR 18857 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for Alabama Beach Mouse General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Mouse General Conservation Plan for Incidental Take on the Fort Morgan Peninsula, Baldwin County, AL... Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates). For record of decision (ROD) availability, see... of the Alabama beach mouse incidental to construction of up to 500 single-family...

  8. 76 FR 32223 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for Incidental Take of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Incidental Take of the Endangered Alabama Beach Mouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION..., for take of Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates). For record of decision (ROD... projects about 600 feet further inland to avoid habitats considered essential for Alabama beach...

  9. Impact of Electronic Health Records on Nurses' Information Seeking and Discriminating Skills for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Adria S.

    2013-01-01

    In February 2009, the United States government passed into law the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) providing incentive money for hospitals and care providers to implement a certified electronic health record (EHR) in order to promote the adoption and…

  10. 77 FR 47826 - Record of Decision for F35A Training Basing Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: On August 1, 2012, the... relevant factors. The FEIS was made available to the public on June 15, 2012 through a NOA in the Federal... FEIS. Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations (40 CFR Part 1506.6)...

  11. The 7 ka pollen record of Akovitika: Key evidence for environmental change and human impact in the SW Peloponnese, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, M.; Knipping, M.; Brückner, H.; Kraft, J. C.; Kiderlen, M.

    2009-04-01

    Detailed investigations on the Holocene stratigraphy of the lower Messenian plain (SW Peloponnese, Greece) carried out within the framework of a geoarchaeological study on the Protogeometric Poseidon Sanctuary of Akovitika indicate significant shoreline fluctuations during Holocene times. Sedimentary, geochemical, mineralogical, and microfossil analyses of 18 vibracores document a maximum landward shoreline displacement around 3000 BC. Subsequently, increased sediment loads entering the gulf predominantly at the eastern head overcompensated the decelerating eustatic sea level rise and triggered beach ridge progradation. Synopses of adjacent sediment cores reveal extended wetland formation in the swales between the sand ridges throughout the Holocene. The swamp areas enlarged continuously during the late Holocene marine regression and persisted until the large-scaled implementation of drainage measures in the 20th century. However, the strata representing former wetland environments provide excellently preserved pollen assemblages and enable detailed vegetation reconstruction of certain time windows within the past 7000 years. During early Neolithic times the lower Messenian plain was covered with open vegetation adapted to the seasonal standing water bodies. Deciduous oak forests were abundant but restricted to the surrounding marl terraces while no signs of human impact appear in the pollen record so far. In mid- to late Neolithic times initial modification of the local vegetation composition is evident. The Neogene terraces nearby were still covered with forest, albeit Pinus and evergreen oak gradually started replacing deciduous oak. Anthropogenic influence on the vegetation was moderate although the upper part of the sequence (approx. 3500 BC) contains increasing amounts of settlement indicators. Exceptionally high percentages of Erica and Cistus as well as of charcoal fragments point to extensive burning of woodland and subsequent sustained establishment of a

  12. Natural and Human Impacts on the Coastal Environment of Taiwan Recorded in Marine Sediments During the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution marine records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the coastal environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), δ13CTOC, δ13C and δ18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The δ13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The δ18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic marine sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the coastal region of Taiwan not only caused changes in marine sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the marine ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture

  13. Climate variability and human impact in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives from pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flantua, S. G. A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuille, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M. P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M. S.; Whitney, B. S.; González-Arango, C.

    2016-02-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past 2 millennia. Global efforts to model regional climate modes are in the process of being validated against, and integrated with, records of past vegetation change. For South America, however, the full potential of vegetation records for evaluating and improving climate models has hitherto not been sufficiently acknowledged due to an absence of information on the spatial and temporal coverage of study sites. This paper therefore serves as a guide to high-quality pollen records that capture environmental variability during the last 2 millennia. We identify 60 vegetation (pollen) records from across South America which satisfy geochronological requirements set out for climate modelling, and we discuss their sensitivity to the spatial signature of climate modes throughout the continent. Diverse patterns of vegetation response to climate change are observed, with more similar patterns of change in the lowlands and varying intensity and direction of responses in the highlands. Pollen records display local-scale responses to climate modes; thus, it is necessary to understand how vegetation-climate interactions might diverge under variable settings. We provide a qualitative translation from pollen metrics to climate variables. Additionally, pollen is an excellent indicator of human impact through time. We discuss evidence for human land use in pollen records and provide an overview considered useful for archaeological hypothesis testing and important in distinguishing natural from anthropogenically driven vegetation change. We stress the need for the palynological community to be more familiar with climate variability patterns to correctly attribute the potential causes of observed vegetation dynamics. This manuscript forms part of the wider LOng-Term multi-proxy climate REconstructions and Dynamics in South America - 2k initiative that provides the ideal

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Health Records on Nurse Clinical Process at Two Community Health Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sockolow, Paulina S.; Liao, Cindy; Chittams, Jesse L.; Bowles, Kathryn H.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted two mixed methods studies in community-based health care settings to examine EHR use among nurses documenting direct patient care and EHR impact on nurse satisfaction. Quantitative methods included documentation time-to-completion data and a clinician satisfaction survey. Qualitative methods included observations and follow-up interviews. Qualitative data was merged with the quantitative data by comparing findings along themes. Results indicated nurses increased the number and timeliness of notes documented. Nurse use of the EHR as intended varied between the research sites. Barriers to EHR use included cumbersome functionalities that impacted nurse efficiency, lack of interoperability, and hardware issues. Facilitators to adoption included functionalities that provided memory prompts during the care process and enabled nurses to communicate about patient care. Interpretation of findings underscores the importance of the interaction of workflow, EHR functionality, and usability to impact nurse satisfaction, efficiency, and use of the EHR. PMID:24199125

  15. Evaluating the impact of electronic health records on nurse clinical process at two community health sites.

    PubMed

    Sockolow, Paulina S; Liao, Cindy; Chittams, Jesse L; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    We conducted two mixed methods studies in community-based health care settings to examine EHR use among nurses documenting direct patient care and EHR impact on nurse satisfaction. Quantitative methods included documentation time-to-completion data and a clinician satisfaction survey. Qualitative methods included observations and follow-up interviews. Qualitative data was merged with the quantitative data by comparing findings along themes. Results indicated nurses increased the number and timeliness of notes documented. Nurse use of the EHR as intended varied between the research sites. Barriers to EHR use included cumbersome functionalities that impacted nurse efficiency, lack of interoperability, and hardware issues. Facilitators to adoption included functionalities that provided memory prompts during the care process and enabled nurses to communicate about patient care. Interpretation of findings underscores the importance of the interaction of workflow, EHR functionality, and usability to impact nurse satisfaction, efficiency, and use of the EHR.

  16. Does the Bushveld-Vredefort system (South Africa) record the largest known terrestrial impact catastrophe?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elston, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    The unique 2.05-Ga Bushveld and Vredefort complexes cover 100,000 sq km (diameter 400 km) on the otherwise stable Kaapvaal craton. Since the 1920's, workers have recognized that they are bracketed by the same units and were probably formed by related processes. Modern field studies and radiometric dates have provided no compelling evidence for different ages. Previous researchers invoked magmatic upthrust. Daly later attributed Vredefort to impact, but never applied his concept to the Bushveld. Subsequently, Vredefort yielded shatter cones, coesite and stishovite, and planar features; pseudotachylite (indistinguishable from Sudbury) was long known to be present. Other research concluded that at least four simultaneous impacts caused the Bushveld-Vredefort system. Three impacts formed overlapping Bushveld basins; the fourth made the Vredefort dome. The nature of intra-Bushveld 'fragments' and the properties of Rooiberg Felsite offer clues.

  17. The Impact of the Revised Sunspot Record on Solar Irradiance Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.; Krivova, N.; Lean, J.; Wu, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the expected effects of the new sunspot number time series on proxy model based reconstructions of the total solar irradiance (TSI), which is largely explained by the opposing effects of dark sunspots and bright faculae. Regressions of indices for facular brightening and sunspot darkening with time series of direct TSI observations during the recent 37-year spacecraft TSI measurement era determine the relative contributions from each. Historical TSI reconstructions are enabled by extending these proxy models back in time prior to the start of the measurement record using a variety of solar activity indices including the sunspot number time series alone prior to 1882. Such reconstructions are critical for Earth climate research, which requires knowledge of the incident energy from the Sun to assess climate sensitivity to the natural influence of solar variability. Two prominent TSI reconstructions that utilize the sunspot record starting in 1610 are the NRLTSI and the SATIRE models. We review the indices that each currently uses and estimate the effects the revised sunspot record has on these reconstructions.

  18. The Brazos River (Texas) Sequence Shows Significant Cooling in the Waning Stages of the Tsunami Surges Caused by the Chicxulub Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, J.; Vellekoop, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazos river K-Pg sequences are among the best preserved and studied in the world, yet any interpretation remains highly controversial. Most researchers, however, agree that the coarse clastic deposits are the direct result of a train of Chicxulub impact triggered tsunami surges. Alternative interpretations such as low stand deposits or (super) storm deposits lack sedimentological support. The entire impact related deposit starts with a strong ground shaking from the impact-induced earthquake, disintegrating unconsolidated uppermost Maastrichtian muds, and opening 0.5m deep and 5 m long fissures filled with spherule-rich debris. The disintegrated debris has been taken up in a coarse mass-flow, just underlying the first coarse tsunami deposit containing impact spherules from Chicxulub. One to four distinct tsunami surges follow the basal surge, each leaving a graded coarse to medium sand deposit assembled from coarse debris strewn on the local seafloor such as glauconitic pellets, fish-debris and near coastal foraminifers. The medium-grained sand layers are typically cross-bedded in linguoid and linguoid-climbing current-ripple sets, indicating a dominant S to SE seaward directed flow. Such climbing ripple-sets are found in most tsunami deposits in NE Mexico. These climbing ripples indicate an extremely high suspension load, quickly settling on the seafloor in the waning tsunami surge backflow-currents. Occasionally, the climbing ripple directions are reversed, showing the upflow direction of the incoming tsunami surge. Such linguoid climbing ripple sets have often been mistaken for storm-wave induced hummocky cross-bedding (HCS), leading to storm-deposit hypotheses. The final phase of settling out of the tsunami surges, may be re-suspension due to impact-triggered storms in the Gulf, is represented by continuously graded, very fine-grained sand to silt deposit. This is initially a hard 10 cm thick silty lime-mudstone layer with plant debris, grading into drab

  19. Impact craters: their importance in geologic record and implications for natural resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Levie, D. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Impacting bodies of sufficient size traveling at hypervelocities carry tremendous potential energy. This relatively infrequent process results in the instantaneous formation of unique structures that are characterized by extensive fracturing and brecciation of the target material. Impacts onto continental shield areas can create rich ore deposits, such as the Sudbury mining district in Canada. Impacts into the sedimentary column can instantaneously create hydrocarbon reservoirs out of initially nonporous rocks, such as at Red Wing Creek and Viewfield in the Williston basin. Associated reservoirs are usually limited to a highly deformed central uplift in larger craters, or to the fractured rim facies in smaller craters. The presence of reservoirs and trapping mechanisms is largely dependent, however, upon the preservation state of the crater in the subsurface. A catastrophic extraterrestrial event (a large asteroid impact) has also been suggested as the cause for the extinction of the dinosaurs, but the latest theory proposes a companion star with a 26 m.y. periodicity as the cause for numerous lifeform extinctions over a similar time interval. Regardless of their magnitude and distribution over the earth, it is clear that catastrophic extraterrestrial events have been responsible for altering the geologic column locally, regionally, and quite possibly on a global scale.

  20. Recent grazing impacts on the earth recorded in the Rio Cuarto crater field, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Lianza, Ruben E.

    1992-01-01

    An anomalous alignment of oblong rimmed depressions has been observed on the otherwise featureless farmland of the Argentine Pampas. It is argued here, from sample analysis and by analogy with laboratory experiments, that the structure resulted from a low-angle impact and ricochet of a chondritic body originally 150-300 m in diameter.

  1. Recent grazing impacts on the earth recorded in the Rio Cuarto crater field, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Lianza, Ruben E.

    1992-01-01

    An anomalous alignment of oblong rimmed depressions has been observed on the otherwise featureless farmland of the Argentine Pampas. It is argued here, from sample analysis and by analogy with laboratory experiments, that the structure resulted from a low-angle impact and ricochet of a chondritic body originally 150-300 m in diameter.

  2. The impact of surveillance method and record source on autism prevalence: collaboration with Utah Maternal and Child Health programs.

    PubMed

    Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Bilder, Deborah; Satterfield, Robert; Hossain, Shaheen; McMahon, William

    2010-05-01

    With the increasing number of Utah children identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), information on the prevalence and characteristics of these children could help Maternal Child Health (MCH) programs develop population building activities focused on prevention, screening, and education. The purpose of this study is to describe Utah's autism registry developed in collaboration with state MCH programs and assess the impact of different record-based surveillance methods on state ASD prevalence rates. The study was conducted using 212 ASD cases identified from a population of 26,217 eight year olds living in one of the three most populous counties in Utah (Davis, Salt Lake, and Utah) in 2002. ASD prevalence was determined using two records based approaches (administrative diagnoses versus abstraction and clinician review) by source of record ascertainment (education, health, and combined). ASD prevalence ranged from 7.5 per 1000 (95% CI 6.4-8.5) to 3.2 per 1000 (95% CI 2.5-3.9) varying significantly (P < .05) based on method and record source. The ratio of male-to-female ranged from 4.7:1 to 6.4:1. No significant differences were found between the two case ascertainment methods on 18 of the 23 case characteristics including median household income, parental education, and mean age of diagnosis. Broad support is needed from both education and health sources as well as collaboration with MCH programs to address the growing health concerns, monitoring, and treatment needs of children and their families impacted by autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Lake Biel sediment record during the last 7500 years and impact of the Aare river deviation in 1878 AD.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannet, Alice; Corella, Juan Pablo; Reusch, Anna; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of environmental and climate changes as well as human impact on lake- and river-systems. Lake Biel is a medium-sized peri-alpine lake (Switzerland) with a maximum depth of 74 m and lies at 429 m asl. Our study focuses on the south-west basin, where the lake sedimentation was naturally mainly controlled by autochthonous sedimentation, and is now, since the artificial Aare river deviation through the Hagneck canal in 1878 AD, under the strong influence of water and sediment input from its catchment. A 10.05-m-long composite sediment sequence, cored in 2011 at 52 m water depth, was built from two cores retrieved with an Uwitec system. The cored sedimentary sequence begins in 1975 and spans the last 7500 years, as dated by seven 14C analyses and 210Pb/137Cs activity profiles. Magnetic susceptibility and density were measured with a Geotek MSCL at 0.5 cm resolution, granulometry with a CILAS grain sizer every 10 cm and X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried out using an Avaatech core scanner at 1-cm resolution. Lake Biel sediment record is subdivided in four main units. The lowest Unit A (651-1005 cm; 7355 to 5075 BP), with dark greyish clayey silty laminated layers and sedimentation rates between 0.10 to 0.29 cm/yr, shows stable low values for almost all proxies, excepted for allochtonous elements which increase between 7000-6000 BP. By analogy with Unit C facies (see below), Unit A is interpreted as influenced by the Aare river which probably flew into the south-west basin at that time. Unit B1 (651-343 cm, 5075 to 2036 BP) has lower sedimentation rate (0.10 cm/yr), high Ca/Ti ratio, light sediment color, constant clayey silty grain size and varying elemental profiles which point to the dominant influence of autochtonous lake processes influenced by climate. From the beginning of Unit B2 (343-147 cm, 2036 to 1878 AD) sediment grain size increases which possibly reflects a human influence over the lake system. The greatest

  4. Effect of a Quaternary Meteoroid Impact in Indo-China on the Surface Sedimentary Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul; Songtham, Wickanet; Tada, Riuji; Tada, Toshihiro; Duangkrayon, Jaa

    2017-04-01

    Effects of meteoroid impacts on terrestrial geology primarily have been considered with respect of proximal effects near the impact location; such as cratering, fracturing and melt. However, other than the use of rare elements (iridium) as event markers and tektite chemistry for dating control, distal effects of impacts are less-well documented. Distal effects might include: fireball, air blast, heat, water vaporization, catastrophic flooding, earthquakes, ejecta fallout (tektites & dust), large quantities of N2O from shock heating of the atmosphere, release of CO2 and sulphur aerosols causing heating or cooling of atmosphere, IR radiation causing vegetation fires, smoke and pyrotoxins, and altered native rock geochemistry. Such processes may affect the distal surface geology, degrade vegetation cover and cause extirpation of flora and fauna. Quaternary sedimentary sections have been examined in northern and central Cambodia, in southern China and in north-east Thailand. These locality lie within the Australian strewn tektite field ̶ reliably dated to 0.77-0.78Ma BP ̶ just before the 0.80Ma BP Brunhes/Matayama reversal. The location of the primary impact crater (if any) is uncertain but a local major crater probably lies within central Laos or just offshore to the east. The described sections are considered distal from the main impact. Stratigraphic evidence indicates a temporal sequence of catastrophic stripping of alluvial-gravel surfaces followed by catastrophic redistribution of gravel (incorporating tektites), followed by deposition of atmospheric dust. Grain-size and grain-density trends, XRD, spherule distributions, luminescence profiles, tektite, and microtektite and shock quartz assay, are used to with the stratigraphic evidence to examine an hypothesis that the sections represent the distal effects of a meteorite. Additional insight is gained with respect to prior claims that large accumulations of woody debris in Thai Quaternary river terraces were due

  5. Perceived Impact of Electronic Medical Records in Physician Office Practices: A Review of Survey-Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Francis; Lesperance, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Background Physician office practices are increasingly adopting electronic medical records (EMRs). Therefore, the impact of such systems needs to be evaluated to ensure they are helping practices to realize expected benefits. In addition to experimental and observational studies examining objective impacts, the user’s subjective view needs to be understood, since ultimate acceptance and use of the system depends on them. Surveys are commonly used to elicit these views. Objective To determine which areas of EMR implementation in office practices have been addressed in survey-based research studies, to compare the perceived impacts between users and nonusers for the most-addressed areas, and to contribute to the knowledge regarding survey-based research for assessing the impact of health information systems (HIS). Methods We searched databases and systematic review citations for papers published between 2000 and 2012 (May) that evaluated the perceived impact of using an EMR system in an office-based practice, were based on original data, had providers as the primary end user, and reported outcome measures related to the system’s positive or negative impact. We identified all the reported metrics related to EMR use and mapped them to the Clinical Adoption Framework to analyze the gap. We then subjected the impact-specific areas with the most reported results to a meta-analysis, which examined overall positive and negative perceived impacts for users and nonusers. Results We selected 19 papers for the review. We found that most impact-specific areas corresponded to the micro level of the framework and that appropriateness or effectiveness and efficiency were well addressed through surveys. However, other areas such as access, which includes patient and caregiver participation and their ability to access services, had very few metrics. We selected 7 impact-specific areas for meta-analysis: security and privacy; quality of patient care or clinical outcomes; patient

  6. One positive impact of health care reform to physicians: the computer-based patient record.

    PubMed

    England, S P

    1993-11-01

    The health care industry is an information-dependent business that will require a new generation of health information systems if successful health care reform is to occur. We critically need integrated clinical management information systems to support the physician and related clinicians at the direct care level, which in turn will have linkages with secondary users of health information such as health payors, regulators, and researchers. The economic dependence of health care industry on the CPR cannot be underestimated, says Jeffrey Ritter. He sees the U.S. health industry as about to enter a bold new age where our records are electronic, our computers are interconnected, and our money is nothing but pulses running across the telephone lines. Hence the United States is now in an age of electronic commerce. Clinical systems reform must begin with the community-based patient chart, which is located in the physician's office, the hospital, and other related health care provider offices. A community-based CPR and CPR system that integrates all providers within a managed care network is the most logical step since all health information begins with the creation of a patient record. Once a community-based CPR system is in place, the physician and his or her clinical associates will have a common patient record upon which all direct providers have access to input and record patient information. Once a community-level CPR system is in place with a community provider network, each physician will have available health information and data processing capability that will finally provide real savings in professional time and effort. Lost patient charts will no longer be a problem. Data input and storage of health information would occur electronically via transcripted text, voice, and document imaging. All electronic clinical information, voice, and graphics could be recalled at any time and transmitted to any terminal location within the health provider network. Hence

  7. The Impacts of Electronic Health Record Implementation on the Health Care Workforce.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Health care organizations at various levels are transitioning into the new electronic era by implementing and adopting electronic health record systems. New job roles will be needed for this transition, and some current job roles will inevitably become obsolete due to the change. In addition to training new personnel to fill these new roles, the focus should also be on equipping the current health care workforce with knowledge and skills in health information technology and health informatics that will support their work and improve quality of care.

  8. Impact of the recorded variable on recurrence quantification analysis of flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portes, Leonardo L.; Benda, Rodolfo N.; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) is useful in analyzing dynamical systems from a time series s(t). This paper investigates the robustness of RQA in detecting different dynamical regimes with respect to the recorded variable s(t). RQA was applied to time series x(t), y(t) and z(t) of a drifting Rössler system, which are known to have different observability properties. It was found that some characteristics estimated via RQA are heavily influenced by the choice of s(t) in the case of flows but not in the case of maps.

  9. The impact of evidence-based sepsis guidelines on emergency department clinical practice: a pre-post medical record audit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Bernadine; Fry, Margaret; Roche, Michael

    2017-01-10

    To explore the number of patients presenting with sepsis before and after guideline implementation; the impact of sepsis guidelines on triage assessment, emergency department management and time to antibiotics. Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity within hospitals. Globally, strategies have been implemented to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, which rely on the early recognition and management of sepsis. To improve patient outcomes, the New South Wales government in Australia introduced sepsis guidelines into emergency departments. However, the impact of the guidelines on clinical practice remains unclear. A 12-month pre-post retrospective randomised medical record audit of adult patients with a sepsis diagnosis. Data were extracted from the emergency department database and paper medical record. Data included patient demographic (age, gender), clinical information (time of arrival, triage code, seen by time, disposition, time to antibiotic, pathology, time to intravenous fluids) and patient assessment data (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturations, medication). This study demonstrated a statistically significant 230-minute reduction in time to antibiotics post implementation of the guidelines. The post group (n = 165) received more urgent triage categories (n = 81; 49·1%), a 758-minute reduction in mean time to second litre of intravenous fluids and an improvement in collection of lactate (n = 112, 67·9%), also statistically significant. The findings highlight the impact the guidelines can have on clinician decision-making and behaviour that support best practice and positive patient outcomes. The sepsis guidelines improved the early assessment, recognition and management of patients presenting with sepsis in one tertiary referral emergency department. The use of evidenced-based guidelines can impact clinical decision-making and behaviour, resulting in the translation and support of

  10. Investigation of the impact of seed record selection on structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, Thomas W; Mertz, Greg E; Costantino, Michael C; Costantino, Carl J

    2010-01-01

    Time history records are typically used to define the seismic demand for criteria structures for which soil structure interaction (SSI) analyses are often required. Criteria for the development of time histories is provided in ASCE 43-05. The time histories are based on a close fit of 5% damped target response spectra. Recent experience has demonstrated that for cases where the transfer functions associated with the structural response are narrow, the ASCE 43 criteria can under-predict peak spectral responses in the structure by as much as 70% in some frequency ranges. One potential solution for this issue is to reinstate requirements for matching target response spectra for multiple damping levels to ASCE 43 criteria. However, recent probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) do not generally contain spectra for multiple damping levels. This paper proposes an approach to generate target spectra at multiple damping levels, given the 5% damped target spectrum provided by the PSHA, utilizing catalogs of recorded earthquakes. The process of fitting time histories to multiple damped spectra is effective in correcting deficiencies observed in the computed structural response when time histories meeting the ASCE 43 fitting criteria are used.

  11. Injury Risk Functions in Frontal Impacts Using Data from Crash Pulse Recorders

    PubMed Central

    Stigson, Helena; Kullgren, Anders; Rosén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of how crash severity influences injury risk in car crashes is essential in order to create a safe road transport system. Analyses of real-world crashes increase the ability to obtain such knowledge. The aim of this study was to present injury risk functions based on real-world frontal crashes where crash severity was measured with on-board crash pulse recorders. Results from 489 frontal car crashes (26 models of four car makes) with recorded acceleration-time history were analysed. Injury risk functions for restrained front seat occupants were generated for maximum AIS value of two or greater (MAIS2+) using multiple logistic regression. Analytical as well as empirical injury risk was plotted for several crash severity parameters; change of velocity, mean acceleration and peak acceleration. In addition to crash severity, the influence of occupant age and gender was investigated. A strong dependence between injury risk and crash severity was found. The risk curves reflect that small changes in crash severity may have a considerable influence on the risk of injury. Mean acceleration, followed by change of velocity, was found to be the single variable that best explained the risk of being injured (MAIS2+) in a crash. Furthermore, all three crash severity parameters were found to predict injury better than age and gender. However, age was an important factor. The very best model describing MAIS2+ injury risk included delta V supplemented by an interaction term of peak acceleration and age. PMID:23169136

  12. Impact of Homecare Electronic Health Record on Timeliness of Clinical Documentation, Reimbursement, and Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, K. H.; Adelsberger, M. C.; Chittams, J. L.; Liao, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Homecare is an important and effective way of managing chronic illnesses using skilled nursing care in the home. Unlike hospitals and ambulatory settings, clinicians visit patients at home at different times, independent of each other. Twenty-nine percent of 10,000 homecare agencies in the United States have adopted point-of-care EHRs. Yet, relatively little is known about the growing use of homecare EHRs. Objective Researchers compared workflow, financial billing, and patient outcomes before and after implementation to evaluate the impact of a homecare point-of-care EHR. Methods The design was a pre/post observational study embedded in a mixed methods study. The setting was a Philadelphia-based homecare agency with 137 clinicians. Data sources included: (1) clinician EHR documentation completion; (2) EHR usage data; (3) Medicare billing data; (4) an EHR Nurse Satisfaction survey; (5) clinician observations; (6) clinician interviews; and (7) patient outcomes. Results Clinicians were satisfied with documentation timeliness and team communication. Following EHR implementation, 90% of notes were completed within the 1-day compliance interval (n = 56,702) compared with 30% of notes completed within the 7-day compliance interval in the pre-implementation period (n = 14,563; OR 19, p <. 001). Productivity in the number of clinical notes documented post-implementation increased almost 10-fold compared to pre-implementation. Days to Medicare claims fell from 100 days pre-implementation to 30 days post-implementation, while the census rose. EHR implementation impact on patient outcomes was limited to some behavioral outcomes. Discussion Findings from this homecare EHR study indicated clinician EHR use enabled a sustained increase in productivity of note completion, as well as timeliness of documentation and billing for reimbursement with limited impact on improving patient outcomes. As EHR adoption increases to better meet the needs of the growing

  13. Continuous Holter telemetry of atrial electrograms and marker annotations using a common Holter recording system: impact on Holter electrocardiogram interpretation in patients with dual chamber pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Uwe K H; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Bode, Frank; Eberhardt, Frank; Chun, Julian K R; Katus, Hugo A; Peters, Werner

    2002-12-01

    The impact of continuous telemetry of atrial electrogram and marker annotations on Holter ECG interpretation was assessed in 98 patients with bipolar dual chamber pacemakers (VDD pacemakers n = 29, DDD(R) systems n = 69). Atrial electrogram and marker annotations were continuously sampled by a telemetry coil that was externally positioned on the pacemaker pocket, amplified, and transduced to a three-channel Holter ECG recorder in addition to an ECG recording. Holter tapes were analyzed by two experienced investigators for quality of P wave recognition and episodes suspicious of pacemaker dysfunction. Initially, only the ECG channel was analyzed. Thereafter, results were compared to those achieved on the basis of the complete recording including atrial electrogram and marker annotations. Recognition of atrial rhythm was markedly improved by Holter telemetry. During 99.3% of recording time telemetry showed a satisfying quality, whereas ECG alone allowed a reliable P wave recognition only during 84.4% of recording time (P < 0.001). One hundred twenty-nine episodes suspicious of pacemaker malfunction occurred in 17 of 98 patients. By analysis of ECG, only 78.3% of episodes were concordantly classified by the investigators. However, 98.4% of all episodes were properly identified when atrial electrogram and marker annotations were added to the analysis (P < 0.001). In particular, discrimination between atrial undersensing, sinus bradycardia, and atrial sensed events within the refractory periods was facilitated. Holter telemetry of atrial electrogram and marker annotations facilitates the analysis of Holter ECGs in pacemaker recipients and improves the detection of pacemaker dysfunctions.

  14. RETRACTED: Impacts of past climate variability on marine ecosystems: Lessons from sediment records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; Finney, Bruce P.; Ganeshram, Raja; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Poulsen, Bo; Struck, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Author. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: Paragraph 3.3 of this article contains text (verbatim) that had already appeared in a book chapter "Variability from scales in marine sediments and other historical records" by David B. Field, Tim R. Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Dimitri Gutierrez, Hector Lozano-Montes, Renato Salvatteci and Andy Soutar. The book is entitled "Climate Change and Small Pelagic Fish", 2009, edited by Dave Checkley, Claude Roy, Jurgen Alheit, and Yoshioki Oozeki (Cambridge University Press; 2009).The authors would like to apologize for this administrative error on their part.

  15. The impact of health literacy on a patient's decision to adopt a personal health record.

    PubMed

    Noblin, Alice M; Wan, Thomas T H; Fottler, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is a concept that describes a patient's ability to understand materials provided by physicians or other providers. Several factors, including education level, income, and age, can influence health literacy. Research conducted at one medical practice in Florida indicated that in spite of the patients' relatively low education level, the majority indicated a broad acceptance of personal health record (PHR) technology. The key variable explaining patient willingness to adopt a PHR was the patient's health literacy as measured by the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). Adoption and use rates may also depend on the availability of office staff for hands-on training as well as assistance with interpretation of medical information. It is hoped that technology barriers will disappear over time, and usefulness of the information will promote increased utilization of PHRs. Patient understanding of the information remains a challenge that must be overcome to realize the full potential of PHRs.

  16. Manganese redox cycling in Lake Imandra: impact on nitrogen and the trace metal sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingri, J.; Pekka, L.; Dauvalter, V.; Rodushkin, I.; Peinerud, E.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment and water samples from the mine-polluted Yokostrovskaya basin in Lake Imandra have been analysed. Three major processes have influenced the accumulation and distribution of metals in the sediment: (1) Development of the apatite-nepheline and the sulfide ore mining industries. (2) Secondary formation of sulphides in the upper sediment column. (3) Redox cycling of Mn in the surface sediment and in the bottom water. This study demonstrate the dominant role of the Mn redox cycling in controlling distribution of several major and trace elements, especially during the winter stratification period. Mn oxides act as a major scavenger and carrier for the non-detrital fraction of Al, Ca, K, Mg, P, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Mo and Zn in the bottom water. Aluminium, Ca, K, Mg, P, Cu, Ni and Zn are mainly sorbed at the surface of the particulate Mn phase, while Ba and Mo form a phase (or inner sphere complex) with Mn. Co is associated with the Mn-rich phase, probably by oxidation of Co(II) to a trivalent state by the particulate Mn surface. Formation and dissolution of Mn particles most likely also control anoxic ammonium oxidation to nitrate and reduction of nitrate to N2. It is shown that secondary sulphides in Lake Imandra sediments are fed with trace metals primarily scavenged from the dissolved phase in the water column. This enrichment process, driven by the Mn-redox cycle, therefore changes the sediment record by the transfer of a dissolved pollution signal to the particulate sediment record, thus making it more complicated to trace direct influence of particles from different pollution sources.

  17. Early organisms in the fossil record: paleontological aspects, evolutionary and ecological impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Negri, Alessandra; Morigi, Caterina; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lipps, Jere

    2017-04-01

    With this abstract we introduce our session whose aim is twofold: 1) to gather information on the earliest foraminifera (single- organic and agglutinated taxa) which so far are sparse and uncoordinated in order to understand their evolution and their relationship with modern single-chambered taxa, contextualizing scientific current results in the geo-biological field. 2) to explore also every other early organism trace fossils or so far overlooked organisms coated with fine sediment (i.e., bacteria, testate amoebae) to understand how and if this coating might help these creatures to fossilize. For this reason, this session will integrate many disciplines, from genomics to palaeo-environmental modelling to palaeontology and geochemistry. Our experience starts from Foraminifera which are an ecologically important group of modern heterotrophic amoeboid eukaryotes whose naked and testate ancestors are thought to have evolved 1 Ga ago. However, the single-chambered agglutinated test of these protists is hypothesized to appear in the fossil record in the Neoproterozoic, before the rise of complex animals. In addition, the difficulty of recognizing unambiguously ancestral monothalamous foraminifera in the fossil record represents the main challenge and might be related to a combination of factors, such as preservation in the sediments, adverse palaeo-environmental conditions and the absence of clear morphological characters distinguishing them from other morphologically simple testate organisms. However, recent publications have evidenced the finding of such organisms in several sedimentary successions tracing back to the Neoproterozoic. An integrate approach will result in profound insights about life—past, present, future— representing a new frontier in the palaeobiological studies. Therefore, aim of this session is to bring together specialists across all these disciplines to provide a uniquely rich and fertile intellectual environment for the pursuit of this

  18. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P < .001). This improved to baseline levels by the late EHR period (46%, P = .28), although POTD in the cataract group remained worse than at baseline (64%, P < .001). There was a worsening in absolute mean documentation time in the early EHR period (16.7 minutes) vs paper baseline (7.5 minutes) (P < .001). This improved in the late EHR period (9.2 minutes) but remained worse than in the paper baseline (P < .001). While cataract procedures required more

  19. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: a half-century record of storm-generated features from southern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Barras, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water.

  20. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: A half-century record of storm-generated features from Southern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Barras, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water. ?? Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2011.

  1. Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement : Final Environmental Impact Statement : Record of Decision, Summary..

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-01-01

    The US Entity (the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Division Engineer, North Pacific Division of the US Army Corps of Engineers) has decided to fulfill its obligation under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) between the US and Canada by delivering Canada`s Entitlement under the Treaty to a point on the US/Canada border near Oliver, British Columbia (BC). Delivering the Entitlement at that location will require BPA to construct and operate a new single-circuit 500-kV transmission line from Grand Coulee or Chief Joseph Substation to the US/Canada border, a distance of 135 to 155 kilometers (85 to 95 miles), depending on the alignment selected. This paper describes the decision process and its environmental impacts.

  2. Geological and geochemical record of 3400-million-year-old terrestrial meteorite impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Asaro, Frank; Kyte, Frank T.

    1989-01-01

    Beds of sand-sized spherules in the 3400-million-year-old Fig Tree Group, Barberton Greenstone belt, South Africa, formed by the fall of quenched liquid silicate droplets into a range of shallow- to deep-water depositional environments. The regional extent of the layers, their compositional complexity, and lack of included volcanic debris suggest that they are not products of volcanic activity. The layers are greatly enriched in iridium and other platinum group elements in roughly chondritic proportions. Geochemical modeling based on immobile element abundances suggests that the original average spherule composition can be approximated by a mixture of fractionated tholeiitic basalt, komatiite, and CI carbonaceous chondrite. The spherules are thought to be the products of large meteorite impacts on the Archean earth.

  3. Paleogenetic records of Daphnia pulicaria in two North American lakes reveal the impact of cultural eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Dagmar; Morton, Philip K; Culver, Billy W; Edlund, Mark B; Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Weider, Lawrence J

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary consequences of the green revolution, particularly in wild populations, is an important frontier in contemporary biology. Because human impacts have occurred at varying magnitudes or time periods depending on the study ecosystem, evolutionary histories may vary considerably among populations. Paleogenetics in conjunction with paleolimnology enable us to associate microevolutionary dynamics with detailed information on environmental change. We used this approach to reconstruct changes in the temporal population genetic structure of the keystone zooplankton grazer, Daphnia pulicaria, using dormant eggs extracted from sediments in two Minnesota lakes (South Center, Hill). The extent of agriculture and human population density in the catchment of these lakes has differed markedly since European settlement in the late 19th century and is reflected in their environmental histories reconstructed here. The reconstructed environments of these two lakes differed strongly in terms of environmental stability and their associated patterns of Daphnia population structure. We detected long periods of stability in population structure and environmental conditions in South Center Lake that were followed by a dramatic temporal shift in population genetic structure after the onset of European settlement and industrialized agriculture in its watershed. In particular, we noted a 24.3-fold increase in phosphorus (P) flux between pre-European and modern sediment P accumulation rates (AR) in this lake. In contrast, no such shifts were detected in Hill Lake, where the watershed was not as impacted by European settlement and rates of change were less directional with a much smaller increase in sediment P AR (2.3-fold). We identify direct and indirect effects of eutrophication proxies on genetic structure in these lake populations and demonstrate the power of using this approach in understanding the consequences of anthropogenic environmental change on natural

  4. Methodology for using advanced event data recorders to reconstruct vehicle trajectories for use in safety impact methodologies (SIM).

    PubMed

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Sherony, Rini; Gabler, Hampton C

    2013-01-01

    Safety impact methodologies (SIMs) have the goal of estimating safety benefits for proposed active safety systems. Because the precrash movements of vehicles involved in real-world crashes are often unknown, previous SIMs have taken the approach to reconstruct collisions from incomplete information sources, such as scaled scene diagrams and photographic evidence. The objective of this study is to introduce a novel methodology for reconstructing the precrash vehicle trajectories using data from advanced event data recorders (EDRs). Some EDRs from model year 2009 and newer Ford vehicles can record steering wheel angle in addition to precrash vehicle speed, accelerator pedal, and throttle input prior to the crash. A model was constructed using these precrash records and a vehicle model developed in the simulation software PreScan. The model was validated using the yaw rate and longitudinal and lateral accelerations also recorded by this type of Ford EDR but not used to develop the models. In general, the model was able to approximate the dynamics recorded on the EDR. The model did not match the observed dynamics when either the vehicle departed the paved surface or when electronic stability control was active. Modifying the surface friction at the estimated point at which the vehicle departed the road produced better simulation results. The developed trajectories were used to simulate 2 road departure crashes, one into a fixed object and one into a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction, as if the departing vehicle were equipped with a lane departure warning (LDW) system. This example application demonstrates the utility of this method and its potential application to a SIM. This study demonstrated a novel method for crash reconstruction that can be applied to a SIM for active safety systems. Benefits of this method are that the driver inputs do not need to be inferred from other reconstructions because they are recorded directly by the EDR. Currently, there are

  5. A 60-year sedimentary record of natural and anthropogenic impacts on Lake Chenghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zan, Fengyu; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Zhang, Jingtian; Liao, Haiqing; Wang, Yue; Yeager, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Recent sediments from Lake Chenghai, China, were investigated at high temporal resolution to trace both natural and anthropogenic effects on the lake using total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic phosphorus (Po), inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and organic carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (delta13Corg and delta15N) in a 137Cs-dated sediment core. The results indicated that the sedimentary record covers the last 60 years, during which the lake had undergone apparent changes in nutrient sources and productivity in response to nutrient loading. Prior to the late 1980s, the nutrient contents in sediments mainly originated from algae and lake productivity was relatively stable. Since the late 1980s, increasing TOC, TN and TP concentrations together with the change of delta13Corg and delta15N suggested anthropogenic perturbations in nutrient loading and lake productivity. Endogenic nutrients derived from algae and anthropogenic inputs were two important sources of sedimentary nutrients. The anthropogenic nutrients mainly originated from the discharge of industrial wastewater and artificial cultivation of Spirulina after the middle 1980s, and domestic wastewater discharged from Yongsheng County since 1993.

  6. Secure Messaging in Electronic Health Records and Its Impact on Diabetes Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Alyce; Dang, Stuti

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, which aims for the universal adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) in primary care settings and "meaningful use" of this technology. The objectives of "meaningful use" are well defined and executed in stages; one of the objectives of stage 2, beginning in 2014, was implementation of a secure messaging system between patients and providers. Secure messaging has been shown to positively affect patients who struggle with managing chronic diseases on a day to day basis. This review aims to assess the clinical evidence supporting the use of secure messaging in EHRs in self-management of diabetes. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted, and 320 results were returned. Of these, 11 were selected based on outlined criteria. Evidence from 7 of the 11 included studies suggests significant improvement in patients' hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with the use of secure messaging. However, improvements in patients' secondary outcomes, such as blood pressure and cholesterol, were inconsistent. Further work must be done to determine how to best maximize the potential of available tools such as secure messaging and EHRs to improve patient outcomes.

  7. The Impact of Geography on Hospital Electronic Health Records Implementation in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Houser, S.H.; Au, D.; Weech-Maldonado, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Given relatively less favorable health outcomes in rural Alabama, electronic health records (EHRs) have an even greater potential to improve quality and alleviate disparities if meaningfully used. Objectives We examined rural-urban differences as it pertained to perceived barriers, benefits, and motivating factors of EHR implementation. Methods We used multivariate logistic models to analyze data collected from a state-wide, self-completed survey of health information management directors in Alabama hospitals. Results Findings from our analyses indicate that fewer rural hospitals (8%) have implemented EHRs as compared with urban hospitals (18%). Rural hospitals were 71% less likely to consider reduction in costs as a benefit of EHRs (OR = 0.29), and were 75% less likely to consider lack of structured technology as a challenge factor of EHR implementation (OR = 0.25). Conclusion Promotion of EHRs in rural areas is challenging but necessary. Understanding perceived barriers and motivating factors of EHR implementation among rural hospitals can inform policy decisions, especially in light of recent meaningful use initiatives. PMID:23616876

  8. Environmental impact of early Basque mining and smelting recorded in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit.

    PubMed

    Monna, F; Galop, D; Carozza, L; Tual, M; Beyrie, A; Marembert, F; Chateau, C; Dominik, J; Grousset, F E

    2004-07-05

    More than four metres of core, covering almost 5000 years of deposition, were collected in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit located in the High Aldudes valley (Basque country), an area well known for its mineral abundance, exploited from Roman Times at least. Although minerogenic peatlands are not generally considered as the best archives to reconstruct past atmospheric metal deposition history, lead isotopic geochemistry demonstrates the integrity of the Pb record at least within the three upper meters; that is to say over the last four millennia. Zn, Cd and Cu may have been widely redistributed either by biological cycling, advective groundwater movements, or diffusional processes. Anthropogenic lead input phases are clearly pinpointed by positive shifts in Pb/Sc ratios with concomitant sharp drops in (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios. They are often accompanied by significant declines in tree taxa, interpreted as increasing demand for wood to supply energy for local mining and/or metallurgical operations. Periods of mining and/or smelting activity are identified during Antiquity and Modern Times, and are also confirmed by textual and field evidence. Inputs from the Rio Tinto (Southern Spain), often invoked as a major lead contributor to the European atmosphere during Roman Times, were not detected here. This remote source was probably masked by local inputs. Other mining and/or smelting phases, only suspected by archaeologists, are here identified as early as the Bronze Age. Although the durations of these phases are possibly overestimated because of detrital inputs consequent to the release of lead from polluted soils over a long period of time after major pollutant inputs, the periods at which pollution peaks occur are in good agreement with archaeological knowledge and palaeo-botanical data. The combination of geochemical and palaeo-botanical techniques with field archaeology, therefore provides a powerful tool in studying the interaction of early human societies

  9. The impact of electronic health records on care of heart failure patients in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Taek; Du, Jing; Theera-Ampornpunt, Nawanan; Gordon, Bradley D; Bershow, Barry A; Gensinger, Raymond A; Shrift, Michael; Routhe, Daniel T; Speedie, Stuart M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if electronic health records (EHR) have observable effects on care outcomes, we examined quality and efficiency measures for patients presenting to emergency departments (ED). Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective study of 5166 adults with heart failure in three metropolitan EDs. Patients were termed internal if prior information was in the EHR upon ED presentation, otherwise external. Associations of internality with hospitalization, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and numbers of tests, procedures, and medications ordered in the ED were examined after adjusting for age, gender, race, marital status, comorbidities and hospitalization as a proxy for acuity level where appropriate. Results At two EDs internals had lower odds of mortality if hospitalized (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.81 and 0.45; 0.21 to 0.96), fewer laboratory tests during the ED visit (−4.6%; −8.9% to −0.1% and −14.0%; −19.5% to −8.1%) as well as fewer medications (−33.6%; −38.4% to −28.4% and −21.3%; −33.2% to −7.3%). At one of these two EDs, internals had lower odds of hospitalization (0.37; 0.22 to 0.60). At the third ED, internal patients only experienced a prolonged ED LOS (32.3%; 6.3% to 64.8%) but no other differences. There was no association with hospital LOS or number of procedures ordered. Discussion EHR availability was associated with salutary outcomes in two of three ED settings and prolongation of ED LOS at a third, but evidence was mixed and causality remains to be determined. Conclusions An EHR may have the potential to be a valuable adjunct in the care of heart failure patients. PMID:22071528

  10. Measures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) of Ice Motion in Antarctica: Status, Impact and Future Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is an extremely useful tool for providing relevant information about the ice sheet ECV: ice vector velocity, grounding line position, and ice front location. Here, we provide an overview of the SAR Earth System Data Records (ESDR) for Antarctica part of MEaSUREs that includes: the first complete map of surface ice vector velocity in Antarctica, a map of grounding line positions around Antarctica, ice velocity time series for selected regions: Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and associated drainage basins, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica which is the largest contributor to sea level rise from Antarctica and the focus of rapid ice sheet retreat, and Larsen-B and -C ice shelves which is the second largest contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Other products include a database of ice shelf boundaries and drainage basins based on ice motion mapping and digital elevation models generated independently. Data continuity is a crucial aspect of this work and a fundamental challenge for the continuation of these products due to the lack of a dedicated interferometric mission on the cryosphere until the SAR mission under consideration between NASA and ISRO is approved. Four SAR missions ceased operations since IPY. CSA's RADARSAT-2 has provided important bridging data between these missions in Greenland and Antarctica. In 2014, ESA launched Sentinel-1a and JAXA launched ALOS-2 PALSAR, for which we will have limited data access. The Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) created by WMO has established a mandate to support cryospheric products from scientific research using international SARs which continues to play an active role in securing key data acquisitions over ice sheets. We will provide an overview of current efforts. This work was conducted at UC Irvine, Department of Earth System Science under a contract with NASA's MEaSUREs program.

  11. Lack of impact of electronic health records on quality of care and outcomes for ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Joynt, Karen E; Bhatt, Deepak L; Schwamm, Lee H; Xian, Ying; Heidenreich, Paul A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Smith, Eric E; Neely, Megan L; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2015-05-12

    Electronic health records (EHRs) may be key tools for improving the quality of health care, particularly for conditions for which guidelines are rapidly evolving and timely care is critical, such as ischemic stroke. The goal of this study was to determine whether hospitals with EHRs differed on quality or outcome measures for ischemic stroke from those without EHRs. We studied 626,473 patients from 1,236 U.S. hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) from 2007 through 2010, linked with the American Hospital Association annual survey to determine the presence of EHRs. We conducted patient-level logistic regression analyses for each of the outcomes of interest. A total of 511 hospitals had EHRs by the end of the study period. Hospitals with EHRs were larger and were more often teaching hospitals and stroke centers. After controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, patients admitted to hospitals with EHRs had similar odds of receiving "all-or-none" care (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.06; p=0.12), of discharge home (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.04; p=0.15), and of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.05; p=0.82). The odds of having a length of stay>4 days was slightly lower at hospitals with EHRs (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; p=0.01). In our sample of GWTG-Stroke hospitals, EHRs were not associated with higher-quality care or better clinical outcomes for stroke care. Although EHRs may be necessary for an increasingly high-tech, transparent healthcare system, as currently implemented, they do not appear to be sufficient to improve outcomes for this important disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of the meaningful use incentive program on electronic health record adoption by US children's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mari M; Harper, Marvin B; Castro, Allan V; Yu, Feliciano B; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-03-01

    We determined adoption rates of pediatric-oriented electronic health record (EHR) features by US children's hospitals and assessed perceptions regarding the suitability of commercial EHRs for pediatric care and the influence of the meaningful use incentive program on implementation of pediatric-oriented features. We surveyed members of the Children's Hospital Association. We measured adoption of 19 pediatric-oriented features and asked whether commercial EHRs include key pediatric-focused capabilities. We inquired about the meaningful use program's relevance to pediatrics and its influence on EHR implementation priorities. Of 164 general acute care children's hospitals, 100 (61%) responded to the survey. Rates of comprehensive (across all pediatric units) adoption ranged from 37% (age-, gender-, and weight-adjusted blood pressure percentiles and immunization contraindication warnings) to 87% (age in appropriate units). Implementation rates for several features varied significantly by children's hospital type. Nearly 60% of hospitals reported having EHRs that do not contain all features essential for high-quality care. A majority of hospitals indicated that the meaningful use program has had no effect on their adoption of pediatric features, while 26% said they have delayed or forgone incorporation of such features because of the program. Children's hospitals are implementing pediatric-focused features, but a sizable proportion still finds their systems suboptimal for pediatric care. The meaningful use incentive program is failing to promote and in some cases delaying uptake of pediatric-oriented features. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impact of deforestation on subsurface temperature profiles: implications for the borehole paleoclimate record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, Andrew H.; Beltrami, Hugo

    2017-07-01

    Subsurface temperature profiles measured in boreholes are one of the important archives of paleoclimate data for reconstructing the climate of the past 2000 years. Subsurface temperatures are a function of past ground surface temperatures (GST), however GSTs are influenced both by changes in land-use and changes in regional climate. Thus the history of deforestation at borehole sampling locations represents a potential uncertainty in the reconstructed temperature history at the site. Here a fully coupled Earth system model is used estimate the magnitude of the subsurface temperature anomaly from deforestation events from a global perspective. The model simulations suggest that warming of the ground surface is the dominant response to deforestation, consistent with the limited field data that exist. The magnitude of the temperature anomaly varies by environment with a global average anomaly of 0.85 °C with a range of -0.48 °C to 1.78 °C. The warming originates from a reduction in the efficiency of turbulent energy flux to the atmosphere overcompensating an increase in albedo. Overall our simulations suggest that deforestation has a large impact on subsurface temperatures for centuries following deforestation and thus GST reconstructions should take into account previous deforestation events.

  14. Impact of patient-accessible electronic medical records in rheumatology: use, satisfaction and effects on empowerment among patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To measure the use, satisfaction and impact of a web portal which provides patients with rheumatoid arthritis home access to their electronic medical records (EMR). Methods A pretest-posttest study was conducted among 360 patients. Questionnaires assessed socio-demographics, health literacy, Internet use, disease characteristics, patient-provider relationship and empowerment before and after launching a hospital-based patient web portal. To measure the impact of the portal, patients’ satisfaction with care, trust in their rheumatologist, self-efficacy in patient-provider communication, illness perceptions, and medication adherence were assessed. The post-test included questions on portal use, satisfaction, and self-perceived impact due to portal use. Results 54% of respondents with Internet access had viewed their EMR. Respondents were positive about the ease of use and usefulness of the portal and reported very few problems. Age (P = .03), amount of Internet use (P = .01) and self-perceived Internet skills (P = .03) significantly predicted portal use. Of the respondents who had logged in, 44% reported feeling more involved in their treatment and 37% felt they had more knowledge about their treatment. Significant differences over time were not found on the empowerment-related instruments. Conclusions The current portal succeeded in offering patients access to their EMR in a usable and understandable way. While its true impact is difficult to grasp, a relevant portion of the patients felt more involved in their treatment due to the web portal. Offering patients home EMR access, therefore, appears to be a valuable addition to the care process. PMID:24673997

  15. Impact of patient-accessible electronic medical records in rheumatology: use, satisfaction and effects on empowerment among patients.

    PubMed

    van der Vaart, Rosalie; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; Drossaers-Bakker, K Wiepke; Vonkeman, Harald E; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2014-03-26

    To measure the use, satisfaction and impact of a web portal which provides patients with rheumatoid arthritis home access to their electronic medical records (EMR). A pretest-posttest study was conducted among 360 patients. Questionnaires assessed socio-demographics, health literacy, Internet use, disease characteristics, patient-provider relationship and empowerment before and after launching a hospital-based patient web portal. To measure the impact of the portal, patients' satisfaction with care, trust in their rheumatologist, self-efficacy in patient-provider communication, illness perceptions, and medication adherence were assessed. The post-test included questions on portal use, satisfaction, and self-perceived impact due to portal use. 54% of respondents with Internet access had viewed their EMR. Respondents were positive about the ease of use and usefulness of the portal and reported very few problems. Age (P = .03), amount of Internet use (P = .01) and self-perceived Internet skills (P = .03) significantly predicted portal use. Of the respondents who had logged in, 44% reported feeling more involved in their treatment and 37% felt they had more knowledge about their treatment. Significant differences over time were not found on the empowerment-related instruments. The current portal succeeded in offering patients access to their EMR in a usable and understandable way. While its true impact is difficult to grasp, a relevant portion of the patients felt more involved in their treatment due to the web portal. Offering patients home EMR access, therefore, appears to be a valuable addition to the care process.

  16. Evaluating the impact and costs of deploying an electronic medical record system to support TB treatment in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Hamish SF; Blaya, Joaquin; Choi, Sharon S; Bonilla, Cesar; Jazayeri, Darius

    2006-01-01

    The PIH-EMR is a Web based electronic medical record that has been in operation for over four years in Peru supporting the treatment of drug resistant TB. We describe here the types of evaluations that have been performed on the EMR to assess its impact on patient care, reporting, logistics and observational research. Formal studies have been performed on components for drug order entry, drug requirements prediction tools and the use of PDAs to collect bacteriology data. In addition less formal data on the use of the EMR for reporting and research are reviewed. Experience and insights from porting the PIH-EMR to the Philippines, and modifying it to support HIV treatment in Haiti and Rwanda are discussed. We propose that additional data of this sort is valuable in assessing medical information systems especially in resource poor areas. PMID:17238344

  17. The Impact of Electronic Health Record Implementation and Use on Performance of the Surgical Care Improvement Project Measures

    PubMed Central

    Thirukumaran, Caroline Pinto; Dolan, James G; Webster, Patricia Reagan; Panzer, Robert J; Friedman, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of electronic health record (EHR) deployment on Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) measures in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Data Sources SCIP Core Measure dataset from the CMS Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program (March 2010 to February 2012). Study Design One-group pre- and post-EHR logistic regression and difference-in-differences analyses. Principal Findings Statistically significant short-term declines in scores were observed for the composite, postoperative removal of urinary catheter and post–cardiac surgery glucose control measures. A statistically insignificant improvement in scores for these measures was noted 3 months after EHR deployment. Conclusion The transition to an EHR appears to be associated with a short-term decline in quality. Implementation strategies should be developed to preempt or minimize this initial decline. PMID:24965357

  18. The impact of electronic health record implementation and use on performance of the Surgical Care Improvement Project measures.

    PubMed

    Thirukumaran, Caroline Pinto; Dolan, James G; Reagan Webster, Patricia; Panzer, Robert J; Friedman, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    To examine the impact of electronic health record (EHR) deployment on Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) measures in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. SCIP Core Measure dataset from the CMS Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program (March 2010 to February 2012). One-group pre- and post-EHR logistic regression and difference-in-differences analyses. Statistically significant short-term declines in scores were observed for the composite, postoperative removal of urinary catheter and post-cardiac surgery glucose control measures. A statistically insignificant improvement in scores for these measures was noted 3 months after EHR deployment. The transition to an EHR appears to be associated with a short-term decline in quality. Implementation strategies should be developed to preempt or minimize this initial decline. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Impact of patient access to Internet health records on glaucoma medication: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Kenji; Tsukahara, Shigeo

    2014-01-15

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness. Reduction of intraocular pressure is the only proven way to prevent progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The majority of glaucoma patients need to use antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions over the course of their life. Thus, good adherence and persistency of glaucoma treatment are important factors for better glaucoma care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an Internet-based glaucoma care support system on glaucoma medication use. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The non-Internet access (NIA) group consisted of patients who had access to the Internet-based glaucoma care support system during the 4-year period only when they were examined by ophthalmologists. The Internet access (IA) group consisted of patients who had the same Internet-based glaucoma care support system access as the NIA group for the first 2 years following enrollment but who were also given free access to the glaucoma care support system for the remaining 2 years. Changes in glaucoma medication use were investigated. In total, 81 patients in the IA group and 90 patients in the NIA group satisfied the study protocol. The number of antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions used during the study period significantly increased in the NIA group (P<.03) but not in the IA group. The percentages of patients with unchanged, increased, and decreased antiglaucoma ophthalmic solution use during the study period were 61.1% (55/90), 17.8% (16/90), and 3.3% (3/90), respectively, in the NIA group, and 56.8% (46/81), 8.6% (7/81), and 13.6% (11/81), respectively, in the IA group (P<.001). Internet access significantly shifted from an increasing intraocular pressure trend to a decreasing trend in the IA group (P=.002) among the patients who did not have any medication changes. Allowing patients to browse their medical data may reduce the use and improve the effectiveness of glaucoma medication. UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial Number

  20. Investigating the Impacts of Climate, Hydrology, and Asian Monsoon Intensity on a 13 kyr Speleothem Record from Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongying

    I present a high- resolution record of Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) evolution compiled from delta18O measurements conducted on five U-Th dated speleothems from Tham Mai Cave in northern Laos (20.75N, 102.65E), a key site at the interface between the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems. The speleothem oxygen isotope records are tied to robust uranium-series dates and indicate the records span from 0.79 to 13 kyr BP with sub-decadal resolution. During the Holocene, the Tham Mai speleothem delta18O records are characterized by lower values during the early to mid-Holocene with increasing values towards the late Holocene. This is similar to trends seen throughout the Asian monsoon region, reflecting the strong insolation control on monsoon strength and ITCZ position. The Younger Dryas is characterized by an abrupt delta 18O increase and is synchronous with the even observed in Chinese speleothem records and Greenland ice cores within age uncertainties. This suggests that the SEAM weakened in sync with high-latitude abrupt cooling events. Four speleothems from Tham Mai cave grew contemporaneously from 4,300 years BP to 9,000 years BP. These four samples show a similar delta 18O pattern, despite a 1.2‰ between sample delta18 O variability is observed. A lumped parameter forward model method (KarstFor model) is used to assess to which extent this 1.2‰ discrepancy can be attributed to hydrological variability. Results suggested that this 1.2‰ discrepancy can be generated due to hydrological variability within one cave. To better interpret interannual delta18O variability in high-resolution oxygen isotope records in the Asian Monsoon region, I utilize existing simulations from a spectrally nudged isotope-enabled general circulation model (IsoGSM) to investigate the climatic controls on delta18 Op at four cave locations along the Asian monsoon region. Results show that delta18Op at the four cave sites reflects large-scale ocean-atmosphere processes, instead of

  1. Holocene ethnobotanical and paleoecological record of human impact on vegetation in the Little Tennessee River Valley, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.; Cridlebaugh, Patricia A.; Chapman, Jefferson

    1986-05-01

    Human occupation and utilization of plant resources have affected vegetation in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley of East Tennessee for 10,000 yr. Changes in Indian cultures and land use are documented by radiocarbon chronologies, lithic artifacts, ceramics, settlement patterns, and ethnobotanical remains from 25 stratified archaeological sites within the Holocene alluvial terrace. The ethnobotanical record consists of 31,500 fragments (13.7 kg) of wood charcoal identified to species and 7.7 kg of carbonized fruits, seeds, nutshells, and cultigens from 956 features. Pollen and plant macrofossils from small ponds both in the uplands and on lower stream terraces record local vegetational changes through the last 1500 to 3000 yr. Human impact increased after cultigens, including squash and gourd, were introduced ca. 4000 yr B.P. during the Archaic cultural period. Forest clearance and cultivation disturbed vegetation on both the floodplain and lower terraces after 2800 yr B.P., during the Woodland period. Permanent Indian settlements and maize and bean agriculture extended to higher terraces 1.5 km from the floodplain by the Mississippian period (1000 to 300 yr B.P.). After 300 yr B.P., extensive land clearance and cultivation by Historic Overhill Cherokee and Euro-Americans spread into the uplands beyond the river valley.

  2. Impacts of shore expansion and catchment characteristics on lacustrine thermokarst records in permafrost lowlands, Alaska Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Josefine; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wetterich, Sebastian; Tjallingii, Rik; Fritz, Michael; Arp, Christopher D.; Rudaya, Natalia; Grosse, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Arctic lowland landscapes have been modified by thermokarst lake processes throughout the Holocene. Thermokarst lakes form as a result of ice-rich permafrost degradation, and they may expand over time through thermal and mechanical shoreline erosion. We studied proximal and distal sedimentary records from a thermokarst lake located on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska to reconstruct the impact of catchment dynamics and morphology on the lacustrine depositional environment and to quantify carbon accumulation in thermokarst lake sediments. Short cores were collected for analysis of pollen, sedimentological, and geochemical proxies. Radiocarbon and 210Pb/137Cs dating, as well as extrapolation of measured historic lake expansion rates, were applied to estimate a minimum lake age of ~1400 calendar years BP. The pollen record is in agreement with the young lake age as it does not include evidence of the “alder high” that occurred in the region ~4000 cal yr BP. The lake most likely initiated from a remnant pond in a drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) and deepened rapidly as evidenced by accumulation of laminated sediments. Increasing oxygenation of the water column as shown by higher Fe/Ti and Fe/S ratios in the sediment indicate shifts in ice regime with increasing water depth. More recently, the sediment source changed as the thermokarst lake expanded through lateral permafrost degradation, alternating from redeposited DTLB sediments, to increased amounts of sediment from eroding, older upland deposits, followed by a more balanced combination of both DTLB and upland sources. The characterizing shifts in sediment sources and depositional regimes in expanding thermokarst lakes were, therefore, archived in the thermokarst lake sedimentary record. This study also highlights the potential for Arctic lakes to recycle old carbon from thawing permafrost and thermokarst processes.

  3. Chronology of anthropogenic impacts reconstructed from sediment records of trace metals and Pb isotopes in Todos os Santos Bay (NE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Andrade, R L B; Hatje, V; Masqué, P; Zurbrick, C M; Boyle, E A; Santos, W P C

    2017-08-08

    The evolution of the impacts of anthropogenic activities in Todos os Santos Bay was evaluated by profiles of trace metals and Pb isotopes determined in sediment cores. Fluxes of metals increased up to 12, 4 and 2 times for Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively, compared to those recorded in the beginning of the 20(th) century. Stable Pb isotopes identified a decommissioned lead smelter and burning of fossil fuels as the main sources of Pb. Most metals showed minor to moderate enrichment factors (EF<4), but Cu and Pb were highly enriched (EF=28 and 6, respectively) at the Aratu harbor. Temporal changes in sediments were associated to different activities, namely Pb smelting, burning of fossil fuels, maritime traffic, petroleum related activities, inputs of domestic effluents, and changes in land uses. The effects of the implementation of environmental policies to improve the waters of the bay could not be identified in the evaluated cores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correcting the record of volcanic stratospheric aerosol impact: Nabro and Sarychev Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, M.; Kablick, G.; Nedoluha, G.; Carboni, E.; Grainger, R.; Campbell, J.; Lewis, J.

    2014-09-01

    Since 2010, several papers have been published that reveal a pattern of discrepancies between stratospheric aerosol data from the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument and other measurements and model simulations of volcanic plumes from Kasatochi, Sarychev Peak, and Nabro volcanoes. OSIRIS measurements show two discrepancies, a posteruption lag in aerosol onset/increase and a low bias in maximum stratospheric aerosol optical depth. Assumed robustness of the OSIRIS data drove various conclusions, some controversial, such as the contention that the June 2011 Nabro plume was strictly tropospheric, and entered the stratosphere indirectly via the Asian monsoon. Those conclusions were driven by OSIRIS data and a Smithsonian Institution report of strictly tropospheric injection heights. We address the issue of Nabro's eruption chronology and injection height, and the reasons for the OSIRIS aerosol discrepancies. We lay out the time line of Nabro injection height with geostationary image data, and stratospheric plume evolution after eruption onset using retrievals of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol. The observations show that Nabro injected sulfur directly to or above the tropopause upon the initial eruption on 12/13 June and again on 16 June 2011. Next, OSIRIS data are examined for nonvolcanic and volcanically perturbed conditions. In nonvolcanic conditions OSIRIS profiles systematically terminate 1-4 km above the tropopause. Additionally, OSIRIS profiles terminate when 750 nm aerosol extinction exceeds ˜0.0025 km-1, a level that is commonly exceeded after volcanic injections. Our findings largely resolve the discrepancies in published works involving OSIRIS aerosol data and offer a correction to the Nabro injection-height and eruption chronology.

  5. Correcting the Record of Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Impact: Nabro and Sarychev Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, M. D.; Kablick, G. P., III; Nedoluha, G. E.; Carboni, E.; Grainger, R. G.; Campbell, J. R.; Lewis, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2010 several papers have been published that reveal a pattern of discrepancies between stratospheric aerosol data from the OSIRIS instrument, and other measurements and model simulations of volcanic plumes from Kasatochi, Sarychev Peak, and Nabro volcanoes. OSIRIS measurements show two discrepancies, a post-eruption lag in aerosol onset/increase, and a low bias in maximum stratospheric aerosol optical depth. Assumed robustness of the OSIRIS data drove various conclusions, some controversial, such as the contention that the June 2011 Nabro plume was strictly tropospheric, and entered the stratosphere indirectly via the Asian monsoon. Those conclusions were driven by OSIRIS data and a Smithsonian Institution report of strictly tropospheric injection heights. We address the issue of Nabro's eruption chronology and injection height, and the reasons for the OSIRIS aerosol discrepancies. We lay out the time line of Nabro injection height with geostationary image data, and stratospheric plume evolution after eruption onset using retrievals of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosol. The observations show that Nabro injected sulfur directly into the stratosphere upon the initial eruption on 12/13 June, and again on 16 June 2011. Next, OSIRIS data are examined for non-volcanic and volcanically perturbed conditions. In non-volcanic conditions OSIRIS profiles systematically terminate 1-4 km above the tropopause. Additionally, OSIRIS profiles terminate when 750 nm aerosol extinction exceeds ~0.0025 km-1, a level that is commonly exceeded after volcanic injections. Our findings largely resolve the discrepancies in published works involving OSIRIS aerosol data and offer a correction to the Nabro injection-height and eruption chronology.

  6. Records of pan (floodplain wetland) sedimentation as an approach for post-hoc investigation of the hydrological impacts of dam impoundment: The Pongolo river, KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Heath, S K; Plater, A J

    2010-07-01

    River impoundment by dams has far-reaching consequences for downstream floodplains in terms of hydrology, water quality, geomorphology, ecology and ecosystem services. With the imperative of economic development, there is the danger that potential environmental impacts are not assessed adequately or monitored appropriately. Here, an investigation of sediment composition of two pans (floodplain wetlands) in the Pongolo River floodplain, KwaZulu-Natal, downstream of the Pongolapoort dam constructed in 1974, is considered as a method for post-hoc assessment of the impacts on river hydrology, sediment supply and water quality. Bumbe and Sokhunti pans have contrasting hydrological regimes in terms of their connection to the main Pongolo channel - Bumbe is a shallow ephemeral pan and Sokhunti is a deep, perennial water body. The results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemical analysis of their sediment records over a depth of >1 m show that whilst the two pans exhibit similar sediment composition and variability in their lower part, Bumbe pan exhibits a shift toward increased fine-grained mineral supply and associated nutrient influx at a depth of c. 45 cm whilst Sokhunti pan is characterised by increased biogenic productivity at a depth of c. 26 cm due to enhanced nutrient status. The underlying cause is interpreted as a shift in hydrology to a 'post-dam' flow regime of reduced flood frequencies with more regular baseline flows which reduce the average flow velocity. In addition, Sokhunti shows a greater sensitivity to soil influx during flood events due to the nature of its 'background' of autochthonous biogenic sedimentation. The timing of the overall shift in sediment composition and the dates of the mineral inwash events are not well defined, but the potential for these wetlands as sensitive recorders of dam-induced changes in floodplain hydrology, especially those with a similar setting to Sokhunti pan, is clearly demonstrated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Text mining electronic hospital records to automatically classify admissions against disease: Measuring the impact of linking data sources.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Simon; Cavedon, Lawrence; Martinez, David; Bain, Christopher; Manus, Chris Mac; Haffari, Gholamreza; Zukerman, Ingrid; Verspoor, Karin

    2016-12-01

    Text and data mining play an important role in obtaining insights from Health and Hospital Information Systems. This paper presents a text mining system for detecting admissions marked as positive for several diseases: Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Colon Cancer, Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Respiratory and Digestive Organs, Multiple Myeloma and Malignant Plasma Cell Neoplasms, Pneumonia, and Pulmonary Embolism. We specifically examine the effect of linking multiple data sources on text classification performance. Support Vector Machine classifiers are built for eight data source combinations, and evaluated using the metrics of Precision, Recall and F-Score. Sub-sampling techniques are used to address unbalanced datasets of medical records. We use radiology reports as an initial data source and add other sources, such as pathology reports and patient and hospital admission data, in order to assess the research question regarding the impact of the value of multiple data sources. Statistical significance is measured using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A second set of experiments explores aspects of the system in greater depth, focusing on Lung Cancer. We explore the impact of feature selection; analyse the learning curve; examine the effect of restricting admissions to only those containing reports from all data sources; and examine the impact of reducing the sub-sampling. These experiments provide better understanding of how to best apply text classification in the context of imbalanced data of variable completeness. Radiology questions plus patient and hospital admission data contribute valuable information for detecting most of the diseases, significantly improving performance when added to radiology reports alone or to the combination of radiology and pathology reports. Overall, linking data sources significantly improved classification performance for all the diseases examined. However, there is no single approach that suits all scenarios; the choice of the

  8. Financial impact of adopting implantable loop recorder diagnostic for unexplained syncope compared with conventional diagnostic pathway in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Providência, Rui; Candeias, Rui; Morais, Carlos; Reis, Hipólito; Elvas, Luís; Sanfins, Vitor; Farinha, Sara; Eggington, Simon; Tsintzos, Stelios

    2014-05-06

    To estimate the short- and long-term financial impact of early referral for implantable loop recorder diagnostic (ILR) versus conventional diagnostic pathway (CDP) in the management of unexplained syncope (US) in the Portuguese National Health Service (PNHS). A Markov model was developed to estimate the expected number of hospital admissions due to US and its respective financial impact in patients implanted with ILR versus CDP. The average cost of a syncope episode admission was estimated based on Portuguese cost data and landmark papers. The financial impact of ILR adoption was estimated for a total of 197 patients with US, based on the number of syncope admissions per year in the PNHS. Sensitivity analysis was performed to take into account the effect of uncertainty in the input parameters (hazard ratio of death; number of syncope events per year; probabilities and unit costs of each diagnostic test; probability of trauma and yield of diagnosis) over three-year and lifetime horizons. The average cost of a syncope event was estimated to be between 1,760€ and 2,800€. Over a lifetime horizon, the total discounted costs of hospital admissions and syncope diagnosis for the entire cohort were 23% lower amongst patients in the ILR group compared with the CDP group (1,204,621€ for ILR, versus 1,571,332€ for CDP). The utilization of ILR leads to an earlier diagnosis and lower number of syncope hospital admissions and investigations, thus allowing significant cost offsets in the Portuguese setting. The result is robust to changes in the input parameter values, and cost savings become more pronounced over time.

  9. Impact of climate and CO 2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, Kerstin S.; Frank, David C.; Saurer, Matthias; Helle, Gerhard; Schleser, Gerhard H.; Esper, Jan

    2009-08-01

    We present one millennium-long (1171-year), and three 100 year long annually resolved δ 13C tree-ring chronologies from ecologically varying Juniperus stands in the Karakorum Mountains (northern Pakistan), and evaluate their response to climatic and atmospheric CO 2 changes. All δ 13C records show a gradual decrease since the beginning of the 19th century, which is commonly associated with a depletion of atmospheric δ 13C due to fossil fuel burning. Climate calibration of high-frequency δ 13C variations indicates a pronounced summer temperature signal for all sites. The low-frequency component of the same records, however, deviates from long-term temperature trends, even after correction for changes in anthropogenic CO 2. We hypothesize that these high-elevation trees show a response to both climate and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the latter might explain the offset with target temperature data. We applied several corrections to tree-ring δ 13C records, considering a range of potential CO 2 discrimination changes over the past 150 years and calculated the goodness of fit with the target via calibration/verification tests ( R2, residual trend, and Durbin-Watson statistics). These tests revealed that at our sites, carbon isotope fixation on longer timescales is affected by increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at a discrimination rate of about 0.012‰/ppmv. Although this statistically derived value may be site related, our findings have implications for the interpretation of any long-term trends in climate reconstructions using tree-ring δ 13C, as we demonstrate with our millennium-long δ 13C Karakorum record. While we find indications for warmth during the Medieval Warm Period (higher than today's mean summer temperature), we also show that the low-frequency temperature pattern critically depends on the correction applied. Patterns of long-term climate variation, including the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, and 20th century

  10. Impact of climate variability on terrestrial environment in Western Europe between 45 and 9 kyr cal. BP: vegetation dynamics recorded by the Bergsee Lake (Black Forest, Germany).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat-Oualid, Fanny; Begeot, Carole; Rius, Damien; Millet, Laurent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Between 9 and 45 kyr cal. BP, two great transitions lead the global climate system to evolve from the Last-Glacial period (115-14.7 kyr cal. BP), to two successive warmer periods, the Late-Glacial Interstadial (14.7-11.7 kyr cal. BP) and the Holocene (11.7-0 kyr cal. BP). δ18O variations recorded in Greenland ice cores (GRIP & NGRIP) revealed high frequency climate variability within the Last Glacial. These reference isotopic records highlighted a succession of centennial-to-millennial warm/cold events, the so-called Greenland Interstadials (GI) and Greenland Stadials (GS). The number continental records about the period 14.7-0 kyr cal. BP is substantial. This allowed to understand the vegetation dynamics in response to climate changes this period at the North-Atlantic scale. However, sequences covering the glacial period (beyond 20 kyr cal.BP) remain rare, because of hiatuses mostly due to local glaciers. Therefore, sedimentary continuous records of vegetation dynamics are still needed to better understand climate changes during the Last Glacial in Western Europe (Heiri et al. 2014). Here we present a new high-resolution pollen record from Lake Bergsee (47°34'20''N, 7°56'11''E, 382 m a.s.l). This lake is located south of Black Forest and north of the Alps, beyond the zone of glaciers maximal extension. Therefore it could have recorded the whole last climatic cycle, i.e. 120-0 kyr cal. BP. In 2013, a 29 m long core was extracted from the Bergsee. According to the depth-age model based on 14C AMS dating and the Laacher See Tephra (LST), the record spans continuously at least the last 45 kyrs. The first series of pollen analysis, focused on the 45-9 kyr cal. BP time window, allows us to reconstruct a precise, faithful and continuous vegetation history at the centennial scale. This high temporal resolution enabled to assess the response of vegetation to secular climate events (e.g. GI-4 = 200 yrs). First, our results show that vegetation responded to climate

  11. Impact of the implementation of the AAN epilepsy quality measures on the medical records in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Franco, J Miguel; Díaz-Torres, Marco A; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Juan B; Martínez-Silva, Alejandro; Gutierrez-Herrera, Mildred A; San-Juan, Daniel

    2013-08-28

    The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) suggested eight quality measures to be observed at every patient visit. The aim of this work is to compare the percentage of documentation of each measure before and after the implementation of a new worksheet in a third-level center. Quasi-experimental study including medical records filled by medical school seniors and junior residents supervised by an epileptologist. The authors surveyed 80 consecutive charts of people with epilepsy who were seen in the outpatient clinic before and after the intervention. McNemar change test was used to compare the percentages of documentation of each quality measure-i.e., seizure type and frequency, etiology, EEG, MRI/CT head scans, AED side effects, surgical therapy referral, safety counseling, preconception counseling-and physical exam. Each quality measure was considered to be fulfilled only if it was assessed and properly recorded. Mean age was 35(±13) years, 55% women, mean epilepsy onset at age 18(±15), 82% presented with partial-onset seizures. The reporting rate improved for all quality measures (previous vs new), reaching statistical significance for: seizure type 80vs94% (p < 0.05), AED side effects 8vs24%, etiology 66vs88% (p < 0.01), safety counseling 5vs64%, preconception counseling 4vs20%, and physical exam 63vs94% (p < 0.001). A quality-oriented epilepsy worksheet led to a better practice standardization and documentation of AAN standards for diagnostic and counseling purposes. Further evaluations should be undertaken to assess the impact on medical education and patient care.

  12. Impact of the implementation of the AAN epilepsy quality measures on the medical records in a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) suggested eight quality measures to be observed at every patient visit. The aim of this work is to compare the percentage of documentation of each measure before and after the implementation of a new worksheet in a third-level center. Methods Quasi-experimental study including medical records filled by medical school seniors and junior residents supervised by an epileptologist. The authors surveyed 80 consecutive charts of people with epilepsy who were seen in the outpatient clinic before and after the intervention. McNemar change test was used to compare the percentages of documentation of each quality measure–i.e., seizure type and frequency, etiology, EEG, MRI/CT head scans, AED side effects, surgical therapy referral, safety counseling, preconception counseling–and physical exam. Each quality measure was considered to be fulfilled only if it was assessed and properly recorded. Results Mean age was 35(±13) years, 55% women, mean epilepsy onset at age 18(±15), 82% presented with partial-onset seizures. The reporting rate improved for all quality measures (previous vs new), reaching statistical significance for: seizure type 80vs94% (p < 0.05), AED side effects 8vs24%, etiology 66vs88% (p < 0.01), safety counseling 5vs64%, preconception counseling 4vs20%, and physical exam 63vs94% (p < 0.001). Conclusion A quality-oriented epilepsy worksheet led to a better practice standardization and documentation of AAN standards for diagnostic and counseling purposes. Further evaluations should be undertaken to assess the impact on medical education and patient care. PMID:23984949

  13. The new record of daily precipitation in Lisbon since 1864: diagnosis and impacts of an exceptional precipitation episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, M.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Valente, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    On 18 February 2008 the city of Lisbon had its rainiest day on record, i.e. since the establishment of the D. Luís Observatory in 1853 (continuous observations of meteorological variables are only available since 1864). Fortunately a Portuguese funded project (SIGN) allowed to digitize all the data between 1864 and 1941, allowing a proper comparison with previous extreme events and also to compute more significant return periods. We can now state that a new absolute maximum of daily precipitation at this station occurred last 18 February, when 118.4 mm were registered, surpassing the previous maximum of 110.7 mm (observed on 5 December 1876). Interestingly, these record breaking characteristics were confined to the city of Lisbon, not being observed in rural and suburban neighborhoods, where the anterior maxima recorded in 26 November 1967 or 18 November 1983 were not achieved. In fact, this extreme event was relatively uncharacteristic when compared with typical extreme precipitation events in southern Portugal (Fragoso and Tildes Gomes, 2008). These extreme episodes tend to occur preferably in fall (late September until early December) and covering a wider area. In this work we present an extensive analysis of the large-scale and synoptic atmospheric circulation environment leading to this extreme rainstorm as well as the consequences, namely floods and landslides that produced relevant socio-economic impacts (including 4 casualties). This will be achieved through the characterization of the extreme precipitation episode, describing its temporal structure and the geographic incidence of the event and also assessing statistically the exceptionality of the daily rainfall. The study of the atmospheric context of the episode will be performed with Satellite and radar data, complemented by several large-scale fields obtained from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalyses dataset, including sea level pressure, 500 hPa Geopotential height, precipitation rate, CAPE index. FRAGOSO, M

  14. Impact of patient-held record on knowledge at 1-year follow-up for glaucoma patients: single-center randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Marina; Fairlamb, Helen; Jonker, Leon

    2017-08-30

    To assess whether provision of a personalized patient-held eye health summary (glaucoma personal record) improves patients' knowledge of glaucoma at 1-year follow-up. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence has recommended such an approach to ascertain if this may ultimately help slow disease progression. Recruited patients, newly diagnosed with glaucoma conditions, were randomly allocated to receive standard clinical care or an additional glaucoma personal record, detailing the current state of each individual's eye condition. Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of knowledge scores between groups at 1-year follow-up, using a validated questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to detect any factors significantly associated with a difference in glaucoma knowledge. A total of 122 patients were recruited; 57 controls and 44 intervention patients were tested for their glaucoma knowledge, equating to 83% retention rate. Out of a maximum available 100% converted score, the median scores were 58% and 53% for the control and intervention arm, respectively (p = 0.85). Regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.015) had a negative association and level of education (p = 0.002) had a positive association with glaucoma knowledge. The glaucoma personal record does not impact on a patient's knowledge of glaucoma in either a positive or negative way. Other approaches to improve health literacy among glaucoma patients, particularly for patients who are elderly or have a limited educational background, must be considered to improve patients' awareness and knowledge of their own condition. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry: ISRCTN41306818.

  15. Understanding and predicting the strong Southern Annular Mode and its impact on the record wet east Australian spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.

    2015-05-01

    In 2010 eastern Australia experienced its wettest spring on record, which has been largely attributed to a strong La Niña event in conjunction with an extraordinary positive excursion of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). La Niña impacts would be expected to have been predictable months in advance, but predictability of the occurrence of the strong SAM is less known. We explore the predictability of the strong SAM in austral spring 2010 and its contribution to the extreme wet conditions in eastern Australia, using the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's dynamical seasonal forecast system (POAMA2). Seasonal forecasts from POAMA2 were skilful in predicting the wet conditions over eastern Australia at up to 2 month lead time as a result of a good prediction of the impacts of the ongoing La Niña and the development of a strong positive excursion of the SAM. Forecast sensitivity experiments on initial conditions demonstrate that (1) the strong La Niña was a necessary condition for promoting the positive phase of SAM (high SAM) and the anomalous wet conditions over eastern Australia during October to November 2010; but (2) internal atmospheric processes were important for producing the moderate strength of the high SAM in September 2010 and for amplifying the strength of the high SAM forced by La Niña in October to November 2010; and (3) the strong high SAM was an important factor for the extremity of the Australian rainfall in late spring 2010. Therefore, high quality atmosphere and ocean initial conditions were both essential for the successful prediction of the extreme climate during austral spring 2010.

  16. Crowdsourcing: It Matters Who the Crowd Are. The Impacts of between Group Variations in Recording Land Cover

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Peter; Purves, Ross S.; Rocchini, Duccio; Walz, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Volunteered geographical information (VGI) and citizen science have become important sources data for much scientific research. In the domain of land cover, crowdsourcing can provide a high temporal resolution data to support different analyses of landscape processes. However, the scientists may have little control over what gets recorded by the crowd, providing a potential source of error and uncertainty. This study compared analyses of crowdsourced land cover data that were contributed by different groups, based on nationality (labelled Gondor and Non-Gondor) and on domain experience (labelled Expert and Non-Expert). The analyses used a geographically weighted model to generate maps of land cover and compared the maps generated by the different groups. The results highlight the differences between the maps how specific land cover classes were under- and over-estimated. As crowdsourced data and citizen science are increasingly used to replace data collected under the designed experiment, this paper highlights the importance of considering between group variations and their impacts on the results of analyses. Critically, differences in the way that landscape features are conceptualised by different groups of contributors need to be considered when using crowdsourced data in formal scientific analyses. The discussion considers the potential for variation in crowdsourced data, the relativist nature of land cover and suggests a number of areas for future research. The key finding is that the veracity of citizen science data is not the critical issue per se. Rather, it is important to consider the impacts of differences in the semantics, affordances and functions associated with landscape features held by different groups of crowdsourced data contributors. PMID:27458924

  17. Crowdsourcing: It Matters Who the Crowd Are. The Impacts of between Group Variations in Recording Land Cover.

    PubMed

    Comber, Alexis; Mooney, Peter; Purves, Ross S; Rocchini, Duccio; Walz, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Volunteered geographical information (VGI) and citizen science have become important sources data for much scientific research. In the domain of land cover, crowdsourcing can provide a high temporal resolution data to support different analyses of landscape processes. However, the scientists may have little control over what gets recorded by the crowd, providing a potential source of error and uncertainty. This study compared analyses of crowdsourced land cover data that were contributed by different groups, based on nationality (labelled Gondor and Non-Gondor) and on domain experience (labelled Expert and Non-Expert). The analyses used a geographically weighted model to generate maps of land cover and compared the maps generated by the different groups. The results highlight the differences between the maps how specific land cover classes were under- and over-estimated. As crowdsourced data and citizen science are increasingly used to replace data collected under the designed experiment, this paper highlights the importance of considering between group variations and their impacts on the results of analyses. Critically, differences in the way that landscape features are conceptualised by different groups of contributors need to be considered when using crowdsourced data in formal scientific analyses. The discussion considers the potential for variation in crowdsourced data, the relativist nature of land cover and suggests a number of areas for future research. The key finding is that the veracity of citizen science data is not the critical issue per se. Rather, it is important to consider the impacts of differences in the semantics, affordances and functions associated with landscape features held by different groups of crowdsourced data contributors.

  18. Annual water-level measurements in observation wells, 1951-1955, and atlas of maps showing changes in water levels for various periods from beginning of record through 1954, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeder, Harold O.

    1959-01-01

    This report tabulates the annual measurements of water level in the observation wells in the various irrigated areas, primarily from 1951 through 1955. It summarizes changes in water level by discussion and with an atlas of nearly all the maps of change of water level for the period of record to 1955 for each area in which observations are being made. Included also are hydrographs for the period of record through 1954 of several selected wells in the various areas irrigated from ground-water sources. The annual measurements of water level before 1951, seasonal measurements, and daily records of water levels in wells equipped with recording gages have been published in an annual series of U. S. Geological Survey water-supply papers.

  19. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Crees, Jennifer J.; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S.; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18 700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11 700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of ‘static’ past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration. PMID:27009229

  20. A search for evidence of large body Earth impacts associated with biological crisis zones in the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Knight, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The natural history of the Earth, how the present plant and animal species developed, how others completely died out, etc., was studied. The rock strata sampled and studied were at the time of deposition at sea bottom. It was found that, exactly at the stratigraphic level corresponding to the extinction, a thin clay layer was greatly enriched in the the rare element iridium. It was hypothesized that the excess irridium at the boundary came from a large steroid like object that hit the earth, and that the impact of this object threw up a dust cloud dense enough and long lasting enough to bring about the extinction of a wide variety of plants and animals, producing the unique break in in the fossil record, the cretaceous-tertiary boundary. The same iridium and platinum metals enrichement are found in a thin clay layer that corresponds with the boundary as difined by sudden radical changes in plant populations. The irridium enrichement is confirmed at other fresh water origin rites in the Raton Basin.

  1. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Crees, Jennifer J; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-03-30

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18,700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11,700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of 'static' past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration.

  2. History and environmental impact of mining activity in Celtic Aeduan territory recorded in a peat bog (Morvan, France).

    PubMed

    Monna, F; Petit, C; Guillaumet, J P; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I; Blanchot, C; Dominik, J; Losno, R; Richard, H; Lévêque, J; Chateau, C

    2004-02-01

    The present study aims to document historical mining and smelting activities by means of geochemical and pollen analyses performed in a peat bog core collected around the Bibracte oppidum (Morvan, France), the largest settlement of the great Aeduan Celtic tribe (ca. 180 B.C. to 25 A.D.). The anthropogenic Pb profile indicates local mining operations starting from the Late Bronze Age, ca. cal. 1300 B.C. Lead inputs peaked at the height of Aeduan civilization and then decreased after the Roman conquest of Gaul, when the site was abandoned. Other phases of mining are recognized from the 11th century to modern times. They have all led to modifications in plant cover, probably related in part to forest clearances necessary to supply energy for mining and smelting. Zn, Sb, Cd, and Cu distributions may result from diffusional and biological processes or from the influence of groundwater and underlying mineral soil, precluding their interpretation for historical reconstruction. The abundance of mineral resources, in addition to the strategic location, might explain why early settlers founded the city of Bibracte at that particular place. About 20% of the anthropogenic lead record was accumulated before our era and about 50% before the 18th century, which constitutes a troublesome heritage. Any attempts to develop control strategies in accumulating environments should take into account past human activities in order to not overestimate the impact of contemporary pollution.

  3. Holocene climate change and human impact, central Mexico: a record based on maar lake pollen and sediment chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungjae; Byrne, Roger; Böhnel, Harald; Garza, Roberto Molina; Conserva, Mariaelena

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents multiproxy (pollen, magnetic susceptibility, sediment chemistry) records from two maar crater lakes in the Valle de Santiago of Guanajuato, Mexico: Hoya San Nicolás and Hoya Rincon de Parangueo. Sediment cores from the two sites have basal dates of ca 11,600 and 9600 cal yr BP, respectively. The San Nicolás results show that the lake desiccated several times during the Holocene, and this resulted in the selective destruction of the less resistant pollen types. A comparative analysis of data from both sites indicates that during the earliest Holocene (ca 11,600-9000 cal yr BP) there were short term oscillations of wetter and drier climate; during the early Holocene (ca 9000-5700 cal yr BP) it was on average wetter; during the middle Holocene (ca 5700-3800 cal yr BP) drier; and during the middle to late Holocene (ca 3800-2200 cal yr BP) wetter. Increasing human disturbance during the late Holocene of environment obscures the climatic record. Agricultural activities in the area began as early as ca 5700 cal yr BP and intensified around 2400 cal yr BP.

  4. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  5. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  6. 78 FR 48543 - Notice of Approval of Finding of No Significant Impact-Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for Sioux...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... (FONSI/ROD) for Sioux Falls Regional Airport, Sioux Falls, South Dakota AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Impact--Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for proposed development at the Sioux Falls Regional Airport, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The FAA approved the FONSI/ROD on July 22, 2013. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  7. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  8. '…it shows that there's no limits': the psychological impact of co-production for experts by experience working in youth mental health.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Claire; McKenzie, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Co-production is commonly conceptualised as a more equal sharing of power and decision-making between a dichotomy of service user and service provider, each bringing valuable and different assets to the process. Experts by experience lie in the overlap between this conceptually created duality, providing the services they now do by virtue of having once used services themselves. Previous related studies suggest that their involvement in co-production could impact positively on their social capital, self-esteem, self-efficacy and life skills. However, no studies have been explicitly psychological or phenomenological in nature, and the theoretical basis for such outcomes remains under-developed. This phenomenological study explored the psychological impact of co-production for young people who were paid experts by experience for a young person's mental health charity in a large and diverse urban area in the UK, looking at the what of psychological impact, as well as the theoretical why and how. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of five males, with a mean age of 25 years. Interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded three master themes: the co-production approach, I'm a professional and identities in transition. Participants valued a collegiate organisational approach that prioritised empowerment, agency and equality between experts by experience and 'experts by qualification', leading to a positive impact on their self-efficacy and self-esteem. Co-production impacted fundamentally on their identity structure, enabling them to explore a new identity as a 'professional'. The results are framed within identity process theory and point to the potential benefits of this model to co-production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The impact of the electronic medical record on structure, process, and outcomes within primary care: a systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzetti, Diane; Straus, Sharon E; Sykes, Lindsay; Quan, Hude

    2011-01-01

    Background The electronic medical record (EMR)/electronic health record (EHR) is becoming an integral component of many primary-care outpatient practices. Before implementing an EMR/EHR system, primary-care practices should have an understanding of the potential benefits and limitations. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically review the recent literature around the impact of the EMR/EHR within primary-care outpatient practices. Materials and methods Searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ABI Inform, and Cochrane Library were conducted to identify articles published between January 1998 and January 2010. The gray literature and reference lists of included articles were also searched. 30 studies met inclusion criteria. Results and discussion The EMR/EHR appears to have structural and process benefits, but the impact on clinical outcomes is less clear. Using Donabedian's framework, five articles focused on the impact on healthcare structure, 21 explored healthcare process issues, and four focused on health-related outcomes. PMID:21659445

  10. The impact of the electronic medical record on structure, process, and outcomes within primary care: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Lorenzetti, Diane; Straus, Sharon E; Sykes, Lindsay; Quan, Hude

    2011-01-01

    The electronic medical record (EMR)/electronic health record (EHR) is becoming an integral component of many primary-care outpatient practices. Before implementing an EMR/EHR system, primary-care practices should have an understanding of the potential benefits and limitations. The objective of this study was to systematically review the recent literature around the impact of the EMR/EHR within primary-care outpatient practices. Searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ABI Inform, and Cochrane Library were conducted to identify articles published between January 1998 and January 2010. The gray literature and reference lists of included articles were also searched. 30 studies met inclusion criteria. The EMR/EHR appears to have structural and process benefits, but the impact on clinical outcomes is less clear. Using Donabedian's framework, five articles focused on the impact on healthcare structure, 21 explored healthcare process issues, and four focused on health-related outcomes.

  11. Geological Impacts and Sedimentary Record of the February 27, 2010, Chile Tsunami-La Trinchera to Concepcion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Buckley, Mark L.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Richmond, Bruce M.; Cecioni, Adriano; Artal, Osvaldo; Hoffmann, Constanza; Perez, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The February 27, 2010, Chilean tsunami substantially altered the coastal landscape and left a permanent depositional record that may be preserved at many locales along the central coast of Chile. From April 24 to May 2, 2010, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Chilean scientists examined the geological impacts of the tsunami at five sites along a 200-km segment of coast centered on the earthquake epicenter. Significant observations include: (1) substantial tsunami-induced erosion and deposition (+/- 1 m) on the coastal plain; (2) erosion from return flow, inundation scour around the bases of trees, and widespread planation of the land surface; (3) tsunami sand deposits at all sites that extended to near the limit of inundation except at one site; (4) evidence of multiple strong onshore waves that arrived at different times and from different directions; (5) vegetation height and density controlled the thickness of tsunami deposits at one site, (6) the abundance of layers of plane-parallel stratification in some deposits and the presence of large bedforms at one site indicated at least some of the sediment was transported as bed load and not as suspended load; (7) shoreward transport of mud boulders and rock cobbles where they were available; and (8) the maximum tsunami inundation distance (2.35 km) was up an alluvial valley. Most of the tsunami deposits were less than 25 cm thick, which is consistent with tsunami-deposit thicknesses found elsewhere (for example, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Sumatra, Sri Lanka). Exceptions were the thick tsunami deposits near the mouths of Rio Huenchullami (La Trinchera) and Rio Maule (Constitucion), where the sediment supply was abundant. The substantial vertical erosion of the coastal plain at Constitucion

  12. Impact of electronic medical record integration of a handoff tool on sign-out in a newborn intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Palma, JP; Sharek, PJ; Longhurst, CA

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of integrating a handoff tool into the electronic medical record (EMR) on sign-out accuracy, satisfaction and workflow in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study Design Prospective surveys of neonatal care providers in an academic children’s hospital 1 month before and 6 months following EMR integration of a standalone Microsoft Access neonatal handoff tool. Result Providers perceived sign-out information to be somewhat or very accurate at a rate of 78% with the standalone handoff tool and 91% with the EMR-integrated tool (P < 0.01). Before integration of neonatal sign-out into the EMR, 35% of providers were satisfied with the process of updating sign-out information and 71% were satisfied with the printed sign-out document; following EMR integration, 92% of providers were satisfied with the process of updating sign-out information (P < 0.01) and 98% were satisfied with the printed sign-out document (P < 0.01). Neonatal care providers reported spending a median of 11 to 15 min/day updating the standalone sign-out and 16 to 20 min/day updating the EMR-integrated sign-out (P = 0.026). The median percentage of total sign-out preparation time dedicated to transcribing information from the EMR was 25 to 49% before and <25% after EMR integration of the handoff tool (P < 0.01). Conclusion Integration of a NICU-specific handoff tool into an EMR resulted in improvements in perceived sign-out accuracy, provider satisfaction and at least one aspect of workflow. PMID:21273990

  13. Recorded gonorrhoea rates in Denmark, 1900–2010: the impact of clinical testing activity and laboratory diagnostic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Inga; Hoffmann, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of the relations between recorded gonorrhoea rates and clinical testing activity and disposable diagnostic tests. Methods In Denmark, two sources of information on the epidemiology of gonorrhoea are available: (1) a mandatory clinical notification system (since 1867) comprising summary information about geographic distribution, season, age group and gender; in 1994, more detailed anonymous individualised epidemiological information was included; (2) a voluntary countrywide laboratory surveillance system for culture-confirmed cases (since 1957) comprising information about patient's age and gender, infected anatomical sites and medical setting attended. Results Both surveillance systems showed marked simultaneous changes in gonorrhoea rates, although periodically considerable under-reporting or under-diagnosing was demonstrated. The annual incidence of notified cases peaked in 1919 (474/100 000), in 1944 (583/100 000) and in 1972 (344/100 000). Since 1995, the incidence has been at a low endemic level (1.5–10/100 000) and the total male/female incidence ratios were from 3 to 7 times higher than previously recorded. Among approximately 2 million persons tested during 1974–1988 78 213 men and 63 143 women with culture-confirmed gonorrhoea were identified. During this period, pharyngeal sampling was performed in 36% of men and 25% of women with gonorrhoea; pharyngeal gonorrhoea was found in 10% and 16%, respectively; 40% and 30% of these patients had no concomitant urogenital gonorrhoea. Among men with gonorrhoea, 34% were sampled from the rectum; 9% had rectal gonorrhoea, among whom the rectum was the only infected site in 67%. Conclusions Crucial factors for case finding are clinical sampling tradition and appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities. When case finding is insufficient, a reservoir of asymptomatic rectal or pharyngeal gonorrhoea remains unrecognised. PMID:26621510

  14. Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

  15. Spherule beds 3.47-3.24 billion years old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Donald R; Byerly, Gary R; Kyte, Frank T; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approximately 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

  16. Impact of wind on ambient noise recorded by the "13 BB star" seismic array in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry and beam forming techniques were applied to ambient noise recorded during January 2014 at the "13 BB star" array, composed of thirteen seismic stations located in northern Poland, with the aim of evaluating the azimuth of noise sources and the velocities of surface waves. After normalizing the raw recordings in time and frequency domain, the spectral characteristics of the ambient noise were studied to choose a frequency band suitable for the waves' retrieval. To get the velocity of surface waves by seismic interferometry, the crosscorrelation between all station pairs was analysed for the vertical and horizontal components in the 0.05-0.1 Hz, 0.1-1 Hz and 1 10 Hz frequency bands. For each pair, the crosscorrelation was applied to one hour recordings extracted from the ambient noise. The obtained traces were calculated for a complete day, and then summed together: the daily results were stacked for the whole January 2014. In the lowest frequency range, most of the energy is located around the 3.0 km/s line, meaning that the surface waves coming from the uppermost mantle will be retrieved. The intermediate frequency range shows most of the energy between the 2.0 km/s and 1.5 km/s lines: consequently, surface waves originating from the crust will be retrieved. In the highest frequency range, the surface waves are barely visible on the crosscorrelation traces, implying that the associated energy is strongly attenuated. The azimuth variation associated to the noise field was evaluated by means of the beam forming method, using the data from the whole array for all the three components. To that, the beam power was estimated in a small range of frequencies every day for the whole month. For each day, one hour long results of beam forming applications were stacked together. To avoid aliasing and near field effects, the minimum frequency was set at 0.05 Hz and the maximum to 0.1 Hz. In this frequency band, the amplitude maximum was sought

  17. 78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Bayou Meto Basin Project, Arkansas AGENCY: Natural Resources...: ``General Reevaluation Report and Environmental Impact Statement for the Bayou Meto Basin project dated... ] also adopted the Environmental Assessment (EA) entitled ``Final Environmental Assessment Bayou...

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: experimental study showed expert committee, not back-translation, added value.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan; Osborne, Richard H; Elsworth, Gerald R; Beaton, Dorcas E; Guillemin, Francis

    2015-04-01

    To assess the contribution of back-translation and expert committee to the content and psychometric properties of a translated multidimensional questionnaire. Recommendations for questionnaire translation include back-translation and expert committee, but their contribution to measurement properties is unknown. Four English to French translations of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire were generated with and without committee or back-translation. Face validity, acceptability, and structural properties were compared after random assignment to people with rheumatoid arthritis (N = 1,168), chronic renal failure (N = 2,368), and diabetes (N = 538). For face validity, 15 bilingual people compared translations quality with the original. Psychometric properties were examined using confirmatory factor analysis (metric and scalar invariance) and item response theory. Qualitatively, there were five types of translation errors: style, intensity, frequency/time frame, breadth, and meaning. Bilingual assessors ranked best the translations with committee (P = 0.0026). All translations had good structural properties (root mean square error of approximation <0.05; comparative fit index [CFI], ≥0.899; and Tucker-Lewis index, ≥0.889). Full measurement invariance was observed between translations (ΔCFI ≤ 0.01) with metric invariance between translations and original (lowest ΔCFI = 0.022 between fully constrained models and models with free intercepts). Item characteristic curve analyses revealed no significant differences. This is the first experimental evidence that back-translation has moderate impact, whereas expert committee helps to ensure accurate content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Connecting Families to Their Health Record and Care Team: The Use, Utility, and Impact of a Client/Family Health Portal at a Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Joanne; Karmali, Amir; Hagens, Simon; Pinto, Madhu; Williams, Laura; Adamson, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care portals have the potential to provide consumers with timely, transparent access to health care information and engage them in the care process. Objective The objective was to examine the use, utility, and impact on engagement in care and caregiver-provider communication of a client/family portal providing access to electronic health records (EHRs) and secure, 2-way e-messaging with care providers. Methods We conducted a prospective, mixed-methods study involving collection of caregivers’ portal usage information over a 14-month period (from portal introduction in January 2015 to the end of the study period in March 2016), a Web-based survey for caregivers administered after a minimum of 2 months’ exposure to the portal and repeated 2 months later, and focus groups or individual interviews held with caregivers and service providers at the same points in time. The survey assessed caregivers’ perceptions of the utility of and satisfaction with the EHR and e-messaging, and the portal’s impact on client engagement and perceptions of caregiver-provider communication. A total of 18 caregivers (parents) completed surveys and 6 also took part in focus groups or interviews. In addition, 5 service providers from different disciplines took part in focus groups or interviews. Results Although usage patterns varied, the typical pattern was a steady level of use (2.5 times a month over an average of 9 months), which is higher than typically reported use. The portal pages most frequently accessed were the home page, health record main page, appointment main page, and reports main page. The Web-based survey captured caregivers’ perceptions of usefulness of and satisfaction with the EHR and portal messaging, as well as the portal’s impact on their engagement in care and perceptions of caregiver-provider communication. The surveys indicated a moderate degree of utility of and satisfaction with the portal features, and a low but emerging impact on

  20. Connecting Families to Their Health Record and Care Team: The Use, Utility, and Impact of a Client/Family Health Portal at a Children's Rehabilitation Hospital.

    PubMed

    King, Gillian; Maxwell, Joanne; Karmali, Amir; Hagens, Simon; Pinto, Madhu; Williams, Laura; Adamson, Keith

    2017-04-06

    Health care portals have the potential to provide consumers with timely, transparent access to health care information and engage them in the care process. The objective was to examine the use, utility, and impact on engagement in care and caregiver-provider communication of a client/family portal providing access to electronic health records (EHRs) and secure, 2-way e-messaging with care providers. We conducted a prospective, mixed-methods study involving collection of caregivers' portal usage information over a 14-month period (from portal introduction in January 2015 to the end of the study period in March 2016), a Web-based survey for caregivers administered after a minimum of 2 months' exposure to the portal and repeated 2 months later, and focus groups or individual interviews held with caregivers and service providers at the same points in time. The survey assessed caregivers' perceptions of the utility of and satisfaction with the EHR and e-messaging, and the portal's impact on client engagement and perceptions of caregiver-provider communication. A total of 18 caregivers (parents) completed surveys and 6 also took part in focus groups or interviews. In addition, 5 service providers from different disciplines took part in focus groups or interviews. Although usage patterns varied, the typical pattern was a steady level of use (2.5 times a month over an average of 9 months), which is higher than typically reported use. The portal pages most frequently accessed were the home page, health record main page, appointment main page, and reports main page. The Web-based survey captured caregivers' perceptions of usefulness of and satisfaction with the EHR and portal messaging, as well as the portal's impact on their engagement in care and perceptions of caregiver-provider communication. The surveys indicated a moderate degree of utility of and satisfaction with the portal features, and a low but emerging impact on engagement in care and caregiver

  1. Rainfall impact on gravity at annual and rapid time scales from a superconducting gravimeter record in Benin, West-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Hinderer, J.; Séguis, L.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Descloitres, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Littel, F.

    2012-12-01

    A superconducting gravimeter (SG) has been installed since 2010 in Nalohou, northern Benin, within the framework of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. This site was chosen to monitor the strong annual monsoon signal with both local and non-local hydrological contributions within the humid sudanian zone of West-Africa. The area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydrological monitoring. We present here the results of the first two years relative gravity monitoring. The signal includes predominantly solid earth tides, ocean loading, polar motion, atmospheric pressure effects, drift and water storage changes (WSC). Retrieving WSC needs thorough corrections of other components, and detailed tide and barometric analysis are thus undertaken. Pressure effects are of major concern in the equatorial band, because they are governed by S1 and S2 thermal pressure waves. These waves dominate both the local Newtonian effect (an increase in local pressure decreases the gravity) and the smaller non-local loading effect (an increase in regional pressure decreases the gravity by a subsidence effect of the elastic earth) because of their coherency at the regional scale. FG5 absolute gravity data are used for calibration and drift estimate of the SG. Residuals clearly show interesting WSC behaviors at two predominant frequencies for which different accuracies are involved: the seasonal and the rainfall event time-scales. The weathered hard rock shallow aquifer of the site is known to produce WSC only in the 0-7m depth range (7m being the lowest interannual level of the water table within our record). WSC are coming both from soil moisture and water table variations. These are monitored 1) by weekly neutronic measurements over the whole vertical profile (every 50cm) in a borehole close to the SG, and 2) by water table level observations for the saturated zone only. The contribution to gravity of the latter is evaluated

  2. The Long-Term Financial and Clinical Impact of an Electronic Health Record on an Academic Ophthalmology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Michele C.; Patel, Roma P.; Lee, Victor S.; Weeks, Patricia D.; Barber, Martha K.; Watnik, Mitchell R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine financial and clinical work productivity outcomes associated with the use of the electronic health record (EHR). Methods. 191,360 billable clinical encounters were analyzed for 12 clinical providers over a 9-year study period during which an EHR was implemented. Main outcome measures were clinical revenues collected per provider and secondary outcomes were charge capture, patient visit coding levels, transcription costs, patient visit volume per provider, digital drawing, and digital imaging volume. Results. The difference in inflation adjusted net clinical revenue per provider per year did not change significantly in the period after EHR implementation (mean = $404,198; SD = $17,912) than before (mean = $411,420; SD = $39,366) (P = 0.746). Charge capture, the proportion of higher- and lower-level visit codes for new and established patients, and patient visits per provider remained stable. A total savings of $188,951 in transcription costs occurred over a 4-year time period post-EHR implementation. The rate of drawing the ophthalmic exam in the EHR was low (mean = 2.28%; SD = 0.05%) for all providers. Conclusions. This study did not show a clear financial gain after EHR implementation in an academic ophthalmology practice. Ophthalmologists do not rely on drawings to document the ophthalmic exam; instead, the ophthalmic exam becomes text-driven in a paperless world. PMID:25810920

  3. Climate changes and solar cycles recorded at the Holocene Paraná Delta, and their impact on human population

    PubMed Central

    Milana, Juan Pablo; Kröhling, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The Paraná delta, growing at a rate of c. 2 km2 yr−1 since 6,000 yrs, is one of the most complete records of the Late Holocene in southern South America. The evolution of this 17,400 km2 delta enclosed in Plata estuary, can be tracked by a series of 343 successive coastal-ridges showing a c.11 years period, in coincidence with sunspot cycle, also found in some North Hemisphere coastal-ridge successions. The Paraná delta shifted from fluvial, to wave-dominated, and back to the present fluvial-dominated delta, in response to climate changes associated with wind activity correlating with South American glacial cycles. The wave-dominated windy period coincides with the activation of the Pampean Sand Sea, suggesting desert conditions prevailed on the Pampas between 5,300 and 1,700 yrs, in coincidence with scarce or absent pre-historic aborigine remains (“archeological silence”). Further warmer and less windy conditions allowed human repopulation. Results suggest that aside the solar forcing, both short and medium term climate changes controlled delta evolution. An important learning is that a slight cooling would turn the highly productive pampas, into that unproductive desert and, given the lack of artificial irrigation systems, changing present-day warmhouse into a cooling cycle might be economically catastrophic for the region. PMID:26246410

  4. The impact of residents' training in Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use on their competence: report of a pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Reis, Shmuel; Sagi, Doron; Eisenberg, Orit; Kuchnir, Yosi; Azuri, Joseph; Shalev, Varda; Ziv, Amitai

    2013-12-01

    Even though Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are increasingly used in healthcare organizations there is surprisingly little theoretical work or educational programs in this field. This study is aimed at comparing two training programs for doctor-patient-computer communication (DPCC). 36 Family Medicine Residents (FMRs) participated in this study. All FMRs went through twelve identical simulated encounters, six pre and six post training. The experiment group received simulation based training (SBT) while the control group received traditional lecture based training. Performance, attitude and sense of competence of all FMRs improved, but no difference was found between the experiment and control groups. FMRs from the experiment group evaluated the contribution of the training phase higher than control group, and showed higher satisfaction. We assume that the mere exposure to simulation served as a learning experience and enabled deliberate practice that was more powerful than training. Because DPCC is a new field, all participants in such studies, including instructors and raters, should receive basic training of DPCC skills. Simulation enhances DPCC skills. Future studies of this kind should control the exposure to simulation prior to the training phase. Training and assessment of clinical communication should include EMR related skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate changes and solar cycles recorded at the Holocene Paraná Delta, and their impact on human population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Juan Pablo; Kröhling, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    The Paraná delta, growing at a rate of c. 2 km2 yr-1 since 6,000 yrs, is one of the most complete records of the Late Holocene in southern South America. The evolution of this 17,400 km2 delta enclosed in Plata estuary, can be tracked by a series of 343 successive coastal-ridges showing a c.11 years period, in coincidence with sunspot cycle, also found in some North Hemisphere coastal-ridge successions. The Paraná delta shifted from fluvial, to wave-dominated, and back to the present fluvial-dominated delta, in response to climate changes associated with wind activity correlating with South American glacial cycles. The wave-dominated windy period coincides with the activation of the Pampean Sand Sea, suggesting desert conditions prevailed on the Pampas between 5,300 and 1,700 yrs, in coincidence with scarce or absent pre-historic aborigine remains (“archeological silence”). Further warmer and less windy conditions allowed human repopulation. Results suggest that aside the solar forcing, both short and medium term climate changes controlled delta evolution. An important learning is that a slight cooling would turn the highly productive pampas, into that unproductive desert and, given the lack of artificial irrigation systems, changing present-day warmhouse into a cooling cycle might be economically catastrophic for the region.

  6. Climate changes and solar cycles recorded at the Holocene Paraná Delta, and their impact on human population.

    PubMed

    Milana, Juan Pablo; Kröhling, Daniela

    2015-08-06

    The Paraná delta, growing at a rate of c. 2 km(2) yr(-1) since 6,000 yrs, is one of the most complete records of the Late Holocene in southern South America. The evolution of this 17,400 km(2) delta enclosed in Plata estuary, can be tracked by a series of 343 successive coastal-ridges showing a c.11 years period, in coincidence with sunspot cycle, also found in some North Hemisphere coastal-ridge successions. The Paraná delta shifted from fluvial, to wave-dominated, and back to the present fluvial-dominated delta, in response to climate changes associated with wind activity correlating with South American glacial cycles. The wave-dominated windy period coincides with the activation of the Pampean Sand Sea, suggesting desert conditions prevailed on the Pampas between 5,300 and 1,700 yrs, in coincidence with scarce or absent pre-historic aborigine remains ("archeological silence"). Further warmer and less windy conditions allowed human repopulation. Results suggest that aside the solar forcing, both short and medium term climate changes controlled delta evolution. An important learning is that a slight cooling would turn the highly productive pampas, into that unproductive desert and, given the lack of artificial irrigation systems, changing present-day warmhouse into a cooling cycle might be economically catastrophic for the region.

  7. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  8. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  9. Record of decision: Final environmental impact statement/report and 4(f) statement. Northeast Corridor Improvement Project electrification, New Haven, CT to Boston, MA. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This record of decision (ROD) completes the environmental review by the Federal Administration (FRA) of the proposal by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) to extend electric train operation from New Haven, CT, to Boston, MA. In this ROD, FRA approves Amtrak`s proposal subject to the inclusion into the project of a number of measures to eliminate or minimize potential adverse environmental impacts.

  10. C4-1: As the Clock Ticks… Are Questions the Answer? Audio-Recordings of Primary Care Visits Among Patients with Mental Health Needs Show Room for Improvement in Physician Communication

    PubMed Central

    Tai-Seale, Ming; Foo, Patricia; Stults, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Encouraging patients to ask questions in clinical visits is seen as a key to engaging patients. Multiple interventions have focused on activating patients to ask questions when visiting physicians. We know little about whether patients with mental illness ask questions in primary care visits, how their question-asking behavior is associated with physicians’ relational communication and the length of visit. Methods We conducted in-depth mixed method analyses of 322 audio-recordings of periodic health exams (PHE) made by patients 50–80 years of age. Patients included those with mental health (MH) needs, based on 2-item Personal Health Questionnaire (PHQ2) scores (2 or greater), on having filled or been prescribed a psychotropic medication, on having a MH diagnosis or visited a MH provider in prior 12 months, or on having a MH discussion in the visit. Using transcribed recordings, each conversation was categorized into “topics,” which were grouped into three categories: biomedical, MH, or other. Multivariate models were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Results About 99% of patients (319 of 322) asked at least one question. Patients asked questions throughout the visit, averaging 18 per visit. Half of them asked their first question within the first 1.4 minutes. Patients were more likely to ask a question if a topic discussed a medication (OR = 1.57, P <.01) and less likely if the topic was about MH issues compared to biomedical issues (OR = .51, P <.01). PHQ2 score was not a significant factor. The number of patient questions was negatively correlated with ratings of their physicians’ relational communication. Each additional question was associated with a 12-second increase in visit length (P <.01). Conclusions Patients ask many questions, and they ask them early and often. The number of patient questions was associated with unfavorable views of physician relational communication and with slightly longer visits. Patient

  11. Foraminifera isotopic records... with special attention to high northern latitudes and the impact of sea-ice distillation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2011-05-01

    Since the reassessment of oxygen isotope paleotemperatures by N. Shackleton in the late 60s, most papers using isotopic records from planktic or benthic foraminifers imply a direct relationship between oxygen isotopes in seawater and the ice/ocean volume, thus some linkage with salinity, sea level, etc. Such assumptions are also made when incorporating "isotopic modules" in coupled models. Here, we will further examine the linkages between salinity and oxygen isotope ratios of sea-water recorded by foraminifers, and their potential temporal and spatial variability, especially in the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. If temporal and spatial changes in the isotopic composition of precipitations and ice meltwaters tune the isotopic properties of the fresh water end-member that dilutes the ocean, rates of sea-ice formation and evaporation at the ocean surface play a further role on the salt and oxygen isotope contents of water masses. Thus, the oxygen 18-salinity relationship carries a specific isotopic signature for any given water mass. At the ocean scale, residence time and mixing of these water masses, as well as the time dependent-achievement of proxy-tracer equilibrium, will also result in variable recordings of mass transfers into the hydrosphere, notable between ice-sheets and ocean. Since these records in water mass may vary in both amplitude and time, direct correlations of isotopic records will potentially be misleading. Implications of such issues on the interpretation of oxygen isotope records from the sub-arctic seas will be discussed, as well as the inherent flaws of such records due to sedimentological and or ecological parameters.

  12. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Risk Management of Information Systems in Australian Residential Aged Care Homes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David; Ma, Jun; Yang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    To obtain indications of the influence of electronic health records (EHR) in managing risks and meeting information system accreditation standard in Australian residential aged care (RAC) homes. The hypothesis to be tested is that the RAC homes using EHR have better performance in meeting information system standards in aged care accreditation than their counterparts only using paper records for information management. Content analysis of aged care accreditation reports from the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency produced between April 2011 and December 2013. Items identified included types of information systems, compliance with accreditation standards, and indicators of failure to meet an expected outcome for information systems. The Chi-square test was used to identify difference between the RAC homes that used EHR systems and those that used paper records in not meeting aged care accreditation standards. 1,031 (37.4%) of 2,754 RAC homes had adopted EHR systems. Although the proportion of homes that met all accreditation standards was significantly higher for those with EHR than for homes with paper records, only 13 RAC homes did not meet one or more expected outcomes. 12 used paper records and nine of these failed the expected outcome for information systems. The overall contribution of EHR to meeting aged care accreditation standard in Australia was very small. Risk indicators for not meeting information system standard were no access to accurate and appropriate information, failure in monitoring mechanisms, not reporting clinical incidents, insufficient recording of residents' clinical changes, not providing accurate care plans, and communication processes failure. The study has provided indications that use of EHR provides small, yet significant advantages for RAC homes in Australia in managing risks for information management and in meeting accreditation requirements. The implication of the study for introducing technology innovation in RAC in

  13. Impact of MET inhibition on small-cell lung cancer cells showing aberrant activation of the hepatocyte growth factor/MET pathway.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Yamada, Tadaaki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Arai, Sachiko; Fukuda, Koji; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kawada, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-07-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers, and is characterized as extremely aggressive, often displaying rapid tumor growth and multiple organ metastases. In addition, the clinical outcome of SCLC patients is poor due to early relapse and acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy treatments. Hence, novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of SCLC are urgently required. Accordingly, several molecular targeted therapies were evaluated in SCLC; however, they failed to improve the clinical outcome. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is a receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and aberrant activation of HGF/MET signaling is known as one of the crucial mechanisms enabling cancer progression and invasion. Here, we found that the HGF/MET signaling was aberrantly activated in chemoresistant or chemorelapsed SCLC cell lines (SBC-5, DMS273, and DMS273-G3H) by the secretion of HGF and/or MET copy number gain. A cell-based in vitro assay revealed that HGF/MET inhibition, induced either by MET inhibitors (crizotinib and golvatinib), or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of HGF or MET, constrained growth of chemoresistant SCLC cells through the inhibition of ERK and AKT signals. Furthermore, treatment with either crizotinib or golvatinib suppressed the systemic metastasis of SBC-5 cell tumors in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice, predominantly through cell cycle arrest. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of targeting the HGF/MET pathway for inhibition, to constrain tumor progression of SCLC cells showing aberrant activation of HGF/MET signaling. We suggest that it would be clinically valuable to further investigate HGF/MET-mediated signaling in SCLC cells. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Blood pressure level impacts risk of death among HIV seropositive adults in Kenya: a retrospective analysis of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Hogan, Joseph W; Keter, Alfred; Holland, Thomas L; Sang, Edwin; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Velazquez, Eric J

    2014-05-22

    Mortality among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is increasingly due to non-communicable causes. This has been observed mostly in developed countries and the routine care of HIV infected individuals has now expanded to include attention to cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure are often overlooked among HIV seropositive (+) individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the effect of blood pressure on mortality among HIV+ adults in Kenya. We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya between 2005 and 2010. All included individuals were HIV+. We excluded participants with AIDS, who were <16 or >80 years old, or had data out of acceptable ranges. Missing data for key covariates was addressed by inverse probability weighting. Primary outcome measures were crude mortality rate and mortality hazard ratio (HR) using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders including HIV stage. There were 49,475 (74% women) HIV+ individuals who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mortality rates for men and women were 3.8 and 1.8/100 person-years, respectively, and highest among those with the lowest blood pressures. Low blood pressure was associated with the highest mortality incidence rate (IR) (systolic <100 mmHg IR 5.2 [4.8-5.7]; diastolic <60 mmHg IR 9.2 [8.3-10.2]). Mortality rate among men with high systolic blood pressure without advanced HIV (3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-5.5) was higher than men with normal systolic blood pressure (1.1, 95% CI: 0.7-1.7). In weighted proportional hazards regression models, men without advanced HIV disease and systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg carried a higher mortality risk than normotensive men (HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 0.94-6.08). Although there has been little attention paid to high blood pressure among HIV+ Africans, we show that blood pressure level among HIV+ patients in Kenya

  15. Evaluation of Patient-Controlled Personal Health Record on Different Populations: Impact of the Digital Divide on Its Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eung-Hun

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, personal health records (PHRs) have been increasingly recognized and actively promoted by the U.S. federal government and experts as a tool for improving healthcare and containing skyrocketing costs in the U.S. More recently, the 2010 health reform legislation includes PHRs as an important means to improve the quality and…

  16. The Information Ecology of Personal Health Record Systems: Secure Messaging as Catalyst and Its Evolving Impact on Use and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazi, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) and PHR systems have been designed as consumer-oriented tools to empower patients and improve health care. Despite significant consumer interest and anticipated benefits, adoption remains low. Understanding the consumer perspective is necessary, but insufficient by itself. Consumer PHR use also has broad implications…

  17. The Information Ecology of Personal Health Record Systems: Secure Messaging as Catalyst and Its Evolving Impact on Use and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazi, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) and PHR systems have been designed as consumer-oriented tools to empower patients and improve health care. Despite significant consumer interest and anticipated benefits, adoption remains low. Understanding the consumer perspective is necessary, but insufficient by itself. Consumer PHR use also has broad implications…

  18. "But They Won't Come to Lectures..." The Impact of Audio Recorded Lectures on Student Experience and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Helen E.

    2010-01-01

    The move to increasingly flexible platforms for student learning and experience through provision of online lecture recordings is often interpreted by educators as students viewing attendance at lectures as optional. The trend toward the use of this technology is often met with resistance from some academic staff who argue that student attendance…

  19. Evaluation of Patient-Controlled Personal Health Record on Different Populations: Impact of the Digital Divide on Its Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eung-Hun

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, personal health records (PHRs) have been increasingly recognized and actively promoted by the U.S. federal government and experts as a tool for improving healthcare and containing skyrocketing costs in the U.S. More recently, the 2010 health reform legislation includes PHRs as an important means to improve the quality and…

  20. 78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Findings of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Findings... available. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and FONSI are available upon request from the Natural Resources.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charlotte Bowie, State Irrigation Engineer, Natural...

  1. Long-term records of coral calcification across the central Great Barrier Reef: assessing the impacts of river runoff and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Olivo, J. P.; McCulloch, M. T.; Judd, K.

    2013-12-01

    Calcification rates are reported for 41 long-lived Porites corals from 7 reefs, in an inshore to offshore transect across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Over multi-decadal timescales, corals in the mid-shelf (1947-2008) and outer reef (1952-2004) regions of the GBR exhibit a significant increase in calcification of 10.9 ± 1.1 % (1.4 ± 0.2 % per decade; ±1 SE) and 11.1 ± 3.9 % (2.1 ± 0.8 % per decade), respectively, while inner-shelf (1930-2008), reefs show a decline of 4.6 ± 1.3 % (0.6 ± 0.2 % per decade). This long-term decline in calcification for the inner GBR is attributed to the persistent ongoing effects of high sediment/nutrients loads from wet season river discharges, compounded by the effects of thermal stress, especially during the 1998 bleaching event. For the recent period (1990-2008), our data show recovery from the 1998 bleaching event, with no significant trend in the rates of calcification (1.1 ± 2.0 %) for the inner reefs, while corals from the mid-shelf central GBR show a decline of 3.3 ± 0.9 %. These results are in marked contrast to the extreme reef-wide declines of 14.2 % reported by De'ath et al. (2009) for the period of 1990-2005. The De'ath et al. (2009) results are, however, found to be compromised by the inclusion of incomplete final years, duplicated records, together with a bias toward inshore reefs strongly affected by the 1998 bleaching. Our new findings nevertheless continue to raise concerns, with the inner-shelf reefs continuing to show long-term declines in calcification consistent with increased disturbance from land-based effects. In contrast, the more `pristine' mid- and outer-shelf reefs appear to be undergoing a transition from increasing to decreasing rates of calcification, possibly reflecting the effects of CO2-driven climate change. Our study highlights the importance of properly undertaken, regular assessments of coral calcification that are representative of the distinctive cross-shelf environments and

  2. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  3. On the 2012 record low Arctic sea ice cover: Combined impact of preconditioning and an August storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Comiso, Josefino C.

    2013-04-01

    A new record low Arctic sea ice extent for the satellite era, 3.4 × 106 km2, was reached on 13 September 2012; and a new record low sea ice area, 3.0 × 106 km2, was reached on the same date. Preconditioning through decades of overall ice reductions made the ice pack more vulnerable to a strong storm that entered the central Arctic in early August 2012. The storm caused the separation of an expanse of 0.4 × 106 km2 of ice that melted in total, while its removal left the main pack more exposed to wind and waves, facilitating the main pack's further decay. Future summer storms could lead to a further acceleration of the decline in the Arctic sea ice cover and should be carefully monitored.

  4. Impact of recent coastal development and human activities on Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam: evidence from a Porites lutea geochemical record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. D.; Zhao, J.-x.; Feng, Y.-x.; Hu, W.-p.; Yu, K.-f.; Gasparon, M.; Pham, T. B.; Clark, T. R.

    2013-03-01

    Nha Trang Bay (NTB) is located on the Central Vietnam coast, western South China Sea. Recent coastal development of Nha Trang City has raised public concern over an increasing level of pollution within the bay and degradation of nearby coral reefs. In this study, multiple proxies (e.g., trace metals, rare earth elements (REEs), and Y/Ho) recorded in a massive Porites lutea coral colony were used to reconstruct changes in seawater conditions in the NTB from 1995 to 2009. A 14-year record of REEs and other trace metals revealed that the concentrations of terrestrial trace metals have increased dramatically in response to an increase in coastal development projects such as road, port, and resort constructions, port and river dredging, and dumping activities since 2000. The effects of such developmental processes are also evident in changes in REE patterns and Y/Ho ratios through time, suggesting that both parameters are critical proxies for marine pollution.

  5. Impact of lung inflation cycle frequency on rat muscle and skin sympathetic activity recorded using suction electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunhua; Marina, Nephtali; Gilbey, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Microneurography has been used in humans to study sympathetic activity supplying targets within skeletal muscle and skin. Comparable animal studies are relatively few, probably due to the technical demands of traditional fibre picking techniques. Here we apply a simple suction electrode technique to record cutaneous (CVC) and muscle (MVC) vasoconstrictor activities and describe and investigate the basis of the frequency dependence of lung inflation related modulation. Hindlimb MVC and CVC activities were recorded concurrently. The magnitude of MVC and CVC activities at the lung inflation cycle frequency was significantly less at 2.0 Hz than at lung inflation cycle frequencies ≤ 1.0 Hz. As lung inflation cycle frequency was increased the coherence between lung inflation cycle or BP and MVC or CVC waveforms decreased. Consistent with the hypothesis that much of the coherence between lung inflation cycle and nerve activity waveforms is secondary to oscillating baroreceptor activity attributable to BP waves, partialization with the BP waveform significantly decreased the coherence between lung inflation cycle and nerve waveforms, and there was an absence of coherence between these waveforms following sinus and aortic denervation. Our data extend findings from other laboratories and establish the value of a suction electrode technique for recording MVC and CVC activities. Furthermore, our observations describe the rates of positive pressure ventilation that avoid strong and regular gating of sympathetic activity. PMID:19457723

  6. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  7. 76 FR 59121 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... drainage crossings; building pads; and water quality control facilities (sedimentation control, flood control, debris, and water quality basins). The LEDPA also includes temporary impacts to 35.3 acres of... protection; water quality control facilities (sedimentation control, flood debris, and water quality...

  8. Seeing the climate through the trees: observing climate and forestry impacts on streamflow using a 60-year record

    Treesearch

    T. P. Burt; N. J. K. Howden; J. J. McDonnell; J. A. Jones; G. R. Hancock

    2014-01-01

    Paired watershed experiments involving the removal or manipulation of forest cover in one of the watersheds have been conducted for more than a century to quantify the impact of forestry operations on streamflow. Because climate variability is expected to be large, forestry treatment effects would be undetectable without the treatment–control comparison. New...

  9. 77 FR 44259 - Notice of Availability of a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Record of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... analysis; Concern about potential impacts to transboundary areas and transboundary movement of species... the extent of public outreach conducted by CBP for the PEIS. Final PEIS After further analysis and... information derived from the analysis in the Final PEIS in management, planning, and decision-making for its...

  10. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  11. 76 FR 53422 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision on the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Implementation Process (AMIP) (preferred alternative) with a construction ceiling of acres associated with... environmental impacts as well as costs. ADDRESSES: Questions or comments on the ROD should be sent to... Adaptive Management Implementation Process (AMIP), with a construction ceiling of Alternative...

  12. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  13. Climate and human impacts on vegetation changes in central Guizhou, China: Carbon and oxygen isotopic records in a stalagmite from Yelang Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Liu, Z.; Li, H.; Shen, C.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution δ18O and δ13C records of a 13.5-cm long stalagmite from Yelang Cave, 60 km west of Guiyang in the southwestern China, have been established by 750 measurements. With low U (10~40 ppb) and Th (0.01~0.367 ppb), four ICP-MS 230Th/U dates indicate that the upper 5.5 cm part is younger than 1000 years, with clear calcite deposition. Below 6 cm depth where the age suddenly changed from late Holocene to late Pleistocene, the stalagmite shows the deposition alternating between white-pure calcite layers and dark-dirty carbonate layers. The dating samples below 6 cm depth have low U contents (26~41 ppb) but high Th concentrations (10~22 ppb) showing 230Th/U dates ranging from 11 ka to 25 ka with large uncertainties. Based on current chronologies, the δ18O and δ13C records exhibit different features in the late Holocene and late Pleistocene. During the past 1000 yrs (0~5.5 cm), the δ18O ranges from -12.0‰ to -9.0‰ (PDB), containing many 10-100 yrs variations with Δδ18O >1‰. The δ13C during this period varies between -7.4‰ and -1.9‰, showing no correlation with the δ18O. Prior to 10.7 ka (below 6 cm), the δ18O and δ13C strongly co-varied, indicating climatic control on the surface vegetation with wet climates (lighter δ18O) resulting in better vegetation (lighter δ13C). The δ13C during the past 1000 yrs had three long-term increasing trends and a sharp decreasing trend, reflecting human impacts on the surface vegetation. The δ13C increased from about -6‰ at ca. AD 1370 to -3.2‰ around AD 1580, illustrating the first deforestation caused by human activity due to large immigration in Ming Dynasty to the region. The δ13C fluctuated between -4.5‰ and -3.0‰ from AD 1580 to AD 1740, then increased to -2.0‰ around AD 1770 with an opposite δ18O trend. This second deforestation event might be caused a strong immigration in early Qing Dynasty due to mining demand. Karst desertification occurred in the area reflected by heavy δ13C

  14. Impact of a Care Directives Activity Tab in the Electronic Health Record on Documentation of Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Turley, Marianne; Wang, Susan; Meng, Di; Kanter, Michael; Garrido, Terhilda

    2016-01-01

    Context: To ensure patient-centered end-of-life care, advance care planning (ACP) must be documented in the medical record and readily retrieved across care settings. Objective: To describe use of the Care Directives Activity tab (CDA), a single-location feature in the electronic health record for collecting and viewing ACP documentation in inpatient and ambulatory care settings, and to assess its association with ACP documentation rates. Design: Retrospective pre- and postimplementation analysis in 2012 and 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Southern California among 113,309 patients aged 65 years and older with ACP opportunities during outpatient or inpatient encounters. Main Outcome Measures: Providers’ CDA use rates and documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments stratified by CDA use. Results: Documentation rates of advance directives and physician orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with outpatient and inpatient encounters were 3.5 to 9.6 percentage points higher for patients with CDA use vs those without it. The greatest differences were for orders for life-sustaining treatments among patients with inpatient encounters and for advance directives among patients with outpatient encounters; both were 9.6 percentage points higher among those with CDA use than those without it. All differences were significant after controlling for yearly variation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in documentation rates between patients with and without CDA use suggest the potential of a standardized location in the electronic health record to improve ACP documentation. Further research is required to understand effects of CDA use on retrieval of preferences and end-of-life care. PMID:27057820

  15. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Yubero, E; Soler, R; Carratalá, A; Mantilla, E

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25-1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm(-3), was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm(-3)). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5-2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of >4.0 cm(-3), than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3-17%) with respect to its mean value.

  16. Impact of electronic health record technology on the work and workflow of physicians in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Alyousef, Bashar; Brown, Roger L.; Cartmill, Randi S.; McGuire, Kerry; Hoonakker, Peter L.T.; Slagle, Jason; Van Roy, Kara S.; Walker, James M.; Weinger, Matthew B.; Xie, Anping; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of EHR technology on the work and workflow of ICU physicians and compare time spent by ICU resident and attending physicians on various tasks before and after EHR implementation. Design EHR technology with electronic order management (CPOE, medication administration and pharmacy system) and physician documentation was implemented in October 2007. Measurement We collected a total of 289 h of observation pre- and post-EHR implementation. We directly observed the work of residents in three ICUs (adult medical/surgical ICU, pediatric ICU and neonatal ICU) and attending physicians in one ICU (adult medical/surgical ICU). Results EHR implementation had an impact on the time distribution of tasks as well as the temporal patterns of tasks. After EHR implementation, both residents and attending physicians spent more of their time on clinical review and documentation (40% and 55% increases, respectively). EHR implementation also affected the frequency of switching between tasks, which increased for residents (from 117 to 154 tasks per hour) but decreased for attendings (from 138 to 106 tasks per hour), and the temporal flow of tasks, in particular around what tasks occurred before and after clinical review and documentation. No changes in the time spent in conversational tasks or the physical care of the patient were observed. Conclusions The use of EHR technology has a major impact on ICU physician work (e.g., increased time spent on clinical review and documentation) and workflow (e.g., clinical review and documentation becoming the focal point of many other tasks). Further studies should evaluate the impact of changes in physician work on the quality of care provided. PMID:25910685

  17. Contextualising impacts of logging on tropical rainforest catchment sediment dynamics and source processes using the stratigraphic record of an in-channel bench deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, W. H.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Annammala, K. V.

    2012-04-01

    While rivers draining tropical rainforested catchments are considered to be relatively stable in terms of their hydrological regime, forest disturbance due to logging can lead to extreme, non-linear responses in both flow and sediment load. With growing concern regarding the downstream impacts of enhanced sediment loads and, in particular in tropical regions, the impacts on coastal habitats, data are required to set recent human impacts on drainage basin response into a longer-term natural response context. Landforms that are constructed incrementally by fluvial processes offer sedimentary archives of river basin sediment responses to disturbance. In this regard, floodplain deposits have been used extensively, but less attention has focussed on mid-catchment lateral channel bench deposits. This study reports the stratigraphic record of a mid-catchment lateral bench deposit in the rotationally logged Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Accretion rates derived from fallout radionuclide depth profiles (excess Pb-210 and Cs-137) indicate a significant increase in accretion rates since the 1980s when logging operations began and peaks in accretion match known periods of intensive disturbance. Within this framework, downcore profiles of mineral magnetic and geochemical properties are used to infer switches in sediment source from surface/near-surface (slopewash and pipe erosion) to deeper subsurface (landslide) processes in line with the impact of logging operations. The wider role of in-channel bench deposits as sediment stores in disturbed tropical rainforest catchments is considered.

  18. Freshwater impacts recorded in tetraunsaturated alkenones and alkenone sea surface temperatures from the Okhotsk Sea across millennial-scale cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Naomi; Sato, Miyako; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We present records of phytoplankton-produced alkenones down a long piston core, which reveal changes of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea over the past 120 ka. Between 20 and 60 ka B.P., alkenone-derived temperatures typically increased by 6°C-8°C from periods corresponding, within a few hundred years, to stadials to those corresponding to interstadials recorded in Greenland ice cores. The abundance of C37:4 alkenone relative to total C37 alkenones (percent C37:4), a possible proxy for salinity, indicated that during most low SSS was associated with high SST. The warm freshwater events might be related to (1) a decline in the supply of saline water entering the Okhotsk Sea through the Soya Strait; (2) strengthening of the freshwater supply from the Amur River and precipitation over the Okhotsk Sea, associated mainly with increased Asian summer monsoon activity; and (3) the effect of melting sea ice. These findings increase our understanding of the close linkage between high and low latitudes in relation to climate change and the synchronicity of climate changes within a few centuries between the Pacific and the Atlantic sides of the Northern Hemisphere.

  19. A Late Holocene Record of Human Impact in the Tropical Lowlands of the Mexican Gulf Coast: Lago Verde.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, L.; Sosa, S.; Caballero, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Ortega, B.

    2005-05-01

    Lago Verde is a maar lake (18 36 43 N; 95 20 52 W) located on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in "Los Tuxtlas" region. The area was cover by tropical rain forest and is part of the core area of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures. A 6 m sediment core was obtained in order to document vegetation and lake level history of this area. Lago Verde is a shallow, eutrophic lake (max. 4 m), the natural vegetation has been removed and grasslands with some tropical trees such Bursera grows around the lake. According with the radiocarbon chronology the sequence covers the last 2500 yr BP. At the base of the sequence low abundance of tropical trees is record, with intermediate lake levels. A sudden change in the pollen stratigraphy occurs at ca. 2000 yr BP, with important presence of Poaceae, Ambrosia and Cheno.-Am. along with Zea mays indicating human activity in the area. This is associated with a change in limnological conditions, recording turbid, shallow environments. This pollen signals correlates with dry phases in Yucatan, suggesting that this dry climatic signal probably had effect on an ample area of Mexico. However, at 1200 yr BP, no more Zea mays pollen is recovered suggesting the abandonment of the area. Lake levels recover as well as the tropical forest. The last 150 yr BP is characterized by the reduction in the pollen of tropical forest trees, presence of Zea mays, increased erosion rates, turbidity and eutrophication in the lake, all related to deforestation.

  20. Records Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be found when needed, the identification and retention of permanent records are facilitated, and permanent and temporary records are physically segregated, or for electronic records, segregable.

  1. Impact of a Cost Visibility Tool in the Electronic Medical Record on Antibiotic Prescribing in an Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Fargo, Kelly L.; Johnston, Jessica; Stevenson, Kurt B.; Deutscher, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the impact of passive cost visibility tools on antibiotic prescribing are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the implementation of a passive antibiotic cost visibility tool would impact antibiotic prescribing and decrease antibiotic spending. Methods: An efficiency and effectiveness initiative (EEI) was implemented in October 2012. To support the EEI, an antibiotic cost visibility tool was created in June 2013 displaying the relative cost of antibiotics. Using an observational study of interrupted time series design, 3 time frames were studied: pre EEI, post EEI, and post cost visibility tool implementation. The primary outcome was antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days. Secondary outcomes included case mix index (CMI)–adjusted antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days and utilization of the cost visibility tool. Results: Initiation of the EEI was associated with a $4,675 decrease in antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days (P = .003), and costs continued to decrease in the months following EEI (P = .009). After implementation of the cost visibility tool, costs remained stable (P = .844). Despite CMI increasing over time, adjustment for CMI had no impact on the directionality or statistical significance of the results. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a significant and sustained decrease in antibiotic cost per 1,000 patient days when focused medication cost reduction efforts were implemented, but passive cost visibility tool implementation was not associated with additional cost reduction. Antibiotic cost visibility tools may be of most benefit when prior medication cost reduction efforts are lacking or when an active intervention is incorporated. PMID:26405341

  2. Show Me Your Menu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Describes the importance of eating properly. Presents two middle school level activities: the first activity has students record what they eat for nine days; the second activity includes listing the foods according to the food pyramid and discussing their decisions. Recommends three Web sites. (YDS)

  3. Sediment records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the continental shelf of China: implications for evolving anthropogenic impacts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-06-19

    Sources, compositions, and historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea were analyzed to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities. The occurrence of PAHs was mainly derived from various combustion sources, especially the combustion of biomass and domestic coal. Uniform composition of sedimentary PAHs (52-62% of phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) suggested air-borne mixtures intractable to degradation. The concentrations of the sum of 15 PAHs (16 priority pollutants designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene; designed as Σ(15)PAH) in Yellow Sea sediment cores were generally higher than those in the South China Sea. The profiles of Σ(15)PAH concentrations recorded in the sediment cores closely followed historical socioeconomic development in China. In general, Σ(15)PAH concentrations started to increase from the background pollution level posed by agricultural economy at the turn of 20th century. In addition, a Σ(15)PAH concentration reduction was observed during the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) and Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), suggesting them as setbacks for economic development in Chinese history. Increasing PAH emissions as a result of increasing coal combustion associated with the rapid urbanization and industrialization since the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy (since 1978) accounted for the fast growth of Σ(15)PAH concentrations in sediment cores. The decline of Σ(15)PAH concentrations from subsurface maximum until sampling time was inconsistent with current-day economic development in China, and may possibly suggest emission reductions due to decreasing proportional use of domestic coal and increasing consumption of cleaner energies (natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas).

  4. Fifty-year record of north polar temperatures shows warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Jansen, Mark; Pulrang, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean has long been at the center of the global warming debate, since a significant reduction in sea ice could alter the Earth's radiation balance, as well as modify global atmospheric circulation. According to an August 19, 2000, report in The New York Times, passengers aboard a Russian icebreaker-turned-cruise ship observed a "mile-wide" patch of ice-free ocean at the pole. This observation immediately prompted speculation that global warming is already melting the polar icecap. Two types of open water commonly occur throughout the Arctic pack ice. The linear features, called leads, and curvilinear features, called polynyas, are not necessarily cause for concern. However, the overall extent of Arctic sea ice has decreased in recent decades and, hence, the issue of polar warming is of broad environmental interest.

  5. Zero end-digit preference in recorded blood pressure and its impact on classification of patients for pharmacologic management in primary care — PREDICT-CVD–6

    PubMed Central

    Broad, Joanna; Wells, Sue; Marshall, Roger; Jackson, Rod

    2007-01-01

    Background Most blood pressure recordings end with a zero end-digit despite guidelines recommending measurement to the nearest 2 mmHg. The impact of rounding on management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is unknown. Aim To document the use of rounding to zero end-digit and assess its potential impact on eligibility for pharmacologic management of CVD risk. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 23 676 patients having opportunistic CVD risk assessment in primary care practices in New Zealand. Method To simulate rounding in practice, for patients with systolic blood pressures recorded without a zero end-digit, a second blood pressure measure was generated by arithmetically rounding to the nearest zero end-digit. A 10-year Framingham CVD risk score was estimated using actual and rounded blood pressures. Eligibility for pharmacologic treatment was then determined using the Joint British Societies' JBS2 and the British Hypertension Society BHS–IV guidelines based on actual and rounded blood pressure values. Results Zero end-digits were recorded in 64% of systolic and 62% of diastolic blood pressures. When eligibility for drug treatment was based only on a Framingham 10-year CVD risk threshold of 20% or more, rounding misclassified one in 41 of all those patients subject to this error. Under the two guidelines which use different combinations of CVD risk and blood pressure thresholds, one in 19 would be misclassified under JBS2 and one in 12 under the BHS–IV guidelines mostly towards increased treatment. Conclusion Zero end-digit preference significantly increases a patient's likelihood of being classified as eligible for drug treatment. Guidelines that base treatment decisions primarily on absolute CVD risk are less susceptible to these errors. PMID:17976291

  6. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts, as derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, AD 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period AD 1751-1900. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  7. Understanding the Impact of Electronic Medical Record Use on Practice-Based Population Health Management: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John B; Law, Susan; Lortie, Michel; Leaver, Chad; Lapointe, Liette

    2016-01-01

    Background Practice-based population health (PBPH) management is the proactive management of patients by their primary care clinical team. The ability of clinics to engage in PBPH and the means by which they incorporate it in a clinical setting remain unknown. Objective We conducted the Canadian Population Health Management Challenge to determine the capacity and preparedness of primary care settings to engage in PBPH using their existing medical record systems and to understand the complexities that may exist in PBPH implementation. Methods We recruited a sample of electronic medical record (EMR) -enabled and paper-based clinics from across Canada to participate in the challenge. The challenge required clinic staff and physicians to complete time-controlled, evidence-based practice reviews of their patients who may benefit from evidence-informed care, treatment, or interventions across five different areas (immunization, postmyocardial infarction care, cancer screening, diabetes management, and medication recall). We formulated a preparedness index to measure the capacity of clinics to engage in PBPH management. Finally, we conducted follow-up qualitative interviews to provide richer understanding of PBPH implementation and related issues (ie, challenges and facilitators). Results A total of 11 primary care clinics participated, representing 21 clinician practices. EMR-enabled clinics completed a full review of charts in an average of 1.37 hours. On the contrary, paper-based clinics reviewed nearly 10% of their charts in an average of 3.9 hours, hinting that they would have required an estimated 40 hours to complete a review of charts in their practice. Furthermore, the index revealed a major gap in preparedness between the EMR and paper-based clinics (0.86–3.78 vs 0.05–0.12), as well as a broad range among the EMR clinics. Finally, building on the results of the qualitative analysis, we identified factors facilitating the integration of PBPH. Conclusions Our

  8. The impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes. A reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the middle and southeast Netherlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Doorenbosch, Marieke

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of heath lands during the Holocene has been registered in various soil records . Paleoecological analyses of these records enable to reconstruct the changing economic and cultural management of heaths and the consequences for landscape and soils. Heaths are characteristic components of cultural landscape mosaics on sandy soils in the Netherlands. The natural habitat of heather species was moorland. At first, natural events like forest fires and storms caused small-scale forest degradation, in addition on the forest degradation accelerated due to cultural activities like forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation. Heather plants invaded on degraded forest soils and heaths developed. People learned to use the heaths for economic and cultural purposes. The impact of the heath management on landscape and soils was registered in soil records of barrows, drift sand sequences and plaggic Anthrosols. Based on pollen diagrams of such records we could reconstruct that heaths were developed and used for cattle grazing before the Bronze Age. During the Late Neolithic, the Bronze Age and Iron Age, people created the barrow landscape on the ancestral heaths. After the Iron Age people probably continued with cattle grazing on the heaths and plaggic agriculture until the Early Middle Ages. After 1000 AD two events affected the heaths. At first deforestation for the sale of wood resulted in the first regional extension of sand drifting and heath degradation. After that the introduction of the deep stable economy and heath sods digging resulted in acceleration of the rise of plaggic horizons, severe heath degradation and the second extension of sand drifting. At the end of the 19th century the heath lost its economic value due to the introduction of chemical fertilizers. The heaths were transformed into 'new' arable fields and forests and due to deep ploughing most soil archives were destroyed. Since 1980 AD, the remaining relicts of the ancestral heaths are

  9. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  10. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term memory in long historical temperature records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qimin; Fu, Zuntao

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the estimation of long-term correlation induced by inter-annual variability of annual cycle have been investigated by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). In a consequence of the intrinsic nonlinearity of the climate system, the annual cycle suffers from both amplitude and phase fluctuations. How does this changing annual cycle affect the fluctuation of temperature anomalies? A recently developed adaptive data analysis tool, the Nonlinear Mode Decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle. We compared the differences of the long-term correlation calculated by removing different annual cycle, time-varying and stationary. The study was based on long historical temperature records around the North Atlantic Ocean. The traditional climatology annual cycle which lack characteristic of inter-annual fluctuation would lead to: (1) the estimation of Hurst exponent (2) how to choose scaling range and (3) the goodness of fit. Especially removing steady climatology annual cycle would introduce an artificial crossover around one-year period in the DFA curve. The conclusion is verified by generating deterministic time series through Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. CKD screening and management in the Veterans Health Administration: the impact of system organization and an innovative electronic record.

    PubMed

    Patel, Thakor G; Pogach, Leonard M; Barth, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    At the beginning of this decade, Healthy People 2010 issued a series of objectives to "reduce the incidence, morbidity, mortality and health care costs of chronic kidney disease." A necessary feature of any program to reduce the burden of kidney disease in the US population must include mechanisms to screen populations at risk and institute early the aspects of management, such as control of blood pressure, management of diabetes, and, in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), preparation for dialysis therapy and proper vascular access management, that can retard CKD progression and improve long-term outcome. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Veterans Health Administration is a broad-based national health care system that is almost uniquely situated to address these issues and has developed a number of effective approaches using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, performance measures, innovative use of a robust electronic medical record system, and system oversight during the past decade. In this report, we describe the application of this systems approach to the prevention of CKD in veterans through the treatment of risk factors, identification of CKD in veterans, and oversight of predialysis and dialysis care. The lessons learned and applicability to the private sector are discussed.

  12. The impact of university provided nurse electronic medical record training on health care organizations: an exploratory simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Anderson, James G; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W; Malovec, Shannon; Espejo, Angela; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Training providers appropriately, particularly early in their caregiving careers, is an important aspect of electronic medical record (EMR) implementation. Considerable time and resources are needed to bring the newly hired providers 'up to speed' with the actual use practices of the organization. Similarly, universities lose valuable clinical training hours when students are required to spend those hours learning organization-specific EMR systems in order to participate in care during clinical rotations. Although there are multiple real-world barriers to university/health care organization training partnerships, the investment these entities share in training care providers, specifically nurses, to use and understand EMR technology encourages a question: What would be the cumulative effect of integrating a mutually agreed upon EMR system training program in to nursing classroom training on downstream hospital costs in terms of hours of direct caregiving lost, and benefits in terms of number of overall EMR trained nurses hired? In order to inform the development of a large scale study, we employed a dynamic systems modeling approach to simulate the theoretical relationships between key model variables and determine the possible effect of integrating EMR training into nursing classrooms on hospital outcomes. The analysis indicated that integrating EMR training into the nursing classroom curriculum results in more available time for nurse bedside care. Also, the simulation suggests that efficiency of clinical training can be potentially improved by centralizing EMR training within the nursing curriculum.

  13. Deformation within the Pisco Basin sedimentary record (southern Peru): Stratabound orthogonal vein sets and their impact on fault development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, Andrea; Di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This outcrop-based study reports diffuse joints and veins, normal to strike-slip fault zones and minor folds that developed, from Miocene to Quaternary, within the clastic to siliceous sedimentary record of the forearc Pisco Basin of southern Peru. Patterns, orientations, dimensional parameters and other outcrop-scale characteristics of the various deformation features are illustrated and their genetic mechanisms and timing of development are inferred. These new structural data and interpretations allow a better constraint of the structural style and evolution of the Pisco Basin, and can represent useful guidelines for characterizing the outcrop-scale deformation affecting similar forearc basins along the Peruvian coast. Major results of this study are that the development of the documented deformation features, their patterns, dimensional parameters and kinematics seem influenced by local perturbations of the paleostress field by mechanic processes partly independent of plate tectonics forces. These processes include strain localization on both pre-existing and progressively forming new structural discontinuities, and cyclic switches of the horizontal, principal stress axes σ2 and σ3. In particular, we discuss how different normal fault patterns, from sub-parallel to multidirectional/polygonal, could form in a same deformation phase in response of the local σ2/σ3 magnitude ratio, as an evolution of stratabound, mutually orthogonal vein sets.

  14. Accuracy of cause of death data routinely recorded in a population-based cancer registry: impact on cause-specific survival and validation using the Geneva cancer registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the underlying cause of death of cancer patients is of interest because it can be used to estimate net survival. The population-based Geneva Cancer Registry is unique because registrars are able to review the official cause of death. This study aims to describe the difference between the official and revised cause-of-death variables and the impact on cancer survival estimates. Methods The recording process for each cause of death variable is summarised. We describe the differences between the two cause-of-death variables for the 5,065 deceased patients out of the 10,534 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1970 and 2009. The Kappa statistic and logistic regression are applied to evaluate the degree of concordance. The impact of discordance on cause-specific survival is examined using the Kaplan Meier method. Results The overall agreement between the two variables was high. However, several subgroups presented a lower concordance, suggesting differences in calendar time and less attention given to older patients and more advanced diseases. Similarly, the impact of discordance on cause-specific survival was small on overall survival but larger for several subgroups. Conclusion Estimation of cancer-specific survival could therefore be prone to bias when using the official cause of death. Breast cancer is not the more lethal cancer and our results can certainly not be generalised to more lethal tumours. PMID:24373194

  15. Show and Tell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manahan, Richard A.; Carter, Fletcher F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of the economic impact of a college on the surrounding community are encouraged and outlined. The data necessary for such a study includes spending by college, faculty, and students; town tax receipts; and visitors' numbers and spending graphically prepared, summarized and released to the media. (JMF)

  16. Impacts of structuring the electronic health record: Results of a systematic literature review from the perspective of secondary use of patient data.

    PubMed

    Vuokko, Riikka; Mäkelä-Bengs, Päivi; Hyppönen, Hannele; Lindqvist, Minna; Doupi, Persephone

    2017-01-01

    To explore the impacts that structuring of electronic health records (EHRs) has had from the perspective of secondary use of patient data as reflected in currently published literature. This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review aimed at answering the following questions; (1) what are the common methods of structuring patient data to serve secondary use purposes; (2) what are the common methods of evaluating patient data structuring in the secondary use context, and (3) what impacts or outcomes of EHR structuring have been reported from the secondary use perspective. The reported study forms part of a wider systematic literature review on the impacts of EHR structuring methods and evaluations of their impact. The review was based on a 12-step systematic review protocol adapted from the Cochrane methodology. Original articles included in the study were divided into three groups for analysis and reporting based on their use focus: nursing documentation, medical use and secondary use (presented in this paper). The analysis from the perspective of secondary use of data includes 85 original articles from 1975 to 2010 retrieved from 15 bibliographic databases. The implementation of structured EHRs can be roughly divided into applications for documenting patient data at the point of care and application for retrieval of patient data (post hoc structuring). Two thirds of the secondary use articles concern EHR structuring methods which were still under development or in the testing phase. of structuring patient data such as codes, terminologies, reference information models, forms or templates and documentation standards were usually applied in combination. Most of the identified benefits of utilizing structured EHR data for secondary use purposes concentrated on information content and quality or on technical quality and reliability, particularly in the case of Natural Language Processing (NLP) studies. A few individual articles evaluated impacts on

  17. The Impact of the Evolving Satellite Data Record on Reanalysis Water and Energy Fluxes During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, T. L.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective analyses (reanalyses) use a fixed assimilation model to take diverse observations and synthesize consistent, time-dependent fields of state variables and fluxes (e.g. temperature, moisture, momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes). Because they offer data sets of these quantities at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Of course, one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics. Another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that the discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record ( the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on reanalyses of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We examine these data sets from two perspectives. The first is the ability to capture modes of variability that have coherent spatial structure (e.g. ENSO events and near-decadal coupling to SST changes) and how these modes are contained within trends in near global averages of key quantities. Secondly, we consider diagnostics that measure the consistency in energetic scaling in the hydrologic cycle, particularly the fractional changes in column-integrated water vapor versus precipitation as they are coupled to radiative flux constraints. These results will be discussed in the context of implications for science

  18. We need to talk: an observational study of the impact of electronic medical record implementation on hospital communication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie Parks; Ledford, Robert; Palmer, Victoria; Abel, Erika

    2014-07-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the importance of communication in the delivery of high-quality healthcare. We sought to determine whether communication improved in a hospital setting following the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR). This pre-post cohort design enrolled 75 patient-nurse-physician triads prior to the introduction of EMR, and 123 triads after the introduction of EMR. Nurses and patients reported whether they communicated with the physician that day. Patients, nurses and physicians answered several questions about the plan of care for the day. Responses were scored for degree of agreement and compared between pre-EMR and post-EMR cohorts. The primary outcome was Total Agreement Score, calculated as the sum of the agreement responses. Chart review was performed to determine patients' actual length of stay. Although there was no difference between the frequency of nurses reporting communication with physicians before and after EMR, face-to-face communication was significantly reduced (67% vs 51%, p=0.03). Total Agreement Score was significantly lower after the implementation of EMR (p=0.03). Additionally, fewer patients accurately predicted their expected length of stay after EMR (34% vs 26%, p=0.001). The implementation of EMR was associated with a decrease in face-to-face communication between physicians and nurses, and worsened overall agreement about the plan of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. A 100-year sedimentary record of natural and anthropogenic impacts on a shallow eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Zan, Fengyu; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liao, Haiqing; Zhang, Jingtian; Yeager, Kevin M

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the sediment profiles of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratios, total phosphorus, N/P ratios, C/P ratios, particle sizes, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used to investigate natural and anthropogenic impacts on Lake Chaohu over the past 100 years. Before 1960, Lake Chaohu experienced low productivity and a relatively steady and low nutrient input. The increasing concentration and fluxes of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, together with changes in the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of organic material in the sediment cores, suggested that the anthropogenic effects on trophic status first started because of an increase in nutrient input caused by a population increase in the drainage area. With the construction of the Chaohu Dam, an increase in the utilization of fertilizer and the population growth which occurred since 1960, stable depositional conditions and increasing nutrient input resulted in a dominantly algae-derived organic matter source and high productivity. Nutrient input increased most significantly around 1980 following the rapidly growing population, with concomitant urbanization, industrial and agricultural development. This study also revealed that the concentration and distribution of nutrients varied between different areas of sediment within Lake Chaohu because of the influence of different drainage basins and pollution sources.

  20. Contextualising impacts of logging on tropical rainforest catchment sediment dynamics using the stratigraphic record of in-channel bench deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Annammala, Kogila

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognised that commercial logging and conversion of tropical rainforest to oil palm plantation leads to enhanced fluvial sediment flux to the coastal zone but the dynamics of delivery and mechanisms that act to retain sediment and nutrients within rainforest ecosystems, e.g. riparian zone and floodplain storage, are poorly understood and underexploited as a management tool. While accretion of lateral in-channel bench deposits in response to forest clearance has been demonstrated in temperate landscapes, their development and value as sedimentary archives of catchment response to human disturbance remains largely unexplored in tropical rainforest river systems. Working within the Segama River basin, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that (1) lateral bench development in tropical rainforest rivers systems is enhanced by upstream catchment disturbance and that (2) the sedimentary record of these deposits can be used to infer changes in sediment provenance and intensification of sediment flux associated with logging activities. Sediment cores were taken from in-channel bench deposits with upstream catchment contributing areas of 721 km2 and 2800 km2 respectively. Accretion rates were determined using fallout 210Pb and 137Cs and the timing of peak accumulation was shown to correspond exactly with the known temporal pattern of logging and associated fluvial sediment response over the period 1980 to present following low pre-logging rates. Major and minor element geochemistry of deposits was used to assess the degree of weathering that deposited sediment had experienced. This was linked to surface (heavily weathered) and subsurface (less weathered) sediment sources relating to initial disturbance by logging and post-logging landsliding responses respectively. A shift in the dominant source of deposited material from surface (i.e. topsoil) to subsurface (i.e. relatively unweathered subsoil close to bedrock) origin was observed

  1. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  2. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  3. Impact of improved recording of work-relatedness in primary care visits at occupational health services on sickness absences: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Salla; Ojajärvi, Ulla; Talola, Nina; Viljamaa, Mervi; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Uitti, Jukka

    2017-07-26

    Employment protects and fosters health. Occupational health services, particularly in Finland, have a central role in protecting employee health and preventing work ability problems. However, primary care within occupational health services is currently underused in informing preventive activities. This study was designed to assess whether the recording of work ability problems and improvement of follow-up of work-related primary care visits can reduce sickness absences and work disability pensions after 1 year. A pragmatic trial will be conducted using patient electronic registers and registers of the central pensions agency in Finland. Twenty-two occupational health centres will be randomised to intervention and control groups. Intervention units will receive training to improve recording of work ability illnesses in the primary care setting and improved follow-up procedures. The intervention impact will be assessed through examining rates of sickness absence across intervention and control clinics as well as before and after the intervention. The trial will develop knowledge of the intervention potential of primary care for preventing work disability pensions and sickness absence. The use of routine patient registers and pensions registers to assess the outcomes of a randomised controlled trial will bring forward trial methodology, particularly when using register-based data. If successful, the intervention will improve the quality of occupational health care primary care and contribute to reducing work disability. ISRCTN Registry reference number ISRCTN45728263 . Registered on 18 April 2016.

  4. Magnetostratigraphic results from impact crater Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Siberia: a 300 kyr long high-resolution terrestrial palaeoclimatic record from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowaczyk, N. R.; Minyuk, P.; Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Glushkova, O.; Nolan, M.; Lozhkin, A. V.; Stetsenko, T. V.; M. Andersen, P.; Forman, S. L.

    2002-07-01

    A 12.7 m long sedimentary record recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn, located in a meteorite impact crater created 3.6 Ma in Late Cretaceous igneous rocks on Chukotka Peninsula, northeast Siberia, has been analysed for its palaeo- and rock-magnetic properties. Continuous high resolution (1 mm) measurements of magnetic susceptibility yielded successions of pronounced lows and highs. Analyses of the rock-magnetic properties by low and high temperature runs of magnetic susceptibility, determination of hysteresis parameters as well as IRM acquisition experiments, yielded a dominance of PSD (pseudo-single domain) magnetite in intervals of high magnetic susceptibility, whereas, due to selective magnetite dissolution associated with anoxic Lake water and/or pore water conditions during times of enhanced deposition of organic matter, haematite dominates within low susceptibility intervals in terms of mass percentage. Here however, magnetic properties are still dominated by magnetite. Five AMS (accelerator mass spectromentry) 14C ages, eight IRSL (infrared stimulated luminescense) ages together with preliminary pollen data suggest that variations in magnetite content reflect climatic variability of the last ~300 ka with low (high) susceptibilities representing cold (warm) climates. This pattern, caused by a complex system of deposition, preservation or decomposition of organic matter and/or magnetic minerals, in turn can be correlated in detail to global climate archives such as the oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores and marine sediments, respectively. Thus, the sedimentary sequence recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn represents the longest continuous terrestrial climate record now available from the Arctic.

  5. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  6. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) in the period 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes always influenced human activities and caused great material damage or even loss of human lives. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. In this study, written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, and the impacts on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about

  7. Clinical trials and E-health: impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research.

    PubMed

    Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Within the last few years, new technology has come to play an important part in our professional and private daily environment. Healthcare has not escaped this progressive mutation with computers reaching the bedside. Clinical research has also shown growing interest in these new tools available to the clinical investigator, the patient, as well as to specialist departments for diagnosis and follow-up of patients, and to the different professions in clinical research. If the use of new technology seems to make life easier, by centralizing data or by simplifying data-sharing between different teams, it is still a matter of private data which must remain reliable, confidential and secure, whether it is being used in ordinary healthcare or in academic or industrial research. The aim of the round table was to estimate the impact of new information technology applied to clinical trials (including source data-medical records) and to human and drug research. First, an inventory was made of the development of these new technologies in the healthcare system. The second point developed was identification of expected benefits in order to issue guidelines for their good use and hazard warnings in clinical trials. Finally, the impact of these new technologies on the investigator as well as the project manager was analysed.

  8. Long-Term Impact of an Electronic Health Record-Enabled, Team-Based, and Scalable Population Health Strategy Based on the Chronic Care Model

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J; Anderson, John B; Bosworth, Hayden B; Lobach, David F; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Shang, Howard; Yarnall, Kimberly S H

    2016-01-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a promising framework for improving population health, but little is known regarding the long-term impact of scalable, informatics-enabled interventions based on this model. To address this challenge, this study evaluated the long-term impact of implementing a scalable, electronic health record (EHR)- enabled, and CCM-based population health program to replace a labor-intensive legacy program in 18 primary care practices. Interventions included point-of-care decision support, quality reporting, team-based care, patient engagement, and provider education. Among 6,768 patients with diabetes receiving care over 4 years, hemoglobin A1c levels remained stable during the 2-year pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (0.03% and 0% increases, respectively), compared to a 0.42% increase expected based on A1c progression observed in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study long-term outcomes cohort. The results indicate that an EHR-enabled, team- based, and scalable population health strategy based on the CCM may be effective and efficient for managing population health. PMID:28269865

  9. Long-Term Impact of an Electronic Health Record-Enabled, Team-Based, and Scalable Population Health Strategy Based on the Chronic Care Model.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J; Anderson, John B; Bosworth, Hayden B; Lobach, David F; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Shang, Howard; Yarnall, Kimberly S H

    2016-01-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a promising framework for improving population health, but little is known regarding the long-term impact of scalable, informatics-enabled interventions based on this model. To address this challenge, this study evaluated the long-term impact of implementing a scalable, electronic health record (EHR)- enabled, and CCM-based population health program to replace a labor-intensive legacy program in 18 primary care practices. Interventions included point-of-care decision support, quality reporting, team-based care, patient engagement, and provider education. Among 6,768 patients with diabetes receiving care over 4 years, hemoglobin A1c levels remained stable during the 2-year pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (0.03% and 0% increases, respectively), compared to a 0.42% increase expected based on A1c progression observed in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study long-term outcomes cohort. The results indicate that an EHR-enabled, team- based, and scalable population health strategy based on the CCM may be effective and efficient for managing population health.

  10. Use of a Blended Satellite and In situ Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for Evaluating Long-term Impacts on Coral and Marine Mammal Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Forney, K.; Becker, E.; Arzayus, K. M.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    The NOAA ¼° daily Optimum Interpolation (OI) Sea Surface temperature (SST), an in situ and satellite-based climate data record of SST available from 1981, was used to examine potential impacts of long-term temperature change on marine ecosystems. As a benthic example, historical heat stress in key tropical coral reef regions was calculated from the daily temperature data, using the NOAA Coral Reef Watch methodology. The regions with long-term ocean warming trend and experiencing more frequent thermal stress are identified as the regions with high vulnerability. While corals may be able to adapt to slow changes, no systematic adaptation has been reported with temperature increase over the past few decades. In contrast to the attached corals, marine mammals respond to changes in their environment by changing their distributions, often over large geographic areas. Habitat-based species distribution models can be developed to predict changes in the spatial distribution and abundance of marine mammals. OISST is a good predictor of the distribution of some marine mammal species, including Bryde's whales, false killer whales, and striped dolphins, and SST-based distribution models provide a foundation for projecting potential impacts of future temperature changes on marine mammals. Preliminary results from some of our research activities will be presented.

  11. The impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes: a reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the central and southeastern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorenbosch, Marieke; van Mourik, Jan M.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of heathlands during the Holocene has been registered in various soil records. Paleoecological analyses of these records enable reconstruction of the changing economic and cultural management of heaths and the consequences for landscape and soils. Heaths are characteristic components of cultural landscape mosaics on sandy soils in the Netherlands. The natural habitat of heather species was moorland. At first, natural events like forest fires and storms caused small-scale forest degradation; in addition on that, the forest degradation accelerated due to cultural activities like forest grazing, wood cutting, and shifting cultivation. Heather plants invaded degraded forest soils, and heaths developed. People learned to use the heaths for economic and cultural purposes. The impact of the heath management on landscape and soils was registered in soil records of barrows, drift sand sequences, and plaggic Anthrosols. Based on pollen diagrams of such records we could reconstruct that heaths were developed and used for cattle grazing before the Bronze Age. During the late Neolithic, the Bronze Age, and Iron Age, people created the barrow landscape on the ancestral heaths. After the Iron Age, people probably continued with cattle grazing on the heaths and plaggic agriculture until the early Middle Ages. Severe forest degradation by the production of charcoal for melting iron during the Iron Age till the 6th-7th century and during the 11th-13th century for the trade of wood resulted in extensive sand drifting, a threat to the valuable heaths. The introduction of the deep, stable economy and heath sods digging in the course of the 18th century resulted in acceleration of the rise of plaggic horizons, severe heath degradation, and again extension of sand drifting. At the end of the 19th century heath lost its economic value due to the introduction of chemical fertilizers. The heaths were transformed into "new" arable fields and forests, and due to deep ploughing

  12. Impact of hyperhydration on the mortality risk in critically ill patients admitted in intensive care units: comparison between bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and cumulative fluid balance recording.

    PubMed

    Samoni, Sara; Vigo, Valentina; Reséndiz, Luis Ignacio Bonilla; Villa, Gianluca; De Rosa, Silvia; Nalesso, Federico; Ferrari, Fiorenza; Meola, Mario; Brendolan, Alessandra; Malacarne, Paolo; Forfori, Francesco; Bonato, Raffaele; Donadio, Carlo; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-04-08

    Studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between fluid overload (FO) and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The present study aims at defining the impact of hyperhydration on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality risk, comparing Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) assessment with cumulative fluid balance (CFB) recording. We performed a prospective, dual-centre, clinician-blinded, observational study of consecutive patients admitted to ICU with an expected length of ICU stay of at least 72 hours. During observational period (72-120 hours), CFB was recorded and cumulative FO was calculated. At the admission and daily during the observational period, BIVA was performed. We considered FO between 5% and 9.99% as moderate and a FO ≥ 10% as severe. According to BIVA hydration scale of lean body mass, patients were classified as normohydrated (>72.7%-74.3%), mild (>71%-72.7%), moderate (>69%-71%) and severe (≤ 69%) dehydrated and mild (>74.3%-81%), moderate (>81%-87%) and severe (>87%) hyperhydrated. Two multivariate logistic regression models were performed: the ICU mortality was the response variable, while the predictor variables were hyperhydration, measured by BIVA (BIVA model), and FO (FO model). A p-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. One hundred and twenty-five patients were enrolled (mean age 64.8 ± 16.0 years, 65.6% male). Five hundred and fifteen BIVA measurements were performed. The mean CFB recorded at the end of the observational period was 2.7 ± 4.1 L, while the maximum hydration of lean body mass estimated by BIVA was 83.67 ± 6.39%. Severe hyperhydration measured by BIVA was the only variable found to be significantly associated with ICU mortality (OR 22.91; 95% CI 2.38-220.07; p < 0.01). The hydration status measured by BIVA seems to predict mortality risk in ICU patients better than the conventional method of fluid balance recording. Moreover, it appears to be safe, easy to use and

  13. Showing Some Chemistry

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    During NASA MESSENGER four-year orbital mission, the spacecraft X-Ray Spectrometer XRS instrument mapped out the chemical composition of Mercury and discovered striking regions of chemical diversity. These maps of magnesium/silicon (left) and aluminium/silicon (right) use red colors to indicate high values and blue colors for low values. In the maps shown here, the Caloris basin can be identified as a region with low Mg/Si and high Ca/Si on the upper left of each map. An extensive region with high Mg/Si is also clearly visible in the maps but is not correlated with any visible impact basin. Instrument: X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Left Image: Map of Mg/Si Right Image: Map of Al/Si http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19417

  14. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  15. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  16. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  17. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  18. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  19. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  20. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  1. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  5. Computers in the examination room and the electronic health record: physicians' perceived impact on clinical encounters before and after full installation and implementation.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Richard J; Wang, Nina; Anthony, David; Borkan, Jeffrey; Shield, Renee R; Goldman, Roberta E

    2012-10-01

    We compared physicians' self-reported attitudes and behaviours regarding electronic health record (EHR) use before and after installation of computers in patient examination rooms and transition to full implementation of an EHR in a family medicine training practice to identify anticipated and observed effects these changes would have on physicians' practices and clinical encounters. We conducted two individual qualitative interviews with family physicians. The first interview was before and second interview was 8 months later after full implementation of an EHR and computer installation in the examination rooms. Data were analysed through project team discussions and subsequent coding with qualitative analysis software. At the first interviews, physicians frequently expressed concerns about the potential negative effect of the EHR on quality of care and physician-patient interaction, adequacy of their skills in EHR use and privacy and confidentiality concerns. Nevertheless, most physicians also anticipated multiple benefits, including improved accessibility of patient data and online health information. In the second interviews, physicians reported that their concerns did not persist. Many anticipated benefits were realized, appearing to facilitate collaborative physician-patient relationships. Physicians reported a greater teaching role with patients and sharing online medical information and treatment plan decisions. Before computer installation and full EHR implementation, physicians expressed concerns about the impact of computer use on patient care. After installation and implementation, however, many concerns were mitigated. Using computers in the examination rooms to document and access patients' records along with online medical information and decision-making tools appears to contribute to improved physician-patient communication and collaboration.

  6. The impact of ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood on adult delinquency: A 30 years follow-up study using official crime records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies have explored lifetime criminality in adults with a childhood history of severe mental disorders. In the present study, we wanted to explore the association between adult delinquency and several different childhood diagnoses in an in-patient population. Of special interest was the impact of disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD) and mixed disorder of conduct and emotions on later delinquency, as these disorders have been variously associated with delinquent development. Methods Former Norwegian child psychiatric in-patients (n = 541) were followed up 19-41 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the National Register of Criminality. On the basis of the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. The association between diagnoses and other baseline factors and later delinquency were investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results At follow-up, 24% of the participants had been convicted of criminal activity. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, conduct disorder (RR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.2-3.4) and hyperkinetic conduct disorder (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4) significantly increased the risk of future criminal behaviour. Pervasive developmental disorder (RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.2-0.9) and mental retardation (RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.3-0.8) reduced the risk for a criminal act. Male gender (RR = 3.6, 95%CI = 2.1-6.1) and chronic family difficulties (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) both predicted future criminality. Conclusions Conduct disorder in childhood was highly associated with later delinquency both alone or in combination with hyperactivity, but less associated when combined with an emotional disorder. ADHD in childhood was no more associated with later delinquency than the rest of the disorders in the study population. Our finding strengthens the assumption that there is no direct association between ADHD and criminality. PMID:21481227

  7. Mars Slide Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  8. The Demise of the Magic Lantern Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    Extracting and applying lessons from history is rarely easy and sometimes risky but there are moments when historical records are so compelling that they rise above mere proof to the level of interocular impact. In this article, the author shares his similar experience while visiting his colleague, Professor Bruce Clark, at the University of…

  9. The Demise of the Magic Lantern Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    Extracting and applying lessons from history is rarely easy and sometimes risky but there are moments when historical records are so compelling that they rise above mere proof to the level of interocular impact. In this article, the author shares his similar experience while visiting his colleague, Professor Bruce Clark, at the University of…

  10. The Impact of New Media on 20th-Century Astronomy: From Individual Records to Catalogs, Data Centers, Information Hubs and so-called `Virtual Observatories'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    Astronomy is largely a virtual science. Most of our knowledge of the universe is derived from photons reaching us from the outer space. And because of the finite speed of light, we do not observe the objects the way they are, but the way they were when the photons we are collecting actually left them. What we have thus in our data files is nothing other than a huge and complex virtuality of prior stages, differenciated as a function of the distance in space and time of the various sources. Thus the job of astronomers is to work on that space-time mosaicked virtual universe in order to figure out what is exactly the real universe and to understand the place and rôle of man in it. As a result of the huge amount of data accumulated, but also by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have been pioneering the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This talk will offer a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century, drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogs and data centers, and moving now from information hubs to those advanced digital research facilities called `virtual observatories'.

  11. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  12. XMM on show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view Europe's next scientific satellite, XMM, will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 10 February at 10:00 a.m. On show will be the full-size development version of XMM which has completed engineering tests. Press representatives will be permitted to inspect it and take pictures at close quarters. Robert Lainé, the XMM project manager, and Fred Jansen, the XMM project scientist will present the spacecraft and mission. Roger Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science programme will present Horizons 2000, the future ESA Science programme. After the presentations they will be available to answer questions. Due for launch in 1999, XMM is an unprecedented space observatory for X-ray astronomy, with far greater sensitivity than any previous X-ray mission. It is also ESA's largest scientific spacecraft -- almost 11 metres long and with a mass of nearly 4 tonnes.

  13. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  14. Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. CLIR Publication No. 146

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This is the third of three studies of copyright and sound recordings commissioned by the National Recording Preservation Board (NRPB) in support of the congressionally mandated study of the state of audio preservation in the United States. All three studies have focused on how laws pertaining to sound recordings made before 1972 affect…

  15. Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. CLIR Publication No. 146

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This is the third of three studies of copyright and sound recordings commissioned by the National Recording Preservation Board (NRPB) in support of the congressionally mandated study of the state of audio preservation in the United States. All three studies have focused on how laws pertaining to sound recordings made before 1972 affect…

  16. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  17. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  18. El Niño impact on mollusk biomineralization-implications for trace element proxy reconstructions and the paleo-archeological record.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F; Andrus, C Fred T; Jeffries, Teresa E; Watkins, Clifton; Street, Shane C; Sandweiss, Daniel H

    2013-01-01

    Marine macroinvertebrates are ideal sentinel organisms to monitor rapid environmental changes associated with climatic phenomena. These organisms build up protective exoskeletons incrementally by biologically-controlled mineralization, which is deeply rooted in long-term evolutionary processes. Recent studies relating potential rapid environmental fluctuations to climate change, such as ocean acidification, suggest modifications on carbonate biominerals of marine invertebrates. However, the influence of known, and recurrent, climatic events on these biological processes during active mineralization is still insufficiently understood. Analysis of Peruvian cockles from the 1982-83 large magnitude El Niño event shows significant alterations of the chemico-structure of carbonate biominerals. Here, we show that bivalves modify the main biomineralization mechanism during the event to continue shell secretion. As a result, magnesium content increases to stabilize amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), inducing a rise in Mg/Ca unrelated to the associated increase in sea-surface temperature. Analysis of variations in Sr/Ca also suggests that this proxy should not be used in these bivalves to detect the temperature anomaly, while Ba/Ca peaks are recorded in shells in response to an increase in productivity, or dissolved barium in seawater, after the event. Presented data contribute to a better understanding of the effects of abrupt climate change on shell biomineralization, while also offering an alternative view of bivalve elemental proxy reconstructions. Furthermore, biomineralization changes in mollusk shells can be used as a novel potential proxy to provide a more nuanced historical record of El Niño and similar rapid environmental change events.

  19. Impact of warming events on reef-scale temperature variability as captured in two Little Cayman coral Sr/Ca records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Reumont, J.; Hetzinger, S.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Manfrino, C.; Dullo, W.-Chr.

    2016-03-01

    The rising temperature of the world's oceans is affecting coral reef ecosystems by increasing the frequency and severity of bleaching and mortality events. The susceptibility of corals to temperature stress varies on local and regional scales. Insights into potential controlling parameters are hampered by a lack of long term in situ data in most coral reef environments and sea surface temperature (SST) products often do not resolve reef-scale variations. Here we use 42 years (1970-2012) of coral Sr/Ca data to reconstruct seasonal- to decadal-scale SST variations in two adjacent but distinct reef environments at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Our results indicate that two massive Diploria strigosa corals growing in the lagoon and in the fore reef responded differently to past warming events. Coral Sr/Ca data from the shallow lagoon successfully record high summer temperatures confirmed by in situ observations (>33°C). Surprisingly, coral Sr/Ca from the deeper fore reef is strongly affected by thermal stress events, although seasonal temperature extremes and mean SSTs at this site are reduced compared to the lagoon. The shallow lagoon coral showed decadal variations in Sr/Ca, supposedly related to the modulation of lagoonal temperature through varying tidal water exchange, influenced by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Our results show that reef-scale SST variability can be much larger than suggested by satellite SST measurements. Thus, using coral SST proxy records from different reef zones combined with in situ observations will improve conservation programs that are developed to monitor and predict potential thermal stress on coral reefs.

  20. El Niño Impact on Mollusk Biomineralization–Implications for Trace Element Proxy Reconstructions and the Paleo-Archeological Record

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Jeffries, Teresa E.; Watkins, Clifton; Street, Shane C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Marine macroinvertebrates are ideal sentinel organisms to monitor rapid environmental changes associated with climatic phenomena. These organisms build up protective exoskeletons incrementally by biologically-controlled mineralization, which is deeply rooted in long-term evolutionary processes. Recent studies relating potential rapid environmental fluctuations to climate change, such as ocean acidification, suggest modifications on carbonate biominerals of marine invertebrates. However, the influence of known, and recurrent, climatic events on these biological processes during active mineralization is still insufficiently understood. Analysis of Peruvian cockles from the 1982–83 large magnitude El Niño event shows significant alterations of the chemico-structure of carbonate biominerals. Here, we show that bivalves modify the main biomineralization mechanism during the event to continue shell secretion. As a result, magnesium content increases to stabilize amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), inducing a rise in Mg/Ca unrelated to the associated increase in sea-surface temperature. Analysis of variations in Sr/Ca also suggests that this proxy should not be used in these bivalves to detect the temperature anomaly, while Ba/Ca peaks are recorded in shells in response to an increase in productivity, or dissolved barium in seawater, after the event. Presented data contribute to a better understanding of the effects of abrupt climate change on shell biomineralization, while also offering an alternative view of bivalve elemental proxy reconstructions. Furthermore, biomineralization changes in mollusk shells can be used as a novel potential proxy to provide a more nuanced historical record of El Niño and similar rapid environmental change events. PMID:23405078

  1. Impact of the first recorded outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, in southern California and the extent of its distribution in the Pacific Southwest region

    Treesearch

    Tom W. Coleman; Michael I. Jones; Beatrice Courtial; Andrew D. Graves; Meghan Woods; Alain Roques; Steven J. Seybold

    2014-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (DFTM), Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough (Lepidoptera:Erebidae: Lymantriinae), is a native western North American defoliator of true fir, Abies spp. Mill., and Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. We investigated the population genetics and impact associated with the first recorded...

  2. The Impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Phytoplankton as Evidenced Through the Sedimentary Dinoflagellate Cyst Records in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, M.; Pospelova, V.; Williams, J. R.; Dellapenna, T.; Mertens, K.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Large volumes of crude oil are extracted from marine environments and transported via the sea, putting coastal communities at a greater risk of oils spills. It is therefore crucial for these communities to properly assess the risk. The first step is to understand the effects of such events on the environment, which is limited by the lack of research on the impact of oil spills on phytoplankton. This first-of-its-kind research aims to identify how one of the major groups of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, have been affected by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. To do this, sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts, produced during dinoflagellate reproduction and preserved in the sediment, were analyzed. Two sediment cores were collected from PWS in 2012. The sediments are mainly composed of silt with a small fraction of clay. Both well-dated with 210Pb and 137Cs, the cores have high sedimentation rates, allowing for an annual to biannual resolution. Core 10 has a sedimentation rate of 1.1 cm yr-1 and provides continuous record since 1957, while Core 12 has a sedimentation rate of 1.3 cm yr-1 and spans from 1934. The cores were subsampled every centimeter for a total of 110 samples. Samples were treated using a standard palynological processing technique to extract dinoflagellate cysts and 300 cysts were counted per sample. In both cores, cysts were abundant, diverse and well preserved with the average cyst assemblage being characterized by an equal number of cysts produced by autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Of the 40 dinoflagellate cyst taxa, the most abundant are: Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp. Other common species are: Spiniferites ramosus, cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Echinidinium delicatum, E. zonneveldiae, E. transparantum, Islandinium minutum, and a thin pale brown Brigantedinium type. Changes in the sedimentary sequence of dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed by determining cyst

  3. Trans-nonachlor decreases miR-141-3p levels in human melanocytes in vitro promoting melanoma cell characteristics and shows a multigenerational impact on miR-8 levels in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Verrando, Patrick; Capovilla, Maria; Rahmani, Roger

    2016-08-10

    Epidemiological association studies have revealed a role for pesticides in cancer occurrence, while a growing number of reports have highlighted the deleterious epigenetic modifications that can be produced by environmental factors. However, epidemiological data currently lack molecular support to unravel the epigenetic impact of pesticides on carcinogenesis. Based on epidemiological studies of melanoma, our data show for the first time that trans-nonachlor (TNC), a component of the pesticide chlordane, modulates the microRNA miR-141-3p in human melanocytic cells in vitro, with effects on melanomagenesis parameters. TNC downregulates the level of miR-141-3p in normal melanocytes to levels found endogenously in several melanoma cell lines. Ectopic expression of either a synthetic miRNA mimic or inhibitor in human melanocytic cells revealed that TNC counteracts the inhibitory effects of miR-141-3p on melanoma cell anchorage-independent growth ability, their invasive potential, and expression of a multipotent, embryonic-like, aggressive cancer phenotype (termed vasculogenic mimicry), involving VE-Cadherin. In addition, the data suggest that miR-141-3p regulates vasculogenic mimicry through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K). Notably, in the Drosophila animal model, TNC also decreased the level of miR-8, the sole miR-141-3p fly ortholog. Importantly, the downregulation of miR-8 levels induced by TNC in ancestors was transmitted through multigenerations, with a progressive reversion over time. Such a decrease in miR-8 levels translated to a loss-of-weight phenotype in offspring. Providing support to epidemiological data, these results altogether suggest that TNC may favor melanomagenesis by lowering the levels of miR-141-3p, thereby activating melanoma cell processes. Although any such conclusions in humans are yet to be determined, these experiments in Drosophila demonstrate that TNC can promote an epigenetic

  4. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  5. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  6. Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations show decreased activity on BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), an important regulator of energy balance: testing impact of novel SF-1 mutations beyond steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E

    2014-01-01

    Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations.

  7. Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

  8. Video recording.

    PubMed

    Porter, R J; Sato, S; Long, R L

    1985-01-01

    Two video techniques are commonly used for biomedical monitoring. The simplest technique uses 2 or 3 video cameras with a special-effects generator. The more advanced method uses one video camera with a reformatter, a special-effects generator and a time-code generator. The main components of a video recording system are the camera, tape recorder, monitor, special-effects generator, reformatter, audio system and time-code generator. Video recordings can be edited electronically, but the quality of the copies is dependent on the type of editing equipment and the technical expertise available. Video recording has helped to improve the diagnosis and treatment of seizures and has been widely used in clinical epilepsy research. Video monitoring is now generally available in large medical centers for the diagnosis of difficult patients.

  9. [The impact of technological change on census taking: some thoughts on implications for the 1990 round of censuses and on the statistical use of administrative records].

    PubMed

    Brackstone, G J

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some general thoughts on the implications of technological change for the 1990 round of censuses and for the statistical use of administrative records. Consideration is also given to alternative methods of obtaining the type of data traditionally collected in a population census, by using these new technologies in association with administrative record systems.

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Training Registration and Administration Records for the Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training and the National Enforcement Training Institute

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This system collects student data for NETI's online university, including contact information and course data. Learn how this data is collected, used, accessed, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies for the data.

  11. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  12. Student Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    Another topic involving privacy has attracted considerable attention in recent months--the "student unit record" issue. The U.S. Department of Education concluded in March that it would be feasible to help address lawmakers' concerns about accountability in higher education by constructing a database capable of tracking students from institution…

  13. Transcriptome adaptation of the bovine mammary gland to diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids shows greater impact of linseed oil over safflower oil on gene expression and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Li, Ran; Ammah, Adolf A; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin

    2016-02-09

    /cholesterol metabolism. This study shows that rich α-linolenic acid LSO has a greater impact on mammary gland transcriptome by affecting more genes, pathways and processes as compared to SFO, rich in linoleic acid. Our study suggest that decrease in milk SFAs was due to down-regulation of genes in the FA/lipid synthesis and lipid metabolism pathways while increase in PUFAs was due to increased availability of ruminal biohydrogenation metabolites that were up taken and incorporated into milk or used as substrate for the synthesis of PUFAs.

  14. Why facilitate patient access to medical records.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana; Correia, Ana; Silva, Ana; Corte, Ana; Pinto, Ana; Saavedra, Ana; Pereira, Ana Luís; Pereira, Ana Filipa; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Antunes, Luís Filipe

    2007-01-01

    The wider use of healthcare information systems and the easier integration and sharing of patient clinical information can facilitate a wider access to medical records. The main goal of this paper is to perform a systematic review to analyze published work that studied the impact of facilitating patients' access to their medical record. Moreover, this review includes the analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks on patient attitudes, doctor-patient relationship and on medical practice. In order to fill a gap in terms of the electronic medical record (EMR) impact within this issue, this review will focus on the use of EMR for patients to access their medical records as well as the advantages and disadvantages that this can bring. The articles included in the study were identified using MEDLINE and Scopus databases and revised according to their title and abstract and, afterwards, their full text was read considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. From the 165 articles obtained in MEDLINE a total of 12 articles were selected. From Scopus, 2 articles were obtained, so a total of 14 articles were included in the review. The studies revealed that patients' access to medical records can be beneficial for both patients and doctors, since it enhances communication between them whilst helping patients to better understand their health condition. The drawbacks (for instance causing confusion and anxiety to patients) seem to be minimal. However, patients continue to show concerns about confidentiality and understanding what is written in their records. The studies showed that the use of EMR can bring several advantages in terms of security solutions as well as improving the correctness and completeness of the patient records.

  15. The Digital Age: Challenges for Records Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plocher, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advances in information technology that are being embraced by federal agencies and considers the implications for records management. Highlights include federal Web sites; the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); and the impact of changing technology. (Author/LRW)

  16. Use of an automatic recording system for CT doses: evaluation of the impact of iterative reconstruction on radiation exposure in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burckel, L-A; Defez, D; Chaillot, P F; Douek, P; Boussel, L

    2015-03-01

    Despite the obligatory recording of doses administered to patients during CT scans, this data is not easily accessible. The objective of this study was to implement and validate a computerised automated dose-recording system for CT scans, for a single radiology department. Every patient undergoing a CT scan in our department over a one-year period was included in the study. The CT scanner was upgraded after eight months (installation of iterative reconstruction and choice of an additional voltage of 100 kV). The system recorded, from DICOM image headers, the patient data and technical acquisition parameters. The statistical analysis compared the dose length products (DLP) before and after the upgrade, and compared them with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Four thousand seven hundred and ninety-five CT scans were included (2141 before the upgrade and 2654 after). For all of the acquisition protocols tested, there was a reduction in DLP after the upgrade. The mean reduction was 30%, with a range of 17% to 44% depending on the protocol. After the upgrade, all of the mean DLPs were under the DRL thresholds (P<0.0001). The proposed tool enabled systematic recording of the doses of radiation used in CT scans. It confirmed the significant reduction in the dose resulting from the implementation of iterative reconstruction, and enabled an exhaustive and rapid control of the respect of DRLs. Copyright © 2014 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of

  18. Anthropogenic impact on the sediment record from Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland) based on heavy metal contents in combination with high-resolution pollen and varve data: Geochemical background vs enrichment history and landsurface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Słowiński, Michał; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    For Czechowskie Lake, situated in a rural environment in N-Poland, we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals from an annually laminated sediment core and the near-by lake sediment record of Lake Głęboczek. To determine local geogenic background values for the lake different types of Holocene lake sediments (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) were analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. On the base of these results enrichment factors were calculated that represent the anthropogenic heavy metal deposition. This data is supplemented by on average five year resolution pollen record for the last 700 years. Based on vegetation changes (e.g. arboreal % such as Pinus and Carpinus betulus; Cerealia %; charcoal pieces), heavy metal input (mainly Pb, Zn and Cd), varve thickness, and precise varve dating (±3a years for the last 200a and ±8a years for the last 700a) five phases of significantly lower human activity interrupted by stronger human impact were distinguished. Strongest declines in anthropogenic pressure on the landscape are related to periods following war or economic regression and subsequent regeneration. Our results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic impact as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact.

  19. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  20. Record Flood-Producing Rainstorms of 17-18 July 1996 in the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Part III: Impacts and Responses to the Flash Flooding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.

    1999-03-01

    A record-breaking 24-h rainstorm on 17-18 July 1996 was centered on south Chicago and its southern and western suburbs, areas with a population of 3.4 million. The resulting flash flooding in Chicago and 21 suburbs broke all-time records in the region and brought the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers above flood stage. More than 4300 persons were evacuated from the flooded zones and 35000 homes experienced flood damage. Six persons were killed and the total estimated cost of the flood (losses and recovery actions) was 645 million, ranking as Illinois' second most costly weather disaster on record after the 1993 flood. Extensive damages and travel delays occurred on metropolitan transportation systems (highways and railroads). Commuters were unable to reach Chicago for up to three days and more than 300 freight trains were delayed or rerouted. Communities dealt with removal of flood-damaged materials, as well as damage to streets, bridges, and sewage treatment and water treatment plants. Reduced crop yields in adjacent rural areas represented a 67 million loss of farm income. Conflicts between communities developed over blame for the flooding due to inadequate storage capacity resulting in new regional flood planning. Federal and state aid ultimately reached 265 million, 41% of the storm costs. More than 85000 individuals received assistance, and 222 structures have been relocated under the federal Hazard Mitigation Grant Program at a cost of 19.6 million.

  1. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    • Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture, and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. • To investigate long-term impacts of dwarf mistletoe...

  2. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree-ring C and O stable isotopes

    Treesearch

    D. E. Marias; F. C. Meinzer; D. R. Woodruff; D. C. Shaw; S. L. Voelker; Steven W. Oak; William J. Otrosina; William D. Smith; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. To investigate the long-term (1886–2010) impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the growth and gas exchange characteristics of host western hemlock, we...

  3. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    • Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture, and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. • To investigate long-term impacts of dwarf mistletoe...

  4. Tape recorder failure investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, M. D.; Loewenthal, S. H.; Carnahan, C. C.; Snyder, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Two end-item tape recorders lost 4:1 mode data recording mode capability at less than half of their 1 6,000-cycle, 4-year operating life. Subsequent life tests on two spare recorders also experienced 4:1 mode data loss at 8,000 and 11,700 cycles. Tear down inspection after completion of the life tests showed that the tape had worn through the alfesil record and reproduce heads. An investigation was initiated to understand the cause of excessive tape head wear and the reasons why the 4:1 mode data rate, low-speed mode is more damaging than the 1:1 mode data rate, high-speed recording mode. The objective was to establish how operating conditions (tape speed, humidity, temperature, stop/start cycles) affects head life with the goal of extending head life on the remaining in-service tape recorders. Another interest was to explain why an earlier vendor life test showed capability beyond 16,000 cycles.

  5. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  6. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proper recording of data in the storage medium; (5) Except for recorders powered solely by the engine... any crash impact; and (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are... may disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the digital flight data recorder. (b)...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1459 - Flight data recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proper recording of data in the storage medium; (5) Except for recorders powered solely by the engine... any crash impact; and (6) Whether the cockpit voice recorder and digital flight data recorder are... may disable both the cockpit voice recorder and the digital flight data recorder. (b)...

  9. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  10. A multi-proxy record of hydroclimate, vegetation, fire, and post-settlement impacts for a subalpine plateau, Central Rocky Mountains U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Brunelle, Andrea; Thompson, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Apparent changes in vegetation distribution, fire, and other disturbance regimes throughout western North America have prompted investigations of the relative importance of human activities and climate change as potential causal mechanisms. Assessing the effects of Euro-American settlement is difficult because climate changes occur on multi-decadal to centennial time scales and require longer time perspectives than historic observations can provide. Here, we report vegetation and environmental changes over the past ~13,000 years as recorded in a sediment record from Bison Lake, a subalpine lake on a high plateau in northwestern Colorado. Results are based on multiple independent proxies, which include pollen, charcoal, and elemental geochemistry, and are compared with previously reported interpretations of hydroclimatic changes from oxygen isotope ratios. The pollen data indicate a slowly changing vegetation sequence from sagebrush steppe during the late glacial to coniferous forest through the late Holocene. The most dramatic vegetation changes of the Holocene occurred during the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (MCA) and ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) with rapid replacement of conifer forest by grassland followed by an equally rapid return to conifer forest. Late Holocene vegetation responses are mirrored by changes in fire, lake biological productivity, and watershed erosion. These combined records indicate that subsequent disturbance related to Euro-American settlement, although perhaps significant, had acted upon a landscape that was already responding to MCA-LIA hydroclimatic change. Results document both rapid and long-term subalpine grassland ecosystem dynamics driven by agents of change that can be anticipated in the future and simulated by ecosystem models.

  11. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  12. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: human impact on a regional to global scale.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Gérard, Laëtitia; Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine; Le Roux, Gaël; Fagel, Nathalie

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with (14)C and (210)Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles.

  13. A high resolution, one million year record of extraterrestrial 3Helium from the Shatsky Rise (site 1209) following the K/T impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hull, P. M.; Norris, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the North Pacific Ocean, site 1209 on the Shatsky rise offers one of the best-preserved sections for studying biological, oceanographic and climatic events in the aftermath of the K-T impact at ~65 Ma. At this site, the first 450 kyrs after the boundary is represented by an extended carbonate section [1]. The expanded section, also known as the ‘strange interval’ [1] is in direct contrast to sites in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean that have low carbonate deposition during this interval. The strange interval is important for evaluating the immediate changes in climate, ocean circulation, and evolutionary dynamics that accompanied K-T impact in the Pacific Ocean. Here we present measurements of extraterrestrial 3He at site 1209 for the first one million year following the K-T impact event at a resolution of 2.5 cm. Our goal is to better constrain the timescale of climatic and biotic events during this interval of time. Accumulation rates of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), as traced by extraterrestrial 3He [2], provide a tool with which to investigate sedimentation rates at high resolution. Prior work has shown that the accretion rate of IDPs across the K-T boundary is constant [2], allowing us to invert the extraterrestrial 3He flux for instantaneous sedimentation rates. Sedimentation rates derived from extraterrestrial 3He for the first 1.91 meters i.e. 261.60-259.72 revised composite meters depth (rmcd) following the K-T impact are on an average 0.48 cm/kyr- a factor of 1.6 lower than previously suggested [1]. For a brief period, between 259.69-259.44 rmcd after the K/T boundary, 3He-based sedimentation rates increase sharply to 2.88cm/kyr—a factor of 4.23 higher than has been reported for the same time interval [1]. The short lived increase in sedimentation rate may be explained by higher productivity and/or better carbonate preservation through a deepening lysocline. The 3He based sedimentation rates indicate that the duration of the

  14. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Records and Reports § 114.100 Records. (a) Records shall be maintained of... action levels. (b) Processing and production records showing adherence to scheduled processes, including...

  15. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Records and Reports § 114.100 Records. (a) Records shall be maintained of... action levels. (b) Processing and production records showing adherence to scheduled processes, including...

  16. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Records and Reports § 114.100 Records. (a) Records shall be maintained of... action levels. (b) Processing and production records showing adherence to scheduled processes, including...

  17. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  18. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  19. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  20. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  1. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  2. Radar Shows Evidence of Seas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-13

    This movie, comprised of several detailed images taken by Cassini radar instrument, shows bodies of liquid near Titan north pole. These images show that many of the features commonly associated with lakes on Earth

  3. Analysis of gene expression pattern and neuroanatomical correlates for SLC20A2 (PiT-2) shows a molecular network with potential impact in idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ("Fahr's disease").

    PubMed

    da Silva, R J Galdino; Pereira, I C L; Oliveira, J R M

    2013-06-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC), also known as "Fahr's disease," is a neuropsychiatric disorder with motor and cognitive symptoms. It is characterized pathologically by bilateral calcification most commonly in the basal ganglia and also in other brain regions such as the thalamus and cerebellum. A recent report by Wang et al. (2012) discovered multiple families with FIBGC carrying mutations in the SLC20A2 gene, encoding the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT-2, which segregated in an autosomal dominant pattern. To understand further the role of SLC20A2 in FIBGC brain pathology, here we described the gene expression pattern across the whole brain for SLC20A2, using the Allen Institute Human Brain Atlas database. Microarray analysis provided evidence that the neuroanatomical pattern of expression for SLC20A2 is highest in the regions most commonly affected in FIBGC. Neuroanatomical regions that demonstrated high correlation or anti-correlation with SLC20A2 expression also showed a molecular network with potential to explain the limited neuroanatomical distribution of calcifications in IBGC. Lastly, these co-expression networks suggest additional further candidate genes for FIBGC.

  4. The Exquisite Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Geoffrey A.; Gottschalk, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article provides general music teachers with resources they can use in their class to: (1) introduce the instrument to their students; (2) energize and reshape their students' attitudes toward the instrument; (3) show older students who are very musical recorder and low flute players who share their love of the instruments through podcasts…

  5. A Misleading Safety Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Comparing the safety record of school buses to that of automobiles does not account for the nonschool time when automobiles are used. Experiences where seat belts are installed in school buses show that students use them, insurance is not a problem, and cost is slight. (MLF)

  6. The Exquisite Recorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Geoffrey A.; Gottschalk, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This article provides general music teachers with resources they can use in their class to: (1) introduce the instrument to their students; (2) energize and reshape their students' attitudes toward the instrument; (3) show older students who are very musical recorder and low flute players who share their love of the instruments through podcasts…

  7. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.

    PubMed

    Bligh, H Frances J; Godsland, Ian F; Frost, Gary; Hunter, Karl J; Murray, Peter; MacAulay, Katrina; Hyliands, Della; Talbot, Duncan C S; Casey, John; Mulder, Theo P J; Berry, Mark J

    2015-02-28

    There is evidence for health benefits from 'Palaeolithic' diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.

  9. Impact processes, permafrost dynamics, and climate and environmental variability in the terrestrial Arctic as inferred from the unique 3.6 Myr record of Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wennrich, Volker; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Fedorov, Grigory; Zhao, Wenwei; Gebhardt, Catalina A.; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Snyder, Jeffrey A.; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Schwamborn, Georg; Chapligin, Bernhard; Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Minyuk, Pavel S.; Koeberl, Christian; Melles, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn in Far East Russia is a 3.6 Myr old impact crater lake. Located in an area that has never been affected by Cenozoic glaciations nor desiccation, the unique sediment record of the lake represents the longest continuous sediment archive of the terrestrial Arctic. The surrounding crater is the only impact structure on Earth developed in mostly acid volcanic rocks. Recent studies on the impactite, permafrost, and sediment sequences recovered within the framework of the ICDP "El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" and multiple pre-site surveys yielded new insight into the bedrock origin and cratering processes as well as permafrost dynamics and the climate and environmental history of the terrestrial Arctic back to the mid-Pliocene. Results from the impact rock section recovered during the deep drilling clearly confirm the impact genesis of the El'gygytgyn crater, but indicate an only very reduced fallback impactite sequence without larger coherent melt bodies. Isotope and element data of impact melt samples indicate a F-type asteroid of mixed composition or an ordinary chondrite as the likely impactor. The impact event caused a long-lasting hydrothermal activity in the crater that is assumed to have persisted for c. 300 kyr. Geochemical and microbial analyses of the permafrost core indicate a subaquatic formation of the lower part during lake-level highstand, but a subaerial genesis of the upper part after a lake-level drop after the Allerød. The isotope signal and ion compositions of ground ice is overprinted by several thaw-freeze cycles due to variations in the talik underneath the lake. Modeling results suggest a modern permafrost thickness in the crater of c. 340 m, and further confirm a pervasive character of the talik below Lake El'gygytgyn. The lake sediment sequences shed new leight into the Pliocene and Pleistocene climate and environmental evolution of the Arctic. During the mid-Pliocene, significantly warmer and wetter climatic conditions in

  10. Environmental Effects of Small Meteorite Impact in Unconsolidated Sediments — Case of Iron Meteorite Shower in Morasko, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczuciński, W.; Pleskot, K.; Makohonienko, M.; Tjallingii, R.; Apolinarska, K.; Cerbin, S.; Goslar, T.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rzodkiewicz, M.; Słowiński, M.; Woszczyk, M.; Brauer, A.

    2016-08-01

    We show record of environmental consequences of mid-Holocene small meteorite impact. It is based on sedimentological, geochemical and biological indicators studied in lake deposits, which revealed relatively small extent of the impact effects.

  11. Implementation of Electronic Health Records in US Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Travers, Jasmine L; Castle, Nicholas G; Stone, Patricia W

    2017-08-01

    While electronic health records have emerged as promising tools to help improve quality of care, nursing homes have lagged behind in implementation. This study assessed electronic health records implementation, associated facility characteristics, and potential impact on quality indicators in nursing homes. Using national Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and survey data for nursing homes, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify variations between nursing homes that had and had not implemented electronic health records. A difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the longitudinal effect of electronic health records on commonly used quality indicators. Data from 927 nursing homes were examined, 49.1% of which had implemented electronic health records. Nursing homes with electronic health records were more likely to be nonprofit/government owned (P = .04) and had a lower percentage of Medicaid residents (P = .02) and higher certified nursing assistant and registered nurse staffing levels (P = .002 and .02, respectively). Difference-in-differences analysis showed greater quality improvements after implementation for five long-stay and two short-stay quality measures (P = .001 and .01, respectively) compared with those who did not implement electronic health records. Implementation rates in nursing homes are low compared with other settings, and better-resourced facilities are more likely to have implemented electronic health records. Consistent with other settings, electronic health records implementation improves quality in nursing homes, but further research is needed to better understand the mechanism for improvement and how it can best be supported.

  12. 76 FR 23337 - Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...- making), the NPS announces the availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Final Environmental... National Park Service Record of Decision AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tamiami Trail...

  13. An evaluation of bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle: Impact on performance and carcass traits using treatment records and lung lesion scores.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M J; Tait, R G; Busby, W D; Reecy, J M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex on economically important production traits with the use of health records in combination with lung lesion scores obtained at slaughter. Records from 5,976 animals were used in this study from cattle that were managed in Midwestern feedlots. Average daily gain for 3 different feeding periods (acclimation, on-test, and overall test) along with final BW were evaluated as performance measures. Hot carcass weight, LM area, subcutaneous fat cover, and marbling score were collected at slaughter. All calves were monitored by experienced feedlot personnel and treated according to the specific health protocol of each feedlot. Incidence of BRD was observed at a rate of 8.17%, and lung lesions at slaughter were present in 61.9% of cattle from a subpopulation (n = 1,665). From this group of cattle, the overall incidence of BRD, which was defined as cattle that had lung lesions, that were treated for BRD in the feedlot, or both, was 64.4%. Incidence of BRD in the feedlot decreased ADG during both the acclimation period (0.37 +/- 0.03 kg) and the overall test period (0.07 +/- 0.01 kg). Incidence of BRD also had significant effects on HCW and marbling score with reduction of 8.16 +/- 1.38 kg and 0.13 +/- 0.04, respectively, in treated cattle. The adverse effects on production traits tended to increase as the number of treatments increased. Potential decrease in performance and carcass merit observed in this study were associated with a decline of $23.23, $30.15, and $54.01 in carcass value when comparing cattle never treated with cattle treated once, twice, or 3 or more times, respectively. The presence of lung lesions did not have a significant effect on any of the traits; however, there was an association between the presence of active bronchial lymph nodes and less productivity of feedlot cattle.

  14. The 8.4 ka lake Agassiz drainage event: its deep-sea sedimentary record and impact on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Piper, D. J.; St-Onge, G.

    2005-12-01

    Many papers have linked the ca. 8.4 ka drainage of the Laurentide Ice Sheet pro-glacial Lake Agassiz (Barber et al, 2002, Nature 400, 344-348) to a significant reduction in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning (AMO) and to climate excursions of variable age and duration in the 8.5-8 ka time frame, with reference to the so-called "8.2 ka event" (see refs. in Rohling and Pelike, 2004, Nature 434, 975-979) based on the Greenland ice core chronology. Unfortunately, none of these papers provide direct marine evidence for a collapse or significant reduction in the AMO, neither for a widespread change in sea-surface conditions over the northern North Atlantic. Moreover, model experiments made with reference to this event lack critical evaluation based on data. Here, we present paleoceanographical records near the source area in the northwest North Atlantic with chronological resolution as high as 15 years per sample in some instances. They provide evidence for two short duration, local sedimentological events (possibly each of one year duration according to Clarke et al., 2003, Science 301, 922-923), but indicate the absence of significant change in sea-surface conditions as well as in the outflow of the deep Western Boundary Under Current, at the resolvable time scale. We conclude that there is no evidence for a significant change in the AMO linked to the drainage event that lasted more than a few tens of years, if at all. Nonetheless, all marine records indicate that the 8.5 to 7.5 ka time interval does correspond to a major large scale re-organisation both of land drainage in NE America and of the North Atlantic climate-ocean system (cf. St-Onge et al., 2003, EPSL 209, 113-130; Keigwin et al., 2005, Paleoceanography, 20, 10.1029/2004PA001074), notably marked by a reduction in the North East North Atlantic Water outflow, an increasing Denmark Strait Overflow and the inception of Labrador Sea Water formation.

  15. The Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary record in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Implications for climate and sea-level changes on the western Atlantic margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, P.; Wade, B.S.; Kontny, A.; ,

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary investigation of the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville core from the Chesapeake Bay impact basin was conducted in order to document environmental changes and sequence stratigraphic setting. Planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy indicate that the Eyreville core includes an expanded upper Eocene (Biozones E15 to E16 and NP19/20 to NP21, respectively) and a condensed Oligocene-Miocene (NP24-NN1) sedimentary sequence. The Eocene-Oligocene contact corresponds to a =3-Ma-long hiatus. Eocene- Oligocene sedimentation is dominated by great diversity and varying amounts of detrital and authigenic minerals. Four sedimentary intervals are identified by lithology and mineral content: (1) A 30-m-thick, smectite- and illite-rich interval directly overlies the Exmore Formation, suggesting long-term reworking of impact debris within the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. (2) Subsequently, an increase in kaolinite content suggests erosion from soils developed during late Eocene warm and humid climate in agreement with data derived from other Atlantic sites. However, the kaolinite increase may also be explained by change to a predominant sediment input from outside the Chesapeake Bay impact structure caused by progradation of more proximal facies belts during the highstand systems tract of the late Eocene sequence E10.Spectral analysis based on gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility logs suggests infl uence of 1.2 Ma low-amplitude oscillation of the obliquity period during the late Eocene. (3) During the latest Eocene (Biozones NP21 and E16), several lithological contacts (clay to clayey silt) occur concomitant with a prominent change in the mineralogical composition with illite as a major component: This lithological change starts close to the Biozone NP19/20-NP21 boundary and may correspond to sequence boundary E10-E11 as observed in

  16. Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land

  17. Thermal transfer recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

    1988-08-01

    The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

  18. Reporting errors in siblings' survival histories and their impact on adult mortality estimates: results from a record linkage study in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent's siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings' survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45 q 15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of "unconventional" demographic techniques.

  19. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  20. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  1. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  2. Biological Significance of Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals: Examples Using an Acoustic Recording tag to Define Acoustic Exposure of Sperm Whales, Physeter catodon, Exposed to Airgun Sounds in Controlled Exposure Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; Miller, P. J.; Lynch, J.

    2006-05-01

    There has been considerable debate about how to regulate behavioral disruption in marine mammals. The U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act prohibits "taking" marine mammals, including harassment, which is defined as injury or disruption of behavioral patterns. A 2005 report by the National Academy of Sciences focuses on the need to analyze acoustic impacts on marine mammal behavior in terms of biological significance. The report develops a model for predicting population consequences of acoustic impacts. One of the key data gaps involves methods to estimate the impact of disruption on an animal's ability to complete life functions critical for growth, survival, and reproduction. One of the few areas where theory and data are available involves foraging energetics. Patrick Miller in the next talk and I will discuss an example study designed to evaluate the impact of exposure to seismic survey on the foraging energetics of sperm whales. As petroleum exploration moves offshore to deep water, there is increasing overlap between seismic exploration and deep diving toothed whales such as the sperm whale which is listed by the US as an endangered species. With support from the US Minerals Management Service and the Industry Research Funding Coalition, we tagged sperm whales with tags that can record sound, orientation, acceleration, temperature and depth. Eight whales tagged in the Gulf of Mexico during 2002-2003 were subjects in 5 controlled experiments involving exposure to sounds of an airgun array. One critical component of evaluating effects involves quantifying exposure at the animal. While the on-axis signature of airgun arrays has been well quantified, there are few broadband calibrated measurements in the water column displaced horizontally away from the downward-directed beam. The acoustic recording tags provide direct data on sounds as received at the animals. Due to multipath propagation, multiple sound pulses were recorded on the tagged whales for each firing of

  3. Loess records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Cattle, Stephen R.; Crouvi, Onn; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Sun, Jiimin; Zárate, Marcelo A.

    2014-01-01

    Loess is aeolian sediment, dominated by silt-sized particles, that is identifiable in the field as a distinct sedimentary body. It covers a significant portion of the land surface of the Earth and as such constitutes one of the most important archives of long-term dust deposition. Large tracts of loess cover Europe, Asia, South America, and North America, and smaller loess bodies are found covering parts of Africa, the Middle East, New Zealand, and Australia. Loess thickness, particle size, and carbonate content decrease downwind from sources, trends that are powerful tools for reconstructing paleowinds. Many loess sections consist of relatively thick deposits of mostly unaltered sediment with intercalated paleosols. Paleosols represent periods of landscape stability when loess deposition ceased or at least slowed significantly. Studies from several continents show that loess in most regions was deposited during glacial periods and paleosols formed during interglacial and interstadial periods.

  4. Record Closest by Asteroid 2004 FH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Alan

    2004-06-01

    On Friday, March 19, 2004, at 11:08 NZDT (March 18 22:08 UT) an approximately 30 metre wide asteroid made the closest, non-impacting approach to Earth so far recorded. Short of hitting us that is! 2004FH, as it was designated,was discovered on March 16.3 UT by the NASA-funded LINEAR team, using their 1.0-m f2.15 telescope in New Mexico. Follow-up astrometry by LINEAR on the next night showed that the object was headed for a very close pass of Earth around March 18.0

  5. Late Glacial-Holocene sequence of Lake Saint-Point (Jura Mountains, France): Detrital inputs as records of climate change and anthropic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Aurélie; Bichet, Vincent; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Magny, Michel; Adatte, Thierry; Gauthier, Émilie; Richard, Hervé; Baltzer, Agnès

    2008-12-01

    A sediment sequence (SP05, 12.5 m long) was taken from the deep zone of Lake Saint-Point (850 m a.s.l.). Sedimentological analyses highlight two main contrasted periods of sedimentation: the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Late Glacial characterized by high silicates and quartz contents the Holocene dominated by the carbonated fraction. At the beginning of the Holocene (11 400 years cal. BP), silicates fraction flux abruptly decreased. The shift between the Late Glacial and the Holocene periods may be explained by forest development in the catchment. From 10 200 to 6800 years cal. BP, silicates and detrital carbonate fractions remained stable before they progressively increased steady till 5000 years cal. BP. Both increases cannot be totally attributed to an anthropic impact since pollen data indicate continuous anthropic activities only dated back from 3000 years cal. BP. They thus resulted from a dominant climatic control. From 5000 years cal. BP, silicates content still increased while detrital carbonates input became steady due to a change in pedogenetic processes affecting the catchment. During the last millennium, silicates and detrital carbonate decreased, probably due to pastureland development.

  6. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  7. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  8. Research Shows Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Wildland Fires

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Researchers at EPA and colleagues at NC State University, the University of Sydney and the University of Tasmania are advancing the science of understanding the public health burden associated with wildland fires.

  9. Impact of diagenesis on the environmental magnetic record from a Holocene sedimentary sequence from the Chukchi-Alaskan margin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, Stefanie; Barletta, Francesco; St-Onge, Guillaume; Darby, Dennis; Ortiz, Joseph D.

    2009-07-01

    We present a high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record of environmental variability from the eastern Chukchi Sea. An ice-rafted debris bearing silty-clay marks the deglacial to post-glacial Holocene transition at this site and is dated at 9.7 ka. An interval of oscillating magnetic parameters from 9.5 to 8.7 ka coincides with the Holocene Thermal Maximum in the western Arctic, and is manifested at the study area as pulses of fine-grained magnetite input every 180-230 years, possibly from increased river discharge or stronger currents flowing over the core site. The magnetic mineral assemblage is very uniform over the last 8.2 ka and consists of a mixture of magnetite, titanomagnetite, and a magnetic phase that we tentatively identify as the magnetic iron sulfide greigite. The amount of magnetic iron sulfides increases up through the Holocene, a trend that is controlled by the amount of marine organic matter available to fuel bacterial sulfate reduction. The median destructive field of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (MDF NRM) displays centennial to millennial scale cycles with significant variance at periods of 900-1300 and 1700-2700 years, with intervals of high MDF NRM values coinciding with indicators of greater sea ice cover [McKay, J., de Vernal, A., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Not, C., Polyak, L., Darby, D., 2008. Holocene fluctuations in Arctic sea-ice cover: Dinocyst-based reconstructions for the eastern Chukchi Sea. Can. J. Earth Sci. 45, 1399-1415]. The MDF NRM is controlled by the variable abundance of iron sulfides formed during early diagenesis. We interpret intervals of high MDF NRM values as times of stronger water column stratification, during which the pyritization process was interrupted by the lack of marine organic matter and lack of reactive iron. Intervals of low MDF NRM values, which coincide with indicators of reduced sea ice cover, are interpreted as times of stronger vertical mixing of the water column, which allows fresh marine organic

  10. Quantifying the impact of chronic conditions on a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in adults: a cohort study using linked electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Euijung; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Pendegraft, Richard S; Petterson, Tanya M; Bobo, William V; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2016-04-26

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with other chronic mental and physical health conditions. Although the literature widely acknowledges the association of many chronic conditions with the risk of MDD, the relative importance of these conditions on MDD risk in the presence of other conditions is not well investigated. In this study, we aimed to quantify the relative contribution of selected chronic conditions to identify the conditions most influential to MDD risk in adults and identify differences by age. This study used electronic health record (EHR) data on patients empanelled with primary care at Mayo Clinic in June 2013. A validated EHR-based algorithm was applied to identify newly diagnosed MDD patients between 2000 and 2013. Non-MDD controls were matched 1:1 to MDD cases on birth year (±2 years), sex, and outpatient clinic visits in the same year of MDD case diagnosis. Twenty-four chronic conditions defined by Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse were ascertained in both cases and controls using diagnosis codes within 5 years of index dates (diagnosis dates for cases, and the first clinic visit dates for matched controls). For each age group (45 years or younger, between 46 and 60, and over 60 years), conditional logistic regression models were used to test the association between each condition and subsequent MDD risk, adjusting for educational attainment and obesity. The relative influence of these conditions on the risk of MDD was quantified using gradient boosting machine models. A total of 11,375 incident MDD cases were identified between 2000 and 2013. Most chronic conditions (except for eye conditions) were associated with risk of MDD, with different association patterns observed depending on age. Among 24 chronic conditions, the greatest relative contribution was observed for diabetes mellitus for subjects aged ≤ 60 years and rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis for those over 60 years. Our results suggest that specific chronic

  11. The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzel, Yehouda; Kushnir, Yochanan; Quade, Jay

    2015-06-01

    A dramatic increase in regional summer rainfall amount has been proposed for the Arabian Peninsula during the middle Holocene (ca. 9-5 ka BP) based on lacustrine sediments, inferred lake levels, speleothems, and pollen. This rainfall increase is considered primarily the result of an intensified Indian summer monsoon as part of the insolation-driven, northward shift of the boreal summer position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to over the deserts of North Africa, Arabia, and northwest India. We examine the basis for the proposed drastic climate change in Arabia and the shifts in the summer monsoon rains, by reviewing paleohydrologic lacustrine records from Arabia. We evaluate and reinterpret individual lake-basin status regarding their lacustrine-like deposits, physiography, shorelines, fauna and flora, and conclude that these basins were not occupied by lakes, but by shallow marsh environments. Rainfall increase required to support such restricted wetlands is much smaller than needed to form and maintain highly evaporating lakes and we suggest that rainfall changes occurred primarily at the elevated edges of southwestern, southern, and southeastern Arabian Peninsula. These relatively small changes in rainfall amounts and local are also supported by pollen and speleothems from the region. The changes do not require a northward shift of the Northern Hemisphere summer ITCZ and intensification of the Indian monsoon rainfall. We propose that (a) latitudinal and slight inland expansion of the North African summer monsoon rains across the Red Sea, and (b) uplifted moist air of this monsoon to southwestern Arabia highlands, rather than rains associated with intensification of Indian summer monsoon, as proposed before, increased rains in that region; these African monsoon rains produced the modest paleo-wetlands in downstream hyperarid basins. Furthermore, we postulate that as in present-day, the ITCZ in the Indian Ocean remained at or near the equator all

  12. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree-ring C and O stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Marias, Danielle E; Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; Shaw, David C; Voelker, Steven L; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Falk, Kristen; McKay, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. To investigate the long-term (1886-2010) impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the growth and gas exchange characteristics of host western hemlock, we compared the diameter growth and tree-ring cellulose stable carbon (C) and oxygen (O) isotope ratios (δ(13)Ccell, δ(18)Ocell) of heavily infected and uninfected trees. The relative basal area growth of infected trees was significantly greater than that of uninfected trees in 1886-90, but declined more rapidly in infected than uninfected trees through time and became significantly lower in infected than uninfected trees in 2006-10. Infected trees had significantly lower δ(13)Ccell and δ(18)Ocell than uninfected trees. Differences in δ(18)Ocell between infected and uninfected trees were unexpected given that stomatal conductance and environmental variables that were expected to influence the δ(18)O values of leaf water were similar for both groups. However, estimates of mesophyll conductance (gm) were significantly lower and estimates of effective path length for water movement (L) were significantly higher in leaves of infected trees, consistent with their lower values of δ(18)Ocell. This study reconstructs the long-term physiological responses of western hemlock to dwarf mistletoe infection. The long-term diameter growth and δ(13)Ccell trajectories suggested that infected trees were growing faster than uninfected trees prior to becoming infected and subsequently declined in growth and leaf-level photosynthetic capacity compared with uninfected trees as the dwarf mistletoe infection became severe. This study further points to limitations of the dual-isotope approach for identifying sources of variation in δ(13)Ccell and indicates that changes in leaf internal properties such as gm and L that affect

  13. United States Navy - Canadian forces solid state flight data recorder/crash position locator experiment on the B-720 controlled impact demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of a radio beacon position locator during and after the remotely controlled transport aircraft is discussed. The radio beacon transmission was actuated and was picked up by the Navy P-3A chase aircraft for a short time, after which reception was lost. The pilot reported that he received a signal on both 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz for a period of approximately 5 seconds. Five minutes after the crash a portable direction finding unit located on the roof of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, 4 miles distant from the crash, was unable to pick up the beacon transmission. The fire crews started fighting the fires approximately 90 seconds after the time of impact. Navy personnel access to the crash site was allowed on the morning of December 2, 1984. Radio beacon locator was found resting top side up, 15 feet forward and 13 feet perpendicular from the tray location the starboard side of the aircraft. An immediate inspection indicated the airfoil suffered moderate fire damage with paint peeling but not intumescing. The visual marker strobe lamp housings were intact but extensively burned such that it was impossible to see if the lamps had survived. The airfoil suffered minor structural damage, with assorted dents, etc. The extended plunger on the ARU-21 release unit indicated that the pyrotechnic deployment system operated. The radio beacon base (tray) suffered some heat and fire damage, and was charred and blackened by smoke. The frangible switch in the nose survived and the switch in the belly was recovered and found to have actuated. It is assumed that this switch fired the ARU-21 squib. There were no other release switches installed in the normally open system in the aircraft.

  14. Mimas Showing False Colors #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

    Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

    This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian

  15. Impact of adherence and weight loss on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: cohort analyses of integrated medical record, pharmacy claims, and patient-reported data.

    PubMed

    McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Bellows, Brandon K; Unni, Sudhir; Wygant, Gail; Mukherjee, Jayanti; Ye, Xiangyang; Brixner, Diana I

    2014-07-01

    Managed care organizations put great effort into managing the population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because of the health and economic burden of this disease. In patients with T2DM, weight loss and glycemic control are primary treatment aims to help improve patient outcomes, but these goals are not easily achieved. While achieving these aims requires a multifaceted approach of drug therapy management and lifestyle modification, truly understanding the role of medication adherence in achieving these outcomes is important for both patient and population management. This study expands on existing evidence that weight loss is associated with improved glycemic control by examining the role of medication adherence in achieving these goals in a managed care setting. This study is unique in that these associations are evaluated using multiple sources of data, including medical records for treatment outcomes, pharmacy claims, and patient-reported data to assess medication adherence. These data sources represent those typically available to payers or providers.  To describe the relationships between medication and adherence, weight change, and glycemic control in patients with T2DM. This historical cohort study included adult patients with T2DM in a large integrated health system and was based on electronic health record and pharmacy claims data from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011, as well as data from a self-reported adherence survey conducted in March 2012. Included patients received a diabetes medication from a therapeutic class not previously received, between November 1, 2010, and April 30, 2011 (index date), who had blood glucose (HbA1c) and weight values at index date and 6 months follow-up, participated in an adherence survey, and had ≥ 1 prescription claim for the index-date drug. Associations between the dual outcomes of weight loss (≥ 3%) and HbA1c control ( less than  7.0%), while controlling for medication adherence

  16. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  17. Impact of service redesign on the socioeconomic inequity in revascularisation rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction: a natural experiment and electronic record-linked cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Lloyd W; van Woerden, Hugo; Fone, David

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the impact of service redesign in the provision of revascularisation procedures on the historical socioeconomic inequity in revascularisation rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design Natural experiment and retrospective cohort study using linked data sets in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank. Non-randomised intervention An increase in the capacity of revascularisation procedures and service redesign in the provision of revascularisation in late 2011 to early 2012. Setting South Wales cardiac network, Census 2011 population 1 359 051 aged 35 years and over. Participants 9128 participants admitted to an NHS hospital with a first AMI between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013, with 6-months follow-up. Main outcome measure Hazard ratios (HRs) for the time to revascularisation for deprivation quintiles, age, gender, comorbidities, rural–urban classification and revascularisation facilities of admitting hospital. Results In the preintervention period, there was a statistically significant decreased adjusted risk of revascularisation for participants in the most deprived quintile compared to the least deprived quintile (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.92, p=0.002). In the postintervention period, the increase in revascularisation rates was statistically significant in all quintiles, and there was no longer any statistically significant difference in the adjusted revascularisation risk between the most and the least deprived quintile (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.20, p<0.649). However, inequity persisted for those aged 75 years and over (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.46, p<0.001) and women (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.86, p<0.001). Conclusions Socioeconomic inequity of access to revascularisation was no longer apparent following redesign of revascularisation services in the south Wales cardiac network, although inequity persisted for women and those aged 75+ years. Increasing the capacity of revascularisation did not

  18. The impact of the 1999 Mw 7.4 event in the İzmit Bay (Turkey) on anthropogenic contaminant (PCBs, PAHs and PBDEs) concentrations recorded in a deep sediment core.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, S; Bellucci, L G; Çağatay, M N; Polonia, A; Piazza, R; Vecchiato, M; Pizzini, S; Gasperini, L

    2017-07-15

    The 1999 Mw 7.4 earthquake triggered a tremendous human tragedy and had a great social impact over the population of the İzmit Bay, one of the most industrialized area of Turkey. Although the successive environmental disasters were well documented, information on its sedimentary record is lacking. The present research aims at filling this gap, through the analysis of organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs, and PBDEs) in a dated sediment core collected in the depocenter of the Karamürsel Basin in 2005. Profiles of total PCBs and total PAHs overlap the timing of industrialization in the area (starting in the 1960s) with values increasing as the population and the number of industrial plants grew larger. Profiles for PBDEs are in accordance with increasing urban inputs but are probably affected by processes of natural formation and post-depositional mixing. The continuous sedimentary record is interrupted at a level dating back to 1980 due to the erosion caused by the 1999 earthquake, having removed a 5-7cm thick sediment layer. Contaminant concentrations in the deepest 10-15cm of a 30cm thick seismo-turbidite unit, triggered by the 1999 event, increase with the progressive fining up and evidence massive transport of sediments from coastal, more polluted sites of the north-eastern Karamürsel shelves and shores. Additional inputs of PAHs are also evident, originating from a fire at the oil refinery that followed the shaking. The effects of the earthquake generated tsunami, its backwash fluxes and the following seiches are not uniquely displayed by each class of contaminants, and they could probably reflect successive inputs deriving from different parts of the basin that are subject to anthropogenic impacts of different nature. Concentrations measured at the top of the core are consistent with an unvaried input of pollutants in the period 1980-2005. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  20. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  1. Planetarium Show on Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R. Michael

    2016-05-31

    We describe a new planetarium show about Dark Matter entitled “Phantom of the Universe”. When completed in late 2014, it will feature the exciting story of dark matter, from the Big Bang to its anticipated discovery at the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Aerial shows Stennis test stands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-16

    An aerial photo shows the B-1/B-2 Test Stand (foreground), A-2 Test Stand (middle) and A-1 Test Stand (back). The historic stands have been used to test engines used on every manned Apollo and space shuttle mission.

  3. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    PubMed

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  4. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A femtoliter is a measure of volume. Blood Glucose This table shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting ( ... are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 Normal ...

  5. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  6. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  7. Meteoroids Impact the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Most meteoroids are broken up by Earth's atmosphere before they reach the ground. The Moon, however, has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact they excavate a crater and generate a plume of debris. A flash of light at the moment of impact can also be seen. Meteoroids striking the Moon create an impact flash observable by telescopes here on Earth. NASA observers use telescopes at the Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALaMO) to routinely monitor the Moon for impact flashes each month when the lunar phase is right. Flashes recorded by two telescope simultaneously rule out false signals from cosmic rays and satellites. Over 400 impact flashes have been observed by NASA since 2005. This map shows the location of each flash. No observations are made near the poles or center line. On average, one impact is observed every two hours. The brightest and longest-lasting impact flash was observed in Mare Imbrium on March 17, 2013. The imaging satellite Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, in orbit around the Moon, discovered the fresh crater created by this impact. The crater is 60 across and was caused by a meteoroid 9 inches in diameter likely traveling at a speed of 57,000 mph!

  8. 47 CFR 32.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records. 32.12 Section 32.12 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.12 Records. (a) The company's financial records shall be kept... accounts. (b) The company's financial records shall be kept with sufficient particularity to show fully the...

  9. Impact of HbA1c Measurement on Hospital Readmission Rates: Analysis of 70,000 Clinical Database Patient Records

    PubMed Central

    Strack, Beata; DeShazo, Jonathan P.; Gennings, Chris; Olmo, Juan L.; Ventura, Sebastian; Cios, Krzysztof J.; Clore, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients has a significant bearing on outcome, in terms of both morbidity and mortality. However, there are few national assessments of diabetes care during hospitalization which could serve as a baseline for change. This analysis of a large clinical database (74 million unique encounters corresponding to 17 million unique patients) was undertaken to provide such an assessment and to find future directions which might lead to improvements in patient safety. Almost 70,000 inpatient diabetes encounters were identified with sufficient detail for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to fit the relationship between the measurement of HbA1c and early readmission while controlling for covariates such as demographics, severity and type of the disease, and type of admission. Results show that the measurement of HbA1c was performed infrequently (18.4%) in the inpatient setting. The statistical model suggests that the relationship between the probability of readmission and the HbA1c measurement depends on the primary diagnosis. The data suggest further that the greater attention to diabetes reflected in HbA1c determination may improve patient outcomes and lower cost of inpatient care. PMID:24804245

  10. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  11. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  12. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  14. The Lunar Regolith as a Recorder of Cosmic History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, D.; Riofrio, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon can be considered a giant tape recorder containing the history of the solar system and Universe. The lunar regolith (soil) has recorded the early history of the Moon, Earth, the solar system and Universe. A major goal of future lunar exploration should be to find and play back existing fragments of that tape . By reading the lunar tape, we can uncover a record of planetary bombardment, as well as solar and stellar variability. The Moon can tell us much about our place in the Universe. The lunar regolith has likely recorded the original meteoritic bombardment of Earth and Moon, a violent cataclysm that may have peaked around 4 Gyr, and the less intense bombardment occurring since that time. This impact history is preserved on the Moon as regolith layers, ejecta layers, impact melt rocks, and ancient impact breccias. The impact history of the Earth and Moon possibly had profound effects on the origin and development of life. Decrease in meteor bombardment allowed life to develop on Earth. Life may have developed first on another body, such as Mars, then arrived via meteorite on Earth. The solar system may have experienced bursts of severe radiation from the Sun, other stars, or from unknown sources. The lunar regolith has recorded this radiation history in the form of implanted solar wind, solar flare materials and radiation damage. Lunar soil can be found sandwiched between layers of basalt or pyroclastic deposits. This filling constitutes a buried time capsule that is likely to contain well-preserved ancient regolith. Study of such samples will show us how the solar system has evolved and changed over time. The lunar tape recorder can provide detailed information on specific portions of solar and stellar variability. Data from the Moon also offers clues as to whether so-called fundamental constants have changed over time.

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING FRONT EAST FACADE, FROM SOUTHEAST. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING FRONT EAST FACADE, FROM SOUTHEAST. Photo supplied by the Florida Division of Archives, History and Records Management, Tallahasse, Florida. - Sulphur Springs Hotel, 8122 North Nebraska Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  17. Patient no-show predictive model development using multiple data sources for an effective overbooking approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Hanauer, D A

    2014-01-01

    Patient no-shows in outpatient delivery systems remain problematic. The negative impacts include underutilized medical resources, increased healthcare costs, decreased access to care, and reduced clinic efficiency and provider productivity. To develop an evidence-based predictive model for patient no-shows, and thus improve overbooking approaches in outpatient settings to reduce the negative impact of no-shows. Ten years of retrospective data were extracted from a scheduling system and an electronic health record system from a single general pediatrics clinic, consisting of 7,988 distinct patients and 104,799 visits along with variables regarding appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the impact of variables on show or no-show status. Logistic regression was used to develop a no-show predictive model, which was then used to construct an algorithm to determine the no-show threshold that calculates a predicted show/no-show status. This approach aims to overbook an appointment where a scheduled patient is predicted to be a no-show. The approach was compared with two commonly-used overbooking approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness in terms of patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime and total cost. From the training dataset, the optimal error rate is 10.6% with a no-show threshold being 0.74. This threshold successfully predicts the validation dataset with an error rate of 13.9%. The proposed overbooking approach demonstrated a significant reduction of at least 6% on patient waiting, 27% on overtime, and 3% on total costs compared to other common flat-overbooking methods. This paper demonstrates an alternative way to accommodate overbooking, accounting for the prediction of an individual patient's show/no-show status. The predictive no-show model leads to a dynamic overbooking policy that could improve patient waiting, overtime, and total costs in a clinic day while

  18. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  19. Recording and measuring public health effect.

    PubMed

    2017-08-30

    It is important to record and measure public health impact, not least because they highlight the work of healthcare professionals, encourage continued investment in public health and demonstrate the value of public health services to commissioners.

  20. Your Medical Records

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes, but many health care providers now keep electronic records. You might hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for ...